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1

Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.  

PubMed

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ?2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ?1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations. PMID:24709345

Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

2014-06-01

2

Injury and interplant compensation for southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestations in field corn.  

PubMed

Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun. PMID:23786069

Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

2013-04-01

3

Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

1996-03-01

4

Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.  

PubMed

Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations. PMID:22251716

Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

2011-10-01

5

Dendrochronological parameters of northern red oak ( Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) infested with red oak borer ( Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite of dendrochronological measurements from Q. rubra in affected forest stands.

L. J. Haavik; F. M. Stephen; M. K. Fierke; V. B. Salisbury; S. W. Leavitt; S. A. Billings

2008-01-01

6

Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

Calandra, Laura

7

Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in commercial vineyards in Virginia.  

PubMed

Larval grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), feed on roots of wild Vitis and commercially important Vitis species and rootstocks in portions of the eastern United States. Grape root borer pupal exuviae sampling in Virginia vineyards from 2008 to 2012 revealed that infestation levels varied substantially among 48 vineyard blocks. Data on horticultural (cultivar, rootstock, vine age, and planting area), cultural (insecticide use, ground cover, weed control, and irrigation), and environmental variables (proximity to forest, soil composition, soil moisture holding capacity, pH, organic matter, bulk density, and cation exchange capacity) from each block were subjected to optimal quantification using categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA). Variables with component loading values ?0.70 from the CATPCA were used as predictors and pupal exuviae density as the dependent variable in binary logistic regression. A prediction model was developed by including statistically significant variables in the logistic regression. CATPCA showed that seven vineyard factors (ground cover, soil texture, soil mass moisture, soil pH, clay/sand ratio, clay/silt ratio, and sand/silt ratio) based on three selected principal components were significant for subsequent regression analysis. Binary logistic regression showed that soil mass moisture and clay/sand ratio were statistically significant factors contributing to differences in infestation among vineyard blocks. Based on these two factors, a risk prediction model for calculating the probability of grape root borer infestation in vineyards was developed and validated using receiver operating characteristic curve. Results are discussed in relation to the practical implications of a predictive, risk assessment model for grape root borer management. PMID:25198500

Rijal, Jhalendra P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

2014-10-01

8

The role of some agricultural practices and fertilizer type on both the incidence of stem borers infestation and corn yield in Egypt.  

PubMed

Maize, Zea mays, L. is one of the most important field crops in Egypt. It is used mainly for human, animal and poultry feeding. Corn plants are usually attacked by several injourious insect pests at different stages of development. Out of them, the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon (Bles.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.); which cause great damage and yield losses. It is profitable to adopt an effective and sustainable strategy for controlling these insect-pests. In this concern, sowing dates, planting spaces, foliar fertilizers (macro and micro-nutrients), mineral and/or biofertilization, were investigated to evaluate their role as tools in the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program of corn pests. In general, the used planting spaces of 60 and 70 cm apart between furrows insignificantly affected the level of stem borers infestation. It was clearly observed that the sowing dates have a role in the incidence of stem borers infestation throughout the corn growing seasons of 1994 and 1995. Moreover, The biofertilized corn plants were more tolerant to the infestation by the stem borers than the minerally fertilized ones. Application of Polytrin significantly decreased the mean numbers of larvae. The tested nutrients preparations affected to less extent, the infestation levels. Concerning the interaction effect of applied nutrients preparations, used sowing dates and/or fertilizer type on the deduced means of larval numbers, it was revealed that: (i) the application of the nutrients preparations decreased to a great extent the effect of the studied sowing dates on the stem borers infestation; particularly in case of spraying ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex, coppersulphate & Potasin-F, (ii) the dressing of corn grains with the biofertilizers Phosphorin & Rhizobacterin before sowing, lowered to some extent the levels of infestation by Ch. agamemnon and O. nubilalis, in comparison to the minerally fertilized corn plants, especially in case of spraying Potasin-F, copper sulphate and scorbic acid followed by Polymex for Ch. agamemnon. Spraying Ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex; Potasin-F followed by Copper sulphate gave promising results for the control of O. nubilalis. In comparison to insecticide treatment, the used foliar nutrients & fertilizer type in both sowing dates gave positive interaction effects in decreasing levels of stem borers infestation and greatly improved the yield and yield characteristics of corn plants. Such agricultural practices enabled corn plants to tackle the going on infestation; thus crop loss due to the attack of the stem borers could be compensated. PMID:12696425

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; Massoud, M A; Abd el-Aziz, A A

2002-01-01

9

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

10

Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for infestation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tests were conducted to determine whether differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) mixed with intact kernels affected progeny production of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in two rough rice varieties, Francis and Wells. Wells had been previously classified as...

11

Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

12

Patterns of Apis mellifera infestation by Nosema ceranae support the parasite hypothesis for the evolution  

E-print Network

Patterns of Apis mellifera infestation by Nosema ceranae support the parasite hypothesis / Apis mellifera / evolution of polyandry 1. INTRODUCTION Host­parasite relationships are inherently (Hamilton 1980; Hamilton et al. 1990; Ladie 1992). In the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and other social

13

Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in Bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or Western bean cutworm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field trials were conducted (2007 to 2010) to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against European corn borer and Western bean cutworm (WBC). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) w...

14

Impact of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid, alone and in combination, used against emerald ash borer in a newly-infested ash nursery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are investigating the potential of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for use against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We treated approximately 400 Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F. americana (height ca. 5-6 m) at a commercial tree nursery wit...

15

Spatial distribution pattern of attack of the oak borer, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae), and scolytid ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on fresh logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution patterns of the attack on fresh logs ofPasania edulis was studied for the oak borer,Platypus quercivorus (Murayama), and two species of Scolytid ambrosia beetles,Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) andXyleborus attenuatus Blanford, in 1994 and 1995. On the logs where onlyP. quercivorus attacked, the entry holes were distributed uniformly when attack intensity was low. However, the distribution pattern became\\u000a more

Koichi Soné; Takeshi Mori; Masamichi Ide

1998-01-01

16

Effectiveness of the International Phytosanitary Standard ISPM No. 15 on reducing wood borer infestation rates in wood packaging material entering the United States.  

PubMed

Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 (ISPM15) in 2002, which provides treatment standards for WPM used in international trade. ISPM15 was originally developed by members of the International Plant Protection Convention to "practically eliminate" the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM. The United States (US) implemented ISPM15 in three phases during 2005-2006. We compared pest interception rates of WPM inspected at US ports before and after US implementation of ISPM15 using the US Department of Agriculture AQIM (Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring) database. Analyses of records from 2003-2009 indicated that WPM infestation rates declined 36-52% following ISPM15 implementation, with results varying in statistical significance depending on the selected starting parameters. Power analyses of the AQIM data indicated there was at least a 95% chance of detecting a statistically significant reduction in infestation rates if they dropped by 90% post-ISPM15, but the probability fell as the impact of ISPM15 lessened. We discuss several factors that could have reduced the apparent impact of ISPM15 on lowering WPM infestation levels, and suggest ways that ISPM15 could be improved. The paucity of international interception data impeded our ability to conduct more thorough analyses of the impact of ISPM15, and demonstrates the need for well-planned sampling programs before and after implementation of major phytosanitary policies so that their effectiveness can be assessed. We also present summary data for bark- and wood-boring insects intercepted on WPM at US ports during 1984-2008. PMID:24827724

Haack, Robert A; Britton, Kerry O; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Cavey, Joseph F; Garrett, Lynn J; Kimberley, Mark; Lowenstein, Frank; Nuding, Amelia; Olson, Lars J; Turner, James; Vasilaky, Kathryn N

2014-01-01

17

Source-based morphometry reveals distinct patterns of aberrant brain volume in delusional infestation.  

PubMed

Little is known about the neural correlates of delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens. So far, evidence comes mainly from case reports and case series. We investigated brain morphology in 16 DI patients and 16 healthy controls using structural magnetic resonance imaging and a multivariate data analysis technique, i.e. source-based morphometry (SBM). In addition, we explored differences in brain structure in patient subgroups based on disease aetiology. SBM revealed two patterns exhibiting significantly (p<0.05, Bonferroni-corrected) lower grey and higher white matter volume in DI patients compared to controls. Lower grey matter volume was found in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, medial temporal lobe structures (parahippocampus and hippocampus), sensorimotor cortices, bilateral insula and thalamus and inferior parietal regions. Higher white matter volume was found in medial and middle frontal and temporal cortices, left insula and lentiform nucleus. Grey matter volume was abnormal in both "psychiatric" (primary DI and DI associated with an affective disorder) and "organic" DI (DI due to a medical condition). In contrast, aberrant white matter volume was only confirmed for the "organic" DI patient subgroup. These results suggest prefrontal, temporal, parietal, insular, thalamic and striatal dysfunction underlying DI. Moreover, the data suggest that aetiologically distinct presentations of DI share similar patterns of abnormal grey matter volume, whereas aberrant white matter volume appears to be restricted to organic cases. PMID:24120443

Wolf, Robert Ch; Huber, Markus; Lepping, Peter; Sambataro, Fabio; Depping, Malte S; Karner, Martin; Freudenmann, Roland W

2014-01-01

18

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

19

Potential use of the Bushmint, Hyptis suaveolens, for the Control of Infestation by the Pink Stalk Borer, Sesamia calamistis on Maize in Southern Benin, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Maize production in Benin, especially in resource-poor farmers' fields, is constrained by stemborers among other factors. One of the major stemborers in southern Benin is Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). African farmers cannot afford to use commercial insecticides for controlling stemborers - they are expensive and unsuitable for durable pest management systems due to eco-toxicity. There is therefore a need for cheaper and environmentally friendly methods and botanicals offer an attractive alternative. The bushmint, Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), was compared with the commercial insecticide Furadan (carbofuran) for the control of S. calamistis on maize Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae). Trials were conducted in the screenhouse and in the field during the minor cropping season in 2004 at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)-Benin station. The variables measured included numbers of egg masses per plant, eggs per egg mass (in the screenhouse study), population density of S. calamistis, percentage of infested plants and/or ears, and deadhearts in the field. Irrespective of the variable considered, the aqueous extract of H. suaveolens compared favorably with Furadan while maize surrounded by live H. suaveolens plants had lower S. calamistis densities. PMID:21529259

Adda, Cyrille; Atachi, Pierre; Hell, Kerstin; Tamò, Manuele

2011-01-01

20

Patterns of infestation by chigger mites in four diurnal lizard species from a Restinga habitat (Jurubatiba) of southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity) of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation) of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62); 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7); 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12); and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21). Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions. PMID:14758698

Cunha-Barros, M; Van Sluys, M; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Hatano, F H; Rocha, C F

2003-08-01

21

INCIDENCE OF WOOD BORER ACTIVITY IN GREEN ASH WINDBREAK PLANTINGS IN NORTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was made during midsummer 1972 to measure damage by the carpenterworm, Prionoxystus robiniae, and the ash borer, Podosesia syringae, to green ash in windbreaks in North Dakota. Intensity of infestation was determined in four land resource areas and four age classes of windbreaks. Of the 96 windbreaks examined Statewide, the ash borer was present in 51 percent and

Scott Tunnock; Arden Tagestadll

22

Mathematical Infestation  

E-print Network

A Mathematical Glance at Zombie Infestation Brody Dylan Johnson Introduction A Simple Mathematical Model A Reality Check Zombie Infestation with Resistance Simulations Conclusion A Mathematical Glance at Zombie Infestation Brody Dylan Johnson April 21, 2010 Reference: "When Zombies Attack!: Mathematical

Johnson, Brody Dylan

23

USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.

24

Flight patterns of the peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella zell. (Lep., Gelechiidae) in central europe as observed using pheromone traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromone traps were used for monitoring phenology of the peach twig borer,Anarsia lineatella, in Central Bohemia. The pest has two generations a year, the first one (owerwintering) is usually more numerous than the second one. The peak of the flight of the first generation begins by day-degrees (DD) 400–450 °C and the peak of the flight of the second generation

F. Kocourek; J. Beránková; I. Hrdý

1996-01-01

25

Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats  

PubMed Central

Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

2011-01-01

26

Management of feeding damage and survival of southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic field corn.  

PubMed

The efficacy of transgenic corn hybrids expressing an insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta-endotoxin from different transformation events was evaluated in field corn, Zea mays L., against the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Susceptibilities of neonates and third instars were determined on Bt and non-Bt corn plants (V6 and R1 stages) in field plots and corn leaf tissue feeding exposure in laboratory bioassays. Bt corn hybrids associated with MON810 and CBH351 transformation events sustained significantly less injury by southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer during mid-whorl stage infestations compared with their respective non-Bt hybrid equivalents. Southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer feeding injury to ear leaf-sheath and husk tissues during the silking stage of corn was significantly reduced in MON810 and CBH351 Bt corn compared with their respective non-Bt hybrids. However, resistance levels to feeding injury in Bt hybrids associated with the MON810 event were significantly higher than that in the hybrid associated with the CBH351 event. Southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer caused more feeding injury to husk tissue than to ear leaf-sheath tissue in both Bt and non-Bt hybrids infested during the silking stage. Laboratory performance of the MON810 event against southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer varied among hybrids associated with the same event. Third instars of southwestern corn borer were highly susceptible to MON810 Bt corn hybrids in leaf tissue experiments. However, sugarcane borer larvae were susceptible to the MON810 event only in one of the Bt hybrids evaluated. Sugarcane borer mortality was significantly lower after 96 h of feeding exposure on CBH351 Bt corn leaf tissue than on MON810 Bt corn leaf tissue. Plant resistance to southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer increased as plants matured, independent of the presence of a Bt construct. These results are essential to estimate the importance of Bt transgenic corn in areas of southern United States and other areas where mixed populations of southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer are predominant and cause severe damage to corn production. PMID:15666772

Castro, Boris A; Leonard, B Rogers; Riley, Thomas J

2004-12-01

27

Effectiveness of search patterns for recovery of animal carcasses in relation to pocket gopher infestation control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested four search patterns to identify one or more that consistently resulted in the location of a high percentage of above ground carcasses. Searchers found only 25·4% of placed carcasses. The random search pattern exhibited the lowest search efficiency (i.e. percent carcass recovery), 2·6%. This differed significantly from the other three search patterns (EW transects; EW transects followed by

G. W. Witmer; M. J. Pipas; D. L. Campbell

1995-01-01

28

Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.  

PubMed

In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ? 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. PMID:24191942

Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

2014-09-01

29

Ectoparasitic infestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectoparasitic infestations are highly prevalent in resourcepoor populations throughout the world and are associated with considerable\\u000a morbidity. Reliable data on the epidemiology, immunology, and therapy of ectoparasitic infestations and on the biology of\\u000a the parasites remain scarce. The control of parasitic skin diseases, such as scabies, pediculosis, tungiasis, myiasis, and\\u000a cutaneous larva migrans in endemic areas remains a challenge. Using

Jörg Heukelbach; Shelley F. Walton; Hermann Feldmeier

2005-01-01

30

Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

2012-04-01

31

Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other insects. PMID:23894529

Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2013-01-01

32

Relationship between time to flowering and stalk and ear damage by second generation corn borers.  

PubMed

In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack. PMID:23865188

Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A

2013-06-01

33

Use of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid for control of emerald ash borer in an ash nursery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We wish to determine the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for control and management of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We have undertaken this work at a commercial tree nursery in southern Michigan within the EAB-infested area. App...

34

Biological control of emerald ash borers: the role of indigenous North American parasitoids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated parasitoids were conducted in Cranberry Township, PA; Granville, PA; and Cheltenham, MD. Several species of parasitic Hymenoptera were collected from EAB-infested green ash trees or reared from late-instar E...

35

Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

36

Effect of emerald ash borer on structure and material properties of ash trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borer (EAB) currently occurs in fifteen states in the United States, as well as Ontario and Quebec in Canada. A decline in ash tree strength following EAB infestation is potentially hazardous to public safety, particularly when trees are left standing for several years after dying. Dead ...

37

Delusional Infestation  

PubMed Central

Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme “infestation” is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed “Morgellons disease” can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

Freudenmann, Roland W.; Lepping, Peter

2009-01-01

38

Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

2012-02-01

39

Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.  

PubMed

The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites. PMID:24498741

Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

2013-12-01

40

Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.  

PubMed

This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

2006-06-01

41

Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

42

Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.  

PubMed

In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

2002-01-01

43

Resistance to stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) among Texas rice cultivars.  

PubMed

A 4-yr field study was conducted to assess the resistance of rice, Oryza sativa L., cultivars to injury from the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (both Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Several cultivars showed reduced levels of injury ('CLXL8', 'XL8', 'Wells', 'Cheniere', and 'XP710' in 2003; CLXL8, XP723, Cheniere, and 'CL161' in 2004) and lower stem borer yield loss (CLXL8 in 2004) than the more susceptible 'Priscilla'. The resistant CLXL8 also had less injury and yield loss in 2004 and higher yield in 2003 than 'Cocodrie', currently the most popular rice cultivar in Texas and Louisiana. Linear regression analyses between whiteheads and main crop rice yield showed steeper negative slopes for the more resistant cultivars than the more susceptible cultivars, indicating a greater yield loss per whitehead on the resistant cultivars. Compensation from insect injury likely explains the positive associations established in our study between main crop yield and whiteheads for some cultivars. Cultivar resistance is anticipated to become a major control tactic in reducing infestations of E. loftini and D. saccharalis in the Texas and Louisiana rice industries. PMID:17066824

Way, M O; Reay-Jones, F P F; Reagan, T E

2006-10-01

44

Novel barriers to prevent dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) and rodent damage in apple plantings.  

PubMed

We evaluated a combination of noninsecticidal alternatives to control trunk-damaging dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), consisting of novel barrier technologies, used alone or in combination with mating disruption. Barrier formulations evaluated included fibrous barriers of nonwoven ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and nonfibrous barriers of rubberized paint (elastomer) used in building coatings. To examine efficacy of dogwood borer control in orchards, all barrier trials were replicated in field tests, both in combination with mating disruption and without it. Trunk inspections to determine whether mating disruption and barriers effectively reduced actual tree infestation showed pheromone disruption significantly reduced infestation compared with the untreated check, but was not as effective as trunk handgun sprays of chlorpyrifos. EVA trunk barriers were effective in preventing borer infestation compared with untreated trees. The elastomer did not differ from the check or the EVA treatment. There was no interaction between disruption and barrier treatments. Barrier field life and durability was assessed over 2 yr by comparing degradation over time due to weathering and other environmental effects including animal damage. The EVA persisted and remained more intact than the elastomer, but was in need of reapplication after 2 yr. Barriers were also screened for efficacy against voles in small-plot trials in nonorchard locations with known high vole pressure; they were tested either alone, combined with a repellent (thiram), or, in the case of the elastomer only, combined with an abrasive (sand). Only the EVA significantly lowered vole chewing damage relative to the untreated checks. PMID:25026680

Agnello, Arthur M; Kain, David P; Gardner, Jeffrey; Curtis, Paul D; Ashdown, Michael L; Hoffmann, Michael P

2014-06-01

45

Cutaneous infestations and infections.  

PubMed

Cutaneous infections and infestations are common problems in childhood and adolescence. This article provides an update focusing on the diagnosis and management of several frequently encountered infections and infestations: scabies, bedbugs, head lice, tinea capitis, and tinea versicolor. PMID:21815448

Haisley-Royster, Camille

2011-04-01

46

Field evaluation of resistance of transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to two stem borers.  

PubMed

Two transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines, KMD1 and KMD2 at the R4 generation, transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, were first evaluated for stem borer resistance in the field during the rice growing season of 1998 in two areas of Zhejiang Province, China. Both KMD1 and KMD2 were highly resistant to the stem borers Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker), and were completely undamaged during the whole rice growing season. In contrast, damage to the plants of the untransformed parental control (Xiushui 11) was in the form of deadhearts or whiteheads. Under natural infestation by the C. suppressalis, the damage to control plants reached a peak of 88.7% of plants and 20.1% of tillers encountered with deadhearts. Under artificial and natural infestation of neonate striped stem borers at the vegetative stage and booting stage, 100% of plants and 25.6% of tillers, 78.9% of plants and 15.6% of productive tillers among artificially infested control plants were observed with the symptom of deadhearts and whiteheads, respectively. Damage to the control plants from artificial infestation by the S. incertulas reached a peak of 97.0% of plants and 22.9% of tillers damaged. The field research indicated that both KMD1 and KMD2 show great potential for protecting rice from attack by these two stem borers. PMID:11233125

Ye, G Y; Shu, Q Y; Yao, H W; Cui, H R; Cheng, X Y; Hu, C; Xia, Y W; Gao, M W; Altosaar, I

2001-02-01

47

Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future. PMID:18330134

Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun

2008-02-01

48

Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

49

The Cotton-Square Borer.  

E-print Network

it on this food plant. Hops, beans, and hawthorn, Crat~gus, have been recorded as the most common food plants of the insect in the Northeastern States. Additional pl~nts attacked by the cotton-square borer in this region include hound's tongue, Cynoglossum; St...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan)

1929-01-01

50

Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

E-print Network

stressed and healthy trees Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Ash is widespread #12;2 Where is EAB From1 Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Wednesday, April 20, 2001 12:20 PM 160 Plant Biotech Building Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis

Gray, Matthew

51

Sampling for the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on sugarcane in Louisiana.  

PubMed

A 3-yr study was conducted in 0.6- to 2.0-ha sugarcane fields throughout south Louisiana under varying sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), density levels to determine the spatial dispersion of infestations and to develop a sequential sampling plan. Infestations of D. saccharalis were randomly dispersed. Infestation levels (percentage of stalks infested) ranged from 0.6 to 33.3%. Frequency distributions of the number of infested stalks indicated that the Poisson distribution best fit the data Tests of other distributions (negative binomial [aggregated], binomial [uniform], geometric, and hypergeometric) resulted in poorer fits. The sequential sampling plan devised, with lower and upper D. saccharalis infestation limits of 2 and 5% and 5 and 10%, required maximum average sample numbers of 7.1 and 5.5 (20-stalk samples), respectively, to make terminating management decisions. It is our assessment that implementation of these plans would decrease sampling effort by 50-60% when compared with sampling programs currently in use for D. saccharalis management decisions in Louisiana. PMID:11425035

Schexnayder, H P; Reagan, T E; Ring, D R

2001-06-01

52

Evaluation of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrids against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the CrylAb protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of five non-Bt and seven Bt field corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in a greenhouse study. Larval survival was recorded 21 d after infestation of neonates on potted plants. Larval survival across the three sugarcane borer genotypes and five non-Bt corn hybrids after 21 d ranged from 23.6 +/- 5.2% (mean +/- SEM) to 57.5 +/- 5.2%. Mean survival of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on vegetative and reproductive plant stages was 12 and 21%, respectively. During the vegetative stages, all seven Bt corn hybrids were highly efficacious against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer, with a larval survival rate of <2% for the Bt-susceptible genotype and < or =5% for the heterozygotes. However, 8-18% of the heterozygous genotype survived on reproductive stage plants for four of the seven Bt corn hybrids tested. The variation in performance of Bt corn cultivars at vegetative and reproductive growth stages against Cry1Ab resistant sugarcane borer suggests differential seasonal expression that may hasten resistance in the field. Bt corn hybrids expressing a "high dose" for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), may not produce a sufficient high dose for the sugarcane borer. PMID:18232406

Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H

2007-12-01

53

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)  

E-print Network

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) The oak pinhole borer, Platypus of a continuing supply of breeding material in the form of weakened oaks suffering from `oak dieback and decline be produced by the female and subsequently her offspring. Adult beetle on oak timber, cut to show tunnels

54

Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

2012-12-01

55

Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera, Crambidae] was first discovered in  

E-print Network

Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera sugarcane, rice, corn, lemongrass, sorghum, and sudangrass causing millions of dollars in increased in Florida, pheromone traps that attract Mexican rice borer (MRB) male moths were initially placed around

Jawitz, James W.

56

Chemical ecology of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted, based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical research need to find an efficient survey method for detecting A. planipennis infestations. Here, we present a review of research that has led to the development of effective trapping methods for A. planipennis. Studies on the insect's biology and behavior have led to the identification of several potential attractants as well as the design of a visually attractive trap. The ongoing challenge in developing an optimally efficient trapping methodology for A. planipennis will involve finding the best combination of variables, such as trap shape, trap color (or other visual properties), trap placement, lure components, as well as the ratios and release rates of those components. PMID:20108026

Crook, Damon J; Mastro, Victor C

2010-01-01

57

Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer.  

PubMed

Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and beta-glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were placed under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter, the CaMV35S promoter, and the Brassica Bp10 gene promoter to achieve high and tissue-specific expression of the lepidopteran-specific delta-endotoxins. The integration, expression, and inheritance of these genes were demonstrated in R0 and R1 generations by Southern, Northern, and Western analyses and by other techniques. Accumulation of high levels (up to 3% of soluble proteins) of CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) proteins was detected in R0 plants. Bioassays with R1 transgenic plants indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to two major rice insect pests, striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) and yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), with mortalities of 97-100% within 5 days after infestation, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in transgenic rice plants. PMID:9501164

Cheng, X; Sardana, R; Kaplan, H; Altosaar, I

1998-03-17

58

Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer  

PubMed Central

Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and ?-glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were placed under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter, the CaMV35S promoter, and the Brassica Bp10 gene promoter to achieve high and tissue-specific expression of the lepidopteran-specific ?-endotoxins. The integration, expression, and inheritance of these genes were demonstrated in R0 and R1 generations by Southern, Northern, and Western analyses and by other techniques. Accumulation of high levels (up to 3% of soluble proteins) of CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) proteins was detected in R0 plants. Bioassays with R1 transgenic plants indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to two major rice insect pests, striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) and yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), with mortalities of 97–100% within 5 days after infestation, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in transgenic rice plants. PMID:9501164

Cheng, Xiongying; Sardana, Ravinder; Kaplan, Harvey; Altosaar, Illimar

1998-01-01

59

Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for genetic studies of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

We present polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated for genetic studies of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius). We isolated 16 microsatellite loci through an enriched genomic library protocol. After characterization, 12 markers showed polymorphic information expressed in the observed number of alleles (ranging from 2 to 7; 5 on average) and in the polymorphism information content (ranging from 0.292 to 0.771; 0.535 on average). These markers can be used in further studies to understand the basic ecological characteristics of the sugarcane borer, e.g., dispersion patterns and population genetic differentiation, associated with distinct geographic scales and host plants. PMID:23765969

Pavinato, V A C; Silva-Brandão, K L; Monteiro, M; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Dias, F L F; Omoto, C

2013-01-01

60

Sex Pheromone Production and Perception in European Corn Borer Moths is Determined by Both Autosomal and Sex-Linked Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as

Wendell Roelofs; Thomas Glover; Xian-Han Tang; Isabelle Sreng; Paul Robbins; Charles Eckenrode; Christer Lofstedt; Bill S. Hansson; Bengt O. Bengtsson

1987-01-01

61

Breeding for sugarcane borer resistance in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growing resistant varieties is a key component of the Integrated Pest Management Program for managing the sugarcane borer in Louisiana; however, the release of resistant varieties to growers is sporadic. The challenge facing the Louisiana industry is how to increase resistance in its varieties witho...

62

Host-plant-associated genetic differentiation in Northern French populations of the European corn borer.  

PubMed

The phytophagous insects that damage crops are often polyphagous, feeding on several types of crop and on weeds. The refuges constituted by noncrop host plants may be useful in managing the evolution in pest species of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic crops. However, the benefits of these refuges may be limited because host-plant diversity may drive genetic divergence and possibly even host-plant-mediated sympatric speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the main pest of maize in Europe and North America, where it was introduced early in the 20th century. It has a wide host range but feeds principally on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). O. nubilalis is found on mugwort only in the northern part of France, whereas it is found on maize throughout France. The extent of genetic variation at allozyme markers was investigated in populations collected from the two host plants over the entire geographical distribution of the European corn borer on mugwort in France. Allelic differentiation between pairs of populations and hierarchical analyses of pools of samples from each host plant indicate that the group of populations feeding on maize differed from the group of populations feeding on mugwort. Our results suggest (1) host-plant-related divergent selection at the genomic region surrounding the Mpi locus and (2) limited gene flow between the populations feeding on mugwort and those infesting maize fields. These data indicate that adults emerging from mugwort would not be useful for managing the evolution of resistance to the B. thuringiensis toxins in European corn borer populations. PMID:12634820

Martel, C; Réjasse, A; Rousset, F; Bethenod, M-T; Bourguet, D

2003-02-01

63

Increasing coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) female density in artificial diet decreases fecundity.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of number of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), females (one, two, or five) reared in artificial diet on fecundity and subsequent development of larvae, pupae, and adults. Our results demonstrated that increasing female density from one to two or five individuals did not result in the expected two- or five-fold increase in progeny, despite ample food resources available. Instead, decreased fecundity was observed with increasing density for all experiments. The mechanism reducing fecundity was not identified, but possibly, volatiles are being produced (e.g., host-marking pheromones). The decrease in fecundity may explain why infestations of only one colonizing female per berry are the norm in the field. PMID:21404844

Vega, Fernando E; Kramer, Matthew; Jaramillo, Juliana

2011-02-01

64

Effect of humidity on egg hatchability and reproductive biology of the bamboo borer (Dinoderus minutus Fabricius).  

PubMed

Wood products are highly exposed to infestation by powder post beetles. Dinoderus minutus (bamboo borer) is a wood boring beetle that seriously damage dried bamboo and finished bamboo products. Management of D. minutus using pesticides showed negative effects on environment despite being very costly. By understanding influence of natural climatic conditions on their reproductive behaviour, could help us to develop a cost effective and environmental friendly strategy to cope up with this problem. In the present study, reproductive parameters and egg development of the bamboo borer were determined at 20%, 40%, 56%, 75% and 85% r.h. levels at constant temperature of 30°?±?2°C with 8 L-16D photoregime. From the results, eclosion to first instar larva was recorded at all relative humidities tested. The lowest shortest percentage of hatchability was recorded at 20% and 85% relative humidity with a mean incubation period of 4.63?±?0.25 and 10.43?±?0.32 days, respectively. It was noted that pre-ovipositional period decreased from 14.20?±?0.49 to 7.20?±?0.31 days as relative humidity increased from 20% to 75% and slightly increased to 8.00?±?0.37 days at 85% relative humidity. We conclude that female beetles may have a particular hygropreference in oviposition as total egg production increased with increasing relative humidity. PMID:23419805

Norhisham, Ahmad R; Abood, Faizah; Rita, Muhamad; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman

2013-12-01

65

Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.  

PubMed

Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

2014-02-01

66

Cross infestivity of Sarcoptes scabiei.  

PubMed

Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis was successfully transferred from the dog to New Zealand White Rabbits, Oryctologus cuniculus. Natural and experimental transfers were accomplished between rabbits. The dog strain transferred to rabbits showed no morphologic changes and was readily transferred back to dogs. Experimental transfer of var. canis to guinea pigs and pigs resulted in only temporary infestation. Attempts to infest haired and hairless mice, thymus-deficient (nude) mice, and rats were unsuccessful. The unsuccessful or transient nature of cross-infestations between some host species and complete cross-infestation in others leads to the conclusion that all S. scabiei varieties are not host-specific but that they do possess some degree of host preference and that physiologic differences between varieties exist. PMID:6736342

Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Estes, S A

1984-06-01

67

Microbial Control of Plum Curculio and Peachtree Borers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruits. Stone fruits are also plagued by clear-winged moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), e.g., peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes). Microbial control agents have potential as a...

68

BORER DAMAGE IN GREEN ASH TREES FROM DIFFERENT PROVENANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young trees of green ash (Fraxlnus pennsyivanica) from 43 geographic origins throughout the species' range were heavily attacked (81 %) by the ash borer (Podosesia syringae) or its sibling species P. aureoclncta, with no differences among provenances. Faster growing trees were attacked more often than weak trees. The few fast- growing, borer-free trees remaining are being vegetatively propagated and used

Frank S. Santamour; Kim C. Steiner

1986-01-01

69

Frequency of Intestinal Parasite Infestation in Children Hospital Quetta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal infestation among children. Patients and Methods: Fecal samples were tested in 220 patients presenting with recurrent abdominal discomfort. The patients belonged mainly to Quetta. The gross examinations of the stools were made for presence of worms and segments. The microscopic examination of the stool was made by direct wet smears in

Abdul Bari; Khawaja Farooq Qasim

70

Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

71

Human tick infestation pattern, tick-bite rate, and associated Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection risk during occupational tick exposure at the Seedorf military training area, northwestern Germany.  

PubMed

The human tick infestation pattern, tick bite rate, and associated Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.-infection risk were investigated during occupational tick exposure of military personnel at the Seedorf military training area, northwestern Germany, from January to December 2009. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. seroconversion rates were monitored from April to September 2009. Continuous occupational health surveillance and education were established. Feeding ticks were mostly removed by medical personnel, transferred to 70% ethanol, identified, and tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. Pre- and post-exposure sera were screened for B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies. A total of 710 feeding ticks was removed, 704 (99.2%) of which were I. ricinus, 5 were I. hexagonus (0.7%), and one was H. concinna (0.1%). Of the I. ricinus specimens, 63.9% were nymphs, 24.7% larvae, 10.9% adult females, and 0.5% adult males. The tick bite rate among occupationally exposed personnel was 42.2% from April to September 2009. Up to 18 simultaneously feeding ticks per person per exposure incident were detected. The mean number of attached ticks was 2.0±2.2 per person per exposure incident. Overall, 86.4% of all feeding ticks were removed from patients within less than 24h after attachment. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA could be detected in 3.5% of larval, 4.4% of nymphal, 13% of adult female, and 33.3% of adult male ticks, indicating a mean prevalence of 5.3%. Among the genospecies detected, B. afzelii accounted for 84%, B. burgdorferi s.s. for 11%, B. garinii for 3%, and B. spielmanii for 3%. The overall seroconversion rate in 566 personnel exposed from April to September was 1.7%, and 0.7% acquired clinical Lyme borreliosis. Experiences reported herein indicate the need to further improve personal protection measures, health education, and medical staff training in order to minimize exposure to ticks and optimize diagnosis of tick-borne diseases. PMID:24993582

Faulde, Michael K; Rutenfranz, Martin; Hepke, Jürgen; Rogge, Mareike; Görner, Andreas; Keth, Alexander

2014-09-01

72

Managing the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt corn and insecticide treatments.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

2013-01-01

73

Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

2013-01-01

74

Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance. PMID:22251643

Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

2011-06-01

75

Dying pine infested with beetles  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Mountain pine beetle-infested trees turn a striking red color throughout their crown as they're dying. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepo...

76

Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2014-03-01

77

Bronze Birch Borer STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology  

E-print Network

-shaped emergence hole on paper birch (Betula spp.). S. Katovich, USFS, Bugwood.org #12;Key diagnostic features bronze birch borer (Coleoptera) and D-shaped emergence holes on birch (Betula spp.). S. Katovich, USFS

New Hampshire, University of

78

Generation of marker-free Bt transgenic indica rice and evaluation of its yellow stem borer resistance.  

PubMed

We report on generation of marker-free (‘clean DNA’) transgenic rice (Oryza sativa), carrying minimal gene-expression-cassettes of the genes of interest, and evaluation of its resistance to yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The transgenic indica rice harbours a translational fusion of 2 different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes, namely cry1B-1Aa, driven by the green-tissue-specific phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) promoter. Mature seed-derived calli of an elite indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati-1 were co-bombarded with gene-expression-cassettes (clean DNA fragments) of the Bt gene and the marker hpt gene, to generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. The clean DNA fragments for bombardment were obtained by restriction digestion and gel extraction. Through biolistic transformation, 67 independent transformants were generated. Transformation frequency reached 3.3%, and 81% of the transgenic plants were co-transformants. Stable integration of the Bt gene was confirmed, and the insert copy number was determined by Southern analysis. Western analysis and ELISA revealed a high level of Bt protein expression in transgenic plants. Progeny analysis confirmed stable inheritance of the Bt gene according to the Mendelian (3:1) ratio. Insect bioassays revealed complete protection of transgenic plants from yellow stem borer infestation. PCR analysis of T2 progeny plants resulted in the recovery of up to 4% marker-free transgenic rice plants. PMID:20720299

Kumar, S; Arul, L; Talwar, D

2010-01-01

79

Dispersion and sequential sampling plan for Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesting Hawaii coffee plantations.  

PubMed

The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a serious pest of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in the Kona region of the island of Hawaii, the center of the largest area of coffee production within the state of Hawaii. This study indirectly characterizes the spatial distribution of X. compactus in coffee plantations through assessment of twig borer damage, and presents a sequential sampling plan for monitoring X. compactus population densities. Taylor's Power Law (TPL) and Iwao's mean crowding index showed that X. compactus infestations were highly aggregated within plantations, with b and ß values significantly larger than 1. The TPL linear regression of log variance against log mean (R2 = 0.92) provided a better fit to the data than the linear regression of mean crowding on the mean (R2 = 0.68). Subsequently, Taylor's power law parameters were used to develop the Green's sequential plan to estimate densities of X. compactus at the 90 and 75% precision levels. PMID:23575018

Greco, E B; Wright, M G

2013-04-01

80

Assessing the flight capabilities of the goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with computerized flight mills.  

PubMed

The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to southern Arizona and is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has caused considerable mortality to native oak species in southern California. Assessing the dispersal capabilities of this woodborer may help to determine its potential environmental and economic risk within the invaded region, and possibly assist with the development of species-specific management strategies. The flight performance of A. auroguttatus adults under different age, mating, and nutritional status was assessed by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period to collect information on total distance flown, flight times and velocities, number and duration of flight bouts, and postflight weight. The nutritional status and body size (i.e., elytron length) of A. auroguttatus adults had a significant influence on overall flight performance. Mating status and gender had no significant influence on total flight distance, duration, velocity, and flight bout time. Significant interactions between nutritional status and age were observed in the overall flight performance of A. auroguttatus, with decreased flight activity in old (approximately 6 d of age) starved individuals during a 24-h trial period. Overall, results of these flight mill assays indicate that A. auroguttatus is unable to disperse long distances across habitats that lack suitable oak hosts. This work supports the hypothesis that human-aided transportation via infested oak firewood from southern Arizona across the Sonoran desert likely caused the initial introduction, and subsequent satellite infestations of A. auroguttatus within southern California's native oak woodlands. PMID:25026673

Lopez, Vanessa M; McClanahan, Michael N; Graham, Laurie; Hoddle, Mark S

2014-06-01

81

Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.  

PubMed

The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section. PMID:25266165

Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

2014-10-28

82

Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.  

PubMed

Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes. PMID:24562815

Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

2014-04-01

83

Elite Indica transgenic rice plants expressing modified Cry1Ac endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis show enhanced resistance to yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas).  

PubMed

Bt-transgenics of elite indica rice breeding lines (IR-64, Pusa Basmati-1 and Karnal Local) were generated through biolistic or Agrobacterium-mediated approaches. A synthetic cry1Ac gene, codon optimised for rice and driven by the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter, was used. Over 200 putative transformants of IR-64 and Pusa Basmati-1 and 26 of the Karnal Local were regenerated following use of the hpt (hygromycin phosphotransferase) selection system. Initial transformation frequency was in the range of 1 to 2% for particle bombardment while it was comparatively higher (approximately 9%) for Agrobacterium. An improved selection procedure, involving longer selection on the antibiotic-supplemented medium, enhanced the frequency of Bt-transformants and reduced the number of escapes. Molecular evaluation revealed multiple transgene insertions in transformants, whether generated through biolistic or Agrobacterium. In the latter case, it was also observed that all genes on the T-DNA do not necessarily get transferred as an intact insert. Selected Bt-lines of IR-64 and Pusa Basmati-1, having Bt-titers of 0.1% (of total soluble protein) and above were evaluated for resistance against manual infestation of freshly hatched neonate larvae of yellow stem borers collected from a hot spot stem borer infested area in northern India. Several Bt-lines were identified showing 100% mortality of larvae, within 4-days of infestation, in cut-stem as well as vegetative stage whole plant assays. However, there was an occasional white head even among such plants when assayed at the reproductive stage. Results are discussed in the light of resistance management strategies for deployment of Bt-rice. PMID:12212843

Khanna, H K; Raina, S K

2002-08-01

84

Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the fumigant is under increasing regulation as a stratospheric ozone-depleting substance. Ionizing radiation is a relatively new commercial alternative that is currently used in several countries. The present research explored radiation doses that would provide quarantine security for commodities at risk of being infested by O. nubilalis. Radiotolerance of late pupae (the most tolerant stage infesting commodities) as determined by hatch of F1 eggs was not affected by host (meridic diet versus ear corn) or temperature (1 versus 13 degrees C) but was positively affected by low oxygen. Longevity was shorter for adults of irradiated than nonirradiated pupae. The minimum absorbed dose for phytosanitary irradiation against O. nubilalis could vary from 233 Gy for prevention of F1 pupation to 343 Gy for prevention of F1 egg hatch. Lower doses might be possible if greater risk of treatment failure was acceptable. PMID:19253619

Hallman, Guy J; Hellmich, Richard L

2009-02-01

85

Infestation of extraocular muscle by Cysticercus cellulosae.  

PubMed Central

Reports of orbital cysticercosis are uncommon despite the high incidence of brain and ocular involvement. Infestation of extraocular muscle is exceedingly rare. Two cases of cysticercosis of the extraocular muscles are reported here. Surgical removal of the encysted parasites successfully resolved the infestation in both cases. Images PMID:2275941

DiLoreto, D A; Kennedy, R A; Neigel, J M; Rootman, J

1990-01-01

86

Frequency of delusional infestation by proxy and double delusional infestation in veterinary practice: observational study.  

PubMed

Background Nothing is known about the prevalence of delusional infestation in veterinary practice and the consequences for psychiatrists. Aims We attempted to examine the frequency of delusional infestation among pet owners presenting their animals to veterinary clinics. Method We conducted a survey among 32 663 veterinary clinicians who were members of the Veterinary Information Network. Results The respondents had seen 724 suspected cases of delusional infestation by proxy in a pet. The clients were mainly White, female and 30-60 years old. They presented mainly dogs and cats, and the alleged infestation was mainly with arthropods or worms. Also, 252 clients claimed to be affected themselves; we termed this 'double delusional infestation'. Conclusions Delusional infestation is seen frequently in veterinary practice. Psychiatrists need to be aware that patients may have pets they believe are infested. PMID:25497298

Lepping, Peter; Rishniw, Mark; Freudenmann, Roland W

2015-02-01

87

Severe Demodex infestation of a coal miner.  

PubMed

We report a case of Demodex infestation in a 35 year old coal miner presenting with a 5 year history of scally papulopustular eruption on his face. He had been working inunderground coal tunnels in a humid- hot- dusty environment and he had been used to bath twice a day with hot water and multiple cleaners. The patient was treated successfully with oral metronidazol, topical permethrin, topical steroids and avoidance of undergraund mining . We believe his occupational environment made him prone to infestation by changes in sebum composition and/or viscosity, his bath habituation facilitated infestation, damaging the epidermal barrier function and his previous treatments exaggerated his infestation. During evaluation of the patient, specific occupational factors and habituations will be related with higher succession rates of treatment. We need to conduct further studies in order to draw a definite conclusion about the effect of the occupational environment on Demodex infestation. PMID:24412875

To?ral, Arzu Karata?; Alt?ndal, Mahmut; Koryürek, Özgül Mu?tu; Tutkun, Engin; Y?lmaz, Ömer H?nç

2013-01-01

88

A country bug in the city: urban infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Arequipa, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi remains an unrealized objective in many Latin American countries. The task of vector control is complicated by the emergence of vector insects in urban areas. Methods Utilizing data from a large-scale vector control program in Arequipa, Peru, we explored the spatial patterns of infestation by Triatoma infestans in an urban and peri-urban landscape. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to assess the associations between household infestation and household- and locality-level socio-environmental measures. Results Of 37,229 households inspected for infestation, 6,982 (18.8%; 95% CI: 18.4 – 19.2%) were infested by T. infestans. Eighty clusters of infestation were identified, ranging in area from 0.1 to 68.7 hectares and containing as few as one and as many as 1,139 infested households. Spatial dependence between infested households was significant at distances up to 2,000 meters. Household T. infestans infestation was associated with household- and locality-level factors, including housing density, elevation, land surface temperature, and locality type. Conclusions High levels of T. infestans infestation, characterized by spatial heterogeneity, were found across extensive urban and peri-urban areas prior to vector control. Several environmental and social factors, which may directly or indirectly influence the biology and behavior of T. infestans, were associated with infestation. Spatial clustering of infestation in the urban context may both challenge and inform surveillance and control of vector reemergence after insecticide intervention. PMID:24171704

2013-01-01

89

EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA AND DEMODEX INFESTATION  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically (P = 0.0787). Most of patients (85.4%) had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex. PMID:19881989

Zari, Javidi; Abdolmajid, Fata; Masood, Maleki; Vahid, Mashayekhi; Yalda, Nahidi

2008-01-01

90

Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy. PMID:24792748

Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

2014-07-14

91

Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle and Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the

Robert K. Lawrence

92

WOUND COMPARTMENTALIZATION POTENTIAL AND BORER DAMAGE IN GREEN ASH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash trees that exhibited strong Wall 2 com- partmentalization of chisel wounds made in the trunk had less wood discoloration associated with ash borer activity than did weak compartmentalizing trees. The wood of weak compart- mentalizers was extensively colonized by microorganism s (bacteria and stain fungi) and many such trees were declining. Despite the fact that both strong and

Frank S. Santamour

93

Development of Harmonic Radar Systems for Tracking Emerald Ash Borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borers (EAB) have killed millions of ash trees since they were identified in North America in the summer of 2002. Data are needed on EAB behavior to aid development of treatment and management strategies and enable more effectively schedule and target control measures. Entomological ra...

94

Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

95

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae),  

E-print Network

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded at one site in Riverside County in 2012. It was likely brought into the state on oak firewood collected at least 2000, GSOB has caused extensive injury and mortality to oaks in woodlands and mixed

Ishida, Yuko

96

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Bu-prestidae), is a flatheaded borer new to California that poses a significant  

E-print Network

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Bu- prestidae), is a flatheaded borer new to California that poses a significant threat to oak trees. The pest is native to southeastern collected and identified in California in 2004 in San Di- ego County but was not linked to extensive oak

Ishida, Yuko

97

Molecular characterization of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I and their phylogenetic relationship.  

PubMed

Shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is an important insect pest infesting brinjal or eggplant in India. Molecular characterization of nine different populations belonging to various brinjal growing regions was done using Cytochorome C Oxidase I (COI) gene. Nucleotide analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of the COI indicate that the L. orbonalis from different geographical regions are homogenous. The results showed less nucleotide diversity (? = 0.007895) and overall mean distance (0.008 ± 0.003). Topologies of neighbour-joining (NJ) trees indicate all the populations belong to single major clade. Therefore, it is inferred that there was no significant molecular diversity within L. orbonalis of different geographical locations of India with respect to COI. PMID:25675712

Shashank, P R; Ojha, Rakshit; Venkatesan, T; Jalali, S K; Bhanu, K R M

2015-01-01

98

Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

SciTech Connect

This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

Thoeny, W.T.

1986-01-01

99

Laboratory and field tests of spray-dried and granular formulations of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain with insecticidal activity against the sugarcane borer.  

PubMed

Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) with insecticidal activity against the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. The formulations were prepared using biodegradable polymers such as modified corn starch as an encapsulating agent, gelatin as an adherent, powdered sugarcane as a feeding stimulant and a Bt var. kurstaki GM-34 strain from a non-sugarcane region as the active ingredient. The spore-crystal complex of this strain was mixed at three different concentrations (30, 70 and 100 g kg(-1)) with the other ingredients. The blends were prepared as spray-dried and granular formulations, and then submitted to laboratory tests with two day old larvae of D. saccharalis and field tests in sugarcane crops with natural sugarcane borer infestation. Spray-dried formulations in laboratory bioassays caused mortality near 100% with all three concentrations, and granular formulations caused mortality around 84%. The field tests showed that spray-dried formulations at 70 and 100 g kg(-1) concentrations were as effective as a commercial bioinsectide (Lepinox), while granular formulations were ineffective. PMID:16786544

Rosas-García, Ninfa M

2006-09-01

100

Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest. PMID:17972635

McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

2007-10-01

101

Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

2013-01-01

102

EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists  

E-print Network

EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists Department of Entomology Field Crops E-17-W PURDUE EXTENSION Corn borer populations Indiana growers have seen corn borer damage decline to the point that it is no longer considered the key

Ginzel, Matthew

103

Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 20092019 Kent F. Kovacs a,  

E-print Network

in the cities of the United States, predominantly white and green ash (F. americana, F. pennsylvanica), enhancesAnalysis Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009­2019 Kent F. Kovacs a Emerald ash borer Cost of ash treatment, removal, and replacement Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis

Liebhold, Andrew

104

Control of the lesser cornstalk borer on peanuts  

E-print Network

cornstalk borer aoths inside tha experiaontal ares. The treataonts were randoaised and replicated four tines. An eauleifiable DDT concentrate containing 2 pounds of technical aaterial per gallon ?as used as an insecticide at the rate of l. 5 younds..., Nr. N. J. Reinhsrd, and Dr. D. C. Norton for their advice and constructive criticise. 300640 TABLB OP CONTBNTS Pago Introduction Revise ef Literature The Rffect of Ayplications of Varying Volunes ef Spray Baterial The Bffect oi Varying...

Cunningham, Walter Holland

1958-01-01

105

Bt Corn and the European Corn Borer: Evaluation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive predictive model uses years of past weather data and a model of the European corn borer's life cycle under different temperatures to calculate the net benefit of planting Bt corn versus non-Bt corn in a certain geographic area. Great data visualization. Requires Flash. This is an excellent tool incorporating a large volume of data. The tool should be quite useful for IPM classes.

0002-11-30

106

Ability of Plant Stress Volatiles to Trigger Attacks by the Nursery-Infesting Black Stem Borer, Xylosandrus germanus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylosandrus germanus is of Eastern Asia origin and among the most economically important exotic ambrosia beetles in US nurseries. The attractiveness of stress-related volatiles other than ethanol to X. germanus is inconclusive, and such information could improve detection and monitoring programs of ...

107

Detection of European corn borer infestation in rainfed and irrigated corn using airborne hyperspectral imaging: implications for resistance management  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

108

Comparative susceptibility of European corn borer, southwestern corn borer, and sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Cry1Ab protein in a commercial Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrid.  

PubMed

One field strain each of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner); southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.); were collected from cornfields in northeastern Louisiana. Susceptibilities of the field strain and a corresponding laboratory strain of the three borer species to Cry1Ab protein in DK69-70 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrid were determined by exposing neonates to intact leaf tissues from whorl stage plants or by feeding neonates or third instars on a meridic diet treated with different concentrations of Cry1lAb protein extracted from Bt corn leaves. Mortality and growth of larvae were evaluated after 2 and 4 d posttreatment in the bioassays by using intact leaf tissues or after 7 d in the bioassays by using diet incorporating Cry1Ab protein. D. saccharalis was the least susceptible species to Cry1Ab protein among the three species, followed by D. grandiosella, whereas O. nubilalis was most susceptible. The 2-d mortality of D. saccharalis neonates on intact Bt leaf tissues was lower than that of O. nubilalis and D. grandiosella. All neonates of O. nubilalis were killed on the diet treated with Cry1Ab protein at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. The mortality of D. grandiosella was > 75% at 1 mg/kg, but it was < 6% for D. saccharalis at 1 mg/kg. The LC50 values of D. saccharalis were 3- and 11-fold higher than those of D. grandiosella and O. nubilalis, respectively. The LC90 values of D. saccharalis were 8- and 32-fold higher than those of D. grandiosella and O. nubilalis, respectively. Larval growth of the three species on Cry1Ab-treated diet was inhibited, but the inhibition was greater for O. nubilalis and D. grandiosella than for D. saccharalis. The lower susceptibility of D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab protein suggests that it is necessary to verify if a high-dose Bt corn for O. nubilalis and D. grandiosella is also a high dose for D. saccharalis. PMID:16573340

Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Gable, Rhett H

2006-02-01

109

Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site.  

PubMed

Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of four 50- by 50-m cells. Green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) were inventoried by diameter class and ash phloem area was estimated for each cell. One trap type was randomly assigned to each cell in each block. Because initial sampling showed that A. planipennis density was extremely low, infested ash logs were introduced into the center of the site. In total, 87 beetles were captured during the summer. Purple double-decker traps baited with a blend of ash leaf volatiles, Manuka oil, and ethanol captured 65% of all A. planipennis beetles. Similarly baited, green double-decker traps captured 18% of the beetles, whereas sticky bands on girdled trees captured 11% of the beetles. Purple traps baited with Manuka oil and suspended in the canopies of live ash trees captured only 5% of the beetles. At least one beetle was captured on 81% of the purple double-decker traps, 56% of the green double-decker traps, 42% of sticky bands, and 25% of the canopy traps. Abundance of ash phloem near traps had no effect on captures and trap location and sun exposure had only weak effects on captures. Twelve girdled and 29 nongirdled trees were felled and sampled in winter. Current-year larvae were present in 100% of the girdled trees and 72% of the nongirdled trees, but larval density was five times higher on girdled than nongirdled trees. PMID:22251735

McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W; Poland, Therese M; Pierce, Steven J; Ahn, Su Zie

2011-10-01

110

Resistance Evolution to Bt Crops: Predispersal Mating of European Corn Borers  

E-print Network

Resistance Evolution to Bt Crops: Predispersal Mating of European Corn Borers Ambroise Dalecky1 of Ostrinia nubilalis, a major lepidopteran corn pest. At the local scale, resident females mated regardless evolution to Bt crops: Predispersal mating of European corn borers. PLoS Biol 4(6): e181. DOI: 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

112

Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat  

E-print Network

and invasive green beetle known for killing Ash trees in the United States (US) [8,9]. The borer is nativeSentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat Brahim - Dearborn 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48120, USA {brahim,wgrosky}@umich.edu Abstract. The Emerald Ash

Medjahed, Brahim

113

Comparison Of Trap Types and Colors for Capturing Emerald Ash Borer Adults at Different Population Densities  

E-print Network

SAMPLING Comparison Of Trap Types and Colors for Capturing Emerald Ash Borer Adults at DifferentÃ?cial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have in the Ã?eld sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green

114

Molecular changes in the maize composite EPS12 during selection for resistance to pink stem borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre) is the most important pest of maize (Zea mays L.) throughout the Mediterranean area. The maize composite EPS12 has been chosen as the base population for a breeding program based on its resistance to pink stem borer, with the main selection criterion being resistance to stem tunneling. Yield was taken as a secondary

A. Butrón; R. Tarrío; P. Revilla; A. Ordás; R. A. Malvar

2005-01-01

115

Street Tree Diversity in Eastern North America and Its Potential for Tree Loss to Exotic Borers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of catastrophic tree losses caused by Dutch elm disease, foresters recommended that the urban forest be diversified. The intent was to create a more sustainable urban forest that would not be decimated by a single pathogen or insect pest. However, recent introductions of deadly borers such as Asian longhorned beetle and emerald ash borer reveal that new introductions

Michael J. Raupp; Anne Buckelew Cumming; Erin C. Raupp

2006-01-01

116

Searching for New Sources of Pink Stem Borer Resistance in Maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main corn (Zea mays L.) pest in the Mediterranean area. Although, screening for resistance to this pest has been successful, the level of resistance shown by the most resistant varieties is not high. The objectives of the present work were: (i) the evaluation for pink stem borer resistance of the nontested

A. Butrón; G. Sandoya; R. Santiago; A. Ordás; A. Rial; R. A. Malvar

2006-01-01

117

A Severe Infestation of Lygodium microphyllum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A severe infestation of Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. located at Jonathan Dickinson State Park, Martin County, Florida, USA. A native of the Old World tropics, L. microphyllum has become a serious pest in the forested wetlands of South Florida since naturalizing in the 1960s. Within severe infestations, this vine-like fern can smother both the understory and canopy, disrupting the recruitment of native vegetation and altering local fire ecology. The spread of this species appears to be facilitated by its ability to reproduce via intragametophytic selfing.

Michael S. Lott (Florida Atlantic University; Department of Biological Sciences ADR; POSTAL)

2004-03-09

118

7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested areas. (a) The areas described below are designated as generally infested...

2011-01-01

119

Repellence of the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda from grafted apple trees by impregnation of rubber budding strips with essential oils.  

PubMed

The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed. PMID:17421054

van Tol, Rob W H M; Swarts, Henk J; van der Linden, Anton; Visser, J H

2007-05-01

120

Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences  

PubMed Central

Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

2013-01-01

121

Resistant scalp folliculitis secondary to Demodex infestation.  

PubMed

Folliculitis is a common complaint and its etiology may be related to a variety of factors. We examine a case involving a 57-year-old white man presenting with scalp erythema and folliculitis secondary to Demodex mite infestation. We discuss the pathophysiology of Demodex folliculitis, as well as the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment of this infection. PMID:16422467

Sanfilippo, Angela M; English, Joseph C

2005-11-01

122

How to Identify a Bed Bug Infestation  

MedlinePLUS

How to Identify a Bed Bug Infestation Dini M. Miller, Ph.D., Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech Introduction You cannot just “get” bed bugs. They ... early before the population becomes difficult to control. Bed Bug Identification It is very important to know ...

123

INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF LEAFY SPURGE INFESTED RANGELAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to determine the effects of multispecies grazing combined with Aphthona on leafy spurge infested rangeland. On two western North Dakota sites divided into pastures 25 to 79 hectares, two grazing duration treatments were applied, season-long with 7 to 10 cow calf pairs and 20 to 25...

124

MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS  

E-print Network

MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS by EDI ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS INC. for Ministry of Environment Mountain Pine Beetle Action Team March 2008 #12;This document was produced under contract to the ministry of environment mountain pine beetle action team (MPBAT) by EDI Environmental

Northern British Columbia, University of

125

Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).  

PubMed

A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building. PMID:17319150

Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

2006-09-01

126

A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.  

PubMed

Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides. PMID:23321083

Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

2012-12-01

127

Laboratory rearing of the cottonwood twig borer on artificial diets  

E-print Network

hickory shuckworm medium 20 g pectin 2 ml linseed oil Anthon et al. peach twi. g borer medium 5 g pectin 10 g glucose substituted for 10 sucrose 36 g vitamins 12 ml linseed oil 15 g vitamins Modifications per 1000 ml water quanity of diet. a...). One modification was the addition of 20 g of pectin to possibly stimulate feeding. The other was the addition of linseed oil in an attempt to correct abnormal wing expansion, which was obtained when rearing the insect on the unmodified diet...

Mastro, Victory Carl

1973-01-01

128

Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch  

PubMed Central

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

2013-01-01

129

Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.  

PubMed

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

2013-01-01

130

Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•?) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•? was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•? generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Pawe?; Sprawka, Iwona; ?ukasik, Iwona; Go?awska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

2014-01-01

131

Evaluation of double-decker traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites with very low A. planipennis densities, more A. planipennis were captured on baited double-decker traps than on other traps and a higher percentage of the baited double-decker traps captured beetles than any other trap design. In all 3 yr, peak A. planipennis activity occurred during late June to mid-July, corresponding to 800-1200 growing degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD10). Nearly all (95%) beetles were captured by the end of July at approximately 1400 DD10. PMID:21510200

Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C

2011-04-01

132

75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks ash trees (Fraxinus spp., including green ash, white ash, black ash, and several...

2010-05-25

133

76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive woodboring insect that attacks ash trees (Fraxinus spp., including green ash, white ash, black ash, and several...

2011-01-10

134

76 FR 5679 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks ash trees (Fraxinus spp., including green ash, white ash, black ash, and several...

2011-02-02

135

Susceptibility of the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes is an important pest of Prunus spp. We determined the susceptibility of S. pictipes to six entomopathogenic nematode species: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. indica, H. marelatus, Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. riobrave. Nematode viru...

136

Antibiosis mechanism of resistance to pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera in wild relatives of chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the major constraints to chickpea production worldwide. The levels of resistance to pod borer in the cultivated\\u000a chickpea germplasm are moderate, and therefore, we studied the reaction of 32 accessions of wild relatives of chickpea for\\u000a resistance to H. armigera under greenhouse conditions. Accessions ICC 17257, IG 70002, IG 70003, IG 70012,

H. C. Sharmad; G. Pampapathy; S. K. Lanka; T. J. Ridsdill-Smith

2005-01-01

137

CONTROLLING BANDED ASH CLEARWING MOTH BORER USING ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banded ash clearwing moth, Podosesia aureocincta, in 24 green ash growing in a nursery were treated with the nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (strain 25) at two different rates. Eight infested green ash were controls in the field trial. Nematodes were applied in July using a back- pack sprayer. Applications of entomopathogenic nematodes significantly reduced the number of living larvae associated

Stanton Gill; John Davidson; Wanda MacLachian; Will Potts

138

Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-12-01

139

Response of Grape Leaf Spectra to Phylloxera Infestation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A handheld chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations were symptomatic of phylloxera stress in the sample vines. Bidirectional reflectance measurements of green and near-infrared light, taken on fresh leaves with a laboratory spectrophotometer, were related to chlorophyll concentration but did not allow discrimination of mildly infested from uninfested vines.

Johnson, Lee F.

1999-01-01

140

Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.  

PubMed

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions. PMID:22217762

Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

2011-12-01

141

Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ?68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed. PMID:24280666

Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P

2013-12-01

142

Monoterpene emissions from bark beetle infested Engelmann spruce trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bark beetle infestation impacts the health of coniferous forests, which are an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. The types and amounts of VOCs emitted from forests can influence secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and impact overall air quality. In this initial work, the impact of bark beetle infestation on SOA precursors from Engelmann spruce is assessed. The VOCs emitted from the trunk of infested and healthy spruce trees were sampled using both sorbent traps and evacuated canisters that were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The samples from the infested spruce tree suggest a nine-fold enhancement in the total VOC emissions. The dominant VOCs in the infested spruce trees were 3-carene, ?-pinene, and ?-pinene. The increase observed in VOCs sampled at the trunk of the infested spruce was consistent with increases observed at infested lodgepole pine trunks. However, the types and amounts of VOCs emitted from Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine are different, which suggests that additional measures of VOC emissions are needed to characterize the impact of bark beetle infestation on VOC emissions and SOA precursors.

Amin, Hardik S.; Russo, Rachel S.; Sive, Barkley; Richard Hoebeke, E.; Dodson, Craig; McCubbin, Ian B.; Gannet Hallar, A.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.

2013-06-01

143

Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding pest, was identified as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, in 2002. A. planipennis reportedly colonizes other genera in its native range in Asia, including Ulmus L., Juglans L., and Pterocarya Kunth. Attacks on nonash species have not been observed in North America to date, but there is concern that other genera could be colonized. From 2003 to 2005, we assessed adult A. planipennis landing rates, oviposition, and larval development on North American ash species and congeners of its reported hosts in Asia in multiple-choice field studies conducted at several southeast Michigan sites. Nonash species evaluated included American elm (U. americana L.), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.), black walnut (J. nigra L.), shagbark hickory [Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch], and Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata Bl.). In studies with freshly cut logs, adult beetles occasionally landed on nonash logs but generally laid fewer eggs than on ash logs. Larvae fed and developed normally on ash logs, which were often heavily infested. No larvae were able to survive, grow, or develop on any nonash logs, although failed first-instar galleries occurred on some walnut logs. High densities of larvae developed on live green ash and white ash nursery trees, but there was no evidence of larval survival or development on Japanese tree lilac and black walnut trees in the same plantation. We felled, debarked, and intensively examined >28 m2 of phloem area on nine American elm trees growing in contact with or adjacent to heavily infested ash trees. We found no sign of A. planipennis feeding on any elm. PMID:18348815

Anulewicz, Andrea C; McCullough, Deborah G; Cappaert, David L; Poland, Therese M

2008-02-01

144

Ditylenchus dipsaci Infestation of Trifolium repens. II. Dynamics of Infestation Development  

PubMed Central

Trifolium repens (white clover) stolons were inoculated with Ditylenchus dipsaci (stem nematode), and the development of resulting infestations was monitored. Nematodes initially remained confined to superficial locations, concentrating in petiole axils near inoculation points. They were able to migrate slowly from the inidal inoculation points and infest adjacent axils, especially in regions near the stolon tip. As time progressed, in some axils, nematodes migrated through the stolon epidermis and colonized slowly expanding subepidermal pockets of host tissue (ca. 0.2-mm length of stolon/day). In these loci nematodes established exponentially increasing populations, but the rates of locus expansion remained constant, indicating that locus expansion was limited by unidentified host-dependent factors. As a result of increasing population pressure within subepidermal loci, J4 entered a "diapause" state and the rate of egg production by adults declined, thereby reducing rate of population growth to more sustainable levels. Typically, these populations peaked at ca. 10,000 individuals in ca. 160 days occupying 3-cm lengths of stolon. Thereafter, heavily infested regions of stolons started to die, leading to the formation of longitudinal splits in their epidermis. In other axils, nematodes did not migrate into the stolons but remained confined to axils. Some of these populations increased a hundred-fold in 95 days, with population growth ending when petioles started to die. Host plant stolon morphology was affected only when subepidermal stolon populations developed high population levels (>100 nematodes) within close proximity (<2 cm) to active terminal meristems. This occurred either when axillary buds became active on previously infested nodes or when nematodes established endoparasitic populations at locations near the stolon tip during winter and spring, when the rate of stolon extension was limited by low light intensity. Affected stolon tips could "escape" from the influence of such infestations when light intensity and temperature increased. Nematode activity was limited by low temperature rather than light intensity. Global warming is likely to lead to greater damage to infested plants during the winter and early spring because the predicted milder winter temperatures will enhance nematode activity but not necessarily promote stolon growth. PMID:19274169

Griffith, G. S.; Cook, R.; Mizen, K. A.

1997-01-01

145

Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer,  

E-print Network

serious, killing the tree. Controls for RHATB: 3. Keep trunks exposed, free of vegetation, weeds or trash Roundheaded apple-tree borer larva #12;control apple maggot, leafminers, and other pests. Backyard trees, covered in the current New England Tree Fruit Management Guide. 6. You could try mechanical "worming

New Hampshire, University of

146

Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*  

PubMed Central

The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

2008-01-01

147

Insects and Spiders: Infestations and Bites  

PubMed Central

Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263961

Turgeon, E.W.T.

1987-01-01

148

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US 500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations.

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G.; Vega, Fernando E.; Harwood, James D.

2010-03-01

149

Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities. PMID:25195441

Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

2014-08-01

150

Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.  

PubMed

The braconid wasp, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilus planipennis), a destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We identified and synthesized seven male-specific volatile compounds. Three of these, dodecanal, (4R,11E)-tetradecen-4-olide, and (Z)-10-heptadecen-2-one, were the key behaviorally active components in flight tunnel bioassays. Male specificity was demonstrated by gas chromatographic comparison of male and female volatile emissions and whole body extracts. Identifications were aided by coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, microchemical reactions, NMR, chiral GC analysis, and GC and MS comparison with authentic standards. Both the racemic and chiral forms of the ?-lactone, as well as both E- and Z-isomers were synthesized. Flight tunnel behavioral tests showed positive male and female S. agrili responses to both natural pheromone and synthetic blends, with upwind flight and landing on the source. Large field-cage tests, using yellow sticky traps baited with pheromone, captured approximately 50% of the released male and female wasps in 24-h periods. The use of pheromone-baited traps in the field could simplify the current detection method for determining parasitoid establishment (i.e., laboriously felling and peeling ash trees for recovery of S. agrili from infested EAB larvae). PMID:22456948

Cossé, Allard A; Petroski, Richard J; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Vermillion, Karl; Lelito, Jonathan P; Cooperband, Miriam F; Gould, Juli R

2012-04-01

151

Rice tillering and yield as affected by artificial and sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) culm injury.  

PubMed

A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate the tillering and yield response of rice, Oryza sativa L., whose culms were injured artificially or by larval sugarcane borers, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Artificially injured plants produced approximately 0.49 more tillers than uninjured plants, similar to what has previously been reported for larval injured plants. In contrast, artificial injury did not affect yield per tiller, whereas larval injury did. The proximity of larval injury to the panicle had a negative impact on tiller yield, whereas artificial injury did not. Artificial injury apparently resulted in less injury to vascular tissue than did sugarcane borer larval injury. Until an artificial method of injury is developed that mimics the effects of larval feeding, further injury studies will continue to require sugarcane borer larvae. PMID:20388284

Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E

2010-04-01

152

Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/mA? in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities > 5,000-6,000/mA? and infestation intensities > 100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and lakes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

1996-01-01

153

Mite Infestations of Man Contracted from Dogs and Cats  

PubMed Central

Acarine infestations of the dog and cat are transmissible to man. The relation between age incidence in the host, duration of disease, and circumstances under which the animal is kept are stated. Fifty out of 65 human contacts at risk to 42 infected dogs and cats showed lesions of mite infestation; 48% of these lesions were confined to the arms and torso. It is important to consider animal mite infestation in the differential diagnosis of human pruritic and papular skin disease. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4969550

Thomsett, L. R.

1968-01-01

154

Interspecific comparison of constitutive ash phloem phenolic chemistry reveals compounds unique to manchurian ash, a species resistant to emerald ash borer.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB) is an invasive wood-borer indigenous to Asia and is responsible for widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in the U.S. and Canada. Resistance and susceptibility to EAB varies among Fraxinus spp., which is a result of their co-evolutionary history with the pest. We characterized constitutive phenolic profiles and lignin levels in the phloem of green, white, black, blue, European, and Manchurian ash. Phloem was sampled twice during the growing season, coinciding with phenology of early and late instar EAB. We identified 66 metabolites that displayed a pattern of variation, which corresponded strongly with phylogeny. Previously identified lignans and lignan derivatives were confirmed to be unique to Manchurian ash, and may contribute to its high level of resistance to EAB. Other compounds that had been considered unique to Manchurian ash, including hydroxycoumarins and the phenylethanoids calceolarioside A and B, were detected in closely related, but susceptible species, and thus are unlikely to contribute to EAB resistance of Manchurian ash. The distinct phenolic profile of blue ash may contribute to its relatively high resistance to EAB. PMID:22588569

Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Cipollini, Donald F; Bonello, Pierluigi

2012-05-01

155

Identification of Odor-Processing Genes in the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis  

PubMed Central

Background Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer) is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp) trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. Methodology and Principal Findings We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons). Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72%) did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc.) putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. Conclusions and Significance The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi-sesquithujene) previously identified in this serious invasive pest. PMID:23424668

Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela J.; Wijeratne, Saranga; Poland, Therese; Qazi, Sohail S.; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; Beliveau, Catherine; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2013-01-01

156

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins bind to the peritrophic membrane of larval sugarcane stalk borer (Diatraea saccharalis).  

PubMed

In this work, we show that vicilins from two Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) genotypes, Epace-10 and IT 81D-1045, which are susceptible and resistant to attack by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus, respectively, associate with the peritrophic membrane (PM) from larvae of Diatraea saccharalis. Solutions with increasing concentrations of vicilins were incubated with PM of the larvae and subsequently analysed by electrophoresis with SDS. It was observed that the majority of the bands of approximately 50,000 Da (characteristic of vicilins) did not appear in the separating gel and only lower molecular weight polypeptides were seen. When vicilins were incubated with PM, and the solution was then heated after the incubation, the band pattern in the gel appeared completely different. It was observed that the vicilins were being hydrolysed by proteinases associated with the PM. When the incubated samples were heated after the reaction, the major bands reappeared, demonstrating that most of the vicilin molecules had bound to the PM of D. saccharalis. These results suggest that when the vicilins are in contact with the PM they are bound and also digested by the PM of this insect. The major and several minor proteinases from the PM were extracted with Triton X-100 and their activity and the inhibition of this activity were analysed by ingel assays. Based on the effects of proteinase inhibitors, the PM-associated activity is due to serine class proteinases. Larvae of D. saccharalis were fed on artificial diets containing purified vicilins from Epace-10 or IT 81D-1045 seeds. Vicilins from Epace-10 did not affect the larval development, while IT 81D-1045 vicilins reduced significantly the survival rate of the sugar cane borer. PMID:16256689

Mota, A C; Damatta, R A; Lima Filho, M; Silva, C P; Xavier-Filho, J

2003-09-01

157

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

158

Monitoring the Blind Shaft Borer Project, Oak Grove, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

In 1974, plans of the United States to obtain energy self-sufficiency included a significant increase in coal production, primarily from new underground mines in the Eastern states. The poor condition of coal shaft sinking companies was a major concern. The US Bureau of Mines perceived similarities between shaft sinking and tunnel boring and felt that a machine could be produced for faster, safer shaft sinking. In January 1975, the Robbins Co., a major producer of tunnel boring machines, submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Bureau of Mines to develop, design, build and demonstrate a Blind Shaft Borer (BSB). In June 1975, a contract was initiated to start work on a BSB. After the Department of Energy was formed, the project was transferred to their Department of Fossil Fuel. In late 1978, while the BSB was being assembled for the field trial near Oak Grove, Alabama, the DOE contracted with Williams Brothers Engineering Company to monitor the site activities and provide technical advice to the Technical Project Manager. This report reviews the BSB project prior to the field trial, describes field trial operations as observed by Williams Brothers Engineering Company personnel and provides a summary of daily activities. It also details project problems, interim efforts to resolve them, results obtained and recommendations to preclude their re-occurrence on future BSB projects.

Amstutz, R.; Danowski, T.

1982-03-01

159

Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize, Zea mays L., expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAb toxin has been planted to extensive areas across the United States and several other countries, but no resistance has been documented in field populations oflepidopteran target pests. This article describes the first report of resistance alleles to commercially available Cry1Ab Bt maize in a Louisiana population of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Two hundred thirteen two-parent isolines of D. saccharalis were screened for Cry1Ab resistance on Bt maize leaf tissue using an F2 screening technique. Larvae representing three isolines survived >15 d on Bt tissue in the F2 generation. The second generation backcross progeny (B1F2) derived from isoline 52 completed larval development on Bt maize in the greenhouse. Segregation and resistance frequency analysis associated with isoline 52 suggested that Bt resistance is probably determined by a nearly completely recessive allele at a single locus. With this assumption, the estimated resistance allele frequency in this population is 0.0023, within a 95% confidence interval of 0.0003-0.0064. PMID:17370824

Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Andow, David A

2007-02-01

160

Digestive amylase from the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus Horn.  

PubMed

A combination of ion-exchange chromatography, preparative electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography allowed a 1209-fold purification of one of the two major digestive alpha-amylases from larvae of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus Horn. The purified enzyme showed a molecular mass of 60.2 kDa, an isoelectric point of 4.7 and an optimal pH for activity of 6.0. The enzyme was heat labile and it was recognized by proteinaceous inhibitors from amaranth seeds (Amaranthus hypochondriacus), whereas extracts from maize (Zea mays) and tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) produced very low inhibition. When the enzyme was measured at different stages of development, maximal activity was found in the second instar larvae. Activity drastically decreased to a very low level during the pupae stage and increased again at the adult stage. A zymogram of the different developmental stages showed two main bands of alpha-amylase activity, which almost disappeared at the pupae stage to increase again during the adult stage, revealing a new, smaller band. This new band may be required for a better adaptation of the adult insect to its new environment. PMID:11007185

Mendiola-Olaya, E; Valencia-Jiménez, A; Valdés-Rodríguez, S; Délano-Frier, J; Blanco-Labra, A

2000-07-01

161

Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ? 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the three control plots. PMID:22546447

Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

2010-10-01

162

Spectral Characteristics of Rice Plants Infested by Brown Planthoppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral characteristics of rice plants at various levels of infestation by the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), (Homoptera:Delphacidae), in the early grain-filling stage were measured and analyzed using a spectroradiometer. Plant damage was classified into six scales, i.e., 0 (CK), 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, based on the scale of infestation displayed on the surfaces of plant parts. Results

CHWEN-MING YANG; CHING-HUAN CHENG

163

Psychological consequences of infestation of the dwelling unit.  

PubMed Central

Interview data from a three-wave panel study of the impact of the residential environment upon the psychological well-being of 337 minority women were used to examine the effects of household infestation upon self-reported depression, phobic anxiety, somatization, hostility, and anomia. The findings of cross-sectional and change analyses over the three waves of data point to a stable relationship between rat infestation and a single dimension of psychological well-being, somatization. PMID:3876780

Zahner, G E; Kasl, S V; White, M; Will, J C

1985-01-01

164

Conventional resistance of experimental maize lines to corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Plant resistance is a useful component of integrated pest management for several insects that are economically damaging to maize, Zea mays L. In this study, 15 experimental lines of maize derived from a backcross breeding program were evaluated for resistance to corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith); southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Experimental line 100-R-3 was resistant in the field to leaf feeding by fall armyworm and line 116-B-10 was resistant in the field to leaf feeding by fall armyworm and leaf and stalk feeding by southwestern corn borer. When corn earworm larvae were fed field harvested silks from experimental line 81-9-B in the laboratory, their pupal weights were significantly lower than the pupal weights of larvae that were fed silks from the resistant control, Zapalote Chico. Maysin levels lower than those commonly associated with corn earworm resistance were present in the resistant experimental line, 107-8-7, indicating a new basis confers resistance to corn earworm in this line. These resistant experimental lines will provide plant breeders with new sources of resistance to lepidopterous insects for the development of improved maize breeding populations. PMID:10902359

Abel, C A; Wilson, R L; Wiseman, B R; White, W H; Davis, F M

2000-06-01

165

Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

166

Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

167

Male Aggregation Pheromone of Date Palm Fruit Stalk Borer Oryctes elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans, and to develop pheromone-based trapping in Eastern Iran. Adults of both sexes feeding on date palm pieces attracted conspecifics, whereas date palm alone was minimally attractive. Males were twice as attractive as females. More beetles were captured at

Didier Rochat; Kazem Mohammadpoor; Christian Malosse; Arman Avand-Faghih; Martine Lettere; Josiane Beauhaire; Jean-Paul Morin; Adeline Pezier; Michel Renou; Gholam Abbas Abdollahi

2004-01-01

168

Susceptibility of eggs and adult fecundity of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, exposed to methoprene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of tests was conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the lesser grain borer, exposed to the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with met...

169

Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97:3 blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1:99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female...

170

Parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in western Pennsylvania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

171

Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

172

Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Density and Canopy Dieback in Three North American Ash Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan, U.S. and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Little information about A. planipennis is available from its native range and it was not known whether this invasive pest would exhibit a preference for a

Andrea C. Anulewicz; Deborah G. McCullough; David L. Cappaert

2007-01-01

173

Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cohorts of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, Michigan by caging gravid EAB females or placing laboratory-reared eg...

174

Wanted4-H Wasp Watchers Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) invasive beetle introduced from  

E-print Network

Eastern Asia that kills all Ash Species native to North America. It is a small, metallic green beetleWanted4-H Wasp Watchers Situation: Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) ­ invasive beetle introduced from measuring 1/2" long and 1/8" wide. 40 million ash trees have died or are dying, 7.5 billion are at risk

Walter, M.Todd

175

FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera  

E-print Network

of other green leaf volatiles (GLVs) with Z3-6:OH. Traps were placed in the lower canopy of ash trees results suggest that Z3-6:OHÐbaited green traps placed in the ash canopy would be a superior lure, green prism traps, ash canopy, monitoring The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

176

Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du

2008-01-01

177

COB BORER MUSSIDIA NIGRIVENELLA RAGONOT (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) OF MAIZE IN IVORY COAST. II - ECOLOGICAL DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvae of Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot, attack various fruits; it is the main maize cob borer in Ivory Coast. The development of attack during the cultivation, the behaviour of larvae in the field, the spatial distribution of eggs and larvae, the mortality of pre-imaginal instars and the annual fluctuations of populations are considered in this paper. This insect may represent

P. MOYAL; M. TRAN; Côte D'Ivoire

1991-01-01

178

Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

2002-01-01

179

Response of grape root borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from vitaceae species and rootstocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer larvae moving freely within Petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to filter paper discs treated with ethanol- and hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts ...

180

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH PLUS METHOPRENE FOR CONTROL OF LESSER GRAIN BORER, RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA, IN ROUGH RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), is a major insect pest of all stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE), a natural inert dust, and methoprene, an insect growth regulator, are two insecticides registered for direct application for stored grains. However, methopre...

181

On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

182

POSSIBLE DEGRADATIVE ROLES OF A COFFEE BERRY BORER-ASSOCIATED YEAST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Pichia guilliermondii based on 26s ribosomal gene sequences. Liquid culture experiments with media containing different caffeine lev...

183

THE PRESENCE OF THE COFFEE BERRY BORER (SCOLYTIDAE) IN PUERTO RICO: FACT OR FICTION?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A detailed examination of the coffee berry borer literature shows that reports indicating the presence of the insect in Puerto Rico in the early 1940's were based on an insect misidentification. One of these erroneous reports was used in a widely cited coffee book that includes a list of countries ...

184

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

185

76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...APHIS-2010-0059] Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer...the public of our decision to revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash...treatment schedule T314-a, which provides a heat treatment schedule for ash logs,...

2011-01-19

186

European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper Vonny M. Barlow, Graduate Research Associate, Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper Vonny M. Barlow, Graduate Research Associate, Virginia and third generations are considered to be the most damaging to crops like bell pepper. Fig. 1. Female (left species. In Virginia, it is the number one pest of pepper, Capsicum annuum L. This pest can damage over 50

Liskiewicz, Maciej

187

MYCOBIOTA ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI (FERRARI) (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE) IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, feces and the galleries of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee fa...

188

On the Eyes of Male Coffee Berry Borers as Rudimentary Organs  

PubMed Central

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1±4.10) than in females (127.5±3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

Vega, Fernando E.; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F.

2014-01-01

189

The biology and control of the lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.  

E-print Network

it in the wood of sugar casks. Cotton (1963) thinks that it. was introduced into this country about a hundred years ago in seed wheat. Tucker (1912) re- ported the presence of the lesser grain borer in Louisiana as a pest of rough rice. Linsley...

Thomson, Valiavetil

1966-01-01

190

G.V.P. REDDY Development of semiochemical-based strategies for old-house borer,  

E-print Network

G.V.P. REDDY Development of semiochemical-based strategies for old-house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus (Reddy & Guerrero, 2004; 2010). To improve the surveillance capability, much research has been done (Reddy et al., 2005a; 2005b). Additionally, our previous studies indicate a ground trap baited

Reddy, Gadi VP

191

On the eyes of male coffee berry borers as rudimentary organs.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1 ± 4.10) than in females (127.5 ± 3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

Vega, Fernando E; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F

2014-01-01

192

Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

193

Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

194

Parasitization by Macrocentrus cingulum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) influences expression of prophenoloxidase in Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A prophenoloxidase (PPO) cDNA (OfPPO) was cloned from the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis. Sequence analysis revealed a full length transcript of the OfPPO cDNA with 2686 bp, containing a 2079 bp open reading frame (ORF), a 73-bp 5’-untranslated region, and a 534-bp 3’-untranslated region with ...

195

Monitoring and First Discovery of the Mexican Rice Borer Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, has expanded its range from the Lower Rio Grande Valley to east Texas, and now into southwest Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Agricultural and Forestry and Louisiana State University AgCenter scientists forecast that natural and unintended movement will r...

196

Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?  

PubMed Central

Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm), reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm), although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA), a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and borer resistance in EPS21. This novel trait could be useful in maize breeding programs to improve borer resistance. PMID:21999882

2011-01-01

197

Contact pheromone components and diel periodicity of sexual communication in peach twig borers, anarsia lineatella (lepidoptera: gelechiidae).  

E-print Network

??Sexual communication of the peach twig borer moth, Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), was re-investigated. In a field-trapping experiment, females were more attractive to foraging… (more)

Schlamp, Kristine Kim

2005-01-01

198

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel borer design for application to single entry coal mine development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A health and safety analysis of a single entry coal tunnel borer system is given. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rule, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagen and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-01-01

199

Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.  

PubMed

Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice. PMID:19811767

Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha

2010-01-01

200

Genetic structure and gene flow among European corn borer populations from the Great Plains to the Appalachians of North America  

EPA Science Inventory

Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), indicated no genetic differentiation even between locations separated by 720 km. This result suggests either high dispersal resulting in high gene flow, or that populations are not in...

201

75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...the importation of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and spread...the importation of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and...

2010-08-03

202

Monogenean infestations and mortality in wild and cultured Red Sea fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.

Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.

1984-03-01

203

Allele frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1ab corn in Louisiana populations of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., has been widely used to manage a corn borer complex in the mid-southern region of the United States. The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has become a dominant cornstalk boring species in some areas of this region, especially in Louisiana. Therefore, management of sugarcane borer resistance to Bt corn is critical to ensure the long-term sustainability of Bt corn for the region. This study screened 280 two-parent family-lines of sugarcane borer from four geographical populations in Louisiana during 2005 to determine whether Bt resistance allele frequency in sugarcane borer is sufficiently low to meet the rare resistance assumption of the current "high dose/refuge" resistance management strategy for Bt corn. These sugarcane borer family-lines were examined for Bt resistance by using novel F2 screening procedures. No major Bt resistance alleles were detected in these four populations. The estimated frequency of major Bt resistance alleles was < 0.0027, with a 95% probability and a detection power of 94%. The estimated minor resistance allele frequency was 0.0063, with a 95% CI of 0.0025-0.0117. During a previous study, a major Bt resistance allele was detected in one individual from 213 family-lines of another Louisiana population of sugarcane borer. Combining these data with the current screen, the frequency of major Bt resistance alleles across the five populations was 0.001, with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0001-0.0028 and a detection power of 95%. Major Bt resistance allele frequencies in Louisiana sugarcane borer populations seem to be low, and they should support the rare resistance allele requirement of the high dose/refuge strategy. PMID:18459416

Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H; Cook, Donald R; Baldwin, Jack; Tindall, Kelly V; Lee, Donna R

2008-04-01

204

Parasitic Infestation in Pediatric and Adolescent Appendicitis: A Local Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875

Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa

2013-01-01

205

Millet preference, effects of planting date on infestation, and adult and larval use of proso millet by Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

The interaction between millet and European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), was investigated to gain insight into whether millet could serve as a refuge or trap crop for O. nubilalis management. In 1995, 1996, and 1999, millet selection studies were conducted in North Dakota and New York with four millet species. Proso millet, Panicum milliaceum L., had the highest infestation and widest distribution of O. nubilalis developmental stages, indicating the presence of both univoltine and bivoltine ecotypes. Siberian foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) Beauvois, harbored the greatest number of adults, followed by German foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) Beauvois. These two millets appeared to serve as better aggregation sites than proso millet. In North Dakota in 1997, proso millet planting date studies showed later planting dates were more heavily infested than earlier dates; in 1998, this trend was reversed. The change in trends between years was probably a result of differences in the respective growing seasons and subsequent differences in O. nubilalis flights. Adult sampling showed that both old and young females aggregated in proso millet during the day; however, at night, it appeared that young females moved out of millet to oviposit, whereas old females remained in millet. Egg masses were detected in proso millet over a 7-d period in 1997 and a 4-d period in 1998. Larval sampling showed planting proso millet between late May and mid-June may maximize the presence of individuals from both O. nubilalis ecotypes. Once the optimal combination of planting date, plant density, and millet type is found, millet may serve as an effective refuge or trap crop for O. nubilalis management. PMID:14994802

Anderson, Patricia L; Weiss, Michael J; Hellmich, Richard L; Hoffmann, Michael P; Wright, Mark G

2003-04-01

206

Associations between Demodex species infestation and various types of cancer.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated immune system cells secrete protease and cytokines that can inhibit the immune response. In particular, T-cell effector functions could be inhibited, potentially causing an increase in parasitic infestations. Demodex species are common inhabitants of normal hair follicles. Humans are the specific host for two species Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and infestation of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in patients with cancer. In the present study, 101 patients with cancer were selected from among patients who were diagnosed and treated for cancer. The cancer patients were divided into four groups according to cancer type. Slides were examined for parasites using light microscopy at magnifications of ×40 and ×100. Infestation was defined as having at least five living parasites/cm(2) of skin. The ages of the patients with cancer ranged between 38 and 82 years, with a mean of 65.5±10.1 years. It was determined that 77 of the 101 (76.2%) cancer patients were positive for Demodex species. Infestation was positive in 18 (47.4%) of the 38 cases in the breast cancer group, 7 (29.2%) of the 24 cases in the lung cancer group, 5 (18.5%) of the 27 cases in the gastrointestinal system cancer group, and 2 (16.7%) of the 12 cases in the urogenital system cancer group. Results showed that the rate of Demodex species infestation was higher in patients with breast cancer. Thus, cancer - and particularly breast cancer - is a risk factor for Demodex species infestation. PMID:24338318

Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Yalç?n, Zeliha Gülter; Karakeçe, Engin; Çiftci, ?hsan Hakk?; Erdem, Teoman

2013-12-01

207

Detecting Weed Infestations in Soybean Using Remote Sensing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can weed distribution maps be developed from remote sensed reflectance data? When are the appropriate times to collect these data during the season? What wavebands can be used to distinguish weedy from weed- free areas? This research examined if and when reflectance could be used to distinguish between weed-free and weed-infested (mixed species) areas in soybean and to determine the most useful wavebands to separate crop, weed, and soil reflectance differences. Treatments in the two-year study included no vegetation (bare soil), weed-free soybean, and weed-infested soybean and, in one year, 80% corn residue cover. Reflectance was measured at several sampling times from May through September in 2001 and 2002 using a hand-held multispectral radiometer equipped with band-limited optical interference filters (460 - 1650 nm). Pixel resolution was 0.8-m. Reflectance in the visible spectral range (460 to 700 nm) generally was similar among treatments. In the near-infrared (NIR) range (>700 to 1650 nm), differences among treatments were observed from soybean growth stage V-3 (about 4 weeks after planting) until mid-July to early August depending on crop vigor and canopy closure (76 cm row spacing in 2001 and 19 cm row spacing in 2002). Reflectance rankings in the NIR range when treatments could be differentiated were consistent between years and, from lowest to highest reflectance, were soil < weed-free < weed-infested areas. Increased reflectance from weed-infested areas was most likely due to increased biomass and canopy cover. Residue masked differences between weed-free and weed- infested areas during the early stages of growth due to high reflectance from the residue and reduced weed numbers in these areas. These results suggest that NIR spectral reflectance collected prior to canopy closure can be used to distinguish weed-infested from weed-free areas.

Clay, S. A.; Chang, J.; Clay, D. E.; Dalsted, K.; Reese, C.

2007-12-01

208

Serum antibody profiles of Sarcoptes scabiei infested or immunized rabbits.  

PubMed

The circulating antibody profiles of rabbits infected or immunized with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis were compared. Crossed immuno-electrophoretic analysis showed that infested hosts produced serum antibody to 12 proteins (antigens) in an extract made from sarcoptic mite bodies. In contrast, rabbits immunized with an extract made from mite bodies produced antibody to 20 Sarcoptes proteins (antigens). SDS-PAGE/immunoblot analysis revealed that serum from immunized rabbits contained antibodies that bound strongly to proteins of 25 and 39-52 kD that were only barely visualized by antibodies in serum from infested rabbits. PMID:7883255

Morgan, M S; Arlian, L G

1994-01-01

209

Inheritance of central neuroanatomy and physiology related to pheromone preference in the male European corn borer  

PubMed Central

Background The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E) prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC) that is identical in morphology, but reversed in functional topology. However, hybrids prefer intermediate ratios. How a topological arrangement of two glomeruli can accommodate for an intermediate preference was unclear. Therefore we studied the neurophysiology of hybrids and paternal backcrosses to see which factors correlated with male behavior. Results Projection neuron (PN) recordings and stainings in hybrids and backcrosses show a dominance of the E-type MGC topology, notwithstanding their intermediate preference. Apparently, the topological arrangement of glomeruli does not directly dictate preference. However, two other factors did correlated very well with preference. First, volumetric measurements of MGC glomeruli demonstrate that, whereas in the parental strains the medial MGC glomerulus is more than 2 times larger than the lateral, in hybrids they are intermediate between the parents, i.e. equally sized. Paternal backcrosses showed that the volume ratio is sex-linked and co-dominant. Second, we measured the summed potential difference of the antennae in response to pheromone stimulation using electroantennogram recordings (EAG). Z-strain antennae responded 2.5 times stronger to Z11 than to E11-14:OAc, whereas in E-strain antennae the ratio was approximately equal. Hybrid responses were intermediate to the parents, and also here the antennal response of the paternal backcrosses followed a pattern similar to the behavioral phenotype. We found no differences in frequency and types of projection and local interneurons encountered between the two strains and their hybrids. Conclusions Male pheromone preference in the ECB strains serves as a strong prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanism, and has contributed to population divergence in the field. Our results demonstrate that male pheromone preference is not directly affected by the topological arrangement of olfactory glomeruli itself, but that male preference may instead be mediated by an antennal factor, which causes the MGC glomeruli to be differentially sized. We postulate that this factor affects readout of blend information from the MGC. The results are an illustration of how pheromone preference may be 'spelled out' in the ALs, and how evolution may modulate this. PMID:20846426

2010-01-01

210

INSECT FRAGMENTS IN FLOUR: RELATIONSHIP TO LESSER GRAIN BORER (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) INFESTATION LEVEL IN WHEAT AND RAPID DETECTION USING NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The grain milling industry routinely checks wheat flour for insect fragments to determine whether the number found is below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defect action level of 75 fragments/50 g flour. However, the standard chemical extraction method used to detect insect fragments in...

211

9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or...AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment...

2010-01-01

212

9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or...AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment...

2011-01-01

213

148 NJAF 20(4) 2003 Mortality Patterns Following Spruce  

E-print Network

148 NJAF 20(4) 2003 Mortality Patterns Following Spruce Budworm Infestation in Unprotected Spruce Hall Road, Effingham, IL 62401. ABSTRACT: Cumulative and annual mortality of red spruce (Picea rubens the mortality patterns in unprotected spruce- fir forests in northern Maine. Different mortality patterns were

214

Monitoring and efficacy of selected insecticides for European corn borer ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hubn., Lepidoptera: Crambidae) control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (H?bner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the major arthropod pest of corn in Croatia. However, chemical control is carried out\\u000a only in maize for seed production, and in sweet corn. A 3-year investigation was carried out in corn fields in northwest Croatia\\u000a to establish the most attractive pheromone lure for ECB monitoring, the optimal timing

Renata Bažok; Jasminka Igrc Barèiæ; Tomislav Kos; Tanja Gotlin Èuljak; Martina Šiloviæ; Siniša Jelovèan; Antonela Kozina

2009-01-01

215

Differential Response in Foliar Chemistry of Three Ash Species to Emerald Ash Borer Adult Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses\\u000a of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to

Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

2011-01-01

216

Distinguishing Defensive Characteristics in the Phloem of Ash Species Resistant and Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis\\u000a of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high

Don Cipollini; Qin Wang; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Jeff R. Powell; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms

2011-01-01

217

Identification of a coffee berry borer-associated yeast: does it break down caffeine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers ( Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)) and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Candida fermentati (Saito) Bai, based on sequencing of the nuclear large subunit 26S rDNA variable D1\\/D2 domain. Liquid culture experiments using P. burtonii in media containing different caffeine

Fernando E. Vega; Michael B. Blackburn; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Patrick F. Dowd

2003-01-01

218

Sex pheromone of the european corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

teans-11-Tetradecenyl acetate (96%) andcis-11-tetradecenyl acetate (4%) are pheromone components of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), from New York. This isomeric blend extracted from the female abdominal tips is very similar to the most attractive synthetic mixture in the field in New York. AnO. nubilalis strain from London, Ontario, was found to produce 97%cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate and 3%trans-11-tetradecenyl acetate.

J. Kochansky; R. T. Cardé; J. Liebherr; W. L. Roelofs

1975-01-01

219

Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

1984-04-01

220

A survey of ectoparasite infestation in dogs in Tehran, Iran.  

PubMed

This survey was conducted to identify and estimate the frequencies of ectoparasites of dogs in Tehran, Iran. A total of 143 dogs attended at the Small Animal Hospital of the Veterinary School, the University of Tehran, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and dermatological lesions. Ectoparasite specimens and blood samples were sent to parasitology and hematology laboratories, respectively. Ticks were the most frequent ectoparasite (36.4%, 52/143), followed by fleas (29.4%, 42/143), mites (25.9%, 37/143), and lice (8.4%, 12/143). Mixed infestations with two or more ectoparasites were detected in eight dogs. Rhipicephalus bursa was the most frequent ectoparasite in spring and summer. Ectoparasitic infestations were recorded mainly in large breeds and juvenile animals. Eosinophilia was more observed in dogs infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. The most common clinical sign, skin pruritus, was associated with mite and lice infestations. These results indicate that the tick R. bursa was the most prominent species of ectoparasite found in the evaluated group, followed by Ctenocephalides canis and S. scabiei var canis. PMID:23070452

Jamshidi, Shahram; Maazi, Nadi; Ranjbar-Bahadori, Shahrokh; Rezaei, Mahdiyeh; Morakabsaz, Pedram; Hosseininejad, Morteza

2012-01-01

221

FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

222

Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 Herbivore-infested plants  

E-print Network

to individual herbivore species, indicates that the interaction between plants and the natural enemies of herbivores and damaged tissues, elicit a herbivore-specific natural-enemy response based on quantifiableNature © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 8 Herbivore-infested plants selectively attract parasitoids

Paré, Paul W.

223

Original article Differential infestation of honey bee, Apis mellifera,  

E-print Network

Original article Differential infestation of honey bee, Apis mellifera, worker and queen brood of royal jelly, and possibly to intrinsic differences between larval chemistries. Apis mellifera / Varroa brood in colonies of A. mellifera. With both worker and queen hosts present, the mite prevalence value

Boyer, Edmond

224

Alternative cellular energy pigments mistaken for parasitic skin infestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermatologists and psychiatrists occasionally encounter patients who believe they are infested with skin parasites. They may report seeing threads, fibers and more solid appearing particles attached to their skin and hair, or appearing on clean bed sheets after sleeping. Some of the particles move spontaneously suggesting a life form. Similar structures develop in long-term cultures of stealth-adapted viruses. They are

W. John Martin

2005-01-01

225

Infestation of an owl (Bubo bubo) with Lucilia spp.  

PubMed

Myiasis is an infestation of tissue with the larval stage of dipterous flies. This condition mostly affects the skin but may also occur in certain body cavities. It can occur in either animals or humans and is caused by parasitic dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. This disease rarely effects birds especially owls. In this study, infestation of an owl with cutaneous myiasis is reported. In October 2008, a wounded owl was referred by the environmental department of Chaharmahal-Bakhtiary province to the clinic of veterinary science at Shahrekord University in west central Iran. At the initial examination, clinical signs were extensive with a wound under the right wing. The wound was infested with 40 white conical maggots, 3-9 mm in length, which led to a diagnosis of myiasis in the owl. The maggots were carefully collected from the wound using sterile forceps and were kept in 70% ethanol and transferred to the laboratory of parasitology where the diagnosis was undertaken by the observation of posterior and anterior spiracle and cephalopharyngeal apparatus. According to key diagnostic features for maggots in birds, the larvae were identified as Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The wound was treated using usual acaricides, but due to the severity of the infestation and because of the delay in referring the animal to the clinic, it died 3 days post-treatment. This is the first report in Iran of an infestation of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) with L. sericata and L. cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:20234830

Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Cheraghchi-Bashi, Mehdi; Navidpour, Shahrokh

2010-04-01

226

Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

227

Developing optimum sample size and multistage sampling plans for Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation and injury in northern Greece.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to quantify the spatial pattern and develop a sampling program for larvae of Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important vineyard pest in northern Greece. Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression were used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance of larval counts. Analysis of covariance was carried out, separately for infestation and injury, with combined second and third generation data, for vine and half-vine sample units. Common regression coefficients were estimated to permit use of the sampling plan over a wide range of conditions. Optimum sample sizes for infestation and injury, at three levels of precision, were developed. An investigation of a multistage sampling plan with a nested analysis of variance showed that if the goal of sampling is focusing on larval infestation, three grape clusters should be sampled in a half-vine; if the goal of sampling is focusing on injury, then two grape clusters per half-vine are recommended. PMID:17066827

Ifoulis, A A; Savopoulou-Soultani, M

2006-10-01

228

Tolerance and compensatory response of rice to sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury.  

PubMed

A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), as affected by cultivar (Cocodrie, Francis, and Jefferson), stage of crop growth during which the injury occurred (third tiller stage, panicle differentiation stage, and heading stage), and sugarcane borer density. The proportion of rice tillers with sugarcane borer injury (leaf and leaf sheath injury and/or stem injury) was lower when injury occurred at the third tiller stage (0.05) than at panicle differentiation (0.19) and heading (0.18). When injury occurred at the two latter stages, both the proportion of tillers with injury and the proportion of tillers with stem injury were negatively correlated with rainfall. Rainfall resulted in dislodgement and mortality of sugarcane borer eggs and larvae before the larvae entered the stems. Rice plant density in this study (111.1 plants/m2) was higher than recorded for previous research on rice compensation using potted rice or conducted in low-density hill production systems (26.7-51.3 plants/m2). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were observed. Stem injured plants produced approximately 0.69 more tillers than uninjured plants, whereas tillers with leaf and leaf sheath injury produced larger panicles, up to 39.5 and 21.0% heavier than uninjured tillers, when injury occurred at third tiller stage and at panicle differentiation, respectively. Rice yield was not reduced with up to 23% injured tiller and up to 10% injured stems at the third tiller stage, 42% injured tillers and 17% injured stems at panicle differentiation, and 28% injured tillers and 14% injured stems at heading. Significant between-plant compensation was not detected, suggesting competition between adjacent plants is not significantly reduced by injury. Our results suggest that rice can tolerate and/or compensate for a level of stem borer injury previously considered to be economically damaging. PMID:18559187

Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Longnecker, M T

2008-06-01

229

F2 screen for resistance to a Bacillus thuringiensis-maize hybrid in the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

A novel F2 screening technique was developed for detecting resistance in sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize expressing the Cry1Ab insecticidal protein. The F2 screening method involved (i) collecting larvae from maize fields; (ii) establishing two-parent families; (iii) screening F2 neonates for survival on Bt-maize leaf tissues; and (iv) confirming resistance on commercial Bt-maize plants. With the F2 screening method, 213 iso-line families of D. saccharalis were established from field collections in northeast Louisiana, USA and were screened for Bt resistance. One family was confirmed to carry a major Bt resistance allele(s). In a laboratory bioassay, larval mortality of the Bt-resistant D. saccharalis on Bt-maize leaf tissues was significantly lower than that of a Bt-susceptible strain. This Bt-resistant D. saccharalis population is the first corn stalk borer species that has completed larval development on commercial Bt-maize. The F2 screening protocol developed in this study could be modified for detecting Bt resistance alleles in other similar corn stalk borers, such as the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and the southwestern corn borer, D. grandiosella Dyar. PMID:17916262

Huang, F N; Leonard, B R; Andow, D A

2007-10-01

230

Mistletoe effects on Scots pine decline following drought events: insights from within-tree spatial patterns, growth and carbohydrates.  

PubMed

Forest decline has been attributed to the interaction of several stressors including biotic factors such as mistletoes and climate-induced drought stress. However, few data exist on how mistletoes are spatially arranged within trees and how this spatial pattern is related to changes in radial growth, responses to drought stress and carbon use. We used dendrochronology to quantify how mistletoe (Viscum album L.) infestation and drought stress affected long-term growth patterns in Pinus sylvestris L. at different heights. Basal area increment (BAI) trends and comparisons between trees of three different infestation degrees (without mistletoe, ID1; moderately infested trees, ID2; and severely infested trees, ID3) were performed using linear mixed-effects models. To identify the main climatic drivers of tree growth tree-ring widths were converted into indexed chronologies and related to climate data using correlation functions. We performed spatial analyses of the 3D distribution of mistletoe individuals and their ages within the crowns of three severely infested pines to describe their patterns. Lastly, we quantified carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations in needles and sapwood of branches from severely infested trees and from trees without mistletoe. Mistletoe individuals formed strongly clustered groups of similar age within tree crowns and their age increased towards the crown apex. Mistletoe infestation negatively impacted growth but this effect was stronger near the tree apex than in the rest of sampled heights, causing an average loss of 64% in BAI (loss of BAI was ?51% at 1.3 m or near the tree base). We found that BAI of severely infested trees and moderately or non-infested trees diverged since 2001 and such divergence was magnified by drought. Infested trees had lower concentrations of soluble sugars in their needles than non-infested ones. We conclude that mistletoe infestation causes growth decline and increases the sensitivity of trees to drought stress. PMID:22539634

Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio

2012-05-01

231

Bio-Ecology of the Louse, Upupicola upupae, Infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops  

PubMed Central

The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007–08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75–82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented. PMID:21861650

Agarwal, G. P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A.K.

2011-01-01

232

Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

PubMed Central

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion. PMID:21949771

Whitehill, Justin G. A.; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L.; Herms, Daniel A.; Bonello, Pierluigi

2011-01-01

233

Infestation of an owl ( Bubo bubo ) with Lucilia spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myiasis is an infestation of tissue with the larval stage of dipterous flies. This condition mostly affects the skin but may\\u000a also occur in certain body cavities. It can occur in either animals or humans and is caused by parasitic dipterous fly larvae\\u000a feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. This disease rarely effects birds especially owls. In this

Khodadad Pirali-Kheirabadi; Mehdi Cheraghchi-Bashi; Shahrokh Navidpour

2010-01-01

234

Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated\\u000a for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species\\u000a were inoculated on gypsum board with and

K. F. Nielsen; S. Gravesen; P. A. Nielsen; B. Andersen; U. Thrane; J. C. Frisvad

1999-01-01

235

Detecting insect infestation with poly3-hexylthiophenethin thin film sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The financial losses and destruction of crops due to insect infestation in the United States are estimated by the USDA to exceed 20 billion dollars annually. Much of these losses could be avoided by having a sensor that could effectively identify the early stages of insect infestation. However, traditional detection methods are time consuming, require trained personnel, and are not sufficient for early detection. Several previous research studies showed that emitting organic volatile compounds is a defensive mechanism activated by some plant species after being attacked by herbivores and parasites. Corn, cotton, pine, Brussels sprouts when attacked by Beet army worm, spider mites, bark beetles and caterpillars respectively, emits different blends of plant volatiles including ?-terpinene, ?-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate, with a concentration of about 50 ppm. Therefore, monitoring for these volatile compounds may enable on-site early detection of insect infestations. In this study, a chemical resistor sensor to detect plant volatiles was designed and fabricated. The sensor platform consists of micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes. On to this platform, a poly3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin film was deposited, using a spin coater at 8000 rpm for 30 seconds. The sensor was tested and found to be sensitive to a variety of plant volatiles, including ?-terpinene, ?-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate at room temperature. These vapors interacted with the P3HT film causing an increase in the resistance of the sensor by more than one order of magnitude

Weerakoon, Kanchana; Li, Suiquing; Shu, Hungjen J.; Chin, Bryan A.

2009-05-01

236

Infestation and hydraulic consequences of induced carbon starvation.  

PubMed

Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests' responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades. PMID:22665446

Anderegg, William R L; Callaway, Elizabeth S

2012-08-01

237

Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

2003-01-01

238

Infestation and Hydraulic Consequences of Induced Carbon Starvation1  

PubMed Central

Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests’ responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades. PMID:22665446

Anderegg, William R.L.; Callaway, Elizabeth S.

2012-01-01

239

Optimal control of disease infestations on a lattice.  

PubMed

The design of durable and sustainable strategies for the control of plant diseases is not possible without due consideration of landscape structure and economic factors. However, many studies on control strategies of plant infestation have overlooked these considerations. In this paper, we address the problem of how best to deploy resources for the control of disease outbreaks during a single agricultural season. We consider a spatial model for the spread of a plant pathogen over an agricultural region, and model the effect of control on disease dynamics. We associate with a control strategy a 'costs function' that balances amount invested for treatment to the cost incurred by disease infestation. Our objective is to minimize the level of disease infestation and the effort of control. We prove the existence of a solution to the optimal control problem, and devise a numerical algorithm to compute it. We present results of our numerical studies, and show that the solution depends on the interplay between economic and epidemiological factors, as well as the nature of the control agent. PMID:23868971

Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Gilligan, Christopher A

2014-03-01

240

Transcriptome analysis of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana grown on cuticular extracts of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei).  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer (CBB; Hypothenemus hampei) is a major pest of coffee responsible for significant crop losses worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana represents a natural means of controlling this insect pest; however, little is known concerning the molecular determinants that contribute to the virulence of the fungus towards the CBB. In order to examine genes involved in insect virulence, two expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, representing germinating conidia and growing hyphae/mycelia of B. bassiana cells grown on cuticular extracts of the CBB were constructed and analysed. In total, 4186 cDNA transcripts were obtained, which included 2141 from the cuticle-germinated conidia and 2045 from the cuticle-grown mycelium libraries, respectively. The average sequence length obtained was 470 bp and transcript assembly resulted in a set of 1271 and 1305 unique gene sequences for the conidial and mycelia libraries, respectively. Around 50?% of the sequences in each library could be annotated by gene ontology terms. An analysis of the two generated libraries as well as a previously reported EST library of B. bassiana grown on chitin was performed. Between the cuticle-germinated conidia and the cuticle-grown mycelia libraries, 322 unique gene sequences were shared, of which 90?% could be annotated, leaving 949 unique cuticle-germinated conidial genes and 983 unique growing hyphae/mycelia genes of which around 65?% were annotated. ESTs shared between the libraries indicated a basic response pattern for B. bassiana against H. hampei, which included genes implicated in pathogenicity. The expression profiles of four genes were evaluated with a cyclophilin, an alkaline-like serine protease and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), showing elevated expression during initial phases of infection, i.e. conidia germinating on insect extracts. These data provide clues and gene candidates for further exploration concerning the biology and molecular mechanisms of entomopathogenicity by this fungus. PMID:22461485

Mantilla, Javier Guillermo; Galeano, Narmer F; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Cristancho, Marco A; Keyhani, Nemat O; Góngora, Carmenza E

2012-07-01

241

Genetic variability of the european corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, suggests gene flow between populations in the Midwestern United States.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a widely distributed and serious economic pest to corn production in the U.S. Genetic variability of O. nubilalis was studied in 18 sub-populations in the upper Midwestern United States using amplified fragment length polymorphism. The relatively low GST values indicate that more variation exists within populations than between populations. High gene flow (Nm) values were indicated across the entire O. nubilalis population; the lowest degree of gene flow was in the northern samples (Nm = 1.96) and the highest degree of gene flow was in the southern samples (Nm = 2.77). The differences observed in the respective regions (north vs. south) may be explained by the voltinism patterns (univoltine vs. multivoltine, respectively) of O. nubilalis: southern multivoltine populations have opportunities for multiple matings for the duration of the year, further mix alleles. AMOVA results also indicated that most of the genetic variation was within sub-populations ( approximately 81% of total variation); less variation ( approximately 13%) was detected among populations within each of the three regions as designated for this study. However, the most striking and unexpected result was the low percentage of variation between all groups ( approximately 6%), further supporting implications of a high degree of gene flow. These results provide support for current requirements of refugia corn planting in Bt-corn management. These results also indicate that if resistance to Bt were to evolve in O. nubilalis, quick action would be necessary to deter the rapid spread of the gene for resistance. PMID:20307230

Krumm, Jeffrey T; Hunt, Thomas E; Skoda, Steven R; Hein, Gary L; Lee, Donald J; Clark, Pete L; Foster, John E

2008-01-01

242

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development  

SciTech Connect

The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-02-15

243

Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

2012-04-01

244

Laboratory rearing of the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus (Zincken) and notes on its biology  

E-print Network

. deposited in a oluster& 5Xe==eggs ov~eiaD-'4a-a ~xmsr similar- to- Chat oX-soaXe5, , ?, , ;:, :, ~. , ' ?. ":;:. ?; 1 on a fish. mach oiuster usually oontatns less thea $0 eggs, The average number of eggs laid Der female is P00, " The eggs (of... ~deroiaa o ttsllroilles (L ) Bosh Riley (1882) reported that dipterous larvae were found hest~ 8 pupa of the rice stalk . borer, but Chey apparently served mox'e as scavengers rathex than parasites. ingram (1/27) stated, Chat the eggs of xioe stalk box...

Supharngkasen, Phaisal

2012-06-07

245

X-ray Image Analysis to Detect Infestations Caused by Insects in Grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 80(5):553-557 Insect infestations in stored wheat affect the chemical characteristics and baking qualities of wheat flour, and insect-infested flours are unacceptable in the baking industry. The efficiency of the soft X-ray method to detect infestations caused by Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Steph- ens), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) in wheat kernels was

C. Karunakaran; D. S. Jayas; N. D. G. White

2003-01-01

246

The European corn borer, a serious pest of sweet corn, can turn a plump-looking ear  

E-print Network

66 u e The European corn borer, a serious pest of sweet corn, can turn a plump-looking ear of corn into an unappetizing mess. Sure, pesticides exist to prevent such damage, but who wants pesticides in their corn? So that you do not have to choose between a glamorous- looking ear of corn with a scary history

Wang, Z. Jane

247

Applications and mechanisms of wax-based semiochemical dispenser technology for disruption of grape root borer mating  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, is an important pest of cultivated grapes in the Eastern United States from North Carolina to Florida. There are few effective registered insecticides for effective control of this pest and their efficacy is limited. Pheromone-based mating disruption i...

248

Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

249

COMPARISON OF PHENOTYPIC AND MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION FOR STALK STRENGTH AND EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. An insect pest of maize that increases stalk lodging by stalk tunneling is the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner). Rind penetrometer resistance ...

250

Microbial Diversity in the Midguts of Field and Lab-Reared Populations of the European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInsects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB) is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of

Eugeni Belda; Laia Pedrola; Juli Peretó; Juan F. Martínez-Blanch; Arnau Montagud; Emilio Navarro; Javier Urchueguía; Daniel Ramón; Andrés Moya; Manuel Porcar; Purification Lopez-Garcia

2011-01-01

251

A novel approach to biological control with entomopathogenic nematodes: Prophylactic control of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of stone fruits in North America. In this study, we compared the virulence of four entomopathogenic nematode species in the laboratory. The highest virulence was observed in Steinernema carpocapsae followed by the two heterorhabditids spec...

252

The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

253

Interactive Influence of Leaf Age, Light Intensity, and Girdling on Green Ash Foliar Chemistry and Emerald Ash Borer Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance\\u000a to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected

Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland

2009-01-01

254

Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in Texas; it can attack a number of grassy crop and noncrop host plants, and has spread into Louisiana. Through small plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the...

255

Identification and antennal electrophysiology of ash bark volatiles for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biologically active bark volatiles from ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) might be used as tools in monitoring the presence of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. Two compounds have been identified from the volatile emissions from white ash bark. These two compounds were readily sen...

256

Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

257

From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

258

Karnyothrips flavipes, a previously unreported predatory thrips of the coffee berry borer: DNA-based gut content analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new predator of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was found in the coffee growing area of Kisii in Western Kenya. Field observations, laboratory trials and gut content analysis using molecular tools have confirmed the role of the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Phlaeothrip...

259

Combination treatments with diatomaceous earth and methoprene to control the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in stored rough rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major insect pest of stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust that can be used to control stored-grain beetles, however, R. dominica is more tolerant to DE compared to other beetle species. Mortality of ad...

260

PHENOTYPIC VS MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION FOR STALK STRENGTH AND SECOND GENERATION EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays L.) stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. Stalk lodging is often intensified by the stalk tunneling action of the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)). Rind penetrome...

261

Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot and Symptomless Infection in Kernels of Maize Genetically Engineered for European Corn Borer Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Munkvold, G. P., Hellmich, R. L., and Showers, W. B. 1997. Reduced Fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize geneti- cally engineered for European corn borer resistance. Phytopathology 87: 1071-1077. Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp- tomless Fusarium infection

G. P. Munkvold; R. L. Hellmich; W. B. Showers

1997-01-01

262

Genetic Mapping and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

al., 1997). Some of these difficulties could be addressed and resolved through genetic analysis facilitated by mo- The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is lecular genetic maps (Paterson et al., 1991). Information an important pest of temperate maize (Zea mays L.). Damage to the stalk could be minimized by breeding for resistant genotypes but from such analysis could

Andrea J. Cardinal; Michael Lee; Natalya Sharopova; Wendy L. Woodman-Clikeman; Mary J. Long

2001-01-01

263

Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the

Tol van R. W. H. M; Linden van der A; H. J. Swarts; J. H. Visser

2007-01-01

264

EXPLORATORY SURVEY FOR THE EMERALD ASH BORER, AGRILUS PLANIPENNIS (COLEOPTERA: BUPRESTIDAE), AND ITS NATURAL ENEMIES IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina then peeled off the bark in search of A. planipennis and associated natural enemies.

Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

265

DISPERSAL OF ADULT DIATRAEA GRANDIOSELLA (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CORN BORER RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT IN BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dispersal of the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, was examined by release and recapture of dye-marked adults and by capture of feral adults in and around 50 ha center pivot irrigated fields of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize. Pheromone and black light traps were used to capture...

266

Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

267

Maize stem borer colonization, establishment and crop damage levels in a maize-leucaena agroforestry system in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of resource concentration on the population of stem-borers of maize in the maize-leucaena agroforestry system was evaluated. The studies covered six cropping seasons from October 1992 to August 1995, and were conducted at Mtwapa and Amoyo in coastal and western Kenya, respectively. Treatments included monocropped and intercropped (maize, leucaena) plots, weeded and unweeded plots, mulched and unmulched plots,

Callistus K. P. O. Ogol; John R. Spence; Andrew Keddie

1999-01-01

268

Biorational versus conventional insecticides e Comparative field study for managing red spider mite and fruit borer on tomato  

E-print Network

and fruit borer on tomato Gadi V.P. Reddy a, * , Ross H. Miller b a Western Triangle Agricultural Research Available online Keywords: Pest management Tetranychus marianae Helicoverpa armigera Tomato a b s t r a c t Tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum L. (Solanaceae), is an important crop worldwide that is grown both

Miller, Ross H.

269

Taxonomy of Mexican landraces of maize, Zea mays, based on their resistance to European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance to the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), of thirty-seven indigenous landraces of Mexican maize was examined. The relationship of resistance and existing taxonomy of maize according to Wellhausen et al., (1952), was subjected to numerical analyses. Variables examined were: seedling DIM-BOA content, the extent of leaf feeding damage by early instar larvae both in the field and

L. M. Reid; J. T. Arnason; C. Nozzolillo; B. R. Baum

1990-01-01

270

Transcript analysis and comparative evaluation of shaker and slowmo gene homologues from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The movement and dispersal of larval Lepidoptera are factors that govern their survival and distribution within the natural landscape. Homologs of the Drosophila behavior-linked genes slowmo and shaker involved in larval locomotion were identified from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (L...

271

Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

272

Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

273

Plant responses to hidden herbivores: European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) attack on maize induces both defense and susceptibility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Herbivore-induced plant defenses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems or roots. Early attempts to characterize maize responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) larv...

274

Reduced susceptibility to tebufenozide in populations of the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana.  

PubMed

Susceptibility of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), to tebufenozide was measured using a feeding bioassay, and values obtained were compared with baselines generated before the use of this insecticide in Louisiana sugarcane, Saccharum spp. Results from our study suggest that susceptibility to tebufenozide is decreasing in field-collected sugarcane borers. Inflections in the log dosage-probit lines were detected for many of the field collections, indicating increased heterogeneity within these populations in response to tebufenozide. Where appropriate, probit transformation was used to estimate susceptibility, and significant differences (1.6 - 2.7-fold) were measured in LC50 values between some field-collected cohorts and the previously measured baseline. In addition, a discriminating concentration (0.5 ppm) was used to estimate resistance frequencies in cohorts for which probit transformation was not appropriate. Results from these tests suggest that frequencies of resistance were high (49% in one cohort) in populations from some locations. Lighter weight pupae of the survivors from one of the more resistant cohorts suggests that tebufenozide resistance mechanisms may have a biological cost in terms of ecological fitness at early stages of resistance development. As a result of continued resistance monitoring, alternation of management chemistry is expected to help preserve this valuable sugarcane integrated pest management tactic. PMID:16022328

Reay-Jones, F P F; Akbar, W; McAllister, C D; Reagan, T E; Ottea, J A

2005-06-01

275

The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China  

PubMed Central

The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

2010-01-01

276

Identification and management of bed bug infestations in austere environments.  

PubMed

Military forces have missions that send them all over the globe. With the reemergence of bed bugs worldwide, the possibility of Servicemembers encountering them has increased. Special Operations Forces are often sent to locations that may not have integrated pest management support. Knowing how to identify and manage a bed bug infestation, with and without proper equipment and supplies, may become necessary in the very near future. It is also important that Servicemembers are aware of how bed bugs travel, to prevent their dispersal back to the United States and into their barracks and homes. PMID:24227555

Amodt, Zachary T

2013-01-01

277

Integrated Management of Leafy Spurge-Infested Rangeland  

Microsoft Academic Search

LeafyspurgeisaninvasiveEurasianweedonpasturesandrangelandinNorthAmericawhereitreducesgrassforageproduction.Our objective was to determine the effects of multispecies grazing combined with Aphthona flea beetles on leafy spurge-infested rangeland.OntwowesternNorthDakotasitesdividedintofour25-to79-hapastures,twograzingdurationtreatmentswereapplied: season-longwith7to10cowcalfpairsand20to25sheepfromlateMaythroughmid-September,androtationwith18to21cowcalf pairsand45to50sheepfor 3weekstwiceper year.Grazingtreatmentsstartedin1998andcontinuedthrough2002.Aphthonaspp. were released beginning in 1991 and were widespread in both pastures by 1998. Four grazing exclosures were randomly located in each pasture inthe springof1998. Coverofleafyspurge, grass,and forbs,aswell asdensity ofvegetativeandfloweringleafyspurge stems were measured in July 1998 through 2002.

James S. Jacobs; Roger L. Sheley; John J. Borkowski

2006-01-01

278

Human botfly infestation: the tip of the iceberg.  

PubMed

A retired man in his 60s was referred to the on call orthopaedic team by his general practitioner following several attempts to extricate a human botfly larva from his forearm. While on holiday in Belize with his daughter 8?weeks previously they both were bitten by some insects. She developed an infestation which was treated locally. Once back in the UK, he subsequently reported of localised itching and discomfort. A botfly larva was successfully removed in the emergency department following local anaesthetic infiltration. PMID:25527681

Nduka, Jude Chiedu; Mcnair, Rory

2014-01-01

279

Determination of internal insect infestation of oats: collaborative study.  

PubMed

An improved method has been developed for determining internal insect infestation of oat kennels. The method involves alcohol defatting and acid hydrolysis of the cracked oats, wet sieving to remove the acid, transfer to a 2 L Wildman trap flask, deaeration by boiling, and treatment with Tween 80-Na4EDTA. Insects are extracted with light mineral oil. Reports from 6 collaborators showed that recoveries averaged 88.98% for adult insect heads and 97.22% for larvae. The method has been adopted official first action. PMID:4030642

Trauba, R L

1985-01-01

280

DISTRIBUTION OF AND ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE LARGER GRAIN BORER PROSTEPHANUS TRUNCATUS (HORN) (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) AND THE MAIZE WEEVIL SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTSCHULSKY (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) IN MAIZE STORES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interspecific interactions between the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera Curculionidae) were studied during two storage seasons in maize stores, in Bénin. Maize ears, randomly sampled from far...

281

Laboratory studies of biology and life history of Balcha indica (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), an ectoparasitoid attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Classical biological control efforts against emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) in North America primarily have focused on introduction and releases of exotic parasitoid species collected from northern parts of China. Recently, field surveys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio and ...

282

Tree-derived stimuli affecting host-selection response of larva and adult peach twig borers, Anarsia Lineatella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  

E-print Network

??Volatiles from ripening peach fruit reportedly mediate host-finding by adult peach twig borers, Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, moths were repelled by in-situ ripe peach… (more)

Sidney, Mark Christopher

2005-01-01

283

Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United St...

284

Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total Pigment to Chlorophyll Index (NPCI) could be used to distinguish greenbug infestation and infestation caused by Russian wheat aphid. Finally, stress was detected in a shorter time interval when wheat plants were infested with greenbugs at two-leaf stage than wheat plants infested at tillering stage. This study demonstrated the utility of adopting remote sensing techniques for detecting greenbug infestation on wheat. Further field-based studies are suggested to apply the technology that has great potential for integrated pest management.

Yang, Zhiming

285

Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura  

PubMed Central

Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

2014-01-01

286

Mapping of QTL for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer attack using the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stem borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the\\u000a source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population\\u000a is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few

Bernardo Ordas; Rosa A. Malvar; Rogelio Santiago; German Sandoya; Maria C. Romay; Ana Butron

2009-01-01

287

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis cryIA(c) gene in transgenic peanut plants and its efficacy against lesser cornstalk borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) pods and seeds by aflatoxin-forming species of Aspergillus is linked to injury by the lesser cornstalk borer and frequently causes a severe reduction in crop quality. The lesser cornstalk borer is susceptible to the lepidopteran-active Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein. We have introduced a codon-modified Bacillus thuringiensis cryIA(c) gene into peanut using microprojectile

Chong Singsit; Michael J. Adang; Robert E. Lynch; William F. Anderson; Aiming Wang; Guy Cardineau; Peggy Ozias-Akins

1997-01-01

288

Soybean Cyst Nematode-Resistant and Suseptible Culticar Yield in Infested Soil in North Central USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) (SCN) is a widely-distributed, economically important pest in the soybean production regions of the United States. To assess the impact of planting SCN-resistant and -susceptible soybean cultivars in SCN-infested or -non-infested fields on soy...

289

Effects of Intensive Forest Management Practices on Insect Infestation Levels and Loblolly Pine Growth  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the relationship between intensive management practices and insect infestation, maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine over four years using different levels of cultural treatments. Results indicate tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management can improve initial tree growth.

Nowak, J.T.; Berisford, C.W.

2000-04-01

290

76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2010-0075] Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in...the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary...prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United...

2011-09-29

291

78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0075] Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in...SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin...the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

2013-04-26

292

78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0075] Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in...the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary...prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United...

2013-10-24

293

Volatiles from Psylla -Infested Pear Trees and Their Possible Involvement in Attraction of Anthocorid Predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work showed that anthocorid predators aggregate around gauze cages containing Psylla-infested trees in a pear orchard. Because anthocorids responded to odor from Psylla-infested leaves in a laboratory test, it was hypothesized that these aggregative responses in the field were triggered by olfaction of compounds associated with Psylla injury. We present chemical analyses of volatiles from damaged and undamaged plants

Petru Scutareanu; Bas Drukker; Jan Bruin; Maarten A. Posthumus; Maurice W. Sabelis

1997-01-01

294

9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges...for animal feed or bedding; therefore, such hay or straw, grass, or similar materials shall not be imported unless such...

2014-01-01

295

How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost heaps  

E-print Network

How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost the deposition of pest-infested litter on private compost heaps was dissuaded because of the risk of leafminer emergence in the following spring. Thus, the aim of this study was to test safe ways to compost pest

Richner, Heinz

296

Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...

297

Green spruce aphid infestations cause larger growth reductions to Sitka spruce under shade  

E-print Network

Green spruce aphid infestations cause larger growth reductions to Sitka spruce under shade S Oren Summary Light availability and infestation by the green spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum) are key factors affecting the growth of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) seedlings under a mature tree canopy

Mencuccini, Maurizio

298

Survival of mite infested (Varroa destructor )h oney bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in a Nordic climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isolated honey bee population (N = 150) was established on the southern tip of Gotland, an island in the Baltic sea. After infestation with 36 to 89 Varroa destructor mites per colony, they were unmanaged and allowed to swarm. For over six years colonies were monitored for swarming, winter losses, infestation rate in the fall, and bee population size

Ingemar F; Peter R

299

Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

300

Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by tephritid fruit flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

301

Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

302

9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for...

2011-01-01

303

9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

2010-01-01

304

9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

2011-01-01

305

9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for...

2010-01-01

306

[A metacercarial disease in the dogfish species Umbra limi (Teleostei) and a trematode infestation in a Physa sp. (Mollusca)].  

PubMed

A metacercarial infestation is reported in Canadian Umbra limi and a mass infestation by trematodes in Physa sp. from the same locality. Trials made by using parasitised snails showed that both parasites are not of the same species. PMID:6495318

Foersch, W; Reichenbach-Klinke, H H; Schaller, D; Schmidt, K

1984-01-01

307

9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...

2012-01-01

308

9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...

2014-01-01

309

9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...

2011-01-01

310

9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...

2013-01-01

311

9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...

2010-01-01

312

Chagas Disease: Assessing the Existence of a Threshold for Bug Infestation Rate  

PubMed Central

To examine the existence of a possible threshold for the domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata, below which transmission becomes unlikely, a census was conducted in 59 Chagas disease endemic communities of El Salvador and Honduras. Entomological and serological tests were conducted targeting 4,083 households and 6,324 children between 6 months and 15 years of age. The overall domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata and seroprevalence among children were 12.9% and 0.49%, respectively. Communities with a domestic infestation rate at 8% or less consistently showed a seroprevalence of 0%. In communities with a domestic infestation rate above 8%, there was a wide range in seroprevalence. A domestic infestation rate of 8% could serve as the possible threshold below which transmission would become unlikely. The implementation of an 8% threshold for determining needs for universal insecticide spraying would lead to a 21% reduction in spraying-related costs. PMID:22665603

Aiga, Hirotsugu; Sasagawa, Emi; Hashimoto, Ken; Nakamura, Jiro; Zúniga, Concepción; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Hernández, Hector Manuel Ramos; Nakagawa, Jun; Tabaru, Yuichiro

2012-01-01

313

Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown. Case presentation Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Conclusion Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA.

Ponson, Laura; Andersson, Frédéric; El-Hage, Wissam

2015-01-01

314

Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae).  

PubMed

To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (?(2)=60.6, P<0.001). Specifically, the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R(2)=0.57, moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1, severe infestation OR=10.3). It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence. PMID:22135149

Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao

2011-12-01

315

Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)*  

PubMed Central

To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13–22 years in Xi’an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16–18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13–15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (? 2=60.6, P<0.001). Specifically, the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R 2=0.57, moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1, severe infestation OR=10.3). It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence. PMID:22135149

Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao

2011-01-01

316

Evaluation of infesting field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) with Aceria malherbae Nuzzaci (Acari: Eriophyidae) under glasshouse conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted under glasshouse conditions to determine the most effective method of infesting Convolvulus arvensis L. with the mite Aceria malherbae (Acari: Eriophyidae). Seven treatments were included with nine replications: 50, 150 and 200 individuals manually transferred; stems infested with 3, 5 and 7 galls and a non-treated control. A number of infested stems and galls per plant

Silvia Rodríguez-Navarro; Antonio Flores-Macías; Gustavo Torres-Martínez

2008-01-01

317

Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, São Paulo Municipality, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on

Eduardo de Masi; Pedro José Vilaça; Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini

2009-01-01

318

UPDATE ON RESEARCH INTO THE USE OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST THE SUGARCANE BORER Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

E-print Network

The use of insecticides against the borer Eldana saccharina Walker is one of four research programmes against this pest. This programme comprises projects examining field insecticide trials, seedcane protection trials, insecticide persistence studies and the examination of droplet distribution and penetration in the crop. In field trials, eldana damage was too low to show clear treatment effects. However, results from an aerial application trial, did show treatment differences and multiple applications were more effective than a single application. Trials investigating the dipping of seedcane in insecticide solutions, showed that the synthetic pyrethroids were the most effective insecticides tested. Studies investigating the persistence of insecticides in sugarcane show that mortality of neonate larvae exposed to synthetic pyrethroids remained high (70%) after the treatments were exposed to sunlight for up to eight weeks. The study investigating the distribution and penetration of droplets showed that these could penetrate more than 200cm horizontally in mature cane.

G. W. Leslie

319

Purification of elastase-like chymotrypsin from cardamom shoot and Capsule borer [corrected].  

PubMed

An elastase-like chymotrypsin was purified by aprotinin-agarose affinity chromatography from the midgut extract of cardamom shoot and capsule borer, Conogethes punctiferalis. The purified enzyme had a Vmax of 687.6 +/- 22.1 nmole pNA released/min/mg protein, Km of 0.168 +/- 0.012 mM with SAAPLpNA as substrate and gave a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 72.1 kDa. Casein zymogram revealed one clear zone of proteolytic activity, which corresponded to the band obtained with SDS-PAGE indicating that this could be a single-polypeptide enzyme. PMID:18072546

Josephrajkumar, A; Chakrabarty, R; Thomas, G

2007-11-01

320

Pyramiding transgenes for multiple resistance in rice against bacterial blight, yellow stem borer and sheath blight.  

PubMed

Here we describe the development of transgene-pyramided stable elite rice lines resistant to disease and insect pests by conventional crossing of two transgenic parental lines transformed independently with different genes. The Xa21 gene (resistance to bacterial blight), the Bt fusion gene (for insect resistance) and the chitinase gene (for tolerance of sheath blight) were combined in a single rice line by reciprocal crossing of two transgenic homozygous IR72 lines. F4 plant lines carrying all the genes of interest stably were identified using molecular methods. The identified lines, when exposed to infection caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, showed resistance to bacterial blight. Neonate larval mortality rates of yellow stem borer ( Scirpophaga incertulas) in an insect bioassay of the same identified lines were 100%. The identified line pyramided with different genes to protect against yield loss showed high tolerance of sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:12582865

Datta, K; Baisakh, N; Thet, K Maung; Tu, J; Datta, S K

2002-12-01

321

Mitochondria in the midgut epithelial cells of sugarcane borer parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron, 1891).  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been controlled by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); however, very little is known about the effect of the parasitism in the host organs, including the midgut. This work aims to verify mitochondrial alteration in the different midgut epithelial cells of D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes. Midgut fragments (anterior and posterior region) of both non-parasitized and parasitized larvae were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The mitochondria of midgut epithelial cell in the parasitized larvae exhibit morphological alteration, represented by matrix rarefaction and vacuolisation. These mitochondrial alterations are more pronounced in the anterior midgut region during the parasitism process, mainly in the columnar cell. PMID:20231974

Pinheiro, D O; Silva, M D; Gregório, E A

2010-02-01

322

Mustard aphid infestation in India: development of forewarning models.  

PubMed

Aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) infestation on mustard (Brassica juncea L.) account for considerable yield losses in India. Experimental data from six north Indian locations were used to study the role of weather on the incidence and development of mustard aphid. Temperature was found to regulate the aphid appearance and population build-up. In warm humid climate, time to attain peak population was relatively shorter than in cool climates. Aphids appeared mostly when the accumulated thermal time ranged between 810-847 degrees cd. Functional relations proposed in the present investigation between aphid incidence and peak population, using previous weeks weather and pest data for majority of the locations, could be used for taking any prophylactic/control measures. PMID:25004753

Rao, B Bapuji; Rao, V U M; Nair, Linitha; Prasad, Y G; Ramaraj, A P; Chattopadhyay, C

2014-07-01

323

Response of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from Vitaceae species and rootstocks.  

PubMed

Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), larvae moving freely within circular petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to dry filter paper discs treated with ethanol- or hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts and a nonhost. Larvae responded most strongly to discs treated with ethanol extracts, suggesting the presence of behaviorally active, polar compounds associated with roots. In single extract bioassays comparing extract versus solvent treated discs, larvae responded positively to ethanol extracts from all Vitis species and rootstocks and Virginia creeper [Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.], but not to apple (Malus domestica Borkh). Paired extract bioassays, in which an extract from the commercially important 3309 rootstock was used as the standard and presented simultaneously with extracts from other root sources, revealed examples of equal, significantly weaker and significantly stronger responses to the 3309 extract. Extracts of the 420 A and V. riparia 'Gloire' rootstocks appeared to possess qualities that elicited a consistently greater response than to 3309 extract in these pair-wise comparisons. The active compounds were eluted in ethanol during a 30-min extraction; larvae responded equally to 30- and 60-min 3309 root extracts in paired extract bioassays. Larvae responded equally to extracts of 3309 roots from three spatially separate vineyards in northern Virginia. These results are discussed in relation to the subterranean, plant-insect interactions of grape root borer neonates with the numerous native and non-native Vitis species that may serve as hosts in the eastern United States. PMID:22251689

Bergh, J C; Zhang, A; Meyer, J R; Kim, D

2011-08-01

324

Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin binding to brush border membrane vesicles of rice stem borers.  

PubMed

The receptor binding step in the molecular mode of action of five delta-endotoxins (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, Cry2A, and Cry9C) from Bacillus thuringiensis was examined to find toxins with different receptor sites in the midgut of the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Homologous competition assays were used to estimate binding affinities (K(com)) of (125)I-labelled toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The SSB BBMV affinities in decreasing order was: Cry1Ab = Cry1Ac > Cry9C > Cry2A > Cry1C. In YSB, the order of decreasing affinities was: Cry1Ac > Cry1Ab > Cry9C = Cry2A > Cry1C. The number of binding sites (B(max)) estimated by homologous competition binding among the Cry toxins did not affect toxin binding affinity (K(com)) to both insect midgut BBMVs. Results of the heterologous competition binding assays suggest that Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac compete for the same binding sites in SSB and YSB. Other toxins bind with weak (Cry1C, Cry2A) or no affinity (Cry9C) to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac binding sites in both species. Cry2A had the lowest toxicity to 10-day-old SSB and Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were the most toxic. Taken together, the results of this study show that Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac could be combined with either Cry1C, Cry2A, or Cry9C for more durable resistance in transgenic rice. Cry1Ab should not be used together with Cry1Ac because a mutation in one receptor site could diminish binding of both toxins. PMID:15027071

Alcantara, Edwin P; Aguda, Remedios M; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H; Cohen, Michael B

2004-04-01

325

Amblyomma cajennense infestation on horses in two microregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with infestation by Amblyomma cajennense on horses in two microregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Horses on 62 farms in the municipalities of the Itaguaí and Serrana microregions were evaluated between January and May 2009. The animals were examined to determine the presence of ticks and infestation level. The animals' rearing and management were assessed on each farm property using an epidemiological questionnaire. Out of the 635 horses evaluated, 41.6% were infested with A. cajennense. It was observed that farms in low-altitude regions (OR=3.69; CI: 2.3-5.8), with unsatisfactory zootechnical and sanitary management (OR=5.92; CI: 3.8-9.2) and an extensive rearing system (OR=4.25; CI: 2.1-8.5) were factors associated with tick infestation (p < 0.05) and also with cases of high infestation on horses. Use of chemical acaricides on horses was also associated with infestation (p < 0.05); the owners described different therapeutic approaches with different treatment intervals. From the present study, low altitudes, unsatisfactory management, extensive rearing and inappropriate use of acaricide products were factors associated with occurrences of A. cajennense at different infestation levels on horses in these municipalities. PMID:23778827

Pires, Marcus Sandes; Santos, Tiago Marques dos; Santos, Huarrisson Azevedo; Vilela, Joice Aparecida Rezende; Peixoto, Maristela Peckle; Roier, Erica Cristina Rocha; Silva, Claudia Bezerra da; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Massard, Carlos Luiz

2013-01-01

326

Bark-beetle infestation affects water quality in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the previous decade, millions of acres in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado have been infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) leading to large-scale tree mortality. These vegetation changes can impact hydrological and biogeochemical processes, possibly altering the leaching of natural organic matter to surrounding waters and increasing the potential for harmful disinfection byproducts (DBP) during water treatments. To investigate these adverse outcomes, we have collected water quality data sets from local water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado that have either been infested with MPB or remain a control. Results demonstrate significantly more total organic carbon (TOC) and DBPs in water treatment facilities receiving their source water from infested watersheds as compared to the control sites. Temporal DBP concentrations in MPB-watersheds also have increased significantly in conjunction with the bark-beetle infestation. Interestingly, only modest increases in TOC concentrations were observed in infested watersheds despite more pronounced increases in DBP concentrations. Total trihalomethanes, a heavily regulated DBP, was found to approach the regulatory limit in two out of four reporting quarters at facilities receiving their water from infested forests. These findings indicate that bark-beetle infestation alters TOC composition and loading in impacted watersheds and that this large-scale phenomenon has implications on the municipal water supply in the region.

Mikkelson, K.; Dickenson, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.

2012-12-01

327

Oviposition behavior of the wheat stem sawfly when encountering plants infested with cryptic conspecifics.  

PubMed

Insect herbivores typically oviposit on the most suitable hosts, but choices can be modulated by detection of potential competition among conspecifics, especially when eggs are deposited cryptically. Larvae of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, developing within an already infested stem, experience elevated risk when only one will survive because of cannibalism. To increase our understanding of host selection when the choices made by females can lead to severe intraspecific competition, females were presented with either uninfested wheat plants or with plants previously exposed to other females in laboratory choice tests. The oviposition behavior of this insect was described by recording the behavioral sequences that lead to and follow the insertion of the ovipositor in both previously infested and uninfested stems. No significant differences were found in frequencies of specific behaviors or behavioral transitions associated with oviposition. In choice tests, there was no difference in the numbers of eggs laid in infested and uninfested plants. Taller plants received more eggs, irrespective of infestation. Females neither preferred nor avoided previously infested hosts. Other characteristics of the host, such as stem height, may be more important in determining suitability for oviposition. These findings support the use of management tactics relying on the manipulation of oviposition behavior, such as trap cropping. Given that there is no evidence for response to previously infested hosts, the infested plants in a trap crop would remain as suitable as they were when uninfested, which could also lead to an increase in mortality caused by intraspecific competition. PMID:20021767

Buteler, Micaela; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

2009-12-01

328

Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance  

PubMed Central

The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h2?=?0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level (?=??0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to prevent rapid selection of high levels of resistance and the potential for its spread to new areas. PMID:25122089

Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

2014-01-01

329

Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.  

PubMed

Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions. PMID:19568811

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-07-01

330

Electrophysiological Response and Attraction of Emerald Ash Borer to Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs) Emitted by Host Foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) function as host attractants, pheromone synergists, or sexual kairomones for a number of coleopteran\\u000a folivores. Hence, we focused on host GLVs to determine if they were attractive to adults of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feeds on ash (Fraxinus) foliage. Eight GLVs were identified by chromatography-electroantennogram (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry in foliar

Peter de Groot; Gary G. Grant; Therese M. Poland; Roger Scharbach; Linda Buchan; Reginald W. Nott; Linda Macdonald; Doug Pitt

2008-01-01

331

Genetic transformation and pyramiding of aprotinin-expressing sugarcane with cry1Ab for shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus) resistance.  

PubMed

We evaluated the insecticidal toxicity of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins against neonate larvae of sugarcane shoot borer Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in vitro on diet surface. With the lowest LC(50) value, Cry1Ab emerged as the most effective among the three toxins. Sugarcane cultivars Co 86032 and CoJ 64 were transformed with cry1Ab gene driven by maize ubiquitin promoter through particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems. Gene pyramiding was also attempted by retransforming sugarcane plants carrying bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (aprotinin) gene, with cry1Ab. Southern analysis confirmed multiple integration of the transgene in case of particle bombardment and single site integration in Agrobacterium-mediated transformants. The expression of cry1Ab was demonstrated through Western analysis and the toxin was quantified using ELISA. The amount of Cry1Ab protein in different events varied from 0.007 to 1.73% of the total soluble leaf protein; the events transformed by Agrobacterium method showed significantly higher values. In in vivo bioassay with neonate larvae of shoot borer, transgenics produced considerably lower percentage of deadhearts despite suffering feeding damage by the borer compared with the untransformed control plants. Expressed Cry1Ab content was negatively related to deadheart damage. Aprotinin-expressing sugarcane pyramided with cry1Ab also showed reduction in damage. The potential of producing sugarcane transgenics with cry1Ab and aprotinin genes resistant to early shoot borer was discussed in the light of the results obtained. PMID:20179936

Arvinth, S; Arun, S; Selvakesavan, R K; Srikanth, J; Mukunthan, N; Ananda Kumar, P; Premachandran, M N; Subramonian, N

2010-04-01

332

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Chilo auricilius and comparison with three other rice stem borers.  

PubMed

The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths. PMID:25042162

Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou

2014-09-15

333

In vivo and in vitro metabolism of fipronil by larvae of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis.  

PubMed

In vivo and in vitro metabolism of [14C]fipronil was examined in a susceptible European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, Hübner) laboratory strain. [14C]Fipronil penetrated the larval integument slowly, with 71.5% of the applied radioactivity recovered from surface rinses 24 h after topical application. Despite this slow penetration, radioactivity was detected in both the excrement and internal organo-soluble fractions. Radioactivity in the internal aqueous fraction and tissue pellet accounted for less than 0.8% of total radioactivity. The in vivo studies suggest that fipronil oxidation to its sulfone metabolite is the major route of metabolic conversion. In vitro studies were performed using subcellular microsomal fractions isolated from European corn borer larval midguts. Cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activity (methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) was consistently observed in midgut preparations, and formation and detection of the sulfone metabolite in the same midgut preparations was also NADPH-dependent and inhibited by piperonyl butoxide. In vitro metabolism results indicate microsomal monooxygenases are responsible for the conversion of fipronil to its sulfone form in the European corn borer. PMID:12192904

Durham, Eric W; Siegfried, Blair D; Scharf, Michael E

2002-08-01

334

Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.  

PubMed

Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps. PMID:21735910

Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

2011-06-01

335

Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.  

PubMed

The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively. PMID:22299352

Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

2011-12-01

336

Severe Tick Infestation in a Hare and Potential Risk for Transmitting Pathogens to Humans  

PubMed Central

Severe tick infestation was found in a hare in a suburban area of Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China. We sampled ticks and identified them based on their morphologic characteristics. Three species, Ixodes sinensis, which is commonly found in China and can experimentally transmit Borrelia burgdorferi, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, and Haemaphysalis longicornis which can transmit Lyme disease were detected with an optical microscope and a stereomicroscope. Risk of spreading ticks from suburban to urban areas exists due to human transportation and travel between the infested and non-infested areas around Nanchang. PMID:22355211

Chen, Haiying; Liu, Xiaoqing; Guo, Xuejian; Fu, Renlong

2011-01-01

337

Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions  

PubMed Central

The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.

Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

2014-01-01

338

Olfactory response of predatory mites to vegetative and reproductive parts of coconut palm infested by Aceria guerreronis.  

PubMed

The phytophagous mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. A promising method of control for this pest is the use of predatory mites. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram are predatory mites found in association with A. guerreronis in the field. To understand how these predators respond to olfactory cues from A. guerreronis and its host plant, the foraging behavior of the predatory mites was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer and on T-shaped arenas. The predators were subjected to choose in an olfactometer: (1) isolated parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of infested coconut plant or clean air stream; (2) isolated parts of non-infested or infested coconut plant; and (3) two different plant parts previously shown to be attractive. Using T-shaped arenas the predators were offered all possible binary combinations of discs of coconut fruit epidermis infested with A. guerreronis, non-infested discs or coconut pollen. The results showed that both predators were preferred (the volatile cues from) the infested plant parts over clean air. When subjected to odours from different infested or non-infested plant parts, predators preferred the infested parts. Among the infested plant parts, the spikelets induced the greatest attraction to predators. On the arenas, both predators preferred discs of coconut fruits infested with A. guerreronis over every other alternative. The results show that both predators are able to locate A. guerreronis by olfactory stimuli. Foraging strategies and implications for biological control are discussed. PMID:21499777

Melo, José Wagner S; Lima, Debora B; Pallini, Angelo; Oliveira, José Eudes M; Gondim, Manoel G C

2011-10-01

339

Characterization and transcriptional analyses of cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases in Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major corn borer pest and a target of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in South America and the U.S. mid-southern region. With a major role in dietary protein digestion, midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. ...

340

University of Minnesota Extension is an equal opportunity educator and employer. For Americans with Disabilities Act accommodations, please call 800-876-8636. Updated February 2009. Emerald ash borer, a small green insect deadly to  

E-print Network

green insect deadly to ash trees, has made its way to Minnesota. This is not good news, but it with Disabilities Act accommodations, please call 800-876-8636. Updated February 2009. Emerald ash borer, a small. CHALLENGE Since 2002, emerald ash borer has killed tens of millions of ash trees in neighboring states

Aukema, Brian

341

Abiotic and Biotic Factors Associated with Tick Population Dynamics on a Mammalian Host: Ixodes hexagonus Infesting Otters, Lutra lutra  

PubMed Central

The Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, hosts several parasites with zoonotic potential. As this semiaquatic mammal has large ranges across terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, it has the capacity for wide dispersion of pathogens. Despite this, parasites of otters have received relatively little attention. Here, we examine their ectoparasite load and assess whether this is influenced by abiotic or biotic variables. Climatic phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affect weather conditions in northern Europe. Consequently parasite distributions, particularly species with life stages exposed to the external environment, can be affected. We assessed the extent to which inter-annual variations in large-scale weather patterns (specifically the NAO and Central England (CE) temperatures) and host characteristics influenced tick prevalence and intensity. Ectoparasites consisted of a single species, the nidiculous tick Ixodes hexagonus (prevalence ?=?24.3%; mean intensity ?=?7.2; range ?=?1–122; on n ?=?820 otter hosts). The prevalence, but not intensity of infestation, was associated with high CE temperatures, while both prevalence and intensity were associated with positive phases of the NAO. Such associations indicate that I. hexagonus are most abundant when weather conditions are warmer and wetter. Ticks were more prevalent on juvenile than sub-adult or adult otters, which probably reflects the length of time the hosts spend in the holt where these ticks quest. High tick number was associated with poor host condition, so either poor condition hosts are more susceptible to ticks, or tick infestations negatively impact on host condition. Otters are clearly an important and common host for I. hexagonus, which has implications for vector-borne diseases. This work is the first to consider the impacts of long-term weather patterns on I. hexagonus and uses wild-animal cadavers to illustrate the importance of abiotic and biotic pressures impacting parasitic populations. PMID:23071736

Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Cable, Joanne

2012-01-01

342

Remote detection of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations in southern New Hampshire and Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an invasive pest damaging Eastern and Carolina hemlock on the east coast of the United States. Maine and New Hampshire are currently the northernmost front of HWA spread. Developing methods to remotely detect infested stands is paramount in monitoring the spread of this pest. The effect of HWA on hemlock needle reflectance was evaluated using laboratory spectroscopy, pigment extractions and fluorescence measurements. Hemlock habitat suitability was modeled using MaxEnt software and thirteen environmental predictor variables; overall accuracy was 68.2%. Partition modeling of multi-year (1995-2013) Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery was used to develop classification rules that detect and predict HWA infested areas (R 2 = 0.782). Overall agreement with known HWA infestations was 86.7% in conifer forests, 44.3% in mixed forests and 31.6% in deciduous forests. Targeted field surveys of fourteen stands predicted to be infested resulted in eleven new HWA detections.

Williams, Justin P.

343

Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The toxicity of eight commercially-available botanical formulations were evaluated against 3rd instars of the nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. In vi...

344

7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...generally infested areas. 301.85-2a Section 301.85-2a Agriculture Regulations...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...divisions described below are designated as golden nematode regulated areas within...

2011-01-01

345

7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...generally infested areas. 301.85-2a Section 301.85-2a Agriculture Regulations...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...divisions described below are designated as golden nematode regulated areas within...

2013-01-01

346

7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...generally infested areas. 301.85-2a Section 301.85-2a Agriculture Regulations...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...divisions described below are designated as golden nematode regulated areas within...

2014-01-01

347

7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...generally infested areas. 301.85-2a Section 301.85-2a Agriculture Regulations...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...divisions described below are designated as golden nematode regulated areas within...

2012-01-01

348

Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.  

PubMed

The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. PMID:24681362

Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

2014-06-15

349

Reduction of contact sensitivity reactions to oxazolone in mite-infested mice.  

PubMed Central

Oxazolone-sensitized mite-infested (SWR-M) and mite-free (SWR-J) mice were challenged with oxazolone on the skin of the neck and shoulder. The migration of radioactively labeled cells to the site of contact sensitivity reaction to oxazolone was significantly less in SWR-M than in SWR-J mice. Serum obtained from SWR-M mice suppressed the extravasation of cells into the skin site of SWR-J mice challenged with oxazolone. The decrease in cellular influx in SWR-M mice occurred in areas of mite infestation (skin of neck and shoulder) as well as in areas not infested with mites (the ears). SWR-M mice also gave evidence of enhanced vascular permeability. A possible role for histamine in the inhibition of contact sensitivity in mite-infested mice is discussed. Images PMID:500208

Laltoo, H; Kind, L S

1979-01-01

350

Percutaneous heartworm removal from dogs with severe heart worm (Dirofilaria immitis) infestation  

PubMed Central

Canine heart worm disease is often life-threatening due to its various complications, including right side heart failure, caval syndrome and pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis. Several preventive medications and melarsomine have been developed and they are very effective to control heartworm infestation. However, in a case of severe infestation, melarsomine therapy often results in an unfavorable outcome because of the severe immune reaction caused by rapid killing of the adult worm. Surgical removal and an interventional method using flexible alligator forceps have been well described in the literature. Despite the usefulness of mechanical removal using flexible alligator forceps, the methodology still needs to be upgraded for increasing the applicability for treating dogs with severe infestation. We describe herein a newly developed percutaneous removal method for heartworms and this was successfully applied to 4 dogs with severe heartworm infestation. The follow-up studies also showed favorable outcomes with no complications. PMID:18487942

Lee, Seung-Gon; Moon, Hyeong-Sun

2008-01-01

351

Percutaneous heartworm removal from dogs with severe heart worm (Dirofilaria immitis) infestation.  

PubMed

Canine heart worm disease is often life-threatening due to its various complications, including right side heart failure, caval syndrome and pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis. Several preventive medications and melarsomine have been developed and they are very effective to control heartworm infestation. However, in a case of severe infestation, melarsomine therapy often results in an unfavorable outcome because of the severe immune reaction caused by rapid killing of the adult worm. Surgical removal and an interventional method using flexible alligator forceps have been well described in the literature. Despite the usefulness of mechanical removal using flexible alligator forceps, the methodology still needs to be upgraded for increasing the applicability for treating dogs with severe infestation. We describe herein a newly developed percutaneous removal method for heartworms and this was successfully applied to 4 dogs with severe heartworm infestation. The follow-up studies also showed favorable outcomes with no complications. PMID:18487942

Lee, Seung-Gon; Moon, Hyeong-Sun; Hyun, Changbaig

2008-06-01

352

Preventive efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil – (S)-methoprene – eprinomectin – praziquantel against ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation of cats through a natural infestation model  

PubMed Central

A study based on naturally infested cats was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single treatment with a topical formulation containing fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel, for the prevention of Otodectes cynotis infestation in cats. Six treated cats and six untreated cats were housed with three chronically Otodectes cynotis-infested cats, respectively. The cats of each group were kept together in a 20-m2 room for 1 month. Both clinical examination and ear mite counts were conducted on Day 28. All donor cats were confirmed to be chronically infested with Otodectes cynotis on Day ?1 and Day 28. From untreated control cats, 129 live mites were recovered on Day 28 and all cats were found to be infested. In the treated group, three cats were found to be infested, with a total of five live mites recovered, the difference between the two groups being significant (p = 0.003). One treatment corresponded to 96% preventive efficacy at Day 28 based on ear mite counts. With regard to cerumen, the clinical score increased significantly for untreated cats between Day ?1 and Day 28 (p = 0.00026) and not for treated cats (p = 0.30). The difference in cerumen abundance was significant between untreated and treated cats on Day 28 (p = 0.0035). Concerning the pruritic reflex in at least one ear, all cats were negative at inclusion. All six untreated cats became positive and showed a reflex on Day 28, whereas no treated cat showed ear pruritus (p = 0.00026). PMID:25148648

Beugnet, Frédéric; Bouhsira, Émilie; Halos, Lénaïg; Franc, Michel

2014-01-01

353

Parasitism of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella , infesting hawthorns in Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of larval parasitoids were reared fromRhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) infested fruit of hawthorn,Crataegus, collected from several locations in southwest Washington over a four year period. A braconid,Biosteres melleus (Gahan), parasitized larvae infesting fruits of a native hawthorn species,Crataegus douglasii Lindl. Another braconid,Opius downesi Gahan, emerged exclusively fromR. pomonella pupae reared from fruits of an introduced species of hawthorn,Crataegus monogyna

L. J. Gut; J. F. Brunner

1994-01-01

354

Detecting Late-Season Weed Infestations in Soybean (Glycine max) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted in 1999 at Stoneville, MS, to determine the potential of multispectral imagery for late-season discrimination of weed-infested and weed-free soybean. Plant canopy composition for soybean and weeds was estimated after soybean or weed canopy closure. Weed canopy estimates ranged from 30 to 36% for all weed-infested soybean plots, and weeds present were browntop millet, barnyardgrass, and

CLIFFORD H. KOGER; DAVID R. SHAW; CLARENCE E. WATSON; KRISHNA N. REDDY

2003-01-01

355

The antioxidant defence mechanisms of parasite and host after chronic Hymenolepis diminuta infestation of the rat.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine antioxidant defence mechanisms in the rat and Hymenolepis diminuta after long-term infestation. We determined levels of oxidative stress markers, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the rat small intestine and in particular parts of H. diminuta. Observed changes in antioxidant enzymes activity in H. diminuta and the rat intestine indicate the defence against parasitic infestation and probably allowed parasite to adapt and live in oxidative stress. PMID:23691585

Czeczot, H; Skrzycki, M; Majewska-Wierzbicka, M; Podsiad, M; Salamatin, R; Grytner-Ziecina, B

2013-01-01

356

Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.  

PubMed

Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans. PMID:21761223

Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

2011-12-01

357

An outbreak of bed bug infestation in an office building.  

PubMed

Since 2000, resurgence in bed bugs has occurred in the U.S. Reports of infestations of homes, hospitals, hotels, and offices have been described. On September 1, 2011, complaints of itching and bites among workers in an office were reported to the Tennessee Department of Health. A retrospective cohort study and environmental assessments were performed in response to the complaints. Canines certified to detect live bed bugs were used to inspect the office and arthropod samples were collected. Of 76 office workers, 61 (80%) were interviewed; 39 (64%) met the case definition. Pruritic maculopapular lesions were consistent with arthropod bites. One collected arthropod sample was identified as a bed bug by three entomologists. Exposures associated with symptoms included working in a cubicle in which a canine identified bed bugs (risk ratio [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.6), and self-reported seasonal allergies (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). Bed bugs represent a reemerging and challenging environmental problem with clinical, psychological, and financial impacts. PMID:24749221

Baumblatt, Jane A Gwira; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Stull-Lane, Annica; Jones, Timothy F

2014-04-01

358

Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Eggert, L.M.F.; Jodice, P.G.R.; O'Reilly, K. M.

2010-01-01

359

Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation.  

PubMed

Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. PMID:19716827

Eggert, Lisa M F; Jodice, Patrick G R; O'Reilly, Kathleen M

2010-03-01

360

Curative and preventive efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Ctenocephalides canis infestation in dogs.  

PubMed

The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ? 99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ? 94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks. PMID:24631503

Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

2014-04-01

361

Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.  

PubMed

From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food. PMID:25420687

Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

2015-02-01

362

Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis  

PubMed Central

Background The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97?3 blend of Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1?99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female's blend. A closely related species, the Asian corn borer (ACB), O. furnacalis, uses a 3?2 blend of Z12- and E12-tetradecenyl acetate, and is believed to have evolved from an ECB-like ancestor. To further knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of pheromone detection and its evolution among closely related species we identified and characterized sex pheromone receptors from ECB(Z). Methodology Homology-dependent (degenerate PCR primers designed to conserved amino acid motifs) and homology-independent (pyrophosphate sequencing of antennal cDNA) approaches were used to identify candidate sex pheromone transcripts. Expression in male and female antennae was assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. Two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology was used to functionally characterize candidate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Conclusion We characterized five sex pheromone receptors, OnOrs1 and 3–6. Their transcripts were 14–100 times more abundant in male compared to female antennae. OnOr6 was highly selective for Z11-tetradecenyl acetate (EC50?=?0.86±0.27 µM) and was at least three orders of magnitude less responsive to E11-tetradecenyl acetate. Surprisingly, OnOr1, 3 and 5 responded to all four pheromones tested (Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, and Z12- and E12-tetradecenyl acetate) and to Z9-tetradecenyl acetate, a behavioral antagonist. OnOr1 was selective for E12-tetradecenyl acetate based on an efficacy that was at least 5-fold greater compared to the other four components. This combination of specifically- and broadly-responsive pheromone receptors corresponds to published results of sensory neuron activity in vivo. Receptors broadly-responsive to a class of pheromone components may provide a mechanism for variation in the male moth response that enables population level shifts in pheromone blend use. PMID:20084285

Wanner, Kevin W.; Nichols, Andrew S.; Allen, Jean E.; Bunger, Peggy L.; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Linn, Charles E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Luetje, Charles W.

2010-01-01

363

Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418

Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

2014-08-01

364

Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).  

PubMed

The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a ?-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. PMID:25541004

Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2015-01-01

365

Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the North Saharan oases ecosystems.  

PubMed

The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10?d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40?min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1?h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females. PMID:25527574

Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

2014-01-01

366

Type and Distribution of Sensilla in the Antennae of the Red Clover Root Borer, Hylastinus obscurus  

PubMed Central

In order to determine the type, distribution, and structures of sensilla, the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were examined by light and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Four different types of sensilla were identified in the club, and one type of chaetica was found in the scape and funicle of both male and female individuals. Chaetica and basiconica were the most abundant sensilla types in the club. They were present in the three sensory bands described, totaling approximately 80% of sensilla in the antennal club of H. obscurus. Chaetica were predominantly mechanoreceptors, although gustatory function could not be excluded. Basiconica forms showed characteristics typical of olfactory sensilla. Trichoidea were not found in the proximal sensory band, and they exhibited abundant pores, suggesting olfactory function. Styloconica were the least abundant sensillum type, and their shape was similar to that reported as having hygro- and thermoreceptor functions. There was no difference in the relative abundance of antennal sensilla between males and females. Finally, the sensillar configuration and abundance of receptors in the H. obscurus antennae suggest that these sensilla have chemoreceptive and other functions. PMID:24787008

Palma, Rubén; Mutis, Ana; Isaacs, Rufus; Quiroz, Andrés

2013-01-01

367

Type and distribution of sensilla in the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus.  

PubMed

In order to determine the type, distribution, and structures of sensilla, the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were examined by light and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Four different types of sensilla were identified in the club, and one type of chaetica was found in the scape and funicle of both male and female individuals. Chaetica and basiconica were the most abundant sensilla types in the club. They were present in the three sensory bands described, totaling approximately 80% of sensilla in the antennal club of H. obscurus. Chaetica were predominantly mechanoreceptors, although gustatory function could not be excluded. Basiconica forms showed characteristics typical of olfactory sensilla. Trichoidea were not found in the proximal sensory band, and they exhibited abundant pores, suggesting olfactory function. Styloconica were the least abundant sensillum type, and their shape was similar to that reported as having hygro- and thermoreceptor functions. There was no difference in the relative abundance of antennal sensilla between males and females. Finally, the sensillar configuration and abundance of receptors in the H. obscurus antennae suggest that these sensilla have chemoreceptive and other functions. PMID:24787008

Palma, Rubén; Mutis, Ana; Isaacs, Rufus; Quiroz, Andrés

2013-01-01

368

Lesser Grain Borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, Select Rough Rice Kernels with Cracked Hulls for Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Tests were conducted to determine whether the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), selects rough rice (Oryza sativa L. (Poales: Poaceae)) kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction when these kernels are mixed with intact kernels. Differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) of the varieties Francis and Wells were mixed with intact kernels, and the number of adult progeny emerging from intact kernels and from kernels with cracked hulls was determined. The Wells variety had been previously classified as tolerant to R. dominica, while the Francis variety was classified as moderately susceptible. Few F 1 progeny were produced in Wells regardless of the percentage of kernels with cracked hulls, few of the kernels with cracked hulls had emergence holes, and little firass was produced from feeding damage. At 10 and 20% kernels with cracked hulls, the progeny production, number of emergence holes in kernels with cracked hulls, and the amount of firass was greater in Francis than in Wells. The proportion of progeny emerging from kernels with cracked hulls increased as the proportion of kernels with cracked hulls increased. The results indicate that R. dominica select kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction. PMID:22943499

Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Athanassiou, Christos G.; Arthur, Frank H.; Throne, James E.

2012-01-01

369

Salivary signals of European corn borer induce indirect defenses in tomato.  

PubMed

Plants can recognize the insect elicitors and activate its defense mechanisms. European Corn Borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) saliva, produced from the labial salivary glands and released through the spinneret, is responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Glucose oxidase (GOX) present in the ECB saliva induced direct defenses in tomato. By contrast, GOX activity in ECB saliva was insufficient to trigger defenses in maize, suggesting that host-specific salivary elicitors are responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Our current study further examined whether ECB saliva can trigger indirect defenses in tomato. Relative expression levels of TERPENE SYNTHASE5 (TPS5) and HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL), marker for indirect defenses in host plants, were monitored. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ECB saliva can induce the expression of TPS5 and HPL, suggesting that salivary signals can induce indirect defenses in addition to the direct defenses. Further experiments are required to identify different ECB elicitors that are responsible for inducing direct and indirect defenses in host plants. PMID:24310003

Louis, Joe; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

2013-11-01

370

Impact of Hurricane Rita storm surge on sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management in Louisiana.  

PubMed

Twelve thousand to 16,000 ha of Louisiana sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fields were flooded by saltwater from the Hurricane Rita storm surge in September 2005. A four treatment, 12-replication study comparing storm surge flooded and nonflooded plant and ratoon sugarcane fields was conducted during summer 2006 to assess sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), pest severity, pest control actions, and soil-associated arthropod abundance and diversity. Even with a significant 2.4-fold increase in the average number of insecticide applications used for D. saccharalis management in flooded fields, growers still incurred higher injury. A significant 2.8-fold reduction in the predaceous red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, was associated with the storm surge, whereas no reduction in abundance of other soil-associated arthropods was recorded. Arthropod diversity measured by the Shannon diversity index significantly increased by a factor of 1.3 in sugarcane fields flooded by the storm surge. Increase in D. saccharalis pest severity associated with the storm surge caused an estimated loss in revenue between $1.9 and $2.6 million to the Louisiana sugarcane industry for the 2006 production season. PMID:19610419

Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Akbar, W; Cormier, H J; Flanagan, J W; Blouin, D C

2009-06-01

371

Selection, egg viability, and fecundity of the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with tebufenozide.  

PubMed

Two separate attempts to select the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for resistance to tebufenozide were unsuccessful. Both selected colonies were lost after the fourth generation due to a lack of oviposition. Differences were not detected in fecundity or percent egg viability for 5-d-old third instars exposed to concentrations (EC5, EC15, and EC30) of tebufenozide for 7 d. Decreases (P < or = 0.01) in mean female pupal weights were detected in larvae exposed to EC15 and EC30 concentrations. An ovicidal impact using serial dilutions of tebufenozide (10, 100, and 200 ppm) also was detected. Percent viability was reduced from 98% for untreated eggs to 61% for eggs dipped in 10 ppm and below 6% for eggs dipped in > or = 100 ppm. Eggs treated with 200 ppm did not hatch. Though some embryonic development was observed on eggs treated with the high concentrations (100 and 200 ppm), sclerotization of head capsule was not apparent. The ovicidal property of tebufenozide may enhance its effectiveness in controlling populations of the D. saccharalis on an area-wide basis. Fecundity and egg viability were affected in later generations of selection; however, separate studies assessing individuals that were exposed to sublethal concentration (EC5, EC15, and EC30) of tebufenozide as third instars for 7 d in one generation did not detect differences. PMID:11777063

Rodriguez, L M; Ottea, J A; Reagan, T E

2001-12-01

372

Nutritional Performance of the Tomato Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on Different Tomato Cultivars  

PubMed Central

The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25204681

Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

373

Nutritional performance of the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on different tomato cultivars.  

PubMed

The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25204681

Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

374

Nutritional performance of the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on different tomato cultivars.  

PubMed

The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25373228

Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

375

Critical electrolyte concentration of silk gland chromatin of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis, induced using agrochemicals.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals. PMID:25299111

Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C

2014-01-01

376

The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

2013-10-01

377

Ultrasonic courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.

Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

2006-06-01

378

Toxicity and toxicokinetics of 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner)  

SciTech Connect

The maize-derived secondary chemical 6-methyoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) and a tritiated derivative were prepared synthetically for a detailed examination of their toxicity and toxicokinetics in the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. During feeding trials with MBOA incorporated into meridic diets, the mean time population and adult emergence was significantly lengthened at concentrations of 1.5 mg MBOA/g diet and above. Increased mortality occurred at concentrations at 1.5 mg/g and above. A decrease in the sex ratio (female/total) and fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.5 mg/g and above. The latter observations represent new biological effects related to MBOA. In tracer studies, both uptake and excretions of MBOA administered in diets to larvae increased linearly with concentration. Body burden values indicated that the ECB larvae were capable of excreting enough compound to maintain total tissue levels at approximately 50% of the dietary concentration. Total amount of label increased with larval stage, but decreased in adults due to a large amount of label eliminated in the pupal case. In topical application studies, elimination of the label in the frass was rapid, reaching 60% by 6 hr and 82% of applied dose by 24 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was small. The results show that MBOA is toxic to ECB, but the insect has efficient methods for minimizing these effects.

Campos, F.; Atkinson, J.; Arnason, J.T.; Philogene, B.J.R.; Morand, P.; Werstiuk, N.H.; Timmins, G.

1988-03-01

379

Salivary signals of European corn borer induce indirect defenses in tomato  

PubMed Central

Plants can recognize the insect elicitors and activate its defense mechanisms. European Corn Borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) saliva, produced from the labial salivary glands and released through the spinneret, is responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Glucose oxidase (GOX) present in the ECB saliva induced direct defenses in tomato. By contrast, GOX activity in ECB saliva was insufficient to trigger defenses in maize, suggesting that host-specific salivary elicitors are responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Our current study further examined whether ECB saliva can trigger indirect defenses in tomato. Relative expression levels of TERPENE SYNTHASE5 (TPS5) and HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL), marker for indirect defenses in host plants, were monitored. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ECB saliva can induce the expression of TPS5 and HPL, suggesting that salivary signals can induce indirect defenses in addition to the direct defenses. Further experiments are required to identify different ECB elicitors that are responsible for inducing direct and indirect defenses in host plants. PMID:24310003

Louis, Joe; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

2013-01-01

380

A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

2009-05-01

381

Behavioral evidence for a contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire.  

PubMed

The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined to determine if there are differences in these compounds between the sexes. We also assessed feral male EAB in the field for behavioral changes based on the application of a female-specific compound to dead, solvent-washed beetles. Males in the field spent significantly more time attempting copulation with dead, pinned female beetles coated with a three-beetle-equivalent dose of 3-methyltricosane than with solvent-washed beetles or those coated in 3-methyltricosane at lower concentrations. Males in the field spent the most time investigating pinned dead, unwashed female beetles. In the laboratory, sexually mature males were presented with one of several mixtures applied in hexane to filter paper disks or to the elytra of dead female beetles first washed in solvent. Male EAB also spent more time investigating dead beetles treated with solution applications that contained 3-methyltricosane than dead beetles and filter paper disks treated with male body wash or a straight-chain hydrocarbon not found on the cuticle of EAB. PMID:19153798

Lelito, Jonathan P; Böröczky, Katalin; Jones, Tappey H; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C; Tumlinson, James H; Baker, Thomas C

2009-01-01

382

Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.  

PubMed

Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close. PMID:24690169

Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

2014-06-01

383

Preference and performance of Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae): effect of infestation duration and density by Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae).  

PubMed

The effect of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) infestation duration and density on the host preference and performance of Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, an egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers, was determined. The results showed that the parasitoid preferred N. lugens eggs on the plants infested with 10 gravid N. lugens females for 1 d to those plants infested with 10 gravid females for 2 or 3 d. It was also found to prefer N. lugens eggs on plants infested with 10 or 20 adult females after 24 h of infestation to those plants infested with 5 or 80 females. The parasitoid's offsprings had lower survival rates, fecundities, female ratios, indexes of capacity for population increase, and longer developmental durations on plants when they were infested with high N. lugens density (80 adult females per plant). However, the performance of the parasitoid on plants infested with low N. lugens density (5 female adults per plant) was similar to those on plants with intermediate N. lugens density (10 or 20 adult females per plant). Low preference of the parasitoid for N. lugens eggs on plants with heavy or light infestation levels may be correlated with low host suitability and detectability, respectively. The result implies an important role of herbivore-induced rice volatiles in the host preference of the parasitoid A. nilaparvatae, by which the parasitoid perceives the host and its suitability. PMID:18559181

Xiang, Caiyu; Ren, Nan; Wang, Xia; Sumera, Afsheen; Cheng, Jiaan; Lou, Yonggen

2008-06-01

384

EAB is native to Asia. It is believed that EAB entered the U.S. in infested  

E-print Network

to occur. EAB attacks black, green and white ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Mountain ash, not a true ash://www.entomology.wisc.edu/emeraldashborer Ash leaves with EAB adult feeding damage Adult: Dark metallic green in color, ½ inch long and 1, is una ected. Emerald Ash Borer killing our trees Symptoms to watch for... An alien invader... Help

Balser, Teri C.

385

Influence of Household Rat Infestation on Leptospira Transmission in the Urban Slum Environment  

PubMed Central

Background The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13–11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06–7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28–6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21–6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71–0.84). Conclusions/Significance Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may therefore be an effective risk stratification strategy for targeting control measures in slum settings of high leptospirosis transmission. PMID:25474580

Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C.; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N.; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

2014-01-01

386

Effect of bark beetle infestation on secondary organic aerosol precursor emissions.  

PubMed

Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosystems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled i.) from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) trees and ii.) from sites with and without active mountain pine beetle infestation. The emissions from the trunk and the canopy were collected via sorbent traps. After collection, the sorbent traps were extracted with hexane, and the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Canister samples were also collected and analyzed by a multicolumn gas chromatographic system. The samples from bark beetle infested lodgepole pine trees suggest a 5- to 20-fold enhancement in total VOCs emissions. Furthermore, increases in the ?-phellandrene emissions correlated with bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions can be used to identify bark beetle infestation but, more importantly, can lead to increases in secondary organic aerosol from these forests as potent SOA precursors are produced. PMID:22545866

Amin, Hardik; Atkins, P Tyson; Russo, Rachel S; Brown, Aaron W; Sive, Barkley; Hallar, A Gannet; Huff Hartz, Kara E

2012-06-01

387

A meta-analysis of association between acne vulgaris and Demodex infestation.  

PubMed

Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34-3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18477, suggesting that at least 18477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered. PMID:22374611

Zhao, Ya-E; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Ma, Jun-Xian

2012-03-01

388

A meta-analysis of association between acne ulgaris and Demodex infestation*  

PubMed Central

Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42 130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34–3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18 477, suggesting that at least 18 477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered. PMID:22374611

Zhao, Ya-e; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-ping; Ma, Jun-xian

2012-01-01

389

Effects of intensive forest management practices on insect infestation levels and loblolly pine growth.  

PubMed

Intensive forest management practices have been shown to increase tree growth and shorten rotation time. However, they may also lead to an increased need for insect pest management because of higher infestation levels and lower action thresholds. To investigate the relationship between intensive management practices and insect infestation, maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., were conducted over 4 yr using a hierarchy of cultural treatments. The treatments were herbaceous weed control (H), H + irrigation (I), H + I + fertilizer (F), and H + I + F + pest control (P). These treatments were monitored for differences in growth and insect infestation levels related to the increasing management intensities. The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), was consistently found infesting study trees. In the third field season, the H + I + F + P treatment had significantly more southern pine coneworm, Dioryctria amatella (Hulst), attacks than the H and H + I treatments. There were significant differences in volume index (D2H) among all treatments after each of the four growing seasons. This study indicated that tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management can improve tree growth initially. Future measurements will determine if the growth gains from tip moth management are transitory or sustainable. PMID:10826182

Nowak, J T; Berisford, C W

2000-04-01

390

Genetic variation and inheritance of diapause induction in two distinct voltine populations of the European Corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European Corn Borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), displays a larval diapause in response to short photoperiods, and is adapted to a variety of local conditions throughout North America. Hence, the effective photoperiod inducing larval diapause will differ among geographic populations. This...

391

Efficacy of Steinernema carpocapsae for control of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes: Improved aboveground suppression with a novel gel application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes is a major pest of stone fruits (Prunus spp) in eastern North America. Virulence of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), to S. pictipes has been demonstrated in the laboratory. However, achieving field efficacy has been d...

392

Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory-rearing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective ...

393

ASOCIACIÓN ENTRE PUDRICIÓN TEXANA (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora) E INSECTOS BARRENADORES DEL NOGAL (Carya illinoensis)* ASSOCIATION BETWEEN COTTON ROOT ROT (Phymatotrichopsis omnivore) AND BORER INSECT OF PECAN TREE (Carya illinoensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euplatypus segnis (Chapuis) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) causes severe damage to pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees at Coahuila, Mexico. The present study was carried out during 1999-2001 in a 90 ha pecan orchard, divided in eight lots, during 1999-2001. The trees were counted and clasified in four categories: attacked by borer insects and with symptoms of cotton root rot (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora); only attacked

José Alfredo Samaniego-Gaxiola; Manuel Ramírez-Delgado; Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval; Urbano Nava-Camberos

394

Geographical susceptibility of Louisiana and Texas populations of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidopetera: Crambidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The susceptibility of 18 field populations of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) to two sources of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein was determined by laboratory bioassays. Fifteen of the 18 field populations were collected from seven locations across Louisiana and the other 3 popula...

395

Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid native to China, and has been introduced to the United States since 2007 for classical biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash morta...

396

The genetic structure of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, populations in China: Haplotype variance in Northern populations and potential impact on management of resistance to transgenic maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is a severe pest of cultivated maize that is endemic to the major production regions of China. Populations show phenotypic variation in obligatory or facultative diapause in response to selection within local environments, which affects the levels...

397

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER: MEASURING HISTORICAL FARMER PERCEPTIONS AND ADOPTION OF TRANSGENIC BT CORN AS A PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A three-year, multi-state survey of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn farmers was conducted to evaluate perceptions of Bt corn performance and its utility as a European corn borer management option. A questionnaire was sent to farmers who had grown Bt corn during the previous field season...

398

Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to female-produced macrocyclic lactone and to ash bark volatiles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive beetle species from Asia that has caused extensive mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since arriving in the U.S. in 2002. Especially hard hit are green ash (F. pennsylvanica), black ash (F. nigra), a...

399

Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

400

Modeling the impact of cross-pollination and low toxin expression in corn kernels on adaptation of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic insecticidal corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We used a mathematical model with processes reflecting mortality of larval feeding on cross-pollinated ears in the refuge or on ears of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn to analyze the risk of evolution of Cry-toxin resistance in European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Our results showed that Bt-pol...

401

Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature r...

402

Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

403

Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt  

EPA Science Inventory

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

404

Where to sample? Ecological implications of sampling strata in determining abundance and impact of natural enemies of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta are two of the three parasitoids of African origin that have been introduced to coffee producing areas of the Americas as biological control agents of the coffee berry borer (CBB; Hypothenemus hampei). Both bethylid parasitoids have become established in...

405

QTL mapping for European corn borer resistance ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.), agronomic and forage quality traits of testcross progenies in early-maturing European maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait

C. Papst; M. Bohn; H. F. Utz; A. E. Melchinger; D. Klein; J. Eder

2004-01-01

406

Comparative activity of agrochemical treatments on mycotoxin levels with regard to corn borers and Fusarium mycoflora in maize ( Zea mays L.) fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were carried out in nine areas located in France during 2004, 2005 and 2006 to study the control of Lepidoptera caterpillars by agrochemical treatments and their consequences on Fusarium spp. mycoflora and mycotoxin levels. Treatments involved either an insecticide or an insecticide–fungicide association. Two species of maize borers: Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner [Lepidoptera: Crambidae] and Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre [Lepidoptera:

Laurent Folcher; Marc Jarry; Alain Weissenberger; Florence Gérault; Nathalie Eychenne; Marc Delos; Catherine Regnault-Roger

2009-01-01

407

Potential Effects of Large-Scale Elimination of Oaks by Red Oak Borers on Breeding Neotropical Migrants in the Ozarks1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arkansas Ozarks are currently experiencing an outbreak of the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus), a native insect that has previously not been considered an important forest pest species. As many as 50 percent of the trees in the Ozarks, which has the highest density of oaks in the United States, may be dead by the year 2006. The Ozarks

Kimberly G. Smith; Frederick M. Stephen

408

Biology, life history and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazajac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the US. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus ...

409

The southern cornstalk borer (Diatraea crambidoides (Grote), Lepidoptera: Crambidae)a new pest of eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides (L.)L., Poaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The southern corn stalk borer [Diatraea crambidoides (Grote)] has become a serious pest to eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.]. Controlling this insect will be important to the future of this forage crop in the United States. An experiment was conducted to understand the life cycle of...

410

Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer.  

PubMed

Using a ternary sex pheromone blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate: (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate: (Z,E)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate], we tested the effect of dispenser type and trap design for capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in apple orchards in West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina. Wing-style sticky traps baited with polyethylene vial pheromone dispensers captured more male DWB over the first 2 months than traps baited with rubber septum pheromone dispensers. However, catches in vial-baited traps decreased considerably after the first 2 months, possibly due to the antagonistic effect of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy acetophenone that diffused from the polyethylene vials. By contrast, traps baited with rubber septum dispensers captured DWB males for at least 6 months; over the last four months of the flight season, catches in traps baited with a rubber septum were greater than those in traps baited with a vial dispenser. Therefore, the rubber septum dispenser is recommended for season-long monitoring of DWB. A release-rate study, using laboratory and field-aged dispensers, demonstrated that desorption of DWB sex pheromone from polyethylene vial or rubber septum dispensers followed first order kinetics, with half-lives of 1.6 and 10.7 months, respectively. Several trap designs, including wing-and delta-style sticky traps, and white and green "bucket-style" traps, baited with rubber septum dispensers were compared in commercial apple orchards for catch of DWB. Bucket traps caught more moths when moth populations were high, because the sticky surfaces of the 1C and delta traps likely became saturated. However, among the commercially available traps tested, no particular design gave consistently higher catches. Further work is needed to explore capture mechanisms and maintenance needs of different trap types. PMID:23413174

Zhang, Aijun; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F

2013-03-01

411

New Artificial Diet for Continuous Rearing of the Bean Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata  

PubMed Central

The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero (1993), called the “D-OO diet.” However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15–25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata. PMID:24785903

Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

2013-01-01

412

Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary trajectories of sexual signals and lead to their divergence, with speciation being the ultimate result. PMID:19257880

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

2009-01-01

413

Seasonal and geographical variation in diapause and cold hardiness of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis.  

PubMed

Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is a key corn pest in the Asian-Western Pacific countries. It overwinters as full-grown larvae in plant stalks or in a spun-silk covering located in the plant debris in the temperate regions of China. Supercooling point (SCP) and survival rate after low sub-zero temperature treatment were assessed for field-collected populations in the laboratory using a cool bath with a 1°C/min cooling rate until -40°C. Mean SCPs were varied among geographical populations, with a significant decline from -22.7°C of Haikou, the multivoltine tropical population in the south, to -28.5°C of Gongzhuling, the univoltine temperate population in the northeast of China. In addition, there was more than 1°C difference in SCP between Gongzhuling univoltine and bivoltine populations that were from the same geographic origin. Mean SCPs of the Guangzhou population fluctuated over the year, with significantly lower SCPs in winter than in other seasons, which correlated with a significantly higher proportion of diapausing larvae in winter than in other seasons. Over 41% of overwintering larvae from the northeast population could withstand to be supercooled for a few minutes to the low sub-zero temperature of -40°C, but only 6.7% of their southern counterparts did so. The findings from this study suggest that O. furnacalis mostly takes advantage of freeze avoidance as diapausing larvae for overwintering in the southern region, whereas it exhibits freeze tolerance in diapause in the northeastern region. PMID:24802514

Xie, Hai-Cui; Li, Dun-Song; Zhang, Hong-Gang; Mason, Charles E; Wang, Zhen-Ying; Lu, Xin; Cai, Wan-Zhi; He, Kang-Lai

2014-05-01

414

European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Induced Responses Enhance Susceptibility in Maize  

PubMed Central

Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems. PMID:24023868

Dafoe, Nicole J.; Thomas, James D.; Shirk, Paul D.; Legaspi, Michelle E.; Vaughan, Martha M.; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E.; Schmelz, Eric A.

2013-01-01

415

Distinguishing defensive characteristics in the phloem of ash species resistant and susceptible to emerald ash borer.  

PubMed

We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high soluble protein concentration, low trypsin inhibitor activities, and intermediate levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentration. The EAB-susceptible white ash (F. americana, cv. Autumn Purple) was characterized by a slow wound browning rate and low levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentrations. An EAB-susceptible green ash cultivar (F. pennsylvanica, cv. Patmore) and a wild accession were similar to each other on the basis of several chemical defense traits, and were characterized by high activities of peroxidase and trypsin inhibitor, a high total soluble phenolic concentration, and an intermediate rate of wound browning. Lignin concentration and polyphenol oxidase activities did not differentiate resistant and susceptible species. Of 33 phenolic compounds separated by HPLC and meeting a minimum criterion for analysis, nine were unique to Manchurian ash, five were shared among all species, and four were found in North American ashes and not in the Manchurian ash. Principal components analysis revealed clear separations between Manchurian, white, and green ashes on the basis of all phenolics, as well as clear separations on the basis of quantities of phenolics that all species shared. Variation in some of these constitutive chemical defense traits may contribute to variation in resistance to EAB in these species. PMID:21537902

Cipollini, Don; Wang, Qin; Whitehill, Justin G A; Powell, Jeff R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A

2011-05-01

416

Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) pheromone reception  

PubMed Central

Background The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males from each strain exhibit phenotypic differences in peripheral physiology. Both strains possess co-localized pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons characterized by a larger amplitude action potential (spike) responding to the major pheromone component, and a smaller spike amplitude cell responding to the minor component, i.e. the opposite isomer. These differences in amplitude correspond to differences in dendritic diameter between the two neurons. Previous studies showed that behavioral response to the pheromone blend was sex-linked, but spike amplitude response to pheromone components matched autosomal, not sex-linked inheritance. Results As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance. Conclusions We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought. PMID:20846425

2010-01-01

417

Inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Inheritance traits of a Cry1Ab-resistant strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) were analyzed using various genetic crosses. Reciprocal parental crosses between Cry1Ab-susceptible and Cry1Ab-resistant populations, F(1) by F(1) crosses, and backcrosses of F(1) with the Cry1Ab-resistant population were successfully completed. Larval mortality of the parental and cross-populations were assayed on Cry1Ab diet and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-corn leaf tissue. Maternal effects and sex linkage were examined by comparing the larval mortality between the two F(1) populations. Dominance levels of resistance were measured by comparing the larval mortality of the Cry1Ab-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous populations. Number of genes associated with the resistance was evaluated by fitting the observed mortality of F(2) and backcross populations with a Mendelian monogenic inheritance model. Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis was likely inherited as a single or a few tightly linked autosomal genes. The resistance was incompletely recessive on Bt corn leaf tissue, while the effective dominance levels (D(ML)) of resistance increased as Cry1Ab concentrations decreased with Cry1Ab-treated diet. D(ML) estimated based on larval mortality on intact Bt corn plants reported in a previous study ranged from 0.08 to 0.26. This variability in D(ML) levels of Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis suggests that Bt corn hybrids must express a sufficient dose of Bt proteins to make the resistance genes functionally recessive. Thus, Bt resistant heterozygous individuals can be killed as desired in the "high/dose refuge" resistance management strategy for Bt corn. PMID:19527726

Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Rogers Leonard, B; Ottea, James

2009-09-01

418

Selection and life history traits of tebufenozide-resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Varying susceptibility to tebufenozide was recorded in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), collected from Louisiana sugarcane locations with different selection pressures. Results from diet incorporation bioassays with tebufenozide indicated significant increases in LC50 (3.78-fold) and LC90 (7-fold) values for a colony from Duson (DU), an area with higher selection pressure, compared with a colony from Alexandria (ALEX), an area with no selection pressure. Differences were not detected in LC50 values among colonies from areas where use of tebufenozide was discontinued or rotated with other chemistries. Selections with tebufenozide of DU larvae over 12 generations resulted in a highly resistant colony (DU-R) with 27.1- and 83.3-fold increases in LC50 and LC90 values, respectively. Comparison of pupal weight, days to pupation, and emergence after exposure to an equitoxic (LC20) concentration of tebufenozide revealed a decrease in pupal weight (34 and 33% for males and females, respectively), and an increase in days to pupation (47 and 40% for males and females, respectively), and emergence (43 and 33% for males and females, respectively) for the DU-R colony compared with the parent DU colony. Fecundity of DU-R females decreased to 72 eggs per female compared with 180 (DU) and 261 (ALEX). Egg viability of the ALEX and DU colonies was 61 and 56%, respectively, whereas only 27% of eggs laid by females from the DU-R colony hatched. These results are discussed in terms of their practical implications for control of D. saccharalis in Louisiana sugarcane. PMID:19133473

Akbar, W; Ottea, J A; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Huang, F

2008-12-01

419

Sucrose hydrolases from the midgut of the sugarcane stalk borer Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

A beta-fructosidase (EC 3.2.1.26) was isolated from the midgut of larval sugar cane stalk borer Diatraea saccharalis by mild-denaturing electrophoresis and further purified to near homogeneity by gel filtration. beta-Fructosidase hydrolysed sucrose, raffinose and the fructosyl-trisaccharide isokestose, but it had no activity against maltose, melibiose and synthetic substrates for alpha-glucosidases. Two other sucrose hydrolases, one resembling a alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) and the other one active specifically against sucrose (sucrase) were detected in the larval midgut of D. saccharalis. All three sucrose hydrolases were associated with the midgut epithelium of larval D. saccharalis. Relative molecular mass (M(r)) of the beta-fructosidase was estimated around 45,000 (by gel filtration). The other two sucrose hydrolases had M(r) of 54,000 (alpha-glucosidase) and 59,000 (sucrase). The pH optima of the sucrose hydrolases were 5-10 for both alpha-glucosidase and sucrase and 7-8 for beta-fructosidase. Considering V(max)/K(m) ratios, beta-fructosidase preferentially cleaves isokestose rather than raffinose and sucrose. In order to evaluate the possible contribution of microorganisms isolated from the midgut to the pool of sucrose hydrolases, washed midgut epithelia were homogenised and plated onto appropriate media. Seven bacterial and one yeast species were isolated. None of the sucrose hydrolases extracted from the microorganisms corresponded to the enzymes isolated from midgut tissue homogenates. This result suggests that the major sucrose hydrolases found in the midgut of larval D. saccharalis were probably produced by the insect themselves not by the gut microflora. PMID:15607512

Carneiro, Cíntia N B; Isejima, Eliza M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P

2004-11-01

420

Mitochondrial Genome Sequence and Expression Profiling for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

PubMed Central

We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21311752

Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N.; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

2011-01-01

421

Emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) attraction to stressed or baited ash trees.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus sp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. Efficient methods to detect low-density A. planipennis populations remain a critical priority for regulatory and resource management agencies. We compared the density of adult A. planipennis captured on sticky bands and larval density among ash trees that were girdled for 1 or 2 yr, wounded, exposed to the stress-elicitor methyl jasmonate, baited with Manuka oil lures, or left untreated. Studies were conducted at four sites in 2006 and 2007, where A. planipennis densities on untreated trees ranged from very low to moderate. In 2006, 1-yr girdled trees captured significantly more adult A. planipennis and had higher larval densities than untreated control trees or trees treated with methyl jasmonate or Manuka oil. Open-grown trees captured significantly more A. planipennis beetles than partially or fully shaded trees. In 2007, A. planipennis population levels and captures of adult A. planipennis were substantially higher than in 2006. The density of adults captured on sticky bands did not differ significantly among canopy exposure classes or treatments in 2007. Larval density was significantly higher in untreated, wounded, and 1-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2007) than in 2-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2006), where most phloem was consumed by A. planipennis larvae the previous year. A total of 36 trees (32 in 2006, 4 in 2007) caught no beetles, but 16 of those trees (13 in 2006, 3 in 2007) had A. planipennis larvae. In 2006, there was a positive linear relationship between the density of adults captured on sticky bands and larval density in trees. Our results show that freshly girdled and open grown trees were most attractive to A. planipennis, especially at low-density sites. If girdled trees are used for A. planipennis detection or survey, debarking trees to locate larval galleries is crucial. PMID:20021763

McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Anulewicz, Andrea C; Cappaert, David

2009-12-01

422

Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Ab resistance in sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.).  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a major target species of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the U.S. mid-south region. In this study, the fitness of seven insect genotypes of D. saccharalis were assayed on non-toxic diet, which included a Cry1Ab-susceptible strain (SS-2009), two Cry1Ab-resistant strains (RR-43A(BC), RR-L5B(BC)), and four F1 hybrids (F1-R43A(m)S(f), F1-R43A(f)S(m), F1-R5B(m)S(f), and F1-R5B(f)S(m)). The F1 hybrids were generated by reciprocal crosses of SS-2009 with RR-43ABC and RR-L5BBC, respectively. Biological parameters measured were neonate-to-pupa survivorship, neonate-to-pupa development time, pupal mass, pupa-to-adult emergence rate, and progeny (neonates) production. The overall performance of the two resistant strains and the four F1 genotypes was either similar or better than SS-2009 for all biological parameters measured, suggesting a lack of fitness costs associated with the Cry1Ab resistance traits in both RR-43A(BC) and RR-L5B(BC). In addition, resistance stability was evaluated by measuring the Cry1Ab susceptibility of RR-43A(BC) and RR-L5B(BC) in the absence of selection pressure. Laboratory bioassays showed that larval mortality of the two resistant strains did not significantly increase after selection pressure was removed for 16 generations across all Cry1Ab concentrations assayed. The results provide valuable information on assessing resistance risk and developing effective management strategies for the sustainable use of Bt corn technology. PMID:24503242

Zhang, Liping; Leonard, B Rogers; Chen, Mao; Clark, Thomas; Anilkumar, Konasale; Huang, Fangneng

2014-03-01

423

Sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea) infestation in a Victoria crowned pigeon (Goura victoria).  

PubMed

A 12-yr-old female Victoria crowned pigeon (Goura victoria), acquired from a private aviculturalist, was diagnosed with a flea infestation during a quarantine examination. The fleas were embedded around the face and throat and were identified as sticktight fleas (Echidnophaga gallinacea). Despite the sticktight fleas' worldwide distribution and broad host range, there is a paucity of reports on flea infestations and their treatment in zoo and exotic pet birds. Although this parasite has the potential to induce morbidity and mortality, no feather loss, localized dermatitis, or anemia was noted in response to the ectoparasitism. The infestation was treated with manual removal of fleas combined with topical malathion dusting and environmental treatment. Subsequent recheck exams did not reveal any fleas on this pigeon or on any of the other birds housed in the same room. This case illustrates the importance of quarantine procedures for newly acquired birds as part of responsible captive management of a large, multispecies bird collection. PMID:18229869

Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Hayden, Elizabeth R; Greiner, Ellis C

2007-12-01

424

Some observations on the sero-prevalence of heartwater and tick infestation in Zambian goats.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out to define the distribution of heartwater in goats that originated from six districts in communal grazing semi-arid areas of Zambia. A total of 181 samples (40.1%) out of 451 serum samples from adult goats were positive for Ehrlichia ruminantium antibodies after screening using indirect MAP-1B antigen ELISA technique with statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) between the six districts. Out of 1 036 adult goats examined for tick infestation, 105 were infested by ticks, with Amblyomma species being the most dominant tick encountered. Amblyomma variegatum, which is the vector for heartwater transmission in Zambia constituted 42.4% of the tick species, identified. The overall tick infestation rate was 10% while the tick:goat ratio was 2.1:1. Amblyomma variegatum appears to be widespread throughout the study area, as are antibodies to E. ruminantium. PMID:15373339

Ahmadu, B; Lovelace, C E A; Samui, K L; Mahan, S

2004-06-01

425

Coincident tick infestations in the nostrils of wild chimpanzees and a human in Uganda.  

PubMed

Ticks in the nostrils of humans visiting equatorial African forests have been reported sporadically for decades, but their taxonomy and natural history have remained obscure. We report human infestation with a nostril tick in Kibale National Park, Uganda, coincident with infestation of chimpanzees in the same location with nostril ticks, as shown by high-resolution digital photography. The human-derived nostril tick was identified morphologically and genetically as a nymph of the genus Amblyomma, but the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA or the nuclear intergenic transcribed spacer 2 DNA sequences of the specimen were not represented in GenBank. These ticks may represent a previously uncharacterized species that is adapted to infesting chimpanzee nostrils as a defense against grooming. Ticks that feed upon apes and humans may facilitate cross-species transmission of pathogens, and the risk of exposure is likely elevated for persons who frequent ape habitats. PMID:24080634

Hamer, Sarah A; Bernard, Andrew B; Donovan, Ronan M; Hartel, Jessica A; Wrangham, Richard W; Otali, Emily; Goldberg, Tony L

2013-11-01

426

PREHISTORICAL Pediculus humanus capitis INFESTATION: QUANTITATIVE DATA AND LOW VACUUM SCANNING MICROSCOPY  

PubMed Central

A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

Dutra, Juliana M.F.; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

2014-01-01

427

Protective efficacy of permethrin-treated trousers against tick infestation in forestry workers.  

PubMed

introduction and objective. Prevention of tick borne diseases in forestry workers is essentially based on the use of appropriate clothing. The objective of this pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial was to assess the potential benefit of permethrin-treated working trousers for the prevention of tick infestation during forestry work. materials and methods. N=164 male forestry workers were equipped for a period of 16 weeks with permethrin-treated (intervention group - I) or untreated work trousers (control group - II). Subgroups, according to the use of trousers with (I-1, II-1) or without cut protection lining (I-2, II-2) were constituted. Tick infestation (quantity of ticks on the body surface) was assessed by questionnaire after 16 workdays. Control and intervention groups were compared by calculating the infestation rate (percentage of subjects with ticks) and the average number of ticks per workday. results. The infestation rate in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the control group (36.6 vs. 63.4%, p=0.001; Fisher-test). Further analysis revealed a significant reduction of tick infestation by permethrin treatment only for subjects wearing trousers without the cut protection lining (I-2: 34.2 vs. II-2: 80.0%, p<0.001), while users of cut protection trousers did not benefit from such treated trousers (I-1: 38.6 vs. II-1: 47.6%, n.s.). Similar results were found for comparisons based on the average number of ticks per workday. conclusions. The use of permethrin-treated trousers does not completely prevent tick infestations. Improvement of tick protection has been shown only for some applications, but not in general. Additional prevention measures are therefore still indispensable. PMID:25528907

Roßbach, Bernd; Kegel, Peter; Zier, Ulrike; Niemietz, Adrian; Letzel, Stephan

2014-11-26

428

Efficacy and Safety of Dimeticone in the Treatment of Lice Infestation through Prophylaxis of Classmates  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a study to evaluate efficacy and safety of dimeticone 4%, a lotion with no conventional insecticide activity, to cure lice infection and to prevent spread of infestation/reinfestation by prophylaxis of classmates. Methods: The study is carried out between April 2008 and June 2008 in Petranova International Institute in Rome. A total of 131 children, aged 3 to 13 years (median age: 7 years) were included in the study. All participants received treatment with dimeticone 4% that was applied both to children with the infestation, to cure it, and to all classmates, to prevent the spreading of the infestation. They have been controlled after 7 and 30 days from the application of dimeticone. Results: At baseline we found a positivity of lice infestation in 23/131 children (17.6%), whereas 108/131 (82.4%) children were free from lice. After 7 days of treatment with dimeticone 4%, 7/23 (30.4%) positive children still had lice infestation, with a cure rate of 69.6% (16/23). At 30 days 26/131 children (19.9%) were infested: 15 children were lice free at baseline whereas 11 had lice at both evaluations; the cure rate amounted to 52.2% (12/23). The reinfestation rate (percentage of positive children that showed negativity at baseline) was 5.3% (7/131) at 7 days and 11.5% (15/131) at 30 days. Conclusion: The lower reinfestation rate showed in our trial suggests that this approach could be effective in reducing spreading of head lice in small communities. More studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24427749

FERRARA, Pietro; DEL BUFALO, Francesca; ROMANO, Valerio; TIBERI, Eloisa; BOTTARO, Giorgia; ROMANI, Lorenza; MALAMISURA, Monica; IANNIELLO, Francesca; CENI, Laura; MOTTINI, Giovanni; GATTO, Antonio

2013-01-01

429

Data on the prevalence of tapeworm infestations in horses in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

The prevalence of tapeworm infestations was investigated in 70 horses slaughtered in the period February 1994-July 1994. Most horses were half-breed, young (1.5-3 years), and in good condition. They were bought for slaughter by dealers on local markets, and their treatment history was therefore unknown. Tapeworm infestations were seen in 16 horses (23%). Fifteen (21%) had an infection with Anoplocephala perfoliata. One horse had a single specimen of Paranoplocephala mamillana. The average number of A. perfoliata was 45 and the highest number was 508. PMID:8903145

Borgsteede, F H; van Beek, G

1996-09-01

430

Infestation and Pathological Alterations by Ergasilus sarsi (Copepoda) on the Tanganyika Killifish from Africa  

PubMed Central

A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi. PMID:24341764

Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

2013-01-01

431

Infestation and pathological alterations by Ergasilus sarsi (Copepoda) on the Tanganyika Killifish from Africa.  

PubMed

A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi. PMID:24341764

Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

2013-12-01

432

Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations  

PubMed Central

Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%), 11 with cockroaches (52.3%), three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96%) traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03), and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007), no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02), and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05). Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03). Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more persistent in older ships. HACCP system aids in the prevention of cockroach infestations on board. PMID:18371217

Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Anagnostopoulou, Rimma; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, Anna; Theodoridou, Kalliopi; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

2008-01-01

433

A previously unidentified Chorioptes species infesting outer ear canals of moose (Alces alces): characterization of the mite and the pathology of infestation  

PubMed Central

Background During the past decade, Chorioptes mites occupying the outer ear canals have been a common finding at routine necropsies of moose (Alces alces) in Sweden, but neither the taxonomy of the mites nor lesions from the infestation have been investigated. In this study, the mites are characterized by morphological and molecular techniques, and the histopathology of the skin of the outer ear canal is described. Methods External auditory meatuses from 53 necropsied moose were examined for the presence of Chorioptes, and samples from outer ear canals were taken for histopathological and microbiological examination. A proportion of the mites from each moose was identified to species. The DNA was extracted from mites from three moose, and their ITS-2 sequences were determined; these sequences were compared phylogenetically to sequences from other Chorioptes taxa. Results Chorioptes mites were found in 43 (81%) of the 53 moose. The mites had morphological and genetic characteristics distinct from those of C. texanus and C. bovis, the two species generally accepted within the genus. Morphology also did not argue for a diagnosis as C. crewei, C. mydaus or C. panda. On histopathology, lesions were characterized by a hyperplastic perivascular to interstitial dermatitis with epidermal hyperkeratosis and crust formation. Dermal inflammatory infiltrates were composed of mixed T- and B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, whereas eosinophils were notably uncommon. Staphylococcus aureus was grown from the infested epidermis of five of 14 examined moose. Conclusion Chorioptes mite infestation was frequently detected in the outer ear canals of moose in Sweden. The mites were evidently pathogenic, being associated with inflammatory lesions of the external auditory meatus. Our studies indicate infestations with a previously undescribed Chorioptes species. PMID:17825115

Hestvik, Gete; Zahler-Rinder, Monika; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Lindberg, Ronny; Mattsson, Roland; Morrison, David; Bornstein, Set

2007-01-01

434

Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

435

Carbon dioxide exchange of a pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium L.) infestation: How do flowering and mowing affect canopy  

E-print Network

Carbon dioxide exchange of a pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium L.) infestation: How do flowering dioxide (CO2) exchange of invasive plant infestations, such as perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium L, M. Kelly, and D. D. Baldocchi (2011), Carbon dioxide exchange of a pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium L

Kelly, Maggi

436

9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cars or other vehicles having carried infested...PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested...quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. Cars or others vehicles which have...

2014-01-01

437

Dermatological and parasitological evaluation of infestations with chewing lice ( Werneckiella equi ) on horses and treatment using imidacloprid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lice infestations in horses caused by the chewing louse Werneckiella (Damalinia) equi are observed worldwide. In the present study, the efficacy of 10% imidacloprid was tested on horses naturally infested with lice. Two groups of animals received a double application of 4 ml and 8 ml Advantage 10% spot-on on day 0 and 28 either. Horses, presenting dermatological signs with negative lice

N. Mencke; K. S. Larsen; M. Eydal; H. Sigurðsson

2005-01-01

438

Automatic image analysis and spot classification for detection of fruit fly infestation in hyperspectral images of mangoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An algorithm has been developed to identify spots generated in hyperspectral images of mangoes infested with fruit fly larvae. The algorithm incorporates background removal, application of a Gaussian blur, thresholding, and particle count analysis to identify locations of infestations. Each of the f...

439

Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.  

PubMed

The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region. PMID:19323850

Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

2009-12-01

440

Investigation of the detection and monitoring of forest insect infestations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The detection of insect infestations through the use of ERTS-1 imagery alone is very promising. In the field of features other than insect infestation, it is possible to detect: timber vs. non-timber; timber density in broad categories; lakes, major stream courses, rock outcrops and domes; riparian vegetation, cultivated fields, pasture land, and glaciers.

Hall, R. C. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

441

Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation  

PubMed Central

Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scab–a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4 weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3 days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56 days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment. PMID:24176040

2013-01-01

442

Tick infestations of the eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) and small rodentia in northwest Alabama and implications for disease transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted over a four-county area of northwest Alabama to determine the association of eastern cottontail rabbits with Dermacentor variabilis, the eastern United States vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. A secondary objective was to compare infestations of this tick on rabbits with infestations on commonly encountered rodent species as a means of determining the relative importance of each

Joseph C. Cooney; Willy Burgdorfer; Martin K. Painter; Cynthia L. Russell

443

Patterns of Broken Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy - it is all about patterns. Some patterns look so indescribably complicated that, unlike pornography, you do not know one when you see one. It is tempting to say that, at high vibrational excitation, interactions among normal mode basis states are so strong and widespread that all patterns are obliterated. But this is not true. When normal mode frequencies are in near integer multiple ratios, polyads emerge. A polyad is a robust pattern often comprising many vibrational eigenstates. Each such pattern might span many hundreds of cm^{-1}, and it is inevitable that several unrelated polyad patterns overlap. When polyads overlap, it might seem impossible to disentangle them. However, the key to disentanglement is that polyads come in families in which successive generations are related by harmonic oscillator matrix element selection and scaling rules. Families of polyads are described by families of scaling-based effective Hamiltonian matrices, {H}^{{eff}}. No matter how complex and overlapped, the polyad {H}^{{eff}} serves as a magic decoder for picking out the polyad pattern. Sometimes the polyad patterns are systematically broken (a meta-pattern), owing to proximity to an isomerization barrier, as occurs in highly excited bending levels of the S_{1} state of HCCH, which encode the trans-cis minimum energy isomerization path. Quantum Chemists often dismiss {H}^{{eff}} models, precisely because they are models that do not express the full dimensionality of the complete Hamiltonian. But an {H}^{{eff}} explains rather than describes. Shunning {H}^{{eff}}s is like throwing out the baby with the bath water. Don't do it!

Field, R. W.; Park, G. B.; Changala, P. B.; Baraban, J. H.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

2013-06-01

444

Olfactory response of predatory Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) to the odours host plant infested by Bemisia tabaci  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant infested with herbivores, release volatile that can be used by natural enemies to locate their herbivorous prey. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the olfactory responses of predator Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae), to chili plant infected with eggs, nymphs of Bemisia tabaci, using Y-tube olfactometer. The results shown that predator, M. caliginosus has ability to discriminate between non-infested and infested plant by B. tabaci. Moreover, the predator preferred plants with nymphs over plants with eggs. This suggested that M. caliginous uses whitefly-induced volatile as reliable indicators to distinguish between infested chili plants by nymphs, eggs and non-infested plants. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by M. caliginosus to plant with and without Bemisia tabaci.

Saad, Khalid A.; Roff, M. N. Mohamad; Salam, Mansour; Hanifah Mohd, Y.; Idris, A. B.

2014-09-01

445

Direct and Indirect Impacts of Infestation of Tomato Plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  

PubMed Central

The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition. PMID:24710393

Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Su; Ridsdill-Smith, James; Liu, Tong-Xian

2014-01-01

446

Patterns: Repeating patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice with repeating patterns and special attention to recognizing the pattern unit by asking the student what is the missing part in the middle pattern or what goes next in the pattern. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

2012-01-01

447

Mapping cotton root rot infestations over a 10-year interval with airborne multispectral imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton root rot, caused by the pathogen Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a very serious and destructive disease of cotton grown in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate information regarding temporal changes of cotton root rot infestations within fields is important for the management and c...

448

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

2010-01-01

449

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

2013-01-01

450

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

2012-01-01

451

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

2014-01-01

452

7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

2011-01-01

453

Yield Response of Dual-toxin Bt Cotton to Helicoverpa zea Infestations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field cage experiments were conducted to determine the impact of bollworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), on maturity and yield of Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. One d old bollworm larvae were infested in white flowers of Bollgard II cotton and in white flowers and terminals o...

454

Ghana: Western Ghana's Fisherfolk Starve Amid Algae Infestation BY JESSICA MCDIARMID, 18 APRIL 2012  

E-print Network

Ghana: Western Ghana's Fisherfolk Starve Amid Algae Infestation BY JESSICA MCDIARMID, 18 APRIL 2012 not to continue fishing." Sargassum is the algae after which the Sargasso Sea - an elongated region in the middle down while tonnes of the algae were removed. In some areas people were warned not to swim due

Belogay, Eugene A.

455

A new Leptographium species associated with Tomicus piniperda infesting pine logs in Korea  

E-print Network

A new Leptographium species associated with Tomicus piniperda infesting pine logs in Korea Jae and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI ), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. 3 Division of Environmental Science & Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea. E-mail : breuil

456

Efficacy of diatomaceous earth to control internal infestations of rice weevil and maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hard red winter wheat kernels, Triticum aestivum L., were infested with different life stages of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), mixed in with 35 g of wheat treated with 300 ppm of the Protect-It formulation of diatomaceous earth (DE), and held at 22, 27, and 32 degrees C. A similar test w...

457

Physiological responses to increased brood size and ectoparasite infestation: Adult great tits favour self-maintenance.  

PubMed

Different types of stressors trigger responses of different physiological systems, and these responses may contribute differentially to the maintenance of homeostasis, to trade-offs and the evolution of life-history traits. To manipulate two common stressors during reproduction, we infested half of the nests in a naturally breeding great tit population with ectoparasites and simultaneously manipulated brood size, using a 2×2 experimental design. Parents in this model species commonly compensate for ectoparasites by an increase in food provisioning. We assessed parental responses to these concurrent stressors by measuring several physiological stress parameters such as changes in metabolic rate, oxidative stress and expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsp), and explored how these stressors affect the trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction. Neither flea infestation nor brood size manipulation affected adult metabolic rate, oxidative damage or Hsp levels. Furthermore, we found no interactive effect of the two treatments on adults. However, nestlings in infested nests had lower body mass and lower survival. Nestlings in enlarged broods were lighter and had lower survival, although parents of enlarged broods increased food provisioning rate. The findings suggest that adults favour maintenance of cellular homeostasis, and physiological equilibrium over current reproduction, and that the costs induced by both stressors, flea infestation and increased brood size, are carried by the offspring. It emphasizes the importance of self-maintenance over reproduction in life-history decisions, and more generally the need of including physiological traits for understanding the evolution of life-histories. PMID:25600467

Wegmann, Michele; Voegeli, Beatrice; Richner, Heinz

2015-03-15

458

Analysis of parasite and predator populations observed in pear orchards infested by Psylla  

E-print Network

Analysis of parasite and predator populations observed in pear orchards infested by Psylla pyri (L.), and their succession in pear orchards during the year at Avignon and at Toulouse (France) were determined to reduce populations of pear psylla notably but not sufficient to control the pest. Their action

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

459

Tillage impacts cereal-aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestations in spring small grains.  

PubMed

We compared infestation levels of cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in spring-seeded wheat and barley grown with and without preplant tillage for 8 site yr in eastern South Dakota. Crop residue covered approximately 25% of the soil surface with preplant tillage, whereas without preplant tillage 50% or more of surface residue was conserved. Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) comprised nearly 90% of all cereal aphids sampled, and R. maidis (Fitch), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and Sitobion avenae (F.) collectively comprised the remainder. R. padi routinely infested lower parts of tillers and were generally concealed by surface residue in plots with no preplant tillage. Across 7 site yr, R. padi were more abundant in plots with no preplant tillage than with preplant tillage (272.6 +/- 54.4 versus 170.1 +/- 37.2 aphid days per 25 tillers). However, in comparisons at individual site years, R. padi were greater in no-preplant tillage plots only once. For all cereal-aphid species combined, infestations were greater in plots with no preplant tillage for 1 of 8 site yr, but did not differ with tillage when compared across all site years. Cereal aphids were never more abundant in plots with preplant tillage. Our results show that conservation tillage leads to greater infestations of R. padi in spring small grains, as increased surface residue provides a favorable microhabitat for this aphid. PMID:14977117

Hesler, L S; Berg, R K

2003-12-01

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Termite Infestation Associated with Type of Soil in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)  

PubMed Central

Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil. PMID:24575252

Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

2013-01-01