Science.gov

Sample records for borer infestation patterns

  1. SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

  2. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  3. Apple Burrknot Borers in New York Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Apple Burrknot Borers in New York ­ Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State DAVID P. KAIN, RICHARD W. STRAUB AND ARTHUR M. AGNELLO Department damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple

  4. Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

    2013-04-01

    The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801

  5. Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders gauze, and a sprayable, non-woven ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). These were compared with the Lorsban intact throughout the growing season. However, paint and the EVA treatments held up better going

  6. Aflatoxin in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of corn, Zea mays L., with aflatoxin greatly reduces the value of corn grain and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Infestation of developing corn ears with southwestern corn borer, D...

  7. Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

    1996-03-01

    Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

  8. Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots using Spectral Vegetation Indices Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology was used to distinguish corn infested with European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis, from corn that was not infested. In 2004 and 2005, eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery. Manual inocu...

  9. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    PubMed

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603

  10. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. PMID:26314014

  11. SUGARCANE RESISTANCE TO THE SUGARCANE BORER: RESPONSE TO INFESTATION AMONG PROGENY DERIVED FROM RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE PARENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer (SCB), Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana. The deployment of SCB-resistant varieties is an integral part of the integrated pest management approach to minimizing injury from SCB infestation. Our objective was ...

  12. Early detection of emerald ash borer infestation using multisourced data: a case study in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kongwen; Hu, Baoxin; Robinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) poses a significant economic and environmental threat to ash trees in southern Ontario, Canada, and the northern states of the USA. It is critical that effective technologies are urgently developed to detect, monitor, and control the spread of EAB. This paper presents a methodology using multisourced data to predict potential infestations of EAB in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The information combined in this study includes remotely sensed data, such as high spatial resolution aerial imagery, commercial ground and airborne hyperspectral data, and Google Earth imagery, in addition to nonremotely sensed data, such as archived paper maps and documents. This wide range of data provides extensive information that can be used for early detection of EAB, yet their effective employment and use remain a significant challenge. A prediction function was developed to estimate the EAB infestation states of individual ash trees using three major attributes: leaf chlorophyll content, tree crown spatial pattern, and prior knowledge. Comparison between these predicted values and a ground-based survey demonstrated an overall accuracy of 62.5%, with 22.5% omission and 18.5% commission errors.

  13. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  14. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southern California.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael I; Coleman, Tom W; Graves, Andrew D; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle has caused elevated levels of oak mortality since 2002. From 2009-2011, we tested several sanitation methods, applicable to large and small land parcels, to reduce or prevent goldspotted oak borer emergence from infested oak wood. In most experiments, emergence of goldspotted oak borer adults from the positive controls demonstrated that the beetle could complete development in firewood-sized pieces of cut oak wood. In 2009, adult emergence from sun-exposed oak wood began and peaked 2- to 4-wks earlier at a low elevation site than at a high elevation site (late May to late June). However, there were no significant effects of elevation or host species on the emergence response of goldspotted oak borer by solarization treatment in this study. Solarization of infested wood with thick (6 mil) and thin (1 mil) plastic tarpaulins (tarps) did not significantly reduce emergence of adults despite recordings of greater mean and maximum daily temperatures in both tarped treatments and greater relative humidity in the thick-tarped treatment (all compared with nontarped controls). Grinding wood with a 3"-minus screen (< or = 7.6 cm) significantly reduced goldspotted oak borer emergence compared with control treatments, and this was the best method for reducing adult emergence among those tested. In a separate grinding study, no adults emerged when wood was ground to 9"-minus (22.9 cm), 2"-minus (5.1 cm), or 1"-minus (2.5 cm) screen sizes, but a low level of adult emergence from the positive controls limited any inferences from this experiment. Debarking cut wood pieces eliminated goldspotted oak borer emergence from the wood fraction, but adults emerged from the shaved bark and phloem. PMID:23448037

  15. Effect of a pheromone antagonist-based disruption blend on dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) mate-finding and infestation in a commercial apple orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a pheromone antagonist-based disruption blend on disruption of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), mate-finding behavior and incidence of infestation were evaluated in a commercial apple orchard from 2006-2008. Although the pheromone antagonist-based disruption blend treatmen...

  16. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

  17. Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

  18. Associations between host plant concentrations of selected biochemical nutrients and Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economic pest of sugarcane and other graminaceous host crops, and it attacks grassy weeds. Oviposition preference has been known to be for plants with leaves that form folds. This study is the first to associate the nutr...

  19. Infestation patterns of microphallid trematodes in Corophium volutator (Amphipoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Karin

    2001-05-01

    Infestation patterns of digenetic trematodes in Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) were studied in a shallow-water area of the southern Baltic Sea. The amphipod C. volutator is the most common second intermediate host of microphallid trematodes, in particular Maritrema subdolum, in this area. Seasonal and interannual alterations in infestation among the amphipod population are described. The general trend of infestation followed a relatively invariable seasonal pattern. Lowest prevalences were generally observed in spring and early summer, when juvenile amphipods predominated. Increasing prevalences and relative infestation intensities were recorded over the summer, with the highest values in late summer and autumn. These observations are mainly explained by the population dynamics of C. volutator and the infection dynamics of the first intermediate hosts, mudsnails of the genus Hydrobia. Exceptionally high infestation rates in summer 1997 may have been triggered by the earlier appearance of high cercaria densities in the field compared to 1996. The coincidence of the infection dynamics of the first intermediate host with the population dynamics of C. volutator was apparently important. Parasite infestation, in turn, obviously induced mortality of the crustacean host, but conclusive evidence could not be provided based on the analysis of the parasite dispersion patterns in C. volutator.

  20. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or western bean cutworm.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Erin; Hellmich, Richard; Munkvold, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Field trials were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against manual infestations of European corn borer (ECB) and Western bean cutworm (WBC). HPLC and ELISA were used to measure fumonisin levels. Results of the methods were highly correlated, but ELISA estimates were higher. Bt hybrids experienced less insect injury, Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin contamination compared to non-Bt hybrids. WBC infestation increased fumonisin content compared to natural infestation in non-Bt and hybrids expressing Cry1Ab protein in five of eight possible comparisons; in Cry1F hybrids, WBC did not impact fumonisins. These results indicate that WBC is capable of increasing fumonisin levels in maize. Under WBC infestation, Cry1F mitigated this risk more consistently than Cry1Ab or non-Bt hybrids. Transgenically expressed Bt proteins active against multiple lepidopteran pests can provide broad, consistent reductions in the risk of fumonisin contamination. PMID:24964132

  1. The Sweet Potato Borer

    E-print Network

    Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

    1907-01-01

    STATIONS. -- -- -- - -- - - - - - - -. -- - - - - -- - - -- BULLETIN NO. 93. THE SWEET POTATO BORER BY ALBERT F. CONRAD1 Entomologist A Hill of Sweet Potatoes Infested by the Borer. (Photo by E. C. Green) POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS... zs located on the grounds of the Agricrd- turn1 and MeeAanical College, in Brazos County. The Postoflee address is College Station. Texrr?. Reports and Lullelins arc sent f7 or upon np- plic~tibrl to t:lc DII eclor. THE SWEET POTATO ROOT BORER...

  2. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF MAIZE WEEVIL PRE-HARVEST INFESTATION IN CORN FIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three corn fields were sampled continuously for 6- or 8-wks to determine the invasion patterns of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation. The weekly samplings started when the kernel moisture level was about 30%. The weevil infestation levels vari...

  3. Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

  4. INFLUENCE OF GROWING LOCATION AND VARIETY ON LESSER GRAIN BORER (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) AND RICE WEEVIL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) INFESTATION OF ROUGH RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-grain rice cultivars Cocodrie, Wells, and XP 723 grown in three locations, and medium-grain rice cultivars Bengal and XP 713 grown in two locations, were assayed for susceptibility to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L). Separate samples...

  5. Impact of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid, alone and in combination, used against emerald ash borer in a newly-infested ash nursery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating the potential of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for use against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We treated approximately 400 Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F. americana (height ca. 5-6 m) at a commercial tree nursery wit...

  6. Detection of lesser grain borer larvae in internally infested kernels of brown rice and wheat using an electrically conductive roller mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications were made to a small laboratory mill to enable the detection of rice kernels infested by immature, hidden stored-grain insects. The mill, which was originally designed for wheat, monitors the electrical conductance through the grain and detects kernels that are infested with live inse...

  7. NHBugs: The Big Three Resources Emerald Ash Borer Management for Landowners

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    NHBugs: The Big Three Resources Emerald Ash Borer Management for Landowners Generally infested area Emerald ash borer is in this zone, though not necessarily in all ash trees. Potential expansion area Emerald ash borer isn't known to be in the area, but the area is within 10 miles of the outer limits

  8. APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon scitula (Harris) N.Y.S. Agric. Expt. Station

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon@nysaes.cornell .edu APPLE, EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TRUNK SPRAYS TO CONTROL BORERS INFESTING BURRKNOTS, 2006 the untreated check. (Table 1) Table 1. Efficacy of insecticides against dogwood borer infesting apple, 2006

  9. Effectiveness of the International Phytosanitary Standard ISPM No. 15 on Reducing Wood Borer Infestation Rates in Wood Packaging Material Entering the United States

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Robert A.; Britton, Kerry O.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Cavey, Joseph F.; Garrett, Lynn J.; Kimberley, Mark; Lowenstein, Frank; Nuding, Amelia; Olson, Lars J.; Turner, James; Vasilaky, Kathryn N.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 (ISPM15) in 2002, which provides treatment standards for WPM used in international trade. ISPM15 was originally developed by members of the International Plant Protection Convention to “practically eliminate” the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM. The United States (US) implemented ISPM15 in three phases during 2005–2006. We compared pest interception rates of WPM inspected at US ports before and after US implementation of ISPM15 using the US Department of Agriculture AQIM (Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring) database. Analyses of records from 2003–2009 indicated that WPM infestation rates declined 36–52% following ISPM15 implementation, with results varying in statistical significance depending on the selected starting parameters. Power analyses of the AQIM data indicated there was at least a 95% chance of detecting a statistically significant reduction in infestation rates if they dropped by 90% post-ISPM15, but the probability fell as the impact of ISPM15 lessened. We discuss several factors that could have reduced the apparent impact of ISPM15 on lowering WPM infestation levels, and suggest ways that ISPM15 could be improved. The paucity of international interception data impeded our ability to conduct more thorough analyses of the impact of ISPM15, and demonstrates the need for well-planned sampling programs before and after implementation of major phytosanitary policies so that their effectiveness can be assessed. We also present summary data for bark- and wood-boring insects intercepted on WPM at US ports during 1984–2008. PMID:24827724

  10. Potential use of the Bushmint, Hyptis suaveolens, for the Control of Infestation by the Pink Stalk Borer, Sesamia calamistis on Maize in Southern Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adda, Cyrille; Atachi, Pierre; Hell, Kerstin; Tamò, Manuele

    2011-01-01

    Maize production in Benin, especially in resource-poor farmers' fields, is constrained by stemborers among other factors. One of the major stemborers in southern Benin is Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). African farmers cannot afford to use commercial insecticides for controlling stemborers - they are expensive and unsuitable for durable pest management systems due to eco-toxicity. There is therefore a need for cheaper and environmentally friendly methods and botanicals offer an attractive alternative. The bushmint, Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), was compared with the commercial insecticide Furadan (carbofuran) for the control of S. calamistis on maize Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae). Trials were conducted in the screenhouse and in the field during the minor cropping season in 2004 at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)-Benin station. The variables measured included numbers of egg masses per plant, eggs per egg mass (in the screenhouse study), population density of S. calamistis, percentage of infested plants and/or ears, and deadhearts in the field. Irrespective of the variable considered, the aqueous extract of H. suaveolens compared favorably with Furadan while maize surrounded by live H. suaveolens plants had lower S. calamistis densities. PMID:21529259

  11. Patterns of tick infestation and their Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Norte, A C; da Silva, L P; Tenreiro, P J Q; Felgueiras, M S; Araújo, P M; Lopes, P B; Matos, C; Rosa, A; Ferreira, P J S G; Encarnação, P; Rocha, A; Escudero, R; Anda, P; Núncio, M S; Lopes de Carvalho, I

    2015-09-01

    Wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. The aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in Portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using PCR techniques. Seven tick species were collected from birds including Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma spp., Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes ventalloi. We found that I. frontalis and Hyalomma spp. were the most common ticks infesting birds of several species and that they were widespread in Portugal. Turdus merula was the bird species that presented the highest diversity of infesting ticks and had one of the highest infestation intensities. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 7.3% (37/505) of Ixodidae ticks derived from birds. The most common genospecies was Borrelia turdi (6.9%), detected in ticks collected from Parus major, T. merula and Turdus philomelos, but Borrelia valaisiana (0.2%) and one Borrelia sp. (0.2%) similar to Borrelia bissettii (96% of similarity of the flaB gene in Blastn) were also detected. This study contributed to a better knowledge of the Ixodidae tick fauna parasitizing birds in Western Europe and to the assessment of the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. associated with birds and their ticks. PMID:26159798

  12. Mathematical Infestation

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Brody Dylan

    A Mathematical Glance at Zombie Infestation Brody Dylan Johnson Introduction A Simple Mathematical Model A Reality Check Zombie Infestation with Resistance Simulations Conclusion A Mathematical Glance at Zombie Infestation Brody Dylan Johnson April 21, 2010 Reference: "When Zombies Attack!: Mathematical

  13. Patterns of Host Utilization by Two Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    selected for parasit- ism varied across parasitoid species and sexes--the largest hosts were parasitized parasitoid species, (2) rates of parasitism averaged 27% across study sites and were inversely correlatedPatterns of Host Utilization by Two Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of the Eucalyptus

  14. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  15. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  16. Sugarcane borer in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is one of the most important of the above-ground pests of sugarcane in Florida. This article presents information pertaining to the borer’s biology, damage to cane, scouting, biological control, cultural control and chemical control. ...

  17. Management strategies for borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes) are native insects that cause serious damage to peach trees in the southeastern U.S. Damage by both species is exacted on trees through larvae feeding on the cambium. Management of the univoltine peachtree...

  18. Response of Sugarcane and Sugarcane Stalk Borers Sesamia spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Calcium Silicate Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Nikpay, A; Soleyman-Nejadian, E; Goldasteh, S; Farazmand, H

    2015-10-01

    Sugarcane is grown extensively throughout the world including more than 100,000 ha in Khuzestan province, Iran. The pink stalk borers Sesamia are key pests of sugarcane in this region, while other stalk borers will occur in sugarcane worldwide. Application of silicon as a soil amendment has provided plant mitigation to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Silicon has been shown to enhance resistance of sugarcane against stalk borers. Field trials were conducted to determine the effects of calcium silicate against infestations of stalk borers Sesamia spp. and on yield quality. Experiments were conducted with three sugarcane varieties CP69-1062, IRC99-01, and SP70-1143 and two rates of calcium silicate (400 and 800 kg/ha). Percentage of stalk damaged, percentage of bored internodes, length of borer tunnel (mm), number of larvae?+?pupae per 100 stalks, number of exit holes, and cane yield quality were determined. We demonstrate significant reduction on borer population and damage under silicon treatment, but greater reduction in the percentages of stalk damage, bored internodes, moth exit holes, and length of borer tunnel and number of larvae and pupae per 100 stalks were observed in the susceptible variety CP69-1062. Silicon treatment positively affected cane and sugarcane juice quality of for the variety CP69-1062, but not for SP70-1143. We conclude that the benefits of silicon to sugarcane quality and sugarcane resistance to stalk borers are dependent on the sugarcane variety. PMID:26243329

  19. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

  20. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick-borne diseases in wildlife. PMID:24533310

  1. A Tale of Two Borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer has historically been the most important insect pest of sugarcane wherever the crop is grown in the US. It can also be a pest of corn, rice, and grain sorghum. In 1980 this situation changed when the Mexican rice borer moved into south Texas. The Mexican rice borer quickly became...

  2. EXPANDED EXPLORATIONS FOR EMERALD ASH BORER IN ASIA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR GENETIC ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) is considered native to northeast China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Mongolia, and eastern Russia. We are using genetic analyses to determine the origin of North America’s EAB infestations; however, acquiring samples from countries other than China has been difficult. To increase t...

  3. Biological control of emerald ash borers: the role of indigenous North American parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated parasitoids were conducted in Cranberry Township, PA; Granville, PA; and Cheltenham, MD. Several species of parasitic Hymenoptera were collected from EAB-infested green ash trees or reared from late-instar E...

  4. Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

  5. SUGARCANE BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) MANAGEMENT THRESHOLD ASSESSMENT ON FOUR SUGARCANE CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Judicious application of insecticides is an important component of integrated pest management of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Louisiana. Timing of these applications if critical for effective control and applications of insecticides has been traditionally set at a 5% infested st...

  6. Use of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid for control of emerald ash borer in an ash nursery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We wish to determine the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for control and management of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We have undertaken this work at a commercial tree nursery in southern Michigan within the EAB-infested area. App...

  7. Effect of emerald ash borer on structure and material properties of ash trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) currently occurs in fifteen states in the United States, as well as Ontario and Quebec in Canada. A decline in ash tree strength following EAB infestation is potentially hazardous to public safety, particularly when trees are left standing for several years after dying. Dead ...

  8. Delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  9. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Freudenmann, Roland W.; Lepping, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme “infestation” is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed “Morgellons disease” can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  10. Dermatologic infestations.

    PubMed

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic. PMID:22250620

  11. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

  12. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites. PMID:24498741

  13. Emerald Ash Borer TEXAS TRAPPING PROJECT

    E-print Network

    Emerald Ash Borer TEXAS TRAPPING PROJECT East Texas 2012 H. A. (Joe) Pase III Texas Forest Service. · Following August collection, remove and dispose of trap. #12;Emerald ash borer adults #12;Emerald ash borer adults #12;Emerald ash borer adult and some look-alikesE A B #12;#12;HAPPY TRAPPING #12;

  14. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  15. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LONG, SHORT, AND MEDIUM-GRAIN RICE TO RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA (F.), THE LESSER GRAIN BORER (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) can infest long, short, and medium grain rough rice. There is little current information regarding susceptibility of these types or of individual varieties within these general classifications. A series of tests were conducted in which lesser grain b...

  16. Relationships of intercropped maize, stem borer damage to maize yield and land-use efficiency in the humid forest of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Chabi-Olaye, A; Nolte, C; Schulthess, F; Borgemeister, C

    2005-10-01

    Stem borers are the most important maize pests in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. Field trials were conducted in the long and short rainy seasons of 2002 and 2003 to assess the level of damage and yield reductions caused by stem borers in monocropped maize and in maize intercropped with non-host plants such as cassava, cowpea and soybean. The intercrops were planted in two spatial arrangements, i.e. alternating hills or alternating rows. All intercrops and the maize monocrop were grown with and without insecticide treatment for assessment of maize yield loss due to borer attacks. The land-use efficiency of each mixed cropping system was evaluated by comparing it with the monocrop. The temporal fluctuation of larval infestations followed the same pattern in all cropping systems, but at the early stage of plant growth, larval densities were 21.3-48.1% higher in the monocrops than in intercrops, and they tended to be higher in alternating rows than alternating hills arrangements. At harvest, however, pest densities did not significantly vary between treatments. Maize monocrops had 3.0-8.8 times more stems tunnelled and 1.3-3.1 times more cob damage than intercrops. Each percentage increase in stem tunnelling lowered maize grain yield by 1.10 and 1.84 g per plant, respectively, during the long and short rainy season in 2002, and by 5.39 and 1.41 g per plant, respectively, in 2003. Maize yield losses due to stem borer were 1.8-3.0 times higher in monocrops than in intercrops. Intercrops had generally a higher land-use efficiency than monocrops, as indicated by land-equivalent-ratios and area-time-equivalent-ratios of >1.0. Land-use efficiency was similar in both spatial arrangements. At current price levels, the net production of mixed cropping systems was economically superior to controlling stem borers with insecticide in monocropped maize. The maize-cassava intercrop yielded the highest land equivalent ratios and the highest replacement value of the intercrop. At medium intensity cropping this system is thus recommended for land-constrained poor farmers who do not use external inputs such as fertilizer and insecticides. PMID:16197562

  17. Blueberry Stem Borer Oberea myops Haldeman

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    , the raspberry cane borer. After mating, the females search for egg laying sites. On blueberry they seem as that of raspberry cane borer, a close relative. Girdled blueberry shoots appear about the 3rd week of June. If you

  18. Effects of infestation of Rhyzopertha dominica F. on sorghum endosperm: A laser scanning confocal microscopy and differential scanning calorimetery study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the lesser grain borer, can cause loss of biomass and decrease grain quality through feeding damage or contamination with insect fragments and uric acid. R. dominica can change dough properties of wheat and negatively affect bread quality. However, few pub...

  19. Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1?1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  20. Spiroacetals in the colonization behaviour of the coffee berry borer: a 'push-pull' system.

    PubMed

    Njihia, Teresiah Nyambura; Jaramillo, Juliana; Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1 ? 1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a 'push-pull' system, whereby frontalin acts as the 'push' (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the 'pull' (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  1. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  2. Seasonal Patterns and Relationships among Coccidian Infestations, Measures of Oxidative Physiology, and Immune Function in Free-Living House Sparrows over an Annual Cycle.

    PubMed

    Pap, Péter L; P?tra?, Laura; Osváth, Gergely; Buehler, Deborah M; Versteegh, Maaike A; Sesarman, Alina; Banciu, Manuela; Vágási, Csongor I

    2015-01-01

    Temporal variation in oxidative physiology and its associated immune function may occur as a result of changes in parasite infection over the year. Evidence from field and laboratory studies suggests links between infection risk, oxidative stress, and the ability of animals to mount an immune response; however, the importance of parasites in mediating seasonal change in physiological makeup is still debated. Also, little is known about the temporal consistency of relationships among parasite infestation, markers of oxidative status and immune function in wild animals, and whether variation in oxidative measures can be viewed as a single integrated system. To address these questions, we sampled free-living house sparrows (Passer domesticus) every 2 mo over a complete year and measured infestation with coccidian parasites as well as nine traits that reflect condition, oxidative physiology, and immune function. We found significant seasonal variation in coccidian infestation and in seven out of nine condition and physiological variables over the year. However, we found little support for parasite-mediated change in condition, oxidative physiology, and immune functions in house sparrows. In accordance with this, we found no temporal consistency in relationships between the intensity of infestation and physiology. Among measures of oxidative physiology, antioxidants (measured as the total antioxidant capacity and the concentration of uric acid in the plasma) and oxidative damage (measured through the level of malondialdehyde in plasma) positively and consistently covaried over the year, while no such associations were found for the rest of traits (body mass, total glutathione, and leukocyte numbers). Our results show that natural levels of chronic coccidian infection have a limited effect on the seasonal change of physiological traits, suggesting that the variation of the latter is probably more affected by short-term disturbances, such as acute infection and/or season-specific stress stimuli. PMID:26052636

  3. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses. PMID:26453718

  4. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  5. Gastrointestinal parasite infestation.

    PubMed

    Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E; Sammak, Bassam M; Mohamed, Abdulrahman E; Al Karawi, Mohamed A; Al Shahed, Mona; Al Thagafi, Mohamed A

    2004-03-01

    Twenty-five percent of the world's population could be suffering parasitic infestation. Highest prevalence is in underdeveloped agricultural and rural areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. In some areas incidence may reach 90% of the population. In contrast, some major economic projects intended to promote local development have, paradoxically, caused parasitic proliferation, e.g. bilharziasis in Egypt and Sudan and Chagas disease in Brazil. The commonest cosmopolitan gastrointestinal parasite is Entamoeba histolytica. Some intestinal parasite are endemic in temperate climates, e.g. Entrobius vermicularis. The AIDS epidemic has increased the prevalence and severity of parasitic disease, particularly Strongyloides stercolaris. Tropical parasites are seen in Western people who travel to tropical countries. Radiology has acquired a major role in diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal parasite infestations and their complications. PMID:14749961

  6. Tree height influences flight of lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capture of males of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson), and the peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in pheromone traps positioned at 0, 1.8, 3.6, and 5.5 m above ground was affected by tree height in different habitats. In a peach orchard wit...

  7. POPULATION ECOLOGY Dispersal of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer (Coleoptera

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    POPULATION ECOLOGY Dispersal of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Urban behavior of the eucalyptus longhorned borer, Phoracantha semipunctata (F.), a crepuscular beetle whose distributed in time and space. KEY WORDS Phoracantha semipunctata, Cerambycidae, eucalyptus, wood boring

  8. Chemical ecology of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Mastro, Victor C

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted, based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical research need to find an efficient survey method for detecting A. planipennis infestations. Here, we present a review of research that has led to the development of effective trapping methods for A. planipennis. Studies on the insect's biology and behavior have led to the identification of several potential attractants as well as the design of a visually attractive trap. The ongoing challenge in developing an optimally efficient trapping methodology for A. planipennis will involve finding the best combination of variables, such as trap shape, trap color (or other visual properties), trap placement, lure components, as well as the ratios and release rates of those components. PMID:20108026

  9. [Identification of host plants of the avocado borer, Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) in Rio Grande do Sul].

    PubMed

    Link, Dionísio; Link, Fabio M

    2008-01-01

    Fruits of Nectandra megapotamica Mez and Cinnamomum camphora (L.) (Lauraceae) were collected in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2004. Species of five families of insects were found inside the fruits: two fly species (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophila spp.), six beetle species, Heilipus sp., Conotrachelus sp. (Curculionidae), Hypothenemus sp. (Scolytidae) and three species of Carpophilus (Nitidulidae), and moths (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). The moth especimes were identified as Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, the avocado borer. The occurrence of the moth was predominant from early April until middle May. The natural larval infestation level was low. Two new host plant of the pest were identified. PMID:18641908

  10. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully attacked, suggesting that S. agrili could be reared on field collected logs infested with emerald ash borer. PMID:21510183

  11. Detectability of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in asymptomatic urban trees by using branch samples.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Krista L; Fidgen, Jeffrey G; Turgeon, Jean J

    2011-06-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic invasive insect causing extensive mortality to ash trees, Fraxinus spp., in Canada and the United States. Detection of incipient populations of this pest is difficult because of its cryptic life stages and a multiyear time lag between initial attack and the appearance of signs or symptoms of infestation. We sampled branches from open-grown urban ash trees to develop a sample unit suitable for detecting low density A. planipennis infestation before any signs or symptoms are evident. The sample unit that maximized detection rates consisted of one 50-cm-long piece from the base of a branch ?6 cm diameter in the midcrown. The optimal sample size was two such branches per tree. This sampling method detected ?75% of asymptomatic trees known to be infested by using more intensive sampling and ?3 times more trees than sampling one-fourth of the circumference of the trunk at breast height. The method is less conspicuous and esthetically damaging to a tree than the removal of bark from the main stem or the use of trap trees, and could be incorporated into routine sanitation or maintenance of city-owned trees to identify and delineate infested areas. This research indicates that branch sampling greatly reduces false negatives associated with visual surveys and window sampling at breast height. Detection of A. planipennis-infested asymptomatic trees through branch sampling in urban centers would provide landowners and urban foresters with more time to develop and implement management tactics. PMID:22251647

  12. Expansion of the Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) into Rice and Sugarcane in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B E; Hardy, T N; Beuzelin, J M; VanWeelden, M T; Reagan, T E; Miller, R; Meaux, J; Stout, M J; Carlton, C E

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Traps baited with E. loftini female sex pheromones were used to document establishment and distribution of E. loftini near sugarcane, rice, and noncrop hosts in seven southwest Louisiana parishes from 2009 to 2013. Additional field surveys documented larval infestations in commercial sugarcane and rice. After its initial detection in 2008, no E. loftini were detected in Louisiana in 2009 and only two adults were captured in 2010. Trapping documented range expansion into Cameron, Beauregard, and Jefferson Davis parishes in 2011 and Allen, Acadia, and Vermilion parishes in 2013. During the course of this study, E. loftini expanded its range eastward into Louisiana 120?km from the Texas border (?22?km/yr). Surveys of larval infestations provided the first record of E. loftini attacking rice and sugarcane in Louisiana. Infestations of E. loftini in rice planted without insecticidal seed treatments in Calcasieu Parish reached damaging levels. PMID:26313982

  13. Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire

    E-print Network

    Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Abstract The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined. Keywords Agrilus planipennis . Contact pheromone . 3-Methyltricosane . Emerald ash borer. Mating system

  14. Emerald Ash Borer Management Plan Emerald Ash Borer is a small metallic green beetle, to 3/8 of an inch long. No bigger than a penny, this

    E-print Network

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Emerald Ash Borer Management Plan Emerald Ash Borer is a small metallic green beetle, ½ to 3's nutrient supply which causes the tree's decline and ultimately the death of the tree. Emerald Ash Borer become noticeable to anyone including the trained eye. Emerald Ash Borer has killed trees of various

  15. Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer,

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Hampshire apple trees. The adults are striking brown-and-white-striped beetles, almost an inch longBorers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer, flatheaded apple-tree borer, dogwood borer (and the uncommon look

  16. Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)

    E-print Network

    ' species found in Britain. Ambrosia beetles, although wood borers, are not wood feeders: the adults bore into wood and introduce into their tunnels `ambrosia' fungi which grow on the tunnel walls and serve the female going first, the male following behind. It is his job to push out all the bore dust that will now

  17. Host-plant-associated genetic differentiation in Northern French populations of the European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Martel, C; Réjasse, A; Rousset, F; Bethenod, M-T; Bourguet, D

    2003-02-01

    The phytophagous insects that damage crops are often polyphagous, feeding on several types of crop and on weeds. The refuges constituted by noncrop host plants may be useful in managing the evolution in pest species of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic crops. However, the benefits of these refuges may be limited because host-plant diversity may drive genetic divergence and possibly even host-plant-mediated sympatric speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the main pest of maize in Europe and North America, where it was introduced early in the 20th century. It has a wide host range but feeds principally on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). O. nubilalis is found on mugwort only in the northern part of France, whereas it is found on maize throughout France. The extent of genetic variation at allozyme markers was investigated in populations collected from the two host plants over the entire geographical distribution of the European corn borer on mugwort in France. Allelic differentiation between pairs of populations and hierarchical analyses of pools of samples from each host plant indicate that the group of populations feeding on maize differed from the group of populations feeding on mugwort. Our results suggest (1) host-plant-related divergent selection at the genomic region surrounding the Mpi locus and (2) limited gene flow between the populations feeding on mugwort and those infesting maize fields. These data indicate that adults emerging from mugwort would not be useful for managing the evolution of resistance to the B. thuringiensis toxins in European corn borer populations. PMID:12634820

  18. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    PubMed

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality. PMID:24112110

  19. Effect of humidity on egg hatchability and reproductive biology of the bamboo borer (Dinoderus minutus Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Norhisham, Ahmad R; Abood, Faizah; Rita, Muhamad; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman

    2013-12-01

    Wood products are highly exposed to infestation by powder post beetles. Dinoderus minutus (bamboo borer) is a wood boring beetle that seriously damage dried bamboo and finished bamboo products. Management of D. minutus using pesticides showed negative effects on environment despite being very costly. By understanding influence of natural climatic conditions on their reproductive behaviour, could help us to develop a cost effective and environmental friendly strategy to cope up with this problem. In the present study, reproductive parameters and egg development of the bamboo borer were determined at 20%, 40%, 56%, 75% and 85% r.h. levels at constant temperature of 30°?±?2°C with 8 L-16D photoregime. From the results, eclosion to first instar larva was recorded at all relative humidities tested. The lowest shortest percentage of hatchability was recorded at 20% and 85% relative humidity with a mean incubation period of 4.63?±?0.25 and 10.43?±?0.32 days, respectively. It was noted that pre-ovipositional period decreased from 14.20?±?0.49 to 7.20?±?0.31 days as relative humidity increased from 20% to 75% and slightly increased to 8.00?±?0.37 days at 85% relative humidity. We conclude that female beetles may have a particular hygropreference in oviposition as total egg production increased with increasing relative humidity. PMID:23419805

  20. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

  1. The role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous stem-borers on maize in the humid tropics of western Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndemah, R; Gounou, S; Schulthess, F

    2002-12-01

    Sites in the humid forest of Cameroon and the derived savanna of Benin were selected to evaluate the effect of planting border rows of wild host plants on lepidopterous stem-borer infestations and on maize yield. Grass species were chosen that in surveys and greenhouse trials were highly attractive to ovipositing female moths but with offspring mortality of close to 100%, thus acting as trap plants. In Cameroon, elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Moench significantly lowered infestations of Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson and Eldana saccharina Walker and increased yields of maize though the differences were not significant during all three cropping seasons. In 1998 in Benin, the only grass tested, Pennisetum polystachion L., significantly increased parasitism of mainly S. calamistis eggs by Telenomus spp. and larvae by Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and reduced numbers of the cob-borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot. In 1999, three grass species; P. polystachion, Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf and Panicum maximum Jacq. were tested. Panicum maximum was the most efficient species for suppressing S. calamistis and M. nigrivenella infestations and enhancing egg and larval parasitism. In the Benin trials, with the exception of M. nigrivenella damage to cobs, the grass species tested had no beneficial effect on yield because pest densities were too low and also rodent damage to maize was enhanced with grasses in the vicinity of the crop. By contrast, stand losses due to Fusarium verticillioides Sacc. (Nirenberg), were significantly reduced by border rows of grasses. PMID:17598302

  2. A Door-to-Door Survey of Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Row Homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M.; Barbarin, Alexis M.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012–2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372

  3. AFLATOXIN ACCUMULATION IN CONVENTIONAL AND TRANSGENIC CORN HYBRIDS INFESTED WITH SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin contamination of corn greatly diminishes its value and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Aflatoxin contamination is frequently linked with drought, high temperatures, and insect dama...

  4. AFLAXTOXIN ACCUMULATION IN CONVENTIONAL AND TRANSGENIC CORN HYBRIDS INFESTED WITH SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen that is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin contamination of corn greatly diminishes its value and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Aflatoxin contamination is frequently linked with drought, high temperatures, and i...

  5. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  6. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles 

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  7. Flight behavior of European corn borer infected with Nosema pyrausta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microsporidian Nosema pyrausta is a common and widespread pathogen of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), in North America and Europe. Nosema negatively affects European corn borer longevity and fecundity. In this study, we used flight mills to examine the effects of Nosema infec...

  8. Microbial Control of Plum Curculio and Peachtree Borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruits. Stone fruits are also plagued by clear-winged moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), e.g., peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes). Microbial control agents have potential as a...

  9. REGULAR ARTICLE European corn borer injury effects on lignin, carbon

    E-print Network

    REGULAR ARTICLE European corn borer injury effects on lignin, carbon and nitrogen in corn tissues herbivores often stimulate lignin deposition in injured plant tissue, but it is not known whether corn (Zea mays L.) reacts to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner) injury in this manner. Bt

  10. Pest Status and Distribution of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.

    2010-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America. PMID:21268702

  11. Dying pine infested with beetles

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Mountain pine beetle-infested trees turn a striking red color throughout their crown as they're dying. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepo...

  12. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  13. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jonathan R.; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species’ functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  14. Predicting economic losses from the continued spread of the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Reay-Jones, F P F; Wilson, L T; Reagan, T E; Legendre, B L; Way, M O

    2008-04-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive species that originated from Mexico, and it is threatening to cause major economic losses to sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and rice, Oryza sativa L., industries in Louisiana. The insect is expected to reach sugarcane and rice production areas in Louisiana by 2008, and infest all of Louisiana sugarcane and rice industries by 2035. When all sugarcane in Louisiana becomes infested, annual yield losses of $220 million would be expected for a cultivar of comparable susceptibility to LCP 85-384 (assuming this cultivar is planted on 100% of the production area). This also assumes the use of the current practice of rainfed production and one application of insecticide, which is presently used by farmers in Louisiana. Irrigation with 30 cm of water is predicted to reduce estimated losses by 29%, whereas four applications of a biorational insecticide such as tebufenozide are expected to reduce the loss in revenue by 53%. The use of the resistant 'HoCP 85-845' would reduce the projected loss in revenue by 24%. Combining all three management tactics on sugarcane, anticipated net loss in revenue would decrease by 66%. The rice industry in Louisiana is projected to suffer from a loss in revenue of $45 million when the entire state is infested. A 77% reduction in loss in revenue is expected with one application of lambda-cyhalothrin. A quarantine on east Texas sugarcane is estimated to save the Louisiana industry between $1.1 billion and $3.2 billion (depending on management) during the time needed for the insect to fully invade the state's sugarcane and rice producing area by natural migration rather than by accidental introduction. The rapid deployment of appropriate management tactics will have a key role in reducing the anticipated economic impact of E. loftini once it becomes a pest in Louisiana sugarcane and rice. PMID:18459384

  15. Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

  16. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Conclusions: Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs. PMID:23826461

  17. Dispersion and sequential sampling plan for Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesting Hawaii coffee plantations.

    PubMed

    Greco, E B; Wright, M G

    2013-04-01

    The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a serious pest of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in the Kona region of the island of Hawaii, the center of the largest area of coffee production within the state of Hawaii. This study indirectly characterizes the spatial distribution of X. compactus in coffee plantations through assessment of twig borer damage, and presents a sequential sampling plan for monitoring X. compactus population densities. Taylor's Power Law (TPL) and Iwao's mean crowding index showed that X. compactus infestations were highly aggregated within plantations, with b and ß values significantly larger than 1. The TPL linear regression of log variance against log mean (R2 = 0.92) provided a better fit to the data than the linear regression of mean crowding on the mean (R2 = 0.68). Subsequently, Taylor's power law parameters were used to develop the Green's sequential plan to estimate densities of X. compactus at the 90 and 75% precision levels. PMID:23575018

  18. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  19. Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-04-01

    Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes. PMID:24562815

  20. 75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined...: We are amending the emerald ash borer regulations by adding portions of Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota... rule is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the emerald ash borer to noninfested areas of...

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on four species

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on four species of birds Walter D. Koenig+Business Media Dordrecht 2013 Abstract The emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis, first detected in 2002 Citizen science Á Emerald ash borer Á Forest pests Á Invasive species Á Nuthatch Á Woodpeckers

  2. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    E-print Network

    Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like An eruptive outbreak of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, in North America over the past

  3. After entering pepper fruit through the cap, European corn borer larva feed on the

    E-print Network

    Vetriani, Costantino

    After entering pepper fruit through the cap, European corn borer larva feed on the interior Report become acquainted with the European corn borer (ECB) while shucking a fresh ear of corn. The worm crops as well. European corn borer damage on peppers­ where the worm bores through at the cap and feeds

  4. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 20092019 Kent F. Kovacs a,

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Analysis Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009­2019 Kent F. Kovacs a Emerald ash borer Cost of ash treatment, removal, and replacement Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, Ontario in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of emerald ash borer (EAB) have been detected

  5. Negative Feedbacks on Bark Beetle Outbreaks: Widespread and Severe Spruce Beetle Infestation Restricts Subsequent Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sarah J.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  6. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  7. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America. PMID:26072908

  8. A country bug in the city: urban infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi remains an unrealized objective in many Latin American countries. The task of vector control is complicated by the emergence of vector insects in urban areas. Methods Utilizing data from a large-scale vector control program in Arequipa, Peru, we explored the spatial patterns of infestation by Triatoma infestans in an urban and peri-urban landscape. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to assess the associations between household infestation and household- and locality-level socio-environmental measures. Results Of 37,229 households inspected for infestation, 6,982 (18.8%; 95% CI: 18.4 – 19.2%) were infested by T. infestans. Eighty clusters of infestation were identified, ranging in area from 0.1 to 68.7 hectares and containing as few as one and as many as 1,139 infested households. Spatial dependence between infested households was significant at distances up to 2,000 meters. Household T. infestans infestation was associated with household- and locality-level factors, including housing density, elevation, land surface temperature, and locality type. Conclusions High levels of T. infestans infestation, characterized by spatial heterogeneity, were found across extensive urban and peri-urban areas prior to vector control. Several environmental and social factors, which may directly or indirectly influence the biology and behavior of T. infestans, were associated with infestation. Spatial clustering of infestation in the urban context may both challenge and inform surveillance and control of vector reemergence after insecticide intervention. PMID:24171704

  9. Ecological and Sociodemographic Determinants of House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Indigenous Communities of the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, M. Sol; Provecho, Yael M.; Cardinal, M. Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Principal Findings Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles’. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles’ (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Conclusions and Significance Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and household size. These factors may be used for designing improved interventions for sustainable disease control and risk stratification. Housing instability, household mobility and migration patterns are key to understanding the process of house (re)infestation in the Gran Chaco. PMID:25785439

  10. Serine proteases SP1 and SP13 mediate the melanization response of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, against entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Shen, Dongxu; Hong, Fang; Wang, Guirong; An, Chunju

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to entomopathogenic fungi is one approach for insect pest control. Little is known about the immune interactions between fungus and its insect host. Melanization is a prominent immune response in insects in defending against pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Clip domain serine proteases in insect plasma have been implicated in the activation of prophenoloxidase, a key enzyme in the melanization. The relationship between host melanization and the infection by a fungus needs to be established. We report here that the injection of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana induced both melanin synthesis and phenoloxidase activity in its host insect, the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). qRT-PCR analysis showed several distinct patterns of expression of 13 clip-domain serine proteases in response to the challenge of fungi, with seven increased, two decreased, and four unchanged. Of special interest among these clip-domain serine protease genes are SP1 and SP13, the orthologs of Manduca sexta HP6 and PAP1 which are involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Recombinant O. furnacalis SP1 was found to activate proSP13 and induce the phenoloxidase activity in corn borer plasma. Additionally, SP13 was determined to directly cleave prophenoloxidase and therefore act as the prophenoloxidase activating protease. Our work thus reveals a biochemical mechanism in the melanization in corn borer associated with the challenge by B. bassiana injection. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the immune responses of Asian corn borer against B. bassiana. PMID:25900291

  11. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2014-07-14

    A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy. PMID:24792748

  12. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  13. Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

  14. EUROPEAN CORN BORERS: A DIMINISHED INSECT THREAT FROM NOW ON?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn borer populations have fluctuated dramatically over the years, but in the past few years some scientists are reporting consistently low populations. Is this part of a natural cycle or has genetically-engineered corn, which in some areas is greater than half of the plantings, led to an area wid...

  15. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  16. New host association for Mexican rice borer in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This note reports Arundo donax, giant reed or carrizo cane, as a new host association of Eoreuma loftini, the Mexican rice borer. Larvae of E. loftini were found feeding on the growing tips of A. donax canes in a nursery and in field stands along the Rio Grande in the Lower Rio Grande Valley and L...

  17. Protein digestion in red aak borer larvae, Enaphalodes rufulus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, a recent outbreak of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), contributed to the death of tens of thousands of red oaks. To better understand nutrient digestion in E. rufulus larvae, biochemical analyses were used to characterize dige...

  18. REFINING THE PHEROMONE-BASED MONITORING SYSTEM FOR DOGWOOD BORER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris is an increasingly important pest of apple grown on size-controlling rootstocks in eastern North America. Many apple producers monitor populations of the key pests of apple using sex pheromone traps, and may base their management decisions on pher...

  19. Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

  20. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  1. Development of Harmonic Radar Systems for Tracking Emerald Ash Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borers (EAB) have killed millions of ash trees since they were identified in North America in the summer of 2002. Data are needed on EAB behavior to aid development of treatment and management strategies and enable more effectively schedule and target control measures. Entomological ra...

  2. Bronze Birch Borer STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    vigorous and is the best line of defense. Larvae are reported not to survive in healthy trees. Branches they will spend the following winter, spring, summer, fall and a second winter, before emerging as adults the second spring. "Look for D-shaped exit holes where adult borers have emerged" The larval stage

  3. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. PMID:26287180

  4. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. PMID:26287180

  5. Cross-resistance between the Mexican Rice Borer and the Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): A Case Study Using Sugarcane Breeding Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer (SCB) (Diatraea saccharalis) and Mexican rice borer (MRB) (Eoreuma loftini) are two economically important pests of sugarcane in the USA. Because of similarities in larval feeding behavior, selecting for resistance to one species could provide resistance to the other, a phenomeno...

  6. Molecular characterization of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I and their phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Shashank, P R; Ojha, Rakshit; Venkatesan, T; Jalali, S K; Bhanu, K R M

    2015-01-01

    Shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is an important insect pest infesting brinjal or eggplant in India. Molecular characterization of nine different populations belonging to various brinjal growing regions was done using Cytochorome C Oxidase I (COI) gene. Nucleotide analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of the COI indicate that the L. orbonalis from different geographical regions are homogenous. The results showed less nucleotide diversity (? = 0.007895) and overall mean distance (0.008 ± 0.003). Topologies of neighbour-joining (NJ) trees indicate all the populations belong to single major clade. Therefore, it is inferred that there was no significant molecular diversity within L. orbonalis of different geographical locations of India with respect to COI. PMID:25675712

  7. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeny, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

  8. Delusional infestation: are you being bugged?

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Angeli; Ooi, Kenneth Gj; Assaad, Nagi; Coroneo, Minas

    2015-01-01

    This case report documents a 58-year-old male who presented to the clinic with a 12-month history of a burrowing sensation in his eyelids that he attributed to a parasitic infestation. After being extensively investigated and reviewed by relevant specialties, no evidence of parasitic infestation was found. He was diagnosed with and treated for blepharitis. Psychiatric referral for presumed delusional infestation (DI) was recommended. Despite this, he remained insistent in his belief of infestation, and was inevitably lost to follow-up. DI, previously known as delusional parasitosis, is a rare delusional disorder where affected individuals have a fixed, false belief that they have a parasitic infestation. Diagnosis can be challenging. Practitioners need to evaluate between primary and secondary DI carefully, as management differs depending on the etiology. Despite this, patients diagnosed with primary DI tend to be resistant to psychiatric referral. This report aims to optimize management by giving the reader a guideline for appropriate investigations and advice on patient approach. It is important to recognize hallmark features of DI to minimize self-inflicted trauma and associated psychosocial consequences. Effective treatment for DI is available, and devastating consequences, including blindness, can be avoided. PMID:26082608

  9. Detection of European corn borer infestation in rainfed and irrigated corn using airborne hyperspectral imaging: implications for resistance management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  10. Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  11. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  12. Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.

    PubMed

    Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-02-01

    Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations. PMID:21404841

  13. 75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... emerald ash borer in the United States. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... Canada to prevent the introduction and ] spread of emerald ash borer in the United States, contact...

  14. Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col., Buprestidae)

    E-print Network

    Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col USDA APHIS PPQ, Brighton, MI, USA Introduction The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis emerald ash borers (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, using solely visual cues based on previous work

  15. EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists Department of Entomology Field Crops E-17-W PURDUE EXTENSION Corn borer populations Indiana growers have seen corn borer damage decline to the point that it is no longer considered the key

  16. Genetic hitchhiking associated with life history divergence and colonization of North America in the European corn borer

    E-print Network

    Dopman, Erik B.

    America in the European corn borer moth Erik B. Dopman Received: 29 April 2010 / Accepted: 24 October 2010 Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through Gene flow Á Reproductive isolation Á Polymorphism Á Ostrinia nubilalis Á European corn borer

  17. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W; Poland, Therese M; Pierce, Steven J; Ahn, Su Zie

    2011-10-01

    Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of four 50- by 50-m cells. Green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) were inventoried by diameter class and ash phloem area was estimated for each cell. One trap type was randomly assigned to each cell in each block. Because initial sampling showed that A. planipennis density was extremely low, infested ash logs were introduced into the center of the site. In total, 87 beetles were captured during the summer. Purple double-decker traps baited with a blend of ash leaf volatiles, Manuka oil, and ethanol captured 65% of all A. planipennis beetles. Similarly baited, green double-decker traps captured 18% of the beetles, whereas sticky bands on girdled trees captured 11% of the beetles. Purple traps baited with Manuka oil and suspended in the canopies of live ash trees captured only 5% of the beetles. At least one beetle was captured on 81% of the purple double-decker traps, 56% of the green double-decker traps, 42% of sticky bands, and 25% of the canopy traps. Abundance of ash phloem near traps had no effect on captures and trap location and sun exposure had only weak effects on captures. Twelve girdled and 29 nongirdled trees were felled and sampled in winter. Current-year larvae were present in 100% of the girdled trees and 72% of the nongirdled trees, but larval density was five times higher on girdled than nongirdled trees. PMID:22251735

  18. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  19. Signature Chemicals for Detection of Hidden Insect Infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are major pests worldwide, but infestation is difficult to detect since the larval stages are concealed within host fruits. Using grapefruit infested with the Caribbean fruit fly, we evaluated gas chromatography (GC) as a tool for detection of hidden infestation. We found sever...

  20. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  1. Breeding Resistant Sugarcane for Managing the Stem Borer Diatraea saccharalis: Progress and Prospects for Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is an important insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Growing resistant varieties is a component of the Integrated Pest Management Program as practiced in Louisiana for managing this insect; however, the release of stem borer resistant varieties is intermi...

  2. 2015 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ENTO-142NP Redheaded Ash Borer

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    2015 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ENTO-142NP Redheaded Ash Borer Coleoptera Tech Description Adult redheaded ash borers have somewhat cylindrical, elongated bodies ranging from 4 are noticeably longer than the first pair. Overall, the shape, size, and coloration of the adult redheaded ash

  3. Classical Biological Control of Emerald Ash Borer and Asian Longhorned Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), are both invasive plant pests recently introduced to North America from the Far East. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an oligophagous buprestid on Fraxinus spp., whereas the Asi...

  4. DIVERSITY OF PENICILLIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (CBB) causes great damage to coffee crops around the world. Borer eggs are laid in developing coffee berries, and the larvae feed on tissue of the berry. It has been hypothesized that fungal growth in insect galleries provides exogenous sterols needed for...

  5. Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat

    E-print Network

    Medjahed, Brahim

    Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat Brahim - Dearborn 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48120, USA {brahim,wgrosky}@umich.edu Abstract. The Emerald Ash Service ­ Ontology ­ Invasive Species ­ EAB. 1 Introduction The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a shiny

  6. A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

  7. PENICILLIUM BROCAE A NEW SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...

  8. Emerald Ash Borer Preparation Checklist for New Hampshire Towns and Cities

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Emerald Ash Borer Preparation Checklist for New Hampshire Towns and Cities Emerald Ash Borer. To plan effectively, know how many ash trees are present and, ideally, their size and condition__________________________________________________________________________ Triage trees for treatment and removal. Identify highvalue ash trees you'll want to preserve through

  9. Emerald Ash Borer Trapping Procedures 2013 Texas A&M Forest Service

    E-print Network

    1 Emerald Ash Borer Trapping Procedures 2013 Texas A&M Forest Service Goal: To survey ash habitats in selected counties in Texas to detect the presence of the emerald ash borer, EAB (Agrilus of a circular 250-acre (1/2 square mile) sampling area. The trap is to be hung from the lower branch of an ash

  10. Alternate crop and weed host plant oviposition preferences by the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum hybrids, in south Texas, having largely displaced the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and it is moving into rice- and sugarcane-growing areas of east Texas and Louisiana. While a number of alternativ...

  11. Evaluation of Cold Temperatures and Density as Mortality Factors of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Evaluation of Cold Temperatures and Density as Mortality Factors of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer) ABSTRACT It was hypothesized that the northward spread of the eucalyptus longhorned borer, Phoracantha into most zones occupied by its eucalyptus host plants. In addition, increasing densities of prepupae

  12. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weilin; Yang, Ling; Li, Mei; Ma, Bojun; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective. PMID:26633389

  13. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Yang, Ling; Li, Mei; Ma, Bojun; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective. PMID:26633389

  14. Repellence of the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda from grafted apple trees by impregnation of rubber budding strips with essential oils.

    PubMed

    van Tol, Rob W H M; Swarts, Henk J; van der Linden, Anton; Visser, J H

    2007-05-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed. PMID:17421054

  15. White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer.

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don

    2015-02-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. PMID:26470141

  16. A rare manifestation of cysticercosis infestation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sunita; Mittal, Amit; Mahendra, Aneet; Aggarwal, Anshu; Batra, Rohit; Jindal, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    There are many causes of urticaria, which may vary from infections to malignancy. Among the infections, infestations by cysticercosis (larval stage of the tapeworm called Taenia solium) is an important cause. The present report is of forty four years old female who presented with urticaria and swelling on face. The swelling was later diagnosed as cysticercosis by noninvasive ultrasonography. The urticaria subsided after the treatment of cysticercosis. We report this case for rarity of its presentation. PMID:24760810

  17. Dynamics of Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Infestations on Urban Dogs in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paz, Gustavo F; Avelar, Daniel M; Reis, Ilka A; Linardi, Pedro M

    2015-09-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835), is an important ectoparasite of dogs and cats throughout the world, causing annoyance to the animals and acting as a vector of infections and a cause of allergic dermatitis in dogs and cats. Although climatic variability and seasonality are known to influence the diversity and abundance of fleas, few investigations of seasonal prevalence of cat flea infestation have involved the same group of dogs being examined regularly over an extended period. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the infestation by C. felis felis on 88 outdoor dogs in southeastern Brazil. The dogs, which were of mixed breed, sex, and age, were examined for ectoparasites every month during the period August 2011 to July 2012, and samples of fleas were randomly collected and identified. Meteorological data, comprising mean temperature, total rainfall, and mean relative humidity, were recorded for the calendar month prior to that in which the examinations were performed. Dogs were found to be infested only with C. felis felis, with a higher prevalence in the months with lowest rainfall (July, August, and September). The data obtained in this investigation can be used in control programs in order to establish an efficient strategy for environmental management and the application of insecticides, particularly during the driest months of the year based on the seasonal pattern of infestation of dogs by C. felis felis. PMID:26336211

  18. PSOROPTES INFESTATION AND TREATMENT IN AN ISOLATED POPULATION OF BIGHORN SHEEP (OVIS CANADENSIS).

    PubMed

    Bleich, Vernon C; Johnson, Christine K; Torres, Steven G; Davis, James H; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Villepique, Jeffrey T; Gonzales, Ben J

    2015-09-01

    The authors captured bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) comprising a small population in the San Bernardino Mountains of California and evaluated the degree of infestation by mites of the genus Psoroptes for each individual. The animals were treated with two novel methods: amitraz-impregnated collars and cyfluthrin-impregnated ear tags and recaptured the following year to evaluate the effect of treatment. The authors compared data on degree of infestation for animals recaptured in the posttreatment year, detected no significant interyear differences in infestation severity scores among animals treated with amitraz or cyfluthrin, and could not detect any differences between treatment types. However, a significant (P<0.10) decreased pattern in severity scores from the beginning to the end of treatments was detected, suggesting a cumulative therapeutic value in repeated annual treatments across the 3-yr period. Additionally, the authors detected a lower median mite severity score between 2000 and a later capture in 2006. These positive outcomes may be the result of previous treatments during 2000-2002, but environmental covariates not accounted for could have been contributing factors. Avermectin drugs with longer release profiles may be a more effective treatment option in this and other small bighorn sheep populations that are compromised with mite infestations. PMID:26352952

  19. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Pawe?; Sprawka, Iwona; ?ukasik, Iwona; Go?awska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•?) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•? was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•? generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  20. A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.

    PubMed

    Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2012-12-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides. PMID:23321083

  1. Response of Grape Leaf Spectra to Phylloxera Infestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A handheld chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations were symptomatic of phylloxera stress in the sample vines. Bidirectional reflectance measurements of green and near-infrared light, taken on fresh leaves with a laboratory spectrophotometer, were related to chlorophyll concentration but did not allow discrimination of mildly infested from uninfested vines.

  2. Cross-kingdom effects of plant-plant signaling via volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    PubMed

    Ángeles López, Yesenia Ithaí; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma Angélica; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; López, Mercedes G; Sánchez-Hernández, Carla; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2012-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants in response to insect infestation can function as signals for the attraction of predatory/parasitic insects and/or repulsion of herbivores. VOCs also may play a role in intra- and inter-plant communication. In this work, the kinetics and composition of VOC emissions produced by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested with the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum was determined within a 14 days period. The VOC emission profiles varied concomitantly with the duration of whitefly infestation. A total of 36 different VOCs were detected during the experiment, 26 of which could be identified: 23 terpenoids, plus decanal, decane, and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Many VOCs were emitted exclusively by infested plants, including MeSA and 10 terpenoids. In general, individual VOC emissions increased as the infestation progressed, particularly at 7 days post-infestation (dpi). Additional tunnel experiments showed that a 3 days exposure to VOC emissions from whitefly-infested plants significantly reduced infection by a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. Infection of VOC-exposed plants induced the expression of a likely tomato homolog of a methyl salicylate esterase gene, which preceded the expression of pathogenesis-related protein genes. This expression pattern correlated with reduced susceptibility in VOC-exposed plants. The observed cross-kingdom effect of plant-plant signaling via VOCs probably represents a generalized defensive response that contributes to increased plant fitness, considering that resistance responses to whiteflies and biotrophic bacterial pathogens in tomato share many common elements. PMID:23085855

  3. Parasitic Infestation and Choice of Reproductive Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Sá Martins, J. S.

    The Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and asexual population inhabiting the same environment represented by a square lattice. With a small probability, a newborn from the sexual population mutates into an asexual one and vice versa. Then, the asexual population rapidly dominates the sexual one, which all but disappears. However, when an infestation by mutating genetically coupled parasites, that mimic trematodes that feed on gonads, is introduced, the outcome may be one in which both populations coevolve or one in which one of the populations overcomes the other, depending on the density of parasites on the lattice.

  4. Evaluation of double-decker traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C

    2011-04-01

    Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites with very low A. planipennis densities, more A. planipennis were captured on baited double-decker traps than on other traps and a higher percentage of the baited double-decker traps captured beetles than any other trap design. In all 3 yr, peak A. planipennis activity occurred during late June to mid-July, corresponding to 800-1200 growing degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD10). Nearly all (95%) beetles were captured by the end of July at approximately 1400 DD10. PMID:21510200

  5. 76 FR 5679 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...interim rule, which restricted the interstate movement of regulated articles from those areas, was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the emerald ash borer to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on February 2, 2011, we...

  6. Tri-trophic Analyses of Rice, the Sugarcane Borer, and Putative Biological Control Agents 

    E-print Network

    Lv, Jiale

    2010-01-14

    A three-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were...

  7. Visualizing the mesothoracic spiracles in a bark beetle: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...

  8. Free amino acids - determinant of sugarcane resistance/susceptibility to stalk borer and sap feeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two relatively new key species in Louisiana that conform to the plant stress hypothesis are the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). High performance liquid chromatography differentiated insect resistant and susceptible sugarcane cultiva...

  9. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

  10. Relationship between horn fly infestation and polymorphisms in cytochrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual animal variation occurs regarding external parasite infestation in beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if horn flies infestations present on beef cattle are associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; T-318C) in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A28) and the prolactin (PR...

  11. Effects of chipping, grinding, and heat on survival of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in chips.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Cappaert, David; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor; Smith, Sarah; Pell, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding, chipping, and heat treatment on survival of A. planipennis prepupae in ash material. Heavily infested ash bolts containing roughly 8,700 prepupae were processed by a horizontal grinder with either a 2.5- or 10-cm screen. There was no evidence of A. planipennis survival in chips processed with the 2.5-cm screen, but eight viable prepupae were recovered from chips processed with the 10-cm screen. We chiseled additional sentinel chips with prepupae from ash logs and buried 45 in each chip pile. In total, six prepupae in sentinel chips survived the winter, but we found no sign of adult A. planipennis emergence from the processed chips. Subsequently, we assessed prepupal survival in chips processed by a chipper or a horizontal grinder fit with 5-, 10-, or 12.7-cm screens. An estimated 1,565 A. planipennis prepupae were processed by each treatment. Chips from the chipper were shorter than chips from the grinder regardless of the screen size used. No live prepupae were found in chips produced by the chipper, but 21 viable prepupae were found in chips from the grinder. Infested wood and bark chips chiseled from logs were held in ovens at 25, 40, or 60 degrees C for 8, 24, or 48 h. Prepupal survival was consistently higher in wood chips than bark chips at 40 degrees C, whereas no prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for eight or more hours. In a second study, prepupae in wood chips were exposed to 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 degrees C for 20 or 120 min. Some prepupae survived 20 min of exposure to all temperatures. No prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for 120 min, but 17% survived exposure to 55 degrees C for 120 min, suggesting that some fraction of the population may survive internationally recognized phytosanitary standards (ISPM-15) for treatment of wood packing material. PMID:17849884

  12. Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ?68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed. PMID:24280666

  13. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions. PMID:22217762

  14. Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments.

    PubMed

    Anulewicz, Andrea C; McCullough, Deborah G; Cappaert, David L; Poland, Therese M

    2008-02-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding pest, was identified as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, in 2002. A. planipennis reportedly colonizes other genera in its native range in Asia, including Ulmus L., Juglans L., and Pterocarya Kunth. Attacks on nonash species have not been observed in North America to date, but there is concern that other genera could be colonized. From 2003 to 2005, we assessed adult A. planipennis landing rates, oviposition, and larval development on North American ash species and congeners of its reported hosts in Asia in multiple-choice field studies conducted at several southeast Michigan sites. Nonash species evaluated included American elm (U. americana L.), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.), black walnut (J. nigra L.), shagbark hickory [Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch], and Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata Bl.). In studies with freshly cut logs, adult beetles occasionally landed on nonash logs but generally laid fewer eggs than on ash logs. Larvae fed and developed normally on ash logs, which were often heavily infested. No larvae were able to survive, grow, or develop on any nonash logs, although failed first-instar galleries occurred on some walnut logs. High densities of larvae developed on live green ash and white ash nursery trees, but there was no evidence of larval survival or development on Japanese tree lilac and black walnut trees in the same plantation. We felled, debarked, and intensively examined >28 m2 of phloem area on nine American elm trees growing in contact with or adjacent to heavily infested ash trees. We found no sign of A. planipennis feeding on any elm. PMID:18348815

  15. The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010-2020.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kent F; Mercader, Rodrigo J; Haight, Robert G; Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2011-09-01

    The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding how newly established satellite populations may affect economic costs can help program managers to justify and design prevention and control strategies. We estimate the economic costs caused by EAB for the 10-yr period from 2010 to 2020 for scenarios of fewer EAB satellite populations than those found from 2005 to 2010 and slower expansion of satellite populations found in 2009. We measure the projected discounted cost of treatment, removal, and replacement of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) growing in managed landscapes in U.S. communities. Estimated costs for the base scenario with the full complement of satellites in 2005-2010 and no program to mitigate spread is $12.5 billion. Fewer EAB satellites from 2005 to 2010 delay economic costs of $1.0 to 7.4 billion. Slower expansion of 2009 satellite populations delays economic costs of $0.1 to 0.7 billion. Satellite populations that are both distant from the core EAB infestation and close to large urban areas caused more economic costs in our simulations than did other satellites. Our estimates of delayed economic costs suggest that spending on activities that prevent establishment of new satellite EAB populations or slow expansion of existing populations can be cost-effective and that continued research on the cost and effectiveness of prevention and control activities is warranted. PMID:21546148

  16. Mixed trichuroid infestation in a dog from Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria boehmi and Trichuris vulpis are trichuroid nematodes affecting wild and companion animals all over the World. The canine intestinal whipworm, T. vulpis, is the most common and well- known in veterinary practice, whereas the respiratory C. aerophila and C. boehmi have been rarely reported in pets as a likely consequence of overlapping morphometric and morphological features of the eggs, which impair a correct etiological diagnosis. Findings In December 2011, a mixed infestation by T. vulpis, C. aerophila and C. boehmi was diagnosed in an asymptomatic dog living in central Italy. Morphometric and morphological findings and pictures of the eggs found at the copromicroscopic analysis are herein reported. Conclusions The present work demonstrates that when trichuroid eggs are found in a faecal sample from a dog, a careful morphological and morphometric analysis of individual parasite elements is mandatory. Key diagnostic features (i.e., size, wall surface pattern and aspects of plugs) should be carefully examined when eggs with overlapping shape and appearance are detected. In conclusion, given the importance in clinical practice of canine trichuroids and the zoonotic potential of C. aerophila, these nematodes should be included into the differential diagnosis of intestinal and respiratory parasitoses of dogs by a thorough microscopic analysis of all trichuroid ova present in microscopic fields. PMID:22731958

  17. Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-05-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-?1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-?1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. PMID:23499941

  18. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/mA? in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities > 5,000-6,000/mA? and infestation intensities > 100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and lakes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  19. DIVERGENT SELECTION FOR RIND PENETROMETER RESISTANCE AND ITS EFFECTS ON EUROPEAN CORN BORER DAMAGE AND STALK TRAITS IN CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) yield is affected by a number of factors including stalk lodging and pests, such as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner, ECB). European corn borers contribute to stalk lodging and also cause a direct yield reduction through physiological effects that decrease the p...

  20. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  1. Suitability of the Eggs of Two Species of Eucalyptus Longhorned Borers (Phoracantha recurva and P. semipunctata) as Hosts

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Suitability of the Eggs of Two Species of Eucalyptus Longhorned Borers (Phoracantha recurva and P Received August 20, 1999; accepted June 12, 2000 Eggs of the eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracan- tha semipunctata F.) are the typical host of the en- cyrtid egg parasitoid Avetianella longoi Siscaro. Both P

  2. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

    2008-07-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

  3. Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

    2014-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities. PMID:25195441

  4. Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Cossé, Allard A; Petroski, Richard J; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Vermillion, Karl; Lelito, Jonathan P; Cooperband, Miriam F; Gould, Juli R

    2012-04-01

    The braconid wasp, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilus planipennis), a destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We identified and synthesized seven male-specific volatile compounds. Three of these, dodecanal, (4R,11E)-tetradecen-4-olide, and (Z)-10-heptadecen-2-one, were the key behaviorally active components in flight tunnel bioassays. Male specificity was demonstrated by gas chromatographic comparison of male and female volatile emissions and whole body extracts. Identifications were aided by coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, microchemical reactions, NMR, chiral GC analysis, and GC and MS comparison with authentic standards. Both the racemic and chiral forms of the ?-lactone, as well as both E- and Z-isomers were synthesized. Flight tunnel behavioral tests showed positive male and female S. agrili responses to both natural pheromone and synthetic blends, with upwind flight and landing on the source. Large field-cage tests, using yellow sticky traps baited with pheromone, captured approximately 50% of the released male and female wasps in 24-h periods. The use of pheromone-baited traps in the field could simplify the current detection method for determining parasitoid establishment (i.e., laboriously felling and peeling ash trees for recovery of S. agrili from infested EAB larvae). PMID:22456948

  5. Discrimination by Ovipositing Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Against Previously Infested

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    of multiple oviposition punctures in flower buds of Ham- pea nutricia indicated an avoidance of already levels. In the face of the uncertainty concerning this weevil's ability to respond to infested buds

  6. Predicting the intensity and impact of Dreissena infestation on native

    E-print Network

    Ricciardi, Anthony

    Predicting the intensity and impact of Dreissena infestation on native unionid bivalves from mussels (Dreissena polyrnorphda and Dreissena bugensis) foul native unionid bivalves by attaching Dreissenides (Dreissena!polymorpha et Dreissena brigensis) nuisent aux bivalves unionides indighnes, en se

  7. Psychological consequences of infestation of the dwelling unit.

    PubMed

    Zahner, G E; Kasl, S V; White, M; Will, J C

    1985-11-01

    Interview data from a three-wave panel study of the impact of the residential environment upon the psychological well-being of 337 minority women were used to examine the effects of household infestation upon self-reported depression, phobic anxiety, somatization, hostility, and anomia. The findings of cross-sectional and change analyses over the three waves of data point to a stable relationship between rat infestation and a single dimension of psychological well-being, somatization. PMID:3876780

  8. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. PMID:21070784

  9. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Haavik, Laurel J.; Coleman, Tom W.; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C.; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole) of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae) produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus). On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface), yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2). In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus), exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae) that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative. PMID:26462589

  10. Interspecific comparison of constitutive ash phloem phenolic chemistry reveals compounds unique to manchurian ash, a species resistant to emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Cipollini, Donald F; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2012-05-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB) is an invasive wood-borer indigenous to Asia and is responsible for widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in the U.S. and Canada. Resistance and susceptibility to EAB varies among Fraxinus spp., which is a result of their co-evolutionary history with the pest. We characterized constitutive phenolic profiles and lignin levels in the phloem of green, white, black, blue, European, and Manchurian ash. Phloem was sampled twice during the growing season, coinciding with phenology of early and late instar EAB. We identified 66 metabolites that displayed a pattern of variation, which corresponded strongly with phylogeny. Previously identified lignans and lignan derivatives were confirmed to be unique to Manchurian ash, and may contribute to its high level of resistance to EAB. Other compounds that had been considered unique to Manchurian ash, including hydroxycoumarins and the phenylethanoids calceolarioside A and B, were detected in closely related, but susceptible species, and thus are unlikely to contribute to EAB resistance of Manchurian ash. The distinct phenolic profile of blue ash may contribute to its relatively high resistance to EAB. PMID:22588569

  11. Identification of Odor-Processing Genes in the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis

    PubMed Central

    Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela J.; Wijeratne, Saranga; Poland, Therese; Qazi, Sohail S.; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; Beliveau, Catherine; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-01-01

    Background Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer) is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp) trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. Methodology and Principal Findings We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons). Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72%) did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc.) putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. Conclusions and Significance The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi-sesquithujene) previously identified in this serious invasive pest. PMID:23424668

  12. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-11-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-?-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-?-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-?-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-?-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were ?-aminobutyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed. PMID:21802697

  13. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ? 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the three control plots. PMID:22546447

  14. Significance of Diagnosing Parasitic Infestation in Evaluation of Unexplained Eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Tilak, Kriti; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Khanna, Ruchee

    2015-01-01

    Background The evaluation of unexplained eosinophilia in an asymptomatic individual has always been a diagnostic challenge and requires understanding about a wide range of probable causative agents. Helminthic infestation and schistosomiasis are the main parasitic causes of eosinophilia. Therefore, the availability of simple and accurate diagnostic tests for detection of parasitic infections can prove to be valuable in early diagnosis and solving the mystery of unexplained eosinophilia. Materials and Methods In the present study we attempt to find an association between relative eosinophilia and parasitic infections and also to find the parasites responsible for eosinophilia in a substantial number of cases. A retrospective study for the presence of eosinophilia was done on 621 cases positive for parasitic infestation. Results Among a total of 621 cases of parasitic infestation only 66 (10.6%) cases were found to have relative eosinophilia. The parasites found to be responsible for eosinophilia were Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, filarial worm and hook worm. Conclusion From the study it is concluded that eosinophilia is not a universal finding in cases with parasitic infestation. Although presence of eosinophilia can serve as one of the many diagnostic clues to look for the presence of helminthic infestation if other non-infectious causes of eosinophilia are ruled out. PMID:26393130

  15. Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is indigenous to eastern North America where it is a pest of commercially grown Prunus spp., especially to southeastern peach orchards where earlier regulatory changes affected pesticide usage on peach and fa...

  16. Regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in the "Z strain" of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The regulation of pheromone biosynthesis by the neuropeptide PBAN in the Z strain of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, was investigated using labeled intermediates. Injection of radiolabeled acetate showed PBAN did not influence the de novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids in the gland....

  17. Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

  18. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  19. Genetic transformation mediated by piggyBac in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is a serious pest of corn, sorghum and cotton in China and other Asian countries. The present study is the first attempt to establish the transgenic line in O. furnacalis using a piggyBac transposon, which will shed light on the future genetic control of O....

  20. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  1. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  2. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  3. Utilizing Diapause in a Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Laboratory Colony as a Cost Saving Measure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to rear insects in the laboratory broadens the scope of research opportunities available to the scientist. We routinely rear the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for our research in host plant resistance and biological control of this important sugarcane pest. Unfortunately, i...

  4. Explorations for Natural Enemies of Emerald Ash Borer in China, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was made in China during July-August, 2006. We visited 11 field plots in four provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina, then peel...

  5. Natural enemies of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass in the forest zone of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndemah, R; Schulthess, F; Poehling, M; Borgemeister, C; Goergen, G

    2001-06-01

    The importance, geographical and temporal distributions of parasitoids of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum, were assessed during surveys in farmers' fields in six villages and two on-station trials in the forest zone of Cameroon between 1995 and 1996. The borer species encountered were Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Eldana saccharina Walker on both host plants, and Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot on maize only. Busseola fusca was the predominant host accounting for 44-57% and 96% on maize and elephant grass, respectively, followed by E. saccharina on maize with 27-39%. Fifteen hymenopterous, two dipterous and one fungal species were found on these stem and cob-borers. Among those were six pupal, six larval, four egg, one larval-pupal parasitoid and four hyperparasitoids. The scelionid parasitoids Telenomus busseolae Gahan and T. isis Polaszek were found on B. fusca eggs in all locations. During the first season, mean egg parasitism was low and ranged between 3.1% and 27% versus 54-87% during the second season. Species belonging to the Tetrastichus atriclavus Waterston complex were recovered from all four borer species. The majority and most common larval and pupal parasitoid species belonged to the ingress-and-sting guild. Larval and pupal parasitism were very erratic and on more than 50% of the sampling occasions no parasitoids were recovered. Parasitoid diversity was higher on elephant grass than maize. PMID:11415475

  6. Putative pheromone for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was about 10 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antennae...

  7. Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was at least 8 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antenn...

  8. Response of grape root borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from vitaceae species and rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer larvae moving freely within Petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to filter paper discs treated with ethanol- and hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts ...

  9. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...borer (EAB). The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of EAB into noninfested areas of the United States...of regulated articles from quarantined areas to prevent the artificial spread of EAB to noninfested areas of the United...

  10. 75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...interim rule is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the emerald ash borer to noninfested...from quarantined areas to prevent the artificial spread of EAB to noninfested areas...area will be adequate to prevent the artificial spread of EAB. In accordance...

  11. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  12. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Woodpeckers are an important source of mortality for EAB in their native range, and understanding their effect on the pop...

  13. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH PLUS METHOPRENE FOR CONTROL OF LESSER GRAIN BORER, RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA, IN ROUGH RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), is a major insect pest of all stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE), a natural inert dust, and methoprene, an insect growth regulator, are two insecticides registered for direct application for stored grains. However, methopre...

  14. Parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in western Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

  15. THE PRESENCE OF THE COFFEE BERRY BORER (SCOLYTIDAE) IN PUERTO RICO: FACT OR FICTION?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A detailed examination of the coffee berry borer literature shows that reports indicating the presence of the insect in Puerto Rico in the early 1940's were based on an insect misidentification. One of these erroneous reports was used in a widely cited coffee book that includes a list of countries ...

  16. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, Michigan by caging gravid EAB females or placing laboratory-reared eg...

  17. Mechanisms of Resistance in Eucalyptus Against Larvae of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    , University of California, Riverside, California 92521 Environ. Entomol. 20(6): 1583-1588 (1991) ABSTRACT, and it is well documented that drought stress predisposes trees to borer attack (Chararas 1969, Chararas et al is an economically important pest in California that attacks many Eucalyptus species (Scriven et al. 1986

  18. Abundance and Spatial Dispersion of Rice Stem Borer Species in Kahama, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Alfonce; Rwegasira, Gration M

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity, abundance, and dispersion of rice stem borers in framer's fields were studied in four major rice growing areas of Kahama District. Stem borer larvae were extracted from the damaged tillers in 16 quadrants established in each field. Adult Moths were trapped by light traps and collected in vials for identification. Results indicated the presence of Chilo partellus, Maliarpha separatella, and Sesamia calamistis in all study areas. The most abundant species was C. partellus (48.6%) followed by M. separatella (35.4%) and S. calamistis was least abundant (16.1%). Stem borers dispersion was aggregated along the edges of rice fields in three locations (wards) namely: Bulige, Chela, and Ngaya. The dispersion in the fourth ward, Kashishi was uniform as established from two of the three dispersion indices tested. Further studies would be required to establish the available alternative hosts, the extent of economic losses and the distribution of rice stem borers in the rest of the Lake zone of Tanzania. PMID:26411785

  19. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

  20. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  1. Potential impacts of emerald ash borer invasion on biogeochemical and water cycling in residential

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Potential impacts of emerald ash borer invasion on biogeochemical and water cycling in residential . Agrilus planipennis . Evapotranspiration . Water flux Introduction Trees modify the cycling of carbon (C, nitrogen, and phosphorus storage in ash trees, the cycling of these elements, and the total

  2. Abundance and Spatial Dispersion of Rice Stem Borer Species in Kahama, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alfonce; Rwegasira, Gration M.

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity, abundance, and dispersion of rice stem borers in framer’s fields were studied in four major rice growing areas of Kahama District. Stem borer larvae were extracted from the damaged tillers in 16 quadrants established in each field. Adult Moths were trapped by light traps and collected in vials for identification. Results indicated the presence of Chilo partellus, Maliarpha separatella, and Sesamia calamistis in all study areas. The most abundant species was C. partellus (48.6%) followed by M. separatella (35.4%) and S. calamistis was least abundant (16.1%). Stem borers dispersion was aggregated along the edges of rice fields in three locations (wards) namely: Bulige, Chela, and Ngaya. The dispersion in the fourth ward, Kashishi was uniform as established from two of the three dispersion indices tested. Further studies would be required to establish the available alternative hosts, the extent of economic losses and the distribution of rice stem borers in the rest of the Lake zone of Tanzania. PMID:26411785

  3. Electrophysiological response of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) to apple volatile compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupled gas chromatography and electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses of headspace volatiles from apple host tissues revealed a total of 16 antennal responses to which female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), responded. There were no differences in the amplitude of the response o...

  4. Susceptibility of eggs and adult fecundity of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, exposed to methoprene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of tests was conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the lesser grain borer, exposed to the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with met...

  5. Monitoring and First Discovery of the Mexican Rice Borer Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, has expanded its range from the Lower Rio Grande Valley to east Texas, and now into southwest Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Agricultural and Forestry and Louisiana State University AgCenter scientists forecast that natural and unintended movement will r...

  6. 76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... accordance with Sec. 305.3(a)(1), we published a notice \\2\\ in the Federal Register on August 25, 2010 (75 FR... Emerald Ash Borer AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public of our decision to revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash...

  7. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  8. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

  9. POSSIBLE DEGRADATIVE ROLES OF A COFFEE BERRY BORER-ASSOCIATED YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Pichia guilliermondii based on 26s ribosomal gene sequences. Liquid culture experiments with media containing different caffeine lev...

  10. Increasing coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Curculionidae: Scolytinae) female density in artificial diet decreases fecundity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of number of coffee berry borer females (1, 2, or 5) reared in artificial diet on fecundity and subsequent development of larvae, pupae and adults. When data for the three different experiments were analyzed, decreased fecundity was observe...

  11. Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The external morphology of the dogwood borer antennae and their sensilla was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Male and female antennaes were clavate before tapering to an apical point and consisted of three main segments; the scape, pedicel, and flagellum. Although, there...

  12. WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas

    E-print Network

    WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas Acacia the importance of Acacia, little is known of the insect community associated with these trees. Insects shape. In an effort to better understand the wood-boring community on Acacia, Drs Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas (from

  13. Behavioral response of grape root borer (Lepidopetera: Sesiidae) neonates to grape root volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is an oligophagous and potentially destructive pest of grape in commercial vineyards throughout much of the eastern United States. Larvae feed on vine roots, although little is known about their belowground interactions with ...

  14. Dynamics of twolined chestnut borer Agrilus bilineatus as inuenced by defoliation and selection thinning

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    borer adults during a gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymnatriidae), outbreak and examined defoliated by gypsy moth, extensive defoliation occurred in one year, and major overstory tree mortality year of attack (Haack & Acciavatti, 1992). Expansion of the range of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L

  15. Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...

  16. Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97:3 blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1:99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female...

  17. Hymenopteran Parasitoids Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Western and Central Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated larval parasitoids in western and central Pennsylvania (Cranberry and Granville Townships) in the spring and fall of 2009. The survey procedure involved destructively debarking sections of the m...

  18. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is the primary target of the widely adopted transgenic corn events MON810 and Bt11, expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxin, Cry1Ab. Resistant strains of O. nubilalis have been selected in the laboratory by exposure to Bt ...

  19. A relative resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Stem Borer Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane in Louisiana and Texas. Cultivar resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in commercial and experimental sugarcane cultivars in four replicated field studies between 2009 and 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed t...

  20. Chemical control of the Mexican rice borer in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are no reliably effective controls for the Mexican rice borer on sugarcane in South Texas, and the pest is spreading to rice-growing areas of Texas and Louisiana. A small-plot insecticide test comparing six insecticides was conducted in South Texas during the summer of 2008 to identify compou...

  1. Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

  2. Evidence for Obligate Migratory Flight Behavior in Young European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, flight behavior was examined in laboratory experiments. Adults were each tethered to one of 16 round-about flight mills in an environmental chamber, and the data relayed to a computer. Parameters analyzed included duration, distance, and speed of the longes...

  3. Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY in western New York, were invading burrknots on dwarf apple trees. About the same time, Dick Straub seemed to be becoming more common in dwarf apple plantings, as well. Based on Deb's alert, we decided

  4. Introduction Though damage from the raspberry cane borer is often seen, the insect itself is rarely

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Introduction Though damage from the raspberry cane borer is often seen, the insect itself is rarely lay eggs in the pith of new raspberry growth, about six inches from the tip of the cane. The female damage appears. Attacked canes wilt, making the damage easy to spot. Eliminating wild raspberries nearby

  5. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, AQUATIC RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS, RUSSIAN PEAT BORER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...

  6. Orientation of European corn borer first instar larvae to synthetic green leaf volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer (ECB) neonate larvae are capable of orienting toward maize odors and of avoiding spinach odors. We previously reported that maize odors attraction was dependent on the stimulus regime. This led us to propose that maize odors could have a repellent or attractive effect depending o...

  7. Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

  8. Parasitization by Macrocentrus cingulum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) influences expression of prophenoloxidase in Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prophenoloxidase (PPO) cDNA (OfPPO) was cloned from the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis. Sequence analysis revealed a full length transcript of the OfPPO cDNA with 2686 bp, containing a 2079 bp open reading frame (ORF), a 73-bp 5’-untranslated region, and a 534-bp 3’-untranslated region with ...

  9. GENETIC BASIS OF RESISTANCE TO FALL ARMYWORM AND SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER LEAF FEEDING DAMAGE IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To clarify the genetic basis of resistance to leaf feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer a study was undertaken to compare quantitative trait loci involved in two related resistant maize lines, Mp704 and Mp708. Models containing four and seven QTL explaining southwestern corn ...

  10. Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm), reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm), although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA), a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and borer resistance in EPS21. This novel trait could be useful in maize breeding programs to improve borer resistance. PMID:21999882

  11. Morphometric evidence for a possible role of Rhodnius prolixus from palm trees in house re-infestation in the State of Barinas (Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Feliciangeli, M Dora; Sanchez-Martin, Maria; Marrero, Rosalba; Davies, Clive; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2007-02-01

    The main vector of Chagas disease in Venezuela is Rhodnius prolixus. Specimens of Rhodnius sp., identified elsewhere as R. prolixus by molecular tools, were collected in Barinas State (Venezuela) before insecticide application, and compared by morphometric techniques with post-spraying, re-infesting insects after control. Geometric morphometry was applied, allowing separate analyses of shape and size. The idea of a single species sharing silvatic and domestic/peri-domestic ecotopes was supported, suggesting new evolutionary scenarios for the controversial R. prolixus origins. The same data allowed to understand the possible mechanisms of villages re-infestation after a control campaign, either recolonization by local recovery of survivors or re-infestation by external migrants. Both mechanisms were apparent. Although shape properties could distinguish very close subpopulations such as insects from houses and insects from peri-domestic shelters, they were unable to identify the insects from palm trees as a distinct subpopulation. This strongly suggested that human environment could receive immigrants from palm trees. The pattern of size variation supported the hypothesis of a one-way exchange from silvatic to human environments, but did not support the reverse movement. Thus, morphometric data indicated that a silvatic population of the local vector is probably responsible for re-infesting villages after insecticide application, and they also pointed to the existence of re-infestation by local recovery of survivors. According to this interpretation, new epidemiological scenarios must be considered to improve Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:17306204

  12. Aphid infestation affecting the biogeochemistry of European beech saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Bischoff, S.; Näthe, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mass outbreaks of herbivore insects are known to perturb the functional properties of forests. However, it is less clear how endemic to moderate aboveground herbivory affects the vertical flow of nutrients from tree canopies to the soil. Here, we report on the effects of low to moderate infestation levels of the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on the nutrient dynamics and hydrology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In a potted sapling experiment, we followed the vertical dynamics of nutrients via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and litter leachates (LL) collected over ten weeks underneath infested and uninfested control trees. Aphid infestation amplifies the fluxes of K+, Mn2+ and particulate nitrogen (0.45?m < PN < 500 ?m) in TF solution by 42% for K+, 59% for Mn2+ and 13% for PN relative to the control. In contrast, fluxes of NH4-N and SO4-S diminished during peaking aphid abundance by 26 and 16%, respectively. Differences in canopy-derived dissolved nitrogen and carbon compounds, sulfur (S), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ were < 10%. The effect of aphid abundance on nutrient dynamics was most notable in TF and SF and diminished in LL.Aphid infestation greatly altered the SF fluxes of DOC, K+, Mn2+, DON and sulfur-species, which were significantly concentrated at the tree base by "funneling" the rainfall through the canopy biomass to the trunk. Normalized to one square meter, water and nutrient fluxes were amplified by a factor of up to 200 compared to TF.Imaging of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy exhibited notable differences of the surface morphology and microbiology of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves. This observation might point to an aphid-mediated alteration of the phyllosphere ecology triggering the microbial uptake of NH4-N and SO4-S and its transformation to particulate N by magnified biomass growth of the phyllosphere microflora, consequently changing the chemical partitioning and temporal availability of nitrogen.

  13. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  14. Multiple microembolic brain infarctions in Clonorchis sinensis infestation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Chang, Dae-Il

    2012-08-15

    We report a case of multiple cerebral infarctions as the first symptom of hypereosinophilia with Clonorchis sinensis infestation. The patient showed hypereosinophilia and elevated cardiac enzyme, and the egg test of C. sinensis was positive. CT scans of the chest and the abdomen revealed eosinophilic infiltration in both lung and liver. Over a period of six weeks after praziquantel medication, he recovered. C. sinensis infestation which is endemic in East Asian countries should be considered as a cause of multiple microembolic stroke associated with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. PMID:22656183

  15. Genetic structure and gene flow among European corn borer populations from the Great Plains to the Appalachians of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, populations sampled along transects indicated, surprisingly, that there is no genetic differentiation between populations separated by as much as 720 km. This unanticipated result suggests either that Euro...

  16. Genetic structure and gene flow among European corn borer populations from the Great Plains to the Appalachians of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), indicated no genetic differentiation even between locations separated by 720 km. This result suggests either high dispersal resulting in high gene flow, or that populations are not in...

  17. Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel borer design for application to single entry coal mine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A health and safety analysis of a single entry coal tunnel borer system is given. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rule, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagen and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

  18. Release and recovery of parasitiods of the emerlad ash borer agrilus planipennis in Michigan, Ohio and Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hymenotperan parasitoid species were introduced to the United State from China for biological control of emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis in 2007. These species are Tetrastichus planipennisi (Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid; Oobius agrili (Encyrtidae), a solitary pa...

  19. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or...AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment...

  20. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or...AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment...

  1. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or...AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment...

  2. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or...AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment...

  3. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after...PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...

  4. Use of spectral vegetation indices derived from airborne hyperspectral imagery for detection of European corn borer infestation in Iowa corn plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery and evaluated in 2004 and 2005 for their ability to detect experimental plots of corn manually inoculated with Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) neonate larvae. ...

  5. Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.

    PubMed

    Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

    2014-09-01

    Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region. PMID:25204068

  6. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  7. FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

  8. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  9. Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 Herbivore-infested plants

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    Nature © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 8 Herbivore-infested plants selectively attract parasitoids and behavioural assays to show that these plant emissions can transmit herbivore-specific infor- mation blends in response to damage by two closely related herbivore species, Heliothis virescens

  10. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally...

  11. Reducing costly zebra mussel infestations at power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, G.

    1994-10-01

    The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.

  12. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  13. 148 NJAF 20(4) 2003 Mortality Patterns Following Spruce

    E-print Network

    148 NJAF 20(4) 2003 Mortality Patterns Following Spruce Budworm Infestation in Unprotected Spruce Hall Road, Effingham, IL 62401. ABSTRACT: Cumulative and annual mortality of red spruce (Picea rubens the mortality patterns in unprotected spruce- fir forests in northern Maine. Different mortality patterns were

  14. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate...

  15. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation after treatment...

  16. Determination of degree of infestation of triticale seed using NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...

  17. Changes of zeatin riboside content in rice plants due to infestation by Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Cai; Qiu, Zheng-Hua; Ying, Jian-Li; Dong, Bo; Gu, Hai-Nan

    2004-12-01

    The effect of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), infestation on the content of zeatin ribosides (ZR) in rice plants was investigated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hydroponics experiments were conducted on 'Zhendao 2' rice, in which plants were subjected to N. lugens infestation at three nonhopperburn-causing densities (15, 30, and 60 nymphs per hill) for 2, 4, 6, and 8 d and at one hopperburn-causing density (240 nymphs per hill) for 2, 4, and 6 d, respectively. When rice plants were infested at the nonhopperburn-causing densities, ZR content in leaves varied significantly with the infestation density. Compared with the control plants, ZR content in rice leaves decreased significantly after infestation by 60 nymphs per hill for 2 d, but it tended to increase due to prolonged infestation at all the nonhopperburn-causing densities. In contrast, ZR content in rice roots significantly reduced after the plants being infested at the density of 15 nymphs for 2 d and at all densities for prolonged duration, except for the plants infested by 60 nymphs for 6 and 8 d, in which the ZR content increased or did not change significantly. However, infestation at the hopperburn-causing density caused significant reduction in ZR content in rice roots, regardless of infestation duration, and in rice leaves from the plants subjected to 2-d infestation. These results are discussed in relation to the possible physiological reaction of rice plants to N. lugens infestation and the resultant severe damage or hopperburn. PMID:15666745

  18. PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE REMOVAL RESPONSE OF RUSSIAN HONEY AGAINST BROOD INFESTED WITH SMALL HIVE BEETLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    de Guzman, L. I. & A. M. Frake. PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE REMOVAL RESPONSE OF RUSSIAN HONEY AGAINST BROOD INFESTED WITH SMALL HIVE BEETLES - Removal response of Russian (n = 9) and Italian (n = 9) honey bees against brood infested with small hive beetles (SHB) was compared. SHB-infested brood wer...

  19. Green spruce aphid infestations cause larger growth reductions to Sitka spruce under shade

    E-print Network

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    Green spruce aphid infestations cause larger growth reductions to Sitka spruce under shade S Oren Summary Light availability and infestation by the green spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum) are key in which light levels (high light (HL): 100%, intermediate light (IL): 24%) and aphid infestation (absence

  20. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  1. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  2. Dynamics of tick infestations in foxes in Thuringia, Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Kayser, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Lothar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Mahling, Monia; Passos, Lygia M F

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to provide up-to-date information on the dynamics of tick infestations on foxes in Thuringia, as the most recent information available was published in 1997. Fox carcasses that had been sent to the Thuringian State Authority for Food Safety and Consumer Protection (Thüringer Landesamt für Lebensmittelsicherheit und Verbraucherschutz - TLLV), between January 1st and December 31st, 2009, were examined for the presence of ticks. All ticks collected were stored at -20 °C before being identified and classified according to their developmental stage and sex. Out of a total of 1286 foxes examined, 989 (76.9%) were infested with ticks. A total of 13,227 ticks were collected from the foxes. The stage most frequently found was the larva (48.1%), followed by the adult (34.1%), and the nymphal stage (17.8%). Regarding the adult stage, Ixodes ricinus was the most frequent tick species detected (82.2%), followed by I. canisuga (10.8%) and I. hexagonus (6.7%). Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were very rare (0.3%). With regard to nymphs, I. canisuga and I. hexagonus were the most frequent tick species found, and this was also assumed for the larval stage. The results indicate the occurrence of tick infestations in foxes throughout the year, mainly by I. ricinus, I. canisuga, and I. hexagonus, with seasonal variations. Foxes were infested by I. ricinus ticks significantly more frequently from April to September. This applied to all tick developmental stages, but especially to adults. In contrast to I. ricinus, the infestation of foxes with I. canisuga and I. hexagonus was significantly higher from January to March and from October to December, especially with the immature developmental stages. PMID:22884924

  3. Infestation of an owl (Bubo bubo) with Lucilia spp.

    PubMed

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Cheraghchi-Bashi, Mehdi; Navidpour, Shahrokh

    2010-04-01

    Myiasis is an infestation of tissue with the larval stage of dipterous flies. This condition mostly affects the skin but may also occur in certain body cavities. It can occur in either animals or humans and is caused by parasitic dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. This disease rarely effects birds especially owls. In this study, infestation of an owl with cutaneous myiasis is reported. In October 2008, a wounded owl was referred by the environmental department of Chaharmahal-Bakhtiary province to the clinic of veterinary science at Shahrekord University in west central Iran. At the initial examination, clinical signs were extensive with a wound under the right wing. The wound was infested with 40 white conical maggots, 3-9 mm in length, which led to a diagnosis of myiasis in the owl. The maggots were carefully collected from the wound using sterile forceps and were kept in 70% ethanol and transferred to the laboratory of parasitology where the diagnosis was undertaken by the observation of posterior and anterior spiracle and cephalopharyngeal apparatus. According to key diagnostic features for maggots in birds, the larvae were identified as Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The wound was treated using usual acaricides, but due to the severity of the infestation and because of the delay in referring the animal to the clinic, it died 3 days post-treatment. This is the first report in Iran of an infestation of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) with L. sericata and L. cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:20234830

  4. Seasonal variation in infestations by ixodids on Siberian chipmunks: effects of host age, sex, and birth season.

    PubMed

    Le Coeur, Christie; Robert, Alexandre; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2015-06-01

    In mammalian hosts, macroparasite aggregation is highly heterogeneous over space and time and among individuals. While the exact causes of this heterogeneity remain unclear, it has mainly been attributed to individual differences in exposure and susceptibility. Although some extrinsic (e.g., parasite availability) and intrinsic (e.g., sex or age) factors are well known to affect infestation patterns, the joint and possibly interacting effects of these factors are poorly understood. Here, we study the infestation of hard ticks (mainly Ixodes ricinus) in a small rodent, the Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus), introduced to an oak-hornbeam forest in France. We investigate the seasonal variation in infestation according to the sex, age, birth season (spring-born or summer-born), and body weight of individual hosts while controlling for interannual variability. During the 10-year study period, 3421 tick count events were recorded involving 1017 chipmunks monitored by the capture-mark-recapture procedure. Our results reveal a male-biased parasitism in the Siberian chipmunk, which is not consistent among individuals born in different seasons. This sex bias is observed among spring-born juveniles from July to the beginning of hibernation. For adults, this difference becomes apparent along the reproduction period (May-September) for summer-born adults only. These complex interactions between sex, age, and birth season suggest overall that the seasonal variation of tick load is critically linked to the reproductive behavior of this small ground sciurid. PMID:25724565

  5. Mistletoe effects on Scots pine decline following drought events: insights from within-tree spatial patterns, growth and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio

    2012-05-01

    Forest decline has been attributed to the interaction of several stressors including biotic factors such as mistletoes and climate-induced drought stress. However, few data exist on how mistletoes are spatially arranged within trees and how this spatial pattern is related to changes in radial growth, responses to drought stress and carbon use. We used dendrochronology to quantify how mistletoe (Viscum album L.) infestation and drought stress affected long-term growth patterns in Pinus sylvestris L. at different heights. Basal area increment (BAI) trends and comparisons between trees of three different infestation degrees (without mistletoe, ID1; moderately infested trees, ID2; and severely infested trees, ID3) were performed using linear mixed-effects models. To identify the main climatic drivers of tree growth tree-ring widths were converted into indexed chronologies and related to climate data using correlation functions. We performed spatial analyses of the 3D distribution of mistletoe individuals and their ages within the crowns of three severely infested pines to describe their patterns. Lastly, we quantified carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations in needles and sapwood of branches from severely infested trees and from trees without mistletoe. Mistletoe individuals formed strongly clustered groups of similar age within tree crowns and their age increased towards the crown apex. Mistletoe infestation negatively impacted growth but this effect was stronger near the tree apex than in the rest of sampled heights, causing an average loss of 64% in BAI (loss of BAI was ?51% at 1.3 m or near the tree base). We found that BAI of severely infested trees and moderately or non-infested trees diverged since 2001 and such divergence was magnified by drought. Infested trees had lower concentrations of soluble sugars in their needles than non-infested ones. We conclude that mistletoe infestation causes growth decline and increases the sensitivity of trees to drought stress. PMID:22539634

  6. Changes in epizoic crustacean infestations during cetacean die-offs: the mass mortality of Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba revisited.

    PubMed

    Aznar, F J; Perdiguero, D; Pérez del Olmo, A; Repullés, A; Agustí, C; Raga, J A

    2005-11-28

    In the summer and autumn of 1990, a cetacean morbillivirus caused a massive epizootic mortality of striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba in the western Mediterranean. Previous circumstantial evidence suggested that the disease could also have increased host susceptibility to infestations with epizoic crustaceans. In this study we provide strong evidence supporting this hypothesis. We examined striped dolphins stranded along the Mediterranean central coast of Spain from 1981 to 2004 (n = 136), and recorded data on prevalence, intensity of infestation, size and reproductive status of 2 sessile crustacean species specific to cetaceans, the phoront cirriped Xenobalanus globicipitis and the mesoparasitic copepod Pennella balaenopterae. Compared with the pre-epizootic (n = 12) and post-epizootic (n = 62) dolphin samples, the following changes were noted in the dolphins stranded during the epizootic (n = 62): (1) the prevalence of both X. globicipitis and P. balaenopterae increased; (2) the intensity of X. globicipitis and P. balaenopterae infestations did not increase; indeed, it was even slightly lower than in the other periods, as was their degree of aggregation; (3) individuals of both species were smaller, and a higher proportion were non-gravid; (4) the 2 species tended to co-occur in the same dolphins, but their numbers did not co-vary. These patterns strongly suggest that, during the epizootic, there was a short-term increase in the probability of infestation of these 2 species because of the sudden rise in the population of susceptible hosts; the growth of the new recruits was limited by the early death of dolphins. The high susceptibility was likely related to the immunosuppressive effects of viral infection and the abnormally heavy loads of polychlorinated biphenyls found in sick dolphins; the level of inbreeding was also higher in dolphins from the 'epizootic' sample. Epizoic crustaceans could be suitable indicators of health in cetacean populations. PMID:16408840

  7. University of Minnesota Extension is an equal opportunity educator and employer. For Americans with Disabilities Act accommodations, please call 800-876-8636. Updated February 2009. Emerald ash borer, a small green insect deadly to

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    with Disabilities Act accommodations, please call 800-876-8636. Updated February 2009. Emerald ash borer, a small. CHALLENGE Since 2002, emerald ash borer has killed tens of millions of ash trees in neighboring states and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources to formulate a response plan: Delay emerald ash borer's arrival

  8. Biophoton Emission from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Uefune, Masayoshi; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2004-08-01

    We studied spontaneous photon emission from kidney bean leaves infested with spider mites. Strong photon radiation was observed from the leaf veins where spider mites were crowding. Photon emission intensity increased with the decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis yield; these decreases represented the degree of damage caused by the pest. When both infested and un-infested leaves were put on the same wet cotton, photon emission from the un-infested leaf increased, too. Photon emission from the un-infested leaf might be induced by an aqueous elicitor released from the infested leaf. Such an elicitor activates the plant defense response. Therefore, it is suggested that photon emission from an infested leaf conveys information on the direct injury (physical stresses) and physiological (biochemical) actions associated with the defensive response.

  9. Single- versus Multiple-Pest Infestation Affects Differently the Biochemistry of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig').

    PubMed

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Drungowski, Mario; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2015-11-25

    Tomato is susceptible to pest infestations by both spider mites and aphids. The effects of each individual pest on plants are known, whereas multiple-pest infestations have received little interest. We studied the effects of single- versus multiple-pest infestation by Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae on tomato biochemistry (Solanum lycopersicum) by combining a metabolomic approach and analyses of carotenoids using UHPLC-ToF-MS and volatiles using GC-MS. Plants responded differently to aphids and mites after 3 weeks of infestation, and a multiple infestation induced a specific metabolite composition in plants. In addition, we showed that volatiles emissions differed between the adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermes and identified compounds emitted particularly in response to a multiple infestation (cyclohexadecane, dodecane, aromadendrene, and ?-elemene). Finally, the carotenoid concentrations in leaves and stems were more affected by multiple than single infestations. Our study highlights and discusses the interplay of biotic stressors within the terpenoid metabolism. PMID:26507319

  10. Bio-Ecology of the Louse, Upupicola upupae, Infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, G. P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007–08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75–82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented. PMID:21861650

  11. Effect of pheromone dispenser density on timing and duration of approaches by peachtree borer.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Grieshop, Matthew J; Gut, Larry J

    2010-10-01

    The timing and duration of approaches by male peachtree borer Synanthedon exitiosa Say (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to commercial pheromone dispensers placed singly or at high density in peach orchards was determined by using field-deployed video cameras and digital video recorders. Cameras were trained on one dispenser, and one standard lure was placed in a peach orchard, and on 12 dispensers in a separate orchard where dispensers for mating disruption had been placed at 371 per hectare. Male moth approaches were video recorded at the peak of peachtree borer annual flight, from 13 to 18 August 2009. The mean approach timing (h:min:sec±SD) during the study period was 11:33:12 ± 00:46:43, 11:43:52 ± 00:45:58, and 11:41:21 ± 00:45:54 AM with the single dispenser, high-density dispensers, and lure, respectively. Day-to-day variability in approach timings suggested that there were no biologically significant differences among treatments. The frequency distribution of approach durations varied among treatments, as the high-density dispensers had mostly short approaches, while the distribution of approaches to the single dispenser and lure was wider. The median (interquartile range) approach duration was 3 (2-4), 1 (1-2), and 4 (2-6) seconds with the single dispenser, high-density dispensers, and lure, respectively. The relative rank of median approach durations was constant throughout the period, indicating differences among treatments. This study showed that the presence of pheromone dispensers for mating disruption did not cause an advancement of peachtree borer diel rhythm of response. Shorter approaches to dispensers placed at high density than singly suggest that dispenser retentiveness is not constant with peachtree borer, which may bias estimates of disruption activity as a function of dispenser density. PMID:20814811

  12. Lethal and sublethal effects of lufenuron on sugarcane borer Diatraea flavipennella and its parasitoid Cotesia flavipes.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Paula Pereira; Marques, Edmilson Jacinto; Torres, Jorge Braz; Silva, Liliane Marques; Siqueira, Herbert Álvaro Abreu

    2015-11-01

    The combination of chemical and biological controls is a historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved due to lethal and sublethal impact of insecticides on natural enemies altering their performance. In this context, the susceptibility of the yellow sugarcane borer, Diatraea flavipennella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to the insect growth regulator lufenuron and the consequent effects upon its endoparasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) encountering exposed but surviving larvae were studied. Neonate and 10-day-old larvae were subjected to one of seven concentrations of lufenuron (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100 mg a.i./L). Further, effects of lufenuron to the host larvae and to the parasitoid were assessed using low lethal LC20 and LC50. Lufenuron at concentrations up to 12.5 mg a.i./L allowed partial survival of borer larvae; and concentrations over 12.5 mg a.i./L caused 100 % larval mortality before pupation in both ages. Neonate larvae exhibited lower pupal weights only at concentrations 12.5 mg a.i./L; while 10-day-old larvae treated with the LC50 exhibited delayed development. Egg viability was reduced for adult borers from surviving larvae of both ages treated with low lethal concentrations. The parasitoid C. flavipes successfully parasitized surviving low lethal treated larvae. Among the studied life history characteristics of C. flavipes, only a delayed development was observed. The results showed that lufenuron can be effective against D. flavipennella at concentrations over 25 mg a.i./L, and that surviving larvae can be successfully parasitized by C. flavipes. The insecticide lufenuron and the parasitoid C. flavipes seem to be compatible for sugarcane borer control. PMID:26250937

  13. Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  14. Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P

    2011-10-01

    Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI. PMID:21933231

  15. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  16. ChristineB. 6. Slug feeding or "scars" on lower leaf and dark-colored slug 7. Stalk borer and "dead heart" damage

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    larvae bore into tassel, ear, ear shank, or stalk, where they may cause considerable plant lodging or ear on young plant and mature larva with distinct stripes 3.Cornfleabeetleand"tracking"damage 8. Male (left Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). Corn borer moths emerge in the spring and lay eggs on early-planted

  17. Detecting insect infestation with poly3-hexylthiophenethin thin film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerakoon, Kanchana; Li, Suiquing; Shu, Hungjen J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2009-05-01

    The financial losses and destruction of crops due to insect infestation in the United States are estimated by the USDA to exceed 20 billion dollars annually. Much of these losses could be avoided by having a sensor that could effectively identify the early stages of insect infestation. However, traditional detection methods are time consuming, require trained personnel, and are not sufficient for early detection. Several previous research studies showed that emitting organic volatile compounds is a defensive mechanism activated by some plant species after being attacked by herbivores and parasites. Corn, cotton, pine, Brussels sprouts when attacked by Beet army worm, spider mites, bark beetles and caterpillars respectively, emits different blends of plant volatiles including ?-terpinene, ?-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate, with a concentration of about 50 ppm. Therefore, monitoring for these volatile compounds may enable on-site early detection of insect infestations. In this study, a chemical resistor sensor to detect plant volatiles was designed and fabricated. The sensor platform consists of micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes. On to this platform, a poly3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin film was deposited, using a spin coater at 8000 rpm for 30 seconds. The sensor was tested and found to be sensitive to a variety of plant volatiles, including ?-terpinene, ?-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate at room temperature. These vapors interacted with the P3HT film causing an increase in the resistance of the sensor by more than one order of magnitude

  18. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  19. Bilo-pancreatic Ascaris Lumbricoides infestation. Endoscopic discovery and removal.

    PubMed

    Brandimarte, G; Tursi, A; Morucci, P; Gasbarrini, G

    2000-09-01

    Ascaris Lumbricoides infestation is relatively rare in industrialized countries, and it occurs mainly in conditions in which hygiene is lacking. We describe here a case of a 39-year-old female from ex-Jugoslavia affected by recurrent hepatic colic. At entry ultrasonography revealed microlithiasis in the gallbladder and widening of the pancreatic head. The subsequent ERCP showed slight filling defects in the choledochus and an inflammation-like stricture of the papilla of Vater, and after endoscopic sphincterotomy we saw an outflow of dense bile and microlitholits. Thus, a standard surgical cholecystectomy was carried out and the patient was dismissed on the 3rd postoperative day without any symptoms. However, the patient was admitted again after four days for a new coliky pain attack. An upper endoscopy showed a 23 cm long mobile parasite in the duodenum: it was caught with the polypectomy loap, extracted and identified as A. Lumbricoides. The patient's symptoms disappeared after the endoscopic removal of the worm and she was dismissed the day after the worm's removal. No recurrence of symptoms was noted during a 1-year follow-up. This case showed that A. Lumbricoides infestation of the biliary tree should be considered when biliary and/or pancreatic symptoms recur, especially in patients coming from undeveloped countries. At the same time we showed that endoscopic removal is a safe and effective treatment for this infestation. PMID:11218631

  20. Tolerance and compensatory response of rice to sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury.

    PubMed

    Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Longnecker, M T

    2008-06-01

    A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), as affected by cultivar (Cocodrie, Francis, and Jefferson), stage of crop growth during which the injury occurred (third tiller stage, panicle differentiation stage, and heading stage), and sugarcane borer density. The proportion of rice tillers with sugarcane borer injury (leaf and leaf sheath injury and/or stem injury) was lower when injury occurred at the third tiller stage (0.05) than at panicle differentiation (0.19) and heading (0.18). When injury occurred at the two latter stages, both the proportion of tillers with injury and the proportion of tillers with stem injury were negatively correlated with rainfall. Rainfall resulted in dislodgement and mortality of sugarcane borer eggs and larvae before the larvae entered the stems. Rice plant density in this study (111.1 plants/m2) was higher than recorded for previous research on rice compensation using potted rice or conducted in low-density hill production systems (26.7-51.3 plants/m2). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were observed. Stem injured plants produced approximately 0.69 more tillers than uninjured plants, whereas tillers with leaf and leaf sheath injury produced larger panicles, up to 39.5 and 21.0% heavier than uninjured tillers, when injury occurred at third tiller stage and at panicle differentiation, respectively. Rice yield was not reduced with up to 23% injured tiller and up to 10% injured stems at the third tiller stage, 42% injured tillers and 17% injured stems at panicle differentiation, and 28% injured tillers and 14% injured stems at heading. Significant between-plant compensation was not detected, suggesting competition between adjacent plants is not significantly reduced by injury. Our results suggest that rice can tolerate and/or compensate for a level of stem borer injury previously considered to be economically damaging. PMID:18559187

  1. Covalent cross-linking of cell-wall polysaccharides through esterified diferulates as a maize resistance mechanism against corn borers.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A

    2015-03-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming. PMID:25619118

  2. Use of agent-based modelling to predict benefits of cleaner fish in controlling sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Groner, M L; Cox, R; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are ectoparasites of farmed and wild salmonids. Infestations can result in significant morbidity and mortality of hosts in addition to being costly to control. Integrated pest management programmes have been developed to manage infestations, and in some salmon farming areas, these programmes include the use of wrasse. Wrasse prey upon the parasitic life stages of L. salmonis and can be stocked on farms at varying densities. Despite considerable variation in the usage of wrasse, there are few quantitative estimates of how well they can control sea lice and how best to optimize their use. To explore at what densities wrasse should be stocked in order to meet specific control targets, we built an individual-based model that simulates sea lice infestation patterns on a representative salmonid host. Sea lice can be controlled through the use of chemical treatments as well as by wrasse predators. We found that the wrasse can effectively control sea lice, and the densities of wrasse needed for effective control depend upon the source of the infestation and the targeted level of control. Effective usage of wrasse can result in decreased use of chemical treatments and improved control of sea lice. PMID:23121261

  3. Infestation of tracer lambs by Fasciola hepatica in Tunisia: determining periods for strategic anthelmintic treatments.

    PubMed

    Akkari, H; Gharbi, M; Darghouth, M A

    2011-12-01

    Ovine fasciolosis causes high morbidity and mortality rates, resulting in large economic losses to the sheep industry in northern Tunisia. The authors surveyed ovine fasciolosis (Fasciola hepatica infestation) in a Barbarine sheep flock in the humid region of Tunisia (Sejnane, Governorate of Bizerte) over two consecutive years, 2004 to 2005. To assess the dynamics of fluke infestation, a total of 36 tracer lambs were introduced into the flock successively, in groups of three, every two months, and their infestations were monitored by coproscopy and necropsy. Coproscopic analysis revealed high mean percentages of infestation of 60% and 65% for flock lambs and ewes, respectively. Similarly, a high percentage of infestations was recorded in the tracer lambs (more than 70%) post mortem. Significant fluctuations in infestation dynamics were observed in the tracer lambs, and three distinct infestation periods were identified: a period of very low, non-constant infestation risk during the warm period (from July to October); a high-risk period from March to June, and a third period with a variable but constant infestation risk (from November to February). Based on these results, the authors propose strategic flukicide treatments with triclabendazole, aimed at reducing mollusc infestation and subsequent pasture contamination by metacercariae, during two main periods: in September and in February, just before the reactivation of the molluscs from aestivation and hibernation, respectively. PMID:22435202

  4. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bawin, Thomas; De Backer, Lara; Dujeu, David; Legrand, Pauline; Caparros Megido, Rudy; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research. PMID:26462946

  5. Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    PubMed Central

    Whitehill, Justin G. A.; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L.; Herms, Daniel A.; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion. PMID:21949771

  6. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion. PMID:21949771

  7. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important. PMID:21404843

  8. Inheritance of Diapause in Crosses between the Northernmost and the Southernmost Strains of the Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shu; Chen, Chao; Xiao, Liang; He, Haimin; Xue, Fangsen

    2015-01-01

    The northernmost Harbin strain (N strain) of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short daylengths; whereas the southernmost Ledong strain (S strain) exhibits almost no diapause under the same light conditions. In the present study, we examined the inheritance of diapause induction and termination by crossing the two strains under a range of environmental conditions. The N strain showed a typical long-day response with a critical daylength of approximately15.88 h at 22°C, 15.72 h at 25°C and 15.14 h at 28°C, whereas the S strain showed a weak photoperiodic response at 22°C. The F1 progeny also showed a long-day response at 22, 25 and 28°C. However, the critical daylengths in S ? × N ? crosses were significantly longer than those in N ? × S ? crosses, indicating a sex linkage in the inheritance of diapause induction, with the male parent having more influence on the following F1 progeny. The incidence of diapause in S ? × N ? crosses was the same as in the N strain under short daylengths of 11-13 h, indicating that diapause trait is completely dominant over the non-diapause trait. The critical daylength in backcross to N was significantly longer than it was in backcross to S, showing a grandfather gene effect. Whether the inheritance of diapause fits an additive hypothesis or not was dependent on the rearing photoperiod, and the capacity for diapause was transmitted genetically in the manner of incomplete dominance. The duration of diapause for the reciprocal crosses under different diapause-terminating conditions showed different patterns of inheritance. The results in this study reveal that genetic and genetic-environmental interactions are involved in diapause induction and termination in O. furnacalis. PMID:25706525

  9. Nutrient uptake of rice roots in response to infestation of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Cai; Qiu, Hui-Min; Yang, Guo-Qing; Dong, Bo; Gu, Hainan

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated the uptake of three macronutrients, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), by rice roots in response to different infestation levels of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Hydroponics experiments were conducted on the rice variety 'Zhendao 2' (moderately resistant to Tryporyza incertulas, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the variety 'Xiushui 63' (susceptible to N. lugens). In 'Zhendao 2', N. lugens infestation significantly influenced the uptake of P and K but not N, with P and K uptake decreasing as the duration of N. lugens infestation increased. In 'Xiushui 63', N. lugens infestation influenced N, P, and K uptake to a different degree, depending on the infestation level, in which infestation for 2, 4, 6, and 8 d at a density of 60 nymphs did not affect N uptake, but such infestation levels significantly influenced the uptake of P and K. After the removal of N. lugens from rice plants, the N uptake recovered from infestation faster than that for P and K in the variety 'Zhendao 2', whereas the recovery rate of K uptake was faster than that for N and P in the variety 'Xiushui 63'. The recovery rate of the nutrient uptake was negatively correlated to the density and duration of infestation. The experimental results demonstrated that N, P, and K uptake of rice roots were largely not influenced by N. lugens infestation when the pest density was controlled below 15 nymphs per hill. This infestation level was in agreement with the proposed economic thresholds for control measures against the N. lugens infestation on rice plants. PMID:14977118

  10. Biological evaluation of protein quality of sorghum as affected by insect infestation.

    PubMed

    Jood, S; Kapoor, A C; Singh, R

    1993-03-01

    Protein quality of sorghum grains having 25, 50 and 75% infestation caused by mixed population of Trogoderma granarium Everts and Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius was biologically evaluated by rat growth and nitrogen balance studies. Feeding of diet containing insect infested sorghum grains (50 and 75%) resulted in marked decrease in food intake, protein intake, gain in body weight, food efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nitrogen consumption, nitrogen absorption, biological value, net protein utilization, dry matter digestibility, net protein retention and protein retention efficiency. These parameters showed negative association with insect infestation levels. However, 25% level of grain infestation did not affect these parameters significantly. PMID:8474998

  11. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K F; Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Andersen, B; Thrane, U; Frisvad, J C

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and thin layer chromatography. All six isolates of C. globosum produced the toxic chaetoglobosins A and C, at levels of up to 50 and 7 microg/cm2 respectively. The quantities of secondary metabolites produced by Penicillia were generally low, and no toxin production was detected from any of the five isolates of Pen. chrysogenum. Both isolates of Pen. polonicum produced 3-methoxy-viridicatin, verrucosidin, and verrucofortine. Two of five isolates of Pen. brevicompactum produced mycophenolic acid. From five out of six isolates of Alternaria spp., altenariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were detected. From Ulocladium spp., Paecilomyces spp., and Asp. ustus no known mycotoxins were detected, although the latter two are known mycotoxin producers. Asp. niger produced several naphtho-gamma-pyrones and tetra-cyclic compounds. All investigated species, especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C. globosum produced the chaetoglobosins A and C, and Pen. chrysogenum produced the antibiotic meleagrin. PMID:10560628

  12. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

  13. Biodegradation of hardwood lignocellulosics by the western poplar clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards).

    PubMed

    Ke, Jing; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti Dey; Chen, Shulin

    2011-05-01

    Lignin in plant cell wall is a source of useful chemicals and also the major barrier for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for producing biofuel and bioproducts. Enzymatic lignin degradation/modification process could bypass the need for chemical pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation. Herein, we reveal our new discovery in elucidating the process of hardwood lignin modification/degradation by clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae . The wood-boring clearwing borer, P. robiniae , effectively tunnels hardwood structures during the larval stage; its digestion products from wood components, however, has not yet been investigated. A series of analysis conducted in this study on tunnel walls and frass produced provided evidence of structural alterations and lignin degradation during such hardwood digestion process. The analysis included solid state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis; the results strongly suggest that the structural alteration of lignin primarily involved a preferential degradation of syringyl units accompanied by oxidation on the side chains of lignin guaiacyl moieties. This study also further indicated that unlike the wood-feeding termite the clearwing borer does not target cellulose as an energy source, and thus its lignin degradation ability should provide potential information on how to disassemble and utilize hardwood lignin. Overall, this biological model with an efficient lignin disruption system will provide the new insight into novel enzyme system required for effective plant cell wall disintegration for enhanced cellulose accessibility by enzymes and production of value-added lignin derived products. PMID:21405063

  14. A synopsis of the pin-hole borers of Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae).

    PubMed

    Beaver, R A; Liu, L Y

    2013-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of the pin-hole borers of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry and timber production. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host preferences of species are discussed. Ninety-two species have now been recorded in Thailand, of which forty-three are recorded here for the first time. Three species are endemic to Thailand. The following new combinations are given: Dinoplatypus piniperda (Schedl), Treptoplatypusfulgens (Schedl), both transferred from Platypus. PMID:26213774

  15. Emerald ash borer and the urban forest: Changes in landslide potential due to canopy loss scenarios in the City of Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Pfeil-McCullough, Erin; Bain, Daniel J; Bergman, Jeffery; Crumrine, Danielle

    2015-12-01

    Emerald ash borer is expected to kill thousands of ash trees in the eastern U.S. This research develops tools to predict the effect of ash tree loss from the urban canopy on landslide susceptibility in Pittsburgh, PA. A spatial model was built using the SINMAP (Stability INdex MAPping) model coupled with spatially explicit scenarios of tree loss (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% loss of ash trees from the canopy). Ash spatial distributions were estimated via Monte Carlo methods and available vegetation plot data. Ash trees are most prevalent on steeper slopes, likely due to urban development patterns. Therefore, ash loss disproportionately increases hillslope instability. A 75% loss of ash resulted in roughly 800 new potential landslide initiation locations. Sensitivity testing reveals that variations in rainfall rates, and friction angles produce minor changes to model results relative to the magnitude of parameter variation, but reveal high model sensitivity to soil density and root cohesion values. The model predictions demonstrate the importance of large canopy species to urban hillslope stability, particularly on steep slopes and in areas where soils tend to retain water. To improve instability predictions, better characterization of urban soils, particularly spatial patterns of compaction and species specific root cohesion is necessary. The modeling framework developed in this research will enhance assessment of changes in landslide risk due to tree mortality, improving our ability to design economically and ecologically sustainable urban systems. PMID:26245535

  16. Abnormal gray and white matter volume in delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Robert Christian; Huber, Markus; Depping, Malte Sebastian; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Karner, Martin; Lepping, Peter; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the neural basis of delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens. Case series and the response to anti-dopaminergic medication indicate disruptions in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum (caudate, putamen), but did not allow for population-based inference. Here, we report the first whole-brain structural neuroimaging study to investigate gray and white matter abnormalities in DI compared to controls. In this study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to investigate gray and white matter volume in 16 DI patients and 16 matched healthy controls. Lower gray matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in left medial, lateral and right superior frontal cortices, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left thalamus, right striatal areas and in lateral and medial temporal cortical regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). Higher white matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in right middle cingulate, left frontal opercular and bilateral striatal regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). This study shows that structural changes in prefrontal, temporal, insular, cingulate and striatal brain regions are associated with DI, supporting a neurobiological model of disrupted prefrontal control over somato-sensory representations. PMID:23791615

  17. Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

    2011-01-01

    The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ?5 m?2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m?2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

  18. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura

    PubMed Central

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  19. Infestation status of Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758) (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) skin parasite of the marine fish, sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) of Port Said Mediterranean Coastal Zone, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ramadan A M; Mohamadeen, Amaal; Ghobashy, Mahi A

    2011-08-01

    An isopod parasite of family Aegidea was collected from marine fish, Sardinella gibbosa (new hosts) over 2-years period from 2007 to 2008. The fish hosts were captured in the coastal waters of Port Said, Egypt. The Cymothoa sp. & Aega sp. were only collected from skin of the new host, Sardinella gibbosa, and described on the basis of female specimens. The morphological characteristics of were discussed in details. Comparing the present specimens with the previously reported Aega sp. showed that the present material belongs to the type species of the genus: Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758). Monthly and seasonal patterns in infestation rates [N=593, W +/- SD (range) =50.09 +/- 3.8 g]. Parasitic specificity and prevalence are given Mean prevalence, P = 24 +/- 5.5 and mean intensity, MI +/- SD =28.44 +/- 16.19 and total number of infestation were estimated 59 (10.35). PMID:21980777

  20. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

  1. Transcript analysis and comparative evaluation of shaker and slowmo gene homologues from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The movement and dispersal of larval Lepidoptera are factors that govern their survival and distribution within the natural landscape. Homologs of the Drosophila behavior-linked genes slowmo and shaker involved in larval locomotion were identified from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (L...

  2. Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

  3. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  4. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  5. Applications and mechanisms of wax-based semiochemical dispenser technology for disruption of grape root borer mating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, is an important pest of cultivated grapes in the Eastern United States from North Carolina to Florida. There are few effective registered insecticides for effective control of this pest and their efficacy is limited. Pheromone-based mating disruption i...

  6. Natural parasitism of Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...

  7. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, USA, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 200...

  8. From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

  9. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990’s. Although host plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources ...

  10. DISPERSAL OF NEWLY-ECLOSED EUROPEAN CORN BORER ADULTS (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) FROM CORN INTO SMALL-GRAIN AGGREGATION PLOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically-modified, insecticidal corn hybrids [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn] are used throughout the U.S. Corn Belt for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), control. To slow development of Bt-corn resistance, the EPA requires provision of nearby refugia. The appropriate distance...

  11. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

  12. The role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

  13. Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in Texas; it can attack a number of grassy crop and noncrop host plants, and has spread into Louisiana. Through small plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the...

  14. Combination treatments with diatomaceous earth and methoprene to control the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in stored rough rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major insect pest of stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust that can be used to control stored-grain beetles, however, R. dominica is more tolerant to DE compared to other beetle species. Mortality of ad...

  15. Emerging insect problems in peach: A new look at root-feeding weevils and the lesser peachtree borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the fruit-attacking plum curculio remains the primary pest of peach production across the Southeastern Unites States, other insect pests that attack the peach tree can inflict serious economic losses. Some of these other pests, such as scale insects and the peachtree borer, are common pest...

  16. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

  17. Combination treatments with diatomaceous earth and methoprene to control Rhyzopertha dominica, the lesser grain borer, in stored rough rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major insect pest of stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust that can be used to control stored-grain beetles, however, R. dominica is more tolerant to DE compared to other beetle species. Mortality of ad...

  18. Karnyothrips flavipes, a previously unreported predatory thrips of the coffee berry borer: DNA-based gut content analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new predator of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was found in the coffee growing area of Kisii in Western Kenya. Field observations, laboratory trials and gut content analysis using molecular tools have confirmed the role of the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Phlaeothrip...

  19. COMPARISON OF PHENOTYPIC AND MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION FOR STALK STRENGTH AND EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. An insect pest of maize that increases stalk lodging by stalk tunneling is the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner). Rind penetrometer resistance ...

  20. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  1. A technique to dissect the alimentary canal of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), with isolation of internal microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel technique has been developed to dissect the alimentary canal of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei. The technique allows recovering bacteria and fungi present inside the alimentary canal. These microorganisms will be the subjects of studies aimed at elucidating how the insect brea...

  2. TRICHOGRAMMA BRASSICAE AND SLAM(R), AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MANAGING EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND CORN ROOTWORMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, the western corn rootworm (CRW), and Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (ECB) are the most serious pests of corn in the U.S. corn belt causing an estimated $50 - $220 of crop loss per hectare per year. An attracticide/adulticide (Slam) that employees a behavi...

  3. A novel approach to biological control with entomopathogenic nematodes: Prophylactic control of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of stone fruits in North America. In this study, we compared the virulence of four entomopathogenic nematode species in the laboratory. The highest virulence was observed in Steinernema carpocapsae followed by the two heterorhabditids spec...

  4. Agrilus rubensteini, a new species from the Philippines related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...

  5. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus s...

  6. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  7. Effect of age and mating status on adult European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) dispersal from small-grain aggregation plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is often controlled with genetically modified corn hybrids [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn] in the U.S. If Bt-resistant moths are detected in the field, mitigation-remediation tactics must be implemented to sustain the efficacy of insecticidal...

  8. IMPACT OF TRAP DESIGN, WINDBREAKS, AND WEATHER ON CAPTURES OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) IN PHEROMONE-BAITED TRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone-baited traps are often used in ecological studies of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner). However, differences in trap captures may be confounded by trap design, trap location relative to a windbreak, and changes in local weather. The objectives of this experiment were, ...

  9. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

  10. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  11. Oviposition and larval development of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini, on rice and non-crop grass hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse study compared oviposition preference and larval development duration of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on rice, Oryza sativa L. (cv. Cocodrie), and four primary non-crop hosts of Gulf Coast Texas rice agroecosystems. Rice and two perennials, johnsongrass...

  12. Impact of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as an augmentative biocontrol agent for sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to find an appropriate biological control agent for release in rice, a 2-year field cage experiment was conducted in Beaumont, Texas to estimate parasitism of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron). The effective search rate was 0.0049 square meter gro...

  13. The Effect of Bark Borer Herbivory on BVOC Emissions in Boreal Forests and Implications for SOA Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele

    2015-04-01

    Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.

  14. Nosema pyrausta and Cry1Ab-incorporated Diet Led to Decreased Survival and Developmental Delays in European Corn Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high dose/refuge strategy for delaying evolution of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn relies on random mating between heterozygous-resistant European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and susceptible O. nubilalis from the refuge. However, difference...

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci from the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), represents a major insect pest of corn in North America and Europe, and there is a growing need for molecular markers for population genetics studies. Obtaining useful microsatellites for population studies of O. nubilalis is very challenging, a...

  16. Development of life tables to assess the establishment and population impact of parasitoids for control of the emerald ash borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Life tables may be used as a quantitative tool to assess the establishment and impact of introduced natural enemies. One of the critical challenges in constructing life tables for concealed insects such as emerald ash borer is to establish cohorts of the pest. The present study investigates and co...

  17. Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

  18. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  19. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...

  20. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...

  1. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...

  2. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick...

  3. Signature chemicals for detection of citrus infestation by fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. Ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small sa...

  4. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested...generally infested areas to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth. In accordance...area will be adequate to prevent the artificial interstate spread of infestations...

  5. 75 FR 78587 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Ohio, and Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested...generally infested areas to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth. In accordance...area will be adequate to prevent the artificial interstate spread of infestations...

  6. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested...generally infested areas to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth. In accordance...area will be adequate to prevent the artificial interstate spread of infestations...

  7. Head LiceHead Lice Head lice can infest anybody, but children

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    scratching on the back of the head or neck. Tiny white eggs (nits) glued to hair near the scalp. SmallHead LiceHead Lice Head lice can infest anybody, but children are prone to infestations because they play closely and share items that come in con- tact with the head like hats, headphones, and combs

  8. Using airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...

  9. Gas chromatography for detection of citrus infestation by tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are serious economic pests worldwide. As larvae, they feed and develop within the pulp of host fruits, making infestation difficult to detect by visual inspection. At U.S. ports of entry, incoming produce shipments are checked for infestation by manually cutting open a small ...

  10. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  11. Effects of Intensive Forest Management Practices on Insect Infestation Levels and Loblolly Pine Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, J.T.; Berisford, C.W.

    2000-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intensive management practices and insect infestation, maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine over four years using different levels of cultural treatments. Results indicate tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management can improve initial tree growth.

  12. Infestation of wild and ornamental non-crop fruits by Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii is a pest of small fruits and cherries, and has also been noted to infest a variety of wild, ornamental, and uncultivated hosts. Identifying alternative hosts is critical for pest management. Research objectives were to: 1) survey fruits in fields for natural infestation of D. ...

  13. 76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions... detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on...

  14. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  15. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  16. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  17. 78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin... infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on October 24, 2013, we...

  18. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  19. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  20. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges...for animal feed or bedding; therefore, such hay or straw, grass, or similar materials shall not be imported unless such...

  1. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges...for animal feed or bedding; therefore, such hay or straw, grass, or similar materials shall not be imported unless such...

  2. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges...for animal feed or bedding; therefore, such hay or straw, grass, or similar materials shall not be imported unless such...

  3. Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

  4. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF INTERNAL INSECT INFESTATIONS IN WHOLE WHEAT KERNELS USING A PERTEN SKCS 4100

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat industry is in need of an automated, economical, and rapid means of detecting whole wheat kernels internally infested with insects. The feasibility of the Perten Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) to detect internal insect infestations was studied. The SKCS monitors compression...

  5. The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

  6. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

  7. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for...

  8. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

  9. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

  10. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for...BABESIOSIS § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. Cattle of the quarantined area shall be...

  11. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

  12. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for...

  13. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for...

  14. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for...

  15. 9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...

  16. 9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...

  17. 9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...

  18. 9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...

  19. 9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...

  20. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  1. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ponson, Laura; Andersson, Frédéric; El-Hage, Wissam

    2015-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown. Case presentation Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Conclusion Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. PMID:25673993

  2. Amino acid composition and chemical evaluation of protein quality of cereals as affected by insect infestation.

    PubMed

    Jood, S; Kapoor, A C; Singh, R

    1995-09-01

    A significant decrease in essential amino acids of wheat, maize and sorghum was observed due to grain infestation caused by mixed populations of Trogoderma granarium Everts and Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius (50:50). Non-essential amino acids were also adversely affected. Among the essential amino acids, maximum reduction was found in methionine, isoleucine and lysine in infested wheat, maize and sorghum grains, respectively. Lysine, with lowest chemical score in uninfested and infested grains of three cereals, is the first limiting amino acid. Insect infestation caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the chemical score of all the essential amino acids, yet did not change the position of first and second limiting amino acids in wheat and sorghum. However, in case of maize, isoleucine became the second limiting amino acid. Infested grains also showed substantial reduction in essential amino acid index, calculated biological value and requirement index. PMID:8837875

  3. Simulated Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Throughfall and Stemflow Inputs of Water and Nitrogen in Black Ash Wetlands in Northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pypker, T. G.; Davis, J.; Van Grinsven, M. J.; Bolton, N. W.; Shannon, J.; Kolka, R. K.; Nelson, J.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)) is an invasive insect that effectively kills ash trees (genus: Fraxinus) greater than 2.5 cm in diameter, resulting in near-complete stand mortality within 3-4 years. Black ash wetlands occupy approximately 270,000 ha in Michigan, and have 40 to 90% of the basal area occupied by black ash (F. nigra Marshall); hence the loss of black ash may result in dramatic changes in the canopy hydrology and nutrient deposition. We assessed the impact of a simulated EAB invasion on throughfall and stemflow quantity and nitrogen (N) content in 9 uninfected black ash wetlands located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Within the 9 stands, 3 stands were left untreated ('Control'), 3 stands had all the black ash trees manually girdled ('Girdled') and 3 had all the black ash trees felled by chainsaw ('Clearcut'). We measured the quantity and inorganic-N content of throughfall using an array of randomly placed collectors (n = 16 per site). Stemflow was monitored at 2 sites (n = 12 trees) on the 3 most common tree species (black ash, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) and red maple (Acer rubra L.)). Preliminary results indicate that relative to the Control, average monthly throughfall was 25% and 1% greater in the Clearcut and Girdled sites, respectively. While the loss of the ash trees resulted in greater throughfall inputs in the Clearcut sites, water table heights did not significantly change as a result of the treatments. Stemflow from live black ash trees was lower than from the yellow birch and red maple trees. As a result, we predict stemflow will increase over time as species with smoother bark and less upright branching begin replacing the black ash. Hence, the change in tree species may result in a greater concentration of inorganic-N inputs to the base of the trees, thereby altering the distribution of inorganic-N inputs into the wetland. Our preliminary results show no significant change in the total inorganic-N deposition via throughfall. Despite the severity of the disturbance that resulted from the simulated EAB infestation, preliminary results suggest that that these wetlands may show some short-term resiliency to the impacts of ash mortality, resulting in relatively unchanged hydrologic and nutrient deposition regimes.

  4. Many lawns in New Hampshire are infested with one or more broadleaf weeds. This may be from planting a new lawn on soil infested with weed seeds; sowing weedy, low-quality grass seed; or using

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Many lawns in New Hampshire are infested with one or more broadleaf weeds. This may be from planting a new lawn on soil infested with weed seeds; sowing weedy, low-quality grass seed; or using manure contaminated with weed seeds. Established lawns may become infested with weeds as a result of low fertility

  5. Laboratory studies of biology and life history of Balcha indica (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), an ectoparasitoid attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control efforts against emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) in North America primarily have focused on introduction and releases of exotic parasitoid species collected from northern parts of China. Recently, field surveys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio and ...

  6. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  7. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. Cars or others vehicles which have carried cattle exposed to or infested with ticks within the...

  8. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and...vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and...Cars or others vehicles which have carried cattle exposed to or infested with ticks...

  9. Mustard aphid infestation in India: development of forewarning models.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Bapuji; Rao, V U M; Nair, Linitha; Prasad, Y G; Ramaraj, A P; Chattopadhyay, C

    2014-07-01

    Aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) infestation on mustard (Brassica juncea L.) account for considerable yield losses in India. Experimental data from six north Indian locations were used to study the role of weather on the incidence and development of mustard aphid. Temperature was found to regulate the aphid appearance and population build-up. In warm humid climate, time to attain peak population was relatively shorter than in cool climates. Aphids appeared mostly when the accumulated thermal time ranged between 810-847 degrees cd. Functional relations proposed in the present investigation between aphid incidence and peak population, using previous weeks weather and pest data for majority of the locations, could be used for taking any prophylactic/control measures. PMID:25004753

  10. Optimum survival strategies against zombie infestations - a population dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    We model a zombie infestation by three coupled ODEs that jointly describe the time evolution of three populations: regular humans, zombies, and survivors (humans that have survived at least one zombie encounter). This can be generalized to take into account more levels of expertise and/or skill degradation. We compute the fixed points, and stability thereof, that correspond to one of three possible outcomes: human extinction, zombie extermination or, if one allows for a human non-zero birth-rate, co-habitation. We obtain analytically the optimum strategy for humans in terms of the model's parameters (essentially, whether to flee and hide, or fight). Zombies notwithstanding, this can also be seen as a toy model for infections of immune system cells, such as CD4+ T cells in AIDS, and macrophages in tuberculosis, whereby cells are both the target of infection, and mediate the acquired immunity response against the same infection. I thank FAPERJ for financial support.

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bachok, Norsa'adah; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Awang, Che Wil; Ibrahim, Noor Aini; Naing, Lin

    2006-05-01

    Head lice infestation contributes a significant morbidity among schoolchildren in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia. Six schools were randomly selected from three sub-districts of Kuala Krai, Kelantan. A total of 463 eleven-year-old pupils were screened by visual scalp examination and fine-toothed combing. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 35.0% (95% Cl: 30.6, 39.3) with 11.9% inactive, 23.1% active, 18.2% light and 16.8% heavy infestations. The associated factors were girls; family income of RM247 or less; head lice infestation of family member and having four or more siblings. The high prevalence of head lice infestation in this study indicates the need for regular school health program that emphasis on the eradication of head lice. The significant associated factors identified in this study reconfirm the importance of controlling the transmissibility of head lice. Pupils and parents should be informed regarding factors that may facilitate the transmission of head lice. PMID:17120976

  12. Hull split date and shell seal in relation to navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestation of almonds.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Kelly; Gao, Ling Wang; Lampinen, Bruce; Gradziel, Thomas; Zalom, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Hull split date, shell seal, and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), infestation data for 19 varieties of almonds, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb, were analyzed to determine the relationship of shell seal and hull split date on A. transitella infestation. Data for all varieties were collected from three University of California regional almond variety trials from 2003 to 2005, with a total of 8,550 nuts evaluated. A significant negative relationship was found between percentage of shell seal and percentage of navel orangeworm infestation, with lower percentage of shell seal correlating to higher percentage of infestation. Similarly, hull split date was negatively correlated with percentage of infestation, with later splitting varieties trending toward lower percentage of infestation. Although there are outlying varieties, hull split and shell seal are indeed significant components in varietal differences in almond navel orangeworm infestation. Understanding such factors gives insight into both the predictive value of almond characteristics related to navel orangeworm damage as well as other potential indicators. PMID:21735917

  13. Effect of Wheat Flour Packaging Materials on Infestation by Lasioderma serricorne (F.).

    PubMed

    Lü, Jianhua; Ma, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The ability of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), to infest wheat flour under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 27 ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. Five common packaging materials, namely, vacuum plastic bags, kraft paper bags, nonwoven cloth bags, aluminum foil bags, and woven plastic bags, were investigated. Adults and eggs of L. serricorne were released on different packaged wheat flour or on unpackaged wheat flour, and infestation levels (number of live adults and larvae) were determined after 45 days. When adults were released on wheat flour, the infestation degree varied depending on the package materials. The highest infestation was observed in refined wheat flour packaged in nonwoven cloth bags. With wheat flour packaged in kraft paper bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation or insect infestation was negligible (mean population, <1.3). With wheat flour packaged in aluminum foil bags and vacuum plastic bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation. Damage to the packaging materials along the folds or edges was found in nonwoven cloth bags and woven plastic bags. Therefore, both aluminum foil and plastic bags had the greatest resistance to package invasion by L. serricorne. PMID:25951407

  14. Phenoloxidase activity in three commercial bivalve species. Changes due to natural infestation with Perkinsus atlanticus.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Pilar; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Angeles

    2006-01-01

    The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the haemolymph and haemocytes from three clam species of commercial interest (Ruditapes philippinarum, Chamelea gallina and Tapes decussatus) has been compared. The activity was assayed spectrophotometrically by recording the formation of dopachrome from L-DOPA using sodium dodecyl sulphate, laminarin, trypsin or lipopolysaccharide as elicitors. Fewer PO units were observed in the haemolymph from T. decussatus than in the haemolymph from R. philippinarum, while the highest values were found in C. gallina. In all cases the activity was only significantly increased when sodium dodecyl sulphate was used as elicitor. PO activity in the haemocytes of all three clam species showed a very similar pattern to that found in the haemolymph from the same species. Furthermore, T. decussatus naturally parasitized by Perkinsus atlanticus (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) was used to study the influence of such infestation on PO activity, which was found to increase significantly in both haemolymph and haemocytes compared with non-infected (control) samples. PO activity in the haemocytes and in the haemolymph was higher when the level of parasitization was low or medium, respectively, and SDS was used as elicitor. No statistically significant differences were observed when the parasitization level was high. The present work constitutes the first report on the influence of this parasite on PO activity in haemolymph and haemocytes from T. decussatus. PMID:15979898

  15. Bacterial community structure in freshwater springs infested with the invasive plant species Hydrilla verticillata

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Bradley, N.; Li, N.

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic composition and physiological profiles of bacterial communities in freshwater springs were evaluated during the blooming and non-blooming stages of the invasive plant species, Hydrilla verticillata. Community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons were used to study potential Hydrilla mediated shifts in the physiological potential and phylogenetic composition of the bacterial community in infested systems. The results of CLPP revealed that the microbes in the Hydrilla invaded sites utilized less substrates during blooming periods than during nonblooming periods of the plant. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis showed some relationships between the relative abundances of bacterial taxa and the Biolog substrate utilization pattern. The relative abundance of the identified taxa showed some striking differences based on the blooming status of Hydrilla and to a lesser extent on site variation. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, and Verrucomicrobia was generally higher during Hydrilla blooms, while Deltaproteobacteria was generally higher during non-blooming stages of Hydrilla. The detected genera also varied based on the blooming stages of the plant. Based on the findings, it appears that Hydrilla alters the phylogenetic composition and structure of the bacterial community during the blooming stage. PMID:26207069

  16. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  17. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen?

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  18. Biological, seasonal and environmental factors associated with Pulex irritans infestation of dairy goats in Greece.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulos, G; Theodoropoulos, G; Kominakis, A; Theis, J H

    2006-04-15

    The objectives of the present study were to study the fauna of fleas infesting dairy goats in Greece, the spectrum of hosts each flea species infests, identify risk factors in the environment, and goat management practices that favour flea infestation of goats, and describe the seasonal variation of infestation in goats. For this purpose, a total of 64 herds, with a history of flea infestation in goats, were visited during June and July of 2002 for data collection on flea burdens, species of fleas on goats, and other farm or pet animal species in the farm. Also data were collected on herd characteristics and management along with the flea infestation status of the village where it was located through a questionnaire survey. Data on elevation and climatic characteristics of the villages where the herds were located were also used in the study. All fleas collected from goats, sheep, pigs, and cattle were identified as being Pulex irritans. All fleas collected from cats were identified as being Ctenocephalides felis. Dogs were infested either with P. irritans, C. canis, or C. felis, or with both C. canis and C. felis. Kids had a significantly higher flea burden than goats and the Skopelos breed had the highest flea burden of all breeds followed in diminishing order by the breeds Capra prisca, Saanen cross mix, and Alpine cross mix (p < 0.05). The gender of the animal had no significant effect on flea burden. Factors significantly affecting the flea burden of goats were duration of flea infestation in the herd, type of flea control, and manure imported prior to the appearance of fleas in the herd (p < 0.05). The flea burden of goats was highest during summer and lowest during winter (p < 0.01), with complete an absence of infestation in January and February. Finally, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the average annual temperature of villages with flea infestation (15.59 degrees C) and villages without flea infestation (17.14 degrees C). It was concluded that P. irritans was a true infestation of goats in Greece. PMID:16414195

  19. Severe tick infestation in a hare and potential risk for transmitting pathogens to humans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiqing; Chen, Haiying; Liu, Xiaoqing; Guo, Xuejian; Fu, Renlong

    2011-12-01

    Severe tick infestation was found in a hare in a suburban area of Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China. We sampled ticks and identified them based on their morphologic characteristics. Three species, Ixodes sinensis, which is commonly found in China and can experimentally transmit Borrelia burgdorferi, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, and Haemaphysalis longicornis which can transmit Lyme disease were detected with an optical microscope and a stereomicroscope. Risk of spreading ticks from suburban to urban areas exists due to human transportation and travel between the infested and non-infested areas around Nanchang. PMID:22355211

  20. Sugarcane Giant Borer Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Genes Related to Digestion

    PubMed Central

    de Assis Fonseca, Fernando Campos; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect’s biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control. PMID:25706301

  1. [Effects of deltamethrin on pheromone perception in male Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongchun; Du, Jiawei; Huang, Yongping

    2003-05-01

    To investigate the effects of deltamethrin on male Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) to perceive sex pheromone, the electro-physiological and behavioral response of topically treated male Asian corn borer to sex pheromone were tested with EAG sets and wind tunnel. The results showed that the summit response of male moths to varied ratios of pheromone blends was at E/Z = 1/9, 5/5 and 9/1, which was similar to that of control, but the EAG values were only 0.25 mV to 0.45 mV, which were significant lower than control by 0.15 mV to 0.35 mV. The low threshold dose of pheromone for treated males to perception was 1 ng, and the highest was 10,000 ng, which was also similar to control, but low by 0.1 mV to 0.5 mV in EAG values. This suggested that deltamethrin mainly affected the sensibility of peripheral reception system, while the preliminary recognition to the ratio of pheromone blends by peripheral reception system are not disturbed heavily. In wind tunnel test, a relative higher amount of males shifted to response to pheromone with E/Z ratios of 7/3 from E/Z = 1/1 of control males, and keep on response at this level to blends with more E12-14: OAc. The lowest dosage of pheromone effectively elicited response of males also shifted from 10 ng to 100 ng, and the highest doses for response declined to about 50,000 ng from 100,000 ng of control, which might result in a narrower band of effective doses. It is suggested that the sublethal dosage of deltamethrin not only affected the sensibility of male moth to perceive the pheromone, but also affected the specificity of pheromone perception. PMID:12924127

  2. The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Raimundo Wilson; de Almeida, Adilson Benedito; Barbosa-Silva, Silvia Cristina; Amorim, Marinete; Ribeiro, Paulo César; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes patterns of infestation with Tunga penetrans (L., 1758) within the poor community of Araruama municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, assessed by the number of persons and domestic animals parasitized. The overall prevalence of infestation was 49.2% (211 parasitized hosts) of the 429 examined. Humans (p < 0.01) and dogs (p < 0.01) were the most important hosts with 62.6% and 35.6% respectively. Dogs were considered as the potential infestation source to humans. Considering sex and age groups, both measures showed a significant difference (p < 0.01): female (62.2% infested of 143 examined) and male (43.9% infested of 98 examined). All age classes were found infested with significant difference (G = 42.5; p < 0.01) and most of the infestation occurred in children in the 0-9-year old category (27.3%). In contrast and based on mean of chigoe burden per person, the parasitic intensity was significantly higher on male than on female in all age categories, except for the 50+ (H = 27.1; p < 0.01) and decreasing with the increase of age (chi2 = 69.7, A = -124.6, p < 0.01). Growing urbanization, improved housing and sewage systems, use of appropriate footwear, examination of the feet principally in young children, antitetanus prophylaxis and reduction of stray dogs population are the major prophylactic methods recommended. PMID:12700859

  3. Abiotic and Biotic Factors Associated with Tick Population Dynamics on a Mammalian Host: Ixodes hexagonus Infesting Otters, Lutra lutra

    PubMed Central

    Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Cable, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, hosts several parasites with zoonotic potential. As this semiaquatic mammal has large ranges across terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, it has the capacity for wide dispersion of pathogens. Despite this, parasites of otters have received relatively little attention. Here, we examine their ectoparasite load and assess whether this is influenced by abiotic or biotic variables. Climatic phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affect weather conditions in northern Europe. Consequently parasite distributions, particularly species with life stages exposed to the external environment, can be affected. We assessed the extent to which inter-annual variations in large-scale weather patterns (specifically the NAO and Central England (CE) temperatures) and host characteristics influenced tick prevalence and intensity. Ectoparasites consisted of a single species, the nidiculous tick Ixodes hexagonus (prevalence ?=?24.3%; mean intensity ?=?7.2; range ?=?1–122; on n ?=?820 otter hosts). The prevalence, but not intensity of infestation, was associated with high CE temperatures, while both prevalence and intensity were associated with positive phases of the NAO. Such associations indicate that I. hexagonus are most abundant when weather conditions are warmer and wetter. Ticks were more prevalent on juvenile than sub-adult or adult otters, which probably reflects the length of time the hosts spend in the holt where these ticks quest. High tick number was associated with poor host condition, so either poor condition hosts are more susceptible to ticks, or tick infestations negatively impact on host condition. Otters are clearly an important and common host for I. hexagonus, which has implications for vector-borne diseases. This work is the first to consider the impacts of long-term weather patterns on I. hexagonus and uses wild-animal cadavers to illustrate the importance of abiotic and biotic pressures impacting parasitic populations. PMID:23071736

  4. Preventive efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil – (S)-methoprene – eprinomectin – praziquantel against ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation of cats through a natural infestation model

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Bouhsira, Émilie; Halos, Lénaïg; Franc, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A study based on naturally infested cats was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single treatment with a topical formulation containing fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel, for the prevention of Otodectes cynotis infestation in cats. Six treated cats and six untreated cats were housed with three chronically Otodectes cynotis-infested cats, respectively. The cats of each group were kept together in a 20-m2 room for 1 month. Both clinical examination and ear mite counts were conducted on Day 28. All donor cats were confirmed to be chronically infested with Otodectes cynotis on Day ?1 and Day 28. From untreated control cats, 129 live mites were recovered on Day 28 and all cats were found to be infested. In the treated group, three cats were found to be infested, with a total of five live mites recovered, the difference between the two groups being significant (p = 0.003). One treatment corresponded to 96% preventive efficacy at Day 28 based on ear mite counts. With regard to cerumen, the clinical score increased significantly for untreated cats between Day ?1 and Day 28 (p = 0.00026) and not for treated cats (p = 0.30). The difference in cerumen abundance was significant between untreated and treated cats on Day 28 (p = 0.0035). Concerning the pruritic reflex in at least one ear, all cats were negative at inclusion. All six untreated cats became positive and showed a reflex on Day 28, whereas no treated cat showed ear pruritus (p = 0.00026). PMID:25148648

  5. Preventive efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil--(S)-methoprene--eprinomectin--praziquantel against ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation of cats through a natural infestation model.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Bouhsira, Emilie; Halos, Lénaïg; Franc, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A study based on naturally infested cats was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single treatment with a topical formulation containing fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel, for the prevention of Otodectes cynotis infestation in cats. Six treated cats and six untreated cats were housed with three chronically Otodectes cynotis-infested cats, respectively. The cats of each group were kept together in a 20-m(2) room for 1 month. Both clinical examination and ear mite counts were conducted on Day 28. All donor cats were confirmed to be chronically infested with Otodectes cynotis on Day -1 and Day 28. From untreated control cats, 129 live mites were recovered on Day 28 and all cats were found to be infested. In the treated group, three cats were found to be infested, with a total of five live mites recovered, the difference between the two groups being significant (p = 0.003). One treatment corresponded to 96% preventive efficacy at Day 28 based on ear mite counts. With regard to cerumen, the clinical score increased significantly for untreated cats between Day -1 and Day 28 (p = 0.00026) and not for treated cats (p = 0.30). The difference in cerumen abundance was significant between untreated and treated cats on Day 28 (p = 0.0035). Concerning the pruritic reflex in at least one ear, all cats were negative at inclusion. All six untreated cats became positive and showed a reflex on Day 28, whereas no treated cat showed ear pruritus (p = 0.00026). PMID:25148648

  6. Developing food-grade coatings for dry-cured hams to protect against ham mite infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Williams, J B; Smith, B S; Schilling, M W

    2016-03-01

    Dry-cured hams may become infested with ham mites, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, during the aging process. Methyl bromide is the only known available fumigant pesticide that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations in dry cured ham plants. However, methyl bromide will be phased out of all industries as early as 2015 due to its status as an ozone-depleting substance. Research was conducted to develop and evaluate the potential of using food-grade film coatings to control mite infestations, without affecting the aging process and sensory properties of the dry-cured hams. Cubes coated with xanthan gum+20% propylene glycol and carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate+10% propylene glycol were effective at controlling mite infestations under laboratory conditions. Water vapor permeability was measured to estimate the impact of coatings during the aging process. It was evident that carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate coatings were permeable to moisture, which potentially makes them usable during aging. PMID:26624793

  7. A case of Taenia saginata (tape worm) infestation of the uterus presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Sadiah; Zia, Samiah Ahsan; Ahmed, Jameel

    2006-08-01

    There are many reported causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. We report an unusual case of uterine bleeding caused by tapeworm infestation, mimicking retained products of conception in a 35 year old multipara. PMID:16967792

  8. Eye bleeding due to leech infestation in an ischemic heart- disease patient.

    PubMed

    Shirzadeh, E; Golmohammadi, R

    2012-04-01

    A 49-year-old Iranian male with diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and arterial hypertension (AH) was admitted at Emergency Ward of Vase'ee Hospital of Sabzevar, Iran. As well, the patient had red eye and left eye bleeding. On eye examination, leech infestation was found to be the cause of the eye bleeding. In the endemic regions in a patient presenting red eye and eye bleeding, leech infestation came up to be an important differential diagnosis. Therefore, to prevent leech infestation in endemic regions, local people are advised to be informed more effectively about the necessity to use safe, clean, and filtered drinking water, and a perfect scrutiny for leeches or other sources of infestation that should be undertaken before bathing. PMID:22754689

  9. Selective broadcast of fenoxycarb bait on fire ant infested prairie: effect on native ant community 

    E-print Network

    Morris, John Robert

    1994-01-01

    This research describes the effect of a fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) infestation on the ant community of two north Texas blackland prairies, and the effect on the ant community when a bait formulation of the insect growth regulator...

  10. Applying image transformation and classification techniques to airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping Ashe juniper infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz), in excessive coverage, reduces forage production, interferes with livestock management, and degrades watersheds and wildlife habitat in infested rangelands. The objective of this study was to apply minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and different cla...

  11. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    PubMed

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. PMID:24681362

  12. OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS ON SAPROLEGNIA INFESTING FISH. BY G. P. CLINTON, B. S.,

    E-print Network

    , would collapse, and the fish mould then present a slimy appearance, and would not seem so badly infested of the epithelial dbbris, covering the fish, mould reveal the presence of numerous prostrate filaments of the fungus

  13. Percutaneous heartworm removal from dogs with severe heart worm (Dirofilaria immitis) infestation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Gon; Moon, Hyeong-Sun

    2008-01-01

    Canine heart worm disease is often life-threatening due to its various complications, including right side heart failure, caval syndrome and pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis. Several preventive medications and melarsomine have been developed and they are very effective to control heartworm infestation. However, in a case of severe infestation, melarsomine therapy often results in an unfavorable outcome because of the severe immune reaction caused by rapid killing of the adult worm. Surgical removal and an interventional method using flexible alligator forceps have been well described in the literature. Despite the usefulness of mechanical removal using flexible alligator forceps, the methodology still needs to be upgraded for increasing the applicability for treating dogs with severe infestation. We describe herein a newly developed percutaneous removal method for heartworms and this was successfully applied to 4 dogs with severe heartworm infestation. The follow-up studies also showed favorable outcomes with no complications. PMID:18487942

  14. Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The toxicity of eight commercially-available botanical formulations were evaluated against 3rd instars of the nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. In vi...

  15. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions. PMID:19568811

  16. Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h2?=?0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level (?=??0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to prevent rapid selection of high levels of resistance and the potential for its spread to new areas. PMID:25122089

  17. Influence of Mortality Factors and Host Resistance on the Population Dynamics of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Urban Forests.

    PubMed

    Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer. PMID:26308819

  18. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level (?=?-0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to prevent rapid selection of high levels of resistance and the potential for its spread to new areas. PMID:25122089

  19. Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, L.M.F.; Jodice, P.G.R.; O'Reilly, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Severe infestation of blow flies in a raccoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.

  1. Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2011-06-01

    Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps. PMID:21735910

  2. Differential induction of Pisum sativum defense signaling molecules in response to pea aphid infestation.

    PubMed

    Mai, Van Chung; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Jele?, Henryk; Naro?na, Dorota; Ruci?ska-Sobkowiak, Renata; K?sy, Jacek; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Gabry?, Beata; Morkunas, Iwona

    2014-05-01

    This study demonstrates the sequence of enhanced generation of signal molecules such as phytohormones, i.e. jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), and a relatively stable free radical, nitric oxide (NO), in response of Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski seedling leaves to the infestation of pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) at a varied population size. In time from 0 to 96h after A. pisum infestation these signal molecules accumulated transiently. Moreover, the convergence of these signaling pathways occurred. JA and its methyl derivative MeJA reached the first maximum of generation at 24th hour of infestation. An increase in ET and NO generation was observed at 48th hour of infestation. The increase in SA, JA/MeJA and ET concentrations in aphid-infested leaves occurred from the 72nd to 96th hour. In parallel, an increase was demonstrated for the activities of enzymes engaged in the biosynthesis of SA, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H). Additionally, a considerable post-infestation accumulation of transcripts for PAL was observed. An increase in the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX), an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of JA was noted. This complex signaling network may contribute to the coordinated regulation of gene expression leading to specific defence responses. PMID:24656330

  3. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya

    PubMed Central

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human.

  4. Curative and preventive efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Ctenocephalides canis infestation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ? 99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ? 94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks. PMID:24631503

  5. Field-cage methodology for evaluating climatic suitability for introduced wood-borer parasitoids: preliminary results from the emerald ash borer system.

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Van Driesche, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well. PMID:22233133

  6. Modeling Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) within-tree colonization patterns and development of a subsampling technique.

    PubMed

    Foelker, C J; Vandenberg, J D; Whitmore, M; Fierke, M K

    2013-06-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an insect native to central Asia, was first detected in southeast Michigan in 2002, and has since killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine an optimal sampling location on girdled ash trap trees for detection of A. planipennis larvae based on measurements of tree characteristics, and 2) develop a whole-tree estimation method for extrapolating larval densities from subsampled heights. We conducted sampling at 1-m increments, recording larval presence, height on tree bole, bolt diameter, and bark roughness for 58 infested ash trees. Analyzing height and diameter separately, generalized linear mixed models indicated the probability of A. planipennis detection was maximized at 17.2 cm for diameter and increased linearly as vertical height increased. There was also a positive relationship between intermediate bark roughness and A. planipennis presence. Stepwise regression indicated the optimal bolts for extrapolating whole tree larval densities were, in order of importance, at heights of 1-2 m, 4-5 m, 7-8 m, and 0-1 m. Subsampling with just one or two bolts explained 70% and 86%, respectively, of the variance in A. planipennis densities. Our results can be used by resource managers to improve efficiency of detection efforts and estimate infestations of A. planipennis. PMID:23726062

  7. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer. PMID:25026653

  8. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  9. Influence of the physiological state on infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Rangel, Charles Passos; de Azevedo Baêta, Bruna; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of physiological state, season, breed, number of lactations, dairy productivity, and stocking rate on infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows. Two hundred cows were selected through proportional representative sampling at the Seropédica Experimental Station (Pesagro-Rio), Brazil. Fully or partially engorged R. microplus females measuring between 4.5 and 8.0mm were counted on the right side of each animal. The tick infestation prevalence data were analyzed in relation to the risk factors, using multiple logistic regression. Associations between prevalence and its possible influencing determinants were measured using odds ratios. The average tick count of cows during the peripartum and lactation periods was significantly higher (p<0.05; OR=4.82) than the count in dry cows. Taurine animals showed significantly higher infestation (p<0.05; OR=3.28) than pure zebuine animals. Among cross-bred animals, the infestation was higher (p<0.05) in F1 animals (1/2 taurine×1/2 zebuine) than in Girolando animals (5/8 zebuine×3/8 taurine). Primiparous cows (p<0.05) had significantly heavier infestations than multiparous cows. Dairy production showed a positive correlation with tick infestation (p<0.03; OR=2.94), such that the most productive animals were the most parasitized ones. Animals kept at high densities were significantly more heavily infested (p<0.05, OR=6.32) than animals kept at low density. First-lactation and high-productivity taurine animals were more vulnerable to R. microplus, thus comprising a high-risk group in dairy herds. PMID:23238247

  10. Acoustic estimation of infestations and population densities of white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minling; Crocker, Robert L; Mankin, Richard W; Flanders, Kathy L; Brandhorst-Hubbard, Jamee L

    2003-12-01

    Incidental sounds produced by Phyllophaga crinita (Burmeister) and Cyclocephala lurida (Bland) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) white grubs were monitored with single- and multiple-sensor acoustic detection systems in turf fields and golf course fairways in Texas. The maximum detection range of an individual acoustic sensor was measured in a greenhouse as approximately the area enclosed in a 26.5-cm-diameter perimeter (552 cm2). A single-sensor acoustic system was used to rate the likelihood of white grub infestation at monitored sites, and a four-sensor array was used to count the numbers of white grubs at sites where infestations were identified. White grub population densities were acoustically estimated by dividing the estimated numbers of white grubs by the area of the detection range. For comparisons with acoustic monitoring methods, infestations were assessed also by examining 10-cm-diameter soil cores collected with a standard golf cup-cutter. Both acoustic and cup-cutter assessments of infestation and estimates of white grub population densities were verified by excavation and sifting of the soil around the sensors after each site was monitored. The single-sensor acoustic method was more successful in assessing infestations at a recording site than was the cup-cutter method, possibly because the detection range was larger than the area of the soil core. White grubs were recovered from >90% of monitored sites rated at medium or high likelihood of infestation. Infestations were successfully identified at 23 of the 24 sites where white grubs were recovered at densities >50/m2, the threshold for economic damage. The four-sensor array yielded the most accurate estimates of the numbers of white grubs in the detection range, enabling reliable, nondestructive estimation of white grub population densities. However, tests with the array took longer and were more difficult to perform than tests with the single sensor. PMID:14977114

  11. The Early Detection of the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Using Advanced Geospacial Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B.; Li, J.; Wang, J.; Hall, B.

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to exploit Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and very high spatial resolution (VHR) data and their synergy with hyperspectral imagery in the early detection of the EAB presence in trees within urban areas and to develop a framework to combine information extracted from multiple data sources. To achieve these, an object-oriented framework was developed to combine information derived from available data sets to characterize ash trees. Within this framework, individual trees were first extracted and then classified into different species based on their spectral information derived from hyperspectral imagery, spatial information from VHR imagery, and for each ash tree its health state and EAB infestation stage were determined based on hyperspectral imagery. The developed framework and methods were demonstrated to be effective according to the results obtained on two study sites in the city of Toronto, Ontario Canada. The individual tree delineation method provided satisfactory results with an overall accuracy of 78 % and 19 % commission and 23 % omission errors when used on the combined very high-spatial resolution imagery and LiDAR data. In terms of the identification of ash trees, given sufficient representative training data, our classification model was able to predict tree species with above 75 % overall accuracy, and mis-classification occurred mainly between ash and maple trees. The hypothesis that a strong correlation exists between general tree stress and EAB infestation was confirmed. Vegetation indices sensitive to leaf chlorophyll content derived from hyperspectral imagery can be used to predict the EAB infestation levels for each ash tree.

  12. Influence of Household Rat Infestation on Leptospira Transmission in the Urban Slum Environment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C.; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N.; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13–11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06–7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28–6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21–6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71–0.84). Conclusions/Significance Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may therefore be an effective risk stratification strategy for targeting control measures in slum settings of high leptospirosis transmission. PMID:25474580

  13. Impact of Oebalus pugnax (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestation Timing on Rice Yields and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Awuni, G. A.; Gore, J.; Cook, D.; Musser, F.; Catchot, A.; Dobbins, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sleeve and large field cage experiments were conducted in Stoneville, MS, in 2010 and 2011 to assess adult rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), injury in rice. ‘Cocodrie’ and ‘Wells’ were infested at bloom, milk, and soft dough stages of panicle development. Twenty rice panicles were infested individually in the sleeve cage experiment as replicates with 0, 1, or 2 O. pugnax in a split-plot, completely randomized design. The large cage experiment had four replications infested with 9 or 18 O. pugnax per square meter over multiple rice panicles in a split-plot, randomized complete block design per cultivar. Caged uninfested controls were included in each experiment. Rough rice yield and percentage of clean, damaged, and blank kernels were evaluated. In both experiments, stage of panicle development impacted grain yield and quality. Yield loss was greatest during the bloom stage, while kernel damage was greatest during the milk and soft dough stages. Rice yield decreased with increased infestation density. Kernel damage increased with increased infestation density. Blank kernels affect yield, while kernel damage affects grain quality. While grain yield is the bottom line, grain quality affects marketability, which directly affects yield profitability. Based on these results, this study considers O. pugnax injury significant in all three stages of panicle development and concludes that a more aggressive threshold is recommended from panicle emergence through soft dough. More research is needed to determine the specific threshold, but it appears to be lower than the current threshold of 5 per 10 sweeps. PMID:26470315

  14. Spectral Analysis of Ultraweak Chemiluminescence from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2005-02-01

    We performed the spectral analysis of ultraweak-photon emissions from kidney bean leaves infested by the kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). We also measured the spectrum of photon emissions from artificially wounded leaves, and compared the result with spectral data obtained from the mite-infested leaves. Photon emissions from both the mite-infested and wounded leaves primarily consisted of wavelengths ranging from 500 to 700 nm, and photon intensity at these wavelengths increased steadily after perturbation. In contrast, photon intensity of the mite-infested leaves at 300-400 nm exhibited only differential changes; it began increasing at 20 h, and showed two peaks at 72 and 120 h. We previously reported that photon emissions from infested leaves might be the result of both insect damage and plant self-protection. Plant defensive responses, such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), are induced by insect elicitors via insect damage. Therefore, photon intensity at 500-700 nm might be related to direct injury (physiological stress), while photon intensity at 300-400 nm may signify a physiological (biochemical)-action-related defensive response.

  15. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events. PMID:26553505

  16. Impact of Oebalus pugnax (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestation Timing on Rice Yields and Quality.

    PubMed

    Awuni, G A; Gore, J; Cook, D; Musser, F; Catchot, A; Dobbins, C

    2015-08-01

    Sleeve and large field cage experiments were conducted in Stoneville, MS, in 2010 and 2011 to assess adult rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), injury in rice. 'Cocodrie' and 'Wells' were infested at bloom, milk, and soft dough stages of panicle development. Twenty rice panicles were infested individually in the sleeve cage experiment as replicates with 0, 1, or 2 O. pugnax in a split-plot, completely randomized design. The large cage experiment had four replications infested with 9 or 18 O. pugnax per square meter over multiple rice panicles in a split-plot, randomized complete block design per cultivar. Caged uninfested controls were included in each experiment. Rough rice yield and percentage of clean, damaged, and blank kernels were evaluated. In both experiments, stage of panicle development impacted grain yield and quality. Yield loss was greatest during the bloom stage, while kernel damage was greatest during the milk and soft dough stages. Rice yield decreased with increased infestation density. Kernel damage increased with increased infestation density. Blank kernels affect yield, while kernel damage affects grain quality. While grain yield is the bottom line, grain quality affects marketability, which directly affects yield profitability. Based on these results, this study considers O. pugnax injury significant in all three stages of panicle development and concludes that a more aggressive threshold is recommended from panicle emergence through soft dough. More research is needed to determine the specific threshold, but it appears to be lower than the current threshold of 5 per 10 sweeps. PMID:26470315

  17. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events.

  18. Changes induced by infestation on some chemical properties of cowpea seeds.

    PubMed

    Ojimelukwe, P C

    2002-01-01

    Three cowpea varieties were used in the present study, Insect susceptible popular variety, 'Ife-brown' (IFB), an improved variety for insect resistance IT 81D-975 (1975) and a local black cowpea variety with a white hilium adapted to diverse habitats, 'Akidi' (AKD). Cowpea seeds were infested with Callosobruchus maculatus. Crude protein content of infested and uninfested whole cowpea flour and protein concentrate was determined. Prolamin contents of flour and protein concentrates were evaluated. Fat content, free fatty acid and peroxide values of cowpea seeds were also determined. All determinations were carried out in infested and uninfested cowpea seeds in 3 replicates for each determination. Emulsion properties of cowpea seeds stored in 3 containers, plastic cans (PC) and polyethylene bags (white and black WPB/BPB) were monitored on a biweekly basis for 24 weeks. Varietal differences existed in the protein, fat and prolamin contents of cowpeas. Infestation reduced the contents of these nutrients in all cases. Free fatty acid contents and peroxide values were increased by > 100%. Infestation reduced the prolamin content by > 25% in all cases. Varietal differences also existed in emulsion capacities of cowpea flours; IFB and 975 formed better and more stable emulsions than AKD flour. Storage in plastic cans led to better retention of the emulsion properties of the cowpeas. PMID:12049145

  19. Alterations in the nitrogen dynamics of European beech trees infested by the woolly beech aphid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, D. F.; Michalzik, B.

    2012-12-01

    Insects are a major stressor in wooded ecosystems, triggering profound changes in the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and net primary productivity of infested forests. The influence of woolly beech aphids (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on nitrogen cycling via throughfall, stemflow, and litter leachates is not well understood. Employing a combination of field sampling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we examined and compared the alterations and partitioning of nitrogen (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) between control (uninfested) and infested trees. Preliminary results suggest that the amount of nitrogen routed to the soil is much lower in throughfall and stemflow of infested trees than control trees. Preliminary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the abaxial surface of sample leaves have demonstrated that the surface microbiology and nitrogen chemistry of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves are notably different. These observations suggest that the aphids alter the phyllosphere ecology to such an extent that they trigger nitrogen uptake by microbes on the leaf surface in the presence of easily available carbon from aphid excretions (i.e., honeydew). A better understanding of nitrogen cycling in stressed forests would advance theories of nitrogen cycling.

  20. Resistance of apple cultivars to Dysaphis plantaginea (Hemiptera: Aphididae): role of tree phenology in infestation avoidance.

    PubMed

    Miñarro, M; Dapena, E

    2007-10-01

    To test the importance of flowering phenology in damage caused to apple cultivars by rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), susceptibility of 16 cultivars was compared in greenhouse conditions after infestation with aptera and in the field after natural tree colonization. Flowering phenology was recorded in the field for all the cultivars. In both greenhouse and field trials, there were differences among cultivars with respect to aphid infestation and damage. However, damage in the greenhouse and field was not significantly correlated. Flowering phenology was also different among cultivars. Flowering order among cultivars was significantly negatively correlated with aphid infestation and damage in field, i.e., early leafing cultivars showed higher infestation and damage than late-leafing cultivars. If egg hatching occurs before bud bursting, neonate larvae will suffer a high mortality because they cannot feed on these late cultivars. A later recolonization of these trees is hampered because (1) winged aphids cannot live on apple but only on the secondary host, (2) apterous forms have a limited dispersal capability, and (3) aphid predators progressively increase in the orchard. Therefore, synchronization between egg hatching and bud bursting is of critical importance in the success or failure of infestation. PMID:18284746

  1. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    Durand, R.; Cannet, A.; Berdjane, Z.; Bruel, C.; Haouchine, D.; Delaunay, P.; Izri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97%) and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6%) apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6%) reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%). DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124) had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs. PMID:23193523

  2. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird.

    PubMed

    Heylen, Dieter J A; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host's health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird's energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events. PMID:26553505

  3. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

  4. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418

  5. Selection, egg viability, and fecundity of the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with tebufenozide.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, L M; Ottea, J A; Reagan, T E

    2001-12-01

    Two separate attempts to select the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for resistance to tebufenozide were unsuccessful. Both selected colonies were lost after the fourth generation due to a lack of oviposition. Differences were not detected in fecundity or percent egg viability for 5-d-old third instars exposed to concentrations (EC5, EC15, and EC30) of tebufenozide for 7 d. Decreases (P < or = 0.01) in mean female pupal weights were detected in larvae exposed to EC15 and EC30 concentrations. An ovicidal impact using serial dilutions of tebufenozide (10, 100, and 200 ppm) also was detected. Percent viability was reduced from 98% for untreated eggs to 61% for eggs dipped in 10 ppm and below 6% for eggs dipped in > or = 100 ppm. Eggs treated with 200 ppm did not hatch. Though some embryonic development was observed on eggs treated with the high concentrations (100 and 200 ppm), sclerotization of head capsule was not apparent. The ovicidal property of tebufenozide may enhance its effectiveness in controlling populations of the D. saccharalis on an area-wide basis. Fecundity and egg viability were affected in later generations of selection; however, separate studies assessing individuals that were exposed to sublethal concentration (EC5, EC15, and EC30) of tebufenozide as third instars for 7 d in one generation did not detect differences. PMID:11777063

  6. Ongoing ecological speciation in Cotesia sesamiae, a biological control agent of cereal stem borers

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Laure; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kaoula, Ferial; Paillusson, Corentin; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Obonyo, Julius Ochieng; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Jancek, Severine; Branca, Antoine; Calatayud, Paul-André; Silvain, Jean-François; Dupas, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    To develop efficient and safe biological control, we need to reliably identify natural enemy species, determine their host range, and understand the mechanisms that drive host range evolution. We investigated these points in Cotesia sesamiae, an African parasitic wasp of cereal stem borers. Phylogenetic analyses of 74 individual wasps, based on six mitochondrial and nuclear genes, revealed three lineages. We then investigated the ecological status (host plant and host insect ranges in the field, and host insect suitability tests) and the biological status (cross-mating tests) of the three lineages. We found that one highly supported lineage showed all the hallmarks of a cryptic species. It is associated with one host insect, Sesamia nonagrioides, and is reproductively isolated from the other two lineages by pre- and postmating barriers. The other two lineages had a more variable phylogenetic support, depending on the set of genes; they exhibited an overlapping and diversified range of host species and are not reproductively isolated from one another. We discuss the ecological conditions and mechanisms that likely generated this ongoing speciation and the relevance of this new specialist taxon in the genus Cotesia for biological control. PMID:26366198

  7. Sexual Dimorphism of Pupae and Adults of the Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella

    PubMed Central

    Posada, Francisco J.; Virdiana, Ike; Navies, Maisin; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Hebbar, Prakash

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening. The male genital opening is a conspicuous, brown, longitudinal slit located between the two pairs of tubercles. The sex of the adult moth can be determined by examining the ventrocaudal segments of the abdomen. The last segment of the female abdomen is white, compressed laterally and at the tip, and the hairy anal papillae can be seen. In the male, the ventrocaudal end of the abdomen is black and robust. This information will be useful for laboratory and field diagnosis and while working on sex ratios of this important pest of cocoa. PMID:21861656

  8. Knockdown of Cs-Spook induces delayed larval molting in rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species. PMID:25354095

  9. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10?d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40?min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1?h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females. PMID:25527574

  10. Nutritional Performance of the Tomato Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on Different Tomato Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25204681

  11. Testis Morphology and Dichotomic Spermatogenesis in the Sugarcane Borer Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, M C; Santos, D C

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, we describe the testis morphology and spermatogenesis of the sugarcane borer, one of the most destructive pests of sugarcane, using light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopies. Diatraea saccharalis (F.) larvae have paired, kidney-shaped testes that are limited externally and divided into four follicles by tunica cells. The adults have two fused whitish and spherical testes that are divided into eight follicles and are composed of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and sperm bundles. The spermatogonia and spermatocyte cysts are located at the apical extremity of the follicle, while the spermatid cysts and sperm bundles are located at the basal extremity of the follicle. Inside of the cysts, which are formed by the somatic cells, the germ line cells develop synchronously and are interconnected by cytoplasmic bridges. Each cyst contains only apyrene or eupyrene, and none of the cysts contain both of the cells. The inner part of the apyrene cyst consists of an electron-dense cap as opposed to a nucleus. The eupyrene sperm contains a nucleus, acrosome, and reticular and lacinate appendages. Both of the sperm types have a "9?+?9?+?2" axoneme and two mitochondrial derivatives at the tail region. The spermatogenesis process and spermatozoa morphology are similar to that of other Lepidoptera. PMID:26245268

  12. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  13. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a ?-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. PMID:25541004

  14. Analysis of gene expression in emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) using quantitative real time-PCR.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America. EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1(st)-, 2(nd)-, 3(rd)-, 4(th)-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium. PMID:20445495

  15. A Relative Resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Blake E; VanWeelden, Matthew T; Beuzelin, Julien M; Reagan, Thomas E; Way, Michael O; White, William H; Wilson, Lloyd T; Showler, Allan T

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane (hybrids of Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana and Texas. Resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in 51 commercial and experimental cultivars of sugarcane, energycane (hybrids of Saccharum spp.), and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and hybrids of Sorghum spp.] in four replicated small plot field experiments from 2009 to 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed to compare levels of susceptibility among cultivars based on the percentage of bored internodes and survival to adulthood. This index was able to separate cultivars into five resistance categories and provides a new method for comparing levels of resistance among cultivars. E. loftini pest pressure in 2009 was among the highest recorded with injury ranging from 55 to 88% bored internodes. Commercial sugarcane cultivar HoCP 85-845 was identified as resistant in three of four experiments, whereas HoCP 04-838 was identified as susceptible in all experiments. Of the five sugarcane cultivars in commercial production in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas, only TCP 87-3388 was categorized as resistant. Of the cultivars with potential for bioenergy production, all of the energycane cultivars demonstrated higher levels of resistance than high-biomass and sweet sorghum cultivars. Continued evaluation of cultivar resistance to E. loftini is important to development of effective integrated pest management strategies for this pest. PMID:26470265

  16. Ongoing ecological speciation in Cotesia sesamiae, a biological control agent of cereal stem borers.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Laure; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kaoula, Ferial; Paillusson, Corentin; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Obonyo, Julius Ochieng; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Jancek, Severine; Branca, Antoine; Calatayud, Paul-André; Silvain, Jean-François; Dupas, Stephane

    2015-09-01

    To develop efficient and safe biological control, we need to reliably identify natural enemy species, determine their host range, and understand the mechanisms that drive host range evolution. We investigated these points in Cotesia sesamiae, an African parasitic wasp of cereal stem borers. Phylogenetic analyses of 74 individual wasps, based on six mitochondrial and nuclear genes, revealed three lineages. We then investigated the ecological status (host plant and host insect ranges in the field, and host insect suitability tests) and the biological status (cross-mating tests) of the three lineages. We found that one highly supported lineage showed all the hallmarks of a cryptic species. It is associated with one host insect, Sesamia nonagrioides, and is reproductively isolated from the other two lineages by pre- and postmating barriers. The other two lineages had a more variable phylogenetic support, depending on the set of genes; they exhibited an overlapping and diversified range of host species and are not reproductively isolated from one another. We discuss the ecological conditions and mechanisms that likely generated this ongoing speciation and the relevance of this new specialist taxon in the genus Cotesia for biological control. PMID:26366198

  17. Ultrasonic courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

    2006-06-01

    Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.

  18. A rare case report of tracheal leech infestation in a 40-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zou, Jian; Zhu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Leeches are the very rare types of airway foreign body. Here we report a rare case of a 40-year-old woman with tracheal leech infestation. A 40-year-old woman presented 2-month history of dyspnea, occasional haemoptysis. There were foreign body sensation in throat, cough and hoarseness. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed some soft tissue shadow in the upper trachea. Eventually a 5 cm long living leech was smoothly removed from trachea by rigid bronchoscopy under sevoflurane general anesthesia. The airway leech infestation should be kept in mind especially in patients presenting with unexplained haemoptysis, dyspnea, hoarseness and a foreign body sensation in the throat and a history of drinking infested water from streams, pools and spring. General anesthesia might be necessary for the removal of the leech. PMID:25419405

  19. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable. PMID:23068169

  20. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close. PMID:24690169

  1. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-01-01

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide resistance. Difficulties of control were noted in our surveys of dormitories in which crowded living, seasonal worker migration, and financial constraints contributed to control failures. This study supports the following conclusions: (1) the bed bug infestation in China dramatically decreased following the campaigns from 1960 to the early 1980s; (2) In our survey of Health and Epidemics Prevention Stations, no bed bug cases were reported in Beijing and Shanghai for the past 12 months, but complaints were reported in Guangzhou, Lanzhou, Urumqi, and Shenzhen; (3) Current bed bug infestations primarily are reported in crowded living environments or transient environments such as worker dormitories and military dormitories. These findings suggest that community-wide bed bug monitoring and control campaigns are necessary for effective control of bed bug infestations as a societal response. PMID:26467615

  2. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-01-01

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide "Four-Pest Elimination" campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000-2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999-2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide resistance. Difficulties of control were noted in our surveys of dormitories in which crowded living, seasonal worker migration, and financial constraints contributed to control failures. This study supports the following conclusions: (1) the bed bug infestation in China dramatically decreased following the campaigns from 1960 to the early 1980s; (2) In our survey of Health and Epidemics Prevention Stations, no bed bug cases were reported in Beijing and Shanghai for the past 12 months, but complaints were reported in Guangzhou, Lanzhou, Urumqi, and Shenzhen; (3) Current bed bug infestations primarily are reported in crowded living environments or transient environments such as worker dormitories and military dormitories. These findings suggest that community-wide bed bug monitoring and control campaigns are necessary for effective control of bed bug infestations as a societal response. PMID:26467615

  3. Infestation and Pathological Alterations by Ergasilus sarsi (Copepoda) on the Tanganyika Killifish from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-01-01

    A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi. PMID:24341764

  4. Vitamin contents of cereal grains as affected by storage and insect infestation.

    PubMed

    Jood, S; Kapoor, A C

    1994-10-01

    There were substantial losses in thiamine, riboflavin and niacin contents of wheat, maize and sorghum grains at three infestation levels (25, 50 and 75%) caused by releasing two insect species viz., Trogoderma granarium and Rhizopertha dominica separately and mixed population. Losses were to the extent of 65 to 69% (thiamine), 50 to 67% (riboflavin) and 10 to 32% (niacin) due to T. granarium and 23 to 29% (thiamine), 13 to 18% (riboflavin) and 4 to 14% (niacin) due to R. dominica at 75% level of infestation in three cereal grains. Storage of grains (1-4 months) in insect free conditions did not show appreciable changes in the vitamin contents. PMID:7855095

  5. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed. PMID:26462824

  6. EVALUATION OF DURUM SPRING WHEAT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO WHEAT STEM SAWFLY (HYMENOPTERA: CEPHIDAE)INFESTATION OF SPRING DURUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, is the primary arthropod pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, in the Northern Great Plains. Rotation to non-host crops should decrease infestation of susceptible spring or winter wheats. Information is unavailable on wheat stem sawfly infestation potentia...

  7. Likelihood of mated females of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) entering an area from infested grapefruits discarded onto backyard compost piles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Backyard composting of infested fruit is a pathway for entry of exotic fruit flies. Experimentally infested grapefruits were discarded onto forty compost pile replicates. Males and possibly-mated females emerged from 43% (17) of the piles. From this experiment, based on the number of fruit discar...

  8. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  9. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  10. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  11. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  12. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. 72.11 Section 72.11 Animals and...; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. Cattle of...

  13. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  14. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  15. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned...

  16. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested...

  17. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  18. BACKYARD COMPOSTING OF INFESTED FRUIT: A POTENTIAL PATHWAY FOR INTRODUCTION OF ANASTREPHA FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) INTO FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of infested fruit directly into the environment is a potential pathway for pest introduction. This study estimated the likelihood of exotic fruit flies entering south Florida through backyard composting. Grapefruits infested with Caribbean fruit fly larvae, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), wer...

  19. Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scab–a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4 weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3 days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56 days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment. PMID:24176040

  20. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...