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1

SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

2

Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

3

Apple Burrknot Borers in New York Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State  

E-print Network

Apple Burrknot Borers in New York ­ Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State DAVID P. KAIN, RICHARD W. STRAUB AND ARTHUR M. AGNELLO Department damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple

Agnello, Arthur M.

4

Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.  

PubMed

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ?2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ?1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations. PMID:24709345

Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

2014-06-01

5

Borate and imidacloprid treatment of ash logs infested with the emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

As of January 2006, portions of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario were infested with the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, a destructive exotic Asian beetle that feeds within the inner bark of ash (Fraxinus) trees. This project evaluated borate (dissodium octaborate tetrahydrate) and imidacloprid to sanitize EAB-infested logs, which would then facilitate log transport to mills outside the quarantine

Pascal Nzokou; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack; D. Pascal Kamdem

2006-01-01

6

Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.  

PubMed

The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801

Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

2013-04-01

7

Factors promoting infestation of newly planted, nonbearing apple orchards by dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).  

PubMed

The initiation and level of infestation by dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was tracked over three consecutive years in two nonbearing apple (Malus spp.) orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards were planted on a number of rootstock-variety (approximately cultivar) combinations and grown using different cultural practices. Infestations were detected during the first season after planting and continued to increase annually. The amount of burr knot tissue had the greatest impact on dogwood borer populations, because increasing amounts of burr knot tissue resulted in higher infestation rates. The use of plastic spiral wrap tree guards seemed to increase the development of burr knot tissue, resulting in significantly greater infestation compared with trees without tree guards in the West Virginia orchard. Variety also had a significant effect, because 'Idared' trees on M.26 had significantly greater levels of infestation compared with 'Buckeye Gala' on M.26, with or without tree guards, in the Virginia orchard. Mounding soil around the rootstock to a height just above the graft union prevented or tremendously curtailed infestation by dogwood borer, but it led to scion rooting that seemed to have an impact on size-controlling features of dwarfing rootstocks. Removal of the mounds at the beginning of the third growing season resulted in infestation of the rooted tissue during the same season. As long as apple cultivars continue to be planted on size-controlling rootstocks, dogwood borer will likely remain a serious pest, requiring either chemical treatments or a behavioral control strategy, such as mating disruption, to protect trees from infestation and damage. PMID:16539141

Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

2005-12-01

8

Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders  

E-print Network

Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders of burrknot tissue on apple dwarfing rootstocks is an increasing problem throughout the northeast. One into the winter. We also discuss economic considerations. Background and Justification: Apple growers

Agnello, Arthur M.

9

Preservative treatment of ash wood from emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) infested trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portions of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario have been infested by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an exotic pest believed to have been imported from Asia. The pest is reported to have killed 10 million to 15 million ash trees and continues to spread. Most of southern Michigan is under quarantine, and the movement of ash lumber, firewood, logs, and

Pascal Nzokou; Sedric M. Pankras; D. Pascal

10

Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

1996-03-01

11

Incidence and control of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) and American plum borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks in New York.  

PubMed

Surveys were conducted in the major apple growing regions of New York state to determine the incidence of borers infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks. Dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was generally prevalent throughout the state, but American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker), was limited to western New York apple orchards near infested stone fruit trees. Insecticides evaluated in the field for efficacy against both borers were chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, indoxacarb plus oil, methoxyfenozide, fenpropathrin, and kaolin clay. Also, white latex paint was tested alone and mixed with chlorpyrifos. One application of chlorpyrifos applied at the petal fall developmental stage was equivalent to chlorpyrifos applied at petal fall and again in mid-July, and it provided season-long control of dogwood borer and American plum borer. One application of chlorpyrifos applied any time between the half-inch green developmental stage and petal fall, or after harvest the previous season, controlled both overwintered and summer brood larvae of dogwood borer. Multiple applications of fenpropathrin, indoxacarb plus oil, and endosulfan applied during the dogwood borer flight period controlled the summer brood. PMID:15154480

Kain, David P; Straub, Richard W; Agnello, Arthur M

2004-04-01

12

Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots using Spectral Vegetation Indices Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Remote sensing technology was used to distinguish corn infested with European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis, from corn that was not infested. In 2004 and 2005, eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery. Manual inocu...

13

Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.  

PubMed

Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603

Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

2010-06-01

14

INSECT FRAGMENTS IN FLOUR: RELATIONSHIP TO LESSER GRAIN BORER (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) INFESTATION LEVEL IN WHEAT AND RAPID DETECTION USING NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined that the number of insect fragments, quantified using the standard flotation method, in flour milled from wheat infested with larvae, pupae, or adults of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), was proportional to infestation level. Wheat infested with a single adult contri...

15

Early detection of emerald ash borer infestation using multisourced data: a case study in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB) poses a significant economic and environmental threat to ash trees in southern Ontario, Canada, and the northern states of the USA. It is critical that effective technologies are urgently developed to detect, monitor, and control the spread of EAB. This paper presents a methodology using multisourced data to predict potential infestations of EAB in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The information combined in this study includes remotely sensed data, such as high spatial resolution aerial imagery, commercial ground and airborne hyperspectral data, and Google Earth imagery, in addition to nonremotely sensed data, such as archived paper maps and documents. This wide range of data provides extensive information that can be used for early detection of EAB, yet their effective employment and use remain a significant challenge. A prediction function was developed to estimate the EAB infestation states of individual ash trees using three major attributes: leaf chlorophyll content, tree crown spatial pattern, and prior knowledge. Comparison between these predicted values and a ground-based survey demonstrated an overall accuracy of 62.5%, with 22.5% omission and 18.5% commission errors.

Zhang, Kongwen; Hu, Baoxin; Robinson, Justin

2014-01-01

16

Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

Calandra, Laura

17

Damage to cowpea by the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis Geyer, as influenced by infestation density in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments at Makurdi, Nigeria, to quantify the damage to cowpea by different densities of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca testulalis cypermethrin 10 EC was sprayed at 0.2 kg\\/ha a.i. to control larvae when its infestation in flowers reached 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% in 1985 and 10, 20 and 30% in 1986.Larval damage to the flowers and

E. O. Ogunwolu

1990-01-01

18

Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in commercial vineyards in Virginia.  

PubMed

Larval grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), feed on roots of wild Vitis and commercially important Vitis species and rootstocks in portions of the eastern United States. Grape root borer pupal exuviae sampling in Virginia vineyards from 2008 to 2012 revealed that infestation levels varied substantially among 48 vineyard blocks. Data on horticultural (cultivar, rootstock, vine age, and planting area), cultural (insecticide use, ground cover, weed control, and irrigation), and environmental variables (proximity to forest, soil composition, soil moisture holding capacity, pH, organic matter, bulk density, and cation exchange capacity) from each block were subjected to optimal quantification using categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA). Variables with component loading values ?0.70 from the CATPCA were used as predictors and pupal exuviae density as the dependent variable in binary logistic regression. A prediction model was developed by including statistically significant variables in the logistic regression. CATPCA showed that seven vineyard factors (ground cover, soil texture, soil mass moisture, soil pH, clay/sand ratio, clay/silt ratio, and sand/silt ratio) based on three selected principal components were significant for subsequent regression analysis. Binary logistic regression showed that soil mass moisture and clay/sand ratio were statistically significant factors contributing to differences in infestation among vineyard blocks. Based on these two factors, a risk prediction model for calculating the probability of grape root borer infestation in vineyards was developed and validated using receiver operating characteristic curve. Results are discussed in relation to the practical implications of a predictive, risk assessment model for grape root borer management. PMID:25198500

Rijal, Jhalendra P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

2014-10-01

19

Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southern California.  

PubMed

Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle has caused elevated levels of oak mortality since 2002. From 2009-2011, we tested several sanitation methods, applicable to large and small land parcels, to reduce or prevent goldspotted oak borer emergence from infested oak wood. In most experiments, emergence of goldspotted oak borer adults from the positive controls demonstrated that the beetle could complete development in firewood-sized pieces of cut oak wood. In 2009, adult emergence from sun-exposed oak wood began and peaked 2- to 4-wks earlier at a low elevation site than at a high elevation site (late May to late June). However, there were no significant effects of elevation or host species on the emergence response of goldspotted oak borer by solarization treatment in this study. Solarization of infested wood with thick (6 mil) and thin (1 mil) plastic tarpaulins (tarps) did not significantly reduce emergence of adults despite recordings of greater mean and maximum daily temperatures in both tarped treatments and greater relative humidity in the thick-tarped treatment (all compared with nontarped controls). Grinding wood with a 3"-minus screen (< or = 7.6 cm) significantly reduced goldspotted oak borer emergence compared with control treatments, and this was the best method for reducing adult emergence among those tested. In a separate grinding study, no adults emerged when wood was ground to 9"-minus (22.9 cm), 2"-minus (5.1 cm), or 1"-minus (2.5 cm) screen sizes, but a low level of adult emergence from the positive controls limited any inferences from this experiment. Debarking cut wood pieces eliminated goldspotted oak borer emergence from the wood fraction, but adults emerged from the shaved bark and phloem. PMID:23448037

Jones, Michael I; Coleman, Tom W; Graves, Andrew D; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

2013-02-01

20

Delimitation and management of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) at an outlier infestation in southwestern New York State, United States of America: case study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research objectives were to develop an adaptive delimitation technique and to implement and evaluate management of emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis in the first infestation discovered in New York State. Delimitation was accomplished using 91 girdled “sentinel” trap trees deployed up to 1...

21

Effect of a pheromone antagonist-based disruption blend on dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) mate-finding and infestation in a commercial apple orchard  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of a pheromone antagonist-based disruption blend on disruption of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), mate-finding behavior and incidence of infestation were evaluated in a commercial apple orchard from 2006-2008. Although the pheromone antagonist-based disruption blend treatmen...

22

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

23

An Assessment of the Relationship Between Emerald Ash Borer Presence and Landscape Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread occurs locally and is influenced by factors, such as

Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

24

Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for infestation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tests were conducted to determine whether differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) mixed with intact kernels affected progeny production of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in two rough rice varieties, Francis and Wells. Wells had been previously classified as...

25

Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

26

[Reduced survival and infestation of coffee borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), on coffee fruits, in response to neem sprays in laboratory].  

PubMed

Aqueous solutions of neem oil and aqueous extracts of neem seeds and leaves were sprayed on coffee fruits for laboratory evaluation of their efficiency in reducing infestation of the coffee borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), in multi-choice preference assays in laboratory. Neem oil and extracts reduced infestation of fruits in a dose-dependent manner, acting as a repellent. At 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%, the oil reduced fruit infestation by 30.2%, 42.5% (P > 0.05), and 58.6% (P < 0.05), respectively, as compared with the control. Seed extracts at 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v) reduced infestation by 30.9%, 38.3% (P > 0.05) and 70.2% (P < 0.05), respectively; seed extracts at 0.15%, 1.5% and 15% (w/v) reduced fruit infestation by 16.5%, 38.5% (P > 0.05) and 56.9% (P < 0.05), respectively. Spraying the emulsifiable oil at 1% on coffee fruits and adult borers was compared with spraying on fruits or adults only. Adult-only spraying caused low mortality (P > 0.05) and low reduction on the number of damaged fruits (P > 0.05). Fruit-only spraying significantly reduced insect survival rates and the number of damaged fruits (P < 0.05). However, spraying on adults and fruits caused the greatest reduction in adult survival (55.6%; P < 0.05) and in fruit infestation (78.7%; P < 0.05), probably due to insect mortality and neem oil repellence acting together. PMID:20878003

Depieri, Rogério A; Martinez, Sueli S

2010-01-01

27

PEACHTREE BORER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Say) is a serious tree-infesting pest of Prunus species that is native to much of North America. It is a pest of peach, plums, nectarines, cherries and related plant species. Adults of this pest species exhibit sexual dimorphism with females being larger ...

28

Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from coffee plantations infested with the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was first reported infecting Costa Rican coffee plantations in the year 2000. Due to the impact that this plague has in the economy of the country, we were interested in seeking new alternatives for the biological control of H. hampei, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. A total of 202 B. thuringiensis isolates obtained from Costa Rican coffee plantations infested with H. hampei were analyzed through crystal morphology of the crystal inclusions and SDS-PAGE of 6-endotoxins, while 105 strains were further evaluated by PCR for the presence cry, cyt and vip genes. Most of the Bt strains showed diverse crystal morphologies: pleomorphic (35%), oval (37%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and oval (12%), bipyramidal, oval and pleomorphic (10%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic (3%). The SDS-PAGE analyses of the crystal preparations showed five strains with delta-endotoxin from 20 to 40 kDa, six from 40 to 50 kDa, seven from 50 to 60 kDa, 19 from 60 to 70 kDa, 29 from 70 to 100 kDa and 39 from 100-145 kDa. PCR analyses demonstrated that the collection showed diverse cry genes profiles having several genes per strain: 78 strains contained the vip3 gene, 82 the cry2 gene, 45 the cry1 and 29 strains harbored cry3-cry7 genes. A total of 13 strains did not amplified with any of the cry primers used: cry1, cry2, cry3-7, cry5, cry11, cry12 and cry14. Forty-three different genetic profiles were found, mainly due to the combination of cry1A genes with other cry and vip genes. The genetic characterization of the collection provides opportunities for the selection of strains to be tested in bioassays against H. hampei and other insect pests of agricultural importance. PMID:17361568

Arrieta, Glen; Hernández, Alejandro; Espinoza, Ana M

2004-09-01

29

Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or western bean cutworm.  

PubMed

Field trials were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against manual infestations of European corn borer (ECB) and Western bean cutworm (WBC). HPLC and ELISA were used to measure fumonisin levels. Results of the methods were highly correlated, but ELISA estimates were higher. Bt hybrids experienced less insect injury, Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin contamination compared to non-Bt hybrids. WBC infestation increased fumonisin content compared to natural infestation in non-Bt and hybrids expressing Cry1Ab protein in five of eight possible comparisons; in Cry1F hybrids, WBC did not impact fumonisins. These results indicate that WBC is capable of increasing fumonisin levels in maize. Under WBC infestation, Cry1F mitigated this risk more consistently than Cry1Ab or non-Bt hybrids. Transgenically expressed Bt proteins active against multiple lepidopteran pests can provide broad, consistent reductions in the risk of fumonisin contamination. PMID:24964132

Bowers, Erin; Hellmich, Richard; Munkvold, Gary

2014-07-01

30

Ash decline assessment in emerald ash borer-infested regions: A test of tree-level, hyperspectral technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic insect pest currently threatening ash species in the Great Lakes region. Because of the potential impact on forests in this area, multiple government agencies are currently focusing their efforts on developing new technologies to detect, monitor and control this insect pest. Previous work has shown that hyperspectral remote sensing technologies can produce

Jennifer Pontius; Mary Martin; Lucie Plourde; Richard Hallett

2008-01-01

31

Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from coffee plantations infested with the coffee berr y borer Hypothenemus hampei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was first reported infecting Costa Rican cof fee plantations in the year 2000. Due to the impact that this plague has in the economy of the country, we were interested in seeking new alternatives for the biological control of H. hampei, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. A total of

Glen Arrieta; Alejandro Hernández; Ana M. Espinoza

2004-01-01

32

Impact of Pesticides Borate and Imidacloprid on Insect Emergence from Logs Infested by the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was discovered on North American soil in the summer of 2002 near Detroit, Michigan, U.S., and has since spread to six states\\/provinces. To alleviate these costs, a method of sanitization is urgently needed. This study evaluated four different chemical sanitation methods in laboratory and field conditions. Treatments included two borate treatments, spray and dip, with

Pascal Nzokou; Samuel Tourtellot; D. Pascal

2008-01-01

33

Kiln and microwave heat treatment of logs infested by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive alien pest species periodically infest forests in North America and worldwide, resulting in significant economic and ecological losses for areas involved. One common approach used to control pests is the establishment of quarantine zones, which impose limitations on circulation of products and therefore affect the economic viability of goods already affected by the infestation. This project investigated the use

Pascal Nzokou; Sam Tourtellot; D. Pascal Kamdem

34

Can EmErald ash borEr, agrilus planipEnnis (ColEoptEra: buprEstidaE), EmErgE from logs two summErs aftEr infEstEd trEEs arE Cut?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Much of EAB's range expansion has been attributed to human-assisted movement of infested items such as ash logs and firewood. It is unclear the amount of time that logs cut from live EAB-infested ash trees should be restricted

Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

35

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF MAIZE WEEVIL PRE-HARVEST INFESTATION IN CORN FIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three corn fields were sampled continuously for 6- or 8-wks to determine the invasion patterns of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation. The weekly samplings started when the kernel moisture level was about 30%. The weevil infestation levels vari...

36

Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon  

PubMed Central

Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

2014-01-01

37

Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.  

PubMed

Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

Klompmaker, Adiël A; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M

2014-01-01

38

Impact of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid, alone and in combination, used against emerald ash borer in a newly-infested ash nursery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are investigating the potential of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for use against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We treated approximately 400 Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F. americana (height ca. 5-6 m) at a commercial tree nursery wit...

39

Correlation between numbers captured and infestation levels of the Coffee Berry-borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A preliminary basis for an action threshold using baited traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling techniques currently used to determine control measures for the Coffee Berry-borer (CBB) are time-consuming and allow the grower only a small window of opportunity to select other options. Experiments were conducted in four coffee fields between 2005 and 2007 using IAPAR® traps that were baited with ethanol and methanol (1 : 3 ratio) and benzaldehyde at 1% volume, to

Adriano E. Pereira; Evaldo F. Vilela; Ricardo S. Tinoco; José Oscar G. de Lima; Andreza K. Fantine; Elisângela G. F. Morais; Christiane F. M. França

2012-01-01

40

INFLUENCE OF GROWING LOCATION AND VARIETY ON LESSER GRAIN BORER (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) AND RICE WEEVIL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) INFESTATION OF ROUGH RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-grain rice cultivars Cocodrie, Wells, and XP 723 grown in three locations, and medium-grain rice cultivars Bengal and XP 713 grown in two locations, were assayed for susceptibility to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L). Separate samples...

41

Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in Bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or Western bean cutworm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field trials were conducted (2007 to 2010) to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against European corn borer and Western bean cutworm (WBC). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) w...

42

Aerial Insecticide Treatments for Management of Dectes Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Soybean  

PubMed Central

The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an increasingly important pest of soybean and sunflower in central North America. Nine large-scale field trials were conducted over a 3-year period to determine if Dectes stem borer could be managed with insecticide treatments. Aerial applications of lambda on July 6, 12 and 15 were successful in significantly reducing adults, but applications on July 1, 20 and 24 were less successful. These data suggest that for central Kansas two aerial applications may be required to control Dectes stem borers in soybean. Based on our experience the first application should be made at the peak of adult flight about July 5th and the second application 10 days later. The local treatment schedule should be developed to follow the local Dectes stem borer adult emergence pattern. Treated aerial strips 59 m (195 ft) wide were not large enough to prevent reinfestation, but treated half-circles (24 ha or 60 acres) were successful in reducing in Dectes stem borer infestation of soybean. Sweep net samples of adults were not successful in identifying a treatment threshold, so treatment decisions will need to be based on field history of infestation. Further studies are needed to identify better sampling methods that can be used to establish treatment thresholds and to refine the best timing for treatments. PMID:21861653

Sloderbeck, P. E.; Buschman, L.L.

2011-01-01

43

APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon scitula (Harris) N.Y.S. Agric. Expt. Station  

E-print Network

APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon@nysaes.cornell .edu APPLE, EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TRUNK SPRAYS TO CONTROL BORERS INFESTING BURRKNOTS, 2006 the untreated check. (Table 1) Table 1. Efficacy of insecticides against dogwood borer infesting apple, 2006

Agnello, Arthur M.

44

NHBugs: The Big Three Resources Emerald Ash Borer Management for Landowners  

E-print Network

NHBugs: The Big Three Resources Emerald Ash Borer Management for Landowners Generally infested area Emerald ash borer is in this zone, though not necessarily in all ash trees. Potential expansion area Emerald ash borer isn't known to be in the area, but the area is within 10 miles of the outer limits

New Hampshire, University of

45

Life history studies of Prorops nasuta , a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history studies were conducted in the laboratory on the African parasitoid Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The female wasp enters an infested coffee berry, kills the adult borer and seals the entrance of the berry with the body of the borer, impeding the entry of other organisms

Francisco Infante; John Mumford; Peter BAKER

2005-01-01

46

Effectiveness of the International Phytosanitary Standard ISPM No. 15 on reducing wood borer infestation rates in wood packaging material entering the United States.  

PubMed

Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 (ISPM15) in 2002, which provides treatment standards for WPM used in international trade. ISPM15 was originally developed by members of the International Plant Protection Convention to "practically eliminate" the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM. The United States (US) implemented ISPM15 in three phases during 2005-2006. We compared pest interception rates of WPM inspected at US ports before and after US implementation of ISPM15 using the US Department of Agriculture AQIM (Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring) database. Analyses of records from 2003-2009 indicated that WPM infestation rates declined 36-52% following ISPM15 implementation, with results varying in statistical significance depending on the selected starting parameters. Power analyses of the AQIM data indicated there was at least a 95% chance of detecting a statistically significant reduction in infestation rates if they dropped by 90% post-ISPM15, but the probability fell as the impact of ISPM15 lessened. We discuss several factors that could have reduced the apparent impact of ISPM15 on lowering WPM infestation levels, and suggest ways that ISPM15 could be improved. The paucity of international interception data impeded our ability to conduct more thorough analyses of the impact of ISPM15, and demonstrates the need for well-planned sampling programs before and after implementation of major phytosanitary policies so that their effectiveness can be assessed. We also present summary data for bark- and wood-boring insects intercepted on WPM at US ports during 1984-2008. PMID:24827724

Haack, Robert A; Britton, Kerry O; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Cavey, Joseph F; Garrett, Lynn J; Kimberley, Mark; Lowenstein, Frank; Nuding, Amelia; Olson, Lars J; Turner, James; Vasilaky, Kathryn N

2014-01-01

47

Effectiveness of the International Phytosanitary Standard ISPM No. 15 on Reducing Wood Borer Infestation Rates in Wood Packaging Material Entering the United States  

PubMed Central

Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 (ISPM15) in 2002, which provides treatment standards for WPM used in international trade. ISPM15 was originally developed by members of the International Plant Protection Convention to “practically eliminate” the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM. The United States (US) implemented ISPM15 in three phases during 2005–2006. We compared pest interception rates of WPM inspected at US ports before and after US implementation of ISPM15 using the US Department of Agriculture AQIM (Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring) database. Analyses of records from 2003–2009 indicated that WPM infestation rates declined 36–52% following ISPM15 implementation, with results varying in statistical significance depending on the selected starting parameters. Power analyses of the AQIM data indicated there was at least a 95% chance of detecting a statistically significant reduction in infestation rates if they dropped by 90% post-ISPM15, but the probability fell as the impact of ISPM15 lessened. We discuss several factors that could have reduced the apparent impact of ISPM15 on lowering WPM infestation levels, and suggest ways that ISPM15 could be improved. The paucity of international interception data impeded our ability to conduct more thorough analyses of the impact of ISPM15, and demonstrates the need for well-planned sampling programs before and after implementation of major phytosanitary policies so that their effectiveness can be assessed. We also present summary data for bark- and wood-boring insects intercepted on WPM at US ports during 1984–2008. PMID:24827724

Haack, Robert A.; Britton, Kerry O.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Cavey, Joseph F.; Garrett, Lynn J.; Kimberley, Mark; Lowenstein, Frank; Nuding, Amelia; Olson, Lars J.; Turner, James; Vasilaky, Kathryn N.

2014-01-01

48

Spatial distribution pattern of attack of the oak borer, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae), and scolytid ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on fresh logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution patterns of the attack on fresh logs ofPasania edulis was studied for the oak borer,Platypus quercivorus (Murayama), and two species of Scolytid ambrosia beetles,Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) andXyleborus attenuatus Blanford, in 1994 and 1995. On the logs where onlyP. quercivorus attacked, the entry holes were distributed uniformly when attack intensity was low. However, the distribution pattern became\\u000a more

Koichi Soné; Takeshi Mori; Masamichi Ide

1998-01-01

49

REPORT ON THE 2006 BORER YIELD REDUCTION EVALUATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is important that farmers and their crop consultants know how newly released varieties of sugarcane will respond to infestations of its key insect pest the sugarcane borer. In an effort to provide this information, varieties are routinely evaluated for their response to season-long infestations o...

50

EXPLORATION FOR EMERALD ASH BORER IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in greater than 2,500 square miles of southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario; more recent infestations were found in Ohio, Maryland, and Virginia in 2003. Federal and state agencies adopted a strategy of

Houping Liu; Toby R. Petrice; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao

2003-01-01

51

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

52

Spatio-temporal modelling of coffee berry borer infestation patterns accounting for inflation of zeroes and missing values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of pest distributions in space and time in agricultural systems provides important information for the optimization of integrated pest management programs and for the planning of experiments. Two statistical problems commonly associated to the space-time modelling of data that hinder its implementation are the excess of zero counts and the presence of missing values due to the adopted

Ramiro Ruiz-Cárdenas; Renato Martins Assunção; Clarice Garcia Borges Demétrio

2009-01-01

53

Modeling the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada [McCullough, D.G., Katovich, S.A., 2004. Pest Alert: Emerald Ash Borer. United States Forest Service, Northeastern Area. NA-PR-02-04]. Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly

Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett; Bruce Hannon

2006-01-01

54

Mathematical Infestation  

E-print Network

A Mathematical Glance at Zombie Infestation Brody Dylan Johnson Introduction A Simple Mathematical Model A Reality Check Zombie Infestation with Resistance Simulations Conclusion A Mathematical Glance at Zombie Infestation Brody Dylan Johnson April 21, 2010 Reference: "When Zombies Attack!: Mathematical

Johnson, Brody Dylan

55

Behavior and Activity Pattern of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Attacking the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe behavioral sequences and daily activities of pre-ovipositing and ovipositing females of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), an ectoparasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Noticeable behavioral differences among preovipositing and ovipositing females include host examination, host stinging—probing, host feeding, and the oviposition per se. The female of C. stephanoderis feeds primarily on host eggs, but pupae

Isabelle Lauzière; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Jacques Brodeur

2000-01-01

56

FIRST-FLIGHT ADULT EUROPEAN CORN BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) DISTRIBUTION IN ROADSIDE VEGETATION RELATIVE TO CROPPING PATTERNS AND CORN PHENOLOGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a serious pest of commercial maize throughout the U.S. Corn Belt. Adults aggregate in grassy areas around and within the cornfield where they spend the daylight hours resting, and where mating activity occurs at night. Mated females leave th...

57

Ixodes ricinus ticks removed from humans in Northern Europe: seasonal pattern of infestation, attachment sites and duration of feeding  

PubMed Central

Background The common tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of the tick-borne encephalitis virus and of several species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, which are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis. The risk to contract bites of I. ricinus is dependent on many factors including the behaviour of both ticks and people. The tick’s site of attachment on the human body and the duration of tick attachment may be of clinical importance. Data on I. ricinus ticks, which were found attached to the skin of people, were analysed regarding potentially stage-specific differences in location of attachment sites, duration of tick attachment (= feeding duration), seasonal and geographical distribution of tick infestation in relation to age and gender of the tick-infested hosts. Methods During 2008–2009, 1770 tick-bitten persons from Sweden and the Åland Islands removed 2110 I. ricinus ticks. Participants provided information about the date of tick detection and location on their body of each attached tick. Ticks were identified to species and developmental stage. The feeding duration of each nymph and adult female tick was microscopically estimated based on the scutal and the coxal index. Results In 2008, participants were tick-bitten from mid-May to mid-October and in 2009 from early April to early November. The infestation pattern of the nymphs was bimodal whereas that of the adult female ticks was unimodal with a peak in late summer. Tick attachment site on the human body was associated with stage of the tick and gender of the human host. Site of attachment seemed to influence the duration of tick feeding. Overall, 63% of nymphs and adult female ticks were detected and removed more than 24 hours after attachment. Older persons, compared to younger ones, and men, compared to women, removed “their” ticks after a longer period of tick attachment. Conclusions The infestation behaviour of the different tick stages concerning where on the host’s body the ticks generally will attach and when such ticks generally will be detected and removed in relation to host age and gender, should be of value for the development of prophylactic methods against tick infestation and to provide relevant advice to people on how to avoid or reduce the risk of tick infestation. PMID:24360096

2013-01-01

58

USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.

59

Assessing Mountain Pine Beetle infestation patterns in space and time using high resolution QuickBird imagery and LiDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic that has affected millions of hectares in the Rocky Mountains gives us a unique opportunity to consider the environmental variables influencing the spatial extent and pattern of vegetation disturbance through time. This work builds on our previous research at the USFS Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana documenting the correlation between landscape position wetness state and tree mortality in 2010. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with leaf level measures by developing an extensive spectral library for TCEF vegetation that includes infestation state of lodgepole pine (LPP). Vegetation indices were applied to the QuickBird imagery to determine the extent and pattern of infestation across TCEF. In addition, we calculated LiDAR (light detection and ranging) based topography and vegetation structure indices for joint topographic, vegetation, and disturbance analyses. We found that trees in locations with specific landscape characteristics such as small contributing areas and south facing slopes were significantly more likely to exhibit signs of infestation. We now present new results using change detection analysis documenting how these infestation patterns evolve over 4 years. We assess how patterns of infestation change through time in relation to landscape variables and changing stand dynamics due to prior years of infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality spatially and temporally provide a context for assessing how a changing population of host (LPP), prior management practices, and landscape environmental variables may effect the progression of infestation, which in turn could affect watershed ecohydrology via altered energy, water, and biogeochemical cycles.

Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B. L.; Emanuel, R. E.

2013-12-01

60

Biological Control of Coffee Berry Borer in Organic Coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary All inspection reports of Naturland organic coffee growers in Latin America (Mexico, Guatemala, Ecua- dor, Peru and Bolivia) comprising 29,673 organic coffee farmers with 85,376 ha of land, were checked for control methods of coffee berry borer. 33 % use cultural control by picking up infested berries from the ground or from the plant during and after harvest. 24

Manfred Fürst; Stefan Bergleiter; Kleinhaderner Weg

61

The distribution of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) in Southern Mexico: A survey for a biocontrol project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In surveys of coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico from 1983 to 1985 to assess the distribution and damage caused by the coffee berry borer, prior to parasite introduction levels of infestation were greatest near the Guatemalan border and varied with altitude, the borer was most numerous between 500–1000 m above sea level, corresponding to a mean annual temperature of 23

P. S. Baker; J. F. Barrera; J. E. Valenzuela

1989-01-01

62

Potential management strategies for the linden borer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in urban landscapes and nurseries.  

PubMed

The linden borer, Saperda vestita Say (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a native insect species that is common throughout north central and northeastern North America. Over the past decade, increasing occurrence of damage associated with the linden borer has been reported on Tilia spp. in city street trees and nurseries throughout Wisconsin, probably because of increased use of these trees. Our objective was to gain a better understanding of the seasonal biology and potential management strategies for this important pest. We evaluated the effectiveness of three systemic insecticides, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and disulfoton, and a mechanical control method of chipping linden borer-infested wood as a means of reducing S. vestita larval survival, subsequent emergence, and oviposition. Autumn and spring soil injections of imidacloprid to linden borer-infested Tilia cordata'Greenspire' nursery stock (< 11.4 cm in diameter at breast height [dbh]) provided >90% control. Autumn soil injections of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and a spring granular soil application treatment of disulfoton applied to larger (>22 cm dbh) Tilia spp. did not effectively control linden borer at the application rates tested. Chipping infested Tilia spp. effectively destroyed linden borer larvae, pupae, and adults. Arborists and landscape managers should consider chipping felled Tilia spp. trees infested with S. vestita to prevent adults from potentially attacking nearby susceptible trees. PMID:17849886

Johnson, T A; Williamson, R C

2007-08-01

63

EAB is native to Asia. It is believed that EAB entered the U.S. in infested  

E-print Network

, is una ected. Emerald Ash Borer killing our trees Symptoms to watch for... An alien invader... Help. · Avoid ash rewood from infested states. STOP Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) yellowing leaves dead branches to occur. EAB attacks black, green and white ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Mountain ash, not a true ash

Balser, Teri C.

64

LESSER PEACHTREE BORER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) is a native insect that is an important pest of native and introduced Prunus species. Lesser peachtree borer is found in most peach growing areas east of the Rocky Mountains. Male and female moths of this species are very similar ...

65

Management strategies for borers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes) are native insects that cause serious damage to peach trees in the southeastern U.S. Damage by both species is exacted on trees through larvae feeding on the cambium. Management of the univoltine peachtree...

66

EFFICACY OF FIPRONIL APPLIED AS FOLIAR AND SEED TREATMENT TO CONTROL DECTES STEM BORERS IN SOYBEAN, GARDEN CITY, KS, 2007 - SOUTH CIRCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We tested seed and foliar fipronil insecticide treatments applie d to five soybean varieties to determine the treatments' effectiveness at reducing Dectes stem borers (Dectes texanus) in soybean. The foliar treatment of fipronil significantly reduced Dectes stem borer infestations 61% and 76%, depending on the variable measured. These treatments increased yield 10.5%. Different soybean varieties had significantly different yields.

Holly Davis; Larry Buschman; Phil Sloderbeck; Ankush Joshi

67

Changes in epidemiological patterns of sea lice infestation on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Scotland between 1996 and 2006.  

PubMed

Analyses of a unique database containing sea lice records over an 11 year period provide evidence of changing infestation patterns in Scotland. The data, collected from more than 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms, indicate that both species of sea lice commonly found in Scotland, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, have declined on farms over the past decade. Reductions for both species have been particularly marked since 2001 when more effective veterinary medicines became available. Treatment data were also available in the database and these show a growing trend towards the use of the in-feed medication emamectin benzoate (Slice), particularly in the first year of the salmon production cycle. However, this trend towards single product use has not been sustained in 2006, the latest year for which data are available. There is some evidence of region to region variation within Scotland with the Western Isles experiencing higher levels of infestation. However, compared to the levels observed between 1996 and 2000, all regions have benefited from reduced lice infestation, with the overall pattern showing a particular reduction in the second and third quarters of the second year of production. PMID:18353017

Lees, F; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

2008-04-01

68

Emerald ash borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The emerald ash borer is an insect that was introduced to the United States on accident. The larvae of this insect feed on essential parts of the ash tree. This non-native species has killed several million trees already.

N/A N/A (USDA; Forest Service)

2004-11-13

69

Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other insects. PMID:23894529

Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2013-01-01

70

Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

2012-04-01

71

Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species?  

PubMed Central

Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick-borne diseases in wildlife. PMID:24533310

Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

2012-01-01

72

Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species.  

PubMed

Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick-borne diseases in wildlife. PMID:24533310

Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

2013-12-01

73

Field Efficacy of Some Bioinsecticides Against Maize and Jowar Stem Borer, Chilo Partellus (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field evaluation of Nimbokil (a neem derivative), Tracer and Abamectin alongwith Cyperemthrin was studied on infestation level of maize stem borer (Chilo partellus). In Tracer treated plots, the infestation was reduced from 10.72% before spray to 3.05% seven day after first spray and to 0.74% at seven day of second spray which was done one week after first spray.

SOHAIL AHMED; MUSHTAQ A. SALEEM; IMRAN RAUF

74

First record of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in Pará nut, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae).  

PubMed

We report the occurrence of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) attacking Pará nuts stored in the southeast of Para state. The coffee berry borer successfully colonized and reproduced using Pará nuts as a food source. Based on this observation, the Pará nuts can be used as an alternative food source in rearing the coffee berry borer. Also, attention should be brought to need of proper storage of these nuts to avoid infestation by this pest. PMID:19618062

Gumier-Costa, Fabiano

2009-01-01

75

EAB or Native Borer? Insect Galleries Often Confused for Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)  

E-print Network

EAB or Native Borer? Insect Galleries Often Confused for Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) PM 3065 May 2014 Emerald Ash Borer Native Borers EAB Bark Beetles have a main tunnel (arrows) with many perpendicular, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa. Emerald Ash Borer Native Borers EAB

Koford, Rolf R.

76

Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

77

Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata — a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legume pod borer, Maruca (testulalis) vitrata (Geyer) is one of the major constraints in increasing the production and productivity of grain legumes in the tropics. Screening for resistance has been carried out using natural infestation, and multi- and no-choice tests under greenhouse\\/laboratory conditions. Information is available on genotypic resistance to M. vitrata in cowpea, while such information on pigeonpea and

H. C. Sharma

1998-01-01

78

Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has killed or infested millions of ash trees in Michigan and is fast spreading to neighboring states. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that if EAB went unchecked in the rest of the country, the loss to the nation could range from $20 billion to $60 billion. One key requirement for the success of

Brahim Medjahed; William Grosky

79

Biological control of emerald ash borers: the role of indigenous North American parasitoids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated parasitoids were conducted in Cranberry Township, PA; Granville, PA; and Cheltenham, MD. Several species of parasitic Hymenoptera were collected from EAB-infested green ash trees or reared from late-instar E...

80

A Decision Support System for Emerald Ash Borer Eradication Using Spatial-Dynamic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) ( Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to Ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada (McCullough and Katovich 2004). Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly one billion native ash trees. This paper presents an argument for the

Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett

81

Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are diffi­ cult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennisto ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed from a 15 cm wide band around the tree (2003­ 2(05», vertical wounding (same

Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert

2009-01-01

82

ASSOCIATION OF SUGARCANE PITH, RIND HARDNESS, AND FIBER WITH RESISTANCE TO THE SUGARCANE BORER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Planting sugarcane varieties with natural resistance to the sugarcane borer is an attractive alternative to pesticides for controlling damaging infestations of this important insect pest. Unfortunately some of the plant traits (i.e. plant stalk fiber) that have been identified as conferring resistan...

83

Dermatologic infestations.  

PubMed

Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic. PMID:22250620

Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob

2012-02-01

84

Delusional infestation.  

PubMed

This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

2009-10-01

85

Delusional Infestation  

PubMed Central

Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme “infestation” is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed “Morgellons disease” can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

Freudenmann, Roland W.; Lepping, Peter

2009-01-01

86

Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

2012-02-01

87

Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.  

PubMed

The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites. PMID:24498741

Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

2013-12-01

88

Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.  

PubMed

This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

2006-06-01

89

Attraction of Prorops Nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a Parasitoid of the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to Host-Associated Olfactory Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitoid Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is a wasp of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). In this study, the attractiveness of different volatiles to P. nasuta was studied in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfac- tometer. Female wasps were attracted to coffee berry borer-infested coffee berries but not to uninfested or artiÞcially damaged berries. Full-grown

Pilar Chiu-Alvarado; Juan F. Barrera; Julio C. Rojas

2009-01-01

90

Metabolites of lesser grain borer in grains.  

PubMed

Many volatile alcohol and ester metabolites of the lesser grain borer (LGB, Rhyzopertha dominica) cultured on wheat grain were identified. Volatiles from infested samples at 80 degrees C were collected on Tenax absorbent, thermally desorbed, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) using infrared (IR) and mass (MS) detectors for component identification. A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique was used to analyze selected samples with a GC-MS system set up for obtaining chemical ionization mass spectra. SPME was also used in a synthesis process required to identify ester metabolites. Predominant compounds in LGB-infested grains were 2-pentanol and its esters of 2-methyl-2-pentenoic (A) and 2,4-dimethyl-2-pentenoic (B) acids, which are known aggregation pheromones, dominicalures 1 and 2. 2-Pentanol esters of saturated A, beta-keto- and beta-hydroxy derivatives of A and B, homologues of A and B, and acid moieties lacking the 2-methyl substitution were found. Other straight- and branched-chain secondary alcohols and their esters were also observed. Reexamination of GC-MS-IR data acquired in previous investigations of LGB cultured on sorghum grain and commercial samples in a grain odor study showed the presence of many LGB metabolites in addition to the known dominicalures. PMID:14969548

Seitz, Larry M; Ram, M S

2004-02-25

91

Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

92

PENNSYLVANIA EMERALD ASH BORER ACTION PLAN Prepared by  

E-print Network

PENNSYLVANIA EMERALD ASH BORER ACTION PLAN Prepared by: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture............................................................................................................. 2 Impact of Emerald Ash Borer

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

93

The Sweet Potato Borer.  

E-print Network

or otherwise, as much as possible. When this is impossible they might be poisoned in and about a potato field. Farmers should co-operate in controlIing the pest. THE SWEET POTATO WEEVIL. (Cylas formicarius, Fab. ) The Sweet Potato Borer, the worst of all... any insecticide discovered that will control the sweet potato beetle? They are doing very serious damage here." "By today's mail I am sending you some sweet potatoes that are full of some insects which have ruined the crop in this vicinity. As far...

Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

1907-01-01

94

Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies. PMID:19689904

Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

2009-08-01

95

Management of sugarcane borer populations in Louisiana, a decade of change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugarcane borerDiatrea saccharalis (F.) is the most serious and destructive insect attacking sugarcane in Louisiana. Losses in sugar yields ascribed to damage\\u000a by this pest were estimated to have averaged 13% anally from 1937 to 1957. Biological and cultural control measures have been\\u000a of little benefit against economically damaging infestations ofD. saccharalis and insecticides have historically assumed a major

S. D. Hensley

1971-01-01

96

Genetic analysis of emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) populations in Asia and North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees first discovered outside of its native range of northeastern Asia in 2002. EAB spread from its initial zone of\\u000a discovery in the Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario metropolitan areas, in large part, from inadvertent human-assisted\\u000a movement of infested ash materials.

Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack; Anthony I. Cognato; James J. Smith

97

Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

E-print Network

1 Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Wednesday, April 20, 2001 12:20 PM 160 Plant Biotech Building Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and its natural enemies in China. Great

Gray, Matthew

98

Effect of temperature, exposure interval, and depth of diatomaceous earth treatment on distribution, mortality, and progeny production of lesser grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in stored wheat.  

PubMed

Diatomaceous earth (DE) can be used as a surface treatment in stored wheat Triticum aestivum (L.) to control pest infestations. However, it is not known how the thickness of the DE-treated wheat layer or grain temperature impact effectiveness. Therefore, we conducted an experiment in growth chambers to assess the effect of different surface layers of hard winter wheat combined with DE on spatial distribution, adult survival, and progeny production of lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and to determine whether temperature and exposure interval modified this effect. When adult lesser grain borers were released in experimental towers containing untreated wheat or wheat admixed with DE to a surface layer depth of 15.2, 22.9, or 30.5 cm, they were able to penetrate all DE layers and oviposit in the untreated wheat below. However, survival was significantly reduced in adults exposed to DE. Survival decreased both with increasing depth of the DE-treated wheat and with exposure interval. Temperature had no effect on adult survival, but significantly more progeny were produced at 32 than at 27 degrees C. Progeny production was inversely correlated with the depth of the DE-treated layer. Vertical distribution patterns of parental beetles were not significantly different among treatments or exposure intervals; however, more insects were found at greater depths at 32 than at 27 degrees C. The F1 production was reduced by 22% at the thickest DE-treated layer. However, we conclude that this level of survival could leave a residual population of lesser grain borers that would probably be above an allowable threshold for insect damage. PMID:16813345

Vardeman, E A; Arthur, F H; Nechols, J R; Campbell, J F

2006-06-01

99

The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010–2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding how newly established satellite populations may affect economic costs can help program

Kent F. Kovacs; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Robert G. Haight; Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold

2011-01-01

100

Relationship between planting dates and damage by the legume pod?borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between planting dates and damage by the legume pod?borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer) was investigated in successively planted cowpea during July and August, 1993 and 1994. The population tended to build up in the course of the sowing periods in both years. The number of flowers and pods infested were more in cowpea planted in August than in July

S. Ekesi; M. C. Dike; M. O. Ogunlana

1996-01-01

101

Sequences and transcriptional analysis of Coffea arabica var. Caturra and Coffea liberica plant responses to coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer (CBB) is the most prevalent pest of coffee plantations. Within the Coffea genus, C. arabica is susceptible to CBB and C. liberica shows a lower susceptibility. Two EST libraries were constructed from the total RNA of C. arabica and C. liberica fruits artificially infested with CBBs for 24 h. Using 6000 clones sequenced per library, a

Sandra M. Idárraga; Ana M. Castro; Eliana P. Macea; Alvaro L. Gaitán; Luis F. Rivera; Marco A. Cristancho; Carmenza E. Góngora

2011-01-01

102

Sequences and transcriptional analysis of Coffea arabica var. Caturra and Coffea liberica plant responses to coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer (CBB) is the most prevalent pest of coffee plantations. Within the Coffea genus, C. arabica is susceptible to CBB and C. liberica shows a lower susceptibility. Two EST libraries were constructed from the total RNA of C. arabica and C. liberica fruits artificially infested with CBBs for 24 h. Using 6000 clones sequenced per library, a

Sandra M. Idárraga; Ana M. Castro; Eliana P. Macea; Alvaro L. Gaitán; Luis F. Rivera; Marco A. Cristancho; Carmenza E. Góngora

2012-01-01

103

Spiroacetals in the colonization behaviour of the coffee berry borer: a 'push-pull' system.  

PubMed

Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1 ? 1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a 'push-pull' system, whereby frontalin acts as the 'push' (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the 'pull' (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

Njihia, Teresiah Nyambura; Jaramillo, Juliana; Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

2014-01-01

104

Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood. PMID:20069830

Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

2009-12-01

105

Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System  

PubMed Central

Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1?1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

2014-01-01

106

Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing high levels of modified cry1Ac provide effective control against stem borers in field trials.  

PubMed

To improve transgene expression level, we synthesized a truncated insecticidal gene m-cry1Ac by increasing its GC content from 37.4 to 54.8%, based on the codon usage pattern of sugarcane genes, and transferred it into two sugarcane cultivars (ROC16 and YT79-177) by microprojectile bombardment. The integration sites and expression pattern of the transgene were determined, respectively, by Southern, northern and western blot analyses. The transgenic sugarcane lines produced up to 50 ng Cry1Ac protein per mg soluble proteins, which was about fivefold higher than that produced by the partially modified s-cry1Ac (GC% = 47.5%). In greenhouse plant assay, about 62% of the transgenic lines exhibited excellent resistance to heavy infestation by stem borers. In field trials, the m-cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane lines expressing high levels of Cry1Ac were immune from insect attack. In contrast, expression of s-cry1Ac in transgenic sugarcane plants resulted in moderately decreased damages in internodes (0.4-1.7%) and stalks (13.3-26.7%) in comparison with the untransformed sugarcane controls, which showed about 4 and 26-40% damaged internodes and stalks, respectively. Significantly, these transgenic sugarcane lines with high levels of insect resistance showed similar agronomic and industrial traits as untransformed control plants. Taken together, the findings from this study indicate a promising potential of engineering an insect-resistant gene to tailor its protein expression levels in transgenic sugarcane to combat insect infestations. PMID:21046242

Weng, Li-Xing; Deng, Hai-Hua; Xu, Jin-Ling; Li, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Qian; Jiang, Zi-De; Li, Qi-Wei; Chen, Jian-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Hui

2011-08-01

107

Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

108

Isolation and characterization of Isaria farinosa and Purpureocillium lilacinum associated with emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entomopathogenic fungi of the genera Isaria and Purpureocillium were recovered from infestation sites of emerald ash borer (EAB) in southern Ontario, Canada. Isolates were identified using morphological characters and by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA gene and partial ?-tubulin gene. Phylogenetic analysis and constructed trees based on the ITS and ?-tubulin gene explicitly confirm isolates L66B, SY17-a and LHY46-a as

Shajahan Johny; George Kyei-Poku; Debbie Gauthier; Kees van Frankenhuyzen

2012-01-01

109

Impacts of the emerald ash borer (EAB) eradication and tree mortality: potential for a secondary spread of invasive plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer in 2002, eradication efforts have been implemented in an attempt to eliminate\\u000a or contain the spread of this invasive beetle. The eradication protocol called for the removal of every ash tree within a\\u000a 0.8 km radius around an infested tree. In 2005 this study was established to identify environmental changes attributed to\\u000a the

Constance E. HausmanJohn; John F. Jaeger; Oscar J. Rocha

2010-01-01

110

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: Clotting time in tick-infested skin varies according to local inflammation and gene expression patterns in tick salivary glands  

PubMed Central

Ticks deposit saliva at the site of their attachment to a host in order to inhibit haemostasis, inflammation and innate and adaptive immune responses. The anti-haemostatic properties of tick saliva have been described by many studies, but few show that tick infestations or its anti-haemostatic components exert systemic effects in vivo. In the present study, we extended these observations and show that, compared with normal skin, bovine hosts that are genetically susceptible to tick infestations present an increase in the clotting time of blood collected from the immediate vicinity of haemorrhagic feeding pools in skin infested with different developmental stages of Rhipicepahlus microplus; conversely, we determined that clotting time of tick-infested skin from genetically resistant bovines was shorter than that of normal skin. Coagulation and inflammation have many components in common and we determined that in resistant bovines, eosinophils and basophils, which are known to contain tissue factor, are recruited in greater numbers to the inflammatory site of tick bites than in susceptible hosts. Finally, we correlated the observed differences in clotting times with the expression profiles of transcripts for putative anti-haemostatic proteins in different developmental stages of R. microplus fed on genetically susceptible and resistant hosts: we determined that transcripts coding for proteins similar to these molecules are overrepresented in salivary glands from nymphs and males fed on susceptible bovines. Our data indicate that ticks are able to modulate their host’s local haemostatic reactions. In the resistant phenotype, larger amounts of inflammatory cells are recruited and expression of anti-coagulant molecules is decreased tick salivary glands, features that can hamper the tick’s blood meal. PMID:20045690

Carvalho, Wanessa Araújo; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Franzin, Alessandra Mara; Abatepaulo, Antônio Roberto Rodrigues; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Moré, Daniela Dantas; Maia, Antonio Augusto Mendes; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K. Ferreira

2010-01-01

111

Bemisia tabaci-infested tomato plants show a phase-specific pattern of photosynthetic gene expression indicative of disrupted electron flow leading to photo-oxidation and plant death  

PubMed Central

A suppression-subtractive-hybridization (SSH) strategy led to the identification of several genes whose expression was differentially modified in response to different larval phases present during the infestation process of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) by virus-free whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Bt). The findings regarding photosynthetic gene expression were in accordance to previous studies reporting altered patterns of expression as a result of insect herbivory. However, the examination, in this study, of four stages of larval Bt development permitted the detection of phase-dependent changes in gene expression which appeared to target specific photosynthetic complexes. Thus, an upregulation of photosystem II genes in the latter two phases of Bt development contrasted with a general repression of genes belonging to the three other photosynthetic complexes, in addition to a number of genes coding for proteins associated with the oxygen evolving complex and the Calvin cycle. We propose that the contrasting pattern of expression led to an over-excitation of PSII and consequent oxidative damage, as suggested by the concomitant upregulation of oxidative stress genes, and could have contributed to the wide-spread necrosis observed in Bt-infested tomato plants at late stages of the plant-insect interaction. PMID:19826216

Estrada-Hernández, María Gloria

2009-01-01

112

Pest status of American plum borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and fruit tree borer control with synthetic insecticides and entomopathogenic nematodes in New York State.  

PubMed

Surveys were conducted in 1994 and 1995 to determine the pest status of the American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker), in New York State stone fruit crops. These surveys indicate that American plum borer is the most important of the wood-boring insects infesting tart cherries and also is an important pest in peaches suffering from canker diseases. It is not prevalent in plums or in healthy peaches. Trials to control American plum borer were conducted in tart cherry and peach by using chlorpyrifos, esfenvalerate, and 2 commercially available formulations of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar). Two applications of chlorpyrifos, timed at petal fall and at the beginning of the 2nd flight, effectively controlled the pest. One application of chlorpyrifos applied at petal fall did not provide effective season-long control, except where numbers were very low. Programs using 1 (petal fall) or 3 applications of esfenvalerate were ineffective. Control by either nematode formulation was insignificant. PMID:10036985

Kain, D P; Agnello, A M

1999-02-01

113

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)  

E-print Network

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) The oak pinhole borer, Platypus and is not itself responsible for killing trees. Life cycle Adult Platypus cylindrus beetles are 6-8mm long, rather in cross- section Piles of fibrous frass mark entry points of Platypus cylindrus adults. #12;Tunnelling

114

Resistance to the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) among Louisiana and Texas sugarcane cultivars.  

PubMed

A 2-yr study to evaluate Louisiana and Texas sugarcane, Saccharum spp., cultivars for resistance to the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) was conducted in two locations in Texas, chosen for having different infestation levels. Criteria for assessment of resistance included percentage of bored internodes and adult emergence holes, the latter used to determine the relative impact of each cultivar on the potential areawide buildup or reduction of adult E. loftini populations. A recently released cultivar, HoCP 85-845, seemed to lose a portion of its resistance under heavy E. loftini infestation pressure, suggesting its value only in moderate-to-low infestation conditions. Cultivar CP 70-321 was the most resistant. Results indicated that cultivar LCP 85-384 was significantly (P < 0.05) more susceptible than NCo 310, traditionally the most susceptible cultivar commercially produced in Texas. In 2001, LCP 85-384, which now represents 85% of the production area in Louisiana, had the greatest moth production per hectare (17,052 +/- 3,956) under the lower infestation pressure, significantly (P < 0.05) higher than HoCP 85-845 (3,038 +/- 2,353). In a portion of the test at the high-infestation location, high levels of sodium and magnesium salt stress (15-30-cm soil depth) were associated with higher E. loftini damage in all cultivars except HoCP 91-555 and CP 70-321. PMID:14977135

Reay-Jones, F P F; Way, M O; Sétamou, M; Legendre, B L; Reagan, T E

2003-12-01

115

Ev Alu ATion of fiREWood BAgging And vACuum TREATmEnT foR REgulAT oRy ConTRol of EmERAld Ash BoRER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its discovery in Detroit, Michigan, in 2002, the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has caused extensive mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) as it has spread across southeast Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario, Canada (Haack et al. 2002, Poland and McCullough 2006). In addition to this core infested area, numerous outlier populations have been found throughout Michigan's Lower

Chen Zhangjing

116

32 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 PATTERNS AMONG THE ASHES: EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP  

E-print Network

: EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANDSCAPE PATTERN AND THE EMERALD ASH BORER Susan J. Crocker, Dacia M to assess the relationship between landscape pattern and the presence or absence of the emerald ash borer by the introduction of a wood-boring beetle identified as the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

117

The Cotton-Square Borer.  

E-print Network

-SQUARE BORER 17 silky hairs and scales. The legs, except the tarsal joints, are wholly clothed with white scales and concolorous long hairs on the ventral surface of the femora. On the upper side of the tarsal joints the scales are black basally and white... on the narrow distal ends. The abdomen is slender, compressed laterally, and strongly arched above along the longitudinal axis, which is more apparent in dried or preserved specimens. The dorsal surface is concolorous with the thorax, at least basally...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan)

1929-01-01

118

Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

2012-12-01

119

Do My Ash Trees Have Emerald Ash Borer?  

E-print Network

Do My Ash Trees Have Emerald Ash Borer? Purdue Plant & Pest Diagnostic Laboratory #12;Ash Tree splits S-shaped galleries Diagnostic Symptoms of Emerald Ash Borer #12;Diagnostic Symptoms of EAB information on recent emerald ash borer finds in Indiana, please contact the Indiana Department of Natural

Ginzel, Matthew

120

Biological control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Colombia.  

PubMed

The potential of the eulophid parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle to control coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) populations under field conditions in Colombia was evaluated. Parasitoid adults were released one, five and nine days after artificial infestations of 90-, 150- and 210-day-old coffee berries with H. hampei females. The position of the beetle inside the berry and the parasitism levels were assessed ten days after each P. coffea release. Parasitism of H. hampei by P. coffea was significantly affected by the age of the berries at the time of infestation, and by the position of the beetle inside the berries. Highest levels of parasitism were recorded in 150-day-old berries (75-85%) and in 90-day-old berries (75%) when P. coffea were released one day after the artificial infestation with H. hampei. In 150-day-old berries, highest levels of parasitism were recorded for H. hampei found in the outer layer of the endosperm followed by beetles penetrating the exocarp. Increasing the time of P. coffea releases after the artificial infestations with H. hampei led to decreased levels of parasitism in beetles attacking 90- and 150-day-old coffee berries. Low levels of parasitism were recorded in H. hampei females infesting older coffee berries because most of the beetles had already constructed galleries deep in the endosperm of the berries, i.e. out of reach of the parasitoid. The potential of P. coffea for biological control of coffee berry borer in Colombia is discussed. PMID:16197567

Jaramillo, J; Bustillo, A E; Montoya, E C; Borgemeister, C

2005-10-01

121

Water stress augments silicon-mediated resistance of susceptible sugarcane cultivars to the stalk borer Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Silicon (Si) can improve resistance of plants to insect attack and may also enhance tolerance of water stress. This study tested if Si-mediated host plant resistance to insect attack was augmented by water stress. Four sugarcane cultivars, two resistant (N21, N33) and two susceptible (N26, N11) to Eldana saccharina Walker were grown in a pot trial in Si-deficient river sand, with (Si+) and without (Si-) calcium silicate. To induce water stress, irrigation to half the trial was reduced after 8.5 months. The trial was artificially infested with E. saccharina eggs after water reduction and harvested 66 days later. Silicon treated, stressed and non-stressed plants of the same cultivar did not differ appreciably in Si content. Decreases in numbers of borers recovered and stalk damage were not associated with comparable increases in rind hardness in Si+ cane, particularly in water-stressed susceptible cultivars. Overall, Si+ plants displayed increased resistance to E. saccharina attack compared with Si- plants. Borer recoveries were significantly lower in stressed Si+ cane compared with either stressed Si- or non-stressed Si- and Si+ cane. Generally, fewer borers were recovered from resistant cultivars than susceptible cultivars. Stalk damage was significantly lower in Si+ cane than in Si- cane, for N21, N11 and N26. Stalk damage was significantly less in Si+ combined susceptible cultivars than in Si- combined susceptible cultivars under non-stressed and especially stressed conditions. In general, the reduction in borer numbers and stalk damage in Si+ plants was greater for water-stressed cane than non-stressed cane, particularly for susceptible sugarcane cultivars. The hypothesis that Si affords greater protection against E. saccharina borer attack in water-stressed sugarcane than in non-stressed cane and that this benefit is greatly enhanced in susceptible cultivars is supported. A possible active role for soluble Si in defence against E. saccharina is proposed. PMID:17411480

Kvedaras, O L; Keeping, M G; Goebel, F-R; Byrne, M J

2007-04-01

122

Mountain pine beetle infestation impacted by water availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation pattern and landscape structure intersect to exert strong control over ecohydrological dynamics at the watershed scale. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance (e.g. fire, disease etc.) depend on the spatial pattern and form of environmental change. Here we investigate this intersection at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana with a focus on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic currently affecting the Rocky Mountains. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with a leaf-level spectral library of local vegetation. We used this spectral library to determine optimal vegetation indices for differentiating stages of beetle infestation within the 37 km2 TCEF watershed. These indices formed the basis of a three-component mixing model to quantify the extent and magnitude of beetle infestation across the TCEF watershed. We compared disturbance patterns to spatially distributed topography and vegetation variables derived from a LiDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) of TCEF. We determined that certain landscape characteristics (low vegetation density, south facing slopes, steep slopes, locations with small contributing areas, and locations with lower values of the topographic wetness index (TWI)) were significantly more likely to exhibit the effects of beetle infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality across space and time provide a context for assessing landscape susceptibility to initial mountain pine beetle infestation via feedbacks between biodiversity and hydrological patterns and further research into understanding how outbreak (i.e. landscape scale infestation) patterns may affect watershed ecohydrology via altered water and biogeochemical cycles.

Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B.; Emanuel, R.

2012-04-01

123

Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera, Crambidae] was first discovered in  

E-print Network

Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera sugarcane, rice, corn, lemongrass, sorghum, and sudangrass causing millions of dollars in increased in Florida, pheromone traps that attract Mexican rice borer (MRB) male moths were initially placed around

Jawitz, James W.

124

Chemical ecology of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted, based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical research need to find an efficient survey method for detecting A. planipennis infestations. Here, we present a review of research that has led to the development of effective trapping methods for A. planipennis. Studies on the insect's biology and behavior have led to the identification of several potential attractants as well as the design of a visually attractive trap. The ongoing challenge in developing an optimally efficient trapping methodology for A. planipennis will involve finding the best combination of variables, such as trap shape, trap color (or other visual properties), trap placement, lure components, as well as the ratios and release rates of those components. PMID:20108026

Crook, Damon J; Mastro, Victor C

2010-01-01

125

Infestation of the surf clam Mesodesma donacium by the spionid polychaete Polydora bioccipitalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surf clam Mesodesma donacium is an economically important species for Chilean and Peruvian shellfisheries. This clam is often infested by Polydora bioccipitalis, a species belonging to the Spionidae, the most common parasitic polychaete group. To study this association, clams were sampled monthly over a one-year period in northern Chile. Collected clams covered the entire available size range and were classified into four infestation levels in order to study: (1) the relationship between prevalence of infestation ( PI) and host size, (2) the temporal pattern of infestation events related to seasonal temperature changes, and (3) the relationship between infestation, body condition index ( BCI) and gonado-somatic index ( GSI). Additionally, growth rate and digging ability of clams with different infestation levels was studied. A logistic regression model best explained the relationship between PI and host size, with the smallest infested clam being 34 mm long and PI increasing steeply thereafter. Ontogenetic shifts in the habitat of the clam and ontogenetic changes, mainly in shell morphology, seem to explain the sigmoid pattern. Periods of increased shell blistering after infestation by P. bioccipitalis showed a similar seasonal pattern with GSI and BCI of non-infested clams, suggesting either an association between infestation ability and low condition of the clam or common environmental triggers for those factors. Heavily infested clams showed a significant lower BCI, growth rate and digging ability; however, given its low number, they are unlikely to be significant in terms of the local population survival. However, the infestation could play a key role in explaining mass mortality of northern populations during El Niño events, given the latitudinal differences in PI and the fact that infestation ability could be enhanced by increased temperature and facilitated in stressed clams.

Riascos, José M.; Heilmayer, Olaf; Oliva, Marcelo E.; Laudien, Jürgen; Arntz, Wolf E.

2008-08-01

126

EValUating tHE UsE OF Plastic Bags tO PrEVEnt EscaPE OF tHE EMErald asH BOrEr, agrilUs PlaniPEnnis (cOlEOPtEra: BUPrEstidaE) FrOM FirEWOOd  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bu- prestidae), is a highly destructive exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus) in North America. Human movement of infested logs, primarily pieces of firewood, is a major pathway for long distance spread of the beetle. Firewood may be confiscated at campgrounds, rest-areas, and key transportation gateways. Treatment guide- lines for handling and storage

Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deepa S. Pureswaran

127

Detectability of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in asymptomatic urban trees by using branch samples.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic invasive insect causing extensive mortality to ash trees, Fraxinus spp., in Canada and the United States. Detection of incipient populations of this pest is difficult because of its cryptic life stages and a multiyear time lag between initial attack and the appearance of signs or symptoms of infestation. We sampled branches from open-grown urban ash trees to develop a sample unit suitable for detecting low density A. planipennis infestation before any signs or symptoms are evident. The sample unit that maximized detection rates consisted of one 50-cm-long piece from the base of a branch ?6 cm diameter in the midcrown. The optimal sample size was two such branches per tree. This sampling method detected ?75% of asymptomatic trees known to be infested by using more intensive sampling and ?3 times more trees than sampling one-fourth of the circumference of the trunk at breast height. The method is less conspicuous and esthetically damaging to a tree than the removal of bark from the main stem or the use of trap trees, and could be incorporated into routine sanitation or maintenance of city-owned trees to identify and delineate infested areas. This research indicates that branch sampling greatly reduces false negatives associated with visual surveys and window sampling at breast height. Detection of A. planipennis-infested asymptomatic trees through branch sampling in urban centers would provide landowners and urban foresters with more time to develop and implement management tactics. PMID:22251647

Ryall, Krista L; Fidgen, Jeffrey G; Turgeon, Jean J

2011-06-01

128

Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully attacked, suggesting that S. agrili could be reared on field collected logs infested with emerald ash borer. PMID:21510183

Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

2011-04-01

129

Ocular leech infestation  

PubMed Central

This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. PMID:25784786

Lee, Yueh-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Jen

2015-01-01

130

The chemotaxonomy of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) isolates from the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary chemotaxonomic analysis was carried out on 16 isolates ofBeauveria bassiana from adults of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) from 10 countries in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Thirteen formed an homogeneous group with very similar electrophoretic and physiological profiles. Two isolates differed in esterase and acid phosphatase band patterns, one of which was also deficient in

P. D. Bridge; Y. J. Abraham; M. C. Cornish; C. Prior; D. Moore

1990-01-01

131

Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of a hyperparasitoid of Prorops nasuta, a primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer. Aphanogmus sp. is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground of an organic coffee plantation in Western Kenya. The hyperparasitoid shows a clear pattern of emergence

Juliana Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega

2009-01-01

132

Genetic analysis of bed bug populations reveals small propagule size within individual infestations but high genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States.  

PubMed

Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) are a resurgent pest worldwide and infestations within the United States are increasing at a rapid rate. Because of the physical and psychological discomfort inflicted by their blood feeding habits, and allergies and secondary infections associated with bites, bed bugs are recognized as a significant public health problem. Although bed bug infestations are spreading and becoming more prevalent, we have a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. To help fill this gap, we conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States, nearly all of which came from single rooms within residences. We genotyped samples comprised of 8-10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5-17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3 alleles per locus), we found low genetic diversity (1-4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny, or a female mated with multiple males that were highly related to her. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise F(ST) between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of genetic structure, indicating infestations located in closer proximity to each other were nearly as genetically differentiated as those located hundreds of kilometers away. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources. PMID:22897047

Saenz, Virna L; Booth, Warren; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

2012-07-01

133

Temperature-dependent development and emergence pattern of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) from coffee berries.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most important constrain for coffee production throughout the world. Knowledge on the emergence pattern of H. hampei females to infest new berries is crucial to effectively plan control measures. In this laboratory study, we assessed the development of immature stages and the emergence pattern of H. hampei females from the berries by exposing them to temperatures that are typical for high-altitude plantations (> or = 1,700 m above sea level [masl] ) or when coffee is grown under shade trees (20-22 degrees C), and optimum altitude plantations (1,200-1,600 masl) or nonshaded coffee (25-30 degrees C). Fecundity and emergence pattern of H. hampei females from coffee berries varied with temperature. Temperature played a crucial role determining the rate of H. hampei development and therefore the emergence of the females to start a new infestation cycle. The emergence and colonization phases of new colonizing females in coffee plantations with mean temperatures of 20, 25, or 30 degrees C would take place at different moments in the development of the coffee berries, and in some cases more than once. The implications of our findings for an improved, site-specific timing of control interventions against H. hampei are discussed. PMID:20857723

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Borgemeister, Christian

2010-08-01

134

The use of time-series analysis to forecast bont tick ( Amblyomma hebraeum ) infestations in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the dynamics of tick infestations on cattle is an essential step in developing optimal strategies for tick control. Successful strategic tick control requires accurate predictions of when tick infestations will reach predetermined threshold levels. In the case ofAmblyomma hebraeum, earlier work has shown that there is no consistent pattern of seasonal activity. This means that a statistical model for

M. I. Meltzer; R. A. I. Norval

1992-01-01

135

Increasing coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) female density in artificial diet decreases fecundity.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of number of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), females (one, two, or five) reared in artificial diet on fecundity and subsequent development of larvae, pupae, and adults. Our results demonstrated that increasing female density from one to two or five individuals did not result in the expected two- or five-fold increase in progeny, despite ample food resources available. Instead, decreased fecundity was observed with increasing density for all experiments. The mechanism reducing fecundity was not identified, but possibly, volatiles are being produced (e.g., host-marking pheromones). The decrease in fecundity may explain why infestations of only one colonizing female per berry are the norm in the field. PMID:21404844

Vega, Fernando E; Kramer, Matthew; Jaramillo, Juliana

2011-02-01

136

Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.  

PubMed

Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality. PMID:24112110

Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

2014-01-01

137

Tungiasis infestation in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Tungiasis is caused by the jigger flea Tunga penetrans. We describe a case of severe infestation from Kigoma region, Western Tanzania. A 19-year-old male with epilepsy and mental disability presented with ulcerated and inflamed toes. Clinical examination revealed the presence of approximately 810 embedded jigger fleas on the feet, and another 60 lesions on the hands. The patient presented with fissures on the feet, hands and soles. He had difficulty walking and erythematous, oedematous, ulcerated and inflamed skin around the feet. Living conditions were precarious. The patient was assisted to extract the embedded fleas and his feet were washed with disinfectants. Oral antibiotics were given. The case shows that the disease may reach high parasite loads in Tanzanian individuals, with consequently severe pathology. There have been single reports of returning tourists from Tanzania with tungiasis, but the epidemiological situation and the geographic occurrence of the disease in this country are not known. Systematic studies are needed to increase knowledge on the epidemiological situation of tungasis in Tanzania and to identify endemic areas. PMID:20351463

Mazigo, Humphrey D; Behamana, Emmanuel; Zinga, Maria; Heukelbach, Jorg

2010-03-01

138

Assessing invasive plant infestation in freshwater wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent shifts in wetland ecosystem management goals have directed efforts toward measuring ecological integrity, rather than only using physical and chemical measures of ecosystems as health indicators. Invasive species pose one of the largest threats to wetlands integrity. Resource managers can benefit from improved methods for identifying invasive plant species, assessing infestation, and monitoring control measures. The utilization of advanced remote sensing tools for species-level mapping has been increasing and techniques need to be explored for identifying species of interest and characterizing infestation. The overarching goal of this research was to develop monitoring technologies to map invasive plants and quantify wetland infestation. The first field-level objective was to characterize absorption and reflectance features and assess processing techniques for separating wetland species. The second field-level objective was to evaluate the abilities of a shape filter to identify wetland invasive plant species. The first landscape-level objective was to classify hyperspectral imagery in order to identify invasives of interest. The second landscape-level objective was to quantify infestation within the study area. Field-level hyperspectral data (350-2500nm) were collected for twenty-two wetland plant species in a wetland located in the lower Muskegon River watershed in Michigan, USA. The Jeffries-Matusita distance measure, continuum removal, and a shape-filter were applied to hyperspectral species reflectance data to characterize spectral features. Generally, continuum removal decreased separation distance for the invasive species of interest. Using the shape-filter, Lythrum salicaria, Phragmites australis, and Typha latifolia possessed maximum separation (distinguished from other species) at the near-infrared edge (700nm) and water absorption region (1350nm), the near-infrared down slope (1000 and 1100nm), and the visible/chlorophyll absorption region (500nm) and near-infrared edge (650nm), respectively. Airborne hyperspectral imagery was classified using a two-step approach in order to obtain an optimal map (overall accuracy ˜ 70%). Information in the near-infrared enabled relatively accurate classification for Phragmites australis using the Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm and image-derived training, while Typha latifolia signatures possessed high spectral overlap and required ISODATA clustering techniques. Landscape pattern metrics relate infestation to disturbances and hydrological controls. The highest levels of infestation and infestation patterns coincide with the most substantial levels of hydrological modifications indicating human disturbances are correlated with Typha and Phragmites percentages in the landscape. Overall the approach was successful and increased the level of information ultimately desired by decision makers. The rapidly advancing field of wetland remote sensing science can obtain more meaningful information from hyperspectral imagery; however, the data are challenging to work with and only the most precisely calibrated datasets will provide utility. Combining these data with traditional wetland assessment techniques can substantially advanced goals of preserving and restoring wetland ecosystem integrity.

Torbick, Nathan M.

139

Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.  

PubMed

Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

2014-02-01

140

A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372

Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

2014-07-01

141

The role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous stem-borers on maize in the humid tropics of western Africa.  

PubMed

Sites in the humid forest of Cameroon and the derived savanna of Benin were selected to evaluate the effect of planting border rows of wild host plants on lepidopterous stem-borer infestations and on maize yield. Grass species were chosen that in surveys and greenhouse trials were highly attractive to ovipositing female moths but with offspring mortality of close to 100%, thus acting as trap plants. In Cameroon, elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Moench significantly lowered infestations of Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson and Eldana saccharina Walker and increased yields of maize though the differences were not significant during all three cropping seasons. In 1998 in Benin, the only grass tested, Pennisetum polystachion L., significantly increased parasitism of mainly S. calamistis eggs by Telenomus spp. and larvae by Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and reduced numbers of the cob-borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot. In 1999, three grass species; P. polystachion, Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf and Panicum maximum Jacq. were tested. Panicum maximum was the most efficient species for suppressing S. calamistis and M. nigrivenella infestations and enhancing egg and larval parasitism. In the Benin trials, with the exception of M. nigrivenella damage to cobs, the grass species tested had no beneficial effect on yield because pest densities were too low and also rodent damage to maize was enhanced with grasses in the vicinity of the crop. By contrast, stand losses due to Fusarium verticillioides Sacc. (Nirenberg), were significantly reduced by border rows of grasses. PMID:17598302

Ndemah, R; Gounou, S; Schulthess, F

2002-12-01

142

Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

143

Cockroach infestation on seagoing ships.  

PubMed

Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places. PMID:18479998

Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver

2008-01-01

144

Microbial Control of Plum Curculio and Peachtree Borers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruits. Stone fruits are also plagued by clear-winged moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), e.g., peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes). Microbial control agents have potential as a...

145

Dying pine infested with beetles  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Mountain pine beetle-infested trees turn a striking red color throughout their crown as they're dying. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepo...

146

Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

2013-01-01

147

Coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei)—a vector for toxigenic molds and ochratoxin A contamination in coffee beans.  

PubMed

Coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari) is a common insect pest in coffee plantations and is a suspected vector of various mycotoxin-producing molds. In the present study, field trials were undertaken consecutively for 3 years to evaluate the impact of CBB on the microbial contamination of Arabica and Robusta coffee bean varieties, with emphasis laid toward ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing fungi. Results revealed higher microbial contamination in CBB-infested beans in both the varieties of coffee with the presence of toxigenic molds (such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus). The "timely harvested" coffee, which was infested with CBB, was found to possess comparatively lesser OTA levels than those berries left in soil or on coffee plants. Studies carried out on coffee beans collected from nine curing factories indicated the presence of OTA in almost all the CBB-infested coffee beans, irrespective of the variety. Results of the present study provide sufficient baseline information and evidence to understand and correlate the role of CBB with various OTA-producing molds in coffee beans. Understanding the role of CBB might be useful and applicable in the coffee-growing regions of the world, especially in plantations for production of quality coffee. PMID:20618085

Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu; Bhat, Rajeev; Gopinandhan, Thirukonda Nannier

2010-10-01

148

Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Conclusions: Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs. PMID:23826461

Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

2013-01-01

149

Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer,  

E-print Network

Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees of the insects. Roundheaded apple-tree borer (RHATB) Saperda candida Fab. This is the most serious borer in New and mountain ash are all major hosts of this species. They can be sources of the beetles. 2. Paint the lower

New Hampshire, University of

150

Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance. PMID:22251643

Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

2011-06-01

151

Geostatistical analysis of the spatial variation of the berry borer and leaf miner in a coffee agroecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of geostatistics and geographical information systems has made it possible to analyze complex spatial patterns\\u000a of ecological phenomena over large areas in applied insect ecology and pest management. The objective of this study was to\\u000a use geostatistics to characterize the spatial structure and map the spatial variation of damage caused by the berry borer\\u000a (Hypothenemus hampei) and leaf

Marcelo C. de Alves; Fábio M. da Silva; Jair Campos Moraes; Edson A. Pozza; Marcelo S. de Oliveira; Júlio C. S. Souza; Luciana S. Alves

2011-01-01

152

Dispersion and sequential sampling plan for Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesting Hawaii coffee plantations.  

PubMed

The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a serious pest of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in the Kona region of the island of Hawaii, the center of the largest area of coffee production within the state of Hawaii. This study indirectly characterizes the spatial distribution of X. compactus in coffee plantations through assessment of twig borer damage, and presents a sequential sampling plan for monitoring X. compactus population densities. Taylor's Power Law (TPL) and Iwao's mean crowding index showed that X. compactus infestations were highly aggregated within plantations, with b and ß values significantly larger than 1. The TPL linear regression of log variance against log mean (R2 = 0.92) provided a better fit to the data than the linear regression of mean crowding on the mean (R2 = 0.68). Subsequently, Taylor's power law parameters were used to develop the Green's sequential plan to estimate densities of X. compactus at the 90 and 75% precision levels. PMID:23575018

Greco, E B; Wright, M G

2013-04-01

153

Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2014-03-01

154

Wanted4-H Wasp Watchers Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) invasive beetle introduced from  

E-print Network

Wanted4-H Wasp Watchers Situation: Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) ­ invasive beetle introduced from to detect their presence. Sources of Additional Information: Emerald ash borer: http://nyis.info/insects/Emerald

Walter, M.Todd

155

Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)  

E-print Network

GENETICS Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n in the tropics. Unfortunately, a small scolytid, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari

Romero-Severson, Jeanne

156

ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Role of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Larval  

E-print Network

ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Role of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Larval Vibrations in Host (Hymenoptera: Eulophi- dae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size

157

FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera  

E-print Network

FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae); DOI: 10.1603/EC10197 ABSTRACT We conducted trapping experiments for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus, green prism traps, ash canopy, monitoring The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

158

32 2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL EMERALD ASH BORER  

E-print Network

32 2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL EMERALD ASH BORER 48824 ABSTRACT Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a beetle native to Asia, was discovered in 10 states. Emerald ash borer (EAB) has the potential to spread and kill native ash trees (Fraxinus sp

Fried, Jeremy S.

159

76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Register Volume 76, Number 12 (Wednesday, January 19, 2011)] [Notices...Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer AGENCY: Animal and Plant...treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer in the Plant Protection...sufficient to treat emerald ash borer. DATES: Effective...

2011-01-19

160

Assessing the flight capabilities of the goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with computerized flight mills.  

PubMed

The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to southern Arizona and is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has caused considerable mortality to native oak species in southern California. Assessing the dispersal capabilities of this woodborer may help to determine its potential environmental and economic risk within the invaded region, and possibly assist with the development of species-specific management strategies. The flight performance of A. auroguttatus adults under different age, mating, and nutritional status was assessed by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period to collect information on total distance flown, flight times and velocities, number and duration of flight bouts, and postflight weight. The nutritional status and body size (i.e., elytron length) of A. auroguttatus adults had a significant influence on overall flight performance. Mating status and gender had no significant influence on total flight distance, duration, velocity, and flight bout time. Significant interactions between nutritional status and age were observed in the overall flight performance of A. auroguttatus, with decreased flight activity in old (approximately 6 d of age) starved individuals during a 24-h trial period. Overall, results of these flight mill assays indicate that A. auroguttatus is unable to disperse long distances across habitats that lack suitable oak hosts. This work supports the hypothesis that human-aided transportation via infested oak firewood from southern Arizona across the Sonoran desert likely caused the initial introduction, and subsequent satellite infestations of A. auroguttatus within southern California's native oak woodlands. PMID:25026673

Lopez, Vanessa M; McClanahan, Michael N; Graham, Laurie; Hoddle, Mark S

2014-06-01

161

Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.  

PubMed

The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section. PMID:25266165

Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

2015-04-01

162

Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 20092019 Kent F. Kovacs a,  

E-print Network

Analysis Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009­2019 Kent F. Kovacs a Emerald ash borer Cost of ash treatment, removal, and replacement Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, Ontario in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of emerald ash borer (EAB) have been detected

Liebhold, Andrew

163

Severe Demodex infestation of a coal miner.  

PubMed

We report a case of Demodex infestation in a 35 year old coal miner presenting with a 5 year history of scally papulopustular eruption on his face. He had been working inunderground coal tunnels in a humid- hot- dusty environment and he had been used to bath twice a day with hot water and multiple cleaners. The patient was treated successfully with oral metronidazol, topical permethrin, topical steroids and avoidance of undergraund mining . We believe his occupational environment made him prone to infestation by changes in sebum composition and/or viscosity, his bath habituation facilitated infestation, damaging the epidermal barrier function and his previous treatments exaggerated his infestation. During evaluation of the patient, specific occupational factors and habituations will be related with higher succession rates of treatment. We need to conduct further studies in order to draw a definite conclusion about the effect of the occupational environment on Demodex infestation. PMID:24412875

To?ral, Arzu Karata?; Alt?ndal, Mahmut; Koryürek, Özgül Mu?tu; Tutkun, Engin; Y?lmaz, Ömer H?nç

2013-01-01

164

Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the fumigant is under increasing regulation as a stratospheric ozone-depleting substance. Ionizing radiation is a relatively new commercial alternative that is currently used in several countries. The present research explored radiation doses that would provide quarantine security for commodities at risk of being infested by O. nubilalis. Radiotolerance of late pupae (the most tolerant stage infesting commodities) as determined by hatch of F1 eggs was not affected by host (meridic diet versus ear corn) or temperature (1 versus 13 degrees C) but was positively affected by low oxygen. Longevity was shorter for adults of irradiated than nonirradiated pupae. The minimum absorbed dose for phytosanitary irradiation against O. nubilalis could vary from 233 Gy for prevention of F1 pupation to 343 Gy for prevention of F1 egg hatch. Lower doses might be possible if greater risk of treatment failure was acceptable. PMID:19253619

Hallman, Guy J; Hellmich, Richard L

2009-02-01

165

A country bug in the city: urban infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Arequipa, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi remains an unrealized objective in many Latin American countries. The task of vector control is complicated by the emergence of vector insects in urban areas. Methods Utilizing data from a large-scale vector control program in Arequipa, Peru, we explored the spatial patterns of infestation by Triatoma infestans in an urban and peri-urban landscape. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to assess the associations between household infestation and household- and locality-level socio-environmental measures. Results Of 37,229 households inspected for infestation, 6,982 (18.8%; 95% CI: 18.4 – 19.2%) were infested by T. infestans. Eighty clusters of infestation were identified, ranging in area from 0.1 to 68.7 hectares and containing as few as one and as many as 1,139 infested households. Spatial dependence between infested households was significant at distances up to 2,000 meters. Household T. infestans infestation was associated with household- and locality-level factors, including housing density, elevation, land surface temperature, and locality type. Conclusions High levels of T. infestans infestation, characterized by spatial heterogeneity, were found across extensive urban and peri-urban areas prior to vector control. Several environmental and social factors, which may directly or indirectly influence the biology and behavior of T. infestans, were associated with infestation. Spatial clustering of infestation in the urban context may both challenge and inform surveillance and control of vector reemergence after insecticide intervention. PMID:24171704

2013-01-01

166

Ecological and Sociodemographic Determinants of House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Indigenous Communities of the Argentine Chaco  

PubMed Central

Background The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Principal Findings Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles’. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles’ (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Conclusions and Significance Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and household size. These factors may be used for designing improved interventions for sustainable disease control and risk stratification. Housing instability, household mobility and migration patterns are key to understanding the process of house (re)infestation in the Gran Chaco. PMID:25785439

Gaspe, M. Sol; Provecho, Yael M.; Cardinal, M. Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

2015-01-01

167

Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae.  

PubMed

Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of cocoa pod borer cause the pods of the cocoa tree to ripen prematurely. They are difficult to control with conventional measures. Preliminary assays identified five toxins that were more active than others. In two subsequent bioassays the activity of selected toxins was determined more accurately. Three Cryl proteins with relatively little homology were all found to be toxic, opening perspectives for controlling cocoa pod borer by expression of Cry proteins in transgenic plants. PMID:15307664

Santoso, Djoko; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Wiryadiputra, Soekadar; de Maagd, Ruud A

2004-08-01

168

Regeneration of sugarcane elite breeding lines and engineering of stem borer resistance.  

PubMed

Five elite sugarcane breeding lines were tested for efficiency in embryogenesis and plant regeneration. All of them produced regenerative embryogenic calli but with varied efficiencies. To engineer strongly insect-resistant sugarcanes, the GC content of a truncated cry1Ac gene, which encodes the active region of Cry1Ac insecticidal delta-endotoxin, was increased from the original 37.4 to 47.5% following the sugarcane codon usage pattern. The synthetic cry1Ac gene (s-cry1Ac) was placed under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter and introduced by microprojectile bombardment into the embryogenic calli of sugarcane lines YT79-177 and ROC16. Southern blotting analysis showed that multicopies of s-cry1Ac were integrated into the genomes of transgenic sugarcane lines. Immunoblotting analysis identified 18 transgenic lines expressing detectable levels of s-Cry1Ac, which were estimated in the range of 1.8-10.0 ng mg(-1) total soluble proteins. Four transgenic and two parental lines were assayed for sugarcane stem borer resistance in leaf tissue feeding trials and greenhouse plant assays. The results showed that, while the untransformed control lines were severely damaged in both leaves and stems, the transgenic sugarcane lines expressing high levels of s-Cry1Ac proteins were highly resistant to sugarcane stem borer attack, resulting in complete mortality of the inoculated insects within 1 week after inoculation. PMID:16408322

Weng, Li-Xing; Deng, Haihua; Xu, Jin-Ling; Li, Qi; Wang, Lian-Hui; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Hai Bao; Li, Qiwei; Zhang, Lian-Hui

2006-02-01

169

Public Street Lights Increase House Infestation by the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata  

PubMed Central

Triatoma dimidiata is one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease. We previously documented the spatio-temporal infestation of houses by this species in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and found that non-domiciliated triatomines were specifically attracted to houses. However, the factors mediating this attraction remained unclear. Artificial light has been known for a long time to attract many insect species, and therefore may contribute to the spread of different vector-borne diseases. Also, based on the collection of different species of triatomines with light traps, several authors have suggested that light might attract triatomines to houses, but the role of artificial light in house infestation has never been clearly demonstrated and quantified. Here we performed a spatial analysis of house infestation pattern by T. dimidiata in relation to the distribution of artificial light sources in three different villages from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. In all three villages, infested houses were significantly closer to public street light sources than non-infested houses (18.0±0.6 vs 22.6±0.4 m), and street lights rather than domestic lights were associated with house infestation. Accordingly, houses closer to a public street lights were 1.64 times more likely to be infested than houses further away (OR, CI95% 1.23–2.18). Behavioral experiments using a dual-choice chamber further confirmed that adult male and females were attracted to white light during their nocturnal activity. Attraction was also dependent on light color and decreased with increasing wavelength. While public lighting is usually associated with increased development, these data clearly show that it also directly contributes to house infestation by non-domiciliated T. dimidiata. PMID:22558384

Pacheco-Tucuch, Freddy Santiago; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Gourbière, Sébastien; Dumonteil, Eric

2012-01-01

170

Laboratory rearing of the cottonwood twig borer on artificial diets  

E-print Network

LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis VICTOR CARL MASTRO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1973 Ma)or Sub)ect: Entomology LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis by VICTOR CARL MASTRO Approved as to style and conte by (Cha rman of Committee) Head De artment) (He er) ( mber) mber) August 1973...

Mastro, Victory Carl

1973-01-01

171

Control of the lesser cornstalk borer on peanuts  

E-print Network

of this investigation was to develop control neasures for this insect on peanuts. REVIE'8 OP LITERATURE The lesser cornstalk borer was described by Roller in 1848. Luginbill and Ainslie (1917) reported that this in- sect was net known to be of econonic inportance...-eyed bean plantings of the southeastern desert valleys ef California. Kelsheimer et al. (1050) stated that no satisfactory control of the lesser cornstalk borer is known although ch). erdane sprays or dusts applied to the base of corn ylants nay reduce...

Cunningham, Walter Holland

1958-01-01

172

Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants  

SciTech Connect

U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. (New York Power Authority, Lewiston, NY (United States)); Claudi, R. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1991-07-01

173

Wolbachia Infection in the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nested polymerase chain reaction protocol yielded positive detection of the mater- nally inherited cytoplasmic proteobacterium Wolbachia in total genomic DNA from coffee berry borers collected in Benin, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Uganda. Wolbachia was not detected in specimens from Cameroon, the Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Peru. AmpliÞed bands from India and

Fernando E. Vega; Pablo Benavides; Jeffrey A. Stuart; Scott L. O’Neill

2002-01-01

174

Development of Harmonic Radar Systems for Tracking Emerald Ash Borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borers (EAB) have killed millions of ash trees since they were identified in North America in the summer of 2002. Data are needed on EAB behavior to aid development of treatment and management strategies and enable more effectively schedule and target control measures. Entomological ra...

175

Coffee berry borer triple-action integrated pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In coffee plantations, some of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari) females emerging from residual fruits survive by taking refuge in dry fruits remaining on the branches. They can then colonize new fruits as soon as they become appetizing and continue their development. The control strategy is therefore to capture part of the populations from residual fruits on

Bernard Pierre Dufour

176

Does the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Have Mutualistic Fungi?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays were performed to determine if a mutualistic association exists between three species of fungi and the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). The fungi Fusarium solani (Martius), Penicillium citrinum Thom and Candida fermentati (Saito) were evaluated on the reproduction and survivorship of H.hampei. The fungi were evaluated at three concentrations: 5 102 ;5 104 and 5 106 spores\\/ml

Jeanneth Pérez; Francisco Infante; Fernando E. Vega

2005-01-01

177

Modeling Emerald Ash Borer Establishment and Spread Using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the last decade, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have emerged to the forefront in computer modeling of invasive species. The invasive Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has become a major research inquiry because of its drastic impact in such a short time. Spreading is primarily caused through human vectors (i.e. campgrounds, nurseries, and sawmills), although natural spread does occur through flight.

William Ayersman; Michael P. Strager; Jacquelyn M. Strager

178

Chemical Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted,\\u000a based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical

Damon J. Crook; Victor C. Mastro

2010-01-01

179

Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle and Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the

Robert K. Lawrence

180

Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

181

REFINING THE PHEROMONE-BASED MONITORING SYSTEM FOR DOGWOOD BORER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris is an increasingly important pest of apple grown on size-controlling rootstocks in eastern North America. Many apple producers monitor populations of the key pests of apple using sex pheromone traps, and may base their management decisions on pher...

182

Protein digestion in red aak borer larvae, Enaphalodes rufulus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, a recent outbreak of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), contributed to the death of tens of thousands of red oaks. To better understand nutrient digestion in E. rufulus larvae, biochemical analyses were used to characterize dige...

183

Molecular characterization of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I and their phylogenetic relationship.  

PubMed

Shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is an important insect pest infesting brinjal or eggplant in India. Molecular characterization of nine different populations belonging to various brinjal growing regions was done using Cytochorome C Oxidase I (COI) gene. Nucleotide analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of the COI indicate that the L. orbonalis from different geographical regions are homogenous. The results showed less nucleotide diversity (? = 0.007895) and overall mean distance (0.008 ± 0.003). Topologies of neighbour-joining (NJ) trees indicate all the populations belong to single major clade. Therefore, it is inferred that there was no significant molecular diversity within L. orbonalis of different geographical locations of India with respect to COI. PMID:25675712

Shashank, P R; Ojha, Rakshit; Venkatesan, T; Jalali, S K; Bhanu, K R M

2015-01-01

184

House Infestation Dynamics and Feeding Sources of Triatoma dimidiata in Central Veracruz, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is endemic in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, and we investigated here the dynamics of house infestation by Chagas disease vectors to understand disease transmission and design effective control interventions. Bug collections in 42 rural villages confirmed the widespread distribution of Triatoma dimidiata in central Veracruz. Unexpectedly, collection data further indicated a clear pattern of seasonal infestation by mostly adult bugs. Analysis of feeding sources with a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay indicated a frequent feeding on humans, in agreement with the high seroprevalence previously observed. Feeding sources also confirmed a significant dispersal of bugs between habitats. High dispersal capabilities and seasonal infestation may thus be a shared characteristic of several of the T. dimidiata sibling species from this complex. It would thus be critical to adapt vector control interventions to this behavior to improve their efficacy and sustainability, as the control of T. dimidiata has been notoriously challenging. PMID:22492153

Torres-Montero, Jesús; López-Monteon, Aracely; Dumonteil, Eric; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel

2012-01-01

185

A Severe Infestation of Lygodium microphyllum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A severe infestation of Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. located at Jonathan Dickinson State Park, Martin County, Florida, USA. A native of the Old World tropics, L. microphyllum has become a serious pest in the forested wetlands of South Florida since naturalizing in the 1960s. Within severe infestations, this vine-like fern can smother both the understory and canopy, disrupting the recruitment of native vegetation and altering local fire ecology. The spread of this species appears to be facilitated by its ability to reproduce via intragametophytic selfing.

Michael S. Lott (Florida Atlantic University; Department of Biological Sciences ADR; POSTAL)

2004-03-09

186

Delusional infestations: clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Patients with delusional infestations (DI), previously named delusions of parasitosis, have a fixed, false belief that they are infested with living or non-living pathogens. Patients have abnormal cutaneous symptoms such as itching, biting, or crawling sensations. They often demonstrate self-destructive behavior in an effort to rid the pathogens from under their skin, leading to excoriations, ulcerations, and serious secondary infections. This review article aims to provide an overview of DI including its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Strategies on how to establish a strong therapeutic alliance with DI patients are discussed. In addition, antipsychotic medications used in the treatment of DI are described. PMID:23789596

Heller, Misha M; Wong, Jillian W; Lee, Eric S; Ladizinski, Barry; Grau, Manuel; Howard, Josephine L; Berger, Timothy G; Koo, John Y M; Murase, Jenny E

2013-07-01

187

Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.  

PubMed

Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations. PMID:21404841

Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich

2011-02-01

188

Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

2013-01-01

189

Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

2013-01-01

190

Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).  

PubMed

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is indigenous to eastern North America. It is a pest of commercially grown Prunus spp., especially to southeastern peach orchards where earlier regulatory changes affected pesticide use on peach leading to increased S. pictipes damage. Pest management practices are now having a positive effect toward control of this pest, but cost-competitive biological control solutions that promote environmental stewardship are needed. Here, we tested four Steinernema species and five Heterorhabditis species of entomopathogenic nematodes against larval S. pictipes. Included were four strains of S. carpocapsae (All, DD136, Sal, and Hybrid2) and three strains of S. riobrave (3-8b, 7-12, and 355). Larvae treated with any strain of S. carpocapsae always resulted in <20% survival, whereas larval survival was always >50% when treated with any other Steinernema or Heterorhabditis spp. These differences were always significant for the Hybrid2 strain of S. carpocapsae and similarly for other tested S. carpocapsae strains except for when larvae were treated with the 3-8b strain of S. riobrave. In addition, we determined the susceptibility of different size S. pictipes larvae, because they occur simultaneously in orchards, and we found that larvae rated as "medium" and "large" were significantly more susceptible than "small" larvae. Last, we demonstrated that moisture-retaining covers (placed over S. pictipes-infested wounds on peach limbs) increased efficacy of nematode treatments against larval S. pictipes. Even when using highly virulent nematodes against S. pictipes, it is likely that an aboveground application will require an environmental modification to remain efficacious. PMID:21404838

Cottrell, T E; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Horton, D L; Mizell, R F

2011-02-01

191

Detection of European corn borer infestation in rainfed and irrigated corn using airborne hyperspectral imaging: implications for resistance management  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

192

Ability of Plant Stress Volatiles to Trigger Attacks by the Nursery-Infesting Black Stem Borer, Xylosandrus germanus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylosandrus germanus is of Eastern Asia origin and among the most economically important exotic ambrosia beetles in US nurseries. The attractiveness of stress-related volatiles other than ethanol to X. germanus is inconclusive, and such information could improve detection and monitoring programs of ...

193

Effects of volatiles from Maruca vitrata larvae and caterpillar-infested flowers of their host plant Vigna unguiculata on the foraging behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae.  

PubMed

The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae were investigated under laboratory conditions by using a Y-tube olfactometer. Naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps were given a choice between several odor sources that included (1) uninfested, (2) Maruca vitrata-infested, and (3) mechanically damaged cowpea flowers, as well as (4) stem portions of peabush plants carrying leaves and flowers, (5) healthy M. vitrata larvae, and moribund (6), and live (7) virus-infected M. vitrata larvae. Responses of naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps did not differ for any of the odor source combinations. Wasps were significantly attracted to floral volatiles produced by cowpea flowers that had been infested with M. vitrata larvae and from which the larvae had been removed. Apanteles taragamae females also were attracted to Maruca vitrata-infested flowers after removal of both the larvae and their feces. Female wasps discriminated between volatiles from previously infested flowers and mechanically damaged flowers. Uninfested cowpea flowers attracted only oviposition-experienced wasps that had received a rewarding experience (i.e. the parasitization of two M. vitrata larvae feeding on cowpea flowers) before the olfactometer test. Wasps also were attracted to uninfested leaves and flowers of peabush. Moreover, they were also attracted to healthy and live virus-infected M. vitrata larvae, but not when the latter were moribund. Our data show that, similarly to what has been extensively been reported for foliar volatiles, flowers of plants also emit parasitoid-attracting volatiles in response to being infested with an herbivore. PMID:20842412

Dannon, Elie A; Tamò, Manuele; Van Huis, Arnold; Dicke, Marcel

2010-10-01

194

Effects of Volatiles from Maruca vitrata Larvae and Caterpillar-Infested Flowers of Their Host Plant Vigna unguiculata on the Foraging Behavior of the Parasitoid Apanteles taragamae  

PubMed Central

The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae were investigated under laboratory conditions by using a Y-tube olfactometer. Naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps were given a choice between several odor sources that included (1) uninfested, (2) Maruca vitrata-infested, and (3) mechanically damaged cowpea flowers, as well as (4) stem portions of peabush plants carrying leaves and flowers, (5) healthy M. vitrata larvae, and moribund (6), and live (7) virus-infected M. vitrata larvae. Responses of naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps did not differ for any of the odor source combinations. Wasps were significantly attracted to floral volatiles produced by cowpea flowers that had been infested with M. vitrata larvae and from which the larvae had been removed. Apanteles taragamae females also were attracted to Maruca vitrata-infested flowers after removal of both the larvae and their feces. Female wasps discriminated between volatiles from previously infested flowers and mechanically damaged flowers. Uninfested cowpea flowers attracted only oviposition-experienced wasps that had received a rewarding experience (i.e. the parasitization of two M. vitrata larvae feeding on cowpea flowers) before the olfactometer test. Wasps also were attracted to uninfested leaves and flowers of peabush. Moreover, they were also attracted to healthy and live virus-infected M. vitrata larvae, but not when the latter were moribund. Our data show that, similarly to what has been extensively been reported for foliar volatiles, flowers of plants also emit parasitoid-attracting volatiles in response to being infested with an herbivore. PMID:20842412

Dannon, Elie A.; Tamò, Manuele; Van Huis, Arnold

2010-01-01

195

Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is

Justin G. A. Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Kari B. Green-Church; Jennifer L. Koch; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Haibing Yang

2011-01-01

196

120 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 DETECTION OF EMERALD ASH BORER,  

E-print Network

120 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 DETECTION OF EMERALD ASH BORER Center, Houghton, MI 49931 ABSTRACT The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera. For the foreseeable future, trap tree and ground surveys will be important tools for detecting emerald ash borer

197

Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col., Buprestidae)  

E-print Network

Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col USDA APHIS PPQ, Brighton, MI, USA Introduction The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis emerald ash borers (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, using solely visual cues based on previous work

198

75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...spread of emerald ash borer in the United States...Title: Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from...product, biological control organism, noxious...to prevent a plant pest or noxious weed from...importation of emerald ash borer host material from...that attacks ash trees, in the United...

2010-08-03

199

Bt Corn and the European Corn Borer: Evaluation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive predictive model uses years of past weather data and a model of the European corn borer's life cycle under different temperatures to calculate the net benefit of planting Bt corn versus non-Bt corn in a certain geographic area. Great data visualization. Requires Flash. This is an excellent tool incorporating a large volume of data. The tool should be quite useful for IPM classes.

0000-00-00

200

Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site.  

PubMed

Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of four 50- by 50-m cells. Green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) were inventoried by diameter class and ash phloem area was estimated for each cell. One trap type was randomly assigned to each cell in each block. Because initial sampling showed that A. planipennis density was extremely low, infested ash logs were introduced into the center of the site. In total, 87 beetles were captured during the summer. Purple double-decker traps baited with a blend of ash leaf volatiles, Manuka oil, and ethanol captured 65% of all A. planipennis beetles. Similarly baited, green double-decker traps captured 18% of the beetles, whereas sticky bands on girdled trees captured 11% of the beetles. Purple traps baited with Manuka oil and suspended in the canopies of live ash trees captured only 5% of the beetles. At least one beetle was captured on 81% of the purple double-decker traps, 56% of the green double-decker traps, 42% of sticky bands, and 25% of the canopy traps. Abundance of ash phloem near traps had no effect on captures and trap location and sun exposure had only weak effects on captures. Twelve girdled and 29 nongirdled trees were felled and sampled in winter. Current-year larvae were present in 100% of the girdled trees and 72% of the nongirdled trees, but larval density was five times higher on girdled than nongirdled trees. PMID:22251735

McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W; Poland, Therese M; Pierce, Steven J; Ahn, Su Zie

2011-10-01

201

Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences  

PubMed Central

Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

2013-01-01

202

Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...

203

Signature Chemicals for Detection of Hidden Insect Infestation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tephritid fruit flies are major pests worldwide, but infestation is difficult to detect since the larval stages are concealed within host fruits. Using grapefruit infested with the Caribbean fruit fly, we evaluated gas chromatography (GC) as a tool for detection of hidden infestation. We found sever...

204

Severe cat flea infestation of dairy calves in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted into a severe flea infestation on dairy calves. Inspection of the dairy revealed a high infestation of Ctenocephalides felis felis on four calves and thousands of fleas in the stable where cows and calves were brought in for milking. A 3-month-old female calf was highly infested with fleas. The animal showed an evident lethargy, weight loss,

F. R Araújo; M. P Silva; A. A Lopes; O. C Ribeiro; P. P Pires; C. M. E Carvalho; C. B Balbuena; A. A Villas; J. K. M Ramos

1998-01-01

205

Alternate crop and weed host plant oviposition preferences by the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum hybrids, in south Texas, having largely displaced the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and it is moving into rice- and sugarcane-growing areas of east Texas and Louisiana. While a number of alternativ...

206

Survey of lepidopterous stem borer pests of sorghum, maize and pearl millet in Eritrea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of lepidopterous stem borers attacking sorghum, maize and pearl millet was done in Eritrea during the cropping seasons of 1996 and 1997. The survey area covered the highlands, western and eastern lowlands and the coastal region of the Red Sea, where sorghum, maize and millet are the major crops. Four lepidopterous stem borers species, namely Busseola fusca Fuller,

Adugna Haile; Trond Hofsvang

2001-01-01

207

A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

208

Penicillium brocae, a new species associated with the coffee berry borer in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatan, Chia- pas, and from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Implicatum, but because it does not conform to known species we have described it as new. ITS and

Stephen W. Peterson; Jeanneth Perez; Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Infante

2003-01-01

209

THE BLACK TWIG BORER: A STUDY OF THE DAMAGE DONE TO UNPROTECTED HAWAIIAN COFFEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Also known as the coffee twig borer, ambrosia beetle, and Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff, the black twig borer has been found to not only attack coffee, but also over 100 other species of trees and shrubs including avocado, citrus, guava, macadamia, live oak, and several types of orchids. The female beetles bore holes in the branches of the plant and cause

LARA DRIZD

210

Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

211

PENICILLIUM BROCAE A NEW SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...

212

Classical Biological Control of Emerald Ash Borer and Asian Longhorned Beetle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), are both invasive plant pests recently introduced to North America from the Far East. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an oligophagous buprestid on Fraxinus spp., whereas the Asi...

213

Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009–2019  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of emerald ash borer (EAB) have been detected in nine additional states and Quebec. EAB is a highly invasive forest pest that has the potential to spread and kill native ash trees

Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold

2010-01-01

214

Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat  

E-print Network

Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat Brahim - Dearborn 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48120, USA {brahim,wgrosky}@umich.edu Abstract. The Emerald Ash Service ­ Ontology ­ Invasive Species ­ EAB. 1 Introduction The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a shiny

Medjahed, Brahim

215

Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of diverse inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Ce...

216

Impact of Plant Resistance on Southwestern Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Biology and Plant Damage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major insect pest of corn in the southern United States. Germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer have been developed and released by USDA-ARS. Two single-cross hybrids produced by crossing germplasm...

217

Induced defenses in maize following attack by the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the course of the past two decades, insect pests such as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) annually resulted in losses to US maize production exceeding one billion dollars. Despite the global significance of O. nubilalis and other stem borers, relatively little is known about the nat...

218

76 FR 5679 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Register Volume 76, Number 22 (Wednesday, February 2, 2011)] [Rules...Register / Vol. 76, No. 22 / Wednesday, February 2, 2011 / Rules...APHIS-2009-0098] Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined...rule that amended the emerald ash borer regulations by...

2011-02-02

219

Resistance Evolution to Bt Crops: Predispersal Mating of European Corn Borers  

E-print Network

Resistance Evolution to Bt Crops: Predispersal Mating of European Corn Borers Ambroise Dalecky1, aimed at delaying the evolution of pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins produced evolution to Bt crops: Predispersal mating of European corn borers. PLoS Biol 4(6): e181. DOI: 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

DIVERSITY OF PENICILLIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (CBB) causes great damage to coffee crops around the world. Borer eggs are laid in developing coffee berries, and the larvae feed on tissue of the berry. It has been hypothesized that fungal growth in insect galleries provides exogenous sterols needed for...

221

Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

222

Repellence of the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda from grafted apple trees by impregnation of rubber budding strips with essential oils.  

PubMed

The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed. PMID:17421054

van Tol, Rob W H M; Swarts, Henk J; van der Linden, Anton; Visser, J H

2007-05-01

223

Effect of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) upon the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) under field conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of three strains of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin upon the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), was studied in three coffee farms at different altitudes (450-1,100 m above sea level) in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. The maximum average percentage mycosis varied according to altitude. At 450 m asl (El Rincon) mycosis was 14.3% for B. bassiana and 6.3% for M. anisopliae; at 880 m asl (Santa Anita) mycosis was 40.6% for B. bassiana and 12.6% for M. anisopliae, and at 1,100 m asl (Alpujarras) 33.9% for B. bassiana and 22. 1% for M. anisopliae. The effect of fungal mycosis through time was not significant (P > 0.01) in any of the farms, but there was a significant difference between the strains of the fungus (P < 0.01); the best strains being Bb25 and Ma4 at the lower altitude, Bb26 and Ma4 for the middle altitude and Bb26 and Ma4 at the higher altitude. Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity and rain were not correlated with the percentage mycosis caused by B. bassiana and M. anisopliae. However, in the case of B. bassiana there was a significant, positive correlation (P < 0.01) between the infestation levels of the pest and the mycosis response of the entomopathogen. PMID:11057711

De la Rosa, W; Alatorre, R; Barrera, J F; Toreillo, C

2000-10-01

224

Penicillium brocae, a new species associated with the coffee berry borer in Chiapas, Mexico.  

PubMed

Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, and from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Implicatum, but because it does not conform to known species we have described it as new. ITS and large subunit rDNA were sequenced and compared to determine the phylogenetic position of this species. It is most closely related to Penicillium adametzii. Penicillium brocae has only been found in association with the coffee berry borer and is one of several fungi that grow in coffee berry borer galleries. Penicillium brocae may provide the exogenous sterols necessary for the coffee berry borer's development and thus be mutualistically associated with the insect. PMID:21156600

Peterson, Stephen W; Pérez, Jeanneth; Vega, Fernando E; Infante, Francisco

2003-01-01

225

Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).  

PubMed

A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building. PMID:17319150

Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

2006-09-01

226

Studies on insect infestation in chocolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of stored-product pests including the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne, the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, the rust-red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the almond moth, Ephestia cautella, to infest chocolates under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 25±1°C and 65±5% r.h. Four types of chocolates were investigated: milk, nut, dried fruit and nut, and

Khamrunissa Begum; P. Vanitha Reddy; B. C. Leelaja; Y. Rajashekar; S. Rajendran

2007-01-01

227

Original article Geographical distribution, levels of infestation  

E-print Network

bees was found to be 3.28 in the period from April-June when drone brood rearing is at its peak; from June-April this number in- creased to 5.7. The number of mites on drones at the time of emergence was 1-8, with a mean of 4.30 ± 1.66. Percentage of infested drone cells in newly constructed combs with first drone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

228

Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•?) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•? was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•? generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Pawe?; Sprawka, Iwona; ?ukasik, Iwona; Go?awska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

2014-01-01

229

Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

2008-05-01

230

A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.  

PubMed

Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides. PMID:23321083

Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

2012-12-01

231

Response of Grape Leaf Spectra to Phylloxera Infestation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A handheld chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations were symptomatic of phylloxera stress in the sample vines. Bidirectional reflectance measurements of green and near-infrared light, taken on fresh leaves with a laboratory spectrophotometer, were related to chlorophyll concentration but did not allow discrimination of mildly infested from uninfested vines.

Johnson, Lee F.

1999-01-01

232

Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.  

PubMed

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

2013-01-01

233

Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch  

PubMed Central

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

2013-01-01

234

Improved chemical control for the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera Crambidae) in sugarcane: larval exposure, a novel scouting method, and efficacy of a single aerial insecticide application.  

PubMed

A three-treatment aerial application insecticide experiment was conducted in five commercial sugarcane, Saccharum spp., fields in south Texas to evaluate the use of pheromone traps for improving chemical control of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), in 2009 and 2010. A threshold of 20 moths/trap/wk was used to initiate monitoring for larval infestations. The percentage of stalks with larvae on plant surfaces was directly related to the number of moths trapped. Reductions in borer injury and adult emergence were detected when a threshold of >5% of stalks with larvae present on plant surfaces was used to trigger insecticide applications. Novaluron provided superior control compared with beta-cyfluthrin; novaluron treated plots were associated with a 14% increase in sugar production. A greenhouse experiment investigating establishment and behavior of E. loftini larvae on two phenological stages of stalkborer resistant, HoCP 85-845, and susceptible, HoCP 00-950, sugarcane cultivars determined that more than half of larvae on HoCP 00-950 and > 25% on HoCP 85-845 tunneled inside leaf mid-ribs within 1 d of eclosion, protected therein from biological and chemical control tactics. Exposure time of larvae averaged < 1 wk for all treatments and was shortest on immature HoCP 00-950 and longest on mature HoCP 85-845. This study shows a short window of vulnerability of E. loftini larvae to insecticide applications, and demonstrates the potential utility of pheromone traps for improving insecticide intervention timing such that a single properly timed application may be all that is required. PMID:23356064

Wilson, B E; Showler, A T; Reagan, T E; Beuzelin, J M

2012-12-01

235

Evaluation of double-decker traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites with very low A. planipennis densities, more A. planipennis were captured on baited double-decker traps than on other traps and a higher percentage of the baited double-decker traps captured beetles than any other trap design. In all 3 yr, peak A. planipennis activity occurred during late June to mid-July, corresponding to 800-1200 growing degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD10). Nearly all (95%) beetles were captured by the end of July at approximately 1400 DD10. PMID:21510200

Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C

2011-04-01

236

Parasitic Infestation and Choice of Reproductive Regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and asexual population inhabiting the same environment represented by a square lattice. With a small probability, a newborn from the sexual population mutates into an asexual one and vice versa. Then, the asexual population rapidly dominates the sexual one, which all but disappears. However, when an infestation by mutating genetically coupled parasites, that mimic trematodes that feed on gonads, is introduced, the outcome may be one in which both populations coevolve or one in which one of the populations overcomes the other, depending on the density of parasites on the lattice.

Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Sá Martins, J. S.

237

[Management of lice infestations, recommendations for 2012].  

PubMed

Pediculosis is the most frequent and contagious ectoparasitic infestation in human, particularly in children from 3 to 8 years of age. Epidemics are observed from time to time, in schools or in adults in prisons. Even though benign, these infections remain unpleasant and can have an important psyco-social impact. Since a few years, caregivers have to face increasing problems while treating lice: appearance of insecticide resistances, lindane's withdrawal from the market and the marketing of new products which are not always well evaluated. This article offers first recalls about pediculoses and then a sum up of the different available treatments with an evidence based management strategy. PMID:22545493

Maillard, Alexia; Trellu, Laurence Toutous; Eicher, Nicole; Michaud, Mélanie; Laffitte, Emmanuel

2012-04-01

238

Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles  

E-print Network

ranges from very ?ne to coarse, depending on the species. Sometimes an infestation is indicated by the presence of wood-boring beetle adults. Adult beetles that emerge in con?ned structures are attracted to lights or windows and may accumu- late... on the wood. These chewing sounds are most often heard during quiet times at night. of the larvae and the emergence of adults can weaken wood and may destroy its appearance. Wood-boring beetles come from at least 12 insect families and vary greatly...

Jackman, John A.

2006-03-28

239

Susceptibility of the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes is an important pest of Prunus spp. We determined the susceptibility of S. pictipes to six entomopathogenic nematode species: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. indica, H. marelatus, Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. riobrave. Nematode viru...

240

Tri-trophic Analyses of Rice, the Sugarcane Borer, and Putative Biological Control Agents  

E-print Network

A three-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were...

Lv, Jiale

2010-01-14

241

Regulatory factors and structure of a component population of the spionid Polydora bioccipitalis infesting the surf clam Mesodesma donacium.  

PubMed

Spionidae, particularly polydorids, are common polychaete parasites of edible mollusks around the world. However, our understanding of the regulatory factors and population structure of these parasites is scant. In this study involving Polydora bioccipitalis and the surf clam Mesodesma donacium we evaluated (1) the environmental correlates of the prevalence and mean intensity of the infestation, (2) the relationship between the number of egg capsules and juvenile and adult parasites and the time elapsed since infestation, and (3) the spatial patterns of juveniles and adults within the host. Environmental factors showed no significant correlations with prevalence and mean intensity, suggesting that these factors do not act directly as regulators. Rather, storm surges seemingly induced clam stranding, which in turn affected both the prevalence and intensity of the infestation. The numbers of juveniles and egg capsules in blisters were significantly related to the time since infestation, suggesting mechanisms of use and expansion of the space within the host. Juvenile worms showed an aggregated distribution that was probably related to the episodic nature of infestation events, whereas adults exhibited uniform distributions that probably reflect territorial behavior and reproductive strategies. PMID:22216711

Riascos, José M; Cuturrufo, Miguel; Pacheco, Aldo S; Oliva, Marcelo E

2011-09-01

242

Infestation status of gnathiid isopod juveniles parasitic on Dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) from the northeast Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

This is the first detailed documented record of Gnathiid isopod praniza larvae infestating dusky grouper, (Epinephelus marginatus Lowe 1834) in the northeast Mediterranean Sea (36 degrees 36'N-36 degrees 07'E, 35 degrees 52'N-36 degrees 25'E). Fish were sampled monthly from Iskenderun Bay during a 3-year period from 2000 to 2003 [N = 468, W+/-SD (range) = 503.69+/-342.35 g (177-2,832 g), TL+/-SD (range) = 32.39+/-9.22 cm (16.1-67.0 cm), W (total) = 0.213L (total) (2.19), r (total) (2) = 0.85]. Juveniles of the Gnathia sp. were only extracted from the epithelium of the buccal cavity. The monthly and seasonal patterns in infestation rates (mean prevalence, P = 27.35% and mean intensity, MI+/-SD = 21.35+/-16.19), and the relationship between length-weight and infested/non-infested fish were calculated. This study suggests that gnathiid parasite has no effect on the growth and general health condition of infested fish, although high intensities were observed in fish. PMID:17476529

Genc, Ercument

2007-08-01

243

The biology and control of the lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.  

E-print Network

THE BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE LESSER GRAIN BORER RHIZOPERTHA DOMINICA (FAB. ) A Thesis By Valiavetil Thomson Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE January 1966 Major Subjeot: Entomology THE BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE LESSER GRAIN BORER RHIKOPERTHA DOMINICA (FAB ~ ) A Thesis By Valiavetil Thomson Approved as to style and content by: ( airman of Committee) (Hea o Department) Mem r...

Thomson, Valiavetil

1966-01-01

244

Molecular markers for yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) resistance in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding for yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait and inherent difficulties\\u000a in screening. Identification of molecular markers linked to the trait would enhance phenotypic evaluation for the trait. An\\u000a F2 population was developed using parents contrasting in their reaction to yellow stem borer resistance. Random Amplified Polymorphic\\u000a DNA (RAPD) analysis,in

A. Selvi; P. Shanmugasundaram; S. Mohan Kumar; J. A. J. Raja

2002-01-01

245

New Record for the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Hawaii  

PubMed Central

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is endemic to Africa and is the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide. The female bores a hole in the coffee berry and deposits her eggs inside. Upon hatching, larvae feed on the seeds, thus reducing both quality and yields of the marketable product. The coffee berry borer was found in the district of Kona on the island of Hawaii in August 2010 and appears to be restricted to that area. PMID:22225430

Burbano, Elsie; Wright, Mark; Bright, Donald E.; Vega, Fernando E.

2011-01-01

246

New record for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Hawaii.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is endemic to Africa and is the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide. The female bores a hole in the coffee berry and deposits her eggs inside. Upon hatching, larvae feed on the seeds, thus reducing both quality and yields of the marketable product. The coffee berry borer was found in the district of Kona on the island of Hawaii in August 2010 and appears to be restricted to that area. PMID:22225430

Burbano, Elsie; Wright, Mark; Bright, Donald E; Vega, Fernando E

2011-01-01

247

Burbano et al. New record for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Hawaii  

E-print Network

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is endemic to Africa and is the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide. The female bores a hole in the coffee berry and deposits her eggs inside. Upon hatching, larvae feed on the seeds, thus reducing both quality and yields of the marketable product. The coffee berry borer was found in the district of Kona on the island of Hawaii in August 2010 and appears to be restricted to that area.

Elsie Burbano A; Mark Wright B; Donald E. Bright C; O E. Vega D

2010-01-01

248

Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-12-01

249

Tick infestation risk for dogs in a peri-urban park  

PubMed Central

Background Increases in the abundance and distribution of ticks and tick borne disease (TBD) within Europe have been reported extensively over the last 10–20 years. Changes in climate, habitat management, economic patterns and changes in the abundance of hosts, particularly deer, may all have influenced this change to varying extents. Increasing abundances of tick populations in urban and peri-urban environments, such as parks, are of particular concern. In these sites, suitable habitat, wildlife hosts, tick populations, people and their pets may be brought into close proximity and hence may provide foci for tick infestation and, ultimately, disease transmission. Methods The distribution and abundance of ticks were examined in an intensively used, peri-urban park. First the seasonal and spatial distribution and abundance of ticks in various habitat types were quantified by blanket dragging. Then the pattern of pet dog movement in the park was mapped by attaching GPS recorders to the collars of dogs brought to the park for exercise, allowing their walking routes to be tracked. Information about the dog, its park use and its history of tick attachment were obtained from the dog-owners. Results Ticks were found predominantly in woodland, woodland edge and deer park areas and were least abundant in mown grassland. Tick infestation of dogs was a relatively frequent occurrence with, on average, one case of tick attachment reported per year for a dog walked once per week, but for some dogs walked daily, infestation 4–5 times per week was reported. All dogs appeared to be at equal risk, regardless of walk route or duration and infestation was primarily influenced by the frequency of exposure. Conclusions In peri-urban green spaces, tick-biting risk for dogs may be high and here was shown to be related primarily to exposure frequency. While tick-biting is of direct veterinary importance for dogs, dogs also represent useful sentinels for human tick-exposure. PMID:24341594

2013-01-01

250

Monoterpene emissions from bark beetle infested Engelmann spruce trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bark beetle infestation impacts the health of coniferous forests, which are an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. The types and amounts of VOCs emitted from forests can influence secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and impact overall air quality. In this initial work, the impact of bark beetle infestation on SOA precursors from Engelmann spruce is assessed. The VOCs emitted from the trunk of infested and healthy spruce trees were sampled using both sorbent traps and evacuated canisters that were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The samples from the infested spruce tree suggest a nine-fold enhancement in the total VOC emissions. The dominant VOCs in the infested spruce trees were 3-carene, ?-pinene, and ?-pinene. The increase observed in VOCs sampled at the trunk of the infested spruce was consistent with increases observed at infested lodgepole pine trunks. However, the types and amounts of VOCs emitted from Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine are different, which suggests that additional measures of VOC emissions are needed to characterize the impact of bark beetle infestation on VOC emissions and SOA precursors.

Amin, Hardik S.; Russo, Rachel S.; Sive, Barkley; Richard Hoebeke, E.; Dodson, Craig; McCubbin, Ian B.; Gannet Hallar, A.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.

2013-06-01

251

Relationship between horn fly infestation and polymorphisms in cytochrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Individual animal variation occurs regarding external parasite infestation in beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if horn flies infestations present on beef cattle are associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; T-318C) in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A28) and the prolactin (PR...

252

66 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER IN RUSSIA: 2009 SITUATION UPDATE  

E-print Network

66 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER IN RUSSIA: 2009 The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a beetle native to East Asia and the Russian

253

Interactions of wheat variety, production environments, and prior insect damage on postharvest resistance to the lesser grain borer.  

PubMed

Wheat, Triticum aestivum L., varietal resistance to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F), was evaluated in hard spring wheat produced in 2001 and 2002 (Bozeman, Moccasin, and Huntley, MT). We tested the hypothesis that seed coat factors, not the endosperm, cause feeding resistance to R. dominica and that this resistance is genetic, not affected by agronomic conditions. Using a rapid, intensive feeding bioassay (frass production), we found, with one exception, no significant difference in resistance to R. dominica, among sound kernels of hard red wheat, comparing all locations and cultural conditions (irrigated versus dryland production). The most significantly resistant samples as indicated by lowest feeding activity (measured by lowest frass production) were 'Amidon' produced at Moccasin under dryland conditions and Amidon produced at Huntley under irrigated conditions. As with previous studies done in our laboratory, sound kernels of all hard wheat varieties from these new crop year studies (2001, 2002) were attacked. When subsamples of these varieties from the same locations and cultural conditions as the previous test were first subjected to a heavy infestation of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) and then to the same age adult R. dominica, damage was significantly greater. Each kernel chosen for this test had been equally damaged by P. interpunctella larvae, germ consumed, endosperm not damaged, but fully exposed behind germ, no other damage. This collaborative damage caused feeding damage by R. dominica to increase 2- to 7.5-fold (as measured by R. dominica frass production). Particularly notable was 'McNeal' that switched from one of the most resistant varieties to the most fed upon, when the endosperm was exposed by P. interpunctella larvae. Therefore, we confirmed that at least one factor conferring resistance in McNeal is located in the kernel pericarp. PMID:17066819

Broughton, Matthew J; Dunkel, Florence V

2006-10-01

254

Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ?68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed. PMID:24280666

Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P

2013-12-01

255

Ticks infesting domestic animals in northern Greece.  

PubMed

The tick species infesting grazing animals in the countryside of 11 prefectures in Northern Greece were investigated during April-July and September-December of consecutive years 2003-2006. A total of 3,249 (1,952 males, 1,297 females) adult ticks were collected from goats, sheep, cattle and dogs. Ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus (44.57%), Ixodes gibbosus (4.09%), Rhipicephalus bursa (19.14%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus (5.79%), Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (12.40%), Dermacentor marginatus (0.31%) and Boophilus annulatus (4.43%). Rhipicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp. were abundant in all prefectures, Ixodes spp. were present in 9/11 prefectures, Boophilus spp. in 4/11, while Dermacentor spp. were found only in one. Results of this study give an insight into the ecology of ticks and their potential of tick-borne diseases in the country. PMID:18563592

Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Gerou, Spyros; Kahrimanidou, Melania; Papa, Anna

2008-08-01

256

Efficacy of plant essential oils against two major insect pests of coffee (Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and antestia bug, Antestiopsis intricata) and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee berry borer, antestia bug and maize weevil are serious pest of coffee and maize, respectively. Bioassays of plant essential oils were conducted with coffee berry borer, antestia bug and the maize weevil. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Aloysia sp., Ruta chalepensis, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Cymbopogon nardus resulted in 80%–90% mortality of coffee berry borer, whereas essential oils of C.

Esayas Mendesil; Mekuria Tadesse; Merid Negash

2011-01-01

257

Efficacy of plant essential oils against two major insect pests of coffee (Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and antestia bug, Antestiopsis intricata) and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee berry borer, antestia bug and maize weevil are serious pest of coffee and maize, respectively. Bioassays of plant essential oils were conducted with coffee berry borer, antestia bug and the maize weevil. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Aloysia sp., Ruta chalepensis, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Cymbopogon nardus resulted in 80%–90% mortality of coffee berry borer, whereas essential oils of C.

Esayas Mendesil; Mekuria Tadesse; Merid Negash

2012-01-01

258

The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010-2020.  

PubMed

The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding how newly established satellite populations may affect economic costs can help program managers to justify and design prevention and control strategies. We estimate the economic costs caused by EAB for the 10-yr period from 2010 to 2020 for scenarios of fewer EAB satellite populations than those found from 2005 to 2010 and slower expansion of satellite populations found in 2009. We measure the projected discounted cost of treatment, removal, and replacement of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) growing in managed landscapes in U.S. communities. Estimated costs for the base scenario with the full complement of satellites in 2005-2010 and no program to mitigate spread is $12.5 billion. Fewer EAB satellites from 2005 to 2010 delay economic costs of $1.0 to 7.4 billion. Slower expansion of 2009 satellite populations delays economic costs of $0.1 to 0.7 billion. Satellite populations that are both distant from the core EAB infestation and close to large urban areas caused more economic costs in our simulations than did other satellites. Our estimates of delayed economic costs suggest that spending on activities that prevent establishment of new satellite EAB populations or slow expansion of existing populations can be cost-effective and that continued research on the cost and effectiveness of prevention and control activities is warranted. PMID:21546148

Kovacs, Kent F; Mercader, Rodrigo J; Haight, Robert G; Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Liebhold, Andrew M

2011-09-01

259

Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding pest, was identified as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, in 2002. A. planipennis reportedly colonizes other genera in its native range in Asia, including Ulmus L., Juglans L., and Pterocarya Kunth. Attacks on nonash species have not been observed in North America to date, but there is concern that other genera could be colonized. From 2003 to 2005, we assessed adult A. planipennis landing rates, oviposition, and larval development on North American ash species and congeners of its reported hosts in Asia in multiple-choice field studies conducted at several southeast Michigan sites. Nonash species evaluated included American elm (U. americana L.), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.), black walnut (J. nigra L.), shagbark hickory [Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch], and Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata Bl.). In studies with freshly cut logs, adult beetles occasionally landed on nonash logs but generally laid fewer eggs than on ash logs. Larvae fed and developed normally on ash logs, which were often heavily infested. No larvae were able to survive, grow, or develop on any nonash logs, although failed first-instar galleries occurred on some walnut logs. High densities of larvae developed on live green ash and white ash nursery trees, but there was no evidence of larval survival or development on Japanese tree lilac and black walnut trees in the same plantation. We felled, debarked, and intensively examined >28 m2 of phloem area on nine American elm trees growing in contact with or adjacent to heavily infested ash trees. We found no sign of A. planipennis feeding on any elm. PMID:18348815

Anulewicz, Andrea C; McCullough, Deborah G; Cappaert, David L; Poland, Therese M

2008-02-01

260

Delusional infestations: case series, differential diagnoses, and management strategies.  

PubMed

Physicians are not infrequently consulted by distraught patients with delusions of infestation who believe that they are infested with external or internal parasites and describe a crawling sensation of bugs or worms on or under their skin. Internet search engines were queried with the keywords as search terms to examine the latest articles on delusional infestations in order to describe presenting manifestations, differential diagnoses, and effective management strategies. The demographic and behavioral features of delusional infestations have remained constant and include: (1) onset in well-educated, middle-aged adults who are pet owners; (2) production of purported specimens of causative parasites; (3) pesticide overtreatment of themselves, their households, and pets; (4) excessive cleaning or vacuuming of households; (5) intense anger and resentment directed at physicians failing to confirm their self-diagnoses; and (6) sharing delusional symptoms with spouses or relatives. Although some reports have suggested that cases of delusional infestation are increasing today in the tropics, most studies have confirmed a stable incidence over time and similar disorder demographics worldwide. However, management strategies for delusional infestations have changed significantly over time with second generation, atypical antipsychotics offering safer adverse effect profiles and better prognoses than earlier therapies with first generation, typical antipsychotics. The most effective management strategies for delusional infestations include empathetic history-taking and active listening to the patient, careful exclusion of true parasitoses, and a therapeutic regimen that includes a second generation neuroleptic agent. PMID:25311458

Diaz, James H; Nesbitt, Lee T

2014-01-01

261

Pathology of natural Przhevalskiana silenus infestation in goats.  

PubMed

Among the arthropods causing diseases to animals, myiasis causes a broad range of infestations depending on the location of larvae and its developmental stages on the body of the host. These infestations reduce host physiological functions, destroy host tissues and cause significant economic losses to livestock worldwide. This study was conducted to find out the pathological changes of goats tissue infested with Przhevalskiana silenus. Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI), improperly named goat hypodermosis, is a myiasis caused by larvae of P. silenus. Out of 16,250 goats examined in the slaughter house in the studied area, 433 (2.67%) were infested with warble fly. The minimum and maximum rate of infectivity was 7 and 84 with an average of 32.4 warbles per animal. Histopathological examinations were carried out on the infested subcutaneous tissues. Infiltration of the mononuclear cell types, tissue necrosis, pyogranulomatous reaction, hyalinization, mineralization, muscle fragmentation, oedema, and hyperemia of arterioles and capillaries were the most important microscopic findings associated with different developmental stages of P. silenus instars in the goats. The results of this survey indicated that GWF is a widespread infestation in Shiraz, Fars Province, southern part of Iran. PMID:23202597

Oryan, A; Bahrami, S

2012-12-01

262

Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.  

PubMed

The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors. PMID:22679860

Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

2012-05-01

263

Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-?1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-?1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. PMID:23499941

Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2013-05-01

264

Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/mA? in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities > 5,000-6,000/mA? and infestation intensities > 100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and lakes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

1996-01-01

265

Beauveria bassiana -A Potential Mycopesticide for the Efficient Control of Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coffee Berry Borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) has been a serious insect pest of coffee cultivars C. robusta and C. catimor in India since 1991, causing 40-80% coffee bean loss. To combat this important pest, an indigenous entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin was isolated from dead and moribund coffee berry borers from the wild. The fungus

N. Haraprasad; S. R. Niranjana; H. S. Prakash; H. S. Shetty; Seema Wahab

2001-01-01

266

EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists  

E-print Network

Corn Field corn producers may choose to manage this pest through the use of hybrids, genetically modified, that express a protein toxic to corn borers. Usually called Bt corn, this technoloEUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer

Ginzel, Matthew

267

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US 500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations.

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G.; Vega, Fernando E.; Harwood, James D.

2010-03-01

268

Estimation of production losses caused by the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and calculation of an economic damage threshold in Togolese coffee plots.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), which exists in all coffee producing zones, is a major pest. The seriousness of this scolytid was assessed in Togolese plots spread over five agroclimatic zones, by determining the attack rate from a sample of coffee trees. The work was carried out over 2 yr and revealed that weight losses were proportional to the attack rates. The average infestation rates were 5.64% in the first year and 6.36% in the second year, while total production losses amounted to 2.60% and 3.18%, respectively, for the same periods. Generally speaking, attack rates in the plots were low and varied considerably within a given zone. Plantations located on plateau were more severely attacked than those in the plains. A relationship was established between total losses and the cost of insecticide treatment; this relationship was used to calculate an economic damage threshold beyond which control proves to be cost effective. PMID:14650520

Wegbe, Komlan; Cilas, Christian; Decazy, Bernard; Alauzet, Claude; Dufour, Bernard

2003-10-01

269

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US $500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations. PMID:20094879

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G; Vega, Fernando E; Harwood, James D

2010-03-01

270

Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities. PMID:25195441

Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

2014-08-01

271

Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.  

PubMed

The braconid wasp, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilus planipennis), a destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We identified and synthesized seven male-specific volatile compounds. Three of these, dodecanal, (4R,11E)-tetradecen-4-olide, and (Z)-10-heptadecen-2-one, were the key behaviorally active components in flight tunnel bioassays. Male specificity was demonstrated by gas chromatographic comparison of male and female volatile emissions and whole body extracts. Identifications were aided by coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, microchemical reactions, NMR, chiral GC analysis, and GC and MS comparison with authentic standards. Both the racemic and chiral forms of the ?-lactone, as well as both E- and Z-isomers were synthesized. Flight tunnel behavioral tests showed positive male and female S. agrili responses to both natural pheromone and synthetic blends, with upwind flight and landing on the source. Large field-cage tests, using yellow sticky traps baited with pheromone, captured approximately 50% of the released male and female wasps in 24-h periods. The use of pheromone-baited traps in the field could simplify the current detection method for determining parasitoid establishment (i.e., laboriously felling and peeling ash trees for recovery of S. agrili from infested EAB larvae). PMID:22456948

Cossé, Allard A; Petroski, Richard J; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Vermillion, Karl; Lelito, Jonathan P; Cooperband, Miriam F; Gould, Juli R

2012-04-01

272

The genetic structure of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, populations in China: haplotype variance in northern populations and potential impact on management of resistance to transgenic maize.  

PubMed

Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is a severe pest that infests cultivated maize in the major production regions of China. Populations show genotype-by-environment variation in voltinism, such that populations with a single generation (univoltine) are fixed in Northern China where growing seasons are short. Low genetic differentiation was found among samples from 33 collection sites across China and one site from North Korea (n=1673) using variation at 6 nuclear microsatellite loci (ENA corrected global FST=0.020; P value<0.05). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that geographic region, number of generations or voltinism accounted for <0.38% of the total genetic variation at nuclear loci and was corroborated by clustering of co-ancestries among genotypes using the program STRUCTURE. In contrast, a mitochondrial haplotype network identified 4 distinct clusters, where 70.5% of samples from univoltine populations were within a single group. Univoltine populations were also placed into a unique cluster using Population Graph and Principal component analyses, which showed significant differentiation with multivoltine populations (?ST=0.400; P value<0.01). This study suggests that gene flow among O. furnacalis in China may be high among regions, with the exception of northeastern localities. Haplotype variation may be due to random genetic drift resulting from partial reproductive isolation between univoltine and multivoltine O. furnacalis populations. Such reproductive isolation might impact the potential spread of alleles that confer resistance to transgenic maize in China. PMID:25024271

Li, Jing; Coates, Brad S; Kim, Kyung Seok; Bourguet, Denis; Ponsard, Sergine; He, Kanglai; Wang, Zhenying

2014-01-01

273

Severe cat flea infestation of dairy calves in Brazil.  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted into a severe flea infestation on dairy calves. Inspection of the dairy revealed a high infestation of Ctenocephalides felis felis on four calves and thousands of fleas in the stable where cows and calves were brought in for milking. A 3-month-old female calf was highly infested with fleas. The animal showed an evident lethargy, weight loss, as well as pale mucous membranes and dehydration. Hematological analysis revealed anemia, with 10% packed cell volume and a 1.72 x 10(6) microl(-1) erythrocyte count. Blood transfusions were performed and the flea infestation was controlled with 1% fipronil pour-on (1 ml/10 kg). The farmer was advised to treat the other calves with fipronil, remove the manure from the stable and spread 1% propoxur powder (100 g/m2) onto the floor of the stable. PMID:9877075

Araújo, F R; Silva, M P; Lopes, A A; Ribeiro, O C; Pires, P P; Carvalho, C M; Balbuena, C B; Villas, A A; Ramos, J K

1998-12-15

274

Treatment of small lungworm infestation in sheep by using moxidectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of moxidectin (MXD) in the treatment of small lungworm infestation (Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris, Neostrongylus linearis and Protostronglylus rufescens) in sheep, was evaluated. Twenty-one sheep naturally infested with small lungworms, were divided into three groups (n=7) and treated as follows: group A with moxidectin 1% injectable solution at a dose rate of 0.2mgkg?1 bodyweight, group B with moxidectin

E Papadopoulos; S Sotiraki; C Himonas; G. C Fthenakis

2004-01-01

275

The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).  

PubMed

Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. PMID:21070784

Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

2011-01-01

276

Influence of trap placement and design on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

The key to an effective pest management program for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera Buprestidae), is a survey program equipped with tools for detecting and delimiting populations. We studied the effects of trap design, color, and placement on the efficacy of sticky traps for capturing the emerald ash borer. There were significant differences in trap catch along a transect gradient from wooded to open field conditions, with most beetles being caught along the edge, or in open fields, 15-25 m outside an ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) (Oleaceae) woodlot. Greater emerald ash borer catch occurred on purple traps than on red or white traps. Traps placed in the mid-canopy of ash trees (13 m) caught significantly more beetles than those placed at ground level. We also describe a new trap design, a three-sided prism trap, which is relatively easy to assemble and deploy. PMID:19133464

Francese, Joseph A; Oliver, Jason B; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Youssef, Nadeer; Sawyer, Alan J; Mastro, Victor C

2008-12-01

277

Interspecific comparison of constitutive ash phloem phenolic chemistry reveals compounds unique to manchurian ash, a species resistant to emerald ash borer.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB) is an invasive wood-borer indigenous to Asia and is responsible for widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in the U.S. and Canada. Resistance and susceptibility to EAB varies among Fraxinus spp., which is a result of their co-evolutionary history with the pest. We characterized constitutive phenolic profiles and lignin levels in the phloem of green, white, black, blue, European, and Manchurian ash. Phloem was sampled twice during the growing season, coinciding with phenology of early and late instar EAB. We identified 66 metabolites that displayed a pattern of variation, which corresponded strongly with phylogeny. Previously identified lignans and lignan derivatives were confirmed to be unique to Manchurian ash, and may contribute to its high level of resistance to EAB. Other compounds that had been considered unique to Manchurian ash, including hydroxycoumarins and the phenylethanoids calceolarioside A and B, were detected in closely related, but susceptible species, and thus are unlikely to contribute to EAB resistance of Manchurian ash. The distinct phenolic profile of blue ash may contribute to its relatively high resistance to EAB. PMID:22588569

Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Cipollini, Donald F; Bonello, Pierluigi

2012-05-01

278

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

279

Identification of Odor-Processing Genes in the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis  

PubMed Central

Background Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer) is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp) trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. Methodology and Principal Findings We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons). Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72%) did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc.) putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. Conclusions and Significance The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi-sesquithujene) previously identified in this serious invasive pest. PMID:23424668

Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela J.; Wijeratne, Saranga; Poland, Therese; Qazi, Sohail S.; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; Beliveau, Catherine; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2013-01-01

280

Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.  

PubMed

The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-?-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-?-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-?-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-?-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were ?-aminobutyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed. PMID:21802697

Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

2011-11-01

281

Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ? 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the three control plots. PMID:22546447

Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

2010-10-01

282

Cellular responses to Rhipicephalus microplus infestations in pre-sensitised cattle with differing phenotypes of infestation.  

PubMed

The blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, threatens cattle production in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Delayed skin hypersensitivity reactions are thought to cause Nguni cattle to be more resistant to R. microplus than Bonsmara cattle yet the cellular mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been classified. Tick counts and inflammatory cell infiltrates in skin biopsies from feeding sites of adult R. microplus ticks were determined in 9-month-old Nguni and Bonsmara heifers to determine the cellular mechanisms responsible for tick immunity. Nguni heifers (1.7 ± 0.03) had lower (P < 0.05) tick counts than the Bonsmaras (2.0 ± 0.03). Parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had higher counts of basophils, mast and mononuclear cells than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Conversely, parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had lower neutrophil and eosinophil counts than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Tick count was negatively correlated with basophil and mast cell counts and positively correlated with eosinophil counts in both breeds. In the Bonsmara breed, tick count was positively correlated with mononuclear cell counts. Cellular responses to adult R. microplus infestations were different and correlated with differences in tick resistance in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle breeds. It is essential to further characterise the molecular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate elicited by adult R. microplus infestation to fully comprehend immunity to ticks in cattle. PMID:24057115

Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Dzama, Kennedy; Chimonyo, Michael

2014-02-01

283

Monogenean infestations and mortality in wild and cultured Red Sea fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.

Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.

1984-03-01

284

Control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting power poles.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of termiticidal dusts (arsenic trioxide, triflumuron, and Metarhizium anisopliae), a timber fumigant (dazomet) and liquid termiticides (bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and imidacloprid) for controlling subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting in-service power poles in New South Wales, Australia. Dusts were applied to parts of the pole where termites were present. Fumigant was inserted into holes drilled into the base of the pole. Liquid termiticides were mixed with soil around the base of the pole and injected into internal voids if present. Poles were inspected for up to 5 yr, and the time taken for reinfestation to occur was recorded. Before the start of the trial, the major Australian pole owners were surveyed to obtain an estimate of the annual national cost of termite infestation to the power supply industry. The annual costs of termite treatment and replacing damaged poles were estimated at AU$2 million and AU$13 million, respectively. Infestation rates were lower for all treatments compared with controls within the first 12 mo of the study. Dazomet, arsenic trioxide, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos were the most efficacious treatments. Efficacy was positively related to the amount of termiticide applied and negatively related to the infestation severity but was unaffected by geographical location. Survival curves were calculated of the time elapsed before the recurrence of termite infestations (survival absence of reinfestation). Survival was highest for poles treated with liquid termiticides. PMID:21309237

Horwood, Martin A; Westlake, Terry; Kathuria, Amrit

2010-12-01

285

Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

286

WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas  

E-print Network

WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas Acacia the importance of Acacia, little is known of the insect community associated with these trees. Insects shape. In an effort to better understand the wood-boring community on Acacia, Drs Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas (from

287

Maize defense response against the european corn borer (Ostrinia nubilaslis): a losing battle?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this research is to understand how maize stems respond to European corn borer (ECB) damage and how these defense tactics affect the invading ECB. We measured the levels of the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, as well as the transcript levels of their key biosynthetic en...

288

A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

289

IMPACT OF PHYTOALEXINS AND LESSER CORNSTALK BORER DAMAGE ON RESISTANCE TO AFLATOXIN FORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In peanut, the mechanism of resistance to Aspergillus flavus has been reported as the capacity to synthesize phytoalexins, the antibiotic secondary metabolites. The lesser cornstalk borer (LCB) is one of the most destructive insects in the peanut production area. Penetration of peanut pods by insec...

290

Influence of drought stress on Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) oviposition preference in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), has been spreading northward from Mexico and Texas sugarcane and rice, and invasion of Louisiana is projected. This study showed drought stress increases water potential in sugarcane plants and results in >3.4-fold more dry leaves than in well-watered...

291

Evidence for allelochemical attraction of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei , by coffee berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petri dish choice tests conducted on the coffee berry borer (CBB),Hypothenemus hampei, showed that females were able to discriminate between coffee berries at different ripening stages. A Y-shaped glass olfactometer was used to demonstrate that coffee berries emitted volatile chemicals that elicited upwind movement by female CBB. Olfactometer tests with three different solvent extracts of berries showed that at least

Philippe Giordanengo; Luc O. Brun; Brigitte Frerot

1993-01-01

292

THE PRESENCE OF THE COFFEE BERRY BORER (SCOLYTIDAE) IN PUERTO RICO: FACT OR FICTION?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A detailed examination of the coffee berry borer literature shows that reports indicating the presence of the insect in Puerto Rico in the early 1940's were based on an insect misidentification. One of these erroneous reports was used in a widely cited coffee book that includes a list of countries ...

293

MYCOBIOTA ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI (FERRARI) (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE) IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, feces and the galleries of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee fa...

294

Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

2002-01-01

295

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

296

Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...

297

Parasitism of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei by Trichogramma pretiosum in the Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitism of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) by Trichogramma pretiosum Riley resulted in high mortality of developing parasitoids and a low prevalence of adult emergence. A laboratory colony of T. pretiosum reproducing in H. hampei failed after three generations. Adult female T. pretiosum that developed in H. hampei were smaller and produced fewer eggs than conspecifics that developed

J. Lorezo Meza; Juan F. Barrera; Gabriela Pérez-lachaud; Trevor Williams

2004-01-01

298

POSSIBLE DEGRADATIVE ROLES OF A COFFEE BERRY BORER-ASSOCIATED YEAST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Pichia guilliermondii based on 26s ribosomal gene sequences. Liquid culture experiments with media containing different caffeine lev...

299

Increasing coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Curculionidae: Scolytinae) female density in artificial diet decreases fecundity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of number of coffee berry borer females (1, 2, or 5) reared in artificial diet on fecundity and subsequent development of larvae, pupae and adults. When data for the three different experiments were analyzed, decreased fecundity was observe...

300

Evidence for Obligate Migratory Flight Behavior in Young European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Females  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, flight behavior was examined in laboratory experiments. Adults were each tethered to one of 16 round-about flight mills in an environmental chamber, and the data relayed to a computer. Parameters analyzed included duration, distance, and speed of the longes...

301

UPDATE ON EMERALD ASH BORER NATURAL ENEMY SURVEYS IN MICHIGAN AND CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We began research on natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis soon after its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. Regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada adopted a strategy of eradication for EAB in an effort to protect New World ash. Should eradication fail, however, conventional biological control will be needed to suppress populations of

Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Deborah L. Miller

302

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little

Omprakash Mittapalli; Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms; Michael N. Nitabach

2010-01-01

303

Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was at least 8 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antenn...

304

GENETIC BASIS OF RESISTANCE TO FALL ARMYWORM AND SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER LEAF FEEDING DAMAGE IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To clarify the genetic basis of resistance to leaf feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer a study was undertaken to compare quantitative trait loci involved in two related resistant maize lines, Mp704 and Mp708. Models containing four and seven QTL explaining southwestern corn ...

305

Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

306

Intraspecific sex-pheromone variability in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. (Lepidoptera, Pyrali-  

E-print Network

Intraspecific sex-pheromone variability in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn of intraspecific pheromone variability in Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn (ECB) in Europe and North America (KLUN). In the palearctic region, the ECB populations exhibited pheromone polymorphism. The Z phenotype was the only one

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

Evaluation of Pheromone-Based Strategies for the Dogwood Borer on Commercial Apple Orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious wood-boring pest of apple in eastern North America. The recent identification of its sex pheromone and a potent behavioral antagonist affords the opportunity to develop pheromone based management strategies for th...

308

Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY  

E-print Network

Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY in western New York, were invading burrknots on dwarf apple trees. About the same time, Dick Straub seemed to be becoming more common in dwarf apple plantings, as well. Based on Deb's alert, we decided

Agnello, Arthur M.

309

Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

310

Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cohorts of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, Michigan by caging gravid EAB females or placing laboratory-reared eg...

311

Elimination, metabolism and anticholinesterase properties of carbofuran in fruit stalk borer, oryctes elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity, anticholinesterase properties, elimination and metabolism of carbofuran applied to the larvae of fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans were investigated. Larvae given 10 or 20 ppm of carbofuran did not show any observable signs of acute toxicity. The LC50 values were 82, 62, and 48 ppm following 24, 48, and 72 hrs, respectively. The activity of brain cholinesterase of the

Ahmed K. Salama; Ahmed A. Zaytoon

1998-01-01

312

44 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species EMERALD ASH BORER: CHEMICAL ECOLOGY  

E-print Network

44 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species EMERALD ASH BORER: CHEMICAL ECOLOGY AND VISUAL, University Park, PA 16802 2 USDAAPHIS, PPQ, 5936 Ford Ct., Ste. 200, Brighton, MI 48116 ABSTRACT The emerald the establishment of a more specific lure for this pest. We have also shown that it is possible to trap emerald ash

313

Characteristics and distribution of potential ash tree hosts for emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a recently discovered (July 2002) exotic insect pest, which has caused the death of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in Detroit, MI, USA and has also spread into other areas of Michigan, isolated locations in Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Virginia, and nearby Windsor, Ont., in Canada. Ash trees occur in many

David W. MacFarlane; Shawna Patterson Meyer

2005-01-01

314

Evaluation of cowpea genotypes for field resistance to the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis, in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen cowpea cultivars were screened for resistance to the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis under field conditions at two locations (Mokwa and Ibadan) in Nigeria under unprotected and two types of insecticide protection levels. Unprotected plots gave zero yield due to their exposure to the entire cowpea pest complex. Plots that received a mixture of Cypermethrin and dimethoate (as Cymbush

S. Oghiakhe; L. E. N. Jackai; W. A. Makanjuola

1995-01-01

315

Alternative Hosts for Bethylid Parasitoids of the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of bethylid wasps, Prorops nasuta Waterston, Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem, and C. hyalinipennis Ashmead, attack the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), by both predation and parasitism. C. hyalinipennis has only recently been reported to attack H. hampei. Its previously recorded hosts belong to the coleopteran families Curculionidae, Anobiidae, and Scolytidae. We evaluated five further coleopteran species,

Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Ian C. W Hardy

2001-01-01

316

Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

AmpliÞed fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) Þngerprinting was used to examine the genetic variability and biogeography of the most important insect pest of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n 101) from 17 countries on three continents were examined. Only 26 unique Þngerprints (haplotypes) were dis- covered among all samples. Genetic variability was

Pablo Benavides; Fernando E. Vega; Jeanne Romero-Severson; Alex E. Bustillo; Jeffrey J. Stuart

2005-01-01

317

A sampling plan for a control project against the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

From preliminary samples of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferr.) in Chiapas, Mexico, various methods of calculating the number of samples needed for assessing the success of a parasitoid introduction scheme were reviewed, including those based on binomial, distribution?free and Taylor's power law methods. The final choice of a method depends on the area to be sampled and time

P. S. Baker

1989-01-01

318

Genetic variability and global distribution of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most destructive insect pest of coffee throughout the world, and is seriously impacting the social and economic stability of many developing countries. This research was designed to provide a better understanding of the genetics of H. hampei. AFLP technique, which is used to genetically fingerprint organisms, was used to detect DNA polymorphisms

Pablo Benavides

2003-01-01

319

Fungi associated with the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects have been shown to serve as vectors for a wide array of fungi. In some cases, insect-vectored fungi produce potent toxins in the host plant, which might create problems for the food industry. Recent findings indicate that the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) could be vectoring toxigenic fungi in coffee plantations.

Fernando E. Vega; Guy Mercadier; Patrick F. Dowd

1999-01-01

320

Photoprotection of Beauveria bassiana: testing simple formulations for control of the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana is considered to be one of the few natural enemies available for use against the coffee berry borer. In an attempt to enhance the efficacy of this pathogen, a range of concentrations of 22 substances was tested in simple laboratory tests using natural sunlight or a UV light source. Unprotected B. bassiana spores were almost

STEVEN EDGINGTON; HECTOR SEGURA; WILLIAM DE LA ROSA; TREVOR WILLIAMS

321

Mycobiota associated with the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, faeces and galleries of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei. Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee farms at different altitudes : Rosario Izapa (425 m), La Alianza (700 m) and Monteperla (950 m). An

Jeanneth Pérez; Francisco Infante; Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Holguín; Jorge MacÍAs; Javier Valle; Guadalupe Nieto; Stephen W. Peterson; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Kerry O'donnell

2003-01-01

322

Photoprotection of Beauveria bassiana: Testing simple formulations for control of the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana is considered to be one of the few natural enemies available for use against the coffee berry borer. In an attempt to enhance the efficacy of this pathogen, a range of concentrations of 22 substances was tested in simple laboratory tests using natural sunlight or a UV light source. Unprotected B. bassiana spores were almost

Steven Edgington; Hector Segura; William De la Rosa; Trevor Williams

2000-01-01

323

Semiochemicals used in Host Location by the Coffee berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei is a serious pest in many coffee growing countries. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of H. hampei to volatiles of different phenological stages of coffee, Coffea arabica, fruits were studied in order to identify volatile semiochemicals used in host location. Volatiles were collected from different\\u000a phenological stages of C. arabica fruit by air entrainment. Electrophysiological

Esayas Mendesil; Toby J. A. Bruce; Christine M. Woodcock; John C. Caulfield; Emiru Seyoum; John A. Pickett

2009-01-01

324

Distribution of the coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) within Jamaica, following its discovery in 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferr.) was first detected in Jamaica in 1978 when beans from the 1977 crop were being prepared for export. An island?wide survey was carried out between June and December 1978 to establish the distribution of the beetle. Estimates of fruit damage in harvested cherry coffee ranged from zero to 85%, and a preliminary assessment

J. C. Reid

1983-01-01

325

On the Eyes of Male Coffee Berry Borers as Rudimentary Organs  

PubMed Central

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1±4.10) than in females (127.5±3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

Vega, Fernando E.; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F.

2014-01-01

326

On the eyes of male coffee berry borers as rudimentary organs.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1 ± 4.10) than in females (127.5 ± 3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

Vega, Fernando E; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F

2014-01-01

327

Behavioral response of grape root borer (Lepidopetera: Sesiidae) neonates to grape root volatiles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is an oligophagous and potentially destructive pest of grape in commercial vineyards throughout much of the eastern United States. Larvae feed on vine roots, although little is known about their belowground interactions with ...

328

Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du

2008-01-01

329

Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Woodpeckers are an important source of mortality for EAB in their native range, and understanding their effect on the pop...

330

Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) pheromone reception  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males

Shannon B Olsson; Subaharan Kesevan; Astrid T Groot; Teun Dekker; David G Heckel; Bill S Hansson

2010-01-01

331

Genetic transformation mediated by piggyBac in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is a serious pest of corn, sorghum and cotton in China and other Asian countries. The present study is the first attempt to establish the transgenic line in O. furnacalis using a piggyBac transposon, which will shed light on the future genetic control of O....

332

Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study,

Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

2011-01-01

333

A Potential Plan of Action for Emerald Ash Borer in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u0009Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB) is an invasive insect pest. It feeds on the cambium tissues of ash tree species. It was first discovered in the United States in 2002 in Detroit, Michigan. Their effects on ash trees are deadly, and it is quickly spreading across the Midwest. Nebraska has not yet been invaded, but confirmed findings continue getting

Lee Wheeler

2010-01-01

334

Dispersal of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis , in newly-colonized sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive forest insect pest threatening more than 8 billion ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. Development of effective survey methods and strategies to slow the spread of A. planipennis requires an understanding of dispersal, particularly in recently established satellite populations. 2 We assessed the dispersal of A. planipennis beetles

Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough

2009-01-01

335

The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of

Jill C. Crosthwaite; Stephanie Sobek; D. Barry Lyons; Mark A. Bernards; Brent J. Sinclair

2011-01-01

336

Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis): Gene characterization and expression profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of

Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Praveen Mamidala; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Omprakash Mittapalli

2011-01-01

337

Assessing the Hazard of Emerald Ash Borer and Other Exotic Stressors to Community Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic stressors such as emerald ash borer are an increasing concern to many communities across North America. One means of assessing the hazard these stressors may represent to a community's publicly managed trees is through an inventory of their street trees. The South Dakota Division of Resource Conservation and Forestry conducted street tree inventories in selected communities across the state

John Ball; Sarah Mason; Aaron Kiesz; Dan McCormick; Craig Brown

2007-01-01

338

Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Density and Canopy Dieback in Three North American Ash Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan, U.S. and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Little information about A. planipennis is available from its native range and it was not known whether this invasive pest would exhibit a preference for a

Andrea C. Anulewicz; Deborah G. McCullough; David L. Cappaert

2007-01-01

339

Monitoring and First Discovery of the Mexican Rice Borer Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, has expanded its range from the Lower Rio Grande Valley to east Texas, and now into southwest Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Agricultural and Forestry and Louisiana State University AgCenter scientists forecast that natural and unintended movement will r...

340

Utilizing Diapause in a Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Laboratory Colony as a Cost Saving Measure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability to rear insects in the laboratory broadens the scope of research opportunities available to the scientist. We routinely rear the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for our research in host plant resistance and biological control of this important sugarcane pest. Unfortunately, i...

341

Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

342

Study on Bt Susceptibility and Resistance Mechanisms in the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dose response and growth inhibition of Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, were evaluated with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac toxins. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the Cry1Ab-resistant strain was estimated to be >80- and 45-fold greater than that of...

343

Comparison of Resistance Levels in Four Population of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemical control is a major strategy for suppressing the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. Due to their high toxicity and increasing resistance development in target insect, many insecticides will be phased out soon. Alternatives with relatively low toxicity are urgently needed to replace traditi...

344

Natural enemies of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass in the forest zone of Cameroon.  

PubMed

The importance, geographical and temporal distributions of parasitoids of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum, were assessed during surveys in farmers' fields in six villages and two on-station trials in the forest zone of Cameroon between 1995 and 1996. The borer species encountered were Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Eldana saccharina Walker on both host plants, and Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot on maize only. Busseola fusca was the predominant host accounting for 44-57% and 96% on maize and elephant grass, respectively, followed by E. saccharina on maize with 27-39%. Fifteen hymenopterous, two dipterous and one fungal species were found on these stem and cob-borers. Among those were six pupal, six larval, four egg, one larval-pupal parasitoid and four hyperparasitoids. The scelionid parasitoids Telenomus busseolae Gahan and T. isis Polaszek were found on B. fusca eggs in all locations. During the first season, mean egg parasitism was low and ranged between 3.1% and 27% versus 54-87% during the second season. Species belonging to the Tetrastichus atriclavus Waterston complex were recovered from all four borer species. The majority and most common larval and pupal parasitoid species belonged to the ingress-and-sting guild. Larval and pupal parasitism were very erratic and on more than 50% of the sampling occasions no parasitoids were recovered. Parasitoid diversity was higher on elephant grass than maize. PMID:11415475

Ndemah, R; Schulthess, F; Poehling, M; Borgemeister, C; Goergen, G

2001-06-01

345

Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.  

PubMed

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed. PMID:20857726

Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

2010-08-01

346

On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

347

Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

348

Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire  

E-print Network

Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus to deter- mine if there are differences in these compounds between the sexes. We also assessed feral male to dead, solvent-washed beetles. Males in the field spent significantly more time attempting copulation

349

Parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in western Pennsylvania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

350

Hymenopteran Parasitoids Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Western and Central Pennsylvania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We conducted field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated larval parasitoids in western and central Pennsylvania (Cranberry and Granville Townships) in the spring and fall of 2009. The survey procedure involved destructively debarking sections of the m...

351

Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97:3 blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1:99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female...

352

Putative pheromone for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was about 10 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antennae...

353

Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

354

Detecting Weed Infestations in Soybean Using Remote Sensing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can weed distribution maps be developed from remote sensed reflectance data? When are the appropriate times to collect these data during the season? What wavebands can be used to distinguish weedy from weed- free areas? This research examined if and when reflectance could be used to distinguish between weed-free and weed-infested (mixed species) areas in soybean and to determine the most useful wavebands to separate crop, weed, and soil reflectance differences. Treatments in the two-year study included no vegetation (bare soil), weed-free soybean, and weed-infested soybean and, in one year, 80% corn residue cover. Reflectance was measured at several sampling times from May through September in 2001 and 2002 using a hand-held multispectral radiometer equipped with band-limited optical interference filters (460 - 1650 nm). Pixel resolution was 0.8-m. Reflectance in the visible spectral range (460 to 700 nm) generally was similar among treatments. In the near-infrared (NIR) range (>700 to 1650 nm), differences among treatments were observed from soybean growth stage V-3 (about 4 weeks after planting) until mid-July to early August depending on crop vigor and canopy closure (76 cm row spacing in 2001 and 19 cm row spacing in 2002). Reflectance rankings in the NIR range when treatments could be differentiated were consistent between years and, from lowest to highest reflectance, were soil < weed-free < weed-infested areas. Increased reflectance from weed-infested areas was most likely due to increased biomass and canopy cover. Residue masked differences between weed-free and weed- infested areas during the early stages of growth due to high reflectance from the residue and reduced weed numbers in these areas. These results suggest that NIR spectral reflectance collected prior to canopy closure can be used to distinguish weed-infested from weed-free areas.

Clay, S. A.; Chang, J.; Clay, D. E.; Dalsted, K.; Reese, C.

2007-12-01

355

Associations between Demodex species infestation and various types of cancer.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated immune system cells secrete protease and cytokines that can inhibit the immune response. In particular, T-cell effector functions could be inhibited, potentially causing an increase in parasitic infestations. Demodex species are common inhabitants of normal hair follicles. Humans are the specific host for two species Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and infestation of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in patients with cancer. In the present study, 101 patients with cancer were selected from among patients who were diagnosed and treated for cancer. The cancer patients were divided into four groups according to cancer type. Slides were examined for parasites using light microscopy at magnifications of ×40 and ×100. Infestation was defined as having at least five living parasites/cm(2) of skin. The ages of the patients with cancer ranged between 38 and 82 years, with a mean of 65.5±10.1 years. It was determined that 77 of the 101 (76.2%) cancer patients were positive for Demodex species. Infestation was positive in 18 (47.4%) of the 38 cases in the breast cancer group, 7 (29.2%) of the 24 cases in the lung cancer group, 5 (18.5%) of the 27 cases in the gastrointestinal system cancer group, and 2 (16.7%) of the 12 cases in the urogenital system cancer group. Results showed that the rate of Demodex species infestation was higher in patients with breast cancer. Thus, cancer - and particularly breast cancer - is a risk factor for Demodex species infestation. PMID:24338318

Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Yalç?n, Zeliha Gülter; Karakeçe, Engin; Çiftci, ?hsan Hakk?; Erdem, Teoman

2013-12-01

356

The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes patterns of infestation with Tunga penetrans (L., 1758) within the poor community of Araruama municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, assessed by the number of persons and domestic animals parasitized. The overall prevalence of infestation was 49.2% (211 parasitized hosts) of the 429 examined. Humans (p < 0.01) and dogs (p < 0.01) were the most

Raimundo Wilson de Carvalho; Adilson Benedito de Almeida; Silvia Cristina Barbosa-Silva; Marinete Amorim; Paulo César Ribeiro; Nicolau Maués Serra-Freire

2003-01-01

357

Cutaneous furuncular myiasis: Human infestation by the botfly.  

PubMed

Dermatobia hominis, the botfly, is indigenous to Central and South America. Its usual host is a mammal, often a horse or cow. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis, human infestation by the botfly, has rarely been reported. Symptoms of infestation include a locally painful, firm furuncular lesion, often with a centrally located pore. Due to their infrequent occurrence, these lesions are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis, leishmaniasis, furunculosis, staphylococcal boil, insect bite or sebaceous cyst - conditions with similar presentations. The present case reiterates the need to think of 'zebras' when hearing 'hoof beats' that may have originated in a different land. PMID:19554228

Jacobs, Bryan; Brown, David L

2006-01-01

358

Cutaneous furuncular myiasis: Human infestation by the botfly  

PubMed Central

Dermatobia hominis, the botfly, is indigenous to Central and South America. Its usual host is a mammal, often a horse or cow. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis, human infestation by the botfly, has rarely been reported. Symptoms of infestation include a locally painful, firm furuncular lesion, often with a centrally located pore. Due to their infrequent occurrence, these lesions are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis, leishmaniasis, furunculosis, staphylococcal boil, insect bite or sebaceous cyst – conditions with similar presentations. The present case reiterates the need to think of ‘zebras’ when hearing ‘hoof beats’ that may have originated in a different land. PMID:19554228

Jacobs, Bryan; Brown, David L

2006-01-01

359

Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas.  

PubMed

The present study pertains to the Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas. Twenty dogs were presented to the Divison of Surgery, SKUAST-K for different surgical procedures. Majority of the dogs had a history of pruritus, loss of weight as well as rubbing their perineal region against the wall. On external examination dogs were found infested with Ctenocephalides canis. When dogs were anesthetized, motile segments were seen coming out of their anus, which were then identified as mature segments of D. caninum. PMID:25698864

Wani, Z A; Allaie, I M; Shah, B M; Raies, A; Athar, H; Junaid, S

2015-03-01

360

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel borer design for application to single entry coal mine development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A health and safety analysis of a single entry coal tunnel borer system is given. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rule, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagen and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-01-01

361

Genetic structure and gene flow among European corn borer populations from the Great Plains to the Appalachians of North America  

EPA Science Inventory

Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), indicated no genetic differentiation even between locations separated by 720 km. This result suggests either high dispersal resulting in high gene flow, or that populations are not in...

362

Susceptibility of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, to Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrave in laboratory and field trials.  

PubMed

The nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (All) strain was significantly more effective against peachtree borer larvae (Synanthedon exitiosa [Lepidoptera: Sesiidae]) than Steinernema riobrave (7-12) strain in field and laboratory experiments. Eighty-eight percent control of peachtree borer larvae was obtained with S. carpocapsae in the field trial when applied at 3 x 10(5) infective juveniles per tree, and 92% mortality was obtained in the lab assay using 50 infective juveniles per larva. PMID:16707138

Cottrell, Ted E; Shapiro-Ilan, David I

2006-06-01

363

148 NJAF 20(4) 2003 Mortality Patterns Following Spruce  

E-print Network

148 NJAF 20(4) 2003 Mortality Patterns Following Spruce Budworm Infestation in Unprotected Spruce Hall Road, Effingham, IL 62401. ABSTRACT: Cumulative and annual mortality of red spruce (Picea rubens the mortality patterns in unprotected spruce- fir forests in northern Maine. Different mortality patterns were

364

Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.  

PubMed

Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region. PMID:25204068

Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

2014-09-01

365

Effects of fertilizer on nitrogen contents of berries of three coffee clones and berry infestation by the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferr.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

and E138. No differences were found in the nitrogen contents of berries of the various clones. Application of higher rates of fertilizer to the soil increased the nitrogen content and H. hampei numbers in the berries. The correlation coefficients between fertilizer dose and H. hampei numbers were significant. The relation between nitrogen in the berries and H. hampei numbers was

Dwomoh E. A

366

INSECT FRAGMENTS IN FLOUR: RELATIONSHIP TO LESSER GRAIN BORER (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) INFESTATION LEVEL IN WHEAT AND RAPID DETECTION USING NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The grain milling industry routinely checks wheat flour for insect fragments to determine whether the number found is below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defect action level of 75 fragments/50 g flour. However, the standard chemical extraction method used to detect insect fragments in...

367

Use of spectral vegetation indices derived from airborne hyperspectral imagery for detection of European corn borer infestation in Iowa corn plots  

EPA Science Inventory

Eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery and evaluated in 2004 and 2005 for their ability to detect experimental plots of corn manually inoculated with Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) neonate larvae. ...

368

Transcriptomic analysis of the temporal host response to skin infestation with the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis  

PubMed Central

Background Infestation of ovine skin with the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis results in a rapid cutaneous immune response, leading to the crusted skin lesions characteristic of sheep scab. Little is known regarding the mechanisms by which such a profound inflammatory response is instigated and to identify novel vaccine and drug targets a better understanding of the host-parasite relationship is essential. The main objective of this study was to perform a combined network and pathway analysis of the in vivo skin response to infestation with P. ovis to gain a clearer understanding of the mechanisms and signalling pathways involved. Results Infestation with P. ovis resulted in differential expression of 1,552 genes over a 24 hour time course. Clustering by peak gene expression enabled classification of genes into temporally related groupings. Network and pathway analysis of clusters identified key signalling pathways involved in the host response to infestation. The analysis implicated a number of genes with roles in allergy and inflammation, including pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL1B, IL6, IL8 and TNF) and factors involved in immune cell activation and recruitment (SELE, SELL, SELP, ICAM1, CSF2, CSF3, CCL2 and CXCL2). The analysis also highlighted the influence of the transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1 in the early pro-inflammatory response, and demonstrated a bias towards a Th2 type immune response. Conclusions This study has provided novel insights into the signalling mechanisms leading to the development of a pro-inflammatory response in sheep scab, whilst providing crucial information regarding the nature of mite factors that may trigger this response. It has enabled the elucidation of the temporal patterns by which the immune system is regulated following exposure to P. ovis, providing novel insights into the mechanisms underlying lesion development. This study has improved our existing knowledge of the host response to P. ovis, including the identification of key parallels between sheep scab and other inflammatory skin disorders and the identification of potential targets for disease control. PMID:21067579

2010-01-01

369

Detection of Plasmodiophora Brassicae By PCR in Naturally Infested Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detection of DNA from Plasmodiophora brassicae in naturally infested field soil samples. The target sequences 389 bp and 507 bp were amplified from Swedish populations of P. brassicae. The protocols described enabled detection of DNA in various soil classes with an inoculum level of P. brassicae corresponding to a disease

Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar; Ola Arwidsson

2001-01-01

370

Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in Northwest Italy.  

PubMed

CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation. PMID:24362773

Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter

2013-01-01

371

ORIGINAL PAPER Survey of Pest Infestation, Asthma, and Allergy  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Survey of Pest Infestation, Asthma, and Allergy in Low-income Housing Changlu Wang Ã? cockroaches, mice, cockroach allergen level, asthma and allergy rate in public housing, we interviewed,173 residents, 13% and 9% had physician-diagnosed asthma and allergy, respectively. Existence of diagnosed

Wang, Changlu

372

Effects of Leafy Spurge Infestation on Grassland Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and

Daniel M Scheiman; Eric K Bollinger; Douglas H Johnson

2003-01-01

373

Alternative cellular energy pigments mistaken for parasitic skin infestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermatologists and psychiatrists occasionally encounter patients who believe they are infested with skin parasites. They may report seeing threads, fibers and more solid appearing particles attached to their skin and hair, or appearing on clean bed sheets after sleeping. Some of the particles move spontaneously suggesting a life form. Similar structures develop in long-term cultures of stealth-adapted viruses. They are

W. John Martin

2005-01-01

374

Reducing costly zebra mussel infestations at power plants  

SciTech Connect

The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.

Smythe, G. [Acres International Corporation, Amherst, NY (United States)

1994-10-01

375

Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: applications and practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The challenges that land owners and resource managers face when trying to attempt applications and practices when attempting to rehabilitate rangelands infested with cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) are over-whelming. Simply purchasing seed and spreading it throughout the rangelands is doomed for failu...

376

Tick infestations of birds in coastal Georgia and Alabama.  

PubMed

Mist-netted birds were examined for ticks on Jekyll Island, Glynn Co., Georgia (32 bird species) in 1996-1998, and at Fort Morgan, Baldwin Co., Alabama (36 species) in 1998 during fall migration. Sixty-two (14.7%) of 423 birds from Jekyll Island and 22 (13.3%) of 165 birds from Fort Morgan were infested with ticks. The mean number of ticks per infested bird was 2.0 on Jekyll Island and 6.3 at Fort Morgan. Ten species of birds were infested with ticks on Jekyl1 Island where 87% of all ticks were recovered from 3 species: the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), and northern waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis). Eight species of birds were infested with ticks at Fort Morgan where 83% of all ticks were recovered from 3 species: the brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum), swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana), and common yellowthroat. Six species of ticks (Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes brunneus, Ixodes minor, and Ixodes scapularis) were recovered from the Georgia birds, whereas 3 species (A. maculatum, H. leporispalustris, and Ixodes dentatus) were recovered from the Alabama birds. Attempts to isolate Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, from Ixodes spp. ticks recovered from birds were unsuccessful. PMID:10780541

Kinsey, A A; Durden, L A; Oliver, J H

2000-04-01

377

Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

378

Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 Herbivore-infested plants  

E-print Network

signals are important for the foraging success of parasitoids and for the plants' defence3Nature © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 8 Herbivore-infested plants selectively attract parasitoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In response to insect herbivory, plants synthesize and emit blends of volatile compounds from their damaged

Paré, Paul W.

379

RoomBugs: Simulating Insect Infestations in Elementary Classrooms  

E-print Network

RoomBugs: Simulating Insect Infestations in Elementary Classrooms Abstract This paper presents, called RoomBugs, simulates a dynamic ecosystem of insects within the physical space of a classroom. Using the imagined insects that exist within their classroom walls. The simulation is designed to create authentic

California at San Diego, University of

380

PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE REMOVAL RESPONSE OF RUSSIAN HONEY AGAINST BROOD INFESTED WITH SMALL HIVE BEETLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

de Guzman, L. I. & A. M. Frake. PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE REMOVAL RESPONSE OF RUSSIAN HONEY AGAINST BROOD INFESTED WITH SMALL HIVE BEETLES - Removal response of Russian (n = 9) and Italian (n = 9) honey bees against brood infested with small hive beetles (SHB) was compared. SHB-infested brood wer...

381

78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas...the list of generally infested areas in Wisconsin: Bayfield, Clark, Jackson, and...

2013-04-26

382

Green spruce aphid infestations cause larger growth reductions to Sitka spruce under shade  

E-print Network

Green spruce aphid infestations cause larger growth reductions to Sitka spruce under shade S Oren Summary Light availability and infestation by the green spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum) are key in which light levels (high light (HL): 100%, intermediate light (IL): 24%) and aphid infestation (absence

Mencuccini, Maurizio

383

Inheritance of central neuroanatomy and physiology related to pheromone preference in the male European corn borer  

PubMed Central

Background The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E) prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC) that is identical in morphology, but reversed in functional topology. However, hybrids prefer intermediate ratios. How a topological arrangement of two glomeruli can accommodate for an intermediate preference was unclear. Therefore we studied the neurophysiology of hybrids and paternal backcrosses to see which factors correlated with male behavior. Results Projection neuron (PN) recordings and stainings in hybrids and backcrosses show a dominance of the E-type MGC topology, notwithstanding their intermediate preference. Apparently, the topological arrangement of glomeruli does not directly dictate preference. However, two other factors did correlated very well with preference. First, volumetric measurements of MGC glomeruli demonstrate that, whereas in the parental strains the medial MGC glomerulus is more than 2 times larger than the lateral, in hybrids they are intermediate between the parents, i.e. equally sized. Paternal backcrosses showed that the volume ratio is sex-linked and co-dominant. Second, we measured the summed potential difference of the antennae in response to pheromone stimulation using electroantennogram recordings (EAG). Z-strain antennae responded 2.5 times stronger to Z11 than to E11-14:OAc, whereas in E-strain antennae the ratio was approximately equal. Hybrid responses were intermediate to the parents, and also here the antennal response of the paternal backcrosses followed a pattern similar to the behavioral phenotype. We found no differences in frequency and types of projection and local interneurons encountered between the two strains and their hybrids. Conclusions Male pheromone preference in the ECB strains serves as a strong prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanism, and has contributed to population divergence in the field. Our results demonstrate that male pheromone preference is not directly affected by the topological arrangement of olfactory glomeruli itself, but that male preference may instead be mediated by an antennal factor, which causes the MGC glomeruli to be differentially sized. We postulate that this factor affects readout of blend information from the MGC. The results are an illustration of how pheromone preference may be 'spelled out' in the ALs, and how evolution may modulate this. PMID:20846426

2010-01-01

384

Molecular characterization and gene expression of juvenile hormone binding protein in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in many physiological processes in insect development, diapause and reproduction. An appropriate JH titer in hemolymph is essential for normal development in insects. Information concerning its carrier partner protein, juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP), provides an alternative approach to understanding how JH regulates metamorphosis. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the Omphisa juvenile hormone binding protein (OfJHBP). The full-length OfJHBP cDNA sequence is comprised of 849 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 726bp encoding 242 amino acids. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated to be 26.94kDa. The deduced protein sequence of OfJHBP showed moderate homology with the lepidopteran, Heliothis virescens JHBP (52% amino acid identity) and lower homology with the Bombyx mori JHBP (45%) and the Manduca sexta JHBP (44%). The OfJHBP was expressed mainly in the fat body. OfJHBP transcripts in the fat body was moderately high during 3rd, 4th and 5th instars, then rapidly increased, reaching a peak during early diapause. The expression remained high in mid-diapause, then decreased in late-diapause until the pupal stage. Both juvenile hormone analog (JHA), methoprene, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exhibited a similar stimulatory pattern in OfJHBP expression of diapausing larvae. OfJHBP mRNA levels gradually increased and showed a peak of gene expression on the penultimate, then declined to low levels in the pupal stage. For in vitro gene expression, both of JHA and 20E induced OfJHBP mRNA expression in fat body. Fat body maintenance in vitro in the presence of 0.1?g/50?l JHA induced OfJHBP mRNA expression to high levels within the first 30min whereas 0.1?g/50?l 20E induced gene expression at 120min. To study the synergistic effect of these two hormones, fat body was incubated in vitro with 0.1?g/50?l JHA or 0.1?g/50?l 20E or a combination of both hormone for 30min. Induction of OfJHBP expression by JHA and 20E was significantly greater than that of either hormone alone. These results should contribute to our understanding of how JHBP and JH regulate the termination of larval diapause in the bamboo borer. PMID:23000738

Ritdachyeng, Eakartit; Manaboon, Manaporn; Tobe, Stephen S; Singtripop, Tippawan

2012-11-01

385

Mistletoe effects on Scots pine decline following drought events: insights from within-tree spatial patterns, growth and carbohydrates.  

PubMed

Forest decline has been attributed to the interaction of several stressors including biotic factors such as mistletoes and climate-induced drought stress. However, few data exist on how mistletoes are spatially arranged within trees and how this spatial pattern is related to changes in radial growth, responses to drought stress and carbon use. We used dendrochronology to quantify how mistletoe (Viscum album L.) infestation and drought stress affected long-term growth patterns in Pinus sylvestris L. at different heights. Basal area increment (BAI) trends and comparisons between trees of three different infestation degrees (without mistletoe, ID1; moderately infested trees, ID2; and severely infested trees, ID3) were performed using linear mixed-effects models. To identify the main climatic drivers of tree growth tree-ring widths were converted into indexed chronologies and related to climate data using correlation functions. We performed spatial analyses of the 3D distribution of mistletoe individuals and their ages within the crowns of three severely infested pines to describe their patterns. Lastly, we quantified carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations in needles and sapwood of branches from severely infested trees and from trees without mistletoe. Mistletoe individuals formed strongly clustered groups of similar age within tree crowns and their age increased towards the crown apex. Mistletoe infestation negatively impacted growth but this effect was stronger near the tree apex than in the rest of sampled heights, causing an average loss of 64% in BAI (loss of BAI was ?51% at 1.3 m or near the tree base). We found that BAI of severely infested trees and moderately or non-infested trees diverged since 2001 and such divergence was magnified by drought. Infested trees had lower concentrations of soluble sugars in their needles than non-infested ones. We conclude that mistletoe infestation causes growth decline and increases the sensitivity of trees to drought stress. PMID:22539634

Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio

2012-05-01

386

Evaluation of emergence traps for monitoring blueberry gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) adults and within field distribution of midge infestation.  

PubMed

The blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a key pest of rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium virgatum Aiton, in the southeastern United States, but it has not been studied extensively and little is known about its ecology and management. Studies were conducted to develop an improved method for monitoring D. oxycoccana adults and to determine the within-field distribution of infestation. Four emergence traps were evaluated in an organic rabbiteye blueberry planting for their effectiveness in capturing D. oxycoccana adults early in the season. These traps included a jar trap, wheat blossom midge trap, petri dish trap, and bucket trap. The petri dish and bucket traps captured the highest numbers of adults in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Both traps had a clear plastic panel coated with adhesive. Adult midges emerging from the soil beneath the traps were caught in the adhesive as they flew up toward the light. Emergence traps are useful for detecting the presence of adults early in the season before larval infestation is apparent in the flower buds. To determine the pattern of midge infestation, flower buds were collected weekly from January to March in 2006 from rabbiteye blueberry plants located in a plot at the southwest border of an existing blueberry planting. There were no differences found in the number of larvae collected from various distances within blueberry rows. However, when flower buds were collected from an isolated rabbiteye plot in 2007 and 2008, D. oxycoccana infestation was not uniform. In both years, the southern border row had a significantly higher number of midge larvae per bud compared with the other rows. PMID:20857735

Roubos, Craig R; Liburd, Oscar E

2010-08-01

387

Biophoton Emission from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied spontaneous photon emission from kidney bean leaves infested with spider mites. Strong photon radiation was observed from the leaf veins where spider mites were crowding. Photon emission intensity increased with the decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis yield; these decreases represented the degree of damage caused by the pest. When both infested and un-infested leaves were put on the same wet cotton, photon emission from the un-infested leaf increased, too. Photon emission from the un-infested leaf might be induced by an aqueous elicitor released from the infested leaf. Such an elicitor activates the plant defense response. Therefore, it is suggested that photon emission from an infested leaf conveys information on the direct injury (physical stresses) and physiological (biochemical) actions associated with the defensive response.

Kawabata, Ryuzou; Uefune, Masayoshi; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

2004-08-01

388

?-Amylases of the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) and their inhibition by two plant amylase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari [Coleoptera: Scolytidae]), a major insect pest of coffee, has two major digestive ?-amylases that can be separated by isoelectric focusing. The ?-amylase activity has a broad pH optimum between 4.0 and 7.0. Using pH indicators, the pH of the midgut was determined to be between 4.5 and 5.2. At pH5.0, the coffee

Arnubio Valencia; Alex E Bustillo; Gustavo E Ossa; Maarten J Chrispeels

2000-01-01

389

Evidence for allelochemical attraction of the coffee berry borer,Hypothenemus hampei, by coffee berries.  

PubMed

Petri dish choice tests conducted on the coffee berry borer (CBB),Hypothenemus hampei, showed that females were able to discriminate between coffee berries at different ripening stages. A Y-shaped glass olfactometer was used to demonstrate that coffee berries emitted volatile chemicals that elicited upwind movement by female CBB. Olfactometer tests with three different solvent extracts of berries showed that at least some of the attractive chemical(s) released by the coffee berries could be extracted with acetone. PMID:24249016

Giordanengo, P; Brun, L O; Frerot, B

1993-04-01

390

A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane\\u000a (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with (n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched

Peter J. Silk; Krista Ryall; D. Barry Lyons; Jon Sweeney; Junping Wu

2009-01-01

391

Mitochondrial Genome Sequence and Expression Profiling for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences

Venu M. Margam; Brad S. Coates; Richard L. Hellmich; Tolulope Agunbiade; Manfredo J. Seufferheld; Weilin Sun; Malick N. Ba; Antoine Sanon; Clementine L. Binso-Dabire; Ibrahim Baoua; Mohammad F. Ishiyaku; Fernando G. Covas; Ramasamy Srinivasan; Joel Armstrong; Larry L. Murdock; Barry R. Pittendrigh; Guy Smagghe

2011-01-01

392

Susceptibility of legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata to ?-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseline susceptibility of legume pod borer (LPB) to the insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) from Bacillus thuringiensis, viz, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca and Cry2Aa was assessed in Taiwan. Insect bioassays were performed by incorporating the Bt ?-endotoxins into the LPB artificial diet. The efficacy of different Bt ?-endotoxins against second instar larvae of LPB showed that the toxin Cry1Ab was the

R. Srinivasan

2008-01-01

393

Effect of pubescence in cowpea resistance to the legume pod borer Maruca testulalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pubescence (trichomes) in wild and cultivated cowpeas, Vigna vexillata and V. unguiculata, adversely affected oviposition, mobility, and food consumption and utilisation by the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer), in tests conducted with TVnu 72 (wild, highly resistant and highly pubescent), TVu 946 (semi-wild, moderately resistant and pubescent) and IT82D-716 (cultivated, highly susceptible and pubescent).In free-choice and no-choice tests, significantly

S. Oghiakhe

1995-01-01

394

Rearing the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on artificial diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several diets were tested for rearing the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer). After initial selection of a soyflour?based diet, further research was conducted to determine whether cowpea flour could be substituted for soyflour. Three levels of cowpea flour were tested; 25, 38 and 50 g of cow?pea flour were used in place of 35.6 g of soyflour per 0.8

L. E. N. Jackai; J. R. Raulston

1988-01-01

395

Identification of a coffee berry borer-associated yeast: does it break down caffeine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers ( Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)) and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Candida fermentati (Saito) Bai, based on sequencing of the nuclear large subunit 26S rDNA variable D1\\/D2 domain. Liquid culture experiments using P. burtonii in media containing different caffeine

Fernando E. Vega; Michael B. Blackburn; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Patrick F. Dowd

2003-01-01

396

Host-discrimination by Phymastichus coffea , a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phymastichus coffea (LaSalle) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endoparasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) that has been introduced to several countries to control this important pest. In the present study we performed a series of laboratory experiments in order to determine if there was evidence of host discrimination and superparasitism in P.\\u000acoffea. Our choice

Alfredo Castillo; Francisco Infante; Jorge Vera-Graziano; Javier Trujillo

2004-01-01

397

Distinguishing Defensive Characteristics in the Phloem of Ash Species Resistant and Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis\\u000a of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high

Don Cipollini; Qin Wang; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Jeff R. Powell; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms

2011-01-01

398

Differential Response in Foliar Chemistry of Three Ash Species to Emerald Ash Borer Adult Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses\\u000a of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to

Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

2011-01-01

399

Antennally Active Macrolide from the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis Emitted Predominantly by Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was ca. 10 times more abundant from females. It was\\u000a readily sensed by antennae of both males and females. Identification was confirmed by synthesis. The behavioral effects of\\u000a the lactone remain unstudied

Robert J. Bartelt; Allard A. Cossé; Bruce W. Zilkowski; Ivich Fraser

2007-01-01

400

Modeling the invasive emerald ash borer risk of spread using a spatially explicit cellular model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is decimating native ashes (Fraxinus sp.) throughout midwestern North America, killing millions of trees over the years. With plenty of ash available throughout\\u000a the continent, the spread of this destructive insect is likely to continue. We estimate that the insect has been moving along\\u000a a “front” at about 20 km\\/year since about 1998, but

Anantha M. Prasad; Louis R. Iverson; Matthew P. Peters; Jonathan M. Bossenbroek; Stephen N. Matthews; T. Davis Sydnor; Mark W. Schwartz

2010-01-01

401

Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined to determine if there are differences in these compounds between the sexes. We also assessed feral male EAB\\u000a in the field for behavioral changes based on the application of a female-specific compound to dead, solvent-washed beetles.\\u000a Males in the field spent significantly more time attempting copulation with dead,

Jonathan P. Lelito; Katalin Böröczky; Tappey H. Jones; Ivich Fraser; Victor C. Mastro; James H. Tumlinson; Thomas C. Baker

2009-01-01

402

The repellence of Aristolochia aff. orbicularis roots against the corn borer Sitophilus zeamais.  

PubMed

The repellence of Aristolochia aff. orbicularis root, a native of Xochipala, Guerrero, Mexico, to the corn borer Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera) was investigated. The essential oil was isolated from the aromatic root and its repellent effect was assessed. About 40 components of the oil were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other spectroscopic methods. The repellence of the roots, the oil and the chromatography fractions were also evaluated. Some fractions had a higher repellence than the total oil. PMID:11531092

Rauscher, J; Guillén, R M; Albores-Velasco, M; González, G; Vostrowsky, O; Bestmann, H J

2001-01-01

403

Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

1984-04-01

404

Mycobiota associated with the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) in Mexico.  

PubMed

Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, faeces and galleries of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei. Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee farms at different altitudes: Rosario Izapa (425 m), La Alianza (700 m) and Monteperla (950 m). An additional sample consisting of coffee berry borers reared in the laboratory on meridic diets was also included. Results show that there is a great diversity of fungi associated with this insect. 212 cultures, including 40 species distributed in 22 genera, were isolated. The recovery of fungi from the galleries was markedly less than from the borer's body. Three of the isolated species were undescribed; two belonging to the Penicillium and one to Hanseniaspora. Most of the species were collected from the cuticle of the insect, and the presence of fungi was not correlated with altitude. Fusarium, Penicillium, Candida and Aspergillus were the dominant genera with percentage abundance of 26.4, 18.7, 13.4 and 12.5%, respectively. The present study provides a detailed description of the mycobiota associated with H. hampei and represents a significant advance in the understanding of the relationship among this insect and the fungi associated with it. PMID:12967216

Pérez, Jeanneth; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E; Holguín, Francisco; Macías, Jorge; Valle, Javier; Nieto, Guadalupe; Peterson, Stephen W; Kurtzman, Cletus P; O'Donnell, Kerry

2003-07-01

405

BRONZE BIRCH BORER Timothy J. Gibb and Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologists  

E-print Network

mid-May and mid-June, homeowners can spray infested trees with permethrin (Eight) or Spectracide Bug (permethrin) or Onyx (bifenthrin). Systemic Insecticide Sprays: A soil drench of systemic insecticide between

Ginzel, Matthew

406

Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases.  

PubMed

Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI. PMID:21933231

Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P

2011-10-01

407

Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

408

Should I Use Pesticides to Protect My Ash Trees From Emerald Ash Borer? Dr. Cliff Sadof and Jodie Ellis, Purdue Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

Should I Use Pesticides to Protect My Ash Trees From Emerald Ash Borer? Dr. Cliff Sadof and Jodie Ellis, Purdue Department of Entomology The use of pesticides approved as preventatives for emerald ash borer (EAB) in Indiana is certainly an option for homeowners in Indiana who wish to protect their ash

Ginzel, Matthew

409

2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 11 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS: THE DYNAMICS OF ASH  

E-print Network

2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 11 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH at ksknight@fs.fed.us. The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems FORESTS: THE DYNAMICS OF ASH MORTALITY AND THE RESPONSES OF OTHER PLANT SPECIES Kathleen S. Knight, Daniel

410

Issue: White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) has been found attacked by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) by Don Cipollini, a professor at Wright State University in Ohio  

E-print Network

Issue: White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) has been found attacked by emerald ash borer.wright.edu/web1/newsroom/2014/10/17/emerald-ash- borer-research/ 2. Fringe Tree: http been collected in areas where the abundance of dead ash trees suggest that local populations of EAB

Ginzel, Matthew

411

Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals. PMID:25320481

Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

2014-12-01

412

Infestation and Hydraulic Consequences of Induced Carbon Starvation1  

PubMed Central

Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests’ responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades. PMID:22665446

Anderegg, William R.L.; Callaway, Elizabeth S.

2012-01-01

413

Detecting insect infestation with poly3-hexylthiophenethin thin film sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The financial losses and destruction of crops due to insect infestation in the United States are estimated by the USDA to exceed 20 billion dollars annually. Much of these losses could be avoided by having a sensor that could effectively identify the early stages of insect infestation. However, traditional detection methods are time consuming, require trained personnel, and are not sufficient for early detection. Several previous research studies showed that emitting organic volatile compounds is a defensive mechanism activated by some plant species after being attacked by herbivores and parasites. Corn, cotton, pine, Brussels sprouts when attacked by Beet army worm, spider mites, bark beetles and caterpillars respectively, emits different blends of plant volatiles including ?-terpinene, ?-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate, with a concentration of about 50 ppm. Therefore, monitoring for these volatile compounds may enable on-site early detection of insect infestations. In this study, a chemical resistor sensor to detect plant volatiles was designed and fabricated. The sensor platform consists of micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes. On to this platform, a poly3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin film was deposited, using a spin coater at 8000 rpm for 30 seconds. The sensor was tested and found to be sensitive to a variety of plant volatiles, including ?-terpinene, ?-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate at room temperature. These vapors interacted with the P3HT film causing an increase in the resistance of the sensor by more than one order of magnitude

Weerakoon, Kanchana; Li, Suiquing; Shu, Hungjen J.; Chin, Bryan A.

2009-05-01

414

Treatment of small lungworm infestation in sheep by using moxidectin.  

PubMed

The use of moxidectin (MXD) in the treatment of small lungworm infestation (Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris, Neostrongylus linearis and Protostronglylus rufescens) in sheep, was evaluated. Twenty-one sheep naturally infested with small lungworms, were divided into three groups (n = 7) and treated as follows: group A with moxidectin 1% injectable solution at a dose rate of 0.2mgkg(-1) bodyweight, group B with moxidectin 0.1% oral drench at a dose rate of 0.2 mgkg(-1) bodyweight and group C being controls. Before treatment, mean faecal larval counts were 30.7, 21.1 and 26.7 lpg in group A, B and C, respectively; 14 days after treatment respective counts were 0.4, 2.3 and 63.0 lpg, (percentage reduction after moxidectin administration >96.0%); 60 days after treatment respective counts were 0.0, 0.0 and 26.4 lpg, (percentage reduction after moxidectin administration 100%). It is concluded that treatment of small lungworm infestation of sheep can be effected by using moxidectin. PMID:15135874

Papadopoulos, E; Sotiraki, S; Himonas, C; Fthenakis, G C

2004-05-26

415

Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark

R. W. Stark; P. R. Miller; F. W. Jr. Cobb; D. L. Wood; J. R. Jr. Parmeter

1968-01-01

416

Covalent Cross-Linking of Cell-Wall Polysaccharides through Esterified Diferulates as a Maize Resistance Mechanism against Corn Borers.  

PubMed

There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming. PMID:25619118

Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A

2015-03-01

417

Self-reported bed bug infestation among New York City residents: prevalence and risk factors.  

PubMed

Bed bug infestations have risen precipitously in urban areas. Little is known about risk factors for infestations or health outcomes resulting from these infestations. In the 2009 Community Health Survey, which is a representative population-based survey, 9,934 noninstitutionalized adults in New York City reported on bed bug infestations requiring an exterminator in the past year. The authors estimated infestation prevalence and explored predictors of infestation and associations between infestations and health outcomes using logistic regression. Seven percent of adults in New York City reported bed bug infestations. Significant individual and household risk factors were younger age, increased household poverty, and having three or more adults in the household. Environmental risk factors included living in high poverty neighborhoods and in buildings with more housing units, suggesting apartment-to-apartment transmission. Bed bug infestations were not associated with stress-related outcomes of alcohol consumption or recent depression, and, unlike cockroach infestation, were not associated with recent asthma episodes caused by allergens or contaminants. PMID:23947287

Ralph, Nancy; Jones, Heidi E; Thorpe, Lorna E

2013-01-01

418

Spatial and temporal patterns of non-colonial boring organisms (polychaetes, sipunculans and bivalve molluscs) in Porites at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the spatial and temporal patterns of colonisation by non-colonial boring organisms to dead Porites coral substrate was conducted at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef over a 4 year period. These fluctuations were analysed for each group of borers, and most exhibited strong site preferences, with preferred sites being on the windward slope in 10 m and on the reef flat in 1 m. A lagoonal patch reef site exhibited consistently low colonisation. Most groups showed inter-year variations in colonisation with spring/early summer dominating. These variations are discussed in terms of what is known about their life histories. These results together with those of Kiene (in preparation) which document varying rates of bioerosion, at these sites over the same time period, demonstrate that variations in borer colonisation are responsible for the variations in rates of bioerosion calculated. Thus rates of bioerosion by borers will vary significantly between different reef environments.

Hutchings, P. A.; Kiene, W. E.; Cunningham, R. B.; Donnelly, C.

1992-04-01

419

Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  

PubMed

The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important. PMID:21404843

Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

2011-02-01

420

Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion. PMID:21949771

Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

2011-01-01

421

The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa.  

PubMed

The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M. vitrata is lacking. We applied a set of six microsatellite markers to assess the population structure of M. vitrata collected at five sites from Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria. Observed polymorphisms ranged from one (marker 3393) to eight (marker 32008) alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 and 0.0 to 0.6, respectively. Three of the loci in samples from Nigeria and Burkina Faso deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), whereas no loci deviated significantly in samples from Niger. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 67.3% level of the genetic variation was within individuals compared to 17.3% among populations. A global estimate of F ST=0.1 (ENA corrected F ST=0.1) was significant (P?0.05) and corroborated by pairwise F ST values that were significant among all possible comparisons. A significant correlation was predicted between genetic divergence and geographic distance between subpopulations (R2=0.6, P=0.04), and cluster analysis by the program STRUCTURE predicted that co-ancestry of genotypes were indicative of three distinct populations. The spatial genetic variance among M. vitrata in West Africa may be due to limited gene flow, south-north seasonal movement pattern or other reproductive barriers. This information is important for the cultural, chemical and biological control strategies for managing M. vitrata. PMID:22717014

Agunbiade, T A; Coates, B S; Kim, K S; Forgacs, D; Margam, V M; Murdock, L L; Ba, M N; Binso-Dabire, C L; Baoua, I; Ishiyaku, M F; Tamò, M; Pittendrigh, B R

2012-10-01

422

Transcriptome analysis of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana grown on cuticular extracts of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei).  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer (CBB; Hypothenemus hampei) is a major pest of coffee responsible for significant crop losses worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana represents a natural means of controlling this insect pest; however, little is known concerning the molecular determinants that contribute to the virulence of the fungus towards the CBB. In order to examine genes involved in insect virulence, two expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, representing germinating conidia and growing hyphae/mycelia of B. bassiana cells grown on cuticular extracts of the CBB were constructed and analysed. In total, 4186 cDNA transcripts were obtained, which included 2141 from the cuticle-germinated conidia and 2045 from the cuticle-grown mycelium libraries, respectively. The average sequence length obtained was 470 bp and transcript assembly resulted in a set of 1271 and 1305 unique gene sequences for the conidial and mycelia libraries, respectively. Around 50?% of the sequences in each library could be annotated by gene ontology terms. An analysis of the two generated libraries as well as a previously reported EST library of B. bassiana grown on chitin was performed. Between the cuticle-germinated conidia and the cuticle-grown mycelia libraries, 322 unique gene sequences were shared, of which 90?% could be annotated, leaving 949 unique cuticle-germinated conidial genes and 983 unique growing hyphae/mycelia genes of which around 65?% were annotated. ESTs shared between the libraries indicated a basic response pattern for B. bassiana against H. hampei, which included genes implicated in pathogenicity. The expression profiles of four genes were evaluated with a cyclophilin, an alkaline-like serine protease and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), showing elevated expression during initial phases of infection, i.e. conidia germinating on insect extracts. These data provide clues and gene candidates for further exploration concerning the biology and molecular mechanisms of entomopathogenicity by this fungus. PMID:22461485

Mantilla, Javier Guillermo; Galeano, Narmer F; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Cristancho, Marco A; Keyhani, Nemat O; Góngora, Carmenza E

2012-07-01

423

Inheritance of Diapause in Crosses between the Northernmost and the Southernmost Strains of the Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis  

PubMed Central

The northernmost Harbin strain (N strain) of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short daylengths; whereas the southernmost Ledong strain (S strain) exhibits almost no diapause under the same light conditions. In the present study, we examined the inheritance of diapause induction and termination by crossing the two strains under a range of environmental conditions. The N strain showed a typical long-day response with a critical daylength of approximately15.88 h at 22°C, 15.72 h at 25°C and 15.14 h at 28°C, whereas the S strain showed a weak photoperiodic response at 22°C. The F1 progeny also showed a long-day response at 22, 25 and 28°C. However, the critical daylengths in S ? × N ? crosses were significantly longer than those in N ? × S ? crosses, indicating a sex linkage in the inheritance of diapause induction, with the male parent having more influence on the following F1 progeny. The incidence of diapause in S ? × N ? crosses was the same as in the N strain under short daylengths of 11-13 h, indicating that diapause trait is completely dominant over the non-diapause trait. The critical daylength in backcross to N was significantly longer than it was in backcross to S, showing a grandfather gene effect. Whether the inheritance of diapause fits an additive hypothesis or not was dependent on the rearing photoperiod, and the capacity for diapause was transmitted genetically in the manner of incomplete dominance. The duration of diapause for the reciprocal crosses under different diapause-terminating conditions showed different patterns of inheritance. The results in this study reveal that genetic and genetic-environmental interactions are involved in diapause induction and termination in O. furnacalis. PMID:25706525

Fu, Shu; Chen, Chao; Xiao, Liang; He, Haimin; Xue, Fangsen

2015-01-01

424

Hesperoctenes fumarius (Hemiptera: Polycteenidae) infesting Molossus rufus (Chiroptera: molossidae) in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

We analyzed the prevalence, intensity, and medium density of parasitism of Hesperoctenes fumarius infesting Molossus rufus in natural (hollow trees) and anthropogenic roosts (attics) in southeastern Brazil. The prevalence and intensity of infestations were higher in the hollow trees than in the attic roosts. We also noted a relationship between the amount of space available within the roost and the infestation levels of H. fumarius. One advantage of roosting in larger, often man-made, refuges may be the reduction in ectoparasite infestations. PMID:15986628

Esbérard, Carlos E L; Jesus, Andrea C; Motta, Adarene G; Bergallo, Helena G; Gettinger, Donald

2005-04-01

425

Limnatis nilotica infestation in ram and kid in Dehloran city, Ilam province, west of Iran  

PubMed Central

Leech infestation can cause various clinical symptoms in human and animals. There are a few reports about this infestation in the world. In this report, we represented two cases of leech infestation of Limnatis nilotica in domestic kid and ram with anorexia, little respiratory disorders and restlessness in Dehloran city, Ilam province, west of Iran. Based on author's knowledge, there is no report of leech infestation on ram and kid and the present case is the first report of internal hirudiniasis of ram and kid due to Limnatis niloticain in literature.

Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rasouli, Maryam; Parsaei, Pouya; Bahnihabib, Ebrahimkhalil; Saki, Koroosh; Ghotbian, Fereidon

2013-01-01

426

Identification and management of bed bug infestations in austere environments.  

PubMed

Military forces have missions that send them all over the globe. With the reemergence of bed bugs worldwide, the possibility of Servicemembers encountering them has increased. Special Operations Forces are often sent to locations that may not have integrated pest management support. Knowing how to identify and manage a bed bug infestation, with and without proper equipment and supplies, may become necessary in the very near future. It is also important that Servicemembers are aware of how bed bugs travel, to prevent their dispersal back to the United States and into their barracks and homes. PMID:24227555

Amodt, Zachary T

2013-01-01

427

Tick (Acari) infestations of bats in New Mexico.  

PubMed

A total of 278 bats belonging to 16 species was examined for ticks from various sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998. Seven species of bats were parasitized by ticks: larvae of Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls, Ornithodoros rossi Kohls, Sonenshine & Clifford (Argasidae), or both. Both species of ticks are reported from New Mexico for the first time. Infestation prevalences for parasitized bats ranged from 2 to 25% on different host species for O. kelleyi and from 7 to 25% for O. rossi. The pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus, and the big brown bat. Eptesicus fuscus, were parasitized by both tick species. No distinct host specificity was noted for either tick species. PMID:11476346

Steinlein, D B; Durden, L A; Cannon, W L

2001-07-01

428

Unilateral cacosmia: a presentation of maxillary fungal infestation  

PubMed Central

We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10?years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684

Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M

2013-01-01

429

Biodegradation of hardwood lignocellulosics by the western poplar clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards).  

PubMed

Lignin in plant cell wall is a source of useful chemicals and also the major barrier for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for producing biofuel and bioproducts. Enzymatic lignin degradation/modification process could bypass the need for chemical pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation. Herein, we reveal our new discovery in elucidating the process of hardwood lignin modification/degradation by clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae . The wood-boring clearwing borer, P. robiniae , effectively tunnels hardwood structures during the larval stage; its digestion products from wood components, however, has not yet been investigated. A series of analysis conducted in this study on tunnel walls and frass produced provided evidence of structural alterations and lignin degradation during such hardwood digestion process. The analysis included solid state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis; the results strongly suggest that the structural alteration of lignin primarily involved a preferential degradation of syringyl units accompanied by oxidation on the side chains of lignin guaiacyl moieties. This study also further indicated that unlike the wood-feeding termite the clearwing borer does not target cellulose as an energy source, and thus its lignin degradation ability should provide potential information on how to disassemble and utilize hardwood lignin. Overall, this biological model with an efficient lignin disruption system will provide the new insight into novel enzyme system required for effective plant cell wall disintegration for enhanced cellulose accessibility by enzymes and production of value-added lignin derived products. PMID:21405063

Ke, Jing; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti Dey; Chen, Shulin

2011-05-01

430

Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

2012-04-01

431

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development  

SciTech Connect

The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-02-15

432

Caffeine and resistance of coffee to the berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  

PubMed

The role of caffeine as a chemical defense of coffee against the berry borer Hypothenemus hampei was investigated. No positive correlation was observed between resistance and caffeine content in experiments in which seeds from several coffee species presenting genetic variability for the alkaloid were exposed to adult insects. The same was observed in an experiment with coffee seeds that had their caffeine content doubled by imbibition with caffeine aqueous solutions. Other experiments showed that the attractiveness to insects was not related to the caffeine content of mature fruits. These results indicate that H. hampei has evolved an adaptation to handle the toxic effects of caffeine. PMID:14611159

Guerreiro Filho, Oliveiro; Mazzafera, Paulo

2003-11-19

433

Aflatoxin resistance in selected maize (Zea mays L.) varieties as affected by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea [Boddie]) infestation  

E-print Network

resistant to European corn borer had significantly less A. clavus infection and subsequent aflatoxin production than varieties classified as susceptible. This study essentially confirms earlier findings by several other researchers (Fennell et al...

Uphoff, Michael Donald

1992-01-01

434

Human botfly infestation presenting as peri-auricular mass.  

PubMed

To report a new cause of peri-auricular mass in children: cutaneous myiasis-botfly infestation. Case report. The human botfly (Dermatobia hominis) is found in the tropics of Central and South America. However, cases of infestation are uncommon in the United States. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with cutaneous myiasis in order to expand the differential diagnosis for a peri-auricular mass in children. In our report, the parasite was initially identified as sparganum, but was later reclassified by the center for disease control and prevention (CDC) as a botfly larva. Parasitic infection should be considered with a newly noted head and neck mass, and cutaneous myiasis should be included in the differential diagnosis. Cutaneous myiasis has not been previously reported in the literature describing the peri-auricular region as the site of occurrence. Furthermore, when an unusual parasite is extracted from a lesion, it should be confirmed by an authority such as CDC for definitive diagnosis, so appropriate plan of care and follow up can be instituted. PMID:16112752

Boruk, Marina; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Alexis, Richard

2006-02-01

435

Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura  

PubMed Central

Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

2014-01-01

436

Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ?5 m?2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m?2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

2011-01-01

437

Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

438

Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot and Symptomless Infection in Kernels of Maize Genetically Engineered for European Corn Borer Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Munkvold, G. P., Hellmich, R. L., and Showers, W. B. 1997. Reduced Fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize geneti- cally engineered for European corn borer resistance. Phytopathology 87: 1071-1077. Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp- tomless Fusarium infection

G. P. Munkvold; R. L. Hellmich; W. B. Showers

1997-01-01

439

TRICHOGRAMMA BRASSICAE AND SLAM(R), AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MANAGING EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND CORN ROOTWORMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, the western corn rootworm (CRW), and Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (ECB) are the most serious pests of corn in the U.S. corn belt causing an estimated $50 - $220 of crop loss per hectare per year. An attracticide/adulticide (Slam) that employees a behavi...

440

Persistence of conidia and potential efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against pinhole borers in New Zealand southern beech forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three native species of pinhole borer Treptoplatypus caviceps, Platypus apicalis and Platypus gracilis (Curculionidae: Platypodinae) are occasional pests of indigenous forests in New Zealand. These species predominantly attack ‘southern beech’, usually colonising fallen logs or stumps, but populations can reach densities which threaten healthy trees when large amounts of breeding material are available. The larvae live in tunnels which penetrate

Stephen D. Reay; Celine Hachet; Tracey L. Nelson; Michael Brownbridge; Travis R. Glare

2007-01-01

441

Plant responses to hidden herbivores: European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) attack on maize induces both defense and susceptibility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Herbivore-induced plant defenses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems or roots. Early attempts to characterize maize responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) larv...

442

douBlE-dECKERs And ToWERs: EmERAld Ash BoRER TRAPs in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective and efficient methods to detect and monitor emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus plani- pennis Fairmaire, have been a high priority for scientists since this invasive pest was identified in 2002. In 2006, our objectives included development of a practical trap design suitable for operational programs and evaluation of lures. In 2007, we continued this work and assessed additional trap

Andrea C. Anulewicz

443

Field Suppression of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, using Steinernema carpocapsae: Effects of irrigation, a sprayable gel and application method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of stone fruit trees in North America. In prior studies, the entomopathogenic nematode, S. carpocapsae, caused substantial reductions in S. exitiosa damage when applied by watering can to peach trees that were irrigated regularly. Here we ...

444

The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree decline: Using visual canopy condition  

E-print Network

13 April 2013 Keywords: Fraxinus Emerald ash borer Canopy condition Stable isotope Carbon Water the stable carbon isotopic composition of canopy leaf tissue (foliar d13 C, a proxy of tree level water in common garden studies) are highly susceptible to EAB attack (Cappaert et al., 2005; Poland and Mc

445

Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

446

Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

447

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

2009-01-01

448

Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is highly toxic to the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferr. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A native collection of Bacillus thuringiensis strains was screened, once a reliable bioassay technique to assess the toxicity against the coffee berry borer (CBB) first-instar larvae was developed. A first round of bioassays with 170 strains indicated that the great majority of them showed no or very little insecticidal activity and that very few showed significant levels of toxicity. Interestingly,

Ismael Méndez-López; Jorge E Ibarra

2003-01-01

449

Karnyothrips flavipes, a previously unreported predatory thrips of the coffee berry borer: DNA-based gut content analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new predator of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was found in the coffee growing area of Kisii in Western Kenya. Field observations, laboratory trials and gut content analysis using molecular tools have confirmed the role of the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Phlaeothrip...

450

The effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism on the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) in southern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indirect effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism was investigated in the coffee agroecosystem of Southern Mexico. The ant, Azteca instabilis, forms a mutualistic relationship with the coccid, Coccus viridis, on coffee plants. Through field surveys and experimental studies, the indirect effect of this mutualism on the main coffee pest in the region, Hypothenemus hampei, the coffee berry borer (CBB), was

Ivette Perfecto; John Vandermeer

2006-01-01

451

Characterization of Some Beauveria bassianaIsolates and Their Virulence toward the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some morphological and physiological characteristics and electrophoretic esterase profiles of six isolates ofBeauveria bassianawere evaluated, and laboratory bioassays were performed to assess their virulence against the coffee berry borerHypothenemus hampei. The relationship among these characteristics and virulence againstH. hampeiand their utility in selecting isolates for further studies are discussed.

Amanda Varela; Esperanza Morales

1996-01-01

452

Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci from the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), represents a major insect pest of corn in North America and Europe, and there is a growing need for molecular markers for population genetics studies. Obtaining useful microsatellites for population studies of O. nubilalis is very challenging, a...

453

Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

454

Oviposition and larval development of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini, on rice and non-crop grass hosts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A greenhouse study compared oviposition preference and larval development duration of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on rice, Oryza sativa L. (cv. Cocodrie), and four primary non-crop hosts of Gulf Coast Texas rice agroecosystems. Rice and two perennials, johnsongrass...

455

Transcript analysis and comparative evaluation of shaker and slowmo gene homologues from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The movement and dispersal of larval Lepidoptera are factors that govern their survival and distribution within the natural landscape. Homologs of the Drosophila behavior-linked genes slowmo and shaker involved in larval locomotion were identified from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (L...

456

Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003–2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against A. planipennis adults in greenhouse studies. However, efficacy was improved in the field when B.

Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

2008-01-01

457

Nontarget effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an

David Kreutzweiser; Kevin Good; Derek Chartrand; Taylor Scarr; Dean Thompson

2007-01-01

458

Host-seeking behavior and parasitism by Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a newly described and important idiobiont ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB) that has excellent potential as a biological control agent against EAB populations in the USA. In order to understand the ecological factors involved in the search and discovery of concealed hosts by S. agrili, we investigated the behavioral responses of adult

Xiao-Yi Wang; Zhong-Qi Yang; Juli R. Gould; Hui Wu; Jian-Hai Ma

2010-01-01

459

Relationships between the emergence and oviposition of ectoparasitoid Spathius agrili Yang and its host emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), (= A. marcopoli Obenberger), is an important bark beetle attacking ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). It is very difficult to detect and control because of its highly concealed life history. This pest mainly distributed\\u000a in partial Asian countries (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia) and Far East Russia, while in China it presented in

Xiaoyi Wang; Zhongqi Yang; Guijun Liu; Enshan Liu

2007-01-01

460

Interactive Influence of Leaf Age, Light Intensity, and Girdling on Green Ash Foliar Chemistry and Emerald Ash Borer Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance\\u000a to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected

Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland

2009-01-01

461

Suitability of the Eggs of Two Species of Eucalyptus Longhorned Borers (Phoracantha recurva and P. semipunctata) as Hosts  

E-print Network

. semipunctata) as Hosts for the Encyrtid Parasitoid Avetianella longoi K. A. Luhring, T. D. Paine,1 J. G. Millar-choice experi- ments, some P. recurva embryos survived the parasi- toid attack and emerged as neonate larvae of effective natural enemies (Paine et al., 1993) contribute to the borer's success in attacking eucalypts

Hanks, Lawrence M.

462

Applications and mechanisms of wax-based semiochemical dispenser technology for disruption of grape root borer mating  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, is an important pest of cultivated grapes in the Eastern United States from North Carolina to Florida. There are few effective registered insecticides for effective control of this pest and their efficacy is limited. Pheromone-based mating disruption i...

463

Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

464

Agrilus rubensteini, a new species from the Philippines related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...

465

Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

466

EXPLORATORY SURVEY FOR THE EMERALD ASH BORER, AGRILUS PLANIPENNIS (COLEOPTERA: BUPRESTIDAE), AND ITS NATURAL ENEMIES IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina then peeled off the bark in search of A. planipennis and associated natural enemies.

Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

467

Transcriptome Sequencing, and Rapid Development and Application of SNP Markers for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes

Venu M. Margam; Brad S. Coates; Darrell O. Bayles; Richard L. Hellmich; Tolulope Agunbiade; Manfredo J. Seufferheld; Weilin Sun; Jeremy A. Kroemer; Malick N. Ba; Clementine L. Binso-Dabire; Ibrahim Baoua; Mohammad F. Ishiyaku; Fernando G. Covas; Ramasamy Srinivasan; Joel Armstrong; Larry L. Murdock; Barry R. Pittendrigh

2011-01-01

468

Resistance to the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius, and the probable modalities involved in wild Vigna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of accessions belonging to selected wild Vigna species namely V. unguiculata subspecies dekindtiana, V. oblongifolia, and V. vexillata were evaluated using choice (DCAT) and no-choice (NCFT) laboratory feeding bioassays to determine their resistance to the pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius. The most resistant accessions belonged to V. vexillata, followed by those from V. oblongifolia, with a few

L. E. N. Jackai; S. Padulosi; Q. Ng

1996-01-01

469

Development of an improved laboratory production technique for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei , using fresh coffee berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of a mixture of plaster of Paris and charcoal as a means to regulate the moisture content of coffee berries and the relative humidity (moisture conditions) of the rearing environment and its impact on rearing the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was evaluated under laboratory conditions using two types of coffee. Coffee berries were

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Hans-Michael Poehling; Charles Kamonjo; Christian Borgemeister

2009-01-01

470

Laboratory Evaluation of the Impact of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a Parasitoid of the Coffee Berry Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and the bethylid parasitoid Prorops nasuta Waterston are natural enemies of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and are considered valuable biocontrol agents in the coffee-growing regions of Central and South America. Laboratory evaluations were made on the impact of three isolates of each fungus on adult

W. de la Rosa; H. R. Segura; J. F. Barrera; T. Williams

2000-01-01

471

Insect gladiators II: Competitive interactions within and between bethylid parasitoid species of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) causes substantial reductions in coffee production. It originates from Africa but is now present in almost all of the major coffee producing countries. Classical biological control attempts around the world, including South and Central America, the Caribbean, Indian sub-continent, Indonesia, and Polynesia, including introductions of the African bethylid wasps Prorops nasuta

Tim P. Batchelor; Ian C. W. Hardy; Juan F. Barrera; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

2005-01-01

472

Host Stage Selection and Suitability in Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a Parasitoid of the Coffee Berry Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paired choice experiments were used to evaluate host feeding and oviposition preferences of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a solitary ectoparasitoid of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Immature and ovipositing females may feed on all developmental stages of the host, but prefer eggs and adults. Parasitoid females parasitize prepupae, pupae, and full-grown larvae of H. hampei, the

Isabelle Lauzière; Jacques Brodeur; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

2001-01-01

473

Chemical cues used in host location by Phymastichus coffea, a parasitoid of coffee berry borer adults, Hypothenemus hampei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wasp Phymastichus coffea LaSalle is a primary parasitoid that attacks adults of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, the most serious pest of coffee in the world. We carried out a series of experiments in the laboratory to elucidate the role of chemical cues used by P. coffea during host location. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, P. coffea females

Julio C. Rojas; Alfredo Castillo; Armando Virgen

2006-01-01

474

Insect gladiators: competitive interactions between three species of bethylid wasps attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), originates from Africa and has since invaded all major coffee growing areas in the world. The parasitoid species, Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem and Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) have been introduced into many countries as biological control agents. Recently, a further bethylid, Cephalonomia hyalinipennis Ashmead, was found naturally attacking the coffee berry

Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Ian C. W Hardy; Jean-Paul Lachaud

2002-01-01

475

Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

476

The role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

477

Microbial Diversity in the Midguts of Field and Lab-Reared Populations of the European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInsects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB) is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of

Eugeni Belda; Laia Pedrola; Juli Peretó; Juan F. Martínez-Blanch; Arnau Montagud; Emilio Navarro; Javier Urchueguía; Daniel Ramón; Andrés Moya; Manuel Porcar; Purification Lopez-Garcia

2011-01-01

478

COMPARISON OF PHENOTYPIC AND MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION FOR STALK STRENGTH AND EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. An insect pest of maize that increases stalk lodging by stalk tunneling is the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner). Rind penetrometer resistance ...

479

PHENOTYPIC VS MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION FOR STALK STRENGTH AND SECOND GENERATION EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays L.) stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. Stalk lodging is often intensified by the stalk tunneling action of the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)). Rind penetrome...

480

Development of life tables to assess the establishment and population impact of parasitoids for control of the emerald ash borers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Life tables may be used as a quantitative tool to assess the establishment and impact of introduced natural enemies. One of the critical challenges in constructing life tables for concealed insects such as emerald ash borer is to establish cohorts of the pest. The present study investigates and co...

481

DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED TOOL FOR PROJECTING COSTS OF MANAGING EMERALD ASH BORER IN MUNICIPAL FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city foresters can avoid harm from falling trees by removing, replacing, or treating them with insecticides. Costs for these activities

Clifford S. Sadof

2009-01-01

482

Effects of Chipping, Grinding, and Heat on Survival of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identiÞed in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding,

Deborah G. Mccullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert; Erin L. Clark; Ivich Fraser; Victor Mastro; Sarah Smith; Christopher Pell

2007-01-01

483

DISPERSAL OF NEWLY-ECLOSED EUROPEAN CORN BORER ADULTS (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) FROM CORN INTO SMALL-GRAIN AGGREGATION PLOTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetically-modified, insecticidal corn hybrids [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn] are used throughout the U.S. Corn Belt for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), control. To slow development of Bt-corn resistance, the EPA requires provision of nearby refugia. The appropriate distance...

484

DISPERSAL OF ADULT DIATRAEA GRANDIOSELLA (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CORN BORER RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT IN BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dispersal of the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, was examined by release and recapture of dye-marked adults and by capture of feral adults in and around 50 ha center pivot irrigated fields of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize. Pheromone and black light traps were used to capture...

485