Pin oak, Quercus palustris Muenchhausen, is the primary host for the gall wasp Callirhytis cornigera (Osten Sacken). Woody stem galls formed by C. cornigera may be infested by the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), an important pest of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida L. Previous research has shown that S. scitula has a bimodal seasonal flight pattern, with peaks in late spring and midsummer. We tested the hypothesis that moths emerging from dogwoods largely account for the first flight pulse, whereas emergence from stem galls contributes disproportionately to the second pulse. Seasonal flight activity of S. scitula was monitored with pheromone traps baited with Z,Z-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate. Traps were hung near plantings of dogwoods in suburban landscapes or near heavily galled pin oaks. Borer emergence from dogwood was monitored by sampling infested trees for pupal exuviae, and from galls that were collected and held in outdoor rearing cages. The impact of S. scitula on C. cornigera larvae was assessed by weighing, measuring, and dissecting galls. Flight activity of S. scitula began on 5 May and ended on 13 October 1999, with peaks in late May and in late July to early August. The flight pattern was similar for the two types of trapping sites, and moths emerged from both hosts during both flight periods. Proportionately more moths emerged from dogwoods during the first flight pulse than during the second, but emergence from galls was nearly evenly divided between the two flight peaks. We therefore reject the hypothesis that emergence of borers from galls contributes disproportionately to the second flight period. Approximately 12-15% of stem galls (2-3 yr old) contained S. scitula larvae. Feeding and tunneling by borers contributed to gall desiccation and reduced horn development, but rarely killed C. cornigera larvae. This study has implications for management of S. scitula because borers emerging from horned oak galls may represent a threat to dogwood. PMID:10902327
Eliason, E A; Potter, D A
Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ?2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ?1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations. PMID:24709345
Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C
Lepidopterous stem borers seriously affect production of maize, Zea mays L., in sub-Saharan Africa. Intercropping maize with legumes such as lablab, Lablab purpurens (L.), is one of the effective systems to control stem borers. Sole culture maize and maize/lablab intercrop system of different lablab densities were planted at two locations to investigate the effects of intercrop system on incidence and severity of stem borers with particular reference to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Stem borer infestation was found to be more severe in sole culture maize than maize in maize/lablab intercrop. There was a significantly negative relationship between lablab densities and maize grain yields, suggesting a possible competition for resources between the two crops. It was concluded that density of lablab and date of planting of lablab in maize/lablab intercropping have significant affects on stem borer populations and maize grain yields. PMID:15889728
Maluleke, Mary H; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Ayisi, Kingsley K
The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801
Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G
Surveys were conducted in the major apple growing regions of New York state to determine the incidence of borers infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks. Dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was generally prevalent throughout the state, but American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker), was limited to western New York apple orchards near infested stone fruit trees. Insecticides evaluated in the field for efficacy against both borers were chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, indoxacarb plus oil, methoxyfenozide, fenpropathrin, and kaolin clay. Also, white latex paint was tested alone and mixed with chlorpyrifos. One application of chlorpyrifos applied at the petal fall developmental stage was equivalent to chlorpyrifos applied at petal fall and again in mid-July, and it provided season-long control of dogwood borer and American plum borer. One application of chlorpyrifos applied any time between the half-inch green developmental stage and petal fall, or after harvest the previous season, controlled both overwintered and summer brood larvae of dogwood borer. Multiple applications of fenpropathrin, indoxacarb plus oil, and endosulfan applied during the dogwood borer flight period controlled the summer brood. PMID:15154480
Kain, David P; Straub, Richard W; Agnello, Arthur M
Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun. PMID:23786069
Steckel, S; Stewart, S D
The European corn borer is one of the most damaging insect pests to maize in the United States. Different methods exist for the estimation of time of damage to corn by first generation European corn borer. The most commonly used method is the linear thermal constant concept of phenology which by convention calculates cumulative thermal units from January 1 or another arbitrary date. Linear and nonlinear models based on the thermal units concept developed were to predict and simulate postdiapause development of the European corn borer and subsequent infestation of the maize crop using early spring temperatures (May 1-15) in central Missouri. The developmental rates of European corn borer were obtained from growth chamber investigations that simulated those temperatures, the operational temperatures being selected from a compilation of archival meteorological data from 1948 to 1989. The linear and polynomial regression models were developed to predict phenological stages of the European corn borer using thermal units as developmental rates. The models were compared against each other to determine the better predictor of estimation values: each explained 94 and 98% of the variation in developmental stages, respectively. In addition, the models were tested against independent field data and both models gave good predictions of developmental stages, indicating that either model would be a good predictor.
Magai, Robert N.; Decker, W. L.; Keaster, Armon J.
The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs.
Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini
Field experiments were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to determine the effect of different levels of hand-infested third instar European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on whole-plant yield and plant growth stage in corn, Zea mays L., grown for silage. In 2004 and 2005, European corn borer infestation level had a significant negative impact on whole-plant yield (grams of dry matter per plant) with increasing infestation; however, whole-plant yield was not significantly affected by plant growth stage in either year. In 2004, the six larvae per plant treatment caused the greatest percentage of reduction (23.4%) in mean (+/-SEM) whole-plant yield (258.5 +/- 21.0 g dry matter per plant) compared with the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAb control (337.3 +/- 11.1 g dry matter per plant). In 2005, the five larvae per plant treatment caused the greatest percentage of reduction (8.3%) in mean whole-plant yield (282.3 +/- 10.8 g dry matter per plant) compared with the Bt CrylAb control (307.8 +/- 8.3 g dry matter per plant). The relationship between mean whole-plant yield and European corn borer larvae infestation level from the pooled data of both years was described well by using an exponential decay model (r2 = 0.84, P = 0.0038). The economic injury level for silage corn was estimated to be approximately 73% higher than for corn grown for grain based on similar control costs and crop values. In addition, plant growth stage and European corn borer infestation level had no effect on percentage of acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein values in either year of the study. PMID:20069843
Tiwari, S; Youngman, R R; Laub, C A; Brewster, C C; Jordan, T A; Teutsch, C
Our objective was to characterize the rate at which ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees decline in areas adjacent to the leading edge of visible ash canopy thinning due to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Trees in southeastern Michigan were surveyed from 2003 to 2006 for canopy thinning and dieback by comparing survey trees with a set of 11 standard photographs. Freeways stemming from Detroit in all directions were used as survey transects. Between 750 and 1,100 trees were surveyed each year. A rapid method of sampling populations of emerald ash borer was developed by counting emerald ash borer emergence holes with binoculars and then felling trees to validate binocular counts. Approximately 25% of the trees surveyed for canopy thinning in 2005 and 2006 also were sampled for emerald ash borer emergence holes using binoculars. Regression analysis indicates that 41-53% of the variation in ash canopy thinning can be explained by the number of emerald ash borer emergence holes per tree. Emerald ash borer emergence holes were found at every site where ash canopy thinning averaged > 40%. In 2003, ash canopy thinning averaged 40% at a distance of 19.3 km from the epicenter of the emerald ash borer infestation in Canton. By 2006, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning had increased to a distance of 51.2 km away from Canton. Therefore, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning, a state of decline clearly visible to the average person, moved outward at a rate of 10.6 km/yr during this period. PMID:18950047
Smitley, David; Davis, Terrance; Rebek, Eric
Aqueous solutions of neem oil and aqueous extracts of neem seeds and leaves were sprayed on coffee fruits for laboratory evaluation of their efficiency in reducing infestation of the coffee borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), in multi-choice preference assays in laboratory. Neem oil and extracts reduced infestation of fruits in a dose-dependent manner, acting as a repellent. At 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%, the oil reduced fruit infestation by 30.2%, 42.5% (P > 0.05), and 58.6% (P < 0.05), respectively, as compared with the control. Seed extracts at 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v) reduced infestation by 30.9%, 38.3% (P > 0.05) and 70.2% (P < 0.05), respectively; seed extracts at 0.15%, 1.5% and 15% (w/v) reduced fruit infestation by 16.5%, 38.5% (P > 0.05) and 56.9% (P < 0.05), respectively. Spraying the emulsifiable oil at 1% on coffee fruits and adult borers was compared with spraying on fruits or adults only. Adult-only spraying caused low mortality (P > 0.05) and low reduction on the number of damaged fruits (P > 0.05). Fruit-only spraying significantly reduced insect survival rates and the number of damaged fruits (P < 0.05). However, spraying on adults and fruits caused the greatest reduction in adult survival (55.6%; P < 0.05) and in fruit infestation (78.7%; P < 0.05), probably due to insect mortality and neem oil repellence acting together. PMID:20878003
Depieri, Rogério A; Martinez, Sueli S
Field trials were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against manual infestations of European corn borer (ECB) and Western bean cutworm (WBC). HPLC and ELISA were used to measure fumonisin levels. Results of the methods were highly correlated, but ELISA estimates were higher. Bt hybrids experienced less insect injury, Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin contamination compared to non-Bt hybrids. WBC infestation increased fumonisin content compared to natural infestation in non-Bt and hybrids expressing Cry1Ab protein in five of eight possible comparisons; in Cry1F hybrids, WBC did not impact fumonisins. These results indicate that WBC is capable of increasing fumonisin levels in maize. Under WBC infestation, Cry1F mitigated this risk more consistently than Cry1Ab or non-Bt hybrids. Transgenically expressed Bt proteins active against multiple lepidopteran pests can provide broad, consistent reductions in the risk of fumonisin contamination. PMID:24964132
Bowers, Erin; Hellmich, Richard; Munkvold, Gary
The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was discovered on North American soil in the summer of 2002 near Detroit, Michigan, U.S., and has since spread to six states\\/provinces. To alleviate these costs, a method of sanitization is urgently needed. This study evaluated four different chemical sanitation methods in laboratory and field conditions. Treatments included two borate treatments, spray and dip, with
Pascal Nzokou; Samuel Tourtellot; D. Pascal
Blue-green algae as a soil-based inoculum was applied to short-duration Indica rice in combination with 72 kg N/ha and compared with just N fertilization applied as 144 kg N/ha. Fertilizer N was applied in two equal doses 25 days after transplanting and at mid-tillering stage. The algal inoculum, which containedAnabaena cylindrica, Anabaena oryzae, Nostoc muscorum andTolypothrix tenuis, was applied at 100 kg/ha fresh material (90% moisture) 5 days after transplanting. Five different combinations of microelements were sprayed as a foliar application simultaneously with fertilizer N. Plant performance was enhanced by inoculation with algae and microelements compared with complete N fertilization only. Natural infestation with the stem borer,Chilo agamemnon, and leaf miner,Hydrellia prosternalis, decreased significantly during growth and up to harvesting with application of algae, Endosulfan, and increased with application of microelements. PMID:24430137
Yanni, Y G; Abdallah, F E
The black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff), first discovered in Hawaii in 1961, has become widespread on many host plants throughout the islands. Beetle infestations have caused heavy damage to trees but only recently have attacks been associat...
R. E. Nelson C. J. Davis
Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 (ISPM15) in 2002, which provides treatment standards for WPM used in international trade. ISPM15 was originally developed by members of the International Plant Protection Convention to “practically eliminate” the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM. The United States (US) implemented ISPM15 in three phases during 2005–2006. We compared pest interception rates of WPM inspected at US ports before and after US implementation of ISPM15 using the US Department of Agriculture AQIM (Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring) database. Analyses of records from 2003–2009 indicated that WPM infestation rates declined 36–52% following ISPM15 implementation, with results varying in statistical significance depending on the selected starting parameters. Power analyses of the AQIM data indicated there was at least a 95% chance of detecting a statistically significant reduction in infestation rates if they dropped by 90% post-ISPM15, but the probability fell as the impact of ISPM15 lessened. We discuss several factors that could have reduced the apparent impact of ISPM15 on lowering WPM infestation levels, and suggest ways that ISPM15 could be improved. The paucity of international interception data impeded our ability to conduct more thorough analyses of the impact of ISPM15, and demonstrates the need for well-planned sampling programs before and after implementation of major phytosanitary policies so that their effectiveness can be assessed. We also present summary data for bark- and wood-boring insects intercepted on WPM at US ports during 1984–2008.
Haack, Robert A.; Britton, Kerry O.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Cavey, Joseph F.; Garrett, Lynn J.; Kimberley, Mark; Lowenstein, Frank; Nuding, Amelia; Olson, Lars J.; Turner, James; Vasilaky, Kathryn N.
Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 (ISPM15) in 2002, which provides treatment standards for WPM used in international trade. ISPM15 was originally developed by members of the International Plant Protection Convention to "practically eliminate" the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM. The United States (US) implemented ISPM15 in three phases during 2005-2006. We compared pest interception rates of WPM inspected at US ports before and after US implementation of ISPM15 using the US Department of Agriculture AQIM (Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring) database. Analyses of records from 2003-2009 indicated that WPM infestation rates declined 36-52% following ISPM15 implementation, with results varying in statistical significance depending on the selected starting parameters. Power analyses of the AQIM data indicated there was at least a 95% chance of detecting a statistically significant reduction in infestation rates if they dropped by 90% post-ISPM15, but the probability fell as the impact of ISPM15 lessened. We discuss several factors that could have reduced the apparent impact of ISPM15 on lowering WPM infestation levels, and suggest ways that ISPM15 could be improved. The paucity of international interception data impeded our ability to conduct more thorough analyses of the impact of ISPM15, and demonstrates the need for well-planned sampling programs before and after implementation of major phytosanitary policies so that their effectiveness can be assessed. We also present summary data for bark- and wood-boring insects intercepted on WPM at US ports during 1984-2008. PMID:24827724
Haack, Robert A; Britton, Kerry O; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Cavey, Joseph F; Garrett, Lynn J; Kimberley, Mark; Lowenstein, Frank; Nuding, Amelia; Olson, Lars J; Turner, James; Vasilaky, Kathryn N
Acoustic emission (AE) activity patterns were measured from seven loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.] logs, five containing live western drywood termite [Incisitermes minor (Hagen)] infestations, and two without an active drywood termite infestation. AE activity, as well as temperature, were monitored every 3 min under unrestricted ambient conditions in a small wooden building, under unrestricted ambient conditions but in constant darkness, or in a temperature-controlled cabined under constant darkness. Logs with active drywood termite infestations displayed similar diurnal cycles of AE activity that closely followed temperature with a peak of AE activity late in the afternoon (1700-1800 hours). When light was excluded from the building, a circadian pattern continued and apparently was driven by temperature. When the seven logs were kept at a relatively constant temperature (approximately 23 +/- 0.9 degrees C) and constant darkness, the pattern of activity was closely correlated with temperature, even with minimal changes in temperature. Temperature is the primary driver of activity of these drywood termites, but the effects are different when temperature is increasing or decreasing. At constant temperature, AE activity was highly correlated with the number of termites in the logs. The possible implications of these findings on our understanding of drywood termite biology and how this information may affect inspections and posttreatment evaluations are discussed. PMID:23448049
Lewis, Vernard R; Leighton, Shawn; Tabuchi, Robin; Baldwin, James A; Haverty, Michael I
Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash
Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester
The goal of this research was to describe developmental rates, reproductive rates, and infestation patterns of Aphis craccivora Koch on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). All studies were conducted on the susceptible cultivar OK08 using aphids reared from collections made in Oklahoma. To determine thermal requirements for growth of A. craccivora, development from birth to adult was recorded at 7.2, 12.8, 18.3, 23.9, and 29.4 degrees C. The same constant temperature treatments (except for 7.2 degrees C being raised to 8.3 degrees C) were used to assess the influence of temperature on reproductive rates. Within-plant distribution patterns were determined by infesting three stems on each of 24 plants and recording numbers of A. craccivora on leaf blades, petioles, and internodal stems sections at 2-d intervals through 10 d after infestation. Aphid counts were analyzed to determine significant differences among node parts (leaf blades, petioles, and stem sections). The developmental threshold temperature for A. craccivora was calculated to be 7.1 degrees C, and the thermal constant for development from the first instar to reproducing adult was 100 DD ( degrees C). The optimal temperature range for reproduction on alfalfa was 18-24 degrees C, with a mean of 82 nymphs produced per female. From the initial infestation of three apterae per stem, numbers increased to a mean of 510 per stem after 10 d. Plant profiles showed that the greatest numbers of aphids were located in middle and lower portions of the plant canopy. On all sampling dates, the proportion of aphids on internodal stem sections was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than on petioles and leaf blades. PMID:20021773
Berberet, R C; Giles, K L; Zarrabi, A A; Payton, M E
Maize production in Benin, especially in resource-poor farmers' fields, is constrained by stemborers among other factors. One of the major stemborers in southern Benin is Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). African farmers cannot afford to use commercial insecticides for controlling stemborers - they are expensive and unsuitable for durable pest management systems due to eco-toxicity. There is therefore a need for cheaper and environmentally friendly methods and botanicals offer an attractive alternative. The bushmint, Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), was compared with the commercial insecticide Furadan (carbofuran) for the control of S. calamistis on maize Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae). Trials were conducted in the screenhouse and in the field during the minor cropping season in 2004 at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)-Benin station. The variables measured included numbers of egg masses per plant, eggs per egg mass (in the screenhouse study), population density of S. calamistis, percentage of infested plants and/or ears, and deadhearts in the field. Irrespective of the variable considered, the aqueous extract of H. suaveolens compared favorably with Furadan while maize surrounded by live H. suaveolens plants had lower S. calamistis densities.
Adda, Cyrille; Atachi, Pierre; Hell, Kerstin; Tamo, Manuele
Little is known about the neural correlates of delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens. So far, evidence comes mainly from case reports and case series. We investigated brain morphology in 16 DI patients and 16 healthy controls using structural magnetic resonance imaging and a multivariate data analysis technique, i.e. source-based morphometry (SBM). In addition, we explored differences in brain structure in patient subgroups based on disease aetiology. SBM revealed two patterns exhibiting significantly (p<0.05, Bonferroni-corrected) lower grey and higher white matter volume in DI patients compared to controls. Lower grey matter volume was found in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, medial temporal lobe structures (parahippocampus and hippocampus), sensorimotor cortices, bilateral insula and thalamus and inferior parietal regions. Higher white matter volume was found in medial and middle frontal and temporal cortices, left insula and lentiform nucleus. Grey matter volume was abnormal in both "psychiatric" (primary DI and DI associated with an affective disorder) and "organic" DI (DI due to a medical condition). In contrast, aberrant white matter volume was only confirmed for the "organic" DI patient subgroup. These results suggest prefrontal, temporal, parietal, insular, thalamic and striatal dysfunction underlying DI. Moreover, the data suggest that aetiologically distinct presentations of DI share similar patterns of abnormal grey matter volume, whereas aberrant white matter volume appears to be restricted to organic cases. PMID:24120443
Wolf, Robert Ch; Huber, Markus; Lepping, Peter; Sambataro, Fabio; Depping, Malte S; Karner, Martin; Freudenmann, Roland W
We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity) of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation) of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62); 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7); 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12); and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21). Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions. PMID:14758698
Cunha-Barros, M; Van Sluys, M; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Hatano, F H; Rocha, C F
We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts' bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100%) prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets) and ecology (especially microhabitat use). PMID:18642505
Rocha, C F D; Cunha-Barros, M; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A f; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M
Studies were made of the louse populations on 364 cattle of various ages and breeds in 19 herds. Eleven herds were infested with Damalinia bovis and 15 with Linognathus vituli. Neither Haematopinus eurysternus nor Solenopotes capillatus were encountered though both have been recorded in New Zealand. D. bovis and L. vituli occur throughout New Zealand with D. bovis more prevalent
Kerry Chalmers; W. A. G. Charleston
Domestic dogs, Canis lupus, have been one of the longest companions of humans and have introduced their own menagerie of parasites and pathogens into this relationship. Here, we investigate the parasitic load of 212 domestic dogs with fleas (Siphonaptera) chewing lice (Phthiraptera), and ticks (Acarina) along a gradient from rural areas with near-natural forest cover to suburban areas in Northern Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). We used a spatially-explicit hierarchical Bayesian model that allowed us to impute missing data and to consider spatial structure in modelling dog infestation probability and parasite density. We collected a total of 1,968 fleas of two species, Ctenocephalides orientis and Ctenocephalides felis felis, from 195 dogs (prevalence, 92 %). Flea density was higher on dogs residing in houses made of bamboo or corrugated metal (increase of 40 % from the average) compared to timber or stone/compound houses. Host-dependent and landscape-level environmental variables and spatial structure only had a weak explanatory power. We found adults of the invasive chewing louse Heterodoxus spiniger on 42 dogs (20 %). The effect of housing conditions was opposite to those for fleas; lice were only found on dogs residing in stone or timber houses. We found ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus as well as Haemaphysalis bispinosa gp., Haemaphysalis cornigera, Haemaphysalis koenigsbergi, and Haemaphysalis semermis on 36 dogs (17 %). The most common tick species was R. sanguineus, recorded from 23 dogs. Tick infestations were highest on dogs using both plantation and forest areas (282 % increase in overall tick density of dogs using all habitat types). The infestation probability of dogs with lice and ticks decreased with elevation, most infestations occurred below 800 m above sea level. However, the density of lice and ticks revealed no spatial structure; infestation probability of dogs with these two groups revealed considerable autocorrelation. Our study shows that environmental conditions on the house level appeared to be more influential on flea and lice density whereas tick density was also influenced by habitat use. Infestation of dogs with Haemaphysalis ticks identified an important link between dogs and forest wildlife for potential pathogen transmission. PMID:22526293
Wells, Konstans; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Durden, Lance A; Petney, Trevor N; Lakim, Maklarin B; O'Hara, Robert B
The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic that has affected millions of hectares in the Rocky Mountains gives us a unique opportunity to consider the environmental variables influencing the spatial extent and pattern of vegetation disturbance through time. This work builds on our previous research at the USFS Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana documenting the correlation between landscape position wetness state and tree mortality in 2010. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with leaf level measures by developing an extensive spectral library for TCEF vegetation that includes infestation state of lodgepole pine (LPP). Vegetation indices were applied to the QuickBird imagery to determine the extent and pattern of infestation across TCEF. In addition, we calculated LiDAR (light detection and ranging) based topography and vegetation structure indices for joint topographic, vegetation, and disturbance analyses. We found that trees in locations with specific landscape characteristics such as small contributing areas and south facing slopes were significantly more likely to exhibit signs of infestation. We now present new results using change detection analysis documenting how these infestation patterns evolve over 4 years. We assess how patterns of infestation change through time in relation to landscape variables and changing stand dynamics due to prior years of infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality spatially and temporally provide a context for assessing how a changing population of host (LPP), prior management practices, and landscape environmental variables may effect the progression of infestation, which in turn could affect watershed ecohydrology via altered energy, water, and biogeochemical cycles.
Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B. L.; Emanuel, R. E.
Insect activity has long been associated with Fusarium infection. The objectives of the current study were 1) to estimate the impact of Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, damage on fumonisin contamination in the maize kernel by comparing fumonisin contamination under infestation and protected conditions, and 2) to measure the potential use of genotypes resistant to this borer as controlling factors of fumonisin contamination. Genotypes with increased kernel damage by borers tended to increase fumonisin accumulation under infestation conditions. In particular environments, other factors influenced fumonisin contamination more than damage by borers. When ear damage by borers is significant, maize resistance to ear damage could contribute to the reduction of fumonisin contamination in the kernels. Genotype such as EP42 x EP77 that combines low ear damage by borers and low fumonisin level across environments is a good choice to control fumonisin contamination. The use of an applicable methodology to identify Mediterranean corn borer-resistant genotypes to ear attack under artificial infestations might be a promising approach. PMID:24224270
Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana
Field surveys were conducted to evaluate the occurrence of the isopod borer Sphaeroma terebrans (Crustacea) in aerial roots (prop roots) of the red mangrove Rhizophora mucronata on several different spatial scales (m to 100 km) in East Africa. In 6 out of 17 sites studied in Kenya and on Zanzibar Island, Tanzania, no signs of the isopods were found. When the isopods were present the frequency of infestation was high. Trees in muddy substrates in the lower intertidal, in particular at fringing channels or the open sea, showed high prevalence and intensity of infestation, with large part of their roots damaged or dead. Trees at the upper range of Rhizophora, in sandy and muddy areas, showed no signs of isopod infestation. This pattern recurred in mangrove forests on large spatial scales and there was no indication that island forests differed from the mainland forests. This indicates that sediment characteristics, vertical height in the tidal zone, and direct exposure to incoming water are the major factors controlling the abundance of S. terebrans. The isopod may play an important role in determining the lower intertidal limits of R. mucronata. Trees with numerous dead or nongrowing roots, as result of Sphaeroma attack, are likely to tumble due to a lack of root support and this is most likely to occur along channels at the lower, muddy intertidal. Tumbled trees were frequently observed along channels in the lower, muddy intertidal, but rarely in the mid or high intertidal. Implications for management of mangrove forests are discussed. PMID:12572825
Svavarsson, Jörundur; Osore, Melckzedeck K W; Olafsson, Emil
In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack. PMID:23865188
Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A
The field evaluation of Nimbokil (a neem derivative), Tracer and Abamectin alongwith Cyperemthrin was studied on infestation level of maize stem borer (Chilo partellus). In Tracer treated plots, the infestation was reduced from 10.72% before spray to 3.05% seven day after first spray and to 0.74% at seven day of second spray which was done one week after first spray.
SOHAIL AHMED; MUSHTAQ A. SALEEM; IMRAN RAUF
InfoCrop, a generic crop–pest simulation model, was used to validate yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk., damage mechanism on two rice cultivars, Pusa Basmati 1 and Ratna. Data sets consisted of three experiments, one under natural infestation of the pest and two involving artificial detillering. The simulated yields showed less than 10% variation from the observed yields, except in one
G. Reji; Subhash Chander; P. K. Aggarwal
Mollusks, crustaceans and other groups of invertebrates attack underwater structures causing great loss. This article describes shipworms (teredos) and other marine borers. Among the mollusks the most destructive are Teredo and Bankia (pelecypoda). Three ...
The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies. PMID:19689904
Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C
In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416
Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S
Stem borers are the most important maize pests in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. Field trials were conducted in the long and short rainy seasons of 2002 and 2003 to assess the level of damage and yield reductions caused by stem borers in monocropped maize and in maize intercropped with non-host plants such as cassava, cowpea and soybean. The intercrops were planted in two spatial arrangements, i.e. alternating hills or alternating rows. All intercrops and the maize monocrop were grown with and without insecticide treatment for assessment of maize yield loss due to borer attacks. The land-use efficiency of each mixed cropping system was evaluated by comparing it with the monocrop. The temporal fluctuation of larval infestations followed the same pattern in all cropping systems, but at the early stage of plant growth, larval densities were 21.3-48.1% higher in the monocrops than in intercrops, and they tended to be higher in alternating rows than alternating hills arrangements. At harvest, however, pest densities did not significantly vary between treatments. Maize monocrops had 3.0-8.8 times more stems tunnelled and 1.3-3.1 times more cob damage than intercrops. Each percentage increase in stem tunnelling lowered maize grain yield by 1.10 and 1.84 g per plant, respectively, during the long and short rainy season in 2002, and by 5.39 and 1.41 g per plant, respectively, in 2003. Maize yield losses due to stem borer were 1.8-3.0 times higher in monocrops than in intercrops. Intercrops had generally a higher land-use efficiency than monocrops, as indicated by land-equivalent-ratios and area-time-equivalent-ratios of >1.0. Land-use efficiency was similar in both spatial arrangements. At current price levels, the net production of mixed cropping systems was economically superior to controlling stem borers with insecticide in monocropped maize. The maize-cassava intercrop yielded the highest land equivalent ratios and the highest replacement value of the intercrop. At medium intensity cropping this system is thus recommended for land-constrained poor farmers who do not use external inputs such as fertilizer and insecticides. PMID:16197562
Chabi-Olaye, A; Nolte, C; Schulthess, F; Borgemeister, C
The changes in the population density of sugarcane internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur), and their causes were quantified on susceptible sugarcane variety Co.6304 planted during early and late main season in 1979 and on susceptible Co.6304 and resistant CoJ.64 during 1980 under artificial infestation conditions. The 1979 life tables showed an increasing trend index of 1.24 and 1.16 of
S. Easwaramoorthy; V. Nandagopal
Two transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines, KMD1 and KMD2 at the R4 generation, transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, were first evaluated for stem borer resistance in the field during the rice growing season of 1998 in two areas of Zhejiang Province, China. Both KMD1 and KMD2 were highly resistant to the stem borers Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker), and were completely undamaged during the whole rice growing season. In contrast, damage to the plants of the untransformed parental control (Xiushui 11) was in the form of deadhearts or whiteheads. Under natural infestation by the C. suppressalis, the damage to control plants reached a peak of 88.7% of plants and 20.1% of tillers encountered with deadhearts. Under artificial and natural infestation of neonate striped stem borers at the vegetative stage and booting stage, 100% of plants and 25.6% of tillers, 78.9% of plants and 15.6% of productive tillers among artificially infested control plants were observed with the symptom of deadhearts and whiteheads, respectively. Damage to the control plants from artificial infestation by the S. incertulas reached a peak of 97.0% of plants and 22.9% of tillers damaged. The field research indicated that both KMD1 and KMD2 show great potential for protecting rice from attack by these two stem borers. PMID:11233125
Ye, G Y; Shu, Q Y; Yao, H W; Cui, H R; Cheng, X Y; Hu, C; Xia, Y W; Gao, M W; Altosaar, I
A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the CrylAb protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of five non-Bt and seven Bt field corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in a greenhouse study. Larval survival was recorded 21 d after infestation of neonates on potted plants. Larval survival across the three sugarcane borer genotypes and five non-Bt corn hybrids after 21 d ranged from 23.6 +/- 5.2% (mean +/- SEM) to 57.5 +/- 5.2%. Mean survival of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on vegetative and reproductive plant stages was 12 and 21%, respectively. During the vegetative stages, all seven Bt corn hybrids were highly efficacious against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer, with a larval survival rate of <2% for the Bt-susceptible genotype and < or =5% for the heterozygotes. However, 8-18% of the heterozygous genotype survived on reproductive stage plants for four of the seven Bt corn hybrids tested. The variation in performance of Bt corn cultivars at vegetative and reproductive growth stages against Cry1Ab resistant sugarcane borer suggests differential seasonal expression that may hasten resistance in the field. Bt corn hybrids expressing a "high dose" for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), may not produce a sufficient high dose for the sugarcane borer. PMID:18232406
Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H
Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer in 2002, eradication efforts have been implemented in an attempt to eliminate\\u000a or contain the spread of this invasive beetle. The eradication protocol called for the removal of every ash tree within a\\u000a 0.8 km radius around an infested tree. In 2005 this study was established to identify environmental changes attributed to\\u000a the
Constance E. HausmanJohn; John F. Jaeger; Oscar J. Rocha
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) is one of the most damaging insect pests to corn. Current yield losses attributed to the European corn borer are in the region of 400 million annually. Even though the European corn borer (ECB) has been extensively studied, few models exist that attempt to accurately predict its early infestation on corn. The basic problem encountered in formulating a first generation infestation prediction model is when to start calculating the temperature index. The exact conditions required to terminate diapause and the resumption of normal development are not well established. One of the old methods used in Missouri to predict the earliest date of ECB infestation involves the use of growing degree days, and by convention the heat units are arbitrarily calculated from January 1. This study was conducted to formulate prediction, and simulation-decision models for corn and first generation ECB infestation. The effects of variable maximum and minimum temperatures on the growth and development of the ECB were studied both in the laboratory and field designed experiments. Archival biological data from the IPM programs in three Missouri counties and weather data from weather stations were also used in corn phenology studies and to determine the dates of earliest ECB infestation on corn, for the period covering 1984 through 1989. Results from laboratory experiments suggest that the total growth and development period of ECB reared at variable temperatures is a constant value. However, the phenological development of the ECB stages does not follow a linear trend as earlier assumed during the introduction of the growing degree day model, but assumes a cubic curve. The starting point for the calculation of the temperature index in early spring occurs under conditions of longer than 13.0 hours of day length and a daily mean temperature of 60^ circF and above for at least five consecutive days. Three prediction models were developed. These are, the temperature departure model (R^2 = 0.36), and two time sequence models (R^2 = 0.68 and 0.90, respectively) using mean weekly temperatures for weeks 4, 5, and 6, coded from April 1. A single corn phenology model developed in this study can universally be applied to corn planted at any time during the growing season (R^2 = 0.79). Damage to corn by ECB can only occur when the first instar of the corn borer larvae coincides with the sixth stage of corn or greater.
Magai, Robert Nthipe
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Texas; it can attack several grassy crop and noncrop host plants and has spread into Louisiana. Through small-plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the pest uses corn, Zea mays L., more than sugarcane and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, but when corn is harvested in late summer, injury to nearby sugarcane strongly increases during the next approximately equal to 2 mo to harvest. Corn was more infested than sugarcane and sorghum in commercial fields regardless of whether sampling occurred on field edges or farther into field interiors. Differences in numbers of infested stalks and in numbers of larval entry holes between field edges and interiors were not detected. We found that Mexican rice borer infestation of corn can cause loss of ears, and lodging, shattering, and complete destruction of maturing stalks. The larger quantities of adult Mexican rice borers captured in pheromone-based traps placed at corn field edges compared with sorghum and sugarcane field edges further indicates that corn is preferred to sugarcane and sorghum. The basis for the pest's attraction to corn and implications to potential range expansion to other U.S. sugarcane-growing regions are discussed. PMID:23156155
Showler, Allan T; Wilson, Blake E; Reagan, Thomas E
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a stalk-boring insect which occurs in Texas and Mexico. This insect attacks sugarcane sorghum, corn, rice, wheat, oats, and wild grasses. The Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is also a stalk-boring insect of sugarcane, sorghum, corn, rice, and wild grasses occurring in the West Indies, the American tropics,
J. Legaspi; G. J. Hallman
Summary Infestations ofDendroctonus frontalis\\u000a Zimm. are often observed to enlarge continuously by the colonization of new hosts in a pattern similar to a forest fire. This pattern\\u000a of infestation growth presents unique problems in quantitatively estimating populations ofD. frontalis. Beetle populations on each infested tree in an infestation go through five processes: attack, oviposition, reemergence,\\u000a survivorship, and emergence. These processes, which
R. N. Coulson; P. E. Pulley; D. N. Pope; W. S. Fargo; L. J. Edson
The report summarizes effort completed during the first year of a proposed three-year effort to design, fabricate, and test a conical self-advancing and self-rotating boring machine. The conical borer will use a proven and economical mechanical fragmentat...
H. Hug C. Peterson
Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stem borers. PMID:20857760
Chen, Yang; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shen, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin
Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as
Wendell Roelofs; Thomas Glover; Xian-Han Tang; Isabelle Sreng; Paul Robbins; Charles Eckenrode; Christer Lofstedt; Bill S. Hansson; Bengt O. Bengtsson
Wood destruction in test panels of Shorea leprosulawas related to the percentage of fouling, types of wood borers and the number of wood borers. The natural durability of Shorea leprosulapanels was estimated to be 4-5 months in Malaysian marine waters. A higher fouling cover resulted in lower rates of wooden panel deterioration. Larger numbers of wood borers brought about greater panel deterioration. Primary wood destruction was caused by bivalve wood borers, mainly Martesia striata, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Bankia campanellata, Teredo furciferaand Teredo bartschi. Martesia striatawas the important wood destroying agent in the intertidal zone and, together with the shipworms, was also responsible for panel destruction in the subtidal zone.
Singh, Harinder Rai; Sasekumar, A.
Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality. PMID:24112110
Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G
Alaska is noted for the scenic beauty of its transportation corridors; however, infestations of exotic weedy plant species are invading along right-of-ways. Vetch has found a niche in fence rows, ditch banks and roadslides throughout South Central and Int...
In maize, Zea mays L., the timing of vegetative phase transition from juvenile to adult vegetative phases can be modified through selection. A reduction in the juvenile vegetative phase has been associated with resistance to diseases and pests. The major maize pest in temperate areas is Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and in Europe Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of divergent selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition in maize on resistance to corn borers. Three cycles of divergent selection for early and late phase transition in a field corn synthetic and in a sweet corn population were evaluated separately under S. nonagrioides and O. nubilalis artificial infestation. For the field corn experiment, yield and moisture improved with selection for phase transition in both directions, but improvement was due to artifacts of selection, rather than to the change in phase transition. There were no correlated responses for corn borer damage, yield, or grain moisture due to selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition. In the sweet corn experiment, selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition had no significant effects on corn borer damage in sweet corn harvested at the fresh stage. Our results do not support the use of phase transition as an indirect criterion for improving resistance to corn borers in maize. The relationship between phase transition and pest resistance reported by other studies could depend on the genotypes or could be too weak to be detected in a selection program with wild-type maize. PMID:16022330
Revilla, Pedro; Malvar, Rosa A; Velasco, Pablo; Butrón, Ana; Tracy, William F; Abedon, Bruce G; Ordás, Amando
Recurrent selection has been reported as successful for improving maize resistance against corn borers. This study was conducted to determine if phenolics concentration in maize changes during recurrent selection to improve stalk resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer. Three cycles of selection [EPS12(S)C0, ESP12(S)C2, and EPS12(S)C3] from the maize synthetic population EPS12 and test crosses to inbred lines A639, B93, and EP42 were field grown and artificially infested with Mediterranean corn borer larvae, and the pith tissues were sampled for biochemical analyses. Two major simple phenolic acids [p-coumaric (p-CA) and trans-ferulic (E-FA) acids] were identified in free and cell-wall fractions, whereas four isomers of diferulic acid (DFA) (8-5'l, 5-5', 8-o-4', and 8-5' benzofuran form) were present in the cell-wall bound fraction. The selection cycles EPS12(S)C0 and EPS12(S)C3 showed less damage and higher cell wall phenolics concentrations than the cycle EPS12(S)C2. In addition, higher concentrations of total DFAs were associated with shorter tunnel length and lower numbers of larvae per stem. The current study shows new and concrete evidence that the cell-wall bound phenolics could have a determinative role in the resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer, although future development of recurrent and divergent selection cycles will clarify this point. PMID:18656924
Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Butrón, Ana; Barros, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A
Directed and preventive therapies for cutaneous infectious disease and infestation continue to evolve, providing physicians with new options for care. Common infectious diseases (e.g., genital herpes, herpes zoster, and head lice) occur in the outpatient and inpatient setting. This review of the literature highlights new therapies, including those still in development, such as novel drugs and vaccines, all of which should help to decrease the frequency and severity of common infectious diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues.
Tomecki, Kenneth J.
A mark-recapture study of raccoons (Procyon lotor L.) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana Kerr) was conducted from February 1991 through April 1994 to determine host interactions with adult Dermacentor variabilis Say. We captured 1,293 raccoons and Virginia opossums during the 3-yr study (140 individual raccoons and 160 individual Virginia opossums) with 1,895 adult D. variabilis collected. Raccoons had a significantly higher mean intensity and higher prevalence of adult ticks than Virginia opossums (Mann-Whitney Z = 6.15, chi 2 = 51.9, P < 0.001). Mean intensity follows Margolis et al. (1982) as being the mean number of parasite species per infected host. Prevalence follows Margolis et al. (1982) as being the number of individuals of the host species infected with a parasite species divided by the number of hosts examined. The time required for a higher prevalence and mean intensity of ticks to occur on raccoons than Virginia opossums was < 7 d. No significant differences occurred between the mean intensity or prevalence of D. variabilis between sexes or among age classes of raccoons. Significant differences in prevalence and mean intensity of ticks occurred between sexes and among age classes of Virginia opposums. Infestation increased by 0.64 ticks per day on Virginia opossums and 1.77/d on raccoons during the first 7 d. The base host finding rate (ticks per host per day) of adult D. variabilis on Virginia opossums was 0.064 and 0.053 on raccoons. Tick interactions with hosts are quantified and may reflect behavioral differences between sexes and among age groups intraspecifically, and host preferences of adult D. variabilis interspecifically. PMID:10337094
Kollars, T M; Ladine, T A
The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America.
Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.
This article reports on a 45-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and was diagnosed as having chigger mite infestation, a rare condition. The chigger mite larvae were encountered while the patient was traveling in South America. A small erythematous area with a well-circumscribed papule in the sulcus of the second digit of the right foot was incised and drained. Follow-up examination showed relief of all symptoms, including pain and pruritus. This unusual case presentation underscores the need for all podiatric physicians to obtain a comprehensive history, including history of travel, along with performing a thorough physical examination. PMID:13130088
Axman, Wayne R; Brummer, John J
Vegetation pattern and landscape structure intersect to exert strong control over ecohydrological dynamics at the watershed scale. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance (e.g. fire, disease etc.) depend on the spatial pattern and form of environmental change. Here we investigate this intersection at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana with a focus on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic currently affecting the Rocky Mountains. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with a leaf-level spectral library of local vegetation. We used this spectral library to determine optimal vegetation indices for differentiating stages of beetle infestation within the 37 km2 TCEF watershed. These indices formed the basis of a three-component mixing model to quantify the extent and magnitude of beetle infestation across the TCEF watershed. We compared disturbance patterns to spatially distributed topography and vegetation variables derived from a LiDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) of TCEF. We determined that certain landscape characteristics (low vegetation density, south facing slopes, steep slopes, locations with small contributing areas, and locations with lower values of the topographic wetness index (TWI)) were significantly more likely to exhibit the effects of beetle infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality across space and time provide a context for assessing landscape susceptibility to initial mountain pine beetle infestation via feedbacks between biodiversity and hydrological patterns and further research into understanding how outbreak (i.e. landscape scale infestation) patterns may affect watershed ecohydrology via altered water and biogeochemical cycles.
Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B.; Emanuel, R.
The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis.
Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.
Abstract The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131
Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.
Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
Introduced dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis) foul native unionid bivalves by attaching to their shells in large clusters and may critically impair many North American unionids that are already threatened by habitat degradation. Using literature and new field data, we examined patterns of Dreissena infestation on unionids, and the relationships between Dreissena field density, infestation intensity, and unionid
A. Ricciardi; J. B. Rasmussen; F. G. Whoriskey
Recent shifts in wetland ecosystem management goals have directed efforts toward measuring ecological integrity, rather than only using physical and chemical measures of ecosystems as health indicators. Invasive species pose one of the largest threats to wetlands integrity. Resource managers can benefit from improved methods for identifying invasive plant species, assessing infestation, and monitoring control measures. The utilization of advanced remote sensing tools for species-level mapping has been increasing and techniques need to be explored for identifying species of interest and characterizing infestation. The overarching goal of this research was to develop monitoring technologies to map invasive plants and quantify wetland infestation. The first field-level objective was to characterize absorption and reflectance features and assess processing techniques for separating wetland species. The second field-level objective was to evaluate the abilities of a shape filter to identify wetland invasive plant species. The first landscape-level objective was to classify hyperspectral imagery in order to identify invasives of interest. The second landscape-level objective was to quantify infestation within the study area. Field-level hyperspectral data (350-2500nm) were collected for twenty-two wetland plant species in a wetland located in the lower Muskegon River watershed in Michigan, USA. The Jeffries-Matusita distance measure, continuum removal, and a shape-filter were applied to hyperspectral species reflectance data to characterize spectral features. Generally, continuum removal decreased separation distance for the invasive species of interest. Using the shape-filter, Lythrum salicaria, Phragmites australis, and Typha latifolia possessed maximum separation (distinguished from other species) at the near-infrared edge (700nm) and water absorption region (1350nm), the near-infrared down slope (1000 and 1100nm), and the visible/chlorophyll absorption region (500nm) and near-infrared edge (650nm), respectively. Airborne hyperspectral imagery was classified using a two-step approach in order to obtain an optimal map (overall accuracy ˜ 70%). Information in the near-infrared enabled relatively accurate classification for Phragmites australis using the Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm and image-derived training, while Typha latifolia signatures possessed high spectral overlap and required ISODATA clustering techniques. Landscape pattern metrics relate infestation to disturbances and hydrological controls. The highest levels of infestation and infestation patterns coincide with the most substantial levels of hydrological modifications indicating human disturbances are correlated with Typha and Phragmites percentages in the landscape. Overall the approach was successful and increased the level of information ultimately desired by decision makers. The rapidly advancing field of wetland remote sensing science can obtain more meaningful information from hyperspectral imagery; however, the data are challenging to work with and only the most precisely calibrated datasets will provide utility. Combining these data with traditional wetland assessment techniques can substantially advanced goals of preserving and restoring wetland ecosystem integrity.
Torbick, Nathan M.
We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372
Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z
The biological activity of analogs of the pheromone components of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis, (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecen1-ol acetate, in which modifications were made in the terminal alkyl portion were studied in the three pheromonal types of the insect. European corn borer males respond to pheromonal stimuli at three levels of behavioral activity, i.e., short-range sexual stimulation, activation in the flight tunnel, and response in the field. Structural requirements for elicitation of response at these levels were found to be increasingly restrictive, respectively. Flighttunnel activity was induced only by compounds that had a total chain length of 13 or 14 carbons and in which branching at carbon 13 was limited to one methyl group or a cyclopropyl group. Three new analogs were active in the flight tunnel, viz., (E and (Z)-13-methyl-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-12-cyclopropyl-11-dodecen-1-ol acetate. The cyclopropyl analog was the most active analog against theZZ type of the European corn borer. TheE isomer, however, was pheromonally inactive in theEE type and was shown to be a pheromone antagonist. This dissimilarity is most likely due to differences in structure of the receptors in the European corn borer strains. Analogs that were biologically active against the European corn borer were tested against the redbanded leafroller,Argyrotaenia velutinana, which also uses (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate as part of its pheromone. Results showed that the redbanded leafroller pheromone acceptor system is different from that of the European com borer; marginal behavioral response was elicited by only one of the new analogs. Thus, although both species use 11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate isomers as their pheromone, the mechanisms by which they are perceived are different. PMID:24271802
Schwarz, M; Klun, J A; Fritz, G L; Uebel, E C; Raina, A K
The human tick infestation pattern, tick bite rate, and associated Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.-infection risk were investigated during occupational tick exposure of military personnel at the Seedorf military training area, northwestern Germany, from January to December 2009. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. seroconversion rates were monitored from April to September 2009. Continuous occupational health surveillance and education were established. Feeding ticks were mostly removed by medical personnel, transferred to 70% ethanol, identified, and tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. Pre- and post-exposure sera were screened for B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies. A total of 710 feeding ticks was removed, 704 (99.2%) of which were I. ricinus, 5 were I. hexagonus (0.7%), and one was H. concinna (0.1%). Of the I. ricinus specimens, 63.9% were nymphs, 24.7% larvae, 10.9% adult females, and 0.5% adult males. The tick bite rate among occupationally exposed personnel was 42.2% from April to September 2009. Up to 18 simultaneously feeding ticks per person per exposure incident were detected. The mean number of attached ticks was 2.0±2.2 per person per exposure incident. Overall, 86.4% of all feeding ticks were removed from patients within less than 24h after attachment. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA could be detected in 3.5% of larval, 4.4% of nymphal, 13% of adult female, and 33.3% of adult male ticks, indicating a mean prevalence of 5.3%. Among the genospecies detected, B. afzelii accounted for 84%, B. burgdorferi s.s. for 11%, B. garinii for 3%, and B. spielmanii for 3%. The overall seroconversion rate in 566 personnel exposed from April to September was 1.7%, and 0.7% acquired clinical Lyme borreliosis. Experiences reported herein indicate the need to further improve personal protection measures, health education, and medical staff training in order to minimize exposure to ticks and optimize diagnosis of tick-borne diseases. PMID:24993582
Faulde, Michael K; Rutenfranz, Martin; Hepke, Jürgen; Rogge, Mareike; Görner, Andreas; Keth, Alexander
Bt-transgenics of elite indica rice breeding lines (IR-64, Pusa Basmati-1 and Karnal Local) were generated through biolistic or Agrobacterium-mediated approaches. A synthetic cry1Ac gene, codon optimised for rice and driven by the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter, was used. Over 200 putative transformants of IR-64 and Pusa Basmati-1 and 26 of the Karnal Local were regenerated following use of the hpt (hygromycin phosphotransferase) selection system. Initial transformation frequency was in the range of 1 to 2% for particle bombardment while it was comparatively higher (approximately 9%) for Agrobacterium. An improved selection procedure, involving longer selection on the antibiotic-supplemented medium, enhanced the frequency of Bt-transformants and reduced the number of escapes. Molecular evaluation revealed multiple transgene insertions in transformants, whether generated through biolistic or Agrobacterium. In the latter case, it was also observed that all genes on the T-DNA do not necessarily get transferred as an intact insert. Selected Bt-lines of IR-64 and Pusa Basmati-1, having Bt-titers of 0.1% (of total soluble protein) and above were evaluated for resistance against manual infestation of freshly hatched neonate larvae of yellow stem borers collected from a hot spot stem borer infested area in northern India. Several Bt-lines were identified showing 100% mortality of larvae, within 4-days of infestation, in cut-stem as well as vegetative stage whole plant assays. However, there was an occasional white head even among such plants when assayed at the reproductive stage. Results are discussed in the light of resistance management strategies for deployment of Bt-rice. PMID:12212843
Khanna, H K; Raina, S K
The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a serious pest of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in the Kona region of the island of Hawaii, the center of the largest area of coffee production within the state of Hawaii. This study indirectly characterizes the spatial distribution of X. compactus in coffee plantations through assessment of twig borer damage, and presents a sequential sampling plan for monitoring X. compactus population densities. Taylor's Power Law (TPL) and Iwao's mean crowding index showed that X. compactus infestations were highly aggregated within plantations, with b and ß values significantly larger than 1. The TPL linear regression of log variance against log mean (R2 = 0.92) provided a better fit to the data than the linear regression of mean crowding on the mean (R2 = 0.68). Subsequently, Taylor's power law parameters were used to develop the Green's sequential plan to estimate densities of X. compactus at the 90 and 75% precision levels. PMID:23575018
Greco, E B; Wright, M G
This invention relates to a method of determining the degree of insect infestation in foodstuffs by determining the uric acid content of a sample by measuring the intensity of its fluorescence in an acetate buffer and comparing uric acid content with know...
L. W. Smith
The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the
Robert K. Lawrence
Super rice has the potential to deliver very high yields but is also susceptible to attack by the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. In this study, surveys and field trials were performed to examine this problem and efficient ways were found to lower the borer’s population density. It was found that larger super rice plants provided more refuges for
Weihua Jiang; Xiaojing Jiang; Jianren Ye; Qiang Fu; Yongbin Feng; Ju Luo; Zhaojun Han
Interactive predictive model uses years of past weather data and a model of the European corn borer's life cycle under different temperatures to calculate the net benefit of planting Bt corn versus non-Bt corn in a certain geographic area. Great data visualization. Requires Flash. This is an excellent tool incorporating a large volume of data. The tool should be quite useful for IPM classes.
The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant and were never seen outside. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. To examine the life cycle more closely, the O. agamemnon life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. Eggs were collected daily and isolated in new boxes. Hatched eggs were recorded. The number of larval instars was determined by measuring the width of cephalic capsules. Under laboratory conditions (23 ± 2'C and 55 ± 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 ± 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 ± 2.69, 63.88 ± 6.6 and 118.3 ± 13.38 days respectively. The pupal period lasted 24.1 ± 3.02 days and the adult 65.27 ± 9.48 days. These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine.
Soltani, Rasmi; Chaieb, Ikbel; Hamouda, Med Habib Ben
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.
Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.
BACKGROUND: Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and
Bernardo Ordas; Rosa A Malvar; Rogelio Santiago; Ana Butron
In light of catastrophic tree losses caused by Dutch elm disease, foresters recommended that the urban forest be diversified. The intent was to create a more sustainable urban forest that would not be decimated by a single pathogen or insect pest. However, recent introductions of deadly borers such as Asian longhorned beetle and emerald ash borer reveal that new introductions
Michael J. Raupp; Anne Buckelew Cumming; Erin C. Raupp
Reports of orbital cysticercosis are uncommon despite the high incidence of brain and ocular involvement. Infestation of extraocular muscle is exceedingly rare. Two cases of cysticercosis of the extraocular muscles are reported here. Surgical removal of the encysted parasites successfully resolved the infestation in both cases.
D A DiLoreto; R A Kennedy; J M Neigel; J Rootman
We report a case of Demodex infestation in a 35 year old coal miner presenting with a 5 year history of scally papulopustular eruption on his face. He had been working inunderground coal tunnels in a humid- hot- dusty environment and he had been used to bath twice a day with hot water and multiple cleaners. The patient was treated successfully with oral metronidazol, topical permethrin, topical steroids and avoidance of undergraund mining . We believe his occupational environment made him prone to infestation by changes in sebum composition and/or viscosity, his bath habituation facilitated infestation, damaging the epidermal barrier function and his previous treatments exaggerated his infestation. During evaluation of the patient, specific occupational factors and habituations will be related with higher succession rates of treatment. We need to conduct further studies in order to draw a definite conclusion about the effect of the occupational environment on Demodex infestation. PMID:24412875
To?ral, Arzu Karata?; Alt?ndal, Mahmut; Koryürek, Özgül Mu?tu; Tutkun, Engin; Y?lmaz, Ömer H?nç
The effect of three strains of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin upon the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), was studied in three coffee farms at different altitudes (450-1,100 m above sea level) in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. The maximum average percentage mycosis varied according to altitude. At 450 m asl (El Rincon) mycosis was 14.3% for B. bassiana and 6.3% for M. anisopliae; at 880 m asl (Santa Anita) mycosis was 40.6% for B. bassiana and 12.6% for M. anisopliae, and at 1,100 m asl (Alpujarras) 33.9% for B. bassiana and 22. 1% for M. anisopliae. The effect of fungal mycosis through time was not significant (P > 0.01) in any of the farms, but there was a significant difference between the strains of the fungus (P < 0.01); the best strains being Bb25 and Ma4 at the lower altitude, Bb26 and Ma4 for the middle altitude and Bb26 and Ma4 at the higher altitude. Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity and rain were not correlated with the percentage mycosis caused by B. bassiana and M. anisopliae. However, in the case of B. bassiana there was a significant, positive correlation (P < 0.01) between the infestation levels of the pest and the mycosis response of the entomopathogen. PMID:11057711
De la Rosa, W; Alatorre, R; Barrera, J F; Toreillo, C
The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed. PMID:17421054
van Tol, Rob W H M; Swarts, Henk J; van der Linden, Anton; Visser, J H
Directions: Play the games that are listed. Do not go to another site. Be sure to take turns with your partner. First, learn to complete a pattern by playing "Which One?." Next, keep practicing patterns by playing "Pattern Mania." Finally, determine what type of pattern each set is by playing "Which pattern is it?." ...
A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy. PMID:24792748
Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R
Knowledge of the geographic range and seasonal activity of vector ticks is important for determining which people or animals are at risk of acquiring tick-borne infections. Several time-consuming methods requiring large-scale organization are used to map geographic and seasonal variations in tick distribution. A cost-effective, complementary approach to study tick distribution using a large nation-wide veterinary database is described in this paper. Prevalence of canine tick infestation in 40 states was estimated by analyzing electronic medical records of more than 8 million dog visits to Banfield veterinary hospitals in 2002-2004. Prevalence was defined as the proportion of dog visits in which tick infestation was recorded, and was expressed per 10,000 dog visits with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall prevalence (CI) of tick infestation was 52 (51, 53) dogs per 10,000 dog visits. Among states, Oklahoma (249 [229, 271) dogs with ticks per 10,000 dog-visits), Arkansas (242 [213, 274]), Connecticut (136 [119, 155]), West Virginia (130 [105, 161]), and Rhode Island (122 [97, 154]) ranked highest in prevalence of canine tick infestation. Overall prevalence peaked from May through July, although monthly prevalence varied by geographic region. In multiple logistic regression, younger dogs, male dogs, and sexually intact dogs, were at increased risk of tick infestation. Toy breeds were least likely to be infested, but no linear pattern of risk was evident with body weight. Identified risk factors should enable veterinarians to prevent tick infestation in pet dogs although differences in risk of tick infestation may be related to outdoor activity of dogs. Feasibility of collecting information for surveillance of vectors ticks on a national level using this large, electronic veterinary database is discussed. PMID:17417959
Raghavan, Malathi; Glickman, Nita; Moore, George; Caldanaro, Richard; Lewis, Hugh; Glickman, Larry
Tick saliva contains molecules that modulate the haemostasis, pain/itch responses, wound healing and immune defences of the host. Using BALB/c mice that were each infested with 10 nymphs of Dermacentor andersoni Stiles (Acari: Ixodidae), an attempt has now been made to determine the influence of tick infestation on the expression of leucocyte adhesion molecules in the host. The ticks became fully engorged by the fourth to sixth day of infestation. On the fourth day of infestation, the results of flow cytometry indicated that 2% of the host's splenocytes were expressing high levels of CD49 (alpha4 integrin of VLA-4) and low levels of CD11a (alphaL subunit of the integrin LFA-1). By the eighth day of infestation, 30% of the hosts' splenocytes had this phenotype and were negative for the lineage markers CD3e (T-lymphocytes), DX5 (natural-killer cells of a BALB/c lineage), B220 (B-lymphocytes), CD11b (monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, natural-killer cells, activated T-lymphocytes, and B-1 cells) and CD11c (myeloid and splenic dendritic cells). Histological examination of the spleens from infested mice revealed disruption of the white-pulp/red-pulp demarcations and the presence of a large number of basophilic normoblasts. The CD11a(lo) population of splenocytes from the tick-infested mice was positive for TER-119 but negative for CD3, B220, CD11b and Gr, confirming that the splenocytes were members of the erythroid lineage. These results indicate that, within 8 days of their initiation, the tick infestations induced extramedullary erythropoiesis in the spleens of their murine hosts. PMID:16004711
Dash, Y; Maxwell, S S; Rajan, T V; Wikel, S K
Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites with very low A. planipennis densities, more A. planipennis were captured on baited double-decker traps than on other traps and a higher percentage of the baited double-decker traps captured beetles than any other trap design. In all 3 yr, peak A. planipennis activity occurred during late June to mid-July, corresponding to 800-1200 growing degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD10). Nearly all (95%) beetles were captured by the end of July at approximately 1400 DD10. PMID:21510200
Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C
The parasitoid wasp Apanteles taragamae is a promising candidate for the biological control of the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata, which recently has been introduced into Benin. The effects of volatiles from cowpea and peabush flowers and Maruca vitrata larvae on host selection behavior of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae were investigated under laboratory conditions by using a Y-tube olfactometer. Naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps were given a choice between several odor sources that included (1) uninfested, (2) Maruca vitrata-infested, and (3) mechanically damaged cowpea flowers, as well as (4) stem portions of peabush plants carrying leaves and flowers, (5) healthy M. vitrata larvae, and moribund (6), and live (7) virus-infected M. vitrata larvae. Responses of naïve and oviposition-experienced female wasps did not differ for any of the odor source combinations. Wasps were significantly attracted to floral volatiles produced by cowpea flowers that had been infested with M. vitrata larvae and from which the larvae had been removed. Apanteles taragamae females also were attracted to Maruca vitrata-infested flowers after removal of both the larvae and their feces. Female wasps discriminated between volatiles from previously infested flowers and mechanically damaged flowers. Uninfested cowpea flowers attracted only oviposition-experienced wasps that had received a rewarding experience (i.e. the parasitization of two M. vitrata larvae feeding on cowpea flowers) before the olfactometer test. Wasps also were attracted to uninfested leaves and flowers of peabush. Moreover, they were also attracted to healthy and live virus-infected M. vitrata larvae, but not when the latter were moribund. Our data show that, similarly to what has been extensively been reported for foliar volatiles, flowers of plants also emit parasitoid-attracting volatiles in response to being infested with an herbivore.
Dannon, Elie A.; Tamo, Manuele; Van Huis, Arnold
A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation. Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories of population divergence, including strict allopatric isolation, restricted migration, secondary contact, and population growth or decline. This result corroborates a previous QTL study that identified the Tpi chromosomal region as a repository for gene(s) contributing to divergence in life history. Patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at Tpi suggest a recent selective sweep and genetic hitchhiking associated with colonization of North America from Europe ~200 generations ago. These results indicate that gene genealogies initially diverge during speciation because of selective sweeps, but differential introgression may play a role in the maintenance of differentiation for sympatric populations. PMID:21104111
Dopman, Erik B
Chagas disease is endemic in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, and we investigated here the dynamics of house infestation by Chagas disease vectors to understand disease transmission and design effective control interventions. Bug collections in 42 rural villages confirmed the widespread distribution of Triatoma dimidiata in central Veracruz. Unexpectedly, collection data further indicated a clear pattern of seasonal infestation by mostly adult bugs. Analysis of feeding sources with a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay indicated a frequent feeding on humans, in agreement with the high seroprevalence previously observed. Feeding sources also confirmed a significant dispersal of bugs between habitats. High dispersal capabilities and seasonal infestation may thus be a shared characteristic of several of the T. dimidiata sibling species from this complex. It would thus be critical to adapt vector control interventions to this behavior to improve their efficacy and sustainability, as the control of T. dimidiata has been notoriously challenging.
Torres-Montero, Jesus; Lopez-Monteon, Aracely; Dumonteil, Eric; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel
The role of peridomestic structure and farming activity on triatomine infestation was studied on two vector species of Chagas disease (Triatoma pseudomaculata and T. brasiliensis) in Bahia State, northeastern Brazil. A randomly selected population issued from 136 farms was divided into four categories according to the householder activity. At regional scale, the dwellings of farmers working on degraded land of irrigated farms are less exposed to T. pseudomaculata infestation. At premises scale, the farmers and casual workers, who have smaller peridomiciles and less cattle, are also less exposed to T. pseudomaculata. The association of T. brosiliensis with the most mobile populations (casual workers and young breeders) suggests a passive transport of this competitive species. Finally, the retired farmers that own large premises and cattle, but have more sedentary behavior, are the most exposed to T. pseudomaculata infestation. PMID:17007216
Pojo De Rego, I; Walter, A; Ferreira, A J; Rangel, M; Girard-Ferreira, E; Noireau, F
Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ?68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed. PMID:24280666
Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding, chipping, and heat treatment on survival of A. planipennis prepupae in ash material. Heavily infested ash bolts containing roughly 8,700 prepupae were processed by a horizontal grinder with either a 2.5- or 10-cm screen. There was no evidence of A. planipennis survival in chips processed with the 2.5-cm screen, but eight viable prepupae were recovered from chips processed with the 10-cm screen. We chiseled additional sentinel chips with prepupae from ash logs and buried 45 in each chip pile. In total, six prepupae in sentinel chips survived the winter, but we found no sign of adult A. planipennis emergence from the processed chips. Subsequently, we assessed prepupal survival in chips processed by a chipper or a horizontal grinder fit with 5-, 10-, or 12.7-cm screens. An estimated 1,565 A. planipennis prepupae were processed by each treatment. Chips from the chipper were shorter than chips from the grinder regardless of the screen size used. No live prepupae were found in chips produced by the chipper, but 21 viable prepupae were found in chips from the grinder. Infested wood and bark chips chiseled from logs were held in ovens at 25, 40, or 60 degrees C for 8, 24, or 48 h. Prepupal survival was consistently higher in wood chips than bark chips at 40 degrees C, whereas no prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for eight or more hours. In a second study, prepupae in wood chips were exposed to 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 degrees C for 20 or 120 min. Some prepupae survived 20 min of exposure to all temperatures. No prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for 120 min, but 17% survived exposure to 55 degrees C for 120 min, suggesting that some fraction of the population may survive internationally recognized phytosanitary standards (ISPM-15) for treatment of wood packing material. PMID:17849884
McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Cappaert, David; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor; Smith, Sarah; Pell, Christopher
Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On
Sikha Deka; Sharmistha Barthakur
The Asian black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff 1875) became naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands in the 1960s. It attacks economically important plants (e.g. coffee) as well as endan- gered endemic trees. This study examined the impact of the black twig borer on koa (Acacia koa), an economically important native tree that is harvested for its fine wood. The black
CURTIS C. DAEHLER; NICK DUDLEY
tural methods, plant resistance potentially provides the most economic and environmentally effective means of The sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis (Frabricius)) causes control available to the production industry (Hensley, significant damage to sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), rendering cultivar resistance important. Researchers assess borer-induced damage using 1981). Hence, cultivar characterization and selection for up to five different measures: percentage bored internodes, percentage resistance
S. B. Milligan; M. Balzarini; W. H. White
A portable, low-frequency acoustic system was used to detect termite infestations in urban trees. The likelihood of infestation was rated independently by a computer program and an experienced listener that distinguished insect sounds from background noises. Because soil is a good insulator, termite sounds could be detected easily underneath infested trees, despite the presence of high urban background noise. Termite
R. W. Mankin; W. L. Osbrink; F. M. Oi; J. B. Anderson
Cereals (maize, sorghum, millet, rice) are extremely important crops grown in Africa for human consumption. Of the various insect pests attacking cereal crops in Africa, lepidopteran stem borers are by far the most injurious. All 21 economically important stem borers of cultivated grasses in Africa are indigenous except Chilo partellus, which invaded the continent from India, and C. sacchariphagus, which has recently been found in sugarcane in Mozambique. C. partellus is competitively displacing indigenous stem borers in East and southern Africa. A parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes, was introduced from Pakistan for biological control of C. partellus and caused a 32-55% decrease in stem borer densities. This article is an attempt to summarize the status of knowledge about economically important cereal stem borers in Africa with emphasis on their distribution, pest status and yield losses, diapause, natural enemies, cultural control, host plant resistance, and biological control. Special attention is given to Busseola fusca and C. partellus, the most important pests of maize and grain sorghum. PMID:11729089
Kfir, Rami; Overholt, W A; Khan, Z R; Polaszek, A
Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism.
Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.
To date, sarcocystis has been considered an asymptomatic infection in humans. Even though cases with glomerulonephritis have been reported in animals with sarcocystis, there have been no reports of a similar occurrence in humans. We report a case of acute proliferative glomerulonephritis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis in a patient with sarcocystis infestation. PMID:24152512
Balakrishna, Jayalakshmi P; Chacko, Geeta; Manipadam, Marie Therese
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-?1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-?1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. PMID:23499941
Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash
This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064
McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A
Chromatographic and mass spectrometry studies of heptane extracts of the ovipositors of the iris borer,Macronoctua onusta, showed that the females produce several compounds that are the same as those produced by females of the tobacco budworm,Heliothis virescens. In trapping experiments, a mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol, and (Z)-9-tetradecenal (94?4?2) proved to be the minimum set of compounds required to cause effective capture of iris borer males in the field. PMID:24272098
Klun, J A; Neal, J W; Leonhardt, B A
Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis.
Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.
There are many causes of urticaria, which may vary from infections to malignancy. Among the infections, infestations by cysticercosis (larval stage of the tapeworm called Taenia solium) is an important cause. The present report is of forty four years old female who presented with urticaria and swelling on face. The swelling was later diagnosed as cysticercosis by noninvasive ultrasonography. The urticaria subsided after the treatment of cysticercosis. We report this case for rarity of its presentation. PMID:24760810
Gupta, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sunita; Mittal, Amit; Mahendra, Aneet; Aggarwal, Anshu; Batra, Rohit; Jindal, Nidhi
The ability of stored-product pests including the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne, the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, the rust-red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the almond moth, Ephestia cautella, to infest chocolates under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 25±1°C and 65±5% r.h. Four types of chocolates were investigated: milk, nut, dried fruit and nut, and
Khamrunissa Begum; P. Vanitha Reddy; B. C. Leelaja; Y. Rajashekar; S. Rajendran
The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...
The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.
Terrance M. Hurley; Silvia Secchi; Bruce A. Babcock
The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant
Rasmi Soltani; Ikbel Chaieb; Med Habib Ben Hamouda
BackgroundThe insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little
Omprakash Mittapalli; Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms; Michael N. Nitabach
Larviposition by the Tachinid fly, Sturmiopsis inferens Tns. on sugarcane shoot borer larvae was studied. One adult female laid on an average 285 maggots (range 126–521). More than 90% of the maggots extruded were free of the enveloping chorion. Less than 4% were found to be unfertilized and undeveloped. The mean number of maggots laid per host was 1.21 and
H. David; S. Easwaramoorthy; V. Nandagopal; N. K. Kurup; M. Shanmugasundaram; G. Santhalakshmi
Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans, and to develop pheromone-based trapping in Eastern Iran. Adults of both sexes feeding on date palm pieces attracted conspecifics, whereas date palm alone was minimally attractive. Males were twice as attractive as females. More beetles were captured at
Didier Rochat; Kazem Mohammadpoor; Christian Malosse; Arman Avand-Faghih; Martine Lettere; Josiane Beauhaire; Jean-Paul Morin; Adeline Pezier; Michel Renou; Gholam Abbas Abdollahi
We investigated the mating system and population genetic structure of the invasive haplodiploid palm-seed borer Coccotrypes dactyliperda in California. We focused on whether these primarily inbreeding beetles have a 'mixed- breeding' system that includes occasional outbreeding, and whether local inbreeding coefficients (FIS) varied with dominant environmental factors. We also analysed the genetic structure of C. dactyliperda populations across local and
J. P. Holzman; A. J. Bohonak; L. R. Kirkendall; D. Gottlieb; A. R. Harari; S. T. Kelley
Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm), reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm), although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA), a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and borer resistance in EPS21. This novel trait could be useful in maize breeding programs to improve borer resistance.
The population genetics and phylogeography of African phytophagous insects have received little attention. Some, such as the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca, display significant geographic differences in ecological preferences that may be congruent with patterns of molecular variation. To test this, we collected 307 individuals of this species from maize and cultivated sorghum at 52 localities in West, Central and East Africa during the growing season. For all collected individuals, we sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b. We tested hypotheses concerning the history and demographic structure of this species. Phylogenetic analyses and nested clade phylogeographic analyses (NCPA) separated the populations into three mitochondrial clades, one from West Africa, and two--Kenya I and Kenya II--from East and Central Africa. The similar nucleotide divergence between clades and nucleotide diversity within clades suggest that they became isolated at about the same time in three different refuges in sub-Saharan Africa and have similar demographic histories. The results of mismatch distribution analyses were consistent with the demographic expansion of these clades. Analysis of molecular variance (amova) indicated a high level of geographic differentiation at different hierarchical levels. NCPA suggested that the observed distribution of haplotypes at several hierarchical levels within the three major clades is best accounted for by restricted gene flow with isolation by distance. The domestication of sorghum and the introduction of maize in Africa had no visible effect on the geographic patterns observed in the B. fusca mitochondrial genome. PMID:16448409
Sezonlin, M; Dupas, S; Le Rü, B; Le Gall, P; Moyal, P; Calatayud, P-A; Giffard, I; Faure, N; Silvain, J-F
The prevalence of infestation with head lice and body lice, Pediculus spp. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) and pubic (crab) lice Pthirus pubis (L.) (Phthiraptera: Pthiridae), was recorded from 484 people in Nepal. The prevalence of head lice varied from 16% in a sample of people aged 10-39 years of age, to 59% in street children. Simultaneous infestations with head and body lice (double infestations) varied from 18% in slum children to 59% in street children. PMID:15189249
Poudel, S K S; Barker, S C
SUMMARY During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A hand-held chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations
Lee F. Johnson
Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), indicated no genetic differentiation even between locations separated by 720 km. This result suggests either high dispersal resulting in high gene flow, or that populations are not in...
Ultrastructural examination of diapause and nondiapause larval brains of the European corn borer disclosed anatomical differences that may be related to the insect's 'blood-brain barrier.' The perineurial type I cells are quite closely appressed in the di...
E. J. Houk S. D. Beck
Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice. PMID:19811767
Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha
...Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...the importation of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and spread...the importation of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and...
Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., has been widely used to manage a corn borer complex in the mid-southern region of the United States. The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has become a dominant cornstalk boring species in some areas of this region, especially in Louisiana. Therefore, management of sugarcane borer resistance to Bt corn is critical to ensure the long-term sustainability of Bt corn for the region. This study screened 280 two-parent family-lines of sugarcane borer from four geographical populations in Louisiana during 2005 to determine whether Bt resistance allele frequency in sugarcane borer is sufficiently low to meet the rare resistance assumption of the current "high dose/refuge" resistance management strategy for Bt corn. These sugarcane borer family-lines were examined for Bt resistance by using novel F2 screening procedures. No major Bt resistance alleles were detected in these four populations. The estimated frequency of major Bt resistance alleles was < 0.0027, with a 95% probability and a detection power of 94%. The estimated minor resistance allele frequency was 0.0063, with a 95% CI of 0.0025-0.0117. During a previous study, a major Bt resistance allele was detected in one individual from 213 family-lines of another Louisiana population of sugarcane borer. Combining these data with the current screen, the frequency of major Bt resistance alleles across the five populations was 0.001, with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0001-0.0028 and a detection power of 95%. Major Bt resistance allele frequencies in Louisiana sugarcane borer populations seem to be low, and they should support the rare resistance allele requirement of the high dose/refuge strategy. PMID:18459416
Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H; Cook, Donald R; Baldwin, Jack; Tindall, Kelly V; Lee, Donna R
The effect of selected agronomic practices on the incidence of sugarcane shoot borerChilo infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was examined. In an experiment on critical periods of crop-weed competition, wherein sugarcane\\u000a crop was maintained with different weed regimes, the incidence of borer was significantly lower in weedy crop than in weed-free\\u000a crop. The study suggested that crop-weed vegetational diversity maintained up
J. Srikanth; K. P. Salin; S. Easwaramoorthy; C. Kailasam
We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease.
Levy, Michael Z.; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L.; Waller, Lance A.; Richards, Jean M.; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G. Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A.; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn
This paper reviews the studies on the prevalence and chemotherapeutic control of lice infestation in cattle and buffaloes. Sucking lice are the most common ectoparasites of cattle and buffaloes. There are several factors both environmental and host, which contribute to lice infestation, e.g. poor nutrition, intensity of sunlight, temperature, humidity, crowding, management conditions, host-skin reaction, hair condition, hair length and
MUHAMMAD ARSHID HUSSAIN; MUHAMMAD NISAR KHAN; ZAFAR IQBAL; MUHAMMAD SOHAIL SAJID
Environ. Entomol. 16. 614-617 (1987) ABSTRACT Artificially inoculated spider mite foci increase in size at an exponential rate. Productivity was greatest on plants farthest from the center of each focus. Timing of initial infestation was shown, both experimentally and through simulation, to affect ultimate yield of cotton: the earlier the initiation of infestation, the lower the yield. These results as
L. T. WILSON; C. H. PICKETT; T. F. LEIGH; J. R. CAREY
Background Increases in the abundance and distribution of ticks and tick borne disease (TBD) within Europe have been reported extensively over the last 10–20 years. Changes in climate, habitat management, economic patterns and changes in the abundance of hosts, particularly deer, may all have influenced this change to varying extents. Increasing abundances of tick populations in urban and peri-urban environments, such as parks, are of particular concern. In these sites, suitable habitat, wildlife hosts, tick populations, people and their pets may be brought into close proximity and hence may provide foci for tick infestation and, ultimately, disease transmission. Methods The distribution and abundance of ticks were examined in an intensively used, peri-urban park. First the seasonal and spatial distribution and abundance of ticks in various habitat types were quantified by blanket dragging. Then the pattern of pet dog movement in the park was mapped by attaching GPS recorders to the collars of dogs brought to the park for exercise, allowing their walking routes to be tracked. Information about the dog, its park use and its history of tick attachment were obtained from the dog-owners. Results Ticks were found predominantly in woodland, woodland edge and deer park areas and were least abundant in mown grassland. Tick infestation of dogs was a relatively frequent occurrence with, on average, one case of tick attachment reported per year for a dog walked once per week, but for some dogs walked daily, infestation 4–5 times per week was reported. All dogs appeared to be at equal risk, regardless of walk route or duration and infestation was primarily influenced by the frequency of exposure. Conclusions In peri-urban green spaces, tick-biting risk for dogs may be high and here was shown to be related primarily to exposure frequency. While tick-biting is of direct veterinary importance for dogs, dogs also represent useful sentinels for human tick-exposure.
The E and Z pheromone strains of the European corn borer (ECB) provide an exceptional model system for examining the genetic basis of sexual isolation. Differences at two major genes account for variation in female pheromone production and male behavioral response, components of the pheromone communication system known to be important for mate recognition and mate choice. Strains of ECB are morphologically indistinguishable, and surveys of allozyme and DNA sequence variation have revealed significant allele frequency differences at only a single sex-linked locus, Tpi. Here we present a detailed genetic linkage map of ECB using AFLP and microsatellite markers and map the factors responsible for pheromone production (Pher) and male response (Resp). Our map covers 1697 cM and identifies all 31 linkage groups in ECB. Both Resp and Tpi map to the Z (sex) chromosome, but the distance between these markers (>20 cM) argues against the hypothesis that patterns of variation at Tpi are explained by tight linkage to this "speciation gene." However, we show, through analysis of marker density, that Tpi is located in a region of low recombination and suggest that a second Z-linked reproductive barrier could be responsible for the origin and/or persistence of differentiation at Tpi.
Dopman, Erik B; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G
Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in many physiological processes in insect development, diapause and reproduction. An appropriate JH titer in hemolymph is essential for normal development in insects. Information concerning its carrier partner protein, juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP), provides an alternative approach to understanding how JH regulates metamorphosis. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the Omphisa juvenile hormone binding protein (OfJHBP). The full-length OfJHBP cDNA sequence is comprised of 849 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 726bp encoding 242 amino acids. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated to be 26.94kDa. The deduced protein sequence of OfJHBP showed moderate homology with the lepidopteran, Heliothis virescens JHBP (52% amino acid identity) and lower homology with the Bombyx mori JHBP (45%) and the Manduca sexta JHBP (44%). The OfJHBP was expressed mainly in the fat body. OfJHBP transcripts in the fat body was moderately high during 3rd, 4th and 5th instars, then rapidly increased, reaching a peak during early diapause. The expression remained high in mid-diapause, then decreased in late-diapause until the pupal stage. Both juvenile hormone analog (JHA), methoprene, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exhibited a similar stimulatory pattern in OfJHBP expression of diapausing larvae. OfJHBP mRNA levels gradually increased and showed a peak of gene expression on the penultimate, then declined to low levels in the pupal stage. For in vitro gene expression, both of JHA and 20E induced OfJHBP mRNA expression in fat body. Fat body maintenance in vitro in the presence of 0.1?g/50?l JHA induced OfJHBP mRNA expression to high levels within the first 30min whereas 0.1?g/50?l 20E induced gene expression at 120min. To study the synergistic effect of these two hormones, fat body was incubated in vitro with 0.1?g/50?l JHA or 0.1?g/50?l 20E or a combination of both hormone for 30min. Induction of OfJHBP expression by JHA and 20E was significantly greater than that of either hormone alone. These results should contribute to our understanding of how JHBP and JH regulate the termination of larval diapause in the bamboo borer. PMID:23000738
Ritdachyeng, Eakartit; Manaboon, Manaporn; Tobe, Stephen S; Singtripop, Tippawan
Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot is a pest of maize cobs in West Africa. It significantly reduces maize yields and grain quality, with quantitative losses of 2-25% at harvest, and up to 10-15% indirect losses due to an increase in storage pest infestation levels. Infestation by M. nigrivenella also significantly increased the susceptibility of maize to Aspergillus flavus infection and subsequent aflatoxin
M. Sétamou; F. Schulthess; G. Goergen; H.-M. Poehling; C. Borgemeister
The male sexual behavior-stimulating and inhibiting properties of a series of analogs of the European corn borer sex pheromone were determined in a flight tunnel. The structural requirements for inhibition of pheromonal response were far less restrictive than those for elicitation of that response. Analogs that by themselves elicited upwind flight response from males at a low dose were generally less inhibitory to male response than many of the analogs that had no pheromonal activity. These findings suggest that many pheromone analogs bind to pheromone receptors without provoking behavioral response and possibly undergo slower degradation on the antenna than pheromonally active compounds. The disparity of response to analogs by two pheromonal types of the European corn borer indicates that the pheromone receptor and pheromone catabolic systems are biochemically very different in the two types. PMID:24263829
Schwarz, M; Klun, J A; Uebel, E C
Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6
The tick species infesting grazing animals in the countryside of 11 prefectures in Northern Greece were investigated during April-July and September-December of consecutive years 2003-2006. A total of 3,249 (1,952 males, 1,297 females) adult ticks were collected from goats, sheep, cattle and dogs. Ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus (44.57%), Ixodes gibbosus (4.09%), Rhipicephalus bursa (19.14%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus (5.79%), Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (12.40%), Dermacentor marginatus (0.31%) and Boophilus annulatus (4.43%). Rhipicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp. were abundant in all prefectures, Ixodes spp. were present in 9/11 prefectures, Boophilus spp. in 4/11, while Dermacentor spp. were found only in one. Results of this study give an insight into the ecology of ticks and their potential of tick-borne diseases in the country. PMID:18563592
Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Gerou, Spyros; Kahrimanidou, Melania; Papa, Anna
European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn. PMID:22928300
Razze, J M; Mason, C E
In November 2003 and June 2004, the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City, in East China’s Zhejiang Province, where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found. The niche width, proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying\\u000a trees were computed. Results show that five insect species
Jiying Song; Youqing Luo; Juan Shi; Xiaosu Yan; Weiping Chen; Ping Jiang
The stem borer, Chilo agamemnon Bles., is the most serious insect pest in rice fields of the Egyptian Nile Delta. To induce rice plant resistance to Chilo agamemnon, the cry1Ia5 gene was introduced to rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The integration of the cry1Ia5 gene into the plant genome was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. The obtained plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse until seeds were collected. Northern blot analysis of the T1 plants confirmed the expression of the cry1Ia5 gene. The insecticidal activity of the transgenic plants against the rice stem borer Chilo agamemnon were tested. The third larval instars were fed on stem cuts from three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) as well as cuts from the control (gfp-transgenic) plants for one week and the mortality percentage was daily recorded. Transgenic line-3 showed the highest mortality percentage after one day (50%) followed by L2 (25%) then L1 (0%). Two days post treatment the mortality percentage increased to 70, 45 and 25% for transgenic lines 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Mortality of 100% was recorded four days post treatment, while those fed on the gfp-transgenic rice (control) showed 0% mortality. Thus, transgenic plants showed high resistance to stem borers and can serve as a novel genetic resource in breeding programs. Transgenic plants expressing BT protein were normal in phenotype with as good seed setting as the nontransgenic control plants. PMID:21844686
Moghaieb, Reda E A
Hookworm infestation is common in southern India. The adult worms normally reside in the duodenum, graze the intestinal mucosa with their large buccal cavities and ingest the intestinal epithelial cells and blood. Depending on the number of worms the infection may be either asymptomatic or can cause iron deficiency anaemia due to chronic blood loss. Adult worms live in the small intestine and are not usually seen in the stomach. There are only very few case reports in the literature reporting hookworm infestation of the stomach. In this case report we present an endoscopic (video) demonstration of hookworm infestation of the stomach in a woman who presented with chronic anaemia. PMID:24879750
Boopathy, Vinoth; Balasubramanian, Padhmini; Phansalkar, Manjiri; Varghese, Renu G' Boy
Background Ixodes scapularis ticks are hematophagous arthropods capable of transmitting many infectious agents to humans. The process of blood feeding is an extended and continuous interplay between tick and host responses. While this process has been studied extensively in vitro, no global understanding of the host response to ticks has emerged. Methods To address this issue, we used PCR-arrays to measure skin-specific expression of 233 discrete genes at 8 time points during primary and secondary infestations of mice with pathogen-free I. scapularis nymphs. Selected results were then validated at the mRNA and protein levels by additional real-time PCR and bioplex assay. Results Primary infestation was characterized by the late induction of an innate immune response. Lectin pattern recognition receptors, cytokines, and chemokines were upregulated consistent with increased neutrophil and macrophage migration. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of downregulated genes suggested inhibition of gene transcription and Th17 immunity. During the secondary infestation, additional genes were modulated suggesting a broader involvement of immune cells including CD8 and CD4 positive T lymphocytes. The cytokine response showed a mixed Th1/Th2 profile with a potential for T regulatory cell activity. Key gene ontology clusters observed during the secondary infestation were cell migration and activation. Matrix metalloproteinases were upregulated, apoptosis-related genes were differentially modulated, and immunoreceptor signaling molecules were upregulated. In contrast, transcripts related to mitogenic, WNT, Hedgehog, and stress pathways were downregulated. Conclusions Our results support a model of tick feeding where lectin pattern recognition receptors orchestrate an innate inflammatory response during primary infestation that primes a mixed Th1/Th2 response upon secondary exposure. Tick feeding inhibits gene transcription and Th17 immunity. Salivary molecules may also inhibit upregulation of mitogenic, WNT, Hedgehog, and stress pathways and enhance the activity of T regulatory cells, production of IL-10, and suppressors of cytokine signaling molecules (SOCS). This study provides the first comprehensive transcriptional analysis of the murine host response at the I. scapularis bite site and suggests both a potential model of the host cutaneous response and candidate genes for further description and investigation.
Natural infestation of Amblyomma dubitatum in relation to individual specific attributes of Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris such as sex, body mass and body condition was analyzed. The anatomical distribution of A. dubitatum on H. hyrochaeris was also evaluated. Prevalence of adults and nymphs were significantly higher than prevalence of larvae. Non-significant differences in the infestation levels were found among host sex. Multiple regression analysis did not show any statistically significant association among the level of infestation with ticks and body mass and body condition of the host. All parasitic tick stages were collected in all five anatomical areas of the host, but they exhibited significant differences in feeding site preference. Factors associated to the host which determine the high levels of infestation with A. dubitatum could be assigned to a combination of population-level properties of the host as abundance, ubiquity and aggregation, rather than individual specific attributes related to body condition, body mass or sex. PMID:24469297
Debárbora, Valeria N; Mangold, Atilio J; Eberhardt, Ayelén; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago
Bites, stings and infestations can be fatal. Anaphylaxis to vespids and bees can be prevented with immunotherapy. Patients should be referred to an allergist. The acute care and prevention of anthropod injury is discussed below.
Dirk M. Elston
Swabs from 64 maggot infested leprosy ulcers before and after treatment for maggots and 100 non-infested leprosy ulcers were studied for the bacterial flora. From maggot infested ulcers (before treatment), the cultures usually showed mixed growth. Among the Gram positive isolates, Staphylococcus aureus (37%), S. albus (18%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (36%) were frequently isolated. Gram negative bacteria isolated were Proteus spp. (21%) and Escherichia coli (7%). Anaerobic bacteria isolated were Micrococcus (3%) and Bacteroides (4%). After treatment of maggot infested ulcers, S. aureus (36%) continued to be isolated with almost the same frequency. The isolates of other Gram negative organisms were slightly reduced. Among the Gram negatives the Proteus spp. (10%) were also less in number. In few cases Neisseria (3%) was found. Anaerobic isolates were M. luteus (2%) and B. necrophorus (3%). From the cases without maggot infestation, a single organism was isolated from 16 cases and 84 mixed cultures were obtained. Isolates included the aerobic Gram positives S. aureus (46%), S. albus (21%) and S. pyogenes (38%), and the Gram negative Proteus spp. (19%) and E. coli (7%). The anaerobic isolate was M. luteus (3%). From this study no apparent association between the type of bacterial flora and maggot infestation could be observed. PMID:8213050
Husain, A; Sreevatsa Malaviya, G N; Husain, S; Bahadur, R R
A randomized complete block experiment was performed to measure the effect of prescribed, dormant-season burns of three different levels of severity (measured as fuel consumption and soil surface heating) on subsequent insect infestation and mortality of mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Multiple-funnel traps baited with a low release rate of turpentine and ethanol were used to monitor activity of certain coniferophagous beetles. Non-aggressive species, including the root beetles Hylastes salebrosus Eichhoff and H. tenuis Eichhoff, the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus pubescens Zimmermann, the reproduction weevil Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and buprestid borers, were attracted to burned plots in numbers that correlated positively with burn severity. Beetle attraction to burned sites was greatest in the first weeks post-burn and disappeared by the second year. Two potential tree-killing bark beetles, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), were trapped in significant numbers but exhibited no attraction to burned plots. Tree mortality correlated significantly with the severity of the burns and amounted to 5% of stems in the hottest burn treatment after 3 years. The majority of the mortality was observed in the second and third years post-burn. Attacks of Ips and Dendroctonus bark beetles were apparent on nearly all dead or dying trees, and evidence suggested that root pathogens may have contributed to tree susceptibility to beetle attack and mortality. Our data indicate that selection of burn regimes that reduce or eliminate consumption of duff (e.g., favoring heading fires over backing fires) could significantly reduce mortality of longleaf pine managed for long rotations Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sullivan, Brian, T; Fettig, C. J.; Otrosina, William, J.; Dalusky, Mark, J.; Berrisford, C.W.
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a widely distributed and serious economic pest to corn production in the U.S. Genetic variability of O. nubilalis was studied in 18 sub-populations in the upper Midwestern United States using amplified fragment length polymorphism. The relatively low GST values indicate that more variation exists within populations than between populations. High gene flow (Nm) values were indicated across the entire O. nubilalis population; the lowest degree of gene flow was in the northern samples (Nm = 1.96) and the highest degree of gene flow was in the southern samples (Nm = 2.77). The differences observed in the respective regions (north vs. south) may be explained by the voltinism patterns (univoltine vs. multivoltine, respectively) of O. nubilalis: southern multivoltine populations have opportunities for multiple matings for the duration of the year, further mix alleles. AMOVA results also indicated that most of the genetic variation was within sub-populations (? 81% of total variation); less variation (? 13%) was detected among populations within each of the three regions as designated for this study. However, the most striking and unexpected result was the low percentage of variation between all groups (? 6%), further supporting implications of a high degree of gene flow. These results provide support for current requirements of refugia corn planting in Bt-corn management. These results also indicate that if resistance to Bt were to evolve in O. nubilalis, quick action would be necessary to deter the rapid spread of the gene for resistance.
Krumm, Jeffrey T.; Hunt, Thomas E.; Skoda, Steven R.; Hein, Gary L.; Lee, Donald J.; Clark, Pete L.; Foster, John E.
The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M. vitrata is lacking. We applied a set of six microsatellite markers to assess the population structure of M. vitrata collected at five sites from Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria. Observed polymorphisms ranged from one (marker 3393) to eight (marker 32008) alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 and 0.0 to 0.6, respectively. Three of the loci in samples from Nigeria and Burkina Faso deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), whereas no loci deviated significantly in samples from Niger. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 67.3% level of the genetic variation was within individuals compared to 17.3% among populations. A global estimate of F ST=0.1 (ENA corrected F ST=0.1) was significant (P?0.05) and corroborated by pairwise F ST values that were significant among all possible comparisons. A significant correlation was predicted between genetic divergence and geographic distance between subpopulations (R2=0.6, P=0.04), and cluster analysis by the program STRUCTURE predicted that co-ancestry of genotypes were indicative of three distinct populations. The spatial genetic variance among M. vitrata in West Africa may be due to limited gene flow, south-north seasonal movement pattern or other reproductive barriers. This information is important for the cultural, chemical and biological control strategies for managing M. vitrata. PMID:22717014
Agunbiade, T A; Coates, B S; Kim, K S; Forgacs, D; Margam, V M; Murdock, L L; Ba, M N; Binso-Dabire, C L; Baoua, I; Ishiyaku, M F; Tamò, M; Pittendrigh, B R
The coffee berry borer (CBB; Hypothenemus hampei) is a major pest of coffee responsible for significant crop losses worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana represents a natural means of controlling this insect pest; however, little is known concerning the molecular determinants that contribute to the virulence of the fungus towards the CBB. In order to examine genes involved in insect virulence, two expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, representing germinating conidia and growing hyphae/mycelia of B. bassiana cells grown on cuticular extracts of the CBB were constructed and analysed. In total, 4186 cDNA transcripts were obtained, which included 2141 from the cuticle-germinated conidia and 2045 from the cuticle-grown mycelium libraries, respectively. The average sequence length obtained was 470 bp and transcript assembly resulted in a set of 1271 and 1305 unique gene sequences for the conidial and mycelia libraries, respectively. Around 50?% of the sequences in each library could be annotated by gene ontology terms. An analysis of the two generated libraries as well as a previously reported EST library of B. bassiana grown on chitin was performed. Between the cuticle-germinated conidia and the cuticle-grown mycelia libraries, 322 unique gene sequences were shared, of which 90?% could be annotated, leaving 949 unique cuticle-germinated conidial genes and 983 unique growing hyphae/mycelia genes of which around 65?% were annotated. ESTs shared between the libraries indicated a basic response pattern for B. bassiana against H. hampei, which included genes implicated in pathogenicity. The expression profiles of four genes were evaluated with a cyclophilin, an alkaline-like serine protease and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), showing elevated expression during initial phases of infection, i.e. conidia germinating on insect extracts. These data provide clues and gene candidates for further exploration concerning the biology and molecular mechanisms of entomopathogenicity by this fungus. PMID:22461485
Mantilla, Javier Guillermo; Galeano, Narmer F; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Cristancho, Marco A; Keyhani, Nemat O; Góngora, Carmenza E
Lignin in plant cell wall is a source of useful chemicals and also the major barrier for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for producing biofuel and bioproducts. Enzymatic lignin degradation/modification process could bypass the need for chemical pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation. Herein, we reveal our new discovery in elucidating the process of hardwood lignin modification/degradation by clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae . The wood-boring clearwing borer, P. robiniae , effectively tunnels hardwood structures during the larval stage; its digestion products from wood components, however, has not yet been investigated. A series of analysis conducted in this study on tunnel walls and frass produced provided evidence of structural alterations and lignin degradation during such hardwood digestion process. The analysis included solid state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis; the results strongly suggest that the structural alteration of lignin primarily involved a preferential degradation of syringyl units accompanied by oxidation on the side chains of lignin guaiacyl moieties. This study also further indicated that unlike the wood-feeding termite the clearwing borer does not target cellulose as an energy source, and thus its lignin degradation ability should provide potential information on how to disassemble and utilize hardwood lignin. Overall, this biological model with an efficient lignin disruption system will provide the new insight into novel enzyme system required for effective plant cell wall disintegration for enhanced cellulose accessibility by enzymes and production of value-added lignin derived products. PMID:21405063
Ke, Jing; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti Dey; Chen, Shulin
Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813
Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C
Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.
Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.
Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.
Essential oils isolated from leaves (LO), bast (BO), heartwood (HO), and ethereal extract of resin (EER) of Shorea robusta were bioassayed with electroantennograph (EAG) and wind tunnel to study the behavioral response of male and female beetles, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis Newm., the most injurious heartwood borer of the tree. LO, BO, HO, and EER were shown to exhibit the electrophysiological activity in the female beetle, while LO and BO in the male beetle. In wind-tunnel studies, only BO elicited the attractant activity to both the sexes. A possible correlation of the constituents of the BO identified by GC/MS with the bioactivity is also presented. PMID:17192022
Varshney, Vinay K; Dayal, Rameshwar; Bhandari, Raghubir S; Jyoti, Karanam N; Prasuna, Attaluri L; Prasad, Attaluri R; Yadav, Jhillu S
A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of termiticidal dusts (arsenic trioxide, triflumuron, and Metarhizium anisopliae), a timber fumigant (dazomet) and liquid termiticides (bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and imidacloprid) for controlling subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting in-service power poles in New South Wales, Australia. Dusts were applied to parts of the pole where termites were present. Fumigant was inserted into holes drilled into the base of the pole. Liquid termiticides were mixed with soil around the base of the pole and injected into internal voids if present. Poles were inspected for up to 5 yr, and the time taken for reinfestation to occur was recorded. Before the start of the trial, the major Australian pole owners were surveyed to obtain an estimate of the annual national cost of termite infestation to the power supply industry. The annual costs of termite treatment and replacing damaged poles were estimated at AU$2 million and AU$13 million, respectively. Infestation rates were lower for all treatments compared with controls within the first 12 mo of the study. Dazomet, arsenic trioxide, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos were the most efficacious treatments. Efficacy was positively related to the amount of termiticide applied and negatively related to the infestation severity but was unaffected by geographical location. Survival curves were calculated of the time elapsed before the recurrence of termite infestations (survival absence of reinfestation). Survival was highest for poles treated with liquid termiticides. PMID:21309237
Horwood, Martin A; Westlake, Terry; Kathuria, Amrit
Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients.
Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa
The pheromone of the macadamia nut borer, Cryptophlebia ombrodelta (Lower), was evaluated for its suitability as a monitoring tool. The first objective was to establish a correlation between the number of males recovered from pheromone traps and oviposition. When data on numbers of eggs recovered was adjusted using an empirical formula to predict when oviposition occurred, a reasonable correlation between
R. A. Vickers; D. A. Ironside; S. McLean; A. Coates; G. Campbell
Six chemical wood preservatives were selected for evaluation over long periods of exposure in extremely borer-active marine environments. Southern Yellow Pine and Douglas Fir were full-cell pressure-treated with these chemicals and exposed in tropical sea...
C. R. Southwell J. D. Bultman
Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,
Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister; Sean Rands
Recent outbreaks of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldeman) are causing unprecedented economic devaluation of red oak timber in many areas of the Ozarks in the Midwestern United States. Managers have few guidelines for coping with this problem in the long-term. Here we present a retrospective analysis of degrade in wood quality and value focused on cumulative degrade caused by
Richard P. Guyette; Rose-Marie Muzika; Aaron Stevenson
In 2003–2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against A. planipennis adults in greenhouse studies. However, efficacy was improved in the field when B.
Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer
One hundred and fifteen wood species have been exposed to marine borers in three different tropical waters for periods up to 90 months. Underwater sites were in the Panama Canal Zone and included two oceans and a brackish-water lake. Over 30 species of ma...
C. R. Southwell J. D. Bultman B. W. Forgeson C. W. Hummer
Summary The effect of a juvenile hormone mimetic, fenoxycarb, Ro 13-5223, was tested on the larval instars of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis, by dipping or topical application. When larvae were treated in instars 2, 3 or 4, the duration of the fifth instar was modified. More permanent and fewer supernumerary larvae were obtained when treatment occurred in the early
C. Gadenne; S. Grenier; G. Plantevin; B. Mauchamp
fied QTLs for resistance to 1ECB and 2ECB. Schone t al. (1991) identified four QTLs for resistance to 1ECB European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), family on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, and 9 in F3 families from the Crambidae, order Lepidoptera, is a serious insect pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in the USA. Understanding the genetic basis for
Chaba Jampatong; Michael D. McMullen; B. Dean Barry; Larry L. Darrah; Patrick F. Byrne; Heike Kross
Psoroptes cuniculi for treatment and in 10 rabbits in contact with the infested animals for protection. The efficacy of the drug was evaluated based on the clinical signs, the absence of live mites and new clinical cases during a period of least two weeks. Elimination of clinical signs and mites were seen in three rabbits seven days after the ivermectin injection, but one rabbit, which had meningitis-like signs, died. Also, no new cases occurred in the other ten rabbits. These results suggest that an application of ivermectin can completely eliminate mites from rabbits naturally infested with P. cuniculi and that it was also a sufficient method for protection from contact infestation. PMID:18985580
Arslan, Handan Hilal; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi; Hökelek, Murat
Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl) was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson). A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS). The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-?-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10). The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was shown to be a potent inhibitor of this xylanase, suggesting that its deployment has potential as a strategy to control coffee berry borer colonization of coffee plants.
The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed.
Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan
Can weed distribution maps be developed from remote sensed reflectance data? When are the appropriate times to collect these data during the season? What wavebands can be used to distinguish weedy from weed- free areas? This research examined if and when reflectance could be used to distinguish between weed-free and weed-infested (mixed species) areas in soybean and to determine the most useful wavebands to separate crop, weed, and soil reflectance differences. Treatments in the two-year study included no vegetation (bare soil), weed-free soybean, and weed-infested soybean and, in one year, 80% corn residue cover. Reflectance was measured at several sampling times from May through September in 2001 and 2002 using a hand-held multispectral radiometer equipped with band-limited optical interference filters (460 - 1650 nm). Pixel resolution was 0.8-m. Reflectance in the visible spectral range (460 to 700 nm) generally was similar among treatments. In the near-infrared (NIR) range (>700 to 1650 nm), differences among treatments were observed from soybean growth stage V-3 (about 4 weeks after planting) until mid-July to early August depending on crop vigor and canopy closure (76 cm row spacing in 2001 and 19 cm row spacing in 2002). Reflectance rankings in the NIR range when treatments could be differentiated were consistent between years and, from lowest to highest reflectance, were soil < weed-free < weed-infested areas. Increased reflectance from weed-infested areas was most likely due to increased biomass and canopy cover. Residue masked differences between weed-free and weed- infested areas during the early stages of growth due to high reflectance from the residue and reduced weed numbers in these areas. These results suggest that NIR spectral reflectance collected prior to canopy closure can be used to distinguish weed-infested from weed-free areas.
Clay, S. A.; Chang, J.; Clay, D. E.; Dalsted, K.; Reese, C.
Tumor-associated immune system cells secrete protease and cytokines that can inhibit the immune response. In particular, T-cell effector functions could be inhibited, potentially causing an increase in parasitic infestations. Demodex species are common inhabitants of normal hair follicles. Humans are the specific host for two species Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and infestation of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in patients with cancer. In the present study, 101 patients with cancer were selected from among patients who were diagnosed and treated for cancer. The cancer patients were divided into four groups according to cancer type. Slides were examined for parasites using light microscopy at magnifications of ×40 and ×100. Infestation was defined as having at least five living parasites/cm(2) of skin. The ages of the patients with cancer ranged between 38 and 82 years, with a mean of 65.5±10.1 years. It was determined that 77 of the 101 (76.2%) cancer patients were positive for Demodex species. Infestation was positive in 18 (47.4%) of the 38 cases in the breast cancer group, 7 (29.2%) of the 24 cases in the lung cancer group, 5 (18.5%) of the 27 cases in the gastrointestinal system cancer group, and 2 (16.7%) of the 12 cases in the urogenital system cancer group. Results showed that the rate of Demodex species infestation was higher in patients with breast cancer. Thus, cancer - and particularly breast cancer - is a risk factor for Demodex species infestation. PMID:24338318
Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Yalç?n, Zeliha Gülter; Karakeçe, Engin; Çiftci, ?hsan Hakk?; Erdem, Teoman
Systemic humoral and cellular immune responses were studied during natural infestations by Hypoderma lineatum in cattle at their first (G-1) and second exposure (G-2). Four out of seven animals in G-1 were palpation positive, with a mean intensity of 11.2 (12.81SD) warbles; the same proportion (4/7) presented warbles in G-2 but the intensity was 3.7 (2.21SD). The evolution of total IgG levels was characterized by a noticeable increment coinciding with the presence of warbles on the back, especially in G-2. The IgG1 isotype displayed a parallel evolution in both groups, with peak values prior to the appearance of first warbles. The IgG2 subclass followed an irregular pattern in both groups and IgM maintained low and constant levels throughout the study, mainly in G-1. CD4/CD8 ratios showed a predominance of CD4(+) throughout the infestation, principally in G-2 during the warble season. The evolution of IFN-? in G-2 was constant, whereas in G-1 there was a gradual descent until warble emergence. The dynamics of the IL-10 differed between G-1 and G-2, although both groups showed a significant drop after the exit of the larvae that could be implicated in the termination of the inflammatory response. IL-4 and TNF-? levels did not show differences between groups. Our results suggest that the resistance mechanisms would become more apparent at the latest stages of the infestation by Hypoderma, supporting the hypothesis that considerable larval destruction in sensitized animals might take place after their arrival to the back. PMID:23218223
Panadero, R; López, C; Vázquez, L; Díaz, P; Pérez, A; Cabanelas, E; Morrondo, P; Díez-Baños, P
Mite infestation of the ear is an unusual clinical problem that is easily cured with simple measures and recurrent infestation has not been reported till date. We present here a patient who developed recurrent infestation of otherwise healthy mastoid cavities with the storage mite Caloglyphus berlesei, secondary to occupational exposure. This kind of recurrent mite infestation of the ear has not been described before. PMID:11535149
Paleri, V; Ruckley, R W
The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stem borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the\\u000a source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population\\u000a is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few
Bernardo Ordas; Rosa A. Malvar; Rogelio Santiago; German Sandoya; Maria C. Romay; Ana Butron
This paper is based on a survey of the parasites of the lepidopterous stem borers of graminaceous crops throughout East Africa\\u000a and on laboratory studies of the more abundant species. In the survey emphasis was placed on the borers of maize and sorghum,\\u000a but samples of other cultivated Graminae and wild grasses were also taken.\\u000a \\u000a Notes on the distribution and
A. I. Mohyuddin; D. J. Greathead
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) is an important pest in the global production of maize (Zea mays L.). In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) significantly affecting resistance against second-generation European corn borer (2ECB) and plant height with the aid of RFLP markers. A total of 300 F3 lines derived from cross B73 (susceptible)
Chris C Schön; Michael Lee; Albrecht E Melchinger; Wilbur D Guthrie; Wendy L Woodman
Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) pod borer (Leguminivora glycinivorella (Mats.) Obraztsov) (SPB) results in severe loss in soybean yield and quality in certain regions of the world, especially\\u000a in Northeastern China, Japan and Russia. The aim here was to evaluate the inheritance of pod borer resistance and to identify\\u000a quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying SPB resistance for the acceleration of
Guiyun Zhao; Jian Wang; Yingpeng Han; Weili Teng; Genlou Sun; Wenbin Li
agent of pine (Pinus spp.) forests in the southern USA. Outbreaks of the insect occur periodically throughout the region. The severity of an outbreak is a function of two principal variables: the rate of initiation of new infestations and the subsequent growth rate of these infestations (CouLSON et al., 1983, 1984). Growth of infestations occurs as a result of colonization
W. S. Fargo; T. L. Wagner; R. N. Coulson
SUMMARY Three groups of honey bee colonies (N = 30) were overwintered on a mountainside (2800 M) in northeastern Mexico. Infestation levels of Acarapis woodi in the three groups averaged 0, 28.2 and 86.0 % for the control, moderately, and heavily infested colonies, respectively. Heavily infested colonies were 28 % smaller than controls (P < 0.01) in the fall. Adjusting
Frank A. EISCHEN
Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bah??a Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of
Gissel Dalila Tinoco-Orta; Jorge Cáceres-Mart??nez
Background: There is upcoming evidence that dermoscopy facilitates the in vivo diagnosis of skin infections and infestations. As such, dermoscopy connects the research fields of dermatologists and entomologists, opening a new research field of ‘entodermoscopy’. Objective: To provide an overview on the current applications of entodermoscopy. Methods: Systematic review of the English- and German-language literature by searches of Medline, Medscape
Iris Zalaudek; Jason Giacomel; Horacio Cabo; Alessandro Di Stefani; Gerardo Ferrara; Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof; Joseph Malvehy; Susana Puig; Wilhelm Stolz; Giuseppe Argenziano
PURPOSE: We sought to document the appearance of isolated cysticercal infestation of single extraocular muscles on MR and CT studies, and to compare these findings with results of histopathologic examination. METHODS: Six MR and three CT examinations of the orbits of six patients were reviewed. Histopathologic confirmation of the diagnosis was available in three patients, and response to specific medical
Meher A. Ursekar; Darab K. Dastur; Daya K. Manghani; Atul T. Ursekar
Compared with men, women have a greater lifetime risk of delusions of infestation, with the risk appearing to increase around the menopause, when the blood levels of reproductive hormones are decreasing. Women also have a greater lifetime risk of depression and an increased incidence of depressive symptoms post partum, when the blood levels of these hormones are decreasing as well.
Mario Lanczik; Kristina Hofberg; Ian F. Brockington
Conservation tillage is not yet widely accepted by organic farmers because inversion tillage is considered to be necessary for weed control. Three long-term experiments were established with combinations of reduced and conventional plough tillage and stubble tillage to determine weed infestation levels in organic farming, i.e. herbicide application being excluded. Experiment 1 (with very low stocking density of perennial weeds)
Sabine Gruber; Wilhelm Claupein
Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and
Daniel M Scheiman; Eric K Bollinger; Douglas H Johnson
In the past few years, the Asian Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) has infested various species of trees throughout the United States, and it threatens to do billions of dollars worth of damage. This study sought to identify various factors that may affect the selectivity of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) for specific host tree species. Trees studied included the Sugar
Robert Bruce; Deepa Cherla; Pedro Duran; Josephine Li; Tanvi Rastogi; Aaron Sin
The present work was carried out to study the influence of storage and gamma radiation on fungal control in spices. The spices were irradiated with 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and stored under ambient conditions for 12 months. Fungal infestation decreased to un...
T. Akhtar A. Sattar I. Khan
Dermatologists and psychiatrists occasionally encounter patients who believe they are infested with skin parasites. They may report seeing threads, fibers and more solid appearing particles attached to their skin and hair, or appearing on clean bed sheets after sleeping. Some of the particles move spontaneously suggesting a life form. Similar structures develop in long-term cultures of stealth-adapted viruses. They are
W. John Martin
Myiasis is an infestation of tissue with the larval stage of dipterous flies. This condition mostly affects the skin but may also occur in certain body cavities. It can occur in either animals or humans and is caused by parasitic dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. This disease rarely effects birds especially owls. In this study, infestation of an owl with cutaneous myiasis is reported. In October 2008, a wounded owl was referred by the environmental department of Chaharmahal-Bakhtiary province to the clinic of veterinary science at Shahrekord University in west central Iran. At the initial examination, clinical signs were extensive with a wound under the right wing. The wound was infested with 40 white conical maggots, 3-9 mm in length, which led to a diagnosis of myiasis in the owl. The maggots were carefully collected from the wound using sterile forceps and were kept in 70% ethanol and transferred to the laboratory of parasitology where the diagnosis was undertaken by the observation of posterior and anterior spiracle and cephalopharyngeal apparatus. According to key diagnostic features for maggots in birds, the larvae were identified as Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The wound was treated using usual acaricides, but due to the severity of the infestation and because of the delay in referring the animal to the clinic, it died 3 days post-treatment. This is the first report in Iran of an infestation of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) with L. sericata and L. cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:20234830
Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Cheraghchi-Bashi, Mehdi; Navidpour, Shahrokh
The calling and mating behaviors of Kumasia kumaso were studied in laboratory at (25 1) degrees C and (60 +/- 10) % RH under a cycle 14 L:10 D photo period, and the EAG response of male K. kumaso to female K. kumaso sex gland extracts was also tested. The calling and mating behaviors of K. kumaso could only be observed in scotophase. The females began calling at the first scotophase following emergence, and the peak of calling occurred during the second scotophase and decreased thereafter. The calling of the females commenced 0-4 h after dark, reached the maximum between the 5th and the 7th hour of the scotophase, and terminated during the last 1-2.5 h of the scotophase. Moth age had significant effects on the calling patterns. With increasing moth age, the onset time of calling advanced gradually, and the mean number of calling bouts as well as the calling length per bout had a gradual increase from calling day 1 to day 4 but decreased on day 5. The peak time and terminated time of calling advanced with increasing moth age. The mating of K. kumaso adults initiated during the first scotophase and terminated till the 5th scotophase following emergence, and the peak of mating was observed during the second scotophase. The peak of mating was observed 5.5-7.0 h after dark, and advanced with increasing moth age. Moth age affected the mean onset time of mating and the copulation duration significantly. With increasing moth age, the mean onset time of mating advanced, and the copulation duration decreased. Sex ratio had significant effects on the mating behavior as well. Treatment 2 female:1 male showed a significantly higher mating percentage, but an earlier onset time of mating and shorter copulation duration, as compared with treatment 1 female:1 male. The results of EAG test indicated that the male adults showed a significant EAG response to the sex gland extracts of 2-day-old virgin females. PMID:23479886
Shu, Jin-Ping; Teng, Ying; Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Deng, Shun; Wang, Hao-Jie
The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40?60?4?6?10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393
Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, is a serious problem for the majority of the world's coffee growers and has proved to be one of the most intractable of present day pests. Despite a great deal of research, control still depends largely on the application of the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan, which is damaging to the environment, or a series of cultural and biological control methods which give variable and unpredictable results. This review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology and ecology of H. hampei and its control and identifies weak points in the knowledge about this pest. Emphasis is placed upon an analysis of the non-chemical control methods available and suggestions are offered for novel ecological and environmental factors worthy of further research, in the search for viable and sustainable control methods. PMID:11107248
The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is a serious pest of corn, sorghum, and cotton in China and other Asian countries. The present study is the first attempt to establish the transgenic line in O. furnacalis using a piggyBac transposon, which will shed light on the future genetic control of O. furnacalis. A piggyBac vector pBac[A3EGFP] was constructed to express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)under the control of Bombyx mori actin3 promoter. Transient EGFP expression was detected 48 h after preblastodermic microinjection of pBac[A3EGFP] and the excision assay showed the transgenic vector was precisely excised. In G1 animals, PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-based investigations revealed that the exogenous gene had been introduced into O. furnacalis genome and expressed at the transcriptional level. Western blot analysis showed EGFP expression at the protein level, indicating the heritability of the transgene. PMID:22696097
Liu, Dan; Yan, Shanchun; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang; Stanley, David W; Song, Qisheng
The purpose of this research was to quantify the spatial pattern and develop a sampling program for larvae of Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important vineyard pest in northern Greece. Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression were used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance of larval counts. Analysis of covariance was carried out, separately for infestation and injury, with combined second and third generation data, for vine and half-vine sample units. Common regression coefficients were estimated to permit use of the sampling plan over a wide range of conditions. Optimum sample sizes for infestation and injury, at three levels of precision, were developed. An investigation of a multistage sampling plan with a nested analysis of variance showed that if the goal of sampling is focusing on larval infestation, three grape clusters should be sampled in a half-vine; if the goal of sampling is focusing on injury, then two grape clusters per half-vine are recommended. PMID:17066827
Ifoulis, A A; Savopoulou-Soultani, M
Octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, plays a key role in regulation of many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. It modulates these functions through binding to specific octopamine receptors, which are typical rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors. A cDNA encoding a seven-transmembrane receptor was cloned from the nerve cord of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, viz. CsOA2B2, which shares high sequence similarity to CG6989, a Drosophila ?-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (DmOct?2R). We generated an HEK-293 cell line that stably expresses CsOA2B2 in order to examine the functional and pharmacological properties of this receptor. Activation of CsOA2B2 by octopamine increased the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50)=2.33 nmol l(-1)), with a maximum response at 100 nmol l(-1). Tyramine also activated the receptor but with much less potency than octopamine. Dopamine and serotonin had marginal effects on cAMP production. Using a series of known agonists and antagonists for octopamine receptors, we observed a rather unique pharmacological profile for CsOA2B2 through measurements of cAMP. The rank order of potency of the agonists was naphazoline > clonidine. The activated effect of octopamine is abolished by co-incubation with phentolamine, mianserin or chlorpromazine. Using in vivo pharmacology, CsOA2B2 antagonists mianserin and phentolamine impaired the motor ability of individual rice stem borers. The results of the present study are important for a better functional understanding of this receptor as well as for practical applications in the development of environmentally sustainable pesticides. PMID:22786641
Wu, Shun-Fan; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin
Larvae found infesting fruit from a Carpathian walnut, Juglans regia L., tree in Missouri were confirmed by DNA analysis to be those of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The infested walnut tree occurs in the midst of pecan weevil-infested pecans, Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch; the larval haplotypes were found to be identical to pecan weevil larvae from the region, indicating that the walnut infestation arose by association with infested pecan. This is the first confirmed DNA analysis showing pecan weevil attacks J. regia and the second report that J. regia may be at risk of infestation by pecan weevil. Further study indicates this infestation on walnut is established and ongoing. The pecan weevil is a key pest of pecan and seems capable of inflicting similar damage to walnut if spread to commercial areas that produce J. regia. PMID:20857742
Harris, Marvin K; Hunt, Kenneth L; Cognato, Anthony I
Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity. PMID:12877826
Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge
A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation.\\u000a Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of\\u000a DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories
Erik B. Dopman
Two field trials were conducted from 2003 to 2005 on the effects of neem pesticides on whorl larva, stem-borer and panicle pests of sorghum. In the first trial (2003–2004) the effect of neem seed granules (NSG) and carbofuran (furadan 3G®) inserted into the sorghum whorl at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing (DAS) were tested on whorl larva, stem
Chinwe E. Anaso
Four pheromonal components have been detected in ovipositor washings and volatiles from female sugarcane stalk borers,Chilo auricilius Dudgeon (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), using combined gas chromatography-electroantennography. The components have been identified as (I) (Z)-7-do-decenyl acetate, (II) (Z)-8-tridecenyl acetate, (III) (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, and (IV) (Z)-10-pentadecenyl acetate by comparison of their gas chromatographic behavior with that of synthetic standards. In field tests carried out
Brenda F. Nesbitt; P. S. Beevor; A. Cork; D. R. Hall; H. David; V. Nandagopal
Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bb1 and Bb5 strains) were grown in solid-state and submerged cultures (SSC and SbC, respectively) in order to obtain conidia and dry mycelium preparations. The samples obtained at laboratory scale were tested as alternatives for their further use as mycoinsecticides to control the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis. The spore yields obtained in SSC indicated that
Jorge A Arcas; Beatriz M D??az; Roberto E Lecuona
1.Lipophorin was isolated from the hemolymph of diapausing larvae of the southwestern corn borer,Diatraea grandiosella, and shown to have a density of 1:11 g\\/ml and a molecular weight of 520,000.2.The holoprotein was comprised of apolipoprotein-I (Mr=231,000) and apolipoprotein-II (Mr=74,000), and contained about 38% lipid (28% neutral lipids, 10% polar lipids), and 3% carbohydrate.3.The major neutral lipids present were diacylglycerol and
J. W. Dillwith; C. J. Lenz; G. M. Chippendale
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB), an alien invasive wood-boring buprestid beetle, is causing large-scale decline and mortality of the most\\u000a widely distributed species of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees endemic to eastern North America. We determined which arthropod species that are associated with ash may become\\u000a threatened, endangered, and co-extinct with the demise of ash as a dominant tree
Kamal J. K. GandhiDaniel; Daniel A. Herms
Head lice infestations continue to be an issue in today's society, with an increase in economic cost and resistance. Spinosad 0.9% topical suspension was recently introduced in the U.S. market as a novel agent with both pediculicidal and ovicidal activity, approved in children 4 years of age and older for the treatment of head lice infestations. In clinical trials, it has demonstrated effectiveness against head lice with permethrin resistance. In two clinical trials comparing spinosad to permethrin, efficacy was observed in the spinosad-treated groups at 84.6% and 86.7%, respectively, when compared to the permethrin-treated groups (respective values of 44.9% and 42.9%; P < 0.001). Overall, spinosad was well tolerated in clinical trials. PMID:23032800
Villegas, S C
Head louse infestations are increasing or remain high in most countries. In order to reduce the proportion of children infested with head lice and slow down the emergence of strains of lice resistant to pediculicides, more active involvement of health and educational authorities, as well as parents, is of paramount importance. We suggest that health authorities should introduce more efficient methods for evaluating pediculicides and more stringent regulations for adoption of new anti-louse products. Baseline studies are also essential for new pediculicides. Children should be properly screened, especially in problematic areas. The media should be used to educate parents on louse control. Health providers need to be aware of which anti-louse remedies are demonstrably effective and be capable of assisting families with louse control. Academic institutions should conduct baseline and efficacy studies on pediculicides and other treatment modalities, as well as research on the biology and epidemiology of lice. Parents should regularly inspect their children, treat as necessary, and try to avoid creating stigmas and emotional problems for the child. The pharmaceutical industry should aim to introduce pediculicides based on new chemical compounds, especially natural products. Companies should develop effective and safe repellents and nit removal remedies. General recommendations are given on how to diagnose and treat louse infestations with chemicals, biological agents, and louse combs and how to protect children from infestations. The no-nit policy, based on the persistence of empty egg cases, is not justified and does more harm than good; therefore, we recommend that it be immediately halted. PMID:17668538
Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Barker, Stephen C; Burgess, Ian E; Combescot-Lang, Catherine; Dalgleish, Robert C; Larsen, Kim S; Miller, Jacqueline; Roberts, Richard J; Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul
Records of domestic animals brought to the Veterinary Entomology Laboratory for diagnosis of suspected lice and mite infestation over a 10 year period were analysed. From a total of 794 suspected cases, 137 (17·3%) and 247 (31·1%) were positive for lice and mange mites respectively. The most common lice species recorded wereLinognathus vituli (66·7%) on cattle,L. ovillus (83·3%) on sheep,Haematopinus
J. B. D. George; S. Otobo; J. Ogunleye; B. Adediminiyi
This case report is of an immunosuppressed patient in whom a diagnosis of disseminated Strongyloides infestation was made by cytologic examination of sputum, bronchial washing and brushing although a negative bronchial biopsy was reported. For those patients receiving steroids or immunosuppressives, the important role of cytology in the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis is emphasized. The morphologic characteristics of this adult intestinal nematode and the differential diagnosis are also described. PMID:6932151
Chaudhuri, B; Nanos, S; Soco, J N; McGrew, E A
In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated\\u000a for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species\\u000a were inoculated on gypsum board with and
K. F. Nielsen; S. Gravesen; P. A. Nielsen; B. Andersen; U. Thrane; J. C. Frisvad
Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well.
Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Driesche, Roy Van
The geographical distribution and ecological preferences of Haemaphysalis in domestic animals in Iran were studied 4 times a year from April 2003 to March 2005. A total of 1,622 ixodid tick specimens were collected from 3 different zones. Among them, 108 (6.7%) Haemaphysalis ticks, consisting of 6 species, were identified; H. punctata (3.4%), H. parva (0.5%), H. sulcata (0.6%), H. choldokovskyi (1.7%), H. concinna (0.06%) and Haemaphysalis sp. (0.6%). H. punctata was the most abundant species, whereas H. concinna was the rarest species collected in humid and sub-humid zones on cattle, sheep and goats. H. choldokovskyi was principally collected from sheep and goats grazed in cold mountainous areas. The infested areas consisted of Caspian Sea (Guilan, Mazandaran, Golestan, and central provinces), mountainous (Azarbaiejan, Ardebil, Kohgilouyeh, and Kordestan) and semi-dessert (Khorasan, Semnan, Kerman, Sistan, and Baluchestan) zones. The Caspian Sea zone (23.6%) was the most highly infested region. The results show that various species of Haemaphysalis ticks infest domestic ruminants in Iran and each tick species show characteristic geographical distributions.
Nabian, Sedigheh; Shayan, Parviz; Haddadzadeh, Hamid Reza
Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests’ responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades.
Anderegg, William R.L.; Callaway, Elizabeth S.
Ticks were collected from 249 dogs, admitted over a one-year period (1996-1997) to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital and four private veterinary practices located in the county of Thessaloniki, Greece. A total of 2812 ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected, of which 2511 (89.3%) were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) adults (1070 males, 1441 females), 156 (5.5%) R. turanicus Pomerantsev adults (35 males, 121 females), 100 (3.6%) Rhipicephalus spp. nymphs and 45 (1.6%) Rhipicephalus spp. larvae. Dogs living outdoors, in rural areas and in close proximity to farm animals, were infested with higher numbers of ticks than dogs living indoors. Tick attachment sites were recorded on 237 dogs, harbouring a total of 1711 ticks. The most heavily infested sites were, in decreasing frequency, the ear pinnae, neck, interdigital skin folds, trunk, head, ventrum, extremities and the tail. Cutaneous lesions at the attachment sites were noticed in 129 dogs and then mainly in the more severely infested animals. PMID:12680933
Papazahariadou, M G; Saridomichelakis, M N; Koutinas, A F; Papadopoulos, E G; Leontides, L
Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests' responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades. PMID:22665446
Anderegg, William R L; Callaway, Elizabeth S
Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.
Scheiman, D. M.; Bollinger, E. K.; Johnson, D. H.
Bed bug infestations have risen precipitously in urban areas. Little is known about risk factors for infestations or health outcomes resulting from these infestations. In the 2009 Community Health Survey, which is a representative population-based survey, 9,934 noninstitutionalized adults in New York City reported on bed bug infestations requiring an exterminator in the past year. The authors estimated infestation prevalence and explored predictors of infestation and associations between infestations and health outcomes using logistic regression. Seven percent of adults in New York City reported bed bug infestations. Significant individual and household risk factors were younger age, increased household poverty, and having three or more adults in the household. Environmental risk factors included living in high poverty neighborhoods and in buildings with more housing units, suggesting apartment-to-apartment transmission. Bed bug infestations were not associated with stress-related outcomes of alcohol consumption or recent depression, and, unlike cockroach infestation, were not associated with recent asthma episodes caused by allergens or contaminants. PMID:23947287
Ralph, Nancy; Jones, Heidi E; Thorpe, Lorna E
Ovine fasciolosis causes high morbidity and mortality rates, resulting in large economic losses to the sheep industry in northern Tunisia. The authors surveyed ovine fasciolosis (Fasciola hepatica infestation) in a Barbarine sheep flock in the humid region of Tunisia (Sejnane, Governorate of Bizerte) over two consecutive years, 2004 to 2005. To assess the dynamics of fluke infestation, a total of 36 tracer lambs were introduced into the flock successively, in groups of three, every two months, and their infestations were monitored by coproscopy and necropsy. Coproscopic analysis revealed high mean percentages of infestation of 60% and 65% for flock lambs and ewes, respectively. Similarly, a high percentage of infestations was recorded in the tracer lambs (more than 70%) post mortem. Significant fluctuations in infestation dynamics were observed in the tracer lambs, and three distinct infestation periods were identified: a period of very low, non-constant infestation risk during the warm period (from July to October); a high-risk period from March to June, and a third period with a variable but constant infestation risk (from November to February). Based on these results, the authors propose strategic flukicide treatments with triclabendazole, aimed at reducing mollusc infestation and subsequent pasture contamination by metacercariae, during two main periods: in September and in February, just before the reactivation of the molluscs from aestivation and hibernation, respectively. PMID:22435202
Akkari, H; Gharbi, M; Darghouth, M A
Bedbug infestation has become a major problem in the United States. Infestations can be frightening and expensive and appear to be more prevalent in urban settings and low-income housing such as homeless shelters, public housing, and single-room occupancy apartments. This exposes consumers and staff of psychiatric rehabilitation agencies to higher risk of infestation. This brief report outlines practical suggestions for managing bedbug infestation in such agencies. Drawing on resources readily available on the Internet and the experience of Thresholds, a large provider of psychiatric rehabilitation services based in Chicago, this report describes strategies for responding to infestation. Providers need to assume that bedbug infestation is a significant risk and prepare accordingly. Assertive, persistent, and calm response is recommended. PMID:22694784
Zipple, Anthony M; Batscha, Catherine L; Flaherty, Peggy; Reynolds, Jared L
Worker honey bees from genetic strains selected for being resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to tracheal mites typically show large differences in infestation in field colonies and in bioassays that involve controlled exposure to infested bees. We used bioassays exposing newly emerged individuals to infested workers to compare the propensity for tracheal mites to infest queens, drones and workers from R and S colonies. In tests with queens, newly emerged R and S queens were either simultaneously confined in infested colonies (n = 95 and 87 respectively), or individually caged with groups of 5-20 infested workers (n = 119 and 115 respectively). Mite prevalence (percentage of individuals infested) and abundance (foundress mites per individual) after 4-6 days did not differ between R and S queens. In another test, five newly emerged drones and workers from both an R and an S colony, and a queen of one of the two strains, were caged in each of 38 cages with 20 g of workers infested at 60-96% prevalence. Infestations of the R queens (n = 17) and S queens (n = 19) did not differ significantly, but R workers had half the mite abundance of S workers, while R drones received about a third more migrating mites than S drones. In tests to evaluate possible mechanisms, removal of one mesothoracic leg from R and S workers resulted in 2- to 10-fold increase in mite abundance on the treated side, but excising legs did not affect infestation of the corresponding tracheae in drones. This suggests that differences in infestation between R and S workers, but not drones, are largely determined by their ability to remove mites through autogrooming. If autogrooming is the primary mechanism of colony resistance to tracheal mites, selection for resistance to tracheal mites using infestation of hemizygous drones may be inefficient. PMID:16323047
Villa, José D; Danka, Robert G
We evaluated the efficacy of the systemic insecticides dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, fipronil, and imidacloprid for preventing attacks and brood production of southern pine engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on standing, stressed trees and bolt sections of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., in eastern Texas. Emamectin benzoate significantly reduced the colonization success of engraver beetles and associated wood borers in both stressed trees and pine bolt sections. Fipronil was nearly as effective as emamectin benzoate in reducing insect colonization of bolts 3 and 5 mo after injection but only moderately effective 1 mo after injection. Fipronil also significantly reduced bark beetle-caused mortality of stressed trees. Imidacloprid and dinotefuran were ineffective in preventing bark beetle and wood borer colonization of bolts or standing, stressed trees. The injected formulation of emamectin benzoate was found to cause long vertical lesions in the sapwood-phloem interface at each injection point. PMID:16573328
Grosman, Donald M; Upton, William W
Leech infestation can cause various clinical symptoms in human and animals. There are a few reports about this infestation in the world. In this report, we represented two cases of leech infestation of Limnatis nilotica in domestic kid and ram with anorexia, little respiratory disorders and restlessness in Dehloran city, Ilam province, west of Iran. Based on author's knowledge, there is no report of leech infestation on ram and kid and the present case is the first report of internal hirudiniasis of ram and kid due to Limnatis niloticain in literature.
Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rasouli, Maryam; Parsaei, Pouya; Bahnihabib, Ebrahimkhalil; Saki, Koroosh; Ghotbian, Fereidon
In this study, we addressed the question of whether or not native stands of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and/or huckleberry (Gaylussacia spp.) support populations of blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran, in the Great Lakes region. Infestation of commercial blueberries by the blueberry maggot, R. mendax, is a serious problem in many areas where blueberries are grown. In the past 10-20 yr, commercial bighbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., production has expanded into places such as southern Ontario and southern Quebec where blueberry maggot had not previously been reported. In the mid-1990s, isolated infestations of commercial highbush blueberry were reported in southern Ontario. Because R. mendax was not considered endemic to that area, it was widely assumed that the pests had come into the fields via movement from exotic localities. Here we present an alternative hypothesis, that the blueberry maggots infesting newly established highbush plantations are derived from native blueberries growing in the vicinity. To test this hypothesis, in 1997-1999, we sampled potential native hosts for R. mendax (Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp.) from 31 localities in the Great Lakes region, primarily in Michigan and Ontario. R. mendax was reared from fruits of native hosts collected at four sites in Michigan and one site each in Ontario, Indiana, and Ohio. V. corymbosum was the predominant host infested, with infestation of this host observed at five of the seven sites. However, two huckleberry species [Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenheim) K. Koch, and Gaylussacia dumosa (Andersson) Torrey & Gray] had the highest rates of infestation that we observed (25.4 and 17.6%, respectively). These data represent the first published reports of R. mendax infesting native host plants in the Great Lakes region, and support the hypothesis that infestations observed in commercial fields may have originated from infested native host plants. PMID:11777039
Smith, J J; Gavrilovic, V; Smitley, D R
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252
Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P
We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10 years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684
Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M
The similarities of the larval and nymph stages of the tick and louse (Pthirus pubis) may lead to misdiagnosis in rare cases of infestation of the eyelashes. The most frequent manifestations of tick in the eye are conjunctivitis, uveitis, keratitis, and vasculitis. Tick inoculation of the skin can locally lead to formation of granuloma and abscess. More concerning is the potential systemic sequelae that can result from transmission of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. P. pubis can cause pruritic eyelid margins or unusual blepharoconjunctivitis. We present a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 4-year-old boy. PMID:23993722
Da?delen, Serkan; Aykan, Umit; Cetinkaya, Kubilay
French populations of the European corn borer consist of two sympatric and genetically differentiated host races. As such, they are well suited to study processes that could be involved in sympatric speciation, but the initial conditions of host-race divergence need to be elucidated. Gene genealogies can provide insight into the processes involved in speciation. We used DNA sequences of four nuclear genes to (1) document the genetic structure of the two French host races previously delineated with allozyme markers, (2) find genes directly or indirectly involved in reproductive isolation between host races, and (3) estimate the time since divergence of the two taxa and see whether this estimate is compatible with this divergence being the result of a host shift onto maize after its introduction into Europe ?500 years ago. Gene genealogies revealed extensive shared polymorphism, but confirmed the previously observed genetic differentiation between the two host races. Significant departures from the predictions of neutral molecular evolution models were detected at three loci but were apparently unrelated to reproductive isolation between host races. Estimates of time since divergence between French host races varied from ?75,000 to ?150,000 years, suggesting that the two taxa diverged recently but probably long before the introduction of maize into Europe.
Malausa, Thibaut; Leniaud, Laurianne; Martin, Jean-Francois; Audiot, Philippe; Bourguet, Denis; Ponsard, Sergine; Lee, Siu-Fai; Harrison, Richard G.; Dopman, Erik
Plants can recognize the insect elicitors and activate its defense mechanisms. European Corn Borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) saliva, produced from the labial salivary glands and released through the spinneret, is responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Glucose oxidase (GOX) present in the ECB saliva induced direct defenses in tomato. By contrast, GOX activity in ECB saliva was insufficient to trigger defenses in maize, suggesting that host-specific salivary elicitors are responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Our current study further examined whether ECB saliva can trigger indirect defenses in tomato. Relative expression levels of TERPENE SYNTHASE5 (TPS5) and HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL), marker for indirect defenses in host plants, were monitored. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ECB saliva can induce the expression of TPS5 and HPL, suggesting that salivary signals can induce indirect defenses in addition to the direct defenses. Further experiments are required to identify different ECB elicitors that are responsible for inducing direct and indirect defenses in host plants.
Louis, Joe; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250
Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M
In order to determine the type, distribution, and structures of sensilla, the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were examined by light and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Four different types of sensilla were identified in the club, and one type of chaetica was found in the scape and funicle of both male and female individuals. Chaetica and basiconica were the most abundant sensilla types in the club. They were present in the three sensory bands described, totaling approximately 80% of sensilla in the antennal club of H. obscurus. Chaetica were predominantly mechanoreceptors, although gustatory function could not be excluded. Basiconica forms showed characteristics typical of olfactory sensilla. Trichoidea were not found in the proximal sensory band, and they exhibited abundant pores, suggesting olfactory function. Styloconica were the least abundant sensillum type, and their shape was similar to that reported as having hygro- and thermoreceptor functions. There was no difference in the relative abundance of antennal sensilla between males and females. Finally, the sensillar configuration and abundance of receptors in the H. obscurus antennae suggest that these sensilla have chemoreceptive and other functions.
Palma, Ruben; Mutis, Ana; Isaacs, Rufus; Quiroz, Andres
The soursop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with soursop was conducted to study the life cycle under field conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00h and 13:00h (35ºC, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. PMID:20877987
Hernández-Fuentes, Luis M; Urias-López, Mario A; Bautista-Martínez, Nestor
Of 12 potential reproductive isolating barriers between closely related Z and E pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), seven significantly reduced gene flow but none were complete, suggesting that speciation in this lineage is a gradual process in which multiple barriers of intermediate strength accumulate. Estimation of the cumulative effect of all barriers was nearly complete isolation (> 99%), but geographic variation in seasonal isolation allowed as much as ~10% gene flow. With the strongest barriers arising from mate-selection behavior or ecologically relevant traits, sexual and natural selection are the most likely evolutionary processes driving population divergence. A recent multilocus genealogical study corroborates the roles of selection and gene flow (Dopman et al. 2005), because introgression is supported at all loci besides Tpi, a sex-linked gene. Tpi reveals strains as exclusive groups, possesses signatures of selection, and is tightly linked to a QTL that contributes to seasonal isolation. With more than 98% of total cumulative isolation consisting of prezygotic barriers, Z and E strains of ECB join a growing list of taxa in which species boundaries are primarily maintained by the prevention of hybridization, possibly because premating barriers evolve during early stages of population divergence.
Dopman, Erik B.; Robbins, Paul S.; Seaman, Abby
This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening. The male genital opening is a conspicuous, brown, longitudinal slit located between the two pairs of tubercles. The sex of the adult moth can be determined by examining the ventrocaudal segments of the abdomen. The last segment of the female abdomen is white, compressed laterally and at the tip, and the hairy anal papillae can be seen. In the male, the ventrocaudal end of the abdomen is black and robust. This information will be useful for laboratory and field diagnosis and while working on sex ratios of this important pest of cocoa.
Posada, Francisco J.; Virdiana, Ike; Navies, Maisin; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Hebbar, Prakash
Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.
Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma
Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America.EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1st-, 2nd-, 3rd-, 4th-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium.
Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash
The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero (1993), called the “D-OO diet.” However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15–25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata.
Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping
The maize-derived secondary chemical 6-methyoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) and a tritiated derivative were prepared synthetically for a detailed examination of their toxicity and toxicokinetics in the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. During feeding trials with MBOA incorporated into meridic diets, the mean time population and adult emergence was significantly lengthened at concentrations of 1.5 mg MBOA/g diet and above. Increased mortality occurred at concentrations at 1.5 mg/g and above. A decrease in the sex ratio (female/total) and fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.5 mg/g and above. The latter observations represent new biological effects related to MBOA. In tracer studies, both uptake and excretions of MBOA administered in diets to larvae increased linearly with concentration. Body burden values indicated that the ECB larvae were capable of excreting enough compound to maintain total tissue levels at approximately 50% of the dietary concentration. Total amount of label increased with larval stage, but decreased in adults due to a large amount of label eliminated in the pupal case. In topical application studies, elimination of the label in the frass was rapid, reaching 60% by 6 hr and 82% of applied dose by 24 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was small. The results show that MBOA is toxic to ECB, but the insect has efficient methods for minimizing these effects.
Campos, F.; Atkinson, J.; Arnason, J.T.; Philogene, B.J.R.; Morand, P.; Werstiuk, N.H.; Timmins, G.
Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.
Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping
The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ?5 m?2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m?2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats.
Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.
The two main methods of managing head lice infestation in the UK are head lice lotions and bug busting; there is no conclusive evidence as to which of these methods is most effective. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the bug busting method with lotion. A pilot study in the form of a randomized controlled trial involving two semi-rural general practices was used. Thirty children aged 4-16 years were randomly assigned to two intervention groups. After initial dry combing to detect the presence of head lice, one group was treated with phenothrin lotion. The bug busting group received combing using special combs provided in the bug busting pack and hair conditioner. The main outcome measure was the number of adult live lice and nymphs at day 14. On day 14 in the bug busting group, total eradication of head lice had occurred in eight children; in the lotion group, total eradication had occurred in two children (P=0.052); number needed to treat 2.5 (95% CI: 2.19-2.81). These results suggest that bug busting performed by nurses in a controlled situation is an effective method of managing head lice infestation. PMID:11822849
Plastow, L; Luthra, M; Powell, R; Wright, J; Russell, D; Marshall, M N
Erythrokinetic and plasma protein turnover studies using 51Cr-red cells, 59Fe-transferrin and 125I-albumin, were carried out on young Ayrshire calves naturally infested with the long-nosed sucking louse Linognathus vituli. Throughout the trial none of the animals lost their appetite. Liveweight gain was greater in the uninfested animals but not significantly so. The infestation did not cause the animals to become anaemic, but plasma iron turnover rates were decreased and there was a significant increase in the red cell survival time. The circulating volumes of red cells and plasma were not significantly affected and the fractional catabolic rate of albumin was not markedly altered. At the end of the trial the mean red blood cell and mean total blood content of one louse was evaluated at 0.157 microliters and 0.443 microliters respectively, using 51Cr, and 0.120 microliters and 0.350 microliters respectively, using 59Fe. Using 125I the mean albumin content of one louse was 98.4 micrograms. PMID:1553437
Burns, L M; Titchener, R N; Holmes, P H
Little is known about the neural basis of delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens. Case series and the response to anti-dopaminergic medication indicate disruptions in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum (caudate, putamen), but did not allow for population-based inference. Here, we report the first whole-brain structural neuroimaging study to investigate gray and white matter abnormalities in DI compared to controls. In this study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to investigate gray and white matter volume in 16 DI patients and 16 matched healthy controls. Lower gray matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in left medial, lateral and right superior frontal cortices, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left thalamus, right striatal areas and in lateral and medial temporal cortical regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). Higher white matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in right middle cingulate, left frontal opercular and bilateral striatal regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). This study shows that structural changes in prefrontal, temporal, insular, cingulate and striatal brain regions are associated with DI, supporting a neurobiological model of disrupted prefrontal control over somato-sensory representations. PMID:23791615
Wolf, Robert Christian; Huber, Markus; Depping, Malte Sebastian; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Karner, Martin; Lepping, Peter; Freudenmann, Roland W
Background Effective control of tick infestation and pathogen transmission requires profound knowledge of tick biology in view of their vector function. The particular time of the year when the different tick species start to quest and the favoured sites on the canine host are of major interest. The efficacy of acaricides/repellents to control ticks in the field requires observation. Methods To address these issues, 90 dogs, grouped in “untreated”, “acaricide/repellent” (permethrin) and “acaricide only” (fipronil) animals and subjected to tick infestation under natural conditions in Burgenland (Eastern Austria), were examined. The number and species of ticks occurring during and outside the protection time was evaluated during a period of 11?months and the biting location on the dogs’ skin was recorded. Results Of the 700 ticks collected, the most common species in that particular walking area was Ixodes ricinus, followed by Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna. Regarding the on-host activity, D. reticulatus displayed more infestations in early spring and late autumn, whereas I. ricinus occurred almost one month later in spring and one month earlier in autumn. H. concinna followed a monophasic pattern of activity with a peak in summer. The preferred feeding sites of the ticks on the dogs were on the head, neck, shoulder and chest. This distribution over the dog’s body was not influenced by the use of the drugs, although on the whole fewer ticks (22.5% of all ticks) were found during the protection time. Interestingly, differences occurred with the use of drugs compared to non-protected dogs with regard to the infestation over the year. Acaricide-treated dogs displayed a higher prevalence in April, May and September, whereas dogs of the acaricide/repellent group showed a higher infestation in March, July, October and November. Conclusion The different tick species display different on-dog activity peaks over the year, during which particular canine diseases can be expected and predicted, considering the specific incubation times for each pathogen. The tick species occurring in this study do not seem to choose particular sites on the dogs. Their arrival place seems to represent the attachment and consequently the feeding sites. The use of acaricides leads to a significantly (p<0.01) lower number of infesting ticks but no change of the distribution pattern on the dogs was observed.
Structure-activity relationship (SAR) observations were made for theZ-type European corn borer moth pheromone, (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, and a series of analogs with fluorination in the alcohol portion of the molecule. The attractiveness of these analogs and the pheromone was compared to the electrostatic potential map of the molecular mechanics (MM) minimized lowest energy conformation for each compound. A critical range of electrostatic potential on the protons of the double-bond appears to be essential for optimal acceptor fit and attractiveness. PMID:24233896
Warthen, J D; Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Wakabayashi, N
Warble fly infestation is primarily a myiasis of cattle and goat. However, a nondescript sheep from an endemic region was observed with nodules under subcutaneous tissue. So, this paper reports infestation of a sheep with Przhevalskiana silenus larvae in Jammu region of North India. The myiasis was confirmed with parasite morphology and specific histopathological changes observed in cutaneous myiasis. PMID:25035594
Yadav, Anish; Katoch, R; Godara, R; Borah, M K; Khajuria, J K; Borkataki, S; Ahamed, Irshad
More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental
Grant T. McQuate; Peter A. Follett; Judy M. Yoshimoto
This study evaluated for the first time, ectoparasite infestations on dogs from urban and rural areas of the continental land of the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. In total, 622 dogs were examined for ectoparasite infestations. Overall, 392 (63.0%) were infested with ectoparasites, 154 (51.3%) of 300 urban dogs and 238 (73.9%) of 322 rural dogs. Five species of ectoparasites were found, three ticks [Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma cajennense (F.)], one flea [Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché)], and one louse [(Heterodoxus spininger (Enderlein)]. The frequency of infestation by R. sanguineus tended to be higher in urban than in rural areas, whereas infestations by Amblyomma ticks and C. felis fleas tended to be higher among rural dogs. Louse (H. spininger) infestations were similarly low among all areas. Mixed infestations by at least two species of ectoparasites on the same dog were significantly more frequent on rural than on urban dogs. The most frequent mixed infestation was by R. sanguineus and C. felis, found on 11.4% of the dogs. Further studies are warranted to evaluate canine vector-borne agents in Maranhão, especially because most of the ectoparasites here reported are vectors of major vector-borne diseases, including zoonoses of continental importance. PMID:23802466
Costa, Andrea P; Silva, Arannadia B; Costa, Francisco B; Xavier, Gabriel S; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Guerra, Rita M S N C
A repeated-exposure challenge model was used to evaluate the pour-on formulation of doramectin in preventing the establishment of louse infestations in cattle. Twenty calves cleared of preexisting biting and sucking louse infestations were randomly and equally allocated to either a doramectin-treated or untreated control group, with five replicates per group. Doramectin pour-on was administered topically at a dose rate of 500 microg/kg body weight. Every 14 days, from a pool of seeder calves with infestations of at least 50 biting and 50 sucking lice each, 10 calves were selected and 1 was placed in each replicate pen. Every week during the 112-day study, 9 predilection sites on the doramectin-treated and untreated calves were examined to estimate the louse population density. A calf met the infestation criterion for a louse species when two or more live lice were counted on two or more body regions for two consecutive count days. Because only 4 of 10 untreated calves acquired Solenopotes capillatus infestations, the persistent efficacy of doramectin against S. capillatus was not evaluated. Bovicola bovis and Linognathus vituli infestations in the untreated calves developed shortly after exposure to infested seeder calves. The acquisition of B. bovis and L. vituli infestations in the doramectin-treated group was delayed for 77 days and 105 days, respectively. PMID:10622610
Skogerboe, T L; Smith, L L; Karle, V K; Derozier, C L
Young calves which died on three dairy farms in England and Wales had generalised pallor and heavy infestations of the long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli. Surviving calves had packed-cell volumes, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts below the reference ranges, consistent with anaemia, and they were also heavily infested with lice. No other causes of anaemia were identified. It
A. Otter; D. F. Twomey; T. R. Crawshaw; P. Bates
Ecosystem gas and energy exchanges of invasive plant infestations under different land management practices have been subject of few studies and thus little is known. Our goal is to characterize seasonal changes in net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) through the processes of photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) of a grassland used as pasture yet infested by perennial pepperweed (Lepidium
O. Sonnentag; M. Detto; B. Runkle; M. Kelly; D. D. Baldocchi
The objective of this study was to identify the most common aphid species infesting field grown lettuce in Sweden and to evaluate the use of entomopathogenic fungi to suppress aphid infestations. Colonization of aphids to lettuce fields at two locations was monitored during two seasons. Aspects of the host specificity and pathogenicity of fungal isolates from different genera were tested
To examine the existence of a possible threshold for the domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata, below which transmission becomes unlikely, a census was conducted in 59 Chagas disease endemic communities of El Salvador and Honduras. Entomological and serological tests were conducted targeting 4,083 households and 6,324 children between 6 months and 15 years of age. The overall domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata and seroprevalence among children were 12.9% and 0.49%, respectively. Communities with a domestic infestation rate at 8% or less consistently showed a seroprevalence of 0%. In communities with a domestic infestation rate above 8%, there was a wide range in seroprevalence. A domestic infestation rate of 8% could serve as the possible threshold below which transmission would become unlikely. The implementation of an 8% threshold for determining needs for universal insecticide spraying would lead to a 21% reduction in spraying-related costs.
Aiga, Hirotsugu; Sasagawa, Emi; Hashimoto, Ken; Nakamura, Jiro; Zuniga, Concepcion; Chevez, Jose Eduardo Romero; Hernandez, Hector Manuel Ramos; Nakagawa, Jun; Tabaru, Yuichiro
FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.
Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore
The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite that causes considerable economic losses to cattle breeding. Although R. microplus saliva contains several molecules that interfere with the blood coagulation process, so far the systemic alterations in the host hemostatic system have not been described. This study aims to determine if R. microplus infestation induces any disturbance to the host's hemostatic system. To address these questions, six calves were experimentally infested with 20,000 R. microplus larvae and their blood was collected before and 7, 14 and 21 days post-infestation. Collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregation as well as coagulation (activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time) decreased in infested bovines. Platelet blood count and fibrinogen increased during the course of infestation, probably as a compensatory response. These alterations may play a role in host health status, and show that the host cannot fully counteract the tick anti-hemostatic mechanisms. PMID:18571684
Reck, J; Berger, M; Terra, R M S; Marks, F S; da Silva Vaz, I; Guimarães, J A; Termignoni, C
To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13–22 years in Xi’an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16–18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13–15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (? 2=60.6, P<0.001). Specifically, the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R 2=0.57, moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1, severe infestation OR=10.3). It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.
Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao
In order to develop efficient lures for soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) in China, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate (EE-8,10-12:Ac), the main component of the pheromone of L. glycinivorella, and 12 structurally-related compounds were synthesised in good overall yields, regiospecificities, and stereo-selectivities via coupling reactions catalysed by Li?CuCl?. The effect of different synthetic compounds, alone or in combination with EE-8,10-12:Ac, on numbers of captured L. glycinivorella males was evaluated. EE-8,10-12:Ac, (E)-10-dodecenyl acetate (E-10-12:Ac), (E)-8-dodecenol (E-8-12:OH), tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac), and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z-9-14:Ac) alone displayed different attractiveness to L. glycinivorella males. 14:Ac, E-8-12:OH, E-10-12:Ac, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienal (EE-8,10-12:Ald), (E)-8-dodecenal (E-8-12:Ald), (E)-10-dodecenal (E-10-12:Ald) and Z-9-14:Ac all showed a synergistic effect to EE-8,10-12:Ac at certain dosages. The binary mixtures of EE-8,10-12:Ac and E-10-12:Ald, Z-9-14:Ac,14:Ac, E-8-12:Ald, EE-8,10-12:Ald, E-8-12:OH, or E-10-12:Ac in suitable ratios give 17.00-, 10.98-, 10.67-, 6.73-, 5.54-, 4.30- and 4.50-fold increases in trap catch, respectively, over the standard pheromone lure, and as novel pheromone blends, demonstrated potential use in pheromone traps to monitor or control L. glycinivorella populations in China. PMID:23085661
Hu, Dai-Hua; He, Jun; Zhou, Yi-Wan; Feng, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Xing
Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary trajectories of sexual signals and lead to their divergence, with speciation being the ultimate result.
Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lofstedt, Christer
When physiologically excessive amounts of the female sex pheromone of the European corn borer (ECB) or esters analogous to the pheromone were applied to the antennae of males, their behavioral responsiveness to pheromone in a flight tunnel was significantly impaired for 2 hr. Concurrent quantitative analyses of heptane extracts of the male antennae by gasliquid chromatography showed that the compounds applied to antennae were hydrolyzed and, at 2 and 4 hr posttreatment, little or none of the compound applied or hydrolysis product was detectable in the antennal extracts. After 4 hr of in vivo incubation, male responsiveness to pheromone was restored among moths treated with the analogs but not among moths treated with pheromone. Esterase activity on the antennae was moderately inhibited in vivo by a pheromone analog that is a so-called transition-state esterase inhibitor, 1,1, 1-trifluoro-14-heptadecen-2-one. However, the analog did not inhibit male behavior when it was coevaporated with pheromone in a flight-tunnel assay. Therefore, in the presence of pheromone, the analog did not compete well for esterase or the pheromone receptor. Treating the antennae of intact males with tetrahydrofuran obliterated sex pheromone response capability in males, but the treatment did not significantly attenuate esterase and other catabolic activity of the antennae. Indications are that degradation of esters on the ECB antennae involves substrate-nonspecific esterase activity and other metabolic processes that in turn remove hydrolysis products from the antennae. Maintenance of a male's ability to respond to pheromone is linked to these processes. PMID:24258728
Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Uebel, E G
Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Cultural controls for E. lignosellus were evaluated in preparation for the potential loss of effective insecticides. Field studies conducted in 2006 compared the effects of harvest residues from green-harvested sugarcane (no preharvest burning to remove leaf matter) on E. lignosellus stalk damage and yield. Damage by E. lignosellus was significantly lower in plant cane plots that were covered with harvest residues collected from a green-harvested field before shoot emergence compared with plots without harvest residue. There were no yield differences between plots with and without harvest residues in plant or ratoon sugarcane fields in the 2006 study. The effects of three postharvest tillage levels (conventional, intermediate, and no tillage) were evaluated in preharvest burned and green-harvested fields in 2008 and 2009. Significantly less E. lignosellus damage was observed in the green- versus preharvest burned fields in both years. Intermediate and no-tillage plots had very little damage in green-harvested field. Conventional tillage plots had the greatest damage in the green-harvested field and the lowest damage in the preharvest burned field. In 2008, biomass yield was greater in the intermediate than conventional tillage in the green-harvested field, but it was greater in the conventional than in other tillage levels in the preharvest burned field. These studies demonstrated that cultural controls could greatly reduce E. lignosellus damage in sugarcane without the use of insecticides. PMID:21404853
Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A; Webb, Susan E
A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs and neonates of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae = Bostrychidae), exposed to the insect growth regulator, methoprene, on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with methoprene at the label rate of 0.003 mg [AI]/cm2 when used as a surface treatment in structures was 52.0 ± 7.3% compared to 93.0 ± 3.3% on untreated controls. In the second test, eggs were exposed to a dose-response series of 0.00003 to 0.03 mg[AI]/cm2. Egg hatch was directly proportional to concentration and ranged from 85.0 ± 2.0% on untreated controls to 26.7 ± 8.3% at the highest concentration tested. In the third test, 1 ppm of methoprene was sprayed on long grain rough rice (paddy) (Cocodrie variety), and then individual kernels were cracked and an egg of R. dominica was placed directly on the kernel. On untreated rice kernels, 67.5 ± 11.6% of the eggs hatched and were able to bore inside, and all of these larvae emerged as adults. In contrast, 40.0 ± 5.3% of the eggs placed on treated cracked kernels were able to develop to where the larvae were visible through X-ray detection, but none emerged as adults. In the final test, newly-emerged adults were exposed on rough rice treated with 1 ppm methoprene. The number of eggs from adults on untreated rice was 52.1 ± 4.3 eggs per female, and on treated rice the average egg production was 12.5 ± 1.1 eggs per female. Methoprene applied on a surface or on rough rice affected development of egg hatch also reduced fecundity of parent adults exposed on the treated rough rice.
Arthur, F. H.; Wilde, G. E.; Throne, J. E.; Subramanyam, Bh.
Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems. PMID:24023868
Dafoe, Nicole J; Thomas, James D; Shirk, Paul D; Legaspi, Michelle E; Vaughan, Martha M; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A
The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly
terization of native resistance to stalk tunneling by the European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)), indicative of the identification of the underlying genetic components has importance of this pest and the difficulty in obtaining conclusive been hindered by environmental variation, a laborious results. In this study, 191 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of B73 and lengthy screening process, and the
M. D. Krakowsky; M. Lee; W. L. Woodman-Clikeman; M. J. Long; N. Sharopova
Evaluation of vacuum technology to kill larvae of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in wood
The potential for using vacuum technology to kill larvae of the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bupres- tidae), in solid-wood packing materials (SWPM) and other wood products was assessed. Current regulations require that SWPM be heat treated or fumigated prior to export. Vacuum treatment may be a
Zhangjing Chen; Marshall S. White; Melody A. Keena; Therese M. Poland; Erin L. Clark
European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...
ASOCIACIÓN ENTRE PUDRICIÓN TEXANA (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora) E INSECTOS BARRENADORES DEL NOGAL (Carya illinoensis)* ASSOCIATION BETWEEN COTTON ROOT ROT (Phymatotrichopsis omnivore) AND BORER INSECT OF PECAN TREE (Carya illinoensis)
Euplatypus segnis (Chapuis) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) causes severe damage to pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees at Coahuila, Mexico. The present study was carried out during 1999-2001 in a 90 ha pecan orchard, divided in eight lots, during 1999-2001. The trees were counted and clasified in four categories: attacked by borer insects and with symptoms of cotton root rot (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora); only attacked
José Alfredo Samaniego-Gaxiola; Manuel Ramírez-Delgado; Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval; Urbano Nava-Camberos
Accurate monitoring of an introduced, mass-released microbial control agent is essential in evaluating its persistence and in designing application strategies for insect pest control. As part of our multi-year study on the development and use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the emerald ash borer, a major invasive pest of ash trees, we are determining persistence of the fungus
Louela A. Castrillo; Michael H. Griggs; John D. Vandenberg
The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs develop acquired resistance to adult Ixodes scapularis infestation in an experimental model. Five dogs were each infested with ten mating pairs of ticks every week for 7 consecutive weeks, another five dogs were each infested with ten mating pairs once every 2 weeks for 10 weeks and four dogs served
Joseph A. Gebbia; Edward M. Bosler; Robert D. Evans; Edward M. Schneider
The biosynthesis of female moth sex pheromone blends is controlled by a number of different enzymes, many of which are encoded by members of multigene families. One such multigene family, the acyl-CoA desaturases, is composed of certain genes that function as key players in moth sex pheromone biosynthesis. Although much is known regarding the function of some of these genes, very little is known regarding how novel genes have evolved within this family and how this might impact the establishment of new sex pheromone blends within a species. We have discovered that several cryptic ?11 and ?14 desaturase genes exist in the genomes of the European and Asian corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis and Ostrinia furnacalis, respectively). Furthermore, an entirely novel class of desaturase gene has arisen in the Ostrinia lineage and is derived from duplication of the ?11 desaturase gene and subsequent fusion with a retroposon. Interestingly, the genes have been maintained over relatively long evolutionary time periods in corn borer genomes, and they have not been recognizably pseudogenized, suggesting that they maintain functional integrity. The existence of cryptic desaturase genes in moth genomes indicates that the evolution of moth sex pheromone desaturases in general is much more complex than previously recognized.
Xue, Bingye; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Kajikawa, Masaki; Okada, Norihiro; Roelofs, Wendell L.
Examination of sequence variation at nuclear loci can give insights into population history and gene flow that cannot be derived from other commonly used molecular markers, such as allozymes. Here, we report on sequence variation at a single nuclear locus, the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) locus, in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). The European corn borer has been divided into three races in New York State on the basis of differences in pheromone communication and life history. Previous allozyme data have suggested that there is a small but significant amount of genetic differentiation between these races. The PBP does not appear to be involved in the pheromone differences between these races. Examination of variation at the PBP locus in the three races reveals no fixed differences between races despite high levels of polymorphism. There also appears to have been considerable recombination in the history of the pheromone-binding protein alleles. Observation of both recombination between alleles and lack of significant nucleotide or insertion/deletion divergence between races leads us to suggest that these populations are either recently diverged or have continued to exchange genetic material subsequent to divergence in pheromone communication and life history.
Willett, C S; Harrison, R G
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.
Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun
A Brazilian isolate of Beauveria bassiana (CG425) that shows high virulence against the coffee berry borer (CBB) was examined for the production of subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) cuticle-degrading proteases. Fungal growth was either in nitrate-medium or in CBB cuticle-containing medium under both buffered and unbuffered conditions. In unbuffered medium supplemented with cuticle, the pH of cultures dropped and Pr1 and Pr2 activities were detected in high amounts only at a pH of 5.5 or higher. In buffered cultures, Pr1 and Pr2 activities were higher in medium supplemented with cuticle compared to activities with nitrate-medium. The Pr1 and Pr2 activities detected were mostly in the culture supernatant. These data suggest that Pr1 and Pr2 proteases produced by strain CG425 are induced by components of CBB cuticle, and that the culture pH influences the expression of these proteases, indicating the occurrence of an efficient mechanism of protein secretion in this fungus. The results obtained in this study extend the knowledge about protease production in B. bassiana CG425, opening new avenues for studying the role of secreted proteases in virulence against the coffee berry borer during the infection process.
Dias, B.A.; Neves, P.M.O.J.; Furlaneto-Maia, L.; Furlaneto, M.C.
Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366
Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi
Head louse infestation (HLI) is one of the most frequently occurring parasitic diseases in children. This study was conducted to investigate the socioeconomic and personal factors influencing HLI in the Republic of Korea. A total of 2,210 questionnaires about various factors related to HLI were obtained from children in 17 primary schools throughout the country. The rate of HLI was significantly lower in children who lived together with mother or in a family where both parents worked. In addition, HLI was lower in children whose fathers or mothers were public officers or teachers. However, HLI was higher in children who had small families and washed their hair less often. Education levels of parents and the number of children in family were not significant. Improvement of socioeconomic factors and personal hygiene will be helpful for reducing HLI. PMID:21461277
Sim, Seobo; Lee, Won-Ja; Yu, Jae-Ran; Lee, In Yong; Lee, Seung Hyun; Oh, Soo-Youn; Seo, Min; Chai, Jong-Yil
Clinical course of an isolated infestation of orbital tissues by larvae of helminths parasitizing in dogs (Toxocara canis) has been followed up in 5 patients aged 6-13 years. The process ran a wave-like course for 3-8 months and was characterized by cyclic inflammatory changes in the orbit, presenting by toxic allergic tenonitis, regional lymphadenitis, optic nerve perineuritis with formation of parasitic granuloma detected by computer-aided rhoentgenotomography of the orbit. No clinical or laboratory signs of common inflammatory and allergic reaction in the presence of Toxocara antigen sensitization were observed in any case, which was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies (IgG and IgE). Specific therapy with anti-nematode drug albendazol was effective. PMID:10918851
Dubovskaia, L A; Tumol'skaia, N I; Sidorenko, N I; Kotiasheva, G I; Odoshashvili, E D; Gorbunov, A V
The abundance and ubiquity of ticks from ancient times long ago suggested that they have eluded host immunity. In the last 15 years, several authors have demonstrated suppression of the Th1 responses (cell-mediated immunity), and sometimes the Th2 responses (humoral immunity), subsequent to tick infestations in laboratory and natural models. Although the mechanisms to produce suppression are not well-defined yet, evidences for antigenic competition, lymphocyte cytotoxicity, presence of immuno-inhibiting substances in the saliva, and existence of modulators of cytokines in salivary extracts have been reported. Management of tick-induced immunosuppression is essential to replace tick control by acaricide application with more environmentally sound vaccination. PMID:10596753
Barriga, O O
Aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) infestation on mustard (Brassica juncea L.) account for considerable yield losses in India. Experimental data from six north Indian locations were used to study the role of weather on the incidence and development of mustard aphid. Temperature was found to regulate the aphid appearance and population build-up. In warm humid climate, time to attain peak population was relatively shorter than in cool climates. Aphids appeared mostly when the accumulated thermal time ranged between 810-847 degrees cd. Functional relations proposed in the present investigation between aphid incidence and peak population, using previous weeks weather and pest data for majority of the locations, could be used for taking any prophylactic/control measures. PMID:25004753
Rao, B Bapuji; Rao, V U M; Nair, Linitha; Prasad, Y G; Ramaraj, A P; Chattopadhyay, C
More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to assess host suitability. When all varieties were combined over two field seasons of sampling, fruit infestation rates were 0.021% for oriental fruit fly, 0.097% for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and 0.85% for pyralids (Lepidoptera). Species of Cryptophlebia included both C. illepida (Butler), the native Hawaiian species, and C. ombrodelta (Lower), an introduced species from Australia. Cryptophlebia spp. had not previously been known to attack rambutan. The pyralid infestation was mainly attributable to Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere), a species also not previously recorded on rambutan in Hawaii. Overall infestation rate for other moths in the families Blastobasidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, and Tortricidae was 0.061%. In artificially infested fruits, both species of fruit fly showed moderately high survivorship for all varieties tested. Because rambutan has such low rates of infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp., the two primary internal-feeding regulatory pests of rambutan in Hawaii, it may be amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach to postharvest quarantine treatment. PMID:10902340
McQuate, G T; Follett, P A; Yoshimoto, J M
In the previous decade, millions of acres in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado have been infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) leading to large-scale tree mortality. These vegetation changes can impact hydrological and biogeochemical processes, possibly altering the leaching of natural organic matter to surrounding waters and increasing the potential for harmful disinfection byproducts (DBP) during water treatments. To investigate these adverse outcomes, we have collected water quality data sets from local water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado that have either been infested with MPB or remain a control. Results demonstrate significantly more total organic carbon (TOC) and DBPs in water treatment facilities receiving their source water from infested watersheds as compared to the control sites. Temporal DBP concentrations in MPB-watersheds also have increased significantly in conjunction with the bark-beetle infestation. Interestingly, only modest increases in TOC concentrations were observed in infested watersheds despite more pronounced increases in DBP concentrations. Total trihalomethanes, a heavily regulated DBP, was found to approach the regulatory limit in two out of four reporting quarters at facilities receiving their water from infested forests. These findings indicate that bark-beetle infestation alters TOC composition and loading in impacted watersheds and that this large-scale phenomenon has implications on the municipal water supply in the region.
Mikkelson, K.; Dickenson, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.
Head lice infestation contributes a significant morbidity among schoolchildren in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia. Six schools were randomly selected from three sub-districts of Kuala Krai, Kelantan. A total of 463 eleven-year-old pupils were screened by visual scalp examination and fine-toothed combing. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 35.0% (95% Cl: 30.6, 39.3) with 11.9% inactive, 23.1% active, 18.2% light and 16.8% heavy infestations. The associated factors were girls; family income of RM247 or less; head lice infestation of family member and having four or more siblings. The high prevalence of head lice infestation in this study indicates the need for regular school health program that emphasis on the eradication of head lice. The significant associated factors identified in this study reconfirm the importance of controlling the transmissibility of head lice. Pupils and parents should be informed regarding factors that may facilitate the transmission of head lice. PMID:17120976
Bachok, Norsa'adah; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Awang, Che Wil; Ibrahim, Noor Aini; Naing, Lin
Immunocytochemistry was used to identify possible target antigens in the digestive system of Psoroptes cuniculi. Sera from three recently acutely infested rabbits, from rabbits with a mild long lasting infestation, and from a rabbit with repeated mite infestations and no longer able to maintain a population of P. cuniculi were used to determine any antibody specificity to the mite digestive system. The reactivity of these sera was compared with sera from three un-infested animals. The different pool of sera targeted different mite antigens; in particular, sera from the resistant rabbit and the chronically infested rabbits reacted with gut cells, faecal material and cuticle, while sera from the recently infested rabbits reacted with gut contents, faecal material and cuticle of the parasites but not with gut cells. Finally, sera from un-infested rabbits did not demonstrate any specificity to P. cuniculi antigens reacting only with mite gut contents in a weak manner. These preliminary data suggest the presence of antibodies induced in the host blood by infection, which act against the parasite by binding to antigen at the surface of its gut. PMID:17219221
Rossi, Giacomo; Donadio, Elena; Perrucci, Stefania
Populations of 2 parasitic mites, Dermanyssus hirundinis (Hermann) (63,169 collected individuals) and Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini et Fanzago) (3,425 collected individuals), in 305 penduline tit, Remiz pendulinus L., nests were studied in 1993 and 1994. The nests were divided into 4 groups: nests without eggs, nests with eggs, nests with nestlings, and nests just after fledging. The average percentage of infested nests increased from the nests without eggs to the nests after fledging (at 20% in both years of investigation), and the increase of mite abundance was exponential. Presence of nestlings in the nests stimulated intensive reproduction of parasitic mites. An increasing infestation intensity in nests was observed during the host breeding period. The 2 mite species exhibited similar age structure patterns in the nests of all the groups and during the entire penduline tit breeding period as well. A decrease in the proportion of adult mites (mainly females) and an increase of nymphs (above all of protonymphs) occurred at the time of fledging and at the end of host breeding period. The percentage of the ovigerous females increased in the individual nests, but decreased during the breeding period of penduline tit. The quantitative parameters of D. hirundinis populations in the highly infested nests depended on the individual nidification and nidobiology of the host, whereas the qualitative parameters (age structure) of these populations depended more on abiotic factors and life strategy of the ectoparasite. PMID:9439114
Foliar and soil-drench insecticide treatments were used in attempts to manipulate infestation of cultivated sunflower plants, Helianthus annuus LeConte (Asterales: Asteraceae) by Dectes texanus LeConte, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) a serious pest of sunflowers in the High Plains of the USA. Seed yields were assessed on a per-plant basis for both oilseed and confection type sunflower hybrids in two years. Both insecticide treatments (foliar ë-cyhalothrin and soil-drench carbofuran) improved yield of oilseed sunflowers in 2004, but not in 2005. Yield of confection hybrids was improved by a systemic fungicide (thiophanate methyl) in 2005, but insecticides did not improve yield in either year. Both insecticide treatments gave good control of various stalk-boring insects such as Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), and Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but neither gave better than 50% control of D. texanus. Plants were sorted according to the presence or absence of D. texanus larvae and no reduction was found in total seed weight, seed size, or oil content as a result of infestation. However, mature larvae of D. texanus girdle stalks at the base in preparation for overwintering, a behavior that reduced stalk breakage force by 34–40%, leading to yield losses through lodging. At harvest in 2005, there were differences between cultivars and among treatments in the proportions of D. texanus larvae that had girdled their plants at harvest. It was concluded that further research aimed at reducing crop losses to D. texanus should focus on means of delaying stalk desiccation and/or deterioration, factors that appear to trigger girdling behavior.
Michaud, J.P.; Grant, Angela K.; Jyoti, J.L.
Ligula intestinalis parasite is a cestode that can cause remarkable damages to fishes. SDS-PAGE is one of the methods that can be used to determine the immune serum band polymorphism and immune responses in fishes infested by Ligula intestinalis. This study reports the results of an investigation conducted using SDS-PAGE focusing on immune serum band polymorphism and on the reaction of the immune system in spirlins (Alburnoides bipunctatus) infested by pleurocercoids of Ligula intestinalis parasite. Serum samples from infested spirlins revealed a polymorphism band which differed from that reported in sera of roaches (Rutilus rutilus), a species of the same Cyprinidae family. PMID:24058932
Halimi, Mostafa; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza
In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland.
Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen
Severe tick infestation was found in a hare in a suburban area of Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China. We sampled ticks and identified them based on their morphologic characteristics. Three species, Ixodes sinensis, which is commonly found in China and can experimentally transmit Borrelia burgdorferi, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, and Haemaphysalis longicornis which can transmit Lyme disease were detected with an optical microscope and a stereomicroscope. Risk of spreading ticks from suburban to urban areas exists due to human transportation and travel between the infested and non-infested areas around Nanchang.
Chen, Haiying; Liu, Xiaoqing; Guo, Xuejian; Fu, Renlong
Young calves which died on three dairy farms in England and Wales had generalised pallor and heavy infestations of the long-nosed sucking louse, Linognothus vituli. Surviving calves had packed-cell volumes, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts below the reference ranges, consistent with anaemia, and they were also heavily infested with lice. No other causes of anaemia were identified. It is proposed that heavy infestations with L. vituli should be considered when investigating the cause of anaemia in calves. PMID:12934729
Otter, A; Twomey, D F; Crawshaw, T R; Bates, P
The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring technique for A. auroguttatus is necessary. We assessed the efficacy of two colors of flight-intercept prism traps, the placement of these traps at three heights, and several commercially available lures [Manuka oil, Phoebe oil, and a green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol] for monitoring the flight of adult A. auroguttatus. Landing rates and the densities of D-shaped emergence holes of A. auroguttatus adults were assessed on the lower stems of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, of varying size and crown health classes. Purple flight-intercept prism traps placed at heights of 3 m and 4.5 m caught significantly more female A. auroguttatus than green prism traps. In one experiment, males also responded at a significantly higher level to purple than to green prism traps placed at 3 m height. The addition of commercially available lures significantly enhanced male, but not female, A. auroguttatus trap catch when compared with unbaited control traps. There were no differences among male flight responses to the three lures. A. auroguttatus landing rates and emergence hole densities were significantly greater on the largest-diameter trees (>76.2 cm diameter at breast height) and on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. The annual increment in emergence hole densities was also significantly greater on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. In three trapping studies over multiple years in southern California, the adult flight period began as early as mid-May, peaked in mid-June to early July, and ended in early- to mid-September. To demonstrate the efficacy of the detection method for A. auroguttatus (unbaited purple traps at 3 m height), a delimitation survey conducted from 2009 to 2012 confirmed that the species was only present in San Diego Co., but that the distribution was expanding northward. PMID:24755194
Coleman, Tom W; Chen, Yigen; Graves, Andrew D; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Grulke, Nancy E; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J
Background Sex pheromone communication systems may be a major force driving moth speciation by causing behavioral reproductive isolation via assortative meeting of conspecific individuals. The ‘E’ and ‘Z’ pheromone races of the European corn borer (ECB) are a textbook example in this respect. ‘Z’ females produce and ‘Z’ males preferentially respond to a ‘Z’ pheromone blend, while the ‘E’ race communicates via an ‘E’ blend. Both races do not freely hybridize in nature and their populations are genetically differentiated. A straightforward explanation would be that their reproductive isolation is a mere consequence of “assortative meeting” resulting from their different pheromones specifically attracting males towards same-race females at long range. However, previous laboratory experiments and those performed here show that even when moths are paired in a small box – i.e., when the meeting between sexual partners is forced – inter-race couples still have a lower mating success than intra-race ones. Hence, either the difference in attractivity of E vs. Z pheromones for males of either race still holds at short distance or the reproductive isolation between E and Z moths may not only be favoured by assortative meeting, but must also result from an additional mechanism ensuring significant assortative mating at close range. Here, we test whether this close-range mechanism is linked to the E/Z female sex pheromone communication system. Methodology/Principal Findings Using crosses and backcrosses of E and Z strains, we found no difference in mating success between full-sisters emitting different sex pheromones. Conversely, the mating success of females with identical pheromone types but different coefficients of relatedness to the two parental strains was significantly different, and was higher when their genetic background was closer to that of their male partner's pheromone race. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the close-range mechanism ensuring assortative mating between the E and Z ECB pheromone races is unrelated to the difference in female sex pheromone. Although the nature of this mechanism remains elusive, our results show that it is expressed in females, acts at close range, segregates independently of the autosome carrying Pher and of both sex chromosomes, and is widely distributed since it occurs both in France and in the USA.
Pelozuelo, Laurent; Meusnier, Serge; Audiot, Philippe; Bourguet, Denis; Ponsard, Sergine
Background The study of coffee polysaccharides-degrading enzymes from the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei, has become an important alternative in the identification for enzymatic inhibitors that can be used as an alternative control of this dangerous insect. We report the cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of a mannanase gene that was identified in the midgut of the coffee berry borer and is responsible for the degradation of the most abundant polysaccharide in the coffee bean. Methods The amino acid sequence of HhMan was analyzed by multiple sequence alignment comparisons with BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) and CLUSTALW. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of the enzyme. The mannanase activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS) and the hydrolitic properties were detected by TLC. Results An endo-1,4-?-mannanase from the digestive tract of the insect Hypothenemus hampei was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein in the Pichia pastoris system. This enzyme is 56% identical to the sequence of an endo-?-mannanase from Bacillus circulans that belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 5 (GH5) family. The purified recombinant protein (rHhMan) exhibited a single band (35.5 kDa) by SDS-PAGE, and its activity was confirmed by zymography. rHhMan displays optimal activity levels at pH 5.5 and 30°C and can hydrolyze galactomannans of varying mannose:galactose ratios, suggesting that the enzymatic activity is independent of the presence of side chains such as galactose residues. The enzyme cannot hydrolyze manno-oligosaccharides such as mannobiose and mannotriose; however, it can degrade mannotetraose, likely through a transglycosylation reaction. The Km and kcat values of this enzyme on guar gum were 2.074 mg ml-1 and 50.87 s-1, respectively, which is similar to other mannanases. Conclusion This work is the first study of an endo-1,4-?-mannanase from an insect using this expression system. Due to this enzyme’s importance in the digestive processes of the coffee berry borer, this study may enable the design of inhibitors against endo-1,4-?-mannanase to decrease the economic losses stemming from this insect.
Infestation dynamics of parasitic gnathiid isopods on Caribbean reefs were studied throughout the 24-h diel cycle. Gnathiid infestation on caged longfin damselfish ( Stegastes diencaeus) peaked strongly at dawn, remained low during the remainder of the day, and increased again at night until about midnight. Gnathiids were less abundant during the pre-dawn period. Peak loads on fish retrieved at dawn were the highest reported in any study thus far. The dawn peak consisted almost exclusively of individuals from the smallest size class, whereas nocturnal activity consisted almost exclusively of individuals of the largest size class. Because of the high rates of infestation at night and dawn, and the high variation in parasite loads on fish collected during that time, reduction of parasite infestation may play an important role in the selection of nocturnal and crepuscular shelter holes and settlement sites by reef fishes.
Sikkel, Paul C.; Schaumburg, Collin S.; Mathenia, Jeremy K.
A survey with improved transparent tape method indicated that the prevalence of demodex infestation among 565 urban and rural residents in Shangqiu was 21.2% (120/565). Farmers (32.3%, 53/164) and service employees (33.7%, 29/86) showed higher prevalence than other occupations (P < 0.05). Among age groups, lowest prevalence was found in people under 20 years old (4.8%, 5/105), while the highest in people over the age of 50 (44.4%, 40/90). Prevalence among females, the rural residents and those sharing public toiletries and people with oily skin and acne or other facial sickness was statistically higher than others (P < 0.05). Among the couples with demodex infestation, 79.6% of the couples only had one side infested while both sides got infested in 20.4% of the couples. PMID:23072157
Cui, Jin-Huan; Wang, Chen
The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. PMID:24681362
Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B
The Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, hosts several parasites with zoonotic potential. As this semiaquatic mammal has large ranges across terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, it has the capacity for wide dispersion of pathogens. Despite this, parasites of otters have received relatively little attention. Here, we examine their ectoparasite load and assess whether this is influenced by abiotic or biotic variables. Climatic phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affect weather conditions in northern Europe. Consequently parasite distributions, particularly species with life stages exposed to the external environment, can be affected. We assessed the extent to which inter-annual variations in large-scale weather patterns (specifically the NAO and Central England (CE) temperatures) and host characteristics influenced tick prevalence and intensity. Ectoparasites consisted of a single species, the nidiculous tick Ixodes hexagonus (prevalence = 24.3%; mean intensity = 7.2; range = 1-122; on n = 820 otter hosts). The prevalence, but not intensity of infestation, was associated with high CE temperatures, while both prevalence and intensity were associated with positive phases of the NAO. Such associations indicate that I. hexagonus are most abundant when weather conditions are warmer and wetter. Ticks were more prevalent on juvenile than sub-adult or adult otters, which probably reflects the length of time the hosts spend in the holt where these ticks quest. High tick number was associated with poor host condition, so either poor condition hosts are more susceptible to ticks, or tick infestations negatively impact on host condition. Otters are clearly an important and common host for I. hexagonus, which has implications for vector-borne diseases. This work is the first to consider the impacts of long-term weather patterns on I. hexagonus and uses wild-animal cadavers to illustrate the importance of abiotic and biotic pressures impacting parasitic populations. PMID:23071736
Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Cable, Joanne
Oxidative stress is an imbalance between radical-generating and radical-scavenging activity, resulting in oxidation products\\u000a and tissue damage. This study was aimed to evaluate the status of oxidative stress indices in blood of camels naturally infested\\u000a with S. scabiei. Forty-seven male camels (Camelus dromedaries) were divided according to the extent of the infested area with Sarcoptes scabiei into four groups, mild
Mostafa A. Saleh; Osman M. Mahran; M. Bassam Al-Salahy
A repeated-exposure challenge model was used to evaluate the pour-on formulation of doramectin in preventing the establishment of louse infestations in cattle. Twenty calves cleared of preexisting biting and sucking louse infestations were randomly and equally allocated to either a doramectin-treated or untreated control group, with five replicates per group. Doramectin pour-on was administered topically at a dose rate of
T. L. Skogerboe; L. L. Smith; V. K. Karle; C. L. Derozier
Groups of White Shorthorn calves, stanchioned to prevent self-grooming and given high or low levels of nutrition, were exposed to artificial infestations of the cattle louse, Linognathus vituli. Undernutrition caused a significant (P = 0.03) increase in lice numbers. Lice did not significantly affect percentages of packed cells, lymphocytes, polymorphs and eosinophils or the number of red and white cells. Calves were always able to control lice infestations without self-grooming. PMID:7225006
Callinan, A P
The aim of the present study was to determine antioxidant defence mechanisms in the rat and Hymenolepis diminuta after long-term infestation. We determined levels of oxidative stress markers, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the rat small intestine and in particular parts of H. diminuta. Observed changes in antioxidant enzymes activity in H. diminuta and the rat intestine indicate the defence against parasitic infestation and probably allowed parasite to adapt and live in oxidative stress. PMID:23691585
Czeczot, H; Skrzycki, M; Majewska-Wierzbicka, M; Podsiad, M; Salamatin, R; Grytner-Ziecina, B
Antigens protective against Ixodes scapularis infestations were identified by cDNA expression library immunization (ELI) and analysis of expressed sequenced tags (EST). Three cDNAs protective against larval tick infestations, 4F8, with homology to a nucleotidase, and 4D8 and 4E6 of unknown function, were characterized and obtained as recombinant proteins for immunization studies. Vaccination trials with recombinant proteins demonstrated an effect of
Consuelo Almazán; Katherine M. Kocan; Edmour F. Blouin; José de la Fuente
Since 2000, resurgence in bed bugs has occurred in the U.S. Reports of infestations of homes, hospitals, hotels, and offices have been described. On September 1, 2011, complaints of itching and bites among workers in an office were reported to the Tennessee Department of Health. A retrospective cohort study and environmental assessments were performed in response to the complaints. Canines certified to detect live bed bugs were used to inspect the office and arthropod samples were collected. Of 76 office workers, 61 (80%) were interviewed; 39 (64%) met the case definition. Pruritic maculopapular lesions were consistent with arthropod bites. One collected arthropod sample was identified as a bed bug by three entomologists. Exposures associated with symptoms included working in a cubicle in which a canine identified bed bugs (risk ratio [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.6), and self-reported seasonal allergies (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). Bed bugs represent a reemerging and challenging environmental problem with clinical, psychological, and financial impacts. PMID:24749221
Baumblatt, Jane A Gwira; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Stull-Lane, Annica; Jones, Timothy F
Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858
Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D
Records of domestic animals brought to the Veterinary Entomology Laboratory for diagnosis of suspected lice and mite infestation over a 10 year period were analysed. From a total of 794 suspected cases, 137 (17.3%) and 247 (31.1%) were positive for lice and mange mites respectively. The most common lice species recorded were Linognathus vituli (66.7%) on cattle, L. ovillus (83.3%) on sheep, Haematopinus suis (100%) on pigs and Menacanthus stramineus (54.5%) on poultry. Other lice species recorded included Haematopinus bovis and Solenopotes capillatus on cattle, Damalinia ovis on sheep, Linognathus stenopsis and Menacanthus stramineus on goats, Goniocotes sp. on a horse, Linognathus setosus and Menacanthus stramineus on dogs, Goniodes gigas, Lipeurus caponis, Menopon gallinae and Chelopistes meleagrides on poultry. The most common mite species were Demodex folliculorum on cattle (96.9%) and on dogs (80.8%), Sarcoptes scabiei on pigs (100%) and Notoedres cati (80.3%) on rabbits. Other mite species included Psoroptes communis, Cheyletiella parasitivorax, Ornithonyssus gallinae and Dermanyssus gallinae. PMID:1305335
George, J B; Otobo, S; Ogunleye, J; Adediminiyi, B
A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.
Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.
Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management. PMID:20929774
Hutchison, W D; Burkness, E C; Mitchell, P D; Moon, R D; Leslie, T W; Fleischer, S J; Abrahamson, M; Hamilton, K L; Steffey, K L; Gray, M E; Hellmich, R L; Kaster, L V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Pecinovsky, K; Rabaey, T L; Flood, B R; Raun, E S
Strategies proposed for delaying resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins expressed by transgenic maize require intense gene flow between individuals that grew on transgenic and on normal (referred to as refuges) plants. To investigate gene flow in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), the genetic variability at 29 sampled sites from France was studied by comparing allozyme frequencies at six polymorphic loci. Almost no deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations occurred, and a high stability of allelic distribution was found among samples collected in the same site over two or three different generations, indicating a high stability of the genetic structure over time. The overall genetic differentiation was low at the region and whole country level, suggesting a high and homogeneous gene flow. These results are discussed in relation to the sustainability of transgenic insecticidal maize.
Bourguet, D; Bethenod, M T; Pasteur, N; Viard, F
Bark volatiles from two peach cultivars (Bisco and Redskin) were obtained by vacuum steam distillation and fractionated by preparative gas chromatography. The fractions were then assayed with the electroantenno- gram (EAG) method on antennae of female lesser peachtree borer [Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson)]. With both cultivars, two fractions elicited the largest responses. Analysis of this material by GC-MS revealed a complex mixture made up of aromatic alcohols, esters, ketones, and acids, as well as phenols, aliphatic aldehydes, and aliphatic acids. EAG responses to pure samples of all identified components were recorded, and many of these compounds were found to be quite active. Among the most stimulatory were guaiacol, methyl benzoate, and l-phenyl-1,2-propanedione. Also tested were six-carbon aliphatic aldehydes and alcohols which are components of the foliar tissue of most plants. Of these, 1-hexanol showed moderate activity, while the aldehydes and unsaturated alcohols were only weakly active. PMID:24301543
Andersen, J F; Mikolajczak, K L; Reed, D K
Two isolates of fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were grown on cooked rice using diphasic liquid-solid fermentation in plastic bags to produce and harvest spore powder. The cultures were dried and significant differences were found for isolates and time of harvest. The spores were harvested manually and mechanically and after the cultures were dried for nine days, when moisture content was near 10%. After harvesting, spores were submitted to quality control to assess concentration, germination, purity, moisture content, particle size and pathogenicity to the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Spore productivity on cooked rice was less than 1×1010 spores/g using both manually and mechanically harvesting methodologies. Germination at 24 hours was over 75% and pathogenicity against H. hampei was over 92.5%. This methodology is suitable for laboratory and field studies, but not for industrial production when a high concentration of spores are required for formulation and field applications.
Posada-Florez, Francisco J
Four pheromonal components have been detected in ovipositor washings and volatiles from female sugarcane stalk borers,Chilo auricilius Dudgeon (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), using combined gas chromatography-electroantennography. The components have been identified as (I) (Z)-7-do-decenyl acetate, (II) (Z)-8-tridecenyl acetate, (III) (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, and (IV) (Z)-10-pentadecenyl acetate by comparison of their gas chromatographic behavior with that of synthetic standards. In field tests carried out in northern India during 1982-1984, a combination of II, III, and IV in their naturally occurring ratio (8?4?1) was shown to provide a highly attractive synthetic source for trap use. (Z)-7-Dodecenyl acetate was found to reduce catches of maleC. auricilius, both when dispensed with the other three components and when released from dispensers surrounding a trap baited with the other three components. PMID:24307117
Nesbitt, B F; Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; David, H; Nandagopal, V
Reproductive development of female European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), was investigated and a classification system proposed. Females collected in a blacklight trap during 1982 and 1983 were dissected and their reproductive system examined. Female reproductive systems were divided into six stages based on ovum development within the ovarioles, ovum depletion, ovariole appearance, and fat body color and shape. The female reproductive systems were also staged on the basis of spermatophore appearance. The time necessary to classify a female is also reported. Based on the classification system, the relationship between female age and stage of ovarian development was quantified under three temperature regimes. Females were found to experience a 3- to 5-d preoviposition period before initiation of egg deposition under optimal temperature conditions. This delay between adult emergence and initiation of egg laying corresponded with more advanced ovarian developmental stages collected in blacklight traps and indicates that actively ovipositing females are primarily being collected in blacklight traps. PMID:15279261
Xingquan, Kuang; Calvin, Dennis D; Knapp, Mary C; Poston, F L
The biological activity of the limonoids prieurianin and epoxyprieurianin isolated from Entandrophragma candolei (Harms) (Meliaceae) and their respective acetates was assessed using the gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The compounds exhibited strong antifeedant activity in a diet choice bioassay with epoxyprieurianin acetate being most effective with 48.3 ppm deterring feeding by 50% (DI50) and prieurianin the least effective (DI50 = 91.4 ppm). The effect on growth of larvae was concomitant with the reduced feeding by neonate and third instar larvae. In nutritional assays, all the compounds reduced growth and consumption when fed to larvae without any effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), suggesting antifeedant activity alone. No toxicity was observed nor was there any significant affect on nutritional indices following topical application, further suggesting that prieurianin-type limonoids act specifically as feeding deterrents. PMID:14640569
Koul, Opender; Daniewski, Wlodzimierz M; Multani, Jatinder Singh; Gumulka, Maria; Singh, Gurmeet
Pediculus capitis or head-louse infestation has been a worldwide public-health problem, especially among school-aged children. To determine the intensity of infestation (abundance) among schoolchildren, children's sex and social factors were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence of parasitism. The study included 847 schoolchildren (407 girls, 440 boys) aged 6-12 years, from 12 public rural primary schools of Hamedan, Hamedan Province, Iran. Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. The general prevalence was 6.85% (girls: 13.5%; boys: 0.7%, p<0.001), head lice were much more common in girls than boys. The results showed significant variations in head lice infestation, and factors such as parents' literacy, type of hair, previous infestation, sharing of bed and comb, and care centers, while there was no significant variation between school grade, parents' job, members of family, and pediculosis in the studied areas (p>0.05). Sex and social factors are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures. PMID:17547060
Nazari, Mansour; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Shobeiri, Fatemeh
The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ?99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ?94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks. PMID:24631503
Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L
In Guatemala prior to control initiatives, the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, were Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. This study conducted in 2006 in the department of Chiquimula recorded a high level of T. dimidiata infestation and an absence of R. prolixus in all surveyed communities. In Guatemala, the presence of T. dimidiata as domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic populations results in control difficulties as houses are re-infested from the surrounding environment. Entomological surveys, the current method used to select houses in need of control efforts, are labour intensive and time consuming. A time- and cost-effective way to prioritize houses for evaluation and subsequent treatment is the stratification of houses based on the risk of triatomine infestation. In the present study, 17 anthropogenic risk factors were evaluated for associations with house infestation of T. dimidiata including: wall, floor and roof type. There was an increased likelihood of domestic infestation with T. dimidiata associated with the presence of dirt floors (18/29; OR 8.075, 95% CI 2.13-30.6), uncoated bajareque walls (12/17; OR 4.80, 95% CI 1.35-17.1) and triatomine-like faeces on walls (16/26; OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.19-12.7). These factors could be used to target control of T. dimidiata to communities with an increased risk of being infested. PMID:23597014
Weeks, E N I; Cordón-Rosales, C; Davies, C; Gezan, S; Yeo, M; Cameron, M M
Watershed ecohydrology considers runoff generation and streamflow as a function of vegetation pattern and landscape structure. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance depend on the spatial extent and pattern of change on this ecohydrologic template. Here we investigate this intersection with a focus on a recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic that is increasingly affecting areas in the Rocky Mountains. Our research area was the highly instrumented Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana, USA. We used LiDAR vegetation structure data to isolate treed QuickBird pixels for subsequent classification. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with leaf level measures by developing a spectral library for TCEF vegetation. The spectral library was used to determine which vegetation indices were optimal for differentiating between stages of infestation; thereby maximizing the information obtained from the QuickBird image. These indices were applied to the QuickBird imagery to establish baseline mortality, and the extent and magnitude of infestation across the watershed. In addition, we calculated LiDAR based topography and vegetation structure indices for joint topographic, vegetation, and disturbance analyses. We seek to determine which forest stands are most susceptible to beetle infestation, and how these infestation patterns are related to hydrologic, topographic, and forest ecosystem compositional characteristics. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality across space and time provide a context for assessing the drivers of mountain pine beetle infestation and how outbreak patterns may affect watershed ecohydrology via altered energy, water, and biogeochemical cycles.
Kaiser, K.; McGlynn, B. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; Nippgen, F.; Mallard, J. M.
This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon–Wiener (H) and the Simpson (1-D) indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.
Li, Yingying; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; Wu, Qiong; Fan, Lili; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie
The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected for European corn borer (ECB) tunneling and cell-wall components (CWC) neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) content in leaf-sheath and stalk tissues in a maize recombinant inbred line population derived from inbred lines B73 and B52. Most
Andrea J. Cardinal; Michael Lee
Damage to Japanese cedars caused by the sugi bark borer in plots with low, medium and high planting density (1,700, 3,200, and 7,300 trees\\/ha, respectively) was examined in a 20-year-old sugi plantation. Radial growth and annual ring-width at breast height of three trees sampled per plot were measured by stem analysis. Stand age when each pupal chamber formed on the
Yutaka Yoshino; Yasuyuki Tachiki; Tetsuhiko Yoshimura; Hisashi Hasegawa; Tetsuro Sakai; Toshiaki Owari; Tomonori Mita; Futoshi Nakamura; Osamu Saito; Keisuke Sakata; Yukichi Konohira; Masanori Katsuyama; Nobuhito Ohte; Ken’ichiro Kosugi; Mineko Sasaki; Noritsugu Kuramoto; Yuichiro Hiraoka; Masanori Okamura; Yoshitake Fujisawa; Mitsutoshi Kitao; Yuzuru Mukai; Koji Yoshida; Chisato Takenaka; Katsumi Kojima; Tokihiko Nanjo; Kazuo Shinozaki; Kenji Shinohara; Tomohiro Igasaki
This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H) and the Simpson (1-D) indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae. PMID:23457472
Li, Yingying; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; Wu, Qiong; Fan, Lili; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie
Treatment of plants with thiamine (Vitamin B1) has before been shown to activate plant defence against microorganisms. Here, we have studied the effects of thiamine treatments of plants on aphid reproduction and behaviour. The work was mainly carried out with bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Aphid population growth and aphid acceptance on plants grown from seeds soaked in a 150?M thiamine solution were reduced to ca. 60% of that on control plants. R. padi life span and the total number of offspring were reduced on barley plants treated with thiamine. Healthy aphids and aphids infected with the R. padi virus were similarly affected. Spraying or addition of thiamine at 150?M to nutrient solutions likewise resulted in reduced aphid population growth to ca. 60%, as did plant exposure to thiamine odour at 4mM. Thiamine treatments resulted in reduced aphid population growth also when tested with grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) on barley and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum H.) on pea (Pisum sativum L.). There was no direct effect of thiamine on aphid reproduction or thiamine odour on aphid behaviour, as evaluated using artificial diets and by olfactometer tests, respectively. Two gene sequences regulated by salicylic acid showed higher transcript abundance and one gene sequence regulated by methyl jasmonate showed lower transcript abundance in thiamine-treated plants but not in control plants after aphid infestation. These results suggest that the aphid antibiosis and antixenosis effects may be related to priming of defence, but more studies are needed to explain the effects against aphids. PMID:23787153
Hamada, Afaf M; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V
Background Fifty years of residual insecticide spraying to control Triatoma infestans in the Gran Chaco region of northern Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia shows that vertically coordinated interventions aiming at full coverage have limited effects and are unsustainable. We quantified the spatial distribution of T. infestans domestic infestation at the district level, identified environmental factors associated with high infestation and then explored the usefulness of risk maps for the spatial stratification of interventions. Methods and Findings We performed spatial analyses of house infestation data collected by the National Chagas Service in Moreno Department, northern Argentina (1999–2002). Clusters of high domestic infestation occurred in the southwestern extreme of the district. A multi-model selection approach showed that domestic infestation clustered in areas of low elevation, with few farmlands, high density of rural houses, high mean maximum land surface temperature, large NDVI, and high percentage of degraded and deforested lands. The best model classified 98.4% of the communities in the training dataset (sensitivity, 93.3%; specificity, 95.4%). The risk map evidenced that the high-risk area only encompassed 16% of the district. By building a network-based transportation model we assessed the operational costs of spatially contiguous and spatially targeted interventions. Targeting clusters of high infestation would have reached ?80% of all communities slated for full-coverage insecticide spraying, reducing in half the total time and economic cost incurred by a spatially contiguous strategy. Conclusions and Significance In disperse rural areas where control programs can accomplish limited coverage, consideration of infestation hot spots can contribute to the design and execution of cost-effective interventions against Chagas disease vectors. If field validated, targeted vertical control in high risk areas and horizontal control in medium to low risk areas may provide both a logistically and economically feasible alternative to blanket vertical insecticide spraying when resources are limited.
Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Spillmann, Cynthia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Gurtler, Ricardo E.; Kitron, Uriel
Infestation of larval Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks induced a threefold increase of eosinophils in the peripheral blood of normal WBB6F1- +/+ mice 2 days after tick infestation. In genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F1- W/Wv mice, a threefold increase of blood eosinophils was observed 6 days after the tick infestation. However, marked infiltration of eosinophils was detected in the tick infestation sites of the WBB6F1- +/+ mice but not the WBB6F1- W/Wv mice. When the mast cell deficiency of WBB6F1- W/Wv mice had been rescued locally by intradermal injections of WBB6F1- +/+ mouse-derived cultured mast cells, a rapid increase of blood eosinophils and tissue infiltration of eosinophils were revealed following tick infestation. The intravenous (i.v.) injection of immune spleen or lymph node cells obtained from WBB6F1- +/+ mice 10 days after tick infestation led to significant eosinophilia in naive recipient mice. Treatment with anti-Thy-1.2 or anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and complement (C) completely abolished the eosinophilia; the early response (2 days after tick challenge) is dependent on mast cells at the feeding site, and the late response (6 days after tick challenge) is dependent on T lymphocytes. Since amplified interleukin-5 (IL-5) cDNA was detectable in the spleen cells 4 days after tick infestation, the late response might be mediated by IL-5. The infiltration of eosinophils at the feeding site of skin appeared to be dependent on mast cells. Images Figure 4
Ushio, H; Hirota, S; Jippo, T; Higuchi, S; Kawamoto, K; Kitamura, Y; Matsuda, H
The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin against seven naturally Trixacarus caviae infested male guinea pigs. Multiple skin scrapings of all the seven guinea pigs were found microscopically positive for T. caviae mites. Clinically these animals revealed, more or less denuded, very red often thickened, and crustated cutaneous lesions restricted at the sacral region and back. Doramectin 1 % (w/v) was administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 400 ?g/kg once weekly, which resulted in profound improvements in clinical conditions within 14 days after the first doramectin application. It took almost 28 days for the cutaneous lesions to disappear and to witness partial hair coat regrowth. Two moderately infested guinea pigs required only single injection of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure, while remaining five (one moderately infested and four severely infested) guinea pigs required two injections of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure. No adverse effects were revealed by any of the doramectin treated guinea pigs during the study period. Thus, it can be concluded from the present study that guinea pigs naturally infested by T. caviae mites can be cured safely using two doses of doramectin once in a week. PMID:24431558
Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Ahmed, Quazi Shahir; Sayedda, Kauser; Singh, Krishna Veer
The prevalence of infestation with the head louse, Pediculus capitis, was assessed among the child population, from birth to 10 years old inclusive, of the rapidly expanding Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah. Over a period of two months, 300 consecutive children attending the general practitioner for any reason were examined specifically to identify those infested with head lice: 37 cases of active infestation were found, which is an overall prevalence of 12%. An interesting distribution, however, was noted in respect of age, ranging from less than 2% in the first year of life, rising rapidly to around 30% in ages six to eight years, thereafter declining steadily to about 16% by age 10 years. The distribution of infestation among males and females was broadly similar. These results show a high head lice infestation, particularly in the early school years, where presumably interpersonal contacts are most frequent, facilitating contagious spread. As the head lice is known to spread several viral and rickettsial diseases, such as relapsing fever and typhus, greater efforts should be made towards patient education in hygiene, and towards identifying and treating the disease when found. PMID:3609553
To determine the intensity of Pediculus capitis infestation (abundance) among school children, children's sex and social factors were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence of parasitism. The study included 847 school children (407 girls, 440 boys) between 6 and 12 years, from 12 in public rural primary schools of Hamedan, Province of Hamedan, Iran. Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. The general prevalence was 6.85% (girls: 13.5%; boys: 0.7%, p < 0.001), head lice were much more commonly detected in girls than in boys. The obtained results showed that there was significant variations between head lice infestation and the factors such as parents' literacy, type of hair, previous infestation, sharing of bed and comb and care centers, while there was no significant variation between school grade, parents' job, members of family and pediculosis in the studied areas (p > 0.05). Sex and social factor are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures. PMID:19090174
Nazari, Mansour; Saidijam, Massoud
The prevalence and human risk factors associated with head lice infestation was studied. A total of 860 children, 474 (55.1%) boys and 386 (44.9%) girls, with ages ranged from 6-13 years were critically examined. They were randomly selected from two schoolchildren (one for boys and one for girls) in Jazan Province. The children or their parents were subjected to questionnaire and physical examination by visual inspections of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphs, and/or eggs (nits). A total of 114 children (13.3%) were infested with head lice, 73 (18.9%) girls and 41 (8.6%) boys. The highest infestation rate was recorded in rural area (20.5%). Pediculosis had a negative association with father's education level and frequency of hair washing (p > 0.01). The results indicated that rural residence, sex, long hair, age- group 6- < 8 years old, positive history of previous infestation, sharing of beds and combs, uneducated mother and family overcrowding might be the risk factors for the head lice infestation. PMID:21634249
Bosely, Hanan Aboalkasem; El-Alfy, Nadia M
Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97%) and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6%) apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6%) reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%). DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n=124) had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs. PMID:23193523
Durand, R; Cannet, A; Berdjane, Z; Bruel, C; Haouchine, D; Delaunay, P; Izri, A
Insects are a major stressor in wooded ecosystems, triggering profound changes in the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and net primary productivity of infested forests. The influence of woolly beech aphids (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on nitrogen cycling via throughfall, stemflow, and litter leachates is not well understood. Employing a combination of field sampling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we examined and compared the alterations and partitioning of nitrogen (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) between control (uninfested) and infested trees. Preliminary results suggest that the amount of nitrogen routed to the soil is much lower in throughfall and stemflow of infested trees than control trees. Preliminary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the abaxial surface of sample leaves have demonstrated that the surface microbiology and nitrogen chemistry of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves are notably different. These observations suggest that the aphids alter the phyllosphere ecology to such an extent that they trigger nitrogen uptake by microbes on the leaf surface in the presence of easily available carbon from aphid excretions (i.e., honeydew). A better understanding of nitrogen cycling in stressed forests would advance theories of nitrogen cycling.
Levia, D. F.; Michalzik, B.
We performed the spectral analysis of ultraweak-photon emissions from kidney bean leaves infested by the kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). We also measured the spectrum of photon emissions from artificially wounded leaves, and compared the result with spectral data obtained from the mite-infested leaves. Photon emissions from both the mite-infested and wounded leaves primarily consisted of wavelengths ranging from 500 to 700 nm, and photon intensity at these wavelengths increased steadily after perturbation. In contrast, photon intensity of the mite-infested leaves at 300-400 nm exhibited only differential changes; it began increasing at 20 h, and showed two peaks at 72 and 120 h. We previously reported that photon emissions from infested leaves might be the result of both insect damage and plant self-protection. Plant defensive responses, such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), are induced by insect elicitors via insect damage. Therefore, photon intensity at 500-700 nm might be related to direct injury (physiological stress), while photon intensity at 300-400 nm may signify a physiological (biochemical)-action-related defensive response.
Kawabata, Ryuzou; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi
Colonization of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria was investigated in pepper blossoms and the relationship between inoculum concentrations and seed infestation was determined. Inoculation of blossoms resulted in asymptomatic pepper fruit. However, real-time polymerase chain reaction detected X. euvesicatoria in 39% of the seed lots assayed and viable colonies were recovered from 35% of them. Successful transmission occurred in 16% of the seed lots tested. In a separate experiment, X. euvesicatoria reached populations of up to 1 × 10(5) CFU/blossom on stigmas 96 h after inoculation. Bacteria colonized stylar and ovary tissues with populations ranging from 1 × 10(5) to 1 × 10(6) CFU/blossom 96 h after inoculation. A positive correlation existed between inoculum concentration and percentage of infested seedlots. Blossoms inoculated with Acidovorax citrulli also resulted in infested pepper seedlots. Furthermore, A. citrulli colonized pepper blossoms significantly better than X. euvesicatoria by 96 h postinoculation. It was concluded that pepper blossoms can be a potential site of ingress for X. euvesicatoria into seed, and blossom colonization may be involved in pepper seed infestation. Data also indicated that seed infestation via blossoms may be nonspecific because nonhost plants can be colonized by incompatible pathogens. Thus, host-pathogen interactions may not be important for bacterial ingress through blossoms. PMID:24111576
Dutta, B; Gitaitis, R; Sanders, H; Booth, C; Smith, S; Langston, D B
Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42 130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34–3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18 477, suggesting that at least 18 477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered.
Zhao, Ya-e; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-ping; Ma, Jun-xian
The damage caused by the pest to crop is well known. The major aspects of remote sensing are timely estimates of agriculture crop yield, prediction of pest. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility and potential application of microwave remote sensing for detection of pest infestation within sorghum field. The studies were made on crop sorghum (Meethi Sudan) that is a forage variety and the pest observed was a species of grasshopper. The beds of crop sorghum were specially prepared for pests as well as microwave scattering measurements. In first phase of study, dependence of occurrence of pests on sorghum plant parameters (i.e., crop covered moist soil (SM), plant height (PH), leaf area index (LAI), percentage biomass (BIO), total chlorophyll (TC)) have been observed and analyzed and it was noticed that pests were more dependent on sorghum chlorophyll than other plant parameters, while climatic conditions were taken as constant. An empirical relationship has been developed between occurrence of pests and TC with quite significant values of coefficient of determination ( r2 = 0.82). These crop parameters are easily assessable through microwave remote sensing and therefore they can form the basis for prediction of pest remotely. In the second phase of this study, several observations were carried out for various growth stages of sorghum using scatterometer for both like polarizations (i.e., HH- and VV-) and different incidence angles at X-band (9.5 GHz). Linear regression analysis was carried out to obtain the best suitable incidence angle and polarization to assess the sorghum TC. VV-pol gives better results than HH-pol and incidence angle should be more than 40° for both like polarizations for assessing the sorghum TC at X-band. A negative correlation has been obtained between TC and scattering coefficient with the r2 values (0.69 and 0.75 for HH- and VV-pol, respectively). The TC assessed by the microwave measurements was helpful to estimate the occurrence of pests on sorghum. Based on both phase of study an algorithm is proposed to estimate the number of pest on sorghum by remote sensing method. There is a quite good agreement between observed occurrence of pest and assessed occurrence of pest.
Singh, D.; Sao, R.; Singh, K. P.
Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of crude sex pheromone gland extracts revealed that virgin Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerck), currant borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) females, produced 6 compounds, structurally related to sex pheromone components of clearwing moths. By comparison of retention times and mass spectra of natural products with corresponding properties of synthetic standards, these compounds were identified as: (2E,13Z)-octadeca-2,13-dien-1-yl acetate (E2,Z13-18:OAc), (3E,13Z)-octadeca-3,13-dien-1-yl acetate (E3,Z13-18:OAc), (13Z)-octadec-13-en-1-yl acetate (Z13-18:OAc), (2E,13Z)-octadeca-2,13-dien-1-ol (E2,Z13-18:OH), (13Z)-octadec-13-en-1-ol (Z13-18:OH) and octadecan-1-ol (18:OH) in the ratio 100:0.7:2.7:3.2:traces:traces. The first 3 compounds were previously known to occur in the sex pheromone gland extracts of currant borers, while the last 3 chemicals are now reported for the first time. Trapping tests carried out in the black currant field revealed that E2,Z13-18:OAc, when tested separately, attracted S. tipuliformis males, while addition of E3,Z13-18:OAc to the main component increased the effectiveness of E2,Z13-18:OAc over seven times. The attractiveness of 6 component lures did not differ significantly from the one of the binary mixture, confirming that E2,Z13-18:OAc and E3,Z13-18:OAc in the ratio100:0.7 are essential sex pheromone components of S. tipuliformis. Trapping tests carried out at the dwelling place of Synanthedon scoliaeformis (Borkhausen) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that, in addition to intraspecific synergistic effect, E3,Z13-18:OAc increased the specificity of the pheromone signal of S. tipuliformis, acting by intraspecific mode as an attraction antagonist against S. scoliaeformis males. By this way, it ensured the specificity of the sex attraction signal of the currant borer. Consequently, both compounds E2,Z13-18:OAc and E3,Z13-18:OAc have to be present in pheromone formulations used for monitoring and/or control of S. tipuliformis to avoid effecting non-target species. Other compounds identified from the sex pheromone gland of S. tipuliformis did not show any significant interspecific activity for males of S. scoliaeformis, however, they provide a basis to achieve specificity of a pheromone signal of S. tipuliformis and could act as attraction antagonists against other clearwing moth species which, like S. tipuliformis, employ E2,Z13-18:OAc as their sex pheromone component. PMID:16729590
Moz?raitis, Raimondas; Karalius, Vidmantas; B?da, Vincas; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits.
Dutra, Juliana M.F.; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; de Souza, Sheila Mendonca; Araujo, Adauto
We report here a case of Marjolin's ulcer developing in a long-standing, inadequately treated, chronic ringworm infestation of the lower limb. A 35-year-old female patient with a ten-year history of a chronic ringworm infestation had developed a nonhealing ulcer in an area of infestation on the right leg. A biopsy revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma associated with the ringworm infection. A below-knee amputation by an inguinal block dissection was performed. We conclude that proper and timely treatment of fungal infections of the skin is needed to allow for healing of dermal infections and thus the prevention of the disastrous consequences that recurrent mechanical trauma from scratching of the affected area, leading to occult malignancy, which may occur in a small number of patients. PMID:21139833
Ashraf, Mohammad; Biswas, Jaydip
A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412
Dutra, Juliana M F; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; Souza, Wanderley de; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Souza, Sheila Mendonça de; Araujo, Adauto
A 12-yr-old female Victoria crowned pigeon (Goura victoria), acquired from a private aviculturalist, was diagnosed with a flea infestation during a quarantine examination. The fleas were embedded around the face and throat and were identified as sticktight fleas (Echidnophaga gallinacea). Despite the sticktight fleas' worldwide distribution and broad host range, there is a paucity of reports on flea infestations and their treatment in zoo and exotic pet birds. Although this parasite has the potential to induce morbidity and mortality, no feather loss, localized dermatitis, or anemia was noted in response to the ectoparasitism. The infestation was treated with manual removal of fleas combined with topical malathion dusting and environmental treatment. Subsequent recheck exams did not reveal any fleas on this pigeon or on any of the other birds housed in the same room. This case illustrates the importance of quarantine procedures for newly acquired birds as part of responsible captive management of a large, multispecies bird collection. PMID:18229869
Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Hayden, Elizabeth R; Greiner, Ellis C
This study has been conducted to determine the efficacy level of cypermethrin on the 14 calves that were naturally infested by Linognathus vituli and Bovicola bovis. A 10% solution of cypermethrin was diluted to 0.1% and applied to infested animals twice. All L. vituli were found to be dead after the fourth day of the first application and the second day of the second application. After the first day of application, all of the B. bovis were found dead at the end of each treatment. This study confirmed the protective efficacy of cypermethrin against L. vituli and B. bovis showing that infestation is prevented for a period of about 24-35 days following administration of cypermethrin at this dose. PMID:17918062
Okursoy, Semra; Muz, Mustafa Necati; Selver, M Melih
Changes in serum gamma globulin levels, numbers of replete female ticks and engorged tick mass were used as parameters to monitor the acquired immune response (antibody mediated immune response) elicited by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations. Three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations were applied to South African Indigenous goats (Nguni), Saanen goats and cross-bred goats (Saanen goats crossed with South African Indigenous goats [Nguni]) under laboratory conditions. During the three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations the serum gamma globulin levels increased in all three breeds, whilst the mean replete female tick numbers and engorged tick mass decreased. Even though all three goat breeds exhibited an acquired immune response, the South African Indigenous goats (Nguni) response was significantly higher than that of the Saanen and cross-bred goats. However, the acquired immune response elicited by Saanen goats was significantly lower when compared with cross-bred goats. PMID:24396916
Gopalraj, Jeyanthi B P; Clarke, Francoise C; Donkin, Edward F
Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable. PMID:23068169
Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L
Background We conducted a study to evaluate efficacy and safety of dimeticone 4%, a lotion with no conventional insecticide activity, to cure lice infection and to prevent spread of infestation/reinfestation by prophylaxis of classmates. Methods: The study is carried out between April 2008 and June 2008 in Petranova International Institute in Rome. A total of 131 children, aged 3 to 13 years (median age: 7 years) were included in the study. All participants received treatment with dimeticone 4% that was applied both to children with the infestation, to cure it, and to all classmates, to prevent the spreading of the infestation. They have been controlled after 7 and 30 days from the application of dimeticone. Results: At baseline we found a positivity of lice infestation in 23/131 children (17.6%), whereas 108/131 (82.4%) children were free from lice. After 7 days of treatment with dimeticone 4%, 7/23 (30.4%) positive children still had lice infestation, with a cure rate of 69.6% (16/23). At 30 days 26/131 children (19.9%) were infested: 15 children were lice free at baseline whereas 11 had lice at both evaluations; the cure rate amounted to 52.2% (12/23). The reinfestation rate (percentage of positive children that showed negativity at baseline) was 5.3% (7/131) at 7 days and 11.5% (15/131) at 30 days. Conclusion: The lower reinfestation rate showed in our trial suggests that this approach could be effective in reducing spreading of head lice in small communities. More studies are needed to confirm our findings.
FERRARA, Pietro; DEL BUFALO, Francesca; ROMANO, Valerio; TIBERI, Eloisa; BOTTARO, Giorgia; ROMANI, Lorenza; MALAMISURA, Monica; IANNIELLO, Francesca; CENI, Laura; MOTTINI, Giovanni; GATTO, Antonio
In July 2008, owners of seasonal camps in Vermont and Maine were exposed to large numbers of questing ticks after opening their camps for the season. Examination of collected specimens revealed that the camp in Vermont was infested with Ixodes cookei Packard, and the camp in Maine was infested with Ixodes marxi Banks. In both instances, numerous tick bites were reported by residents. Both camps were also occupied by wildlife during the off-season, primarily squirrels (Maine) and skunks (Vermont). Subsequent samples from the Vermont site were tested for the presence of Powassan encephalitis virus, though no viral activity was detected. PMID:19925041
Lubelczyk, C; Cahill, B K; Hanson, T; Turmel, J; Lacombe, E; Rand, P W; Elias, S P; Smith, R P
Pediculosis capitis (head lice) is an infestation that affects many children. Although, there are a number of different treatment modalities, at the present study, we investigated the efficacy of permethrin in the treatment of pediculosis capitis in children. This study was carried out in 3 village primary schools in the Kayseri region involving 185 of 712 school children infested with Pediculus humanus capitis during a survey conducted in March 2001. It was found that 173 (97.29%) of the 178 students who applied the prescribed medications were cured, indicating that interestingly 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada) is an effective and safe treatment choice for pediculosis capitis. PMID:16523649
Yazar, Suleyman; Sahin, Izzet
A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi. PMID:24341764
Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè
A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi.
Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemarie
This study was conducted to show the effectiveness of a novel formulation of fipronil in a spot-on formulation for the therapeutic and preventive control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus in naturally infested dogs. Ticks on all dogs were counted at the moment of treatment and weekly after treatment (therapeutic efficacy) or infestation (preventive efficacy). The profile of the therapeutic efficacy for Rhipicephalus sanguineus suggested that the formulation was able to control the Ixodid species for at least 42 days after the treatment. PMID:24252969
Fischer, Viviane Labs; Heidmann, Maycon Junior; Faria, Eduardo Ferreira; Rizzi, Vanessa Garcia; Bragaglia, Gabrielle Nellis; Nascimento, Cristiano Grisi do; Castro, Bruno Gomes de
Background During the past decade, Chorioptes mites occupying the outer ear canals have been a common finding at routine necropsies of moose (Alces alces) in Sweden, but neither the taxonomy of the mites nor lesions from the infestation have been investigated. In this study, the mites are characterized by morphological and molecular techniques, and the histopathology of the skin of the outer ear canal is described. Methods External auditory meatuses from 53 necropsied moose were examined for the presence of Chorioptes, and samples from outer ear canals were taken for histopathological and microbiological examination. A proportion of the mites from each moose was identified to species. The DNA was extracted from mites from three moose, and their ITS-2 sequences were determined; these sequences were compared phylogenetically to sequences from other Chorioptes taxa. Results Chorioptes mites were found in 43 (81%) of the 53 moose. The mites had morphological and genetic characteristics distinct from those of C. texanus and C. bovis, the two species generally accepted within the genus. Morphology also did not argue for a diagnosis as C. crewei, C. mydaus or C. panda. On histopathology, lesions were characterized by a hyperplastic perivascular to interstitial dermatitis with epidermal hyperkeratosis and crust formation. Dermal inflammatory infiltrates were composed of mixed T- and B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, whereas eosinophils were notably uncommon. Staphylococcus aureus was grown from the infested epidermis of five of 14 examined moose. Conclusion Chorioptes mite infestation was frequently detected in the outer ear canals of moose in Sweden. The mites were evidently pathogenic, being associated with inflammatory lesions of the external auditory meatus. Our studies indicate infestations with a previously undescribed Chorioptes species.
Hestvik, Gete; Zahler-Rinder, Monika; Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Lindberg, Ronny; Mattsson, Roland; Morrison, David; Bornstein, Set
Background Pediculosis (head lice) is considered as one of the most common health problems of the students in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence rate of the infestation in the schools of Gonabad City (south of Khorasan-e-Razavi Province) to prevent its outbreak by on-time planning. Methods In this retrospective-descriptive study, data were collected from the files of recorded health examinations of 55,997 female and male students of Gonabad City. We surveyed the infested cases to Pediculus capitis and P. corporis during 2006-2010. We used schools health unit of the city health center and review reports of infestation to head lice and body lice in cumulative centers. Results The reports showed 398 cases of P. capitis and 3 P. corporis infestations, which 91.5% were female (P <0.05). Generally 46.4% were from rural and 63.6% were from urban areas (P <0.05). 71.3% of the infestation to head lice was from the last month and the rest had recently been infested. The most age group being infested were students of 6-10 years old and the lowest were >17 yr. Conclusion Pediculosis infestation has become a major health problem in primary school students in south of Khorasan-e-Razavi.
Riabi, H Ramezani Awal; Atarodi, AR
Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scab-a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4 weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3 days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56 days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment. PMID:24176040
Wells, Beth; Innocent, Giles T; Eckersall, Peter D; McCulloch, Eilidh; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Burgess, Stewart T G
Clinical observation has indicated that Psoroptes ovis mites provoke cutaneous inflammation within hours of experimental infestation, but the nature of this reaction has not been described. After infestation of naive sheep with ovigerous P. ovis mites, significant influxes of eosinophils (P<0.004) and neutrophils (P<0.001) were detected within 24 h. A significant (P<0.001) increase in mast cell numbers was observed by 96 h post-infestation. In addition, marked degenerative and proliferative epidermal lesions were evident 24 and 96 h, respectively, after infestation. The influence of the later, adaptive response on the cellular infiltrate at the advancing margin of the lesion and the original site of infestation was also monitored. Mast cell numbers were greatest at 21 days while recruitment of eosinophils and neutrophils was maximal 63 days after infestation. Lesional severity was particularly pronounced from 42 to 63 days after infestation, but significant resolution had occurred by 84 days. Pathological changes at the advancing margin of the lesion were more severe than at the initial site of infestation, and this was reflected by the numbers of mites present. These data suggest that P. ovis elicits an early innate cutaneous response that is subsequently augmented by the development of an adaptive immune response, the intensity of which corresponds to the local population density of mites. PMID:15511540
van den Broek, A H M; Else, R W; Huntley, J F; Machell, J; Taylor, M A; Miller, H R P
The dog is considered to be the natural host of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and is unable to develop appreciable resistance even after repeated feedings. The guinea pig develops strong resistance after one infestation with adult ticks. Antibody (IgG) titres against tick salivary gland antigens (SGAs) and blood leukocyte numbers in dogs and guinea pigs undergoing experimental R. sanguineus tick infestations were
Matias P. J. Szabó; Vanessa L. Aoki; Françoise P. S. Sanches; Lúcia P. T. C. T. Aquino; Marcos V. Garcia; Rosângela Z. Machado; Gervásio H. Bechara
... 2009-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested...FEVER IN CATTLE Â§ 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested...or treating required. The litter and manure removed from cars, boats, or...
Two ruminant acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), were evaluated as serum biomarkers (BMs) for sheep scab–a highly contagious ectoparasitic disease caused by the mite Psoroptes ovis, which is a major welfare and production threat worldwide. The levels of both APPs increased in serum following experimental infestation of sheep with P. ovis, becoming statistically significantly elevated from pre-infestation levels at 4 weeks post-infestation. Following successful treatment of infested sheep with an endectocide, Hp and SAA serum levels declined rapidly, with half lives of less than 3 days. In contrast, serum IgG levels which specifically bound the P. ovis-derived diagnostic antigen Pso o 2 had a half-life of 56 days. Taking into account pre-infestation serum levels, rapidity of response to infestation and test sensitivity at the estimated optimum cut-off values, SAA was the more discriminatory marker. These studies illustrated the potential of SAA and Hp to indicate current sheep scab infestation status and to augment the existing Pso o 2 serological assay to give disease-specific indications of both infestation and successful treatment.
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS Â§ 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS Â§ 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation...purposes other than human food. (a) Livers condemned on account of hydatid...
The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation.
Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.
Crops producing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted and enable management of key insect pests while reducing the use of conventional insecticides. However, the evolution of Bt resistance could diminish these benefits. Fitness costs of Bt resistance occur in the absence of Bt toxin when individuals with resistance alleles show a reduction in fitness relative to susceptible individuals, and they can delay the evolution of resistance. Ecological factors including host-plant variety can affect the magnitude of fitness costs, and consequently, the degree to which fitness costs delay resistance. In this study, we measured fitness costs of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1F in the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using Cry1F-resistant and Cry1F-susceptible strains sharing a similar genetic background. Fitness costs were tested on three lines of maize, Zea mays L., by measuring larval survival and development in two greenhouse experiments with plants in either the vegetative or reproductive stage. Both experiments showed that maize line significantly affected larval survival and developmental rate. However, larval survival, mass, and developmental rate did not differ between the Cry1F-resistant and susceptible strains, indicating a lack of fitness costs of resistance to Cry1F for the larval fitness components measured in this experiment. Future experiments should test for fitness costs of Cry1F resistance affecting survival to adulthood and adult life-history parameters. PMID:24772559
Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L; Abel, Craig A; Coates, Brad S; Spencer, Terrence A; Gassmann, Aaron J
Isomers of [11,12-(3)H2]-11-tetradecenyl acetate (57 Ci/mM) were synthesized. Behavioral assay of the two compounds using Z- and E-type European corn borer (ECB) males showed that introduction of tritons into the double bond of the pheromone caused a significant isotope effect in the E-type ECB but not in the Z-type ECB. Measurements of tritium associated with the male antennae after a 3-min exposure showed that radioactivity equivalent to 10(-7) mol pheromone was adsorbed onto male antennae. Time-course in vivo metabolic studies with picogram amounts of compound applied topically to antennae of E- and Z-type males and Z-type females showed that they metabolized pheromone similarly but females degraded pheromone more slowly than males. Pheromone was hydrolyzed, and the only other major radiolabeled metabolite observed by combined high-pressure liquid chromatography-radiodetection was tritiated water. Capillary gas chromatography and radiomonitoring permitted detection of a trace amount of 11-tetradecenoic acid, which indicated alcohol oxidase activity is associated with the antennae. Evidence shows that clearing of pheromone from the ECB male antennae involves hydrolysis and oxidation of the alcohol to fatty acid, which in turn is degraded, probably via ?-oxidation, to carbon dioxide and water. PMID:24254937
Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Uebel, E C
Some lepidopteran lysozymes have been reported to display activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, in contrast to most lysozymes that are active only against Gram-positive bacteria. OstrinLysC, a c-type lysozyme, was purified from the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and shows activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation and used in a homology cloning strategy. The gene coding for OstrinLysC contains three exons and two introns. The expression profile of the OstrinlysC gene was examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Following injection of the larvae with bacteria, the OstrinlysC gene is strongly up-regulated in immune tissues. Transcripts were also detected in gut tissue. After feeding the larvae with bacteria, OstrinlysC transcripts increased in immune tissues. A very low level of transcript abundance was also detected in gut tissue. These results suggested that the OstrinlysC gene is involved in immune responses. The three dimensional structure of OstrinLysC was predicted. Based on comparison of the 3-D structure of OstrinLysC with that of silkworm lysozyme and chicken lysozyme, we hypothesize that the positive charge-rich surface and the short loop-2, which is close to the cluster of hydrophobic residues, may play important roles in the interaction with the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls.
Wang, Wen-Xian; Wang, Yi-Peng; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Dang, Xiang-Li; Tian, Jin-Huan; Yi, Hui-Yu; Li, Yi-Feng; He, Xiao-Fang; Cao, Yang; Xia, Qing-You; Lai, Ren; Wen, Shuo-Yang
Diatraea saccharalis F. is one of the greatest pests of the sugar cane culture. This report aimed to characterize the germarium region of the sugarcane borer by light and transmission electron microscopy, emphasizing the morphological steps of the ovarian cluster formation. In the germarium of this insect, four zones could be morphologically identified during the cluster formation. In the most apical end of each ovariole--Zone I--the germ line stem cells undergo complete mitotic division, originating the cystoblasts. In the Zone II, each cystoblast produces a group of eight cells, the cystocytes, which are interconnected by the ring canals. Clusters containing all the cystocytes in the meiosis, characterizes the Zone III. Germ cells with ultrastructural features of apoptosis are also detected in this Zone. In the Zone IV the cystocytes differentiate, morphologically, into one oocyte and seven nurse cells. Interstitial somatic cells and pre-follicle cells exhibit, in their cytoplasm, heterogeneous vacuoles containing degenerated cellular fragments, characterized as apoptotic bodies. Our results pointed out to the morphological evidences related with important control mechanisms for new clusters/follicles production and for the cellular arrangement into the germarium, resulting from the programmed cell death. We believe that the morphological characterization of ovarian cluster formation in D. saccharalis provided valuable information for the understanding of the initial steps of oogenesis and contributed for the knowledge of the cellular mechanisms related with the oocyte production and with reproduction in insects. PMID:17144137
Santos, Daniela C; Gregório, Elisa A
Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and ?-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-?-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.
Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams
Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for developing an understanding of past and potential ROB damage in the Ozark Mountains. We categorized forest change using a normalized difference water index (NDWI) applied to multitemporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (1990, 2001, and 2006). Levels of decline or growth were categorized using simple statistical thresholds of change in the NDWI over time. Corresponding decline and growth areas were then observed in situ where tree diameter, age, crown condition, and species composition were measured within variable radius plots. Using a machine learning decision tree classifier, remote sensing-derived decline and growth was characterized in terms of in situ observation. Plots with tree quadratic mean diameter at breast height ?21.5 cm were categorized remotely as in severe decline. Landsat TM/ETM+-based NDWI derivatives reveal forest decline and regrowth in post-ROB outbreak surveys. Historical and future Landsat-based canopy change detection should be incorporated with existing landscape-based prediction of ROB hazard.
Jones, Joshua S.; Tullis, Jason A.; Haavik, Laurel J.; Guldin, James M.; Stephen, Fred M.
The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition.
Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Su; Ridsdill-Smith, James; Liu, Tong-Xian
Students will practice basic patterning skills by doing the activities below. First, play the drum and create various patterns by clicking the squares. Next, create a pattern using the crazy pattern machine. Finally, click pattern link. When it opens click on the word patterns in the green box on the left, and then click the first pattern listed under basic patterning. Complete the pattern that ...
This website application provides practice with repeating patterns and special attention to recognizing the pattern unit by asking the student what is the missing part in the middle pattern or what goes next in the pattern. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.
Arsenic hyperaccumulation by Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake fern) may serve as a defense mechanism against herbivore attack. This study examined the effects of arsenic exposure (0, 5, 15 and 30mgkg?1) on scale insect (Saissetia neglecta) infestation of P. vittata. Scale insects were counted as a percentage fallen from the plant to the total number of insects after 1 week
Shiny Mathews; Lena Q. Ma; Bala Rathinasabapathi; Robert H. Stamps
Myocoptes musculinus is the most common fur mite identified among laboratory mice; infested mice, in addition to dermatological signs, may also be prone to secondary infections, affecting the outcome of a research trial. This trial was conducted in order to assess the safety and efficacy of a single topical administration of eprinomectin (5mg/kg BW) in a naturally infested laboratory mice colony. A safety trial was conducted on 20 uninfested pregnant females assigned to two groups, receiving eprinomectin and mineral oil, respectively. The mice were examined daily for signs of illness or toxicity; nests were individually weighted at 21 and 28 days postpartum. No acute toxicity was observed, all treated females gave full term delivery and number and mean weight of newborns ranged in the physiological values. To evaluate the efficacy, 20 naturally infested non-pregnant females were divided into two groups, treated as in the safety trial. Animals were observed daily for 15 min until 21 days post-treatment (DPT) and a "pruritus index" (PI: scratching and gnawing acts/mouse/min) was calculated. Pelage examination was performed on DPT 7, 14, 21 and 50. The "PI" was significantly lower in the treated group and mites were eradicated from all infested animals. A single topical administration of eprinomectin at a (high) dosage of 5mg/kg BW was safe and effective to control M. musculinus in mice. PMID:25054506
Rambozzi, Luisa; Rossi, Luca; Min, Anna Rita Molinar; Osella, Luca; Bellardi, Sergio; Marchetti, Roberto; Pollicino, Paolo
Tamarisk, also known as salt cedar (Tamarix sp.) is a prevalent invasive species that has infested many riparian areas in the southwestern United States. Mature salt cedar plants are resistant to high stress environments and fare well in drought conditions, mainly due to their extensive root systems that derive much of their sustenance from the water table rather than surface
D. Sengupta; C. Geraci; S. Kolkowitz
The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.
Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.
SUMMARY Finding lice can be difficult in head louse infestation. We compared a new louse detection comb with visual inspection. All children in two rural Turkish schools were screened by the two methods. Those with lice were offered treatment and the results monitored by detection combing. Children with nits only were re-screened to identify latent infestations. Using visual inspection we found 214/461 children (46%) with nits but only 30 (6·5%) with live lice. In contrast detection combing found 96 (21%) with live lice, of whom 20 had no nits. Detection combing was 3·84 times more effective than visual inspection for finding live lice. Only 10/138 (7·2%) children with nits and no lice were found to have active infestation by day 16. We found that the detection comb is significantly (P<0·001) more effective than visual screening for diagnosis; that nits are not a good indicator of active infestation; and that treatment with 1% permethrin was 89·6% effective.
BALCIOGLU, C.; BURGESS, I. F.; LIMONCU, M. E.; SAHIN, M. T.; OZBEL, Y.; BILAC, C.; KURT, O.; LARSEN, K. S.
Finding lice can be difficult in head louse infestation. We compared a new louse detection comb with visual inspection. All children in two rural Turkish schools were screened by the two methods. Those with lice were offered treatment and the results monitored by detection combing. Children with nits only were re-screened to identify latent infestations. Using visual inspection we found 214/461 children (46%) with nits but only 30 (6.5%) with live lice. In contrast detection combing found 96 (21%) with live lice, of whom 20 had no nits. Detection combing was 3.84 times more effective than visual inspection for finding live lice. Only 10/138 (7.2%) children with nits and no lice were found to have active infestation by day 16. We found that the detection comb is significantly (P<0.001) more effective than visual screening for diagnosis; that nits are not a good indicator of active infestation; and that treatment with 1% permethrin was 89.6% effective. PMID:18177517
Balcioglu, C; Burgess, I F; Limoncu, M E; Sahin, M T; Ozbel, Y; Bilaç, C; Kurt, O; Larsen, K S
Twenty weaner calves were ranked on the basis of naturally acquired Linognathus vituli and Bovicola (Damalinia) bovis infestations and allocated to one of two equal groups. Calves in one group received doramectin (200 mcg\\/kg) by subcutaneous injection near the base of the ear while those in the second group were given 0.9% sterile saline by the same route. Louse counts
T. G. Watson; D. M. Bishop; F. G. Hooke; A. C. G. Heath; D. J. W. Cole
Seven controlled studies were conducted to investigate the efficacy of selamectin against weekly infestations of dogs with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis. Treatments (selamectin or vehicle alone) were applied topically at weekly, 2-week, or monthly intervals or in a “Monthly Plus” regimen (monthly treatment with an additional treatment at 14 days after the first treatment). Selamectin was supplied in unit
A. D Jernigan; T. L McTier; C Chieffo; C. A Thomas; M. J Krautmann; J. A Hair; D. R Young; C Wang; T. G Rowan
Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms. PMID:19030741
Sammour, Zein Mohamed; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Tome, Andre Luiz Farinhas; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel
Ethephon ((2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid) is registered for use in controlling dwarf and leafy mistletoe infestations in ornamental trees. Practical use of ethephon (as Florel® at label rate) is limited to suppression of dwarf and leafy mistletoe spread. Ethephon at label rates causes ab- scission of aerial dwarf mistletoe shoots and partial abscission of leafy mistletoe shoots, but in either application
David H. Adams; Susan J. Frankel; John M. Lichter
Transcriptional changes accompany induced resistance of plants against insect feeding, and monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to herbivory is an essential step for deciphering the molecular basis of the resistance. To isolate up-regulated genes in tea leaves under mild infestation of green leafhopper (Empoasca vitis Göthe), a subtractive cDNA library was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization strategy. Subsequent
Huimin Yang; Suxia Xie; Lei Wang; Shengli Jing; Xiaopei Zhu; Xianwen Li; Wei Zeng; Hongyu Yuan
Background Psoroptes cuniculi can parasitise the ear canal of the rabbit, and cause the afflicted animals to cease feeding and become severely debilitated, sometimes resulting in death. In this study, we examined the oxidative status and inflammatory level of the peripheral blood of rabbits infested with Psoroptes cuniculi and investigated the pathogenesis of this disease. Methods A total of 24 rabbits were divided into a healthy rabbit group and two infested rabbit groups. After weighing the rabbits, approximately 5 ml of blood was obtained from each animal. Then, the blood serum was extracted and used to assess the levels of antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory factors. Results Compared to the healthy rabbits, the activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase and the level of malonyldialdehyde were increased, but the activity of superoxide dismutase was reduced in the infested rabbits. At the same time, a variety of inflammatory cells were activated, and the levels of inflammatory factors such as prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor-?1 were increased in peripheral blood. Conclusion Animal acariasis was associated with immunosuppressive disorders and inflammatory reaction. These results advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of Psoroptes cuniculi infestation in rabbits and can help guide the effectual treatment of this disease in clinics.
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an important freshwater teleost pathogen that often leads to significant economic losses to the aquaculture industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of potassium ferrate(VI) to I. multifiliis theront and the concentration needed to prevent I. multifiliis infestation in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Five hundred theronts were exposed to concentrations of potassium ferrate(VI)
Fei Ling; Jian-Guo Wang; Qian-Fu Liu; Ming Li; Ling-Tong Ye; Xiao-Ning Gong
To evaluate the relative influence of ecological and management factors on the probability of detecting cattle-fever tick (Boophilus microplus and Boophilus annulatus) infestations in rotational grazing systems, we adapted a simulation model of Teel et al. [J. Range Manage. 51 (1998) 501] that examines interactions among Boophilus ticks, cattle, and habitat type under rotational grazing systems developed for semi-arid shrublands
M. S. Corson; P. D. Teel; W. E. Grant
Pluchea lanceolata, an allelopathic perennial weed, has an extensive deep root and rhizome system. The objective of the present study was to determine the allelopathic potential of well water collected from weed-infested cultivated fields. Results indicate that well water recovered fromP. lanceolata-infested cultivated fields inhibited the shoot growth of pea, chick pea, mustard, and wheat under greenhouse conditions. Two phenolic compounds, phenol and phloroglucinol, were isolated and identified from collected well water using UV spectroscopy. The allelopathic potential of the aqueous extract of the two compounds was determined by growth experiments with 10(4) M solutions of the compounds. As a consequence of repeated irrigation with well water fromP. lanceolata-infested fields, higher levels of phenolics can accumulate in the soil, which may contribue to increased interference to crop plants. The present study is of significance since it cautions on the use of well water for irrigating cultivated fields infested with the perennial allelopathic weed (P. lanceolata) with dense subterranean systems and emphasizes the importance of controlling such weeds in cultivated fields. PMID:24225932
Inderjit; Dakshini, K M
Chorioptes?bovis infestation is a common cause of pastern dermatitis in the horse, with a predilection in draft horses and other horses with thick hair 'feathers' on the distal limbs. The treatment of this superficial mite is challenging; treatment failure and relapse are common. Furthermore, C. bovis infestation may affect the progression of chronic pastern dermatitis (also known as chronic proliferative pastern dermatitis, chronic progressive lymphoedema and dermatitis verrucosa) in draft horses, manifesting with oedema, lichenification and excessive skin folds that can progress to verruciform lesions. An effective cure for C. bovis infestation would therefore be of great clinical value. In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the efficacy of oral moxidectin (0.4 mg/kg body weight) given twice with a 3 week interval in combination with environmental treatment with 4-chloro-3-methylphenol and propoxur was tested in 19 heavily feathered horses with clinical pastern dermatitis and C. bovis infestation. Follow-up examinations over a period of 180 days revealed significantly more skin crusting in the placebo group than in the treatment group. However, no other differences in clinical signs or the numbers of mites detected were found between the two groups. The results of this study suggest that moxidectin in combination with environmental insecticide treatment as used in this study is ineffective in the treatment of C. bovis in feathered horses. PMID:20609205
Rüfenacht, Silvia; Roosje, Petra J; Sager, Heinz; Doherr, Marcus G; Straub, Reto; Goldinger-Müller, Pamela; Gerber, Vincent
A long-term vegetation restoration experiment on land infested by Pteridium aquilinum is described. It was established in 1993 in the North Peak Environmentally Sensitive Area, Derbyshire, UK. The target was to restore Calluna moorland that existed before P. aquilinum invasion. The experimental design incorporated vegetation restoration treatments (sheep grazing and Calluna vulgaris seeding) at split-plot levels within P. aquilinum control
M. G. Le Duc; R. J. Pakeman; R. H. Marrs
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of solar radiation for reducing survival of mountain pine beetle populations in infested logs. Ponderosa pine logs were used in experiments 1 and 2 and lodgepole pine logs were used in experiment 3. Exp...
J. F. Negron W. D. Shepperd S. A. Mata J. B. Popp L. A. Asherin
Following a hail storm in the southern Cape province of South Africa, about 2000 ha of Pinus radiata plantations suffered die-back associated with Sphaeropsis sapinea. A series of sample plots in these plantations yielded information on the association of trees infected by S. sapinea with colonisation of tissue by two species of cambiophagous insect pests. The infestation of diseased trees,
J. B. Zwolinski; W. J. Swart; M. J. Wingfield
Tungiasis (jigger) is endemic in many impoverished communities in many parts of Brazil. Forty-seven individuals entering an endemic area were followed up for a period of six weeks and regularly examined for the presence of newly embedded sand fleas. At the end of the third week, the attack rate of Tunga penetrans infestation had already approached 100%. PMID:15138080
Heukelbach, J; Franck, S; Feldmeier, H
Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil.
Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan
Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.
This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of competitive displacement among sympatric species of fruit flies. Based on this study and previously published work by us on this topic, we conclude that literature reports indicating that A. ludens and A. serpentina infest guavas under field conditions should be questioned. PMID:21882684
Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin
We investigated a possible association between bovine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and resistance to tick infestation in 103 cattle, including BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey, and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle), Brahman, and Red Angus grazing on improved pasture. The tick infestation weight and number of Rhipicephalus microplus and the blood histamine concentration were measured and compared with those of 32 Chinese Holsteins and 30 Simmentals. A 228-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced to analyze the polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene. After SSCP and sequencing analysis, 4 SNPs, i.e., 535(A>C), 546(T>C), 605(T>A), and 618(G>C), were identified, corresponding to GenBank accession Nos. AY297041 and NW_003104150; the latter two SNPs caused Leu?Gln and Gln?His substitutions, respectively. Genotype AA was completely predominant in the Chinese Holstein and Simmental; genotypes AA and AB were detected in Red Angus, while genotypes AA, AB, BB, and BC were detected in Brahman and in BMY cattle. A negative correlation was identified between blood histamine concentration and number of tick infestation; in BMY cattle this negative association was significant. The tick infestation in cattle with genotype BB was significantly lower than in those with genotype AA. Blood histamine concentration in cattle with genotype BB was significantly higher than in those with genotype AA. The TLR4 gene mutation could affect the blood histamine level and activate the immune reaction after tick infestation. Allele B has potential as a molecular marker for tick-resistance originated from Zebu cattle for use in cattle breeding programs. PMID:23479166
Zhao, G; Yu, M; Cui, Q-W; Zhou, X; Zhang, J-C; Li, H-X; Qu, K-X; Wang, G-L; Huang, B-Z
Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI) by the larvae of Przhevalskiana silenus is endemic in goats of semi-hilly and mountainous regions of Iran. This myiasis has severe economic impact on tanning industries, and it is responsible for impaired milk and meat production, growth retardation and carcass depreciation. To estimate the prevalence of GWFI in the southern areas of Iran, from October 2006 to December 2008, the carcasses of 8000 goats at a Shiraz slaughterhouse and 1000 each at Marvdasht and Darab cities were examined weekly for the presence of P. silenus larvae. In addition, appropriate sections from the skin and subcutaneous tissues were processed for histopathological investigation. The prevalence rate of infestation in different cities varied from 7.0% to 18.9% and the minimum and maximum infestation rate was 3 and 78, with an average rate of infestation of 26.2 warbles per animal. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence among different age groups with no significant difference between male and female animals. First instar larvae (L(1)) were found on infected animals from early August to end of September, second larval stage (L(2)) from early October to end of November and third-stage larvae (L(3)) from early December to mid-March. No larvae were found on skin or subcutaneous tissues from end of March to late July. Live L(1) initiated mild lymphocyte, macrophage and eosinophil infiltration while dead L(1) initiated granulomatous or pyogranulomatous reactions. Live L(2) induced severe inflammatory reaction and massive tissue necrosis, which continued for L(3) and until the end of infestation phase. The subcutaneous tissues, dermis and epidermis became necrotic and fragmented, and L(3) penetrated the necrotic area to start its aerobic life cycle. PMID:19692181
Oryan, A; Razavi, S M; Bahrami, S
The UK distribution of N. melanura is reported, based on records from museum collections, government laboratories and a field survey of wooden marine structures and driftwood along the English and Welsh coastlines. The global distribution is also reported, based on a questionnaire survey. The life cycle of the wharf borer under different environmental conditions is described and the environmental conditions over the adult emergence period presented. The cellulase complex, xylanase and a range of dissacharases were present in the larval digestive tract when tunnelling archaeological oak. PMID:14618726
Pitman, A J; Jones, E B; Jones, M A; Oevering, P
The responsiveness pf 3-day-old European corn borer males to three concentrations of 97?3 Z?E 11-tetradecenyl acetate, the female sex pheromone, was studied over a range of relative humidities (43-100%) in a wind tunnel. The proportion of males taking flight and reaching the source decreased, while the proportion exhibiting in-flight arrestment of upwind progress increased under high humidity conditions at all three concentrations of pheromone tested. The relationships between relative humidity and these behaviors were best described by polynomial equations. PMID:24248511
Royer, L; McNeil, J N
It is an articulation of the principles, values,and practices behind the pattern discipline. It is organized around a body of dozens of example patterns.It covers a wide range of topics ranging from pattern forms, to pattern languages, to the history of software patterns and pattern ethics. (UNC E-Learning Grant)
This unit begins with non-numeric patterns. The students use linkage cubes, pattern blocks and hundred square paper on day 1 to create visual (non-numeric) patterns. Days 2 and 3 of the unit include increasing and decreasing numeric skip patterns. Students begin by identifying the pattern, extending it, then creating their own patterns in multiple ways using the same rule.
Service, National S.
Frequent outbreaks of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) have been reported in Japan. Although many raccoon dogs are brought to Kanazawa Zoological Garden (Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan) because of S. scabiei infestation and debilitation, some of them die of asthenia. The clinical status of severely debilitated raccoon dogs must be determined to save their lives. In this study, we compared hematological and serum biochemical values between severely debilitated and nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. The total protein, albumin, glucose, and calcium values of debilitated raccoon dogs were significantly lower than those of nondebilitated raccoon dogs. On the other hand, debilitated raccoon dogs had significantly higher aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, chloride, and phosphorus values than did nondebilitated raccoon dogs. The increase in the blood urea nitrogen value was particularly dramatic. The present study revealed that debilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei exhibited abnormal hematological values compared with nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. Clinically, the raccoon dogs developed malnutrition and sepsis if the mange infestation was untreated. Moreover, dehydration associated with appetite loss may have resulted in insufficient renal perfusion. These findings suggest that chronic S. scabiei infestations debilitated the raccoon dogs and resulted in physiological changes that were detected with hematological and serum biochemical tests. PMID:21749931
Kido, Nobuhide; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko
Background Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae), the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD) in northern South America. Methodology/Principal Findings The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40–60%) across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%). Detection probability is higher (?0.55 on average) in the richest-soil region than elsewhere (?0.08). Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height) explain most of infestation rate variation. Conclusions/Significance Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation in rural areas, but become rarer in heavily disturbed urban settings. Our methodological approach has wide application in infectious disease research; by improving eco-epidemiological parameter estimation, it can also significantly strengthen vector surveillance-control strategies.
Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Goncalo; Campos, Ciro; Palomeque, Francisco S.; Grijalva, Mario J.; Aguilar, H. Marcelo; Miles, Michael A.
Tick distribution depends on the drop-off rhythm of the previous stage and on the suitability for tick survival of the environment where they are disseminated. Studies were implemented in Burkina Faso to assess detachment pattern of engorged Amblyomma variegatum nymphs. Experiments were carried out with naturally infested cattle kept in a paddock or monitored when grazing community pasture. In the pasture, 80% of the nymphs detached between 14.00 h and 17.00 h while less than 25% did so in the paddock. Further investigation was implemented to assess whether the density of adult ticks might be modified by herd management. During the early dry season, zebus grazed in 4 plots fenced in natural savannahs and fallows. Two of the plots were used in the morning and the two others in the afternoon. Six months later, zebus were put in these plots, in turn, on 9 occasions. The number of A. variegatum adults picked up by the cattle in each plot was highly variable: they captured more ticks in the plots installed on good lush savannah and 3-fold more ticks in those where the herd had grazed in the afternoon during the previous dry season. An integrated tick control strategy taking these results into account is proposed. PMID:20441678
Stachurski, F; Adakal, H
An approach to eatablish IPM program for some sucking pests infesting garden beans plants was carried out in two successive seasons of 2004 and 2005 under field conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. The sucking pests included the aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), the white fly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyroidae) and the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch Pymetrozine, thiamethoxam, carbosulfan, abamectin, azadirachtin and the detergent (Masrol 410) were tested for their efficacy in this study. Thiamethoxam, carbosulfan, and pymetrozine proved to be highly effective against Aphis craccivora Koch, while abamectin, azadirachtin, and the detergent (Masrol 410) provided a moderate effect. Moreover, thiamethoxam, pymetrozine, and abamectin showed remarkable efficacy against adults and immature stages of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. However, azadirachtin provided a moderate effect, while carbosulfan and detergent (Masrol 410) had no effect altogether on whiteflies. In addition, abamectin induced the highest toxicity effect against the red spider mite, Teteranychus urticae followed by azadirachtin and the detergent that provided moderate effects. IPM program could be achieved by using abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin in a sequence pattern throughout the whole season. Furthermore, the performance of the used agrochemicals on certain nutritional elements of beans pods vr. Branco , i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, and magnesium were also studied with varied results. PMID:18399490
Saad, A S S; Massoud, M A; Abdel-Megeed, A A M; Mourad, A K K; Hamid, N A; Barakat, A S T
Field assays were conducted in southeastern and south-central Michigan in 2011 and 2012 to optimize green and purple multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps for use as a survey tool for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Larger sized (12- and 16-unit) multifunnel traps caught more beetles than their smaller-sized (4- and 8-unit) counterparts. Green traps coated with untinted (white) fluon caught almost four times as many adult A. planipennis as Rain-X and tinted (green) fluon-coated traps and almost 33 times more beetles than untreated control traps. Purple multifunnel traps generally caught much lower numbers of A. planipennis adults than green traps, and trap catch on them was not affected by differences in the type of coating applied. However, trap coating was necessary as untreated control purple traps caught significantly less beetles than traps treated with Rain-X and untinted or tinted (purple) fluon. Proportions of male beetles captured were generally much higher on green traps than on purple traps, but sex ratios were not affected by trap coating. In 2012, a new shade of purple plastic, based on a better color match to an attractive purple paint than the previously used purple, was used for trapping assays. When multifunnel traps were treated with fluon, green traps caught more A. planipennis adults than both shades of purple and a prism trap that was manufactured based on the same color match. Trap catch was not affected by diluting the fluon concentration applied to traps to 50% (1:1 mixture in water). At 10%, trap catch was significantly lowered. PMID:24498742
Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Mastro, Victor C
Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2.
Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian
Captures of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) were assessed in traps in the field. IAPAR designed traps [plastic bottles (2 L) lured with methanol:ethanol (1:1) in a vessel] were placed either at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m high from the ground or simultaneously tested in the 2004 fructification season. Traps placed at the three heights trapped 5.5 times more CBB than the others, mostly at the traps placed at 0.5 m (75%). Treatments using the IAPAR designed trap placed at 1.2 m high; IAPAR trap with a white plastic plate above (IAPAR modified I) at 1.2 m high; IAPAR at 0.5 m high and two additional vessels at 1.0 and 1.5m high (IAPAR modified II) and T-163 trap [three red plastic cups (300 ml) and a red plastic plate as a cover] lured with M:E (1:1) at 1.2m height were compared in the vegetative (2005) and fructification (2006) periods. IAPAR modified II (dispenser vessels placed at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m) trapped more beetles than the remaining types (2.72 times more beetles than IAPAR design); and IAPAR modified I traps trapped more beetles than T 163 and IAPAR traps in the vegetative period. In the reproductive period, IAPAR modified II trapped less beetles than IAPAR and IAPAR modified I. In 2007 vegetative season, IAPAR modified II trap were compared with IAPAR trap and trapped 2.8 times more beetles. The positive responses to a vertical distribution of the volatile attractants in the vegetative period of the planting allow the development of more efficient trapping systems for CBB. PMID:21271060
Uemura-Lima, Daliana H; Ventura, Maurício U; Mikami, Adriana Y; Silva, Flávia C Da; Morales, Lauro
Shoot herbivory by the sapling specialist shoot-borer Cromarcha stroudagnesia (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Chrysauginae) is shown to have large direct and indirect effects on the rates of height increment and mortality of saplings of its host tree, Tabebuia ochracea (Bignoniaceae), in the secondary successional tropical dry forests of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Experiments and field observations over 3-4 years show a substantial reduction in sapling height increments due to C. stroudagnesia herbivory, of equivalent magnitude to the difference in height increments between undamaged saplings in canopy gaps and full understorey shade. Extrapolating this data at average amounts of C. stroudagnesia herbivory increases the duration of the pre-reproductive sapling life stage by about 40% relative to undamaged plants. This is an underestimate, as top shoot herbivory by C. stroudagnesia also increased the probability of canopy gap saplings being overtopped and shaded by surrounding vegetation. Sapling mortality was increased by C. stroudagnesia herbivory, with 11.8% of the most heavily damaged young saplings dying in 3 years while no undamaged saplings died. Cromarcha stroudagnesia herbivory strongly increases with the number of conspecific T. ochracea saplings and the number of conspecific shoots within 50 m of focal saplings. It is therefore likely to disproportionately decrease the number of saplings and rate of recruitment to reproductive age in areas of high conspecific sapling density. These results suggest that sapling herbivory, especially herbivory of terminal meristems, has an important but largely unexplored influence on the population dynamics of tropical tree species. They further demonstrate that sapling herbivory by insects, in addition to the well-studied insect predation and herbivory of seedlings, is likely to influence tree species coexistence in tropical forests. PMID:12684860
Sullivan, Jon J
Background Insects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB) is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of comparing the biodiversity of the midgut-associated microbiota and explore their potential as a source of genes and enzymes with biotechnological applications. Methodological/Principal Findings A high-throughput sequencing approach has been used to identify bacterial species, genes and metabolic pathways, particularly those involved in plant-matter degradation, in two different ECB populations (field-collected vs. lab-reared population with artificial diet). Analysis of the resulting sequences revealed the massive presence of Staphylococcus warneri and Weissella paramesenteroides in the lab-reared sample. This enabled us to reconstruct both genomes almost completely. Despite the apparently low diversity, 208 different genera were detected in the sample, although most of them at very low frequency. By contrast, the natural population exhibited an even higher taxonomic diversity along with a wider array of cellulolytic enzyme families. However, in spite of the differences in relative abundance of major taxonomic groups, not only did both metagenomes share a similar functional profile but also a similar distribution of non-redundant genes in different functional categories. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal a highly diverse pool of bacterial species in both O. nubilalis populations, with major differences: The lab-reared sample is rich in gram-positive species (two of which have almost fully sequenced genomes) while the field sample harbors mainly gram-negative species and has a larger set of cellulolytic enzymes. We have found a clear relationship between the diet and the midgut microbiota, which reveals the selection pressure of food on the community of intestinal bacteria.
Belda, Eugeni; Pedrola, Laia; Pereto, Juli; Martinez-Blanch, Juan F.; Montagud, Arnau; Navarro, Emilio; Urchueguia, Javier; Ramon, Daniel; Moya, Andres; Porcar, Manuel
Students will learn the concepts of a math pattern through a tutorial, then explore the new information with interactive pattern games. Today you will learn more about patterns in mathematics. Please go to this link and complete the interactive lesson. math pattern tutorial Now go to this web site to practice identifying random patterns. pattern generator Finally, go to this web site to practice and explore. PBS Cyberchase- pattern game After the teacher has signaled, please answer the following questions. What is ...
Because many species of gastropods are intermediate hosts for trematodes, these molluscs are often used as model-organisms in the studies of invertebrate immune system. Revealing of the ways in which the defense factors functioning became possible due to the use of the methods of molecular biology. Contemporary molecular methods allow analyzing the defense factors allocations and levels of their expression. We investigated the expression of genes encoding defense factors in gastropods by the example of the snail Planorbarius corneus from water bodies of the Leningrad Oblast under infestation with trematods. The snails naturally infested with the parthenites of trematode species belonging to the families Strigeidae, Notocotylidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Schistosomatida were used as the experimental sample. Uninfested snails were used as a control sample. Several genes encoding the factors, which have been recently found involved in the anti-trematode defense reactions in pulmonates, were chosen, namely fibrinogen-related protein, C-lectin, calcium-binding protein, and cystatin-like protein. The genes' expression was analyzed on total mRNA samples by the reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction. It was shown than expression levels of the genes under consideration are different in uninfested snails and in the snails infested with different trematode species. Thus, in the mollusks infested with the parthenites of Cotylurus sp. and Bilharziella polonica, the expression levels of the genes of all factors under study were increased, while in the infested Notocotylus sp. n Plagiorchis sp., only expression levels of C-lectin and cystatin-like protein were increased. Results of the expression analysis confirm the role of hemocytes and cells of hepatopancreas in the production of humoral defense factors. In the snails infested with trematodes, the expression levels of C-lectin and calcium-binding protein genes are increased in haemocytes, while the genes of fibrinogen-related and cystatin-like proteins are activated in the hepatopancreas. Our data also confirm the role of the factors examined in the anti-trematode defense reactions in pulmonates. PMID:21061590
Prokhorova, E E; Tsymbalenko, N V; Ataev, G L
A total of 602 samples of organically and conventionally grown barley, oats and wheat was collected at grain harvest during 2002–2004 in Norway. Organic and conventional samples were comparable pairs regarding cereal species, growing site and harvest time, and were analysed for Fusarium mould and mycotoxins. Agronomic and climatic factors explained 10–30% of the variation in Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Significantly lower Fusarium infestation and concentrations of important mycotoxins were found in the organic cereals. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) constitute the main risk for human and animal health in Norwegian cereals. The impacts of various agronomic and climatic factors on DON and HT-2 as well as on their main producers F. graminearum and F. langsethiae and on total Fusarium were tested by multivariate statistics. Crop rotation with non-cereals was found to reduce all investigated characteristics significantly – mycotoxin concentrations as well as various Fusarium infestations. No use of mineral fertilisers and herbicides was also found to decrease F. graminearum, whereas lodged fields increased the occurrence of this species. No use of herbicides was also found to decrease F. langsethiae, but for this species the occurrence was lower in lodged fields. Total Fusarium infestation was decreased with no use of fungicides or mineral fertilisers, and with crop rotation, as well as by using herbicides and increased by lodged fields. Clay and to some extent silty soils seemed to reduce F. graminearum in comparison with sandy soils. Concerning climate factors, low temperature before grain harvest was found to increase DON; and high air humidity before harvest to increase HT-2. F. graminearum was negatively correlated with precipitation in July but correlated with air humidity before harvest. F. langsethiae was correlated with temperature in July. Total Fusarium increased with increasing precipitation in July. Organic cereal farmers have fewer cereal intense rotations than conventional farmers. Further, organic farmers do not apply mineral fertiliser or pesticides (fungicides, herbicides or insecticides), and have less problem with lodged fields. The study showed that these agronomic factors were related to the infestation of Fusarium species and the concentration of mycotoxins. Hence, it is reasonable to conclude that farming system (organic versus conventional) impacts Fusarium infestation, and that organic management tends to reduce Fusarium and mycotoxins. However, Fusarium infestation and mycotoxin concentrations may be influenced by a range of factors not studied here, such as local topography and more local climate, as well as cereal species and variety.
Bernhoft, A.; Torp, M.; Clasen, P.-E.; L?es, A.-K.; Kristoffersen, A.B.
Ticks transmit various important pathogens to humans and animals, and dogs are frequently exposed to tick infestation. The objective of this study was to examine tick infestation and the characteristics of tick prophylaxis of dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. A total of 441 dogs (392 owners) was examined from March 2010 to April 2011. The dog owners participated in the study for a period of 1-13 months (10.33±2.85; median 11.00). The prevalences of a total of 1728 ticks collected from 251 (57%) of these dogs were: 46.0% Ixodes ricinus, 45.1% Dermacentor reticulatus, 8.8% Ixodes hexagonus, and 0.1% Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The ticks were 75.2% adult females and 24.4% adult males, and 0.4% were nymphs. The average prevalence of apparent infestation of tick-positive dogs was 0.78 ticks/month (median 0.38). Tick infestation was highest in October (5.9±5.8 ticks/dog) and lowest in December (1±0 tick/dog). The highest frequency of infestation was observed during May (117 dogs). The number of ticks found on dogs by owners on a single day varied from one to 70 (median 1). The scutal index indicated that more than 60% of I. ricinus and more than 40% of D. reticulatus had been removed after they had fed for more than 2 days. The heads, necks, chests, and limbs of the dogs were the most common attachment sites. Data for tick prophylaxis with substances licensed for dogs by the Medicinal Products Act (MPA) were available for 124 dogs; a total of 1195 ticks was obtained from these dogs. About two-thirds of the ticks were collected from dogs that were treated incorrectly (n=96) or were not treated (n=60). One third of the ticks were collected from dogs (n=96) that had been treated correctly. Dog-specific characteristics such as length of coat (p=0.011) and body size (p=0.040) played significant roles in tick infestation. PMID:24629616
Beck, Stephanie; Schreiber, Cécile; Schein, Eberhard; Krücken, Jürgen; Baldermann, Claudia; Pachnicke, Stefan; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Kohn, Barbara
The Asiatic rice borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) occurs mainly on rice Oryza sativa L. and water-oat Zizania latifolia (Turcz). Certain ecological and physiological differentiations between rice and water-oat populations have been shown. To determine whether there is host-associated differentiation in supercooling capacity, seasonal changes in supercooling points, glycerol content, and other physiological parameters of naturally occurring C. suppressalis larvae overwintering in rice and water-oat plants were compared over the winter. Supercooling points were low in the winter (November and December), significantly higher in March, and significantly lower in the water-oat population than in the rice population in the winter. Larvae from the water-oat population experienced a significant weight loss from December to March and were heavier than those from the rice population in the winter. Body water content (percentage of fresh weight) was low in the winter and increased significantly in March; no population differences were detected. Hemolymph glycerol content was high in the winter and dropped significantly in March; interpopulation differences were significant in December. Hemolymph trehalose content increased in the winter, and no population differences were detected. Whole body glucose and lipid content varied differently between the rice and the water-oat populations over the winter. It was found that variations in hemolymph glycerol content were responsible for the host-associated seasonal changes in supercooling capacity of overwintering larvae of the Asiatic rice borer. PMID:19689898
Hou, Maolin; Lin, Wei; Han, Yongqiang
The chit42 gene cloned from Metarhizium anisopliae lacks chitin-binding domain (chBD), which plays important roles in binding insoluble chitin. Five kinds of hybrid chitinase Trichoderma transformants were constructed in this study, where the chit42 gene was fused to chBDs derived from plant, bacterial, and insect sources. The transformant Mc4 harboring chBDs from bitter melon (Momordica charantia) displayed the highest chitinase activity among all chBDs. The chitinase activities of Mc4, chit42 Trichoderma transformant Mchit3, and wild-type strain T30 were 44.94, 32.48, and 12.38 U/mL, respectively. The mortality rate of corn borer larvae in Mc4 fermentation liquid treatment increased by 10% and 30% compared with Mchit3 and T30, respectively. The midgut microvilli and goblet cell microvilli of the corn borer larvae exhibited distinct pathological changes after 48 h of feeding in Mc4 treatment. Mc4 also exhibited the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:23431975
Li, Yingying; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; Wu, Qiong; Fan, Lili; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie
The Cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily is a large group of ancient proteins with enzymatic activities involved in various physiological processes. The rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is an important insect pest in rice production. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 77 CYP genes from rice striped stem borer (SSB) through genome and transcriptome sequence analyses. All these CYP genes were confirmed by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Twenty-eight CYP transcripts have full open reading frame (ORF) and four additional transcripts have a nearly full length coding region. The SSB CYP genes were classified into four clans, the mitochondrial, CYP2, CYP3, and CYP4. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there was an apparent expansion of the CYP3 clan in insects. The CYP6AB subfamily of the CYP3 clan had nine members in SSB. Evolutionary analysis showed that this subfamily was expanded only in lepidopteran insects. In this study, we identified a new P450 subfamily, CYP321F, which is unique to SSB and located in the genome as tandem repeats. Our work provided a foundation for future studies on the functions and mechanism of P450s in the destructive rice pest. PMID:24361403
Wang, Baoju; Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Zhang, Zan; Sun, Haina; Han, Ping; Li, Fei; Han, Zhaojun
It is time to play with patterns! Start with the Crazy Pattern Machine. Push the \\"Random\\" button at the top right, and you must try the patterns of at least medium difficulty. Crack the patterns. What comes next? Number Cracker Finally, make your own pattern. This may get kind of hard, so read the directions before you start. ...
Insect resistant cultivars have resulted from development of techniques to mass rear the insects, artificially infest the crop species, and screen the species' germplasm for resistance, followed by crop breeding to improve the resistance trait over severa...
J. A. Mihm
Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522
Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D
In the present study, Paraergasilus longidigitus Yin, 1954 (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) was identified in branchial flaments of Alburnus alburnus Lin.,1758 caught from Enne Dam Lake for the first time in Turkish fauna. The study carried out monthly between June 98 - May 99, and a total of 208 fish was collected. The distribution of parasitic copepods in relation with the length, sex of fish were recorded. The fishes were infested with P. longidigitus with a mean intensity of 6.2 and an prevalence incidence of 56.7%. The infestation prevalence and mean intensity were seasonal with higher levels in autumn with 74.2%. No significant differences were noticed in the infestation of male and female fishes. A slight increase in the infestation prevalence was recorded as the size of fish increased. PMID:17594662
Koyun, Mustafa; Altunel, Faik Naci; Oktener, Ahmet
During September 1999, surveys to quantify plant infestations and insect biological control agents of both Eichhornia crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata were initiated on the Rio Grande from just west of McAllen, TX, and east to Brownsville, TX. Waterhya...
M. J. Grodowitz, J. E. Freedman, H. Jones, L. Jeffers, C. F. Lopez
In this work, we analyzed the results obtained using a technic of infestation with Fasciola hepatica in the rat. The infestations were carried out with 30 metacercariae in a gelatin capsule. The humoral immune response, measured by ELISA, and the liver necroses, spleen size, number and length of the flukes recovered at necropsy were followed during the course of four experimental primary infestations. The results showed that the magnitude of the parasitic burden did not correlate with the humoral immune response of the rat. The study of the liver necroses, spleen size, fluke length and antibody titres showed that the use of 30 metacercariae in a capsule as a technic of infestation in the rat ensured the homogeneity of the parasite development and the humoral immune response of the host. PMID:8359990
Poitou, I; Baeza, E; Boulard, C
Abstract Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants.
Shameem, K. M.; Prathapan, K. D.
The expression of two genes, namely Mir1 and Mir3 and the abundance of their encoded proteins, the putative miraculin-like proteins, MLP1 and MLP3, showing similarity to the Kunitz family of protease inhibitors, were monitored in the leaves of the citrus variety, 'Clementine' after Tetranychus urticae infestation and elicitor treatments, or in the leaves of three other diploid citrus: 'Willow leaf', 'Cleopatra' mandarins and 'Trifoliate' orange, as well as their respective doubled diploids and the allotetraploid somatic hybrid 'FLHORAG1' under salt stress. RT-PCR and 2-DE indicated that Mir1 and Mir3 and their products were present at low-basal expression in all citrus genotypes. Both genes and products were induced in the 'Clementine' leaves infested by T. urticae, but a contrasting profile was observed under elicitor treatments. Under salt stress, the two genes showed an expression pattern contrasting each other and depending on the genotypes. 'Cleopatra' mandarin, 'Trifoliate' orange and 'FLHORAG1' presented overexpression of Mir3 and MLP3 and decreased levels of Mir1 and MPL1. The opposite behaviour was found in 'Willow leaf' mandarin. The positive correlation of the expression profile of the two genes with that of a gene encoding a putative apoplastic cysteine protease (CysP) might suggest a possible interaction of the respective encoded proteins during the response to biotic stress. Under salt stress, CysP and Mir 1 showed a similar expression pattern but only at transcript