Sample records for borer infestation patterns

  1. Factors influencing the temporal and spatial patterns of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in newly planted apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal and spatial patterns of infestation by larval dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was studied during 2002–2004 in two newly planted apple orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards contained several rootstock-variety combinations grown under different cultural manage...

  2. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  3. Apple Burrknot Borers in New York Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Apple Burrknot Borers in New York ­ Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State DAVID P. KAIN, RICHARD W. STRAUB AND ARTHUR M. AGNELLO Department damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple

  4. Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.

    PubMed

    Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

    2014-06-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ?2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ?1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations. PMID:24709345

  5. Borate and imidacloprid treatment of ash logs infested with the emerald ash borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Nzokou; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack; D. Pascal Kamdem

    2006-01-01

    As of January 2006, portions of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario were infested with the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, a destructive exotic Asian beetle that feeds within the inner bark of ash (Fraxinus) trees. This project evaluated borate (dissodium octaborate tetrahydrate) and imidacloprid to sanitize EAB-infested logs, which would then facilitate log transport to mills outside the quarantine

  6. Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

    2013-04-01

    The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801

  7. Preservative treatment of ash wood from emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) infested trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Nzokou; Sedric M. Pankras; D. Pascal

    Portions of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario have been infested by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an exotic pest believed to have been imported from Asia. The pest is reported to have killed 10 million to 15 million ash trees and continues to spread. Most of southern Michigan is under quarantine, and the movement of ash lumber, firewood, logs, and

  8. Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders of burrknot tissue on apple dwarfing rootstocks is an increasing problem throughout the northeast. One into the winter. We also discuss economic considerations. Background and Justification: Apple growers

  9. Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

    1996-03-01

    Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

  10. Simulation models for European corn borer postdiapause morphogenesis and early infestation of maize in Missouri, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magai, Robert N.; Decker, W. L.; Keaster, Armon J.

    The European corn borer is one of the most damaging insect pests to maize in the United States. Different methods exist for the estimation of time of damage to corn by first generation European corn borer. The most commonly used method is the linear thermal constant concept of phenology which by convention calculates cumulative thermal units from January 1 or another arbitrary date. Linear and nonlinear models based on the thermal units concept developed were to predict and simulate postdiapause development of the European corn borer and subsequent infestation of the maize crop using early spring temperatures (May 1-15) in central Missouri. The developmental rates of European corn borer were obtained from growth chamber investigations that simulated those temperatures, the operational temperatures being selected from a compilation of archival meteorological data from 1948 to 1989. The linear and polynomial regression models were developed to predict phenological stages of the European corn borer using thermal units as developmental rates. The models were compared against each other to determine the better predictor of estimation values: each explained 94 and 98% of the variation in developmental stages, respectively. In addition, the models were tested against independent field data and both models gave good predictions of developmental stages, indicating that either model would be a good predictor.

  11. Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots using Spectral Vegetation Indices Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology was used to distinguish corn infested with European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis, from corn that was not infested. In 2004 and 2005, eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery. Manual inocu...

  12. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    PubMed

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603

  13. Dendrochronological parameters of northern red oak ( Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) infested with red oak borer ( Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae))

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Haavik; F. M. Stephen; M. K. Fierke; V. B. Salisbury; S. W. Leavitt; S. A. Billings

    2008-01-01

    Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite of dendrochronological measurements from Q. rubra in affected forest stands.

  14. Early detection of emerald ash borer infestation using multisourced data: a case study in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kongwen; Hu, Baoxin; Robinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) poses a significant economic and environmental threat to ash trees in southern Ontario, Canada, and the northern states of the USA. It is critical that effective technologies are urgently developed to detect, monitor, and control the spread of EAB. This paper presents a methodology using multisourced data to predict potential infestations of EAB in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The information combined in this study includes remotely sensed data, such as high spatial resolution aerial imagery, commercial ground and airborne hyperspectral data, and Google Earth imagery, in addition to nonremotely sensed data, such as archived paper maps and documents. This wide range of data provides extensive information that can be used for early detection of EAB, yet their effective employment and use remain a significant challenge. A prediction function was developed to estimate the EAB infestation states of individual ash trees using three major attributes: leaf chlorophyll content, tree crown spatial pattern, and prior knowledge. Comparison between these predicted values and a ground-based survey demonstrated an overall accuracy of 62.5%, with 22.5% omission and 18.5% commission errors.

  15. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  16. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in commercial vineyards in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Jhalendra P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

    2014-10-01

    Larval grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), feed on roots of wild Vitis and commercially important Vitis species and rootstocks in portions of the eastern United States. Grape root borer pupal exuviae sampling in Virginia vineyards from 2008 to 2012 revealed that infestation levels varied substantially among 48 vineyard blocks. Data on horticultural (cultivar, rootstock, vine age, and planting area), cultural (insecticide use, ground cover, weed control, and irrigation), and environmental variables (proximity to forest, soil composition, soil moisture holding capacity, pH, organic matter, bulk density, and cation exchange capacity) from each block were subjected to optimal quantification using categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA). Variables with component loading values ?0.70 from the CATPCA were used as predictors and pupal exuviae density as the dependent variable in binary logistic regression. A prediction model was developed by including statistically significant variables in the logistic regression. CATPCA showed that seven vineyard factors (ground cover, soil texture, soil mass moisture, soil pH, clay/sand ratio, clay/silt ratio, and sand/silt ratio) based on three selected principal components were significant for subsequent regression analysis. Binary logistic regression showed that soil mass moisture and clay/sand ratio were statistically significant factors contributing to differences in infestation among vineyard blocks. Based on these two factors, a risk prediction model for calculating the probability of grape root borer infestation in vineyards was developed and validated using receiver operating characteristic curve. Results are discussed in relation to the practical implications of a predictive, risk assessment model for grape root borer management. PMID:25198500

  17. Delimitation and management of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) at an outlier infestation in southwestern New York State, United States of America: case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research objectives were to develop an adaptive delimitation technique and to implement and evaluate management of emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis in the first infestation discovered in New York State. Delimitation was accomplished using 91 girdled “sentinel” trap trees deployed up to 1...

  18. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

  19. An Assessment of the Relationship Between Emerald Ash Borer Presence and Landscape Pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread occurs locally and is influenced by factors, such as

  20. Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

  1. Associations between host plant concentrations of selected biochemical nutrients and Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economic pest of sugarcane and other graminaceous host crops, and it attacks grassy weeds. Oviposition preference has been known to be for plants with leaves that form folds. This study is the first to associate the nutr...

  2. Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted to determine whether differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) mixed with intact kernels affected progeny production of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in two rough rice varieties, Francis and Wells. Wells had been previously classified as...

  3. European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestation level and plant growth stage on whole-plant corn yield grown for silage in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Youngman, R R; Laub, C A; Brewster, C C; Jordan, T A; Teutsch, C

    2009-12-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to determine the effect of different levels of hand-infested third instar European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on whole-plant yield and plant growth stage in corn, Zea mays L., grown for silage. In 2004 and 2005, European corn borer infestation level had a significant negative impact on whole-plant yield (grams of dry matter per plant) with increasing infestation; however, whole-plant yield was not significantly affected by plant growth stage in either year. In 2004, the six larvae per plant treatment caused the greatest percentage of reduction (23.4%) in mean (+/-SEM) whole-plant yield (258.5 +/- 21.0 g dry matter per plant) compared with the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAb control (337.3 +/- 11.1 g dry matter per plant). In 2005, the five larvae per plant treatment caused the greatest percentage of reduction (8.3%) in mean whole-plant yield (282.3 +/- 10.8 g dry matter per plant) compared with the Bt CrylAb control (307.8 +/- 8.3 g dry matter per plant). The relationship between mean whole-plant yield and European corn borer larvae infestation level from the pooled data of both years was described well by using an exponential decay model (r2 = 0.84, P = 0.0038). The economic injury level for silage corn was estimated to be approximately 73% higher than for corn grown for grain based on similar control costs and crop values. In addition, plant growth stage and European corn borer infestation level had no effect on percentage of acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein values in either year of the study. PMID:20069843

  4. Progression of ash canopy thinning and dieback outward from the initial infestation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan.

    PubMed

    Smitley, David; Davis, Terrance; Rebek, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Our objective was to characterize the rate at which ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees decline in areas adjacent to the leading edge of visible ash canopy thinning due to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Trees in southeastern Michigan were surveyed from 2003 to 2006 for canopy thinning and dieback by comparing survey trees with a set of 11 standard photographs. Freeways stemming from Detroit in all directions were used as survey transects. Between 750 and 1,100 trees were surveyed each year. A rapid method of sampling populations of emerald ash borer was developed by counting emerald ash borer emergence holes with binoculars and then felling trees to validate binocular counts. Approximately 25% of the trees surveyed for canopy thinning in 2005 and 2006 also were sampled for emerald ash borer emergence holes using binoculars. Regression analysis indicates that 41-53% of the variation in ash canopy thinning can be explained by the number of emerald ash borer emergence holes per tree. Emerald ash borer emergence holes were found at every site where ash canopy thinning averaged > 40%. In 2003, ash canopy thinning averaged 40% at a distance of 19.3 km from the epicenter of the emerald ash borer infestation in Canton. By 2006, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning had increased to a distance of 51.2 km away from Canton. Therefore, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning, a state of decline clearly visible to the average person, moved outward at a rate of 10.6 km/yr during this period. PMID:18950047

  5. [Reduced survival and infestation of coffee borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), on coffee fruits, in response to neem sprays in laboratory].

    PubMed

    Depieri, Rogério A; Martinez, Sueli S

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of neem oil and aqueous extracts of neem seeds and leaves were sprayed on coffee fruits for laboratory evaluation of their efficiency in reducing infestation of the coffee borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), in multi-choice preference assays in laboratory. Neem oil and extracts reduced infestation of fruits in a dose-dependent manner, acting as a repellent. At 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%, the oil reduced fruit infestation by 30.2%, 42.5% (P > 0.05), and 58.6% (P < 0.05), respectively, as compared with the control. Seed extracts at 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v) reduced infestation by 30.9%, 38.3% (P > 0.05) and 70.2% (P < 0.05), respectively; seed extracts at 0.15%, 1.5% and 15% (w/v) reduced fruit infestation by 16.5%, 38.5% (P > 0.05) and 56.9% (P < 0.05), respectively. Spraying the emulsifiable oil at 1% on coffee fruits and adult borers was compared with spraying on fruits or adults only. Adult-only spraying caused low mortality (P > 0.05) and low reduction on the number of damaged fruits (P > 0.05). Fruit-only spraying significantly reduced insect survival rates and the number of damaged fruits (P < 0.05). However, spraying on adults and fruits caused the greatest reduction in adult survival (55.6%; P < 0.05) and in fruit infestation (78.7%; P < 0.05), probably due to insect mortality and neem oil repellence acting together. PMID:20878003

  6. Infestation patterns of microphallid trematodes in Corophium volutator (Amphipoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Karin

    2001-05-01

    Infestation patterns of digenetic trematodes in Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) were studied in a shallow-water area of the southern Baltic Sea. The amphipod C. volutator is the most common second intermediate host of microphallid trematodes, in particular Maritrema subdolum, in this area. Seasonal and interannual alterations in infestation among the amphipod population are described. The general trend of infestation followed a relatively invariable seasonal pattern. Lowest prevalences were generally observed in spring and early summer, when juvenile amphipods predominated. Increasing prevalences and relative infestation intensities were recorded over the summer, with the highest values in late summer and autumn. These observations are mainly explained by the population dynamics of C. volutator and the infection dynamics of the first intermediate hosts, mudsnails of the genus Hydrobia. Exceptionally high infestation rates in summer 1997 may have been triggered by the earlier appearance of high cercaria densities in the field compared to 1996. The coincidence of the infection dynamics of the first intermediate host with the population dynamics of C. volutator was apparently important. Parasite infestation, in turn, obviously induced mortality of the crustacean host, but conclusive evidence could not be provided based on the analysis of the parasite dispersion patterns in C. volutator.

  7. Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from coffee plantations infested with the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Glen; Hernández, Alejandro; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) was first reported infecting Costa Rican coffee plantations in the year 2000. Due to the impact that this plague has in the economy of the country, we were interested in seeking new alternatives for the biological control of H. hampei, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. A total of 202 B. thuringiensis isolates obtained from Costa Rican coffee plantations infested with H. hampei were analyzed through crystal morphology of the crystal inclusions and SDS-PAGE of 6-endotoxins, while 105 strains were further evaluated by PCR for the presence cry, cyt and vip genes. Most of the Bt strains showed diverse crystal morphologies: pleomorphic (35%), oval (37%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and oval (12%), bipyramidal, oval and pleomorphic (10%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic (3%). The SDS-PAGE analyses of the crystal preparations showed five strains with delta-endotoxin from 20 to 40 kDa, six from 40 to 50 kDa, seven from 50 to 60 kDa, 19 from 60 to 70 kDa, 29 from 70 to 100 kDa and 39 from 100-145 kDa. PCR analyses demonstrated that the collection showed diverse cry genes profiles having several genes per strain: 78 strains contained the vip3 gene, 82 the cry2 gene, 45 the cry1 and 29 strains harbored cry3-cry7 genes. A total of 13 strains did not amplified with any of the cry primers used: cry1, cry2, cry3-7, cry5, cry11, cry12 and cry14. Forty-three different genetic profiles were found, mainly due to the combination of cry1A genes with other cry and vip genes. The genetic characterization of the collection provides opportunities for the selection of strains to be tested in bioassays against H. hampei and other insect pests of agricultural importance. PMID:17361568

  8. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or western bean cutworm.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Erin; Hellmich, Richard; Munkvold, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Field trials were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against manual infestations of European corn borer (ECB) and Western bean cutworm (WBC). HPLC and ELISA were used to measure fumonisin levels. Results of the methods were highly correlated, but ELISA estimates were higher. Bt hybrids experienced less insect injury, Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin contamination compared to non-Bt hybrids. WBC infestation increased fumonisin content compared to natural infestation in non-Bt and hybrids expressing Cry1Ab protein in five of eight possible comparisons; in Cry1F hybrids, WBC did not impact fumonisins. These results indicate that WBC is capable of increasing fumonisin levels in maize. Under WBC infestation, Cry1F mitigated this risk more consistently than Cry1Ab or non-Bt hybrids. Transgenically expressed Bt proteins active against multiple lepidopteran pests can provide broad, consistent reductions in the risk of fumonisin contamination. PMID:24964132

  9. Distribution pattern of phthirapterans infesting certain common Indian birds.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A K; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Nidhi; Mitra, J D; Ali, S A; Srivastava, Roshni

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence and frequency distribution patterns of 10 phthirapteran species infesting house sparrows, Indian parakeets, common mynas, and white breasted kingfishers were recorded in the district of Rampur, India, during 2004-05. The sample mean abundances, mean intensities, range of infestations, variance to mean ratios, values of the exponent of the negative binomial distribution, and the indices of discrepancy were also computed. Frequency distribution patterns of all phthirapteran species were skewed, but the observed frequencies did not correspond to the negative binomial distribution. Thus, adult-nymph ratios varied in different species from 1:0.53 to 1:1.25. Sex ratios of different phthirapteran species ranged from 1:1.10 to 1:1.65 and were female biased. PMID:17918388

  10. Impact of Pesticides Borate and Imidacloprid on Insect Emergence from Logs Infested by the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Nzokou; Samuel Tourtellot; D. Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was discovered on North American soil in the summer of 2002 near Detroit, Michigan, U.S., and has since spread to six states\\/provinces. To alleviate these costs, a method of sanitization is urgently needed. This study evaluated four different chemical sanitation methods in laboratory and field conditions. Treatments included two borate treatments, spray and dip, with

  11. Ash decline assessment in emerald ash borer-infested regions: A test of tree-level, hyperspectral technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Pontius; Mary Martin; Lucie Plourde; Richard Hallett

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic insect pest currently threatening ash species in the Great Lakes region. Because of the potential impact on forests in this area, multiple government agencies are currently focusing their efforts on developing new technologies to detect, monitor and control this insect pest. Previous work has shown that hyperspectral remote sensing technologies can produce

  12. Kiln and microwave heat treatment of logs infested by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Nzokou; Sam Tourtellot; D. Pascal Kamdem

    Invasive alien pest species periodically infest forests in North America and worldwide, resulting in significant economic and ecological losses for areas involved. One common approach used to control pests is the establishment of quarantine zones, which impose limitations on circulation of products and therefore affect the economic viability of goods already affected by the infestation. This project investigated the use

  13. Can EmErald ash borEr, agrilus planipEnnis (ColEoptEra: buprEstidaE), EmErgE from logs two summErs aftEr infEstEd trEEs arE Cut?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Much of EAB's range expansion has been attributed to human-assisted movement of infested items such as ash logs and firewood. It is unclear the amount of time that logs cut from live EAB-infested ash trees should be restricted

  14. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF MAIZE WEEVIL PRE-HARVEST INFESTATION IN CORN FIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three corn fields were sampled continuously for 6- or 8-wks to determine the invasion patterns of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation. The weekly samplings started when the kernel moisture level was about 30%. The weevil infestation levels vari...

  15. Breeding for stem borer resistance in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem borers are arguably the most important group of insect pests of sugarcane. Stem borers primarily belong to the insect order Lepidoptera, although a few species belong to the order Coleoptera. The larvae of these insects bore into the sugarcane stalk and heavy infestations can cause severe losse...

  16. Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

  17. Impact of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid, alone and in combination, used against emerald ash borer in a newly-infested ash nursery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating the potential of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for use against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We treated approximately 400 Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F. americana (height ca. 5-6 m) at a commercial tree nursery wit...

  18. Influence of environmental factors on activity patterns of Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in naturally infested logs.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Vernard R; Leighton, Shawn; Tabuchi, Robin; Baldwin, James A; Haverty, Michael I

    2013-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) activity patterns were measured from seven loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.] logs, five containing live western drywood termite [Incisitermes minor (Hagen)] infestations, and two without an active drywood termite infestation. AE activity, as well as temperature, were monitored every 3 min under unrestricted ambient conditions in a small wooden building, under unrestricted ambient conditions but in constant darkness, or in a temperature-controlled cabined under constant darkness. Logs with active drywood termite infestations displayed similar diurnal cycles of AE activity that closely followed temperature with a peak of AE activity late in the afternoon (1700-1800 hours). When light was excluded from the building, a circadian pattern continued and apparently was driven by temperature. When the seven logs were kept at a relatively constant temperature (approximately 23 +/- 0.9 degrees C) and constant darkness, the pattern of activity was closely correlated with temperature, even with minimal changes in temperature. Temperature is the primary driver of activity of these drywood termites, but the effects are different when temperature is increasing or decreasing. At constant temperature, AE activity was highly correlated with the number of termites in the logs. The possible implications of these findings on our understanding of drywood termite biology and how this information may affect inspections and posttreatment evaluations are discussed. PMID:23448049

  19. Life history studies of Prorops nasuta , a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Infante; John Mumford; Peter BAKER

    2005-01-01

    Life history studies were conducted in the laboratory on the African parasitoid Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The female wasp enters an infested coffee berry, kills the adult borer and seals the entrance of the berry with the body of the borer, impeding the entry of other organisms

  20. APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon scitula (Harris) N.Y.S. Agric. Expt. Station

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon@nysaes.cornell .edu APPLE, EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TRUNK SPRAYS TO CONTROL BORERS INFESTING BURRKNOTS, 2006 the untreated check. (Table 1) Table 1. Efficacy of insecticides against dogwood borer infesting apple, 2006

  1. Behavior of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Khorramshahi; W. E. Burkholder

    1981-01-01

    Adult males of the lesser grain borer,Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), produce a pheromone that attracts both sexes. The volatiles from males collected on filter paper or Porapak-Q were attractive in two laboratory bioassays. The mating behavior is described and the function of the phen infested with the borer.

  2. Effectiveness of the International Phytosanitary Standard ISPM No. 15 on Reducing Wood Borer Infestation Rates in Wood Packaging Material Entering the United States

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Robert A.; Britton, Kerry O.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Cavey, Joseph F.; Garrett, Lynn J.; Kimberley, Mark; Lowenstein, Frank; Nuding, Amelia; Olson, Lars J.; Turner, James; Vasilaky, Kathryn N.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 (ISPM15) in 2002, which provides treatment standards for WPM used in international trade. ISPM15 was originally developed by members of the International Plant Protection Convention to “practically eliminate” the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM. The United States (US) implemented ISPM15 in three phases during 2005–2006. We compared pest interception rates of WPM inspected at US ports before and after US implementation of ISPM15 using the US Department of Agriculture AQIM (Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring) database. Analyses of records from 2003–2009 indicated that WPM infestation rates declined 36–52% following ISPM15 implementation, with results varying in statistical significance depending on the selected starting parameters. Power analyses of the AQIM data indicated there was at least a 95% chance of detecting a statistically significant reduction in infestation rates if they dropped by 90% post-ISPM15, but the probability fell as the impact of ISPM15 lessened. We discuss several factors that could have reduced the apparent impact of ISPM15 on lowering WPM infestation levels, and suggest ways that ISPM15 could be improved. The paucity of international interception data impeded our ability to conduct more thorough analyses of the impact of ISPM15, and demonstrates the need for well-planned sampling programs before and after implementation of major phytosanitary policies so that their effectiveness can be assessed. We also present summary data for bark- and wood-boring insects intercepted on WPM at US ports during 1984–2008. PMID:24827724

  3. EXPLORATION FOR EMERALD ASH BORER IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houping Liu; Toby R. Petrice; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao

    2003-01-01

    In June 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in greater than 2,500 square miles of southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario; more recent infestations were found in Ohio, Maryland, and Virginia in 2003. Federal and state agencies adopted a strategy of

  4. Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

    Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

  5. REPORT ON THE 2006 BORER YIELD REDUCTION EVALUATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important that farmers and their crop consultants know how newly released varieties of sugarcane will respond to infestations of its key insect pest the sugarcane borer. In an effort to provide this information, varieties are routinely evaluated for their response to season-long infestations o...

  6. Modeling the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett; Bruce Hannon

    2006-01-01

    Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada [McCullough, D.G., Katovich, S.A., 2004. Pest Alert: Emerald Ash Borer. United States Forest Service, Northeastern Area. NA-PR-02-04]. Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly

  7. Behavior and Activity Pattern of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Attacking the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Lauzière; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Jacques Brodeur

    2000-01-01

    We describe behavioral sequences and daily activities of pre-ovipositing and ovipositing females of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), an ectoparasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Noticeable behavioral differences among preovipositing and ovipositing females include host examination, host stinging—probing, host feeding, and the oviposition per se. The female of C. stephanoderis feeds primarily on host eggs, but pupae

  8. USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.

  9. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  10. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  11. Ectoparasite infestation patterns of domestic dogs in suburban and rural areas in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Wells, Konstans; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Durden, Lance A; Petney, Trevor N; Lakim, Maklarin B; O'Hara, Robert B

    2012-08-01

    Domestic dogs, Canis lupus, have been one of the longest companions of humans and have introduced their own menagerie of parasites and pathogens into this relationship. Here, we investigate the parasitic load of 212 domestic dogs with fleas (Siphonaptera) chewing lice (Phthiraptera), and ticks (Acarina) along a gradient from rural areas with near-natural forest cover to suburban areas in Northern Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). We used a spatially-explicit hierarchical Bayesian model that allowed us to impute missing data and to consider spatial structure in modelling dog infestation probability and parasite density. We collected a total of 1,968 fleas of two species, Ctenocephalides orientis and Ctenocephalides felis felis, from 195 dogs (prevalence, 92 %). Flea density was higher on dogs residing in houses made of bamboo or corrugated metal (increase of 40 % from the average) compared to timber or stone/compound houses. Host-dependent and landscape-level environmental variables and spatial structure only had a weak explanatory power. We found adults of the invasive chewing louse Heterodoxus spiniger on 42 dogs (20 %). The effect of housing conditions was opposite to those for fleas; lice were only found on dogs residing in stone or timber houses. We found ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus as well as Haemaphysalis bispinosa gp., Haemaphysalis cornigera, Haemaphysalis koenigsbergi, and Haemaphysalis semermis on 36 dogs (17 %). The most common tick species was R. sanguineus, recorded from 23 dogs. Tick infestations were highest on dogs using both plantation and forest areas (282 % increase in overall tick density of dogs using all habitat types). The infestation probability of dogs with lice and ticks decreased with elevation, most infestations occurred below 800 m above sea level. However, the density of lice and ticks revealed no spatial structure; infestation probability of dogs with these two groups revealed considerable autocorrelation. Our study shows that environmental conditions on the house level appeared to be more influential on flea and lice density whereas tick density was also influenced by habitat use. Infestation of dogs with Haemaphysalis ticks identified an important link between dogs and forest wildlife for potential pathogen transmission. PMID:22526293

  12. Mussel Glochidia Identification and Infestation Patterns on Fishes in the Sipsey River, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, T. B.; Haag, W. R.

    2005-05-01

    We examined fishes monthly for naturally occurring infestations of mussel larvae (glochidia) in the Sipsey River, Alabama, and tested the utility of simple morphometrics to identify glochidia from this assemblage. We examined 41 fish species (n = 654 individuals) representing 9 families but found glochidia on only 13 species from 5 families. Across all fish species, 14% of individuals were infested. The most commonly infested fishes were Ammocrypta beani (57% of individuals), A. meridiana (50%), Cyprinella venusta (51%), and Etheostoma stigmaeum (36%). Number of glochidia on individual fishes ranged from 1-231. We measured shell length, hinge length, and height of known glochidia from 21 mussel species occurring in the Sipsey River. Mean dimensions for the largest species were 5-7 times greater than the smallest species. Glochidia size varied little within species except for Pleurobema decisum which was represented by two glochidial morphotypes. Discriminant functions analysis classified 72% of total glochidia (n = 870) to the correct species. For individual species, percentage of correct classification ranged from 42-100%. Glochidia of closely related species were not necessarily more similar than to distantly related species. For example, species of Quadrulini represented some of the smallest and largest glochidia in the study.

  13. 72 FR 30462 - Importation of Emerald Ash Borer Host Material From Canada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-06-01

    We are establishing regulations to prohibit or restrict the importation of certain articles from Canada that present a risk of being infested with emerald ash borer. This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of this plant pest from infested areas in Canada to noninfested areas of the United States and to prevent further introductions of this plant pest into the United...

  14. The distribution of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) in Southern Mexico: A survey for a biocontrol project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Baker; J. F. Barrera; J. E. Valenzuela

    1989-01-01

    In surveys of coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico from 1983 to 1985 to assess the distribution and damage caused by the coffee berry borer, prior to parasite introduction levels of infestation were greatest near the Guatemalan border and varied with altitude, the borer was most numerous between 500–1000 m above sea level, corresponding to a mean annual temperature of 23

  15. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer. PMID:19161694

  16. Mite infestations.

    PubMed

    McClain, Damon; Dana, Ali N; Goldenberg, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Mite infestations are important in dermatology because these may cause dermatologic diseases that range from papulosquamous eruptions to urticarial lesions to bullous eruptions and may spread infectious diseases. These clinical manifestations are important to recognize because mite-associated diseases may have systemic complications and may be confused with other dermatologic conditions. In treating mite infestations, oral antibiotics may be necessary. Prevention of infestation may be accomplished by pre-treating clothing with permethrin, using insect repellent N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide on clothing and skin, and treating animals infected with mites. This article will review etiology, clinical manifestation, and treatment of mite infestations. PMID:19580577

  17. EAB is native to Asia. It is believed that EAB entered the U.S. in infested

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    , is una ected. Emerald Ash Borer killing our trees Symptoms to watch for... An alien invader... Help. · Avoid ash rewood from infested states. STOP Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) yellowing leaves dead branches to occur. EAB attacks black, green and white ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Mountain ash, not a true ash

  18. Is it possible to control fumonisin contamination in maize kernels by using genotypes resistant to the Mediterranean corn borer?

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Insect activity has long been associated with Fusarium infection. The objectives of the current study were 1) to estimate the impact of Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, damage on fumonisin contamination in the maize kernel by comparing fumonisin contamination under infestation and protected conditions, and 2) to measure the potential use of genotypes resistant to this borer as controlling factors of fumonisin contamination. Genotypes with increased kernel damage by borers tended to increase fumonisin accumulation under infestation conditions. In particular environments, other factors influenced fumonisin contamination more than damage by borers. When ear damage by borers is significant, maize resistance to ear damage could contribute to the reduction of fumonisin contamination in the kernels. Genotype such as EP42 x EP77 that combines low ear damage by borers and low fumonisin level across environments is a good choice to control fumonisin contamination. The use of an applicable methodology to identify Mediterranean corn borer-resistant genotypes to ear attack under artificial infestations might be a promising approach. PMID:24224270

  19. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

    2014-09-01

    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ? 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. PMID:24191942

  20. Emerald ash borer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (USDA; Forest Service)

    2004-11-13

    The emerald ash borer is an insect that was introduced to the United States on accident. The larvae of this insect feed on essential parts of the ash tree. This non-native species has killed several million trees already.

  1. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

  2. Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other insects. PMID:23894529

  3. Performance of crosses among flint maize populations under infestation by Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Soengas, P; Butrón, A; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2004-08-01

    Flint maize, Zea mays L., varieties provide some interesting agronomic characteristics and kernels that possess a better ability than other kernels for developing high-quality flour. The pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre, is an important constraint for the maize crop in Mediterranean regions. The objective of this work was to identify a "flint x flint" heterotic pattern that would perform well under artificial infestation by S. nonagrioides. A 10-population diallel was evaluated under infestation by S. nonagrioides in 2 yr. Variety effects were the only significant effects involved in stem and ear resistance to S. nonagrioides attack. Variety effects and average heterosis effects were the only significant effects for grain yield under artificial infestation conditions. Considering variety effects and cross-performance, the heterotic pattern Basto/Enano levantixo x Longfellow (BA/EL x LO) would be recommended for obtaining flint maize hybrids tolerant to S. nonagrioides attack because BA/EL had the most favorable variety effects for stem resistance, LO exhibited the most positive variety effects for grain yield, and the cross BA/EL x LO yielded significantly more than the remaining crosses. PMID:15384358

  4. Relationship between time to flowering and stalk and ear damage by second generation corn borers.

    PubMed

    Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A

    2013-06-01

    In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack. PMID:23865188

  5. Corn borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Crambidae) resistance of main races of maize from North America.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Pedro; Butrón, Ana; Ordás, Bernardo; Soengas, Pilar; Ordás, Amando; Malvar, Rosa Ana

    2007-02-01

    Resistance to corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize, Zea mays L., populations is partial, and more resistant populations are needed. The objective of this research was to compare resistance to corn borers of the main maize races from North America. Twenty open-pollinated maize populations belonging to the races Southern Dent, Corn Belt Dent, and Northern Flint, and three check populations, were evaluated under artificial infestation with S. nonagrioides and O. nubilalis. None of the populations had complete resistance. Northern Flint had the lowest yield under corn borer infestation, whereas Southern Dent had the highest yield but also the largest damage. Corn Belt Dent had a shorter growing cycle and similar yield of infected plants than Southern Dent. The checks had intermediate yield and resistance and were not significantly different from Corn Belt Dent for any trait. The Southern Dent populations Tennessee Red Cob and White Dent (PI221885 and PI311232) could be used as sources of tolerance to corn borers, although they are not expected to provide great gains compared with the levels of tolerance already present in some Corn Belt Dent and European Flint populations and would require adaptation to short growing cycle. The Corn Belt Dent synthetic BS17 had the highest yield and general agronomic performance under corn borer infestation, along with Rustler and Silver King, and the European Flint composite EPS13. PMID:17370830

  6. EAB or Native Borer? Insect Galleries Often Confused for Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    EAB or Native Borer? Insect Galleries Often Confused for Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) PM 3065 May 2014 Emerald Ash Borer Native Borers EAB Bark Beetles have a main tunnel (arrows) with many perpendicular, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa. Emerald Ash Borer Native Borers EAB

  7. First record of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in Pará nut, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae).

    PubMed

    Gumier-Costa, Fabiano

    2009-01-01

    We report the occurrence of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) attacking Pará nuts stored in the southeast of Para state. The coffee berry borer successfully colonized and reproduced using Pará nuts as a food source. Based on this observation, the Pará nuts can be used as an alternative food source in rearing the coffee berry borer. Also, attention should be brought to need of proper storage of these nuts to avoid infestation by this pest. PMID:19618062

  8. Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

  9. Mid-parent heterosis and combining ability of European corn borer resistance in maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Lamb; David W. Davis; David A. Andow

    1993-01-01

    Success in breeding maize resistant to the European corn borer has been limited, with the exception of leaf feeding resistance. The inheritance of resistance to leaf, sheath-collar and ear damage in four maize germplasms and their six F1 crosses was evaluated by diallel analysis. Plants in a completely randomized design were artificially infested at the whorl, anthesis or full silk

  10. A Decision Support System for Emerald Ash Borer Eradication Using Spatial-Dynamic Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett

    Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) ( Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to Ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada (McCullough and Katovich 2004). Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly one billion native ash trees. This paper presents an argument for the

  11. Effect of emerald ash borer on structure and material properties of ash trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) currently occurs in fifteen states in the United States, as well as Ontario and Quebec in Canada. A decline in ash tree strength following EAB infestation is potentially hazardous to public safety, particularly when trees are left standing for several years after dying. Dead ...

  12. Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahim Medjahed; William Grosky

    The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has killed or infested millions of ash trees in Michigan and is fast spreading to neighboring states. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that if EAB went unchecked in the rest of the country, the loss to the nation could range from $20 billion to $60 billion. One key requirement for the success of

  13. Biological control of emerald ash borers: the role of indigenous North American parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated parasitoids were conducted in Cranberry Township, PA; Granville, PA; and Cheltenham, MD. Several species of parasitic Hymenoptera were collected from EAB-infested green ash trees or reared from late-instar E...

  14. Evaluation of Cold Temperatures and Density as Mortality Factors of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Evaluation of Cold Temperatures and Density as Mortality Factors of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer semipunctata F., in California is limited by winter temperature con- ditions. The cold tolerance of prepupal stages was tested by exposing infested logs to cold temperature treatments of -5, 0, +5, and + l

  15. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

  16. Bedbug infestation.

    PubMed

    Studdiford, James S; Conniff, Kathryn M; Trayes, Kathryn P; Tully, Amber S

    2012-10-01

    The significant resurgence of bedbugs in the past decade has been attributed to pesticide resistance, more frequent travel, lack of public awareness, and inadequate pest control programs. Bedbugs are obligate blood parasites (insect family Cimicidae). They can withstand a large range of temperatures but are attracted to warmth and carbon dioxide. They typically feed just before dawn. Cutaneous reactions to bedbug bites can include macules, papules, wheals, vesicles, bullae, and nodules. Bites may be confused with other skin conditions. Bedbug bite reactions are typically self-limited and resolve within one to two weeks without treatment. Bedbug infestation may cause significant psychological distress. The diagnosis of a bedbug infestation is based on history, appearance of bites, and inspection of sleeping quarters. Although there is no evidence that bedbugs transmit disease, systemic reactions may include asthma, angioedema, generalized urticaria, iron deficiency anemia, and, rarely, anaphylaxis. An integrated pest management strategy should be employed to eliminate infestation. Tactics include vacuuming, heat or cold treatment, trapping devices, and pesticides. PMID:23062093

  17. Dermatologic infestations.

    PubMed

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic. PMID:22250620

  18. Delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  19. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites. PMID:24498741

  20. Alternative Management Strategy for Peachtree Borer and Lesser Peachtree Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes) are native insects that cause serious damage to peach trees in the southeastern U.S. Damage by both species is exacted on trees through larvae feeding on the cambium. Management of the univoltine peachtree...

  1. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  2. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LONG, SHORT, AND MEDIUM-GRAIN RICE TO RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA (F.), THE LESSER GRAIN BORER (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) can infest long, short, and medium grain rough rice. There is little current information regarding susceptibility of these types or of individual varieties within these general classifications. A series of tests were conducted in which lesser grain b...

  3. PENNSYLVANIA EMERALD ASH BORER ACTION PLAN Prepared by

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    PENNSYLVANIA EMERALD ASH BORER ACTION PLAN Prepared by: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture............................................................................................................. 2 Impact of Emerald Ash Borer

  4. Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-08-01

    The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies. PMID:19689904

  5. Genetic analysis of emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) populations in Asia and North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack; Anthony I. Cognato; James J. Smith

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees first discovered outside of its native range of northeastern Asia in 2002. EAB spread from its initial zone of\\u000a discovery in the Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario metropolitan areas, in large part, from inadvertent human-assisted\\u000a movement of infested ash materials.

  6. Insecticide Management Options for EMERALD ASH BORER

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Insecticide Management Options for EMERALD ASH BORER R. Chris Williamson, Associate Professor researchers are studying methods of controlling emerald ash borer (EAB). The latest information on insecticide Emerald Ash Borer Program's website (www.emeraldashborer.wi.gov) or contact your University of Wisconsin

  7. Effects of infestation of Rhyzopertha dominica F. on sorghum endosperm: A laser scanning confocal microscopy and differential scanning calorimetery study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the lesser grain borer, can cause loss of biomass and decrease grain quality through feeding damage or contamination with insect fragments and uric acid. R. dominica can change dough properties of wheat and negatively affect bread quality. However, few pub...

  8. The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010–2020

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent F. Kovacs; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Robert G. Haight; Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding how newly established satellite populations may affect economic costs can help program

  9. Ambient air pollution induced changes in amino acid pattern of phloem sap in host plants-relevance to aphid infestation.

    PubMed

    Bolsinger, M; Flückiger, W

    1989-01-01

    In pollution exclusion experiments on the verge of a widely-used motorway, it has been shown that roadway emissions increase the abundance of the aphid Aphis fabae Scop. on two different host plants, Viburnum opulus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Analysis of phloem sap of excised leaves revealed on increase in almost all of the detected amino acids due to ambient air pollution. To investigate the significance of these changes to aphid development, the patterns analyzed were translated into artificial diets, representing the amino acid composition either of filtered air or ambient air host plants. On 'ambient air' diets, the larvae were significantly larger at birth compared to the progeny on 'filtered air' diets. Also the mean relative growth rates (MRGR) of larvae reared on 'ambient air' diets were significantly increased. At the same time, a conspicuous shorter development time of the larvae could be observed on 'ambient air' diets. PMID:15092477

  10. The Sweet Potato Borer

    E-print Network

    Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

    1907-01-01

    and burned. Tuber traps may be used to advantage if carefully manipulated. . Gatheling volunteer slips from tubers left in the ground from the last crop as well as selecting home grown seed from infested farms is dangerous. Adults can be easily killed... any insecticide discovered that will control the sweet potato beetle? They are doing very serious damage here." "By today's mail I am sending you some sweet potatoes that are full of some insects which have ruined the crop in this vicinity. As far...

  11. Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1?1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  12. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood. PMID:20069830

  13. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  14. Effect of Three Apple Rootstocks on the Population of the Small Red-Belted Clearwing Borer, Synanthedon myopaeformis

    PubMed Central

    Ateyyat, Mazen A.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in Ash-Shoubak area of Jordan from June 2003 to September 2005 to study the effect of three apple rootstocks on the development of the small red-belted clearwing borer, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Borkh.) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), under field conditions. Mondial Gala apple trees grafted on the dwarfing rootstock M9 and the semi-dwarfing rootstock M26 were equally infested, whereas those grafted on MM106 showed significantly lower infestation levels. S. myopaeformis bore into burr knots that develop below a graft union on rootstocks and girdle the tree. There was a significant effect of rootstock on the numbers of burrs present, and the percentage of burr knots infested by S. myopaeformis, with M106 having significantly fewer burrs, and a lower percent infested. PMID:20233078

  15. Impacts of the emerald ash borer (EAB) eradication and tree mortality: potential for a secondary spread of invasive plant species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constance E. HausmanJohn; John F. Jaeger; Oscar J. Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer in 2002, eradication efforts have been implemented in an attempt to eliminate\\u000a or contain the spread of this invasive beetle. The eradication protocol called for the removal of every ash tree within a\\u000a 0.8 km radius around an infested tree. In 2005 this study was established to identify environmental changes attributed to\\u000a the

  16. Isolation and characterization of Isaria farinosa and Purpureocillium lilacinum associated with emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shajahan Johny; George Kyei-Poku; Debbie Gauthier; Kees van Frankenhuyzen

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi of the genera Isaria and Purpureocillium were recovered from infestation sites of emerald ash borer (EAB) in southern Ontario, Canada. Isolates were identified using morphological characters and by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA gene and partial ?-tubulin gene. Phylogenetic analysis and constructed trees based on the ITS and ?-tubulin gene explicitly confirm isolates L66B, SY17-a and LHY46-a as

  17. Treatment of scabies infestations.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Gilead, L

    2008-09-01

    Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by an immune allergic response to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The biology of the mite, the clinical aspects and diagnosis of scabies infestations as well as the treatment of choice with 5% permethrin dermal cream and the use of scabicides based on other chemical substances are reviewed. PMID:18814689

  18. Instructions for the Use and Care of an Increment Borer

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    or crack, where the bark is thinnest. Hold the bit near the threads with one hand; with your other hand will outline the safe and proper use of an increment borer. Materials Needed WARNING: The end of the borer bit borer 1. Separate the handle (A) from the borer bit (B) and extractor (C). (See Figure 1.) Place

  19. Philip N. Borer Complete List of Publications

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Robert

    Current Effects in the NMR of Nucleic Acids: A Graphical Approach." 8. McFarland, G. D., & Borer, P. N on Caffeine and its Interaction with Nucleic Acids." 10. Stone, M. P., Johnson, D. L., & Borer, P. N. (1981, 11086-11090, "NMR Studies of Pig Gastric Microsomal H+, K+-ATPase and Phos- pholipid Dynamics: Effects

  20. Seasonal Patterns and Relationships among Coccidian Infestations, Measures of Oxidative Physiology, and Immune Function in Free-Living House Sparrows over an Annual Cycle.

    PubMed

    Pap, Péter L; P?tra?, Laura; Osváth, Gergely; Buehler, Deborah M; Versteegh, Maaike A; Sesarman, Alina; Banciu, Manuela; Vágási, Csongor I

    2015-01-01

    Temporal variation in oxidative physiology and its associated immune function may occur as a result of changes in parasite infection over the year. Evidence from field and laboratory studies suggests links between infection risk, oxidative stress, and the ability of animals to mount an immune response; however, the importance of parasites in mediating seasonal change in physiological makeup is still debated. Also, little is known about the temporal consistency of relationships among parasite infestation, markers of oxidative status and immune function in wild animals, and whether variation in oxidative measures can be viewed as a single integrated system. To address these questions, we sampled free-living house sparrows (Passer domesticus) every 2 mo over a complete year and measured infestation with coccidian parasites as well as nine traits that reflect condition, oxidative physiology, and immune function. We found significant seasonal variation in coccidian infestation and in seven out of nine condition and physiological variables over the year. However, we found little support for parasite-mediated change in condition, oxidative physiology, and immune functions in house sparrows. In accordance with this, we found no temporal consistency in relationships between the intensity of infestation and physiology. Among measures of oxidative physiology, antioxidants (measured as the total antioxidant capacity and the concentration of uric acid in the plasma) and oxidative damage (measured through the level of malondialdehyde in plasma) positively and consistently covaried over the year, while no such associations were found for the rest of traits (body mass, total glutathione, and leukocyte numbers). Our results show that natural levels of chronic coccidian infection have a limited effect on the seasonal change of physiological traits, suggesting that the variation of the latter is probably more affected by short-term disturbances, such as acute infection and/or season-specific stress stimuli. PMID:26052636

  1. Ev Alu ATion of fiREWood BAgging And vACuum TREATmEnT foR REgulAT oRy ConTRol of EmERAld Ash BoRER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Zhangjing

    Since its discovery in Detroit, Michigan, in 2002, the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has caused extensive mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) as it has spread across southeast Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario, Canada (Haack et al. 2002, Poland and McCullough 2006). In addition to this core infested area, numerous outlier populations have been found throughout Michigan's Lower

  2. 32 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 PATTERNS AMONG THE ASHES: EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP

    E-print Network

    : EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANDSCAPE PATTERN AND THE EMERALD ASH BORER Susan J. Crocker, Dacia M to assess the relationship between landscape pattern and the presence or absence of the emerald ash borer by the introduction of a wood-boring beetle identified as the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

  3. Inducible maize defense mechanisms against the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides: a transcriptome and biochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Víctor M; Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2012-01-01

    In spite of multiple studies elucidating individual defense mechanisms against stalk borer feeding, little information is available about the plant response to these members of Lepidoptera. Four maize inbred lines were cultivated in a greenhouse and challenged with larvae of the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides. Transcriptome and biochemical analyses were performed to elucidate the maize response mechanisms to this insect. General plant defense mechanisms were activated, including the jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway, proteinase inhibitors, and four defense-related transcription factors. Interestingly, gene ontology analysis shows that maize plants undergo cell-wall reorganization after being attacked. These results were confirmed through biochemical analyses showing that the concentration of some cell-wall-related compounds significantly changed after plant infestation in a genotype-dependent way. In conclusion, maize plants respond to the attack of the corn borer S. nonagrioides through cell-wall fortification, activating genes involved in cell-wall organization, which finally is reflected in a higher concentration of some cell-wall components, especially in resistant genotypes. PMID:21916555

  4. Field testing of the insect parasitic nematode, Neoaplectana bibionis [ Nematoda: Steinernematidae ] against currant borer moth, Synanthedon tipuliformis [ Lep.: Sesiidae ] in blackcurrants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Miller; R. A. Bedding

    1982-01-01

    Spraying of water suspensions ofNeoaplectana bibionis\\u000a Bovien on established blackcurrant bushes infested with currant borer moth,Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerck), resulted in up to 90% mortality of larvae. Mortality was influenced by dosage, water volume, age of wood and time of application.\\u000a Some nematodes migrated to new tunnels resulting in an increase in parasitization with time. No phytotoxicity was observed\\u000a on any

  5. Tree height influences flight of lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capture of males of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson), and the peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in pheromone traps positioned at 0, 1.8, 3.6, and 5.5 m above ground was affected by tree height in different habitats. In a peach orchard wit...

  6. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  7. Do My Ash Trees Have Emerald Ash Borer?

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Do My Ash Trees Have Emerald Ash Borer? Purdue Plant & Pest Diagnostic Laboratory #12;Ash Tree splits S-shaped galleries Diagnostic Symptoms of Emerald Ash Borer #12;Diagnostic Symptoms of EAB information on recent emerald ash borer finds in Indiana, please contact the Indiana Department of Natural

  8. Professional Guide to Emerald Ash Borer Insecticide Treatments

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Professional Guide to Emerald Ash Borer Insecticide Treatments R. Chris Williamson, UW Entomology Emerald ash borer insecticide treatment considerations. A variety of insecticide products and application methods are available to professionals for control of emerald ash borer (EAB). Based on current research

  9. Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera, Crambidae] was first discovered in

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera sugarcane, rice, corn, lemongrass, sorghum, and sudangrass causing millions of dollars in increased in Florida, pheromone traps that attract Mexican rice borer (MRB) male moths were initially placed around

  10. Cutaneous Infections and Infestations

    PubMed Central

    Tomecki, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Directed and preventive therapies for cutaneous infectious disease and infestation continue to evolve, providing physicians with new options for care. Common infectious diseases (e.g., genital herpes, herpes zoster, and head lice) occur in the outpatient and inpatient setting. This review of the literature highlights new therapies, including those still in development, such as novel drugs and vaccines, all of which should help to decrease the frequency and severity of common infectious diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. PMID:22191004

  11. Chemical ecology of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Mastro, Victor C

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted, based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical research need to find an efficient survey method for detecting A. planipennis infestations. Here, we present a review of research that has led to the development of effective trapping methods for A. planipennis. Studies on the insect's biology and behavior have led to the identification of several potential attractants as well as the design of a visually attractive trap. The ongoing challenge in developing an optimally efficient trapping methodology for A. planipennis will involve finding the best combination of variables, such as trap shape, trap color (or other visual properties), trap placement, lure components, as well as the ratios and release rates of those components. PMID:20108026

  12. EValUating tHE UsE OF Plastic Bags tO PrEVEnt EscaPE OF tHE EMErald asH BOrEr, agrilUs PlaniPEnnis (cOlEOPtEra: BUPrEstidaE) FrOM FirEWOOd

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deepa S. Pureswaran

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bu- prestidae), is a highly destructive exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus) in North America. Human movement of infested logs, primarily pieces of firewood, is a major pathway for long distance spread of the beetle. Firewood may be confiscated at campgrounds, rest-areas, and key transportation gateways. Treatment guide- lines for handling and storage

  13. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully attacked, suggesting that S. agrili could be reared on field collected logs infested with emerald ash borer. PMID:21510183

  14. Detectability of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in asymptomatic urban trees by using branch samples.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Krista L; Fidgen, Jeffrey G; Turgeon, Jean J

    2011-06-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic invasive insect causing extensive mortality to ash trees, Fraxinus spp., in Canada and the United States. Detection of incipient populations of this pest is difficult because of its cryptic life stages and a multiyear time lag between initial attack and the appearance of signs or symptoms of infestation. We sampled branches from open-grown urban ash trees to develop a sample unit suitable for detecting low density A. planipennis infestation before any signs or symptoms are evident. The sample unit that maximized detection rates consisted of one 50-cm-long piece from the base of a branch ?6 cm diameter in the midcrown. The optimal sample size was two such branches per tree. This sampling method detected ?75% of asymptomatic trees known to be infested by using more intensive sampling and ?3 times more trees than sampling one-fourth of the circumference of the trunk at breast height. The method is less conspicuous and esthetically damaging to a tree than the removal of bark from the main stem or the use of trap trees, and could be incorporated into routine sanitation or maintenance of city-owned trees to identify and delineate infested areas. This research indicates that branch sampling greatly reduces false negatives associated with visual surveys and window sampling at breast height. Detection of A. planipennis-infested asymptomatic trees through branch sampling in urban centers would provide landowners and urban foresters with more time to develop and implement management tactics. PMID:22251647

  15. Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire

    E-print Network

    Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Abstract The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined. Keywords Agrilus planipennis . Contact pheromone . 3-Methyltricosane . Emerald ash borer. Mating system

  16. The chemotaxonomy of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) isolates from the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Bridge; Y. J. Abraham; M. C. Cornish; C. Prior; D. Moore

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary chemotaxonomic analysis was carried out on 16 isolates ofBeauveria bassiana from adults of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) from 10 countries in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Thirteen formed an homogeneous group with very similar electrophoretic and physiological profiles. Two isolates differed in esterase and acid phosphatase band patterns, one of which was also deficient in

  17. ELIZABETH T. BORER Department of Zoology

    E-print Network

    Borer, Elizabeth T.

    in a field system: Does numerical dominance shift along a gradient of productivity? Ecology Letters 6: 929, OR 97331-2914 (541) 737-3701 borer@science.oregonstate.edu EDUCATION 2002 Ph.D. in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, UC Santa Barbara, CA 2000 MA in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, UC Santa Barbara

  18. Molecular changes in the maize composite EPS12 during selection for resistance to pink stem borer.

    PubMed

    Butrón, A; Tarrío, R; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2005-04-01

    The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre) is the most important pest of maize (Zea mays L.) throughout the Mediterranean area. The maize composite EPS12 has been chosen as the base population for a breeding program based on its resistance to pink stem borer, with the main selection criterion being resistance to stem tunneling. Yield was taken as a secondary selection criterion to avoid any unwanted negatively correlated response on this character. The aims of investigation were: (1) to monitor the effects of selection for resistance to pink stem borer on allele frequency at 70 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and their impact on the genetic structure of EPS12 and (2) to identify loci at which allelic frequencies changed significantly due to directional selection. Genetic diversity was reduced during the selection process (as expected since random genetic drift as well as selection could reduce genetic variability), but not significantly so. Although the loss of genetic variation was generally consistent with that expected in a model in which random genetic drift acts alone on neutral alleles, the changes observed in the frequency of five alleles were significantly greater than expected. Further, the linear trend of the departure from the random genetic drift model was significant for some allelic versions of two SSR markers, umc1329 and phi076; directional selection was therefore acting on these loci. The significant effect of directional selection on those markers suggests the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tunnel length and/or for yield under artificial infestation with Sesamia nonagrioides on the long arm of chromosome 4. PMID:15714327

  19. Host-plant-associated genetic differentiation in Northern French populations of the European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Martel, C; Réjasse, A; Rousset, F; Bethenod, M-T; Bourguet, D

    2003-02-01

    The phytophagous insects that damage crops are often polyphagous, feeding on several types of crop and on weeds. The refuges constituted by noncrop host plants may be useful in managing the evolution in pest species of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic crops. However, the benefits of these refuges may be limited because host-plant diversity may drive genetic divergence and possibly even host-plant-mediated sympatric speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the main pest of maize in Europe and North America, where it was introduced early in the 20th century. It has a wide host range but feeds principally on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). O. nubilalis is found on mugwort only in the northern part of France, whereas it is found on maize throughout France. The extent of genetic variation at allozyme markers was investigated in populations collected from the two host plants over the entire geographical distribution of the European corn borer on mugwort in France. Allelic differentiation between pairs of populations and hierarchical analyses of pools of samples from each host plant indicate that the group of populations feeding on maize differed from the group of populations feeding on mugwort. Our results suggest (1) host-plant-related divergent selection at the genomic region surrounding the Mpi locus and (2) limited gene flow between the populations feeding on mugwort and those infesting maize fields. These data indicate that adults emerging from mugwort would not be useful for managing the evolution of resistance to the B. thuringiensis toxins in European corn borer populations. PMID:12634820

  20. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    PubMed

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality. PMID:24112110

  1. Ocular leech infestation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yueh-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black-brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. PMID:25784786

  2. Ocular leech infestation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yueh-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. PMID:25784786

  3. 72 FR 30458 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-06-01

    We are amending the emerald ash borer regulations by adding Prince George's County, MD, to the list of areas quarantined because of emerald ash borer. As a result of this action, the interstate movement of regulated articles from that county is restricted. This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the emerald ash borer from Prince George's County, MD, into noninfested areas of......

  4. Temperature-dependent development and emergence pattern of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) from coffee berries.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Borgemeister, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most important constrain for coffee production throughout the world. Knowledge on the emergence pattern of H. hampei females to infest new berries is crucial to effectively plan control measures. In this laboratory study, we assessed the development of immature stages and the emergence pattern of H. hampei females from the berries by exposing them to temperatures that are typical for high-altitude plantations (> or = 1,700 m above sea level [masl] ) or when coffee is grown under shade trees (20-22 degrees C), and optimum altitude plantations (1,200-1,600 masl) or nonshaded coffee (25-30 degrees C). Fecundity and emergence pattern of H. hampei females from coffee berries varied with temperature. Temperature played a crucial role determining the rate of H. hampei development and therefore the emergence of the females to start a new infestation cycle. The emergence and colonization phases of new colonizing females in coffee plantations with mean temperatures of 20, 25, or 30 degrees C would take place at different moments in the development of the coffee berries, and in some cases more than once. The implications of our findings for an improved, site-specific timing of control interventions against H. hampei are discussed. PMID:20857723

  5. Changes in phenolic concentrations during recurrent selection for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.).

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Butrón, Ana; Barros, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A

    2008-09-10

    Recurrent selection has been reported as successful for improving maize resistance against corn borers. This study was conducted to determine if phenolics concentration in maize changes during recurrent selection to improve stalk resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer. Three cycles of selection [EPS12(S)C0, ESP12(S)C2, and EPS12(S)C3] from the maize synthetic population EPS12 and test crosses to inbred lines A639, B93, and EP42 were field grown and artificially infested with Mediterranean corn borer larvae, and the pith tissues were sampled for biochemical analyses. Two major simple phenolic acids [p-coumaric (p-CA) and trans-ferulic (E-FA) acids] were identified in free and cell-wall fractions, whereas four isomers of diferulic acid (DFA) (8-5'l, 5-5', 8-o-4', and 8-5' benzofuran form) were present in the cell-wall bound fraction. The selection cycles EPS12(S)C0 and EPS12(S)C3 showed less damage and higher cell wall phenolics concentrations than the cycle EPS12(S)C2. In addition, higher concentrations of total DFAs were associated with shorter tunnel length and lower numbers of larvae per stem. The current study shows new and concrete evidence that the cell-wall bound phenolics could have a determinative role in the resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer, although future development of recurrent and divergent selection cycles will clarify this point. PMID:18656924

  6. Effects of selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition on corn borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Crambidae) damage.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Pedro; Malvar, Rosa A; Velasco, Pablo; Butrón, Ana; Tracy, William F; Abedon, Bruce G; Ordás, Amando

    2005-06-01

    In maize, Zea mays L., the timing of vegetative phase transition from juvenile to adult vegetative phases can be modified through selection. A reduction in the juvenile vegetative phase has been associated with resistance to diseases and pests. The major maize pest in temperate areas is Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and in Europe Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of divergent selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition in maize on resistance to corn borers. Three cycles of divergent selection for early and late phase transition in a field corn synthetic and in a sweet corn population were evaluated separately under S. nonagrioides and O. nubilalis artificial infestation. For the field corn experiment, yield and moisture improved with selection for phase transition in both directions, but improvement was due to artifacts of selection, rather than to the change in phase transition. There were no correlated responses for corn borer damage, yield, or grain moisture due to selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition. In the sweet corn experiment, selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition had no significant effects on corn borer damage in sweet corn harvested at the fresh stage. Our results do not support the use of phase transition as an indirect criterion for improving resistance to corn borers in maize. The relationship between phase transition and pest resistance reported by other studies could depend on the genotypes or could be too weak to be detected in a selection program with wild-type maize. PMID:16022330

  7. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

  8. Genetic analysis of bed bug populations reveals small propagule size within individual infestations but high genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Virna L; Booth, Warren; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-07-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) are a resurgent pest worldwide and infestations within the United States are increasing at a rapid rate. Because of the physical and psychological discomfort inflicted by their blood feeding habits, and allergies and secondary infections associated with bites, bed bugs are recognized as a significant public health problem. Although bed bug infestations are spreading and becoming more prevalent, we have a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. To help fill this gap, we conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States, nearly all of which came from single rooms within residences. We genotyped samples comprised of 8-10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5-17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3 alleles per locus), we found low genetic diversity (1-4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny, or a female mated with multiple males that were highly related to her. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise F(ST) between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of genetic structure, indicating infestations located in closer proximity to each other were nearly as genetically differentiated as those located hundreds of kilometers away. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources. PMID:22897047

  9. Parasitic infestations requiring surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Afua A J; Nouri, Abdellatif; Hassan, Hussam S; Hashish, Amel A

    2012-05-01

    Parasitic infestation is common in developing countries especially in Africa. Children are often more vulnerable to these infections. Many health problems result from these infestations, including malnutrition, iron-deficiency anemia, surgical morbidities, and even impaired cognitive function and educational achievement. Surgical intervention may be needed to treat serious complications caused by some of these parasites. Amoebic colitis and liver abscess caused by protozoan infections; intestinal obstruction, biliary infestation with cholangitis and liver abscess, and pancreatitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides; biliary obstruction caused by Faschiola; hepatic and pulmonary hydatid cysts caused by Echinococcus granulosus and multilocularis are examples. Expenditure of medical care of affected children may cause a great burden on many African governments, which are already suffering from economic instability. The clinical presentation, investigation, and management of some parasitic infestations of surgical relevance in African children are discussed in this article. PMID:22475120

  10. Assessing invasive plant infestation in freshwater wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbick, Nathan M.

    Recent shifts in wetland ecosystem management goals have directed efforts toward measuring ecological integrity, rather than only using physical and chemical measures of ecosystems as health indicators. Invasive species pose one of the largest threats to wetlands integrity. Resource managers can benefit from improved methods for identifying invasive plant species, assessing infestation, and monitoring control measures. The utilization of advanced remote sensing tools for species-level mapping has been increasing and techniques need to be explored for identifying species of interest and characterizing infestation. The overarching goal of this research was to develop monitoring technologies to map invasive plants and quantify wetland infestation. The first field-level objective was to characterize absorption and reflectance features and assess processing techniques for separating wetland species. The second field-level objective was to evaluate the abilities of a shape filter to identify wetland invasive plant species. The first landscape-level objective was to classify hyperspectral imagery in order to identify invasives of interest. The second landscape-level objective was to quantify infestation within the study area. Field-level hyperspectral data (350-2500nm) were collected for twenty-two wetland plant species in a wetland located in the lower Muskegon River watershed in Michigan, USA. The Jeffries-Matusita distance measure, continuum removal, and a shape-filter were applied to hyperspectral species reflectance data to characterize spectral features. Generally, continuum removal decreased separation distance for the invasive species of interest. Using the shape-filter, Lythrum salicaria, Phragmites australis, and Typha latifolia possessed maximum separation (distinguished from other species) at the near-infrared edge (700nm) and water absorption region (1350nm), the near-infrared down slope (1000 and 1100nm), and the visible/chlorophyll absorption region (500nm) and near-infrared edge (650nm), respectively. Airborne hyperspectral imagery was classified using a two-step approach in order to obtain an optimal map (overall accuracy ˜ 70%). Information in the near-infrared enabled relatively accurate classification for Phragmites australis using the Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm and image-derived training, while Typha latifolia signatures possessed high spectral overlap and required ISODATA clustering techniques. Landscape pattern metrics relate infestation to disturbances and hydrological controls. The highest levels of infestation and infestation patterns coincide with the most substantial levels of hydrological modifications indicating human disturbances are correlated with Typha and Phragmites percentages in the landscape. Overall the approach was successful and increased the level of information ultimately desired by decision makers. The rapidly advancing field of wetland remote sensing science can obtain more meaningful information from hyperspectral imagery; however, the data are challenging to work with and only the most precisely calibrated datasets will provide utility. Combining these data with traditional wetland assessment techniques can substantially advanced goals of preserving and restoring wetland ecosystem integrity.

  11. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  12. Effects of mating disruption against the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, on the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matilde Eizaguirre; Albert Sans; Carmen López; Ramon Albajes

    In many Mediterranean areas, two stalk borers, Sesamia nonagrioides and Ostrinia nubilalis affect maize yield. The efficacy of mating disruption techniques against the first corn borer has been evaluated in recent years. In the present paper the effect of such a control method on populations densities of O. nubilalis is reported. Densities of O. nubilalis in fields treated with S.

  13. A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372

  14. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  15. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles 

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  16. Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

  17. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance. PMID:22251643

  18. Control of the lesser cornstalk borer on peanuts 

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, Walter Holland

    1958-01-01

    CORNSTALK BORER ON FRANUTS A Thesis WALTER H. CUNNINORAR, JR. Subuitted te the Oraduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanical College of Texas ia partial fuliillueut of the requireueuts for the degree of RASTER OF SCIENCE August, ISSS Najor Sub... the Prequency of Apylications . SO The Developnent of a Spray Schedule 0 ~ ~ 3 V The Influences oi INigration uyon Contrel ~ \\ 33 Varietal Resistance to the Lesser Cornstalh Borer Light Tray Studies Bait Tray Studies 3S 41 gunnery Literature Cited...

  19. Generation of marker-free Bt transgenic indica rice and evaluation of its yellow stem borer resistance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Arul, L; Talwar, D

    2010-01-01

    We report on generation of marker-free (‘clean DNA’) transgenic rice (Oryza sativa), carrying minimal gene-expression-cassettes of the genes of interest, and evaluation of its resistance to yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The transgenic indica rice harbours a translational fusion of 2 different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes, namely cry1B-1Aa, driven by the green-tissue-specific phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) promoter. Mature seed-derived calli of an elite indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati-1 were co-bombarded with gene-expression-cassettes (clean DNA fragments) of the Bt gene and the marker hpt gene, to generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. The clean DNA fragments for bombardment were obtained by restriction digestion and gel extraction. Through biolistic transformation, 67 independent transformants were generated. Transformation frequency reached 3.3%, and 81% of the transgenic plants were co-transformants. Stable integration of the Bt gene was confirmed, and the insert copy number was determined by Southern analysis. Western analysis and ELISA revealed a high level of Bt protein expression in transgenic plants. Progeny analysis confirmed stable inheritance of the Bt gene according to the Mendelian (3:1) ratio. Insect bioassays revealed complete protection of transgenic plants from yellow stem borer infestation. PCR analysis of T2 progeny plants resulted in the recovery of up to 4% marker-free transgenic rice plants. PMID:20720299

  20. ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Role of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Larval

    E-print Network

    ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Role of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Larval Vibrations in Host (Hymenoptera: Eulophi- dae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size

  1. Comparison Of Trap Types and Colors for Capturing Emerald Ash Borer Adults at Different Population Densities

    E-print Network

    SAMPLING Comparison Of Trap Types and Colors for Capturing Emerald Ash Borer Adults at DifferentÞcial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, remains a challenge for regulatory ofÞcials, foresters, and ar- borists

  2. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera

    E-print Network

    FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae); DOI: 10.1603/EC10197 ABSTRACT We conducted trapping experiments for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus, green prism traps, ash canopy, monitoring The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

  3. 32 2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL EMERALD ASH BORER

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    32 2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL EMERALD ASH BORER 48824 ABSTRACT Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a beetle native to Asia, was discovered in 10 states. Emerald ash borer (EAB) has the potential to spread and kill native ash trees (Fraxinus sp

  4. Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    E-print Network

    Romero-Severson, Jeanne

    GENETICS Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n in the tropics. Unfortunately, a small scolytid, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari

  5. Host Plants and Population Dynamics of the Ear Borer Mussidia nigrivenella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Benin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoudou Sétamou; Fritz Schulthess; Saka Gounou; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

    2000-01-01

    The ear borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on various cultivated and wild plants. Surveys in four agro-ecological zones of Benin, conducted between 1993 and 1997, revealed '20 plant species from 11 plant families hosting the borer, but only 13 host plants enable the borer to develop to the pupal stage. Whereas, a maize crop

  6. Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-04-01

    Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes. PMID:24562815

  7. Efficacy of ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) against stem borers and leaffolder insect-pests of basmati rice.

    PubMed

    Sarao, P S; Kaur, H

    2014-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three kharif seasons from 2009 to 2011 at Sudhar village, Ludhiana and Rice Research Area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four doses of Ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) a new chemistry @ 20, 30, 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 1000 g a.i. ha(-1) was tested against stem borers and leaffolder infesting basmati rice. Over the years, dead heart in all the Ferterra doses and standard check (1.01-1.80%) were at par70 DAT, whereas, at 80 DAT doses @ 40, 50 and standard check were at par (1.04-1.13%) but significantly better than lower doses and untreated control. Similarly, over the years, Ferterra doses @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) was significantly better than control in reducing white ear incidence, whereas, at 30 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check intermediately reduced the white ears incidence. Leaffolder infestation at all the Ferterra doses were at par with standard check 70 DAT (2.69-3.87%), whereas, 80 DAT, Ferterra doses @ 30, 40, 50 and standard check were at par (2.95-3.49%) but significantly better than lower dose and untreated control. Over the years the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 23.67) in the Ferterra @40 g a.i. ha(-1) dose followed by 50 g a.i. ha(-1) dose. PMID:25204052

  8. Serine proteases SP1 and SP13 mediate the melanization response of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, against entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Shen, Dongxu; Hong, Fang; Wang, Guirong; An, Chunju

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to entomopathogenic fungi is one approach for insect pest control. Little is known about the immune interactions between fungus and its insect host. Melanization is a prominent immune response in insects in defending against pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Clip domain serine proteases in insect plasma have been implicated in the activation of prophenoloxidase, a key enzyme in the melanization. The relationship between host melanization and the infection by a fungus needs to be established. We report here that the injection of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana induced both melanin synthesis and phenoloxidase activity in its host insect, the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). qRT-PCR analysis showed several distinct patterns of expression of 13 clip-domain serine proteases in response to the challenge of fungi, with seven increased, two decreased, and four unchanged. Of special interest among these clip-domain serine protease genes are SP1 and SP13, the orthologs of Manduca sexta HP6 and PAP1 which are involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Recombinant O. furnacalis SP1 was found to activate proSP13 and induce the phenoloxidase activity in corn borer plasma. Additionally, SP13 was determined to directly cleave prophenoloxidase and therefore act as the prophenoloxidase activating protease. Our work thus reveals a biochemical mechanism in the melanization in corn borer associated with the challenge by B. bassiana injection. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the immune responses of Asian corn borer against B. bassiana. PMID:25900291

  9. Reduced fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize genetically engineered for European corn borer resistance.

    PubMed

    Munkvold, G P; Hellmich, R L; Showers, W B

    1997-10-01

    ABSTRACT Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp-tomless Fusarium infection in kernels of maize hybrids genetically engineered with Bacillus thuringiensis genes encoding for the delta-endotoxin CryIA(b). Treatments included manual infestation with European corn borer (ECB) larvae and insecticide applications to limit ECB activity to specific maize growth stages or mimic standard ECB control practices. Fusarium symptoms and infection were affected by the specific cryIA(b) transformation used in each hybrid that determines tissue-specific expression of CryIA(b). In hybrids expressing CryIA(b) in kernels, incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and incidence of symptomless kernel infection were reduced compared with near-isogenic hybrids lacking cryIA(b) genes. In plants that were manually infested with ECB, ear rot incidence was reduced by 87, 58, and 68%; severity was reduced by 96, 54, and 64%; and incidence of kernel infection by Fusarium species was reduced by 17, 38, and 38% in 1994, 1995, and 1996, respectively. Results were similar in treatments that were not manually infested, but differences between transgenic and nontransgenic hybrids were smaller. Most kernel infection was due to F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans (section Liseola) collectively, and it was within this group that transgenic hybrids exhibited reduced infection. Expression of CryIA(b) in plant tissues other than kernels did not consistently affect Fusarium symptoms or infection. Disease incidence was positively correlated with ECB damage to kernels. Insecticide applications also reduced Fusarium symptoms and infection when applied to nontransgenic plants. PMID:18945043

  10. Ecological and Sociodemographic Determinants of House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Indigenous Communities of the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, M. Sol; Provecho, Yael M.; Cardinal, M. Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Principal Findings Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles’. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles’ (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Conclusions and Significance Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and household size. These factors may be used for designing improved interventions for sustainable disease control and risk stratification. Housing instability, household mobility and migration patterns are key to understanding the process of house (re)infestation in the Gran Chaco. PMID:25785439

  11. A country bug in the city: urban infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi remains an unrealized objective in many Latin American countries. The task of vector control is complicated by the emergence of vector insects in urban areas. Methods Utilizing data from a large-scale vector control program in Arequipa, Peru, we explored the spatial patterns of infestation by Triatoma infestans in an urban and peri-urban landscape. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to assess the associations between household infestation and household- and locality-level socio-environmental measures. Results Of 37,229 households inspected for infestation, 6,982 (18.8%; 95% CI: 18.4 – 19.2%) were infested by T. infestans. Eighty clusters of infestation were identified, ranging in area from 0.1 to 68.7 hectares and containing as few as one and as many as 1,139 infested households. Spatial dependence between infested households was significant at distances up to 2,000 meters. Household T. infestans infestation was associated with household- and locality-level factors, including housing density, elevation, land surface temperature, and locality type. Conclusions High levels of T. infestans infestation, characterized by spatial heterogeneity, were found across extensive urban and peri-urban areas prior to vector control. Several environmental and social factors, which may directly or indirectly influence the biology and behavior of T. infestans, were associated with infestation. Spatial clustering of infestation in the urban context may both challenge and inform surveillance and control of vector reemergence after insecticide intervention. PMID:24171704

  12. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  13. Modeling Emerald Ash Borer Establishment and Spread Using GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Ayersman; Michael P. Strager; Jacquelyn M. Strager

    Within the last decade, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have emerged to the forefront in computer modeling of invasive species. The invasive Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has become a major research inquiry because of its drastic impact in such a short time. Spreading is primarily caused through human vectors (i.e. campgrounds, nurseries, and sawmills), although natural spread does occur through flight.

  14. Chemical Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damon J. Crook; Victor C. Mastro

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted,\\u000a based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical

  15. EUROPEAN CORN BORERS: A DIMINISHED INSECT THREAT FROM NOW ON?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn borer populations have fluctuated dramatically over the years, but in the past few years some scientists are reporting consistently low populations. Is this part of a natural cycle or has genetically-engineered corn, which in some areas is greater than half of the plantings, led to an area wid...

  16. New host association for Mexican rice borer in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This note reports Arundo donax, giant reed or carrizo cane, as a new host association of Eoreuma loftini, the Mexican rice borer. Larvae of E. loftini were found feeding on the growing tips of A. donax canes in a nursery and in field stands along the Rio Grande in the Lower Rio Grande Valley and L...

  17. Does the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Have Mutualistic Fungi?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanneth Pérez; Francisco Infante; Fernando E. Vega

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were performed to determine if a mutualistic association exists between three species of fungi and the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). The fungi Fusarium solani (Martius), Penicillium citrinum Thom and Candida fermentati (Saito) were evaluated on the reproduction and survivorship of H.hampei. The fungi were evaluated at three concentrations: 5 102 ;5 104 and 5 106 spores\\/ml

  18. Wolbachia Infection in the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando E. Vega; Pablo Benavides; Jeffrey A. Stuart; Scott L. O’Neill

    2002-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction protocol yielded positive detection of the mater- nally inherited cytoplasmic proteobacterium Wolbachia in total genomic DNA from coffee berry borers collected in Benin, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Uganda. Wolbachia was not detected in specimens from Cameroon, the Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Peru. AmpliÞed bands from India and

  19. Results from the 2013 sugarcane borer yield reduction study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) is the key pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. As the key pest, some insecticide is required every year to avoid economic damage by this insect. The current economic damage threshold is 10% bored internodes at harvest time (beginning the first of October). To...

  20. Development of Harmonic Radar Systems for Tracking Emerald Ash Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borers (EAB) have killed millions of ash trees since they were identified in North America in the summer of 2002. Data are needed on EAB behavior to aid development of treatment and management strategies and enable more effectively schedule and target control measures. Entomological ra...

  1. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2014-07-14

    A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy. PMID:24792748

  2. Prevalence of and risk factors for canine tick infestation in the United States, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Malathi; Glickman, Nita; Moore, George; Caldanaro, Richard; Lewis, Hugh; Glickman, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic range and seasonal activity of vector ticks is important for determining which people or animals are at risk of acquiring tick-borne infections. Several time-consuming methods requiring large-scale organization are used to map geographic and seasonal variations in tick distribution. A cost-effective, complementary approach to study tick distribution using a large nation-wide veterinary database is described in this paper. Prevalence of canine tick infestation in 40 states was estimated by analyzing electronic medical records of more than 8 million dog visits to Banfield veterinary hospitals in 2002-2004. Prevalence was defined as the proportion of dog visits in which tick infestation was recorded, and was expressed per 10,000 dog visits with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall prevalence (CI) of tick infestation was 52 (51, 53) dogs per 10,000 dog visits. Among states, Oklahoma (249 [229, 271) dogs with ticks per 10,000 dog-visits), Arkansas (242 [213, 274]), Connecticut (136 [119, 155]), West Virginia (130 [105, 161]), and Rhode Island (122 [97, 154]) ranked highest in prevalence of canine tick infestation. Overall prevalence peaked from May through July, although monthly prevalence varied by geographic region. In multiple logistic regression, younger dogs, male dogs, and sexually intact dogs, were at increased risk of tick infestation. Toy breeds were least likely to be infested, but no linear pattern of risk was evident with body weight. Identified risk factors should enable veterinarians to prevent tick infestation in pet dogs although differences in risk of tick infestation may be related to outdoor activity of dogs. Feasibility of collecting information for surveillance of vectors ticks on a national level using this large, electronic veterinary database is discussed. PMID:17417959

  3. Molecular characterization of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I and their phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Shashank, P R; Ojha, Rakshit; Venkatesan, T; Jalali, S K; Bhanu, K R M

    2015-01-01

    Shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is an important insect pest infesting brinjal or eggplant in India. Molecular characterization of nine different populations belonging to various brinjal growing regions was done using Cytochorome C Oxidase I (COI) gene. Nucleotide analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of the COI indicate that the L. orbonalis from different geographical regions are homogenous. The results showed less nucleotide diversity (? = 0.007895) and overall mean distance (0.008 ± 0.003). Topologies of neighbour-joining (NJ) trees indicate all the populations belong to single major clade. Therefore, it is inferred that there was no significant molecular diversity within L. orbonalis of different geographical locations of India with respect to COI. PMID:25675712

  4. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  5. 70 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    E-print Network

    70 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified

  6. Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.

    PubMed

    Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-02-01

    Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations. PMID:21404841

  7. Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  8. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  9. Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

    2007-10-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest. PMID:17972635

  10. 120 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 DETECTION OF EMERALD ASH BORER,

    E-print Network

    120 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 DETECTION OF EMERALD ASH BORER Center, Houghton, MI 49931 ABSTRACT The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera. For the foreseeable future, trap tree and ground surveys will be important tools for detecting emerald ash borer

  11. Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col., Buprestidae)

    E-print Network

    Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col USDA APHIS PPQ, Brighton, MI, USA Introduction The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis emerald ash borers (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, using solely visual cues based on previous work

  12. The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree decline: Using visual canopy condition

    E-print Network

    The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree 13 April 2013 Keywords: Fraxinus Emerald ash borer Canopy condition Stable isotope Carbon Water by the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) which was inadvertently introduced to the US

  13. 2014 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ENTO-76NP Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    2014 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ENTO-76NP Emerald Ash Borer Control: Virginia Cooperative Extension, Fairfax, VA Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) is found in all regions for emerald Ash Borer: Systemic Insecticides Contact Insecticides Imidacloprid Permethrin Acephate Bifenthrin

  14. Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin G. A. Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Kari B. Green-Church; Jennifer L. Koch; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Haibing Yang

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is

  15. Relations between two rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella (Cr.) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and their hymenopterous larval parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Hummelen

    1974-01-01

    In many tropical countries, lepidopterous stem borers are major pests of the rice crop. Study of the rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella and Diatraea saccharalis, was made in the Paramaribo area, at the experimental station 'CELOS' during 1971, 1972 and 1973, since data on the ecology and economic importance of these borers were incomplete and almost lacking for the

  16. Digestive amylase from the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus Horn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Mendiola-Olaya; A Valencia-Jiménez; S Valdés-Rodr??guez; J Délano-Frier; A Blanco-Labra

    2000-01-01

    A combination of ion-exchange chromatography, preparative electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography allowed a 1209-fold purification of one of the two major digestive ?-amylases from larvae of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus Horn. The purified enzyme showed a molecular mass of 60.2 kDa, an isoelectric point of 4.7 and an optimal pH for activity of 6.0. The enzyme was heat

  17. Detection of European corn borer infestation in rainfed and irrigated corn using airborne hyperspectral imaging: implications for resistance management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  18. Delusional infestation: are you being bugged?

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Angeli; Ooi, Kenneth GJ; Assaad, Nagi; Coroneo, Minas

    2015-01-01

    This case report documents a 58-year-old male who presented to the clinic with a 12-month history of a burrowing sensation in his eyelids that he attributed to a parasitic infestation. After being extensively investigated and reviewed by relevant specialties, no evidence of parasitic infestation was found. He was diagnosed with and treated for blepharitis. Psychiatric referral for presumed delusional infestation (DI) was recommended. Despite this, he remained insistent in his belief of infestation, and was inevitably lost to follow-up. DI, previously known as delusional parasitosis, is a rare delusional disorder where affected individuals have a fixed, false belief that they have a parasitic infestation. Diagnosis can be challenging. Practitioners need to evaluate between primary and secondary DI carefully, as management differs depending on the etiology. Despite this, patients diagnosed with primary DI tend to be resistant to psychiatric referral. This report aims to optimize management by giving the reader a guideline for appropriate investigations and advice on patient approach. It is important to recognize hallmark features of DI to minimize self-inflicted trauma and associated psychosocial consequences. Effective treatment for DI is available, and devastating consequences, including blindness, can be avoided. PMID:26082608

  19. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W; Poland, Therese M; Pierce, Steven J; Ahn, Su Zie

    2011-10-01

    Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of four 50- by 50-m cells. Green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) were inventoried by diameter class and ash phloem area was estimated for each cell. One trap type was randomly assigned to each cell in each block. Because initial sampling showed that A. planipennis density was extremely low, infested ash logs were introduced into the center of the site. In total, 87 beetles were captured during the summer. Purple double-decker traps baited with a blend of ash leaf volatiles, Manuka oil, and ethanol captured 65% of all A. planipennis beetles. Similarly baited, green double-decker traps captured 18% of the beetles, whereas sticky bands on girdled trees captured 11% of the beetles. Purple traps baited with Manuka oil and suspended in the canopies of live ash trees captured only 5% of the beetles. At least one beetle was captured on 81% of the purple double-decker traps, 56% of the green double-decker traps, 42% of sticky bands, and 25% of the canopy traps. Abundance of ash phloem near traps had no effect on captures and trap location and sun exposure had only weak effects on captures. Twelve girdled and 29 nongirdled trees were felled and sampled in winter. Current-year larvae were present in 100% of the girdled trees and 72% of the nongirdled trees, but larval density was five times higher on girdled than nongirdled trees. PMID:22251735

  20. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of diverse inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Ce...

  1. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009–2019

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of emerald ash borer (EAB) have been detected in nine additional states and Quebec. EAB is a highly invasive forest pest that has the potential to spread and kill native ash trees

  2. Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat

    E-print Network

    Medjahed, Brahim

    Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat Brahim - Dearborn 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48120, USA {brahim,wgrosky}@umich.edu Abstract. The Emerald Ash Service ­ Ontology ­ Invasive Species ­ EAB. 1 Introduction The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a shiny

  3. Identifying resistance in corn to southwestern corn borer, fall armyworm, and corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith); and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie, are major insect pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Corn germplasm with resistance to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer a...

  4. Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

  5. DIVERSITY OF PENICILLIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (CBB) causes great damage to coffee crops around the world. Borer eggs are laid in developing coffee berries, and the larvae feed on tissue of the berry. It has been hypothesized that fungal growth in insect galleries provides exogenous sterols needed for...

  6. Potential impacts of emerald ash borer invasion on biogeochemical and water cycling in residential

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Potential impacts of emerald ash borer invasion on biogeochemical and water cycling in residential could threaten those services, with unknown environmental consequences. The outbreak of emerald ash borer is an imminent threat to the ash population in North America. In the Minneapolis­Saint Paul

  7. Farmers' perceptions of the white stem borer Scirpophaga innotata (Walker), in Cilamaya, West Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Rubia; A. A. Lazaro; K. L. Heong; Diah; Nurhasyim; G. A. Norton

    1996-01-01

    In connection with the white stem borer outbreak, reported during the 1989–1990 wet season in the northern part of West Java, field surveys were conducted to determine the importance of this pest to farmers, to assess their knowledge of it and to determine current control practices. The largest percentage (85%) of farmers perceived the white stem borer as important and

  8. PROGRESS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BORER RESISTANT WHITE-BARKED BIRCHES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank S. Santamour

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a thorough and compre- hensive review of the current state of knowledge regarding the hosts of the bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius) and biochemical and genetics studies designed to identify and develop borer-resistant white-barked birches. Both older and heretofore unpublished observations and experiments are evaluated to provide a framework for future research. Based on the hypothesis that

  9. A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

  10. Penicillium brocae, a new species associated with the coffee berry borer in Chiapas, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. Peterson; Jeanneth Perez; Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Infante

    2003-01-01

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatan, Chia- pas, and from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Implicatum, but because it does not conform to known species we have described it as new. ITS and

  11. PENICILLIUM BROCAE A NEW SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...

  12. The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (wals.) (Lepidoptera: elachistidae): egg and damage distribution and parasitism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celso Luiz Hohmann; Ana Maria Meneguim; Elizete Anelli Andrade; Tanara Garcia de Novaes; Carla Zandoná

    2003-01-01

    The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (Wals.) has been a limiting factor in growing avocados over the last years in many Brazilian states. This is a result of the lack of safe and feasible management practices to minimize the fruit borer damage. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the pest biology and ecology as well as

  13. The biology and control of the lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (Fab. 

    E-print Network

    Thomson, Valiavetil

    1966-01-01

    at 29+ 0. 5 C and 75- 5 per cent relative humidity 38 6. Head capsule width (mm) of lesser gawain borer larval instars reared on milo at 29- 0. 5 C and 75- 5 per cent relative humidity + 40 7. Mortality of different stages of lesser grain borer when...

  14. Usefulness of community participation for the fine temporal monitoring of house infestation by non-domiciliated triatomines.

    PubMed

    Dumonteil, E; Ramirez-Sierra, M J; Ferral, J; Euan-Garcia, M; Chavez-Nuñez, L

    2009-04-01

    The irregular presence and low abundance of wild triatomines inside domiciles make their detection more difficult than that of domiciled species, so that vector surveillance and evaluation of Chagas disease transmission risk are more challenging. We compared timed manual searches, considered as the gold standard, with community-based collections, for their efficacy at monitoring domestic and peridomestic infestation by non-domiciliated Triatoma dimidiata, and community-based collection was the most sensitive and cost effective. Scaling up community participation permitted investigation of fine temporal variations in infestation by T. dimidiata in over 700 houses. We confirmed a large seasonal infestation during March-July, but weekly and daily collections showed a rather stochastic pattern of bug presence in the houses, even during this period. These data are of key importance for the successful implementation of vector control, and community participation is a method of choice for sustained monitoring of infestation by non-domesticated triatomines. PMID:18788882

  15. Effect of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) upon the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) under field conditions.

    PubMed

    De la Rosa, W; Alatorre, R; Barrera, J F; Toreillo, C

    2000-10-01

    The effect of three strains of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and two strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin upon the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), was studied in three coffee farms at different altitudes (450-1,100 m above sea level) in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. The maximum average percentage mycosis varied according to altitude. At 450 m asl (El Rincon) mycosis was 14.3% for B. bassiana and 6.3% for M. anisopliae; at 880 m asl (Santa Anita) mycosis was 40.6% for B. bassiana and 12.6% for M. anisopliae, and at 1,100 m asl (Alpujarras) 33.9% for B. bassiana and 22. 1% for M. anisopliae. The effect of fungal mycosis through time was not significant (P > 0.01) in any of the farms, but there was a significant difference between the strains of the fungus (P < 0.01); the best strains being Bb25 and Ma4 at the lower altitude, Bb26 and Ma4 for the middle altitude and Bb26 and Ma4 at the higher altitude. Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity and rain were not correlated with the percentage mycosis caused by B. bassiana and M. anisopliae. However, in the case of B. bassiana there was a significant, positive correlation (P < 0.01) between the infestation levels of the pest and the mycosis response of the entomopathogen. PMID:11057711

  16. Insect infestation in stored animal products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rajendran; K. M. Hajira Parveen

    2005-01-01

    Published information about insect pest infestation in dried or preserved animal products comprising food items like dried fish and milk powder and non-food materials such as hides and skins, silkworm cocoons, wool and woollen materials, honeybee combs, fishmeal and museum collections\\/exhibits and control measures has been summarised in this review. Beetle and moth pests belonging to the Dermestidae and Tineidae,

  17. Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. Hwang; Tomislav J. Svoboda; Iain J. De Jong; Karl J. Kabasele; Evie Gogosis

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, bed bugs have been considered uncom- mon in the industrialized world. This study determined the extent of reemerging bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto, Canada. Toronto Public Health documented complaints of bed bug infesta- tions from 46 locations in 2003, most commonly apart- ments (63%), shelters (15%), and rooming houses (11%). Pest control

  18. MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS by EDI ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS INC. for Ministry of Environment Mountain Pine Beetle Action Team March 2008 #12;This document was produced under contract to the ministry of environment mountain pine beetle action team (MPBAT) by EDI Environmental

  19. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...

  20. Acoustic Detection of Termite Infestations in Urban Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Mankin; W. L. Osbrink; F. M. Oi; J. B. Anderson

    2002-01-01

    A portable, low-frequency acoustic system was used to detect termite infestations in urban trees. The likelihood of infestation was rated independently by a computer program and an experienced listener that distinguished insect sounds from background noises. Because soil is a good insulator, termite sounds could be detected easily underneath infested trees, despite the presence of high urban background noise. Termite

  1. Signature Chemicals for Detection of Hidden Insect Infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are major pests worldwide, but infestation is difficult to detect since the larval stages are concealed within host fruits. Using grapefruit infested with the Caribbean fruit fly, we evaluated gas chromatography (GC) as a tool for detection of hidden infestation. We found sever...

  2. Nasal leech infestation causing persistent epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sarathi, Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are commonly encountered as a cause of epistaxis; however, nasal leech infestation as a cause of unilateral persistent epistaxis is very rare. Examination of nasal cavity revealed fleshy material in the left nostril, which was identified as leech. The leech was removed with the help of an artery forceps following irrigation of the left nostril with normal saline and adopting wait-and-watch policy. In developing countries, leech infestation as a cause of epistaxis should be suspected in patients with lower socioeconomic status or in those living in rural areas who give history of drinking polluted water from, or bathing in, stagnant ponds and puddles. PMID:21887037

  3. Nasal leech infestation causing persistent epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Sarathi, Kalra

    2011-07-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are commonly encountered as a cause of epistaxis; however, nasal leech infestation as a cause of unilateral persistent epistaxis is very rare. Examination of nasal cavity revealed fleshy material in the left nostril, which was identified as leech. The leech was removed with the help of an artery forceps following irrigation of the left nostril with normal saline and adopting wait-and-watch policy. In developing countries, leech infestation as a cause of epistaxis should be suspected in patients with lower socioeconomic status or in those living in rural areas who give history of drinking polluted water from, or bathing in, stagnant ponds and puddles. PMID:21887037

  4. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  5. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  6. Tri-trophic Analyses of Rice, the Sugarcane Borer, and Putative Biological Control Agents 

    E-print Network

    Lv, Jiale

    2010-01-14

    A three-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were...

  7. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

  8. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    PubMed

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation. PMID:11382067

  9. 66 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER IN RUSSIA: 2009 SITUATION UPDATE

    E-print Network

    66 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER IN RUSSIA: 2009 The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a beetle native to East Asia and the Russian

  10. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Gülsüm ?clal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tan?r, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ay?egül; Ç?nar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications. PMID:26081893

  11. Hookworm infestation as unexpected cause of recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li-Ming; Sun, Cheuk-Kay; Wang, Tzong-Luen; Lin, Aming Chor-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Parasite infestation is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Hookworm infestation is a very rare cause of pancreatitis. This parasitic infestation might be asymptomatic. Acute pancreatitis as a result of the hookworms migrating into the ampulla of Vater with chronic inflammation was a very rare complication. Were port a case of hookworm infestation that was associated with significant complication of recurrent pancreatitis. The patient was treated with mebendazole. He was asymptomatic and had gained weight at the 3-month follow-up. Our case demonstrates that pancreatitis secondary to hookworm infection can occur and may resolve after anthelmintic treatment. PMID:24768664

  12. Interactions of wheat variety, production environments, and prior insect damage on postharvest resistance to the lesser grain borer.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Matthew J; Dunkel, Florence V

    2006-10-01

    Wheat, Triticum aestivum L., varietal resistance to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F), was evaluated in hard spring wheat produced in 2001 and 2002 (Bozeman, Moccasin, and Huntley, MT). We tested the hypothesis that seed coat factors, not the endosperm, cause feeding resistance to R. dominica and that this resistance is genetic, not affected by agronomic conditions. Using a rapid, intensive feeding bioassay (frass production), we found, with one exception, no significant difference in resistance to R. dominica, among sound kernels of hard red wheat, comparing all locations and cultural conditions (irrigated versus dryland production). The most significantly resistant samples as indicated by lowest feeding activity (measured by lowest frass production) were 'Amidon' produced at Moccasin under dryland conditions and Amidon produced at Huntley under irrigated conditions. As with previous studies done in our laboratory, sound kernels of all hard wheat varieties from these new crop year studies (2001, 2002) were attacked. When subsamples of these varieties from the same locations and cultural conditions as the previous test were first subjected to a heavy infestation of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) and then to the same age adult R. dominica, damage was significantly greater. Each kernel chosen for this test had been equally damaged by P. interpunctella larvae, germ consumed, endosperm not damaged, but fully exposed behind germ, no other damage. This collaborative damage caused feeding damage by R. dominica to increase 2- to 7.5-fold (as measured by R. dominica frass production). Particularly notable was 'McNeal' that switched from one of the most resistant varieties to the most fed upon, when the endosperm was exposed by P. interpunctella larvae. Therefore, we confirmed that at least one factor conferring resistance in McNeal is located in the kernel pericarp. PMID:17066819

  13. Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Larson, Kristi; Watt, Tim; Gould, Juli; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    Competition for food, mates, and space among different individuals of the same insect species can affect density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees, with its larvae feeding in serpentine galleries between the interface of sapwood and phloem tissues of ash trees. Using artificial infestation of freshly cut logs of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh) with a series of egg densities, we evaluated the mechanism and outcome of intraspecific competition in larvae of A. planipennis in relation to larval density and host plant species. Results from our study showed that as the egg densities on each log (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter and 22-25 cm in length) increased from 200 to 1,600 eggs per square meter of surface area, larval survivorship declined from ?68 to 10% for the green ash logs, and 86 to 55% for tropical ash logs. Accordingly, larval mortality resulting from cannibalism, starvation, or both, significantly increased as egg density increased, and the biomass of surviving larvae significantly decreased on both ash species. When larval density was adjusted to the same level, however, larval mortality from intraspecific competition was significantly higher and mean biomasses of surviving larvae was significantly lower in green ash than in tropical ash. The role of intraspecific competition of A. planipennis larvae in density-dependent regulation of its natural population dynamics is discussed. PMID:24280666

  14. Regulatory factors and structure of a component population of the spionid Polydora bioccipitalis infesting the surf clam Mesodesma donacium.

    PubMed

    Riascos, José M; Cuturrufo, Miguel; Pacheco, Aldo S; Oliva, Marcelo E

    2011-09-01

    Spionidae, particularly polydorids, are common polychaete parasites of edible mollusks around the world. However, our understanding of the regulatory factors and population structure of these parasites is scant. In this study involving Polydora bioccipitalis and the surf clam Mesodesma donacium we evaluated (1) the environmental correlates of the prevalence and mean intensity of the infestation, (2) the relationship between the number of egg capsules and juvenile and adult parasites and the time elapsed since infestation, and (3) the spatial patterns of juveniles and adults within the host. Environmental factors showed no significant correlations with prevalence and mean intensity, suggesting that these factors do not act directly as regulators. Rather, storm surges seemingly induced clam stranding, which in turn affected both the prevalence and intensity of the infestation. The numbers of juveniles and egg capsules in blisters were significantly related to the time since infestation, suggesting mechanisms of use and expansion of the space within the host. Juvenile worms showed an aggregated distribution that was probably related to the episodic nature of infestation events, whereas adults exhibited uniform distributions that probably reflect territorial behavior and reproductive strategies. PMID:22216711

  15. Parasitic infestations of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Nanda, Mohit; Singh, Kartar

    2007-04-01

    Parasitic infestations of the biliary tract are a common cause of biliary obstruction in tropical countries and can lead to such serious complications as cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Endoscopic therapy has helped in the management of biliary complications caused by these parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides organisms, which normally reside in the jejunum, are actively motile and can invade the papilla, thus migrating into the bile duct and causing biliary obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a useful diagnostic tool with potential for therapeutic management of biliary ascariasis. Infestation with Clonorchis sinensis organisms can cause such complications as intrahepatic stones, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, cirrhosis, cholelithiasis, pancreatitis, and cholangiocarcinoma. Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus, and Dicrocoelium dendriticum are closely related to C. sinensis and can also cause serious biliary complications. Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, is a zoonotic helminthiasis that can present as acute hepatic or chronic biliary tract infection. CT, MRI, and ultrasound guidance are useful imaging tools for identifying these parasites and their complications. PMID:17418062

  16. Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-05-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-?1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-?1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. PMID:23499941

  17. Review Prevalence and Chemotherapy of Lice Infestation in Bovines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MUHAMMAD ARSHID HUSSAIN; MUHAMMAD NISAR KHAN; ZAFAR IQBAL; MUHAMMAD SOHAIL SAJID

    This paper reviews the studies on the prevalence and chemotherapeutic control of lice infestation in cattle and buffaloes. Sucking lice are the most common ectoparasites of cattle and buffaloes. There are several factors both environmental and host, which contribute to lice infestation, e.g. poor nutrition, intensity of sunlight, temperature, humidity, crowding, management conditions, host-skin reaction, hair condition, hair length and

  18. Relationship between horn fly infestation and polymorphisms in cytochrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual animal variation occurs regarding external parasite infestation in beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if horn flies infestations present on beef cattle are associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; T-318C) in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A28) and the prolactin (PR...

  19. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. PMID:25676198

  20. Article original Variations saisonnires de l'infestation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article original Variations saisonnières de l'infestation par Fasciola hepatica chez la chèvre dans 1990; accepté le 29 janvier 1991) Résumé - La prévalence et le degré d'infestation par Fasciola similaire à celle des ovins. Fasciola 1 Lymnaea 1 épidémiologie / chèvre / Maroc Summary - Seasonal

  1. The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010-2020.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kent F; Mercader, Rodrigo J; Haight, Robert G; Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2011-09-01

    The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding how newly established satellite populations may affect economic costs can help program managers to justify and design prevention and control strategies. We estimate the economic costs caused by EAB for the 10-yr period from 2010 to 2020 for scenarios of fewer EAB satellite populations than those found from 2005 to 2010 and slower expansion of satellite populations found in 2009. We measure the projected discounted cost of treatment, removal, and replacement of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) growing in managed landscapes in U.S. communities. Estimated costs for the base scenario with the full complement of satellites in 2005-2010 and no program to mitigate spread is $12.5 billion. Fewer EAB satellites from 2005 to 2010 delay economic costs of $1.0 to 7.4 billion. Slower expansion of 2009 satellite populations delays economic costs of $0.1 to 0.7 billion. Satellite populations that are both distant from the core EAB infestation and close to large urban areas caused more economic costs in our simulations than did other satellites. Our estimates of delayed economic costs suggest that spending on activities that prevent establishment of new satellite EAB populations or slow expansion of existing populations can be cost-effective and that continued research on the cost and effectiveness of prevention and control activities is warranted. PMID:21546148

  2. Susceptibility of Cry1Ab-resistant and -susceptible Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: crambidae) to Four Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a primary corn stalk borer pest targeted by transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in many areas of the mid-southern region of the United States. Recently, genes encoding for Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 Bt proteins were transferred in...

  3. Suitability of the Eggs of Two Species of Eucalyptus Longhorned Borers (Phoracantha recurva and P. semipunctata) as Hosts

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Suitability of the Eggs of Two Species of Eucalyptus Longhorned Borers (Phoracantha recurva and P Received August 20, 1999; accepted June 12, 2000 Eggs of the eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracan- tha semipunctata F.) are the typical host of the en- cyrtid egg parasitoid Avetianella longoi Siscaro. Both P

  4. Beauveria bassiana -A Potential Mycopesticide for the Efficient Control of Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Haraprasad; S. R. Niranjana; H. S. Prakash; H. S. Shetty; Seema Wahab

    2001-01-01

    The Coffee Berry Borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) has been a serious insect pest of coffee cultivars C. robusta and C. catimor in India since 1991, causing 40-80% coffee bean loss. To combat this important pest, an indigenous entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin was isolated from dead and moribund coffee berry borers from the wild. The fungus

  5. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Santiago, Rogelio

    2011-04-01

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of resistant and susceptible inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Composition of cell wall polysaccharides, lignin concentration and composition, and cell wall bound forms of hydroxycinnamic acids were measured. As expected, most of the cell wall components were found at higher concentrations in the rind than in the pith tissues, with the exception of galactose and total diferulate esters. Pith of resistant inbred lines had significantly higher concentrations of total cell wall material than susceptible inbred lines, indicating that the thickness of cell walls could be the initial barrier against corn borer larvae attack. Higher concentrations of cell wall xylose and 8-O-4-coupled diferulate were found in resistant inbreds. Stem tunneling by corn borers was negatively correlated with concentrations of total diferulates, 8-5-diferulate and p-coumarate esters. Higher total cell wall, xylose, and 8-coupled diferulates concentrations appear to be possible mechanisms of corn borer resistance. PMID:21281952

  6. Battling Bed Bugs Bed bug infestations are on the rise and it is possible for anyone to become infested with

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    and are most active after dark. Bed bugs avoid light and do not like to be disturbed. 4. Bed bugs do not flyBattling Bed Bugs Bed bug infestations are on the rise and it is possible for anyone to become infested with them. Awareness is the key! Bed bugs are insects that have been found in many rental

  7. Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

    2014-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities. PMID:25195441

  8. Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Cossé, Allard A; Petroski, Richard J; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Vermillion, Karl; Lelito, Jonathan P; Cooperband, Miriam F; Gould, Juli R

    2012-04-01

    The braconid wasp, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilus planipennis), a destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We identified and synthesized seven male-specific volatile compounds. Three of these, dodecanal, (4R,11E)-tetradecen-4-olide, and (Z)-10-heptadecen-2-one, were the key behaviorally active components in flight tunnel bioassays. Male specificity was demonstrated by gas chromatographic comparison of male and female volatile emissions and whole body extracts. Identifications were aided by coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, microchemical reactions, NMR, chiral GC analysis, and GC and MS comparison with authentic standards. Both the racemic and chiral forms of the ?-lactone, as well as both E- and Z-isomers were synthesized. Flight tunnel behavioral tests showed positive male and female S. agrili responses to both natural pheromone and synthetic blends, with upwind flight and landing on the source. Large field-cage tests, using yellow sticky traps baited with pheromone, captured approximately 50% of the released male and female wasps in 24-h periods. The use of pheromone-baited traps in the field could simplify the current detection method for determining parasitoid establishment (i.e., laboriously felling and peeling ash trees for recovery of S. agrili from infested EAB larvae). PMID:22456948

  9. Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G; Vega, Fernando E; Harwood, James D

    2010-03-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US $500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations. PMID:20094879

  10. Estimation of production losses caused by the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and calculation of an economic damage threshold in Togolese coffee plots.

    PubMed

    Wegbe, Komlan; Cilas, Christian; Decazy, Bernard; Alauzet, Claude; Dufour, Bernard

    2003-10-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), which exists in all coffee producing zones, is a major pest. The seriousness of this scolytid was assessed in Togolese plots spread over five agroclimatic zones, by determining the attack rate from a sample of coffee trees. The work was carried out over 2 yr and revealed that weight losses were proportional to the attack rates. The average infestation rates were 5.64% in the first year and 6.36% in the second year, while total production losses amounted to 2.60% and 3.18%, respectively, for the same periods. Generally speaking, attack rates in the plots were low and varied considerably within a given zone. Plantations located on plateau were more severely attacked than those in the plains. A relationship was established between total losses and the cost of insecticide treatment; this relationship was used to calculate an economic damage threshold beyond which control proves to be cost effective. PMID:14650520

  11. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. PMID:21070784

  12. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors. PMID:22679860

  13. Modified mutagen metabolism in Schistosoma hematobium-infested organisms.

    PubMed

    Gentile, J M; Brown, S; Aardema, M; Clark, D; Blankespoor, H

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between parasite infestation and chemical mutagen metabolism was investigated in this study. Schistosoma hematobium, long associated with increased incidence of bladder cancer in humans, was chosen as a model parasite. Urine samples, serum samples, and liver tissue extracts (S-9) from infested and control hamsters were used with the Ames Salmonella/microsome test to follow 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine (DCB), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) mutagenicity. Liver S-9 preparations from infested and control hamsters showed little difference in activation potential for DCB and AFB1. Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S-9, however, was remarkably efficient at reducing the mutagenicity of DCB. This process was reversible by beta-glucuronidase (BG). Studies on infested and control hamsters indicated increased BG activity in serum and urine. Urine concentrates (UC) from infested and control animals were not mutagenic by themselves, but did enhance the mutagenicity of AAF and DCB in the presence of S-9 and BG. Urine concentrates from infested animals showed greater enhancement of DCB mutagenicity than did UC from control animals. These data suggest that increased BG and unknown urinary factors in infested hamsters play a role in altering chemical mutagen activity. PMID:3922319

  14. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/mA? in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities > 5,000-6,000/mA? and infestation intensities > 100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and lakes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  15. Interspecific comparison of constitutive ash phloem phenolic chemistry reveals compounds unique to manchurian ash, a species resistant to emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Cipollini, Donald F; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2012-05-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB) is an invasive wood-borer indigenous to Asia and is responsible for widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in the U.S. and Canada. Resistance and susceptibility to EAB varies among Fraxinus spp., which is a result of their co-evolutionary history with the pest. We characterized constitutive phenolic profiles and lignin levels in the phloem of green, white, black, blue, European, and Manchurian ash. Phloem was sampled twice during the growing season, coinciding with phenology of early and late instar EAB. We identified 66 metabolites that displayed a pattern of variation, which corresponded strongly with phylogeny. Previously identified lignans and lignan derivatives were confirmed to be unique to Manchurian ash, and may contribute to its high level of resistance to EAB. Other compounds that had been considered unique to Manchurian ash, including hydroxycoumarins and the phenylethanoids calceolarioside A and B, were detected in closely related, but susceptible species, and thus are unlikely to contribute to EAB resistance of Manchurian ash. The distinct phenolic profile of blue ash may contribute to its relatively high resistance to EAB. PMID:22588569

  16. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-11-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-?-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-?-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-?-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-?-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were ?-aminobutyric acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed. PMID:21802697

  17. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  18. Leech (Hirudinea) infestations among waterfowl near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Trauger, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen species of aquatic birds, including 11 species of ducks, were infested with leeches Theromyzon rude and Placobdella ornata near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Leeches infested 88% of 41 American Wigeon (Anas americana) and 31% of 86 Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) examined after death. Lesser Scaup captured by drive-trapping contained significantly more leeches than undisturbed ducks. Leeches were attached to the host within the mucosa of the nasal chamber, to the conjunctiva of the eye and on the skin of the body. Although only two deaths of ducklings were directly attributed to leech infestations, other birds probably died as a result of parasitism by leeches.

  19. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ? 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the three control plots. PMID:22546447

  20. Transcriptional profiling of the murine cutaneous response during initial and subsequent infestations with Ixodes scapularis nymphs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes scapularis ticks are hematophagous arthropods capable of transmitting many infectious agents to humans. The process of blood feeding is an extended and continuous interplay between tick and host responses. While this process has been studied extensively in vitro, no global understanding of the host response to ticks has emerged. Methods To address this issue, we used PCR-arrays to measure skin-specific expression of 233 discrete genes at 8 time points during primary and secondary infestations of mice with pathogen-free I. scapularis nymphs. Selected results were then validated at the mRNA and protein levels by additional real-time PCR and bioplex assay. Results Primary infestation was characterized by the late induction of an innate immune response. Lectin pattern recognition receptors, cytokines, and chemokines were upregulated consistent with increased neutrophil and macrophage migration. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of downregulated genes suggested inhibition of gene transcription and Th17 immunity. During the secondary infestation, additional genes were modulated suggesting a broader involvement of immune cells including CD8 and CD4 positive T lymphocytes. The cytokine response showed a mixed Th1/Th2 profile with a potential for T regulatory cell activity. Key gene ontology clusters observed during the secondary infestation were cell migration and activation. Matrix metalloproteinases were upregulated, apoptosis-related genes were differentially modulated, and immunoreceptor signaling molecules were upregulated. In contrast, transcripts related to mitogenic, WNT, Hedgehog, and stress pathways were downregulated. Conclusions Our results support a model of tick feeding where lectin pattern recognition receptors orchestrate an innate inflammatory response during primary infestation that primes a mixed Th1/Th2 response upon secondary exposure. Tick feeding inhibits gene transcription and Th17 immunity. Salivary molecules may also inhibit upregulation of mitogenic, WNT, Hedgehog, and stress pathways and enhance the activity of T regulatory cells, production of IL-10, and suppressors of cytokine signaling molecules (SOCS). This study provides the first comprehensive transcriptional analysis of the murine host response at the I. scapularis bite site and suggests both a potential model of the host cutaneous response and candidate genes for further description and investigation. PMID:22309607

  1. Modified mutagen metabolism in Schistosoma hematobium - infested organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Gentile; S. Brown; M. Aardema; D. Clark; H. Blankespoor

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between parasite infestation and chemical mutagen metabolism was investigated in this study. Schistosoma hematobium, long associated with increased incidence of bladder cancer in humans, was chosen as a model parasite. Urine samples, serum samples, and liver tissue extracts (S-9) from infested and control hamsters were used with the Ames Salmonella\\/microsome test to follow 3,3-dichlorobenzidine (DCB), aflatoxin B⁠(AFBâ),

  2. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  3. Integrated tactics for managing the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year field study conducted in Texas to evaluate the effect of several management strategies on the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), in sugarcane, Saccharum spp. hybrids, showed that irrigation reduced injury in both susceptible and resistant by 2.5-fold. Irrigation, host plant resi...

  4. Chemical control of the Mexican rice borer in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are no reliably effective controls for the Mexican rice borer on sugarcane in South Texas, and the pest is spreading to rice-growing areas of Texas and Louisiana. A small-plot insecticide test comparing six insecticides was conducted in South Texas during the summer of 2008 to identify compou...

  5. Cell Wall Composition as a Maize Defense Mechanism Against Corn Borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European and Mediterranean corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner and Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith tissues of diverse inbr...

  6. On the Eyes of Male Coffee Berry Borers as Rudimentary Organs

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Fernando E.; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1±4.10) than in females (127.5±3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

  7. Development of a rearing methodology for the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A continuous rearing method for dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was devised using standardized procedures at each developmental stage. The mating success of pairs of moths in 30 and 60 cm(3) cages and exposed to natural daylight or artificial light did not diffe...

  8. 44 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species EMERALD ASH BORER: CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

    E-print Network

    44 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species EMERALD ASH BORER: CHEMICAL ECOLOGY AND VISUAL, University Park, PA 16802 2 USDAAPHIS, PPQ, 5936 Ford Ct., Ste. 200, Brighton, MI 48116 ABSTRACT The emerald the establishment of a more specific lure for this pest. We have also shown that it is possible to trap emerald ash

  9. Characteristics and distribution of potential ash tree hosts for emerald ash borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. MacFarlane; Shawna Patterson Meyer

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a recently discovered (July 2002) exotic insect pest, which has caused the death of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in Detroit, MI, USA and has also spread into other areas of Michigan, isolated locations in Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Virginia, and nearby Windsor, Ont., in Canada. Ash trees occur in many

  10. MANAGING THE RISK OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE TO BT CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bt corn offers growers a powerful new tool for controlling European corn borer (ECB), a significant pest in the Midwestern United States. Industry and academic scientists have developed a high-dose refuge strategy to combat ECB resistance to Bt corn. We developed a stochastic dynamic bioeconomic m...

  11. Trichogramma Brassicae and SLAM ® , an Integrated Approach to Managing European Corn Borer and Corn Rootworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie C. Lewis; Robert D. Gunnarson; James C. Robbins

    2005-01-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); western corn rootworm (WCRW), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; and northern corn rootworm (NCRW), Diabrotica barberi (Smith & Lawrence) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of corn, Zea mays L., that occur simultaneously in the US Corn Belt. Areawide management strategies for northern and western corn rootworm in Iowa, Kansas, South Dakota, Illinois, and

  12. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is the primary target of the widely adopted transgenic corn events MON810 and Bt11, expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxin, Cry1Ab. Resistant strains of O. nubilalis have been selected in the laboratory by exposure to Bt ...

  13. Susceptibility of eggs and adult fecundity of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, exposed to methoprene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chanbang; F. H. Arthur; G. E. Wilde; J. E. Throne; Bh. Subramanyam

    2008-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs and neonates of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae = Bostrychidae), exposed to the insect growth regulator, methoprene, on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with methoprene at the label rate

  14. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, AQUATIC RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS, RUSSIAN PEAT BORER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...

  15. Explorations for Natural Enemies of Emerald Ash Borer in China, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was made in China during July-August, 2006. We visited 11 field plots in four provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina, then peel...

  16. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  17. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  18. NHBugs: The Big Three Resources Emerald Ash Borer Management for Landowners

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Emerald ash borer is in this zone, though not necessarily in all ash trees. Potential expansion area" diameter at breast height, dbh) as possible, leaving smaller ash. 5. Identify high-value ash trees stocking. #12;Potential expansion area for urban landscape: 1. Inventory your trees by species, size

  19. Response of grape root borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from vitaceae species and rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer larvae moving freely within Petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to filter paper discs treated with ethanol- and hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts ...

  20. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

    2011-01-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study,

  1. Dispersal of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis , in newly-colonized sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough

    2009-01-01

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive forest insect pest threatening more than 8 billion ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. Development of effective survey methods and strategies to slow the spread of A. planipennis requires an understanding of dispersal, particularly in recently established satellite populations. 2 We assessed the dispersal of A. planipennis beetles

  2. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill C. Crosthwaite; Stephanie Sobek; D. Barry Lyons; Mark A. Bernards; Brent J. Sinclair

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of

  3. Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Density and Canopy Dieback in Three North American Ash Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea C. Anulewicz; Deborah G. McCullough; David L. Cappaert

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan, U.S. and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Little information about A. planipennis is available from its native range and it was not known whether this invasive pest would exhibit a preference for a

  4. Assessing the Hazard of Emerald Ash Borer and Other Exotic Stressors to Community Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Ball; Sarah Mason; Aaron Kiesz; Dan McCormick; Craig Brown

    2007-01-01

    Exotic stressors such as emerald ash borer are an increasing concern to many communities across North America. One means of assessing the hazard these stressors may represent to a community's publicly managed trees is through an inventory of their street trees. The South Dakota Division of Resource Conservation and Forestry conducted street tree inventories in selected communities across the state

  5. A Potential Plan of Action for Emerald Ash Borer in Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Wheeler

    2010-01-01

    \\u0009Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB) is an invasive insect pest. It feeds on the cambium tissues of ash tree species. It was first discovered in the United States in 2002 in Detroit, Michigan. Their effects on ash trees are deadly, and it is quickly spreading across the Midwest. Nebraska has not yet been invaded, but confirmed findings continue getting

  6. UPDATE ON EMERALD ASH BORER NATURAL ENEMY SURVEYS IN MICHIGAN AND CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Deborah L. Miller

    We began research on natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis soon after its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. Regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada adopted a strategy of eradication for EAB in an effort to protect New World ash. Should eradication fail, however, conventional biological control will be needed to suppress populations of

  7. Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis): Gene characterization and expression profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Praveen Mamidala; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-01-01

    Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of

  8. DIATOMACEOUS EARTH PLUS METHOPRENE FOR CONTROL OF LESSER GRAIN BORER, RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA, IN ROUGH RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), is a major insect pest of all stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE), a natural inert dust, and methoprene, an insect growth regulator, are two insecticides registered for direct application for stored grains. However, methopre...

  9. Electrophysiological response of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) to apple volatile compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupled gas chromatography and electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses of headspace volatiles from apple host tissues revealed a total of 16 antennal responses to which female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), responded. There were no differences in the amplitude of the response o...

  10. Plant resistance and its effect on the peritrophic membrane of southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar) is a serious pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the southern United States. Corn germplasm lines with conventional genetic leaf-feeding resistance to this pest, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), and other lepidopterans have been released t...

  11. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, Michigan by caging gravid EAB females or placing laboratory-reared eg...

  12. Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ningxia Du

    2008-01-01

    Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

  13. DIEL PERIODICITY OF EMERGENCE AND PRE-MATING REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS OF ADULT DOGWOOD BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: SESIIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence and pre-mating reproductive behaviors of adult dogwood borer moths, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) were examined under controlled conditions in the laboratory and in apple orchards in Virginia. The diel periodicity of male response to pheromone sources was recorded ...

  14. Influence of drought stress on Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) oviposition preference in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), has been spreading northward from Mexico and Texas sugarcane and rice, and invasion of Louisiana is projected. This study showed drought stress increases water potential in sugarcane plants and results in >3.4-fold more dry leaves than in well-watered...

  15. Inbreeding variability and population structure in the invasive haplodiploid palm-seed borer ( Coccotrypes dactyliperda )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Holzman; A. J. Bohonak; L. R. Kirkendall; D. Gottlieb; A. R. Harari; S. T. Kelley

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the mating system and population genetic structure of the invasive haplodiploid palm-seed borer Coccotrypes dactyliperda in California. We focused on whether these primarily inbreeding beetles have a 'mixed- breeding' system that includes occasional outbreeding, and whether local inbreeding coefficients (FIS) varied with dominant environmental factors. We also analysed the genetic structure of C. dactyliperda populations across local and

  16. Photoprotection of Beauveria bassiana: testing simple formulations for control of the coffee berry borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN EDGINGTON; HECTOR SEGURA; WILLIAM DE LA ROSA; TREVOR WILLIAMS

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana is considered to be one of the few natural enemies available for use against the coffee berry borer. In an attempt to enhance the efficacy of this pathogen, a range of concentrations of 22 substances was tested in simple laboratory tests using natural sunlight or a UV light source. Unprotected B. bassiana spores were almost

  17. Alternative Hosts for Bethylid Parasitoids of the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Ian C. W Hardy

    2001-01-01

    Three species of bethylid wasps, Prorops nasuta Waterston, Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem, and C. hyalinipennis Ashmead, attack the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), by both predation and parasitism. C. hyalinipennis has only recently been reported to attack H. hampei. Its previously recorded hosts belong to the coleopteran families Curculionidae, Anobiidae, and Scolytidae. We evaluated five further coleopteran species,

  18. Evidence for allelochemical attraction of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei , by coffee berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Giordanengo; Luc O. Brun; Brigitte Frerot

    1993-01-01

    Petri dish choice tests conducted on the coffee berry borer (CBB),Hypothenemus hampei, showed that females were able to discriminate between coffee berries at different ripening stages. A Y-shaped glass olfactometer was used to demonstrate that coffee berries emitted volatile chemicals that elicited upwind movement by female CBB. Olfactometer tests with three different solvent extracts of berries showed that at least

  19. Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Benavides; Fernando E. Vega; Jeanne Romero-Severson; Alex E. Bustillo; Jeffrey J. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    AmpliÞed fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) Þngerprinting was used to examine the genetic variability and biogeography of the most important insect pest of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n 101) from 17 countries on three continents were examined. Only 26 unique Þngerprints (haplotypes) were dis- covered among all samples. Genetic variability was

  20. Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...

  1. On the eyes of male coffee berry borers as rudimentary organs.

    PubMed

    Vega, Fernando E; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1 ± 4.10) than in females (127.5 ± 3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

  2. Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

  3. Mycobiota associated with the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanneth Pérez; Francisco Infante; Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Holguín; Jorge MacÍAs; Javier Valle; Guadalupe Nieto; Stephen W. Peterson; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Kerry O'donnell

    2003-01-01

    Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, faeces and galleries of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei. Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee farms at different altitudes : Rosario Izapa (425 m), La Alianza (700 m) and Monteperla (950 m). An

  4. Dynamics of twolined chestnut borer Agrilus bilineatus as inuenced by defoliation and selection thinning

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    borer adults during a gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymnatriidae), outbreak and examined defoliated by gypsy moth, extensive defoliation occurred in one year, and major overstory tree mortality year of attack (Haack & Acciavatti, 1992). Expansion of the range of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L

  5. Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY in western New York, were invading burrknots on dwarf apple trees. About the same time, Dick Straub seemed to be becoming more common in dwarf apple plantings, as well. Based on Deb's alert, we decided

  6. POSSIBLE DEGRADATIVE ROLES OF A COFFEE BERRY BORER-ASSOCIATED YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Pichia guilliermondii based on 26s ribosomal gene sequences. Liquid culture experiments with media containing different caffeine lev...

  7. Evaluation of Pheromone-Based Strategies for the Dogwood Borer on Commercial Apple Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious wood-boring pest of apple in eastern North America. The recent identification of its sex pheromone and a potent behavioral antagonist affords the opportunity to develop pheromone based management strategies for th...

  8. Evidence for Obligate Migratory Flight Behavior in Young European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, flight behavior was examined in laboratory experiments. Adults were each tethered to one of 16 round-about flight mills in an environmental chamber, and the data relayed to a computer. Parameters analyzed included duration, distance, and speed of the longes...

  9. Relationship between maize stem structural characteristics and resistance to pink stem borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attack.

    PubMed

    Santiago, R; Souto, X C; Sotelo, J; Butrón, A; Malvar, R A

    2003-10-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre), is one of the most important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in northwestern Spain. The objectives of this work were to evaluate, at different times during the growth of maize, structural traits related to the entry point and tissues on which larvae feed and to determine the relationship between these structural traits and the stem borer resistance. Six inbred lines with different levels of stem resistance to S. nonagrioides were evaluated in several trials. Potential structural resistance factors included rind and pith puncture resistance (RPR and PPR), rind thickness, length of the meristematic area (LMA), and pith parenchyma interlumen thickness (PPIT). Surprisingly, the inbred lines that showed the strongest stalks, EP42 and EP47, were not stem resistant to pink stem borer attack, while the stem resistant inbreds A509, CM151, and PB130 were among the least resistant to rind puncture. There were no significant differences among resistant and susceptible inbreds for the rind thickness. However, the susceptible inbred EP42 had the softest internode pith, and the resistant inbred PB130 showed the hardest, as was expected. Susceptible inbred lines in general showed higher values for the LMA, while the PPIT was important for individual inbreds. The results suggest that the usefulness of these characters as estimators of pink stem borer resistance is limited to some genotypes. Besides, even among those genotypes, other mechanisms of resistance that do not involve stalk strength could be present. Among the traits considered, the LMA was the most promising as an indicator of resistance to pink stem borer, although further experimentation is necessary. PMID:14650532

  10. 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS

    E-print Network

    2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, Athens, GA 30602 ABSTRACT The effects of emerald ash

  11. Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.

    PubMed

    Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

    2014-09-01

    Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region. PMID:25204068

  12. Parasitic Infestation in Pediatric and Adolescent Appendicitis: A Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875

  13. Ectoparasite infestations of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are associated with small-scale landscape structures in an urban-suburban environment.

    PubMed

    Thamm, Sven; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Wells, Konstans

    2009-09-01

    Animals that exploit heterogeneous and patchy environments encounter different local habitat conditions that influence their interaction with the environment, such as the acquisition of parasites. How and at which scales interaction processes between parasites, hosts, and the environment are realized remains largely unknown. We examined the infestation patterns of 56 hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) with fleas and ticks at a small spatial scale within a 12 km(2) area along a suburban-urban gradient in southwestern Germany. The structure and type of habitats surrounding hedgehog capture locations were estimated from digital land cover data within radii of 20, 50, and 100 m. These were assumed to match the ranging area and underlying heterogeneous landscape matrix in which host-parasite interactions take place. Landscape-based models suggested that flea burdens significantly decreased with the diversity and heterogeneity of land cover, as well as with the areal coverage of roads within radii of 50 and 100 m. Overall tick infestation levels were mostly explained by the number of arable patches and the areal coverage of roads within radii of 50 and 100 m, as well as date of capture. Examination of the semivariance in model residuals revealed no evident spatial structure in any of the models with flea or tick infestation patterns as response variables. Our results, which are based on a sampling scheme within a relatively small spatio-temporal window, suggest that heterogeneous landscape matrices affect parasitization rates of animals in urban environments, with clear differences at the individual level. PMID:20119687

  14. Detecting Weed Infestations in Soybean Using Remote Sensing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, S. A.; Chang, J.; Clay, D. E.; Dalsted, K.; Reese, C.

    2007-12-01

    Can weed distribution maps be developed from remote sensed reflectance data? When are the appropriate times to collect these data during the season? What wavebands can be used to distinguish weedy from weed- free areas? This research examined if and when reflectance could be used to distinguish between weed-free and weed-infested (mixed species) areas in soybean and to determine the most useful wavebands to separate crop, weed, and soil reflectance differences. Treatments in the two-year study included no vegetation (bare soil), weed-free soybean, and weed-infested soybean and, in one year, 80% corn residue cover. Reflectance was measured at several sampling times from May through September in 2001 and 2002 using a hand-held multispectral radiometer equipped with band-limited optical interference filters (460 - 1650 nm). Pixel resolution was 0.8-m. Reflectance in the visible spectral range (460 to 700 nm) generally was similar among treatments. In the near-infrared (NIR) range (>700 to 1650 nm), differences among treatments were observed from soybean growth stage V-3 (about 4 weeks after planting) until mid-July to early August depending on crop vigor and canopy closure (76 cm row spacing in 2001 and 19 cm row spacing in 2002). Reflectance rankings in the NIR range when treatments could be differentiated were consistent between years and, from lowest to highest reflectance, were soil < weed-free < weed-infested areas. Increased reflectance from weed-infested areas was most likely due to increased biomass and canopy cover. Residue masked differences between weed-free and weed- infested areas during the early stages of growth due to high reflectance from the residue and reduced weed numbers in these areas. These results suggest that NIR spectral reflectance collected prior to canopy closure can be used to distinguish weed-infested from weed-free areas.

  15. Use of spectral vegetation indices derived from airborne hyperspectral imagery for detection of European corn borer infestation in Iowa corn plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery and evaluated in 2004 and 2005 for their ability to detect experimental plots of corn manually inoculated with Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) neonate larvae. ...

  16. University of Minnesota Extension is an equal opportunity educator and employer. For Americans with Disabilities Act accommodations, please call 800-876-8636. Updated February 2009. Emerald ash borer, a small green insect deadly to

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    with Disabilities Act accommodations, please call 800-876-8636. Updated February 2009. Emerald ash borer, a small. CHALLENGE Since 2002, emerald ash borer has killed tens of millions of ash trees in neighboring states and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources to formulate a response plan: Delay emerald ash borer's arrival

  17. Seasonal parasitism by egg parasites of the yellow rice borer, Scirpophaga incertulas [Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indrani S. Hikim

    1988-01-01

    Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) [Lep.: Pyralidae] is a common pest of rice in West Bengal, India. A three year study (1978–1981) revealed that egg parasites were important\\u000a in reducing the borer population in an uninterrupted rice cultivation practice. The parasite activity showed periodical fluctuation\\u000a coinciding with the moth emergence. It was evident thatTelenomus spp. were most common and most dominating in

  18. Differential Response in Foliar Chemistry of Three Ash Species to Emerald Ash Borer Adult Feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses\\u000a of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to

  19. Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. Lelito; Katalin Böröczky; Tappey H. Jones; Ivich Fraser; Victor C. Mastro; James H. Tumlinson; Thomas C. Baker

    2009-01-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined to determine if there are differences in these compounds between the sexes. We also assessed feral male EAB\\u000a in the field for behavioral changes based on the application of a female-specific compound to dead, solvent-washed beetles.\\u000a Males in the field spent significantly more time attempting copulation with dead,

  20. Antennally Active Macrolide from the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis Emitted Predominantly by Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Bartelt; Allard A. Cossé; Bruce W. Zilkowski; Ivich Fraser

    2007-01-01

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was ca. 10 times more abundant from females. It was\\u000a readily sensed by antennae of both males and females. Identification was confirmed by synthesis. The behavioral effects of\\u000a the lactone remain unstudied

  1. Distinguishing Defensive Characteristics in the Phloem of Ash Species Resistant and Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Cipollini; Qin Wang; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Jeff R. Powell; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms

    2011-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis\\u000a of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high

  2. Modeling the invasive emerald ash borer risk of spread using a spatially explicit cellular model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anantha M. Prasad; Louis R. Iverson; Matthew P. Peters; Jonathan M. Bossenbroek; Stephen N. Matthews; T. Davis Sydnor; Mark W. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is decimating native ashes (Fraxinus sp.) throughout midwestern North America, killing millions of trees over the years. With plenty of ash available throughout\\u000a the continent, the spread of this destructive insect is likely to continue. We estimate that the insect has been moving along\\u000a a “front” at about 20 km\\/year since about 1998, but

  3. Identification of a coffee berry borer-associated yeast: does it break down caffeine?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando E. Vega; Michael B. Blackburn; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Patrick F. Dowd

    2003-01-01

    Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers ( Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)) and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Candida fermentati (Saito) Bai, based on sequencing of the nuclear large subunit 26S rDNA variable D1\\/D2 domain. Liquid culture experiments using P. burtonii in media containing different caffeine

  4. ?-Amylases of the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) and their inhibition by two plant amylase inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnubio Valencia; Alex E Bustillo; Gustavo E Ossa; Maarten J Chrispeels

    2000-01-01

    The adult coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari [Coleoptera: Scolytidae]), a major insect pest of coffee, has two major digestive ?-amylases that can be separated by isoelectric focusing. The ?-amylase activity has a broad pH optimum between 4.0 and 7.0. Using pH indicators, the pH of the midgut was determined to be between 4.5 and 5.2. At pH5.0, the coffee

  5. Comparative studies on the sex pheromones of Ostrinia spp. in Japan: the burdock borer, Ostrinia zealis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Ishikawa; Takuma Takanashi; Yongping Huang

    1999-01-01

    Summary.   To gain insight into the evolution of the sex pheromone communication system in Ostrinia (Lepidoptera Pyralidae), the sex pheromone of the burdock borer, O. zealis was analyzed by means of gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), GC-mass spectrometry and a series of\\u000a bioassays. Four EAD-active compounds were detected in the female sex pheromone gland extract, and these were identified as\\u000a tetradecyl

  6. Characterization of Acetylcholinesterase Purified from the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. C Guedes; K. Y Zhu; S Kambhampati; B. A Dover

    1998-01-01

    1. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) purified from the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica) was significantly inhibited by higher concentrations of the substrates acetylthiocholine (ATC), acetyl-(?-methyl) thiocholine (A?MTC) and propionylthiocholine (PTC). 2. The efficiency of AChE for hydrolyzing different substrates was ATC > A?MTC > PTC > S-butyrylthiocholine. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by 10?5 M eserine or BW284C51, but

  7. Recent Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestations in Florida--a genetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Silva, Janisete G; Meixner, Marina D; McPheron, Bruce A; Steck, Gary J; Sheppard, Walter S

    2003-12-01

    Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variability data were used to study infestations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in Florida in 1997 and 1998. A total of 132 flies collected in monitoring traps or as larvae removed from fruit were examined at three polymorphic mtDNA restriction sites and two microsatellite loci. All of the flies sampled in Florida in 1997 displayed the mitochondrial AAB haplotype and represent a novel introduction of Mediterranean fruit flies into the state. All flies collected in central Florida in 1998 also displayed the AAB haplotype. Microsatellite analysis of these specimens from 1998 detected only alleles that were present in 1997. These results strongly indicate that the 1998 Florida outbreaks were derived from the Florida populations from the previous year. According to our analyses, the Mediterranean region is the most likely source for the 1997 Florida infestation. Flies from a small outbreak in Miami Springs, Dade County, FL, early in 1998 had a different mtDNA haplotype, characterized by the AAC restriction pattern. Microsatellites of these specimens showed significant differences in their allelic distribution from AAB flies, indicating an origin from a separate source population. South America is the most likely source for the Miami Springs flies. PMID:14977107

  8. Alternative cellular energy pigments mistaken for parasitic skin infestations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. John Martin

    2005-01-01

    Dermatologists and psychiatrists occasionally encounter patients who believe they are infested with skin parasites. They may report seeing threads, fibers and more solid appearing particles attached to their skin and hair, or appearing on clean bed sheets after sleeping. Some of the particles move spontaneously suggesting a life form. Similar structures develop in long-term cultures of stealth-adapted viruses. They are

  9. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Survey of Pest Infestation, Asthma, and Allergy

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    ORIGINAL PAPER Survey of Pest Infestation, Asthma, and Allergy in Low-income Housing Changlu Wang Æ cockroaches, mice, cockroach allergen level, asthma and allergy rate in public housing, we interviewed,173 residents, 13% and 9% had physician-diagnosed asthma and allergy, respectively. Existence of diagnosed

  11. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in Northwest Italy.

    PubMed

    Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter

    2013-01-01

    CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation. PMID:24362773

  12. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: applications and practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The challenges that land owners and resource managers face when trying to attempt applications and practices when attempting to rehabilitate rangelands infested with cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) are over-whelming. Simply purchasing seed and spreading it throughout the rangelands is doomed for failu...

  13. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF LEAFY SPURGE-INFESTED RANGELAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is an invasive Eurasian weed on pastures and rangeland in North America where it reduces grass forage production. Our objective was to determine the effects of multispecies grazing combined with Aphthona 'ea beetles on leafy spurge-infested rangeland. On two western North Dakota sites d...

  14. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  15. Natural trematode infestation in feral Nebrodi Black pigs: Pathological investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Capucchio; Catalano Deborah; Di Marco Vincenzo; Russo Miriam; Aronica Vincenzo; Tomaselli Amedeo; Lazzara Alessandro; Amedeo Stefano; Scaglione Frine Eleonora; Dore Bruno; Guarda Franco

    2009-01-01

    Few studies describe the parasites of pigs bred in the wild state, although pigs are a known reservoir of trematode infestation. This article reports the results of a retrospective study carried out from January 2003 to June 2007 on 3021 Nebrodi Black male and female pigs, regularly slaughtered, aged between 8 months and 4 years. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum

  16. Effects of Leafy Spurge Infestation on Grassland Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M Scheiman; Eric K Bollinger; Douglas H Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and

  17. ELIMINATION OF A TAPINOMA MELANOCEPHALUM (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) INFESTATION USING IMIDACLOPRID BAIT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. BROOKS; G. NENTWIG; V. GUTSMANN

    Tapinoma melanocephalum F. (Ghost Ant) infestations have increased in Western Europe. Generally, Ghost Ant infestations resemble those of Monomorium pharaonis (Pharaoh's Ant) with a focus to older, multi-unit apartment blocks which offer a multitude of nesting opportunities and easy migration of ants within the building. Control of these infestations is often regarded as difficult. Laboratory trials of a novel semi-liquid

  18. Differential gene expression in whitefly Bemisia tabaci-infested tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants at progressing developmental stages of the insect's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Hernández, María Gloria; Valenzuela-Soto, José Humberto; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2009-09-01

    A suppression-subtractive-hybridization (SSH) strategy was used to identify genes whose expression was modified in response to virus-free whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Bt, biotype A) infestation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Thus, forward and reverse SSH gene libraries were generated at four points in the whitefly's life cycle, namely at (1) 2 days (adult feeding and oviposition: phase I); (2) 7 days (mobile crawler stage: phase II); (3) 12 days (second to third instar nymphal transition: phase III) and (4) 18 days (fourth instar nymphal stage: phase IV). The 169 genes with altered expression (up and downregulated) that were identified in the eight generated SSH libraries, together with 75 additional genes that were selected on the basis of their involvement in resistance responses against phytofagous insects and pathogens, were printed on a Nexterion(®) Slide MPX 16 to monitor their pattern of expression at the above phases. The results indicated that Bt infestation in tomato led to distinctive phase-specific expression/repression patterns of several genes associated predominantly with photosynthesis, senescence, secondary metabolism and (a)biotic stress. Most of the gene expression modifications were detected in phase III, coinciding with intense larval feeding, whereas fewer changes were detected in phases I and IV. These results complement previously reported gene expression profiles in Bt-infested tomato and Arabidopisis, and support and expand the opinion that Bt infestation leads to the downregulation of specific defense responses in addition to those controlled by jasmonic acid. PMID:19627556

  19. 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 11 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS: THE DYNAMICS OF ASH

    E-print Network

    2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 11 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH at ksknight@fs.fed.us. The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems FORESTS: THE DYNAMICS OF ASH MORTALITY AND THE RESPONSES OF OTHER PLANT SPECIES Kathleen S. Knight, Daniel

  20. Issue: White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) has been found attacked by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) by Don Cipollini, a professor at Wright State University in Ohio

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Issue: White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) has been found attacked by emerald ash borer.wright.edu/web1/newsroom/2014/10/17/emerald-ash- borer-research/ 2. Fringe Tree: http been collected in areas where the abundance of dead ash trees suggest that local populations of EAB

  1. Should I Use Pesticides to Protect My Ash Trees From Emerald Ash Borer? Dr. Cliff Sadof and Jodie Ellis, Purdue Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Should I Use Pesticides to Protect My Ash Trees From Emerald Ash Borer? Dr. Cliff Sadof and Jodie Ellis, Purdue Department of Entomology The use of pesticides approved as preventatives for emerald ash borer (EAB) in Indiana is certainly an option for homeowners in Indiana who wish to protect their ash

  2. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  3. Evaluation of emergence traps for monitoring blueberry gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) adults and within field distribution of midge infestation.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Liburd, Oscar E

    2010-08-01

    The blueberry gall midge, Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a key pest of rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium virgatum Aiton, in the southeastern United States, but it has not been studied extensively and little is known about its ecology and management. Studies were conducted to develop an improved method for monitoring D. oxycoccana adults and to determine the within-field distribution of infestation. Four emergence traps were evaluated in an organic rabbiteye blueberry planting for their effectiveness in capturing D. oxycoccana adults early in the season. These traps included a jar trap, wheat blossom midge trap, petri dish trap, and bucket trap. The petri dish and bucket traps captured the highest numbers of adults in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Both traps had a clear plastic panel coated with adhesive. Adult midges emerging from the soil beneath the traps were caught in the adhesive as they flew up toward the light. Emergence traps are useful for detecting the presence of adults early in the season before larval infestation is apparent in the flower buds. To determine the pattern of midge infestation, flower buds were collected weekly from January to March in 2006 from rabbiteye blueberry plants located in a plot at the southwest border of an existing blueberry planting. There were no differences found in the number of larvae collected from various distances within blueberry rows. However, when flower buds were collected from an isolated rabbiteye plot in 2007 and 2008, D. oxycoccana infestation was not uniform. In both years, the southern border row had a significantly higher number of midge larvae per bud compared with the other rows. PMID:20857735

  4. DNA identification confirms pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation of Carpathian walnut.

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Hunt, Kenneth L; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-08-01

    Larvae found infesting fruit from a Carpathian walnut, Juglans regia L., tree in Missouri were confirmed by DNA analysis to be those of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The infested walnut tree occurs in the midst of pecan weevil-infested pecans, Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch; the larval haplotypes were found to be identical to pecan weevil larvae from the region, indicating that the walnut infestation arose by association with infested pecan. This is the first confirmed DNA analysis showing pecan weevil attacks J. regia and the second report that J. regia may be at risk of infestation by pecan weevil. Further study indicates this infestation on walnut is established and ongoing. The pecan weevil is a key pest of pecan and seems capable of inflicting similar damage to walnut if spread to commercial areas that produce J. regia. PMID:20857742

  5. Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    PubMed Central

    Whitehill, Justin G. A.; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L.; Herms, Daniel A.; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion. PMID:21949771

  6. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion. PMID:21949771

  7. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important. PMID:21404843

  8. Inheritance of Diapause in Crosses between the Northernmost and the Southernmost Strains of the Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shu; Chen, Chao; Xiao, Liang; He, Haimin; Xue, Fangsen

    2015-01-01

    The northernmost Harbin strain (N strain) of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short daylengths; whereas the southernmost Ledong strain (S strain) exhibits almost no diapause under the same light conditions. In the present study, we examined the inheritance of diapause induction and termination by crossing the two strains under a range of environmental conditions. The N strain showed a typical long-day response with a critical daylength of approximately15.88 h at 22°C, 15.72 h at 25°C and 15.14 h at 28°C, whereas the S strain showed a weak photoperiodic response at 22°C. The F1 progeny also showed a long-day response at 22, 25 and 28°C. However, the critical daylengths in S ? × N ? crosses were significantly longer than those in N ? × S ? crosses, indicating a sex linkage in the inheritance of diapause induction, with the male parent having more influence on the following F1 progeny. The incidence of diapause in S ? × N ? crosses was the same as in the N strain under short daylengths of 11-13 h, indicating that diapause trait is completely dominant over the non-diapause trait. The critical daylength in backcross to N was significantly longer than it was in backcross to S, showing a grandfather gene effect. Whether the inheritance of diapause fits an additive hypothesis or not was dependent on the rearing photoperiod, and the capacity for diapause was transmitted genetically in the manner of incomplete dominance. The duration of diapause for the reciprocal crosses under different diapause-terminating conditions showed different patterns of inheritance. The results in this study reveal that genetic and genetic-environmental interactions are involved in diapause induction and termination in O. furnacalis. PMID:25706525

  9. Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P

    2011-10-01

    Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI. PMID:21933231

  10. Infestation of an owl ( Bubo bubo ) with Lucilia spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khodadad Pirali-Kheirabadi; Mehdi Cheraghchi-Bashi; Shahrokh Navidpour

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is an infestation of tissue with the larval stage of dipterous flies. This condition mostly affects the skin but may\\u000a also occur in certain body cavities. It can occur in either animals or humans and is caused by parasitic dipterous fly larvae\\u000a feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. This disease rarely effects birds especially owls. In this

  11. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals. PMID:25320481

  12. Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis infestation detected by sputum cytology.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, B; Nanos, S; Soco, J N; McGrew, E A

    1980-01-01

    This case report is of an immunosuppressed patient in whom a diagnosis of disseminated Strongyloides infestation was made by cytologic examination of sputum, bronchial washing and brushing although a negative bronchial biopsy was reported. For those patients receiving steroids or immunosuppressives, the important role of cytology in the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis is emphasized. The morphologic characteristics of this adult intestinal nematode and the differential diagnosis are also described. PMID:6932151

  13. Infestation and hydraulic consequences of induced carbon starvation.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L; Callaway, Elizabeth S

    2012-08-01

    Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests' responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades. PMID:22665446

  14. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  15. Optimal control of disease infestations on a lattice.

    PubMed

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    The design of durable and sustainable strategies for the control of plant diseases is not possible without due consideration of landscape structure and economic factors. However, many studies on control strategies of plant infestation have overlooked these considerations. In this paper, we address the problem of how best to deploy resources for the control of disease outbreaks during a single agricultural season. We consider a spatial model for the spread of a plant pathogen over an agricultural region, and model the effect of control on disease dynamics. We associate with a control strategy a 'costs function' that balances amount invested for treatment to the cost incurred by disease infestation. Our objective is to minimize the level of disease infestation and the effort of control. We prove the existence of a solution to the optimal control problem, and devise a numerical algorithm to compute it. We present results of our numerical studies, and show that the solution depends on the interplay between economic and epidemiological factors, as well as the nature of the control agent. PMID:23868971

  16. Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1982-02-15

    The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

  17. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits. PMID:20230603

  18. Laboratory rearing of the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus (Zincken) and notes on its biology 

    E-print Network

    Supharngkasen, Phaisal

    1966-01-01

    '0 ~ The duration of the egg, X~ -sad: pupal ~se were 4-j~ -~ amX . ~ ~? woxixw xg ~ Btuky and . control of insect. -pestsa 1936g Kisc. ? Pubis kg Res. Bura China Ho ~ 5s (Bepo '1935)t2'7-33 ' I' I fletcher and. Ghosh (1())21) noted that Che rice stalk boxer...LABORATORY REARXICG OP THE RXQE STALK BORER~ QHHG PLEJA3X(L~X8 (ZXHGKEM) AND HOTES 05 X'TS BXOLOGY Ayyrcvsd. as to style an@ ccntent bye sn 0 0 88 I F F. ~ F en 81' msy, less F. F The author wishes to thank Hr. E. H. Randolph, for his...

  19. Laboratory rearing of the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus (Zincken) and notes on its biology

    E-print Network

    Supharngkasen, Phaisal

    1966-01-01

    '0 ~ The duration of the egg, X~ -sad: pupal ~se were 4-j~ -~ amX . ~ ~? woxixw xg ~ Btuky and . control of insect. -pestsa 1936g Kisc. ? Pubis kg Res. Bura China Ho ~ 5s (Bepo '1935)t2'7-33 ' I' I fletcher and. Ghosh (1())21) noted that Che rice stalk boxer...LABORATORY REARXICG OP THE RXQE STALK BORER~ QHHG PLEJA3X(L~X8 (ZXHGKEM) AND HOTES 05 X'TS BXOLOGY Ayyrcvsd. as to style an@ ccntent bye sn 0 0 88 I F F. ~ F en 81' msy, less F. F The author wishes to thank Hr. E. H. Randolph, for his...

  20. Caffeine and resistance of coffee to the berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Guerreiro Filho, Oliveiro; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2003-11-19

    The role of caffeine as a chemical defense of coffee against the berry borer Hypothenemus hampei was investigated. No positive correlation was observed between resistance and caffeine content in experiments in which seeds from several coffee species presenting genetic variability for the alkaloid were exposed to adult insects. The same was observed in an experiment with coffee seeds that had their caffeine content doubled by imbibition with caffeine aqueous solutions. Other experiments showed that the attractiveness to insects was not related to the caffeine content of mature fruits. These results indicate that H. hampei has evolved an adaptation to handle the toxic effects of caffeine. PMID:14611159

  1. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

  2. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in far eastern Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in southern Khabarovskiy Kray (Khabarovsk area) and Primorskiy Kray (Vladivostok area) to investigate the occurrence of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. Survey findings ind...

  3. Transgenic Bt corn varietal resistance against the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Cramibidae) and implications to sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), attacks crops including corn, Zea mays L.; rice, Oryza sativa L.; sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; and sugarcane, Saccharum spp., but strongly resistant varieties of any kind, native or otherwise, have not been identified. A field plot corn varie...

  4. Nosema pyrausta and Cry1Ab-incorporated Diet Led to Decreased Survival and Developmental Delays in European Corn Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high dose/refuge strategy for delaying evolution of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn relies on random mating between heterozygous-resistant European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and susceptible O. nubilalis from the refuge. However, difference...

  5. Transcript analysis and comparative evaluation of shaker and slowmo gene homologues from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The movement and dispersal of larval Lepidoptera are factors that govern their survival and distribution within the natural landscape. Homologs of the Drosophila behavior-linked genes slowmo and shaker involved in larval locomotion were identified from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (L...

  6. EXPLORATORY SURVEY FOR THE EMERALD ASH BORER, AGRILUS PLANIPENNIS (COLEOPTERA: BUPRESTIDAE), AND ITS NATURAL ENEMIES IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina then peeled off the bark in search of A. planipennis and associated natural enemies.

  7. Genetic Mapping and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in Maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea J. Cardinal; Michael Lee; Natalya Sharopova; Wendy L. Woodman-Clikeman; Mary J. Long

    2001-01-01

    al., 1997). Some of these difficulties could be addressed and resolved through genetic analysis facilitated by mo- The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is lecular genetic maps (Paterson et al., 1991). Information an important pest of temperate maize (Zea mays L.). Damage to the stalk could be minimized by breeding for resistant genotypes but from such analysis could

  8. Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many insects, competition for food, mate, and/or space among different individuals of the same species is a pervasive phenomenon with ecological consequences such as density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Col...

  9. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

  10. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, USA, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 200...

  11. The Effect of Bark Borer Herbivory on BVOC Emissions in Boreal Forests and Implications for SOA Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele

    2015-04-01

    Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.

  12. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

  13. PHENOTYPIC VS MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION FOR STALK STRENGTH AND SECOND GENERATION EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. Stalk lodging is often intensified by the stalk tunneling action of the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)). Rind penetrome...

  14. The role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB), an invasive phloem-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. 2. Tetrastichus planipennisi is known to pre...

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci from the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), represents a major insect pest of corn in North America and Europe, and there is a growing need for molecular markers for population genetics studies. Obtaining useful microsatellites for population studies of O. nubilalis is very challenging, a...

  16. Response of the shot-hole borer of tea, Xyleborus fornicatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to conspecifics and plant semiochemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Subodhi Karunaratne; Vijaya Kumar; Jan Pettersson; N. Savitri Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The responses of the tea shot-hole borer beetle, Xyleborus fornicatus, to conspecific and host plant odours were tested in an olfactometer. Males showed greater attraction to unmated females than to mated females and mated females showed a negative density dependent response with extremely significant repulsion shown when 10 mated females were present. Plants of the susceptible tea cultivar TRI2025 were

  17. Effects of Chipping, Grinding, and Heat on Survival of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah G. Mccullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert; Erin L. Clark; Ivich Fraser; Victor Mastro; Sarah Smith; Christopher Pell

    2007-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identiÞed in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding,

  18. Host-seeking behavior and parasitism by Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yi Wang; Zhong-Qi Yang; Juli R. Gould; Hui Wu; Jian-Hai Ma

    2010-01-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a newly described and important idiobiont ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB) that has excellent potential as a biological control agent against EAB populations in the USA. In order to understand the ecological factors involved in the search and discovery of concealed hosts by S. agrili, we investigated the behavioral responses of adult

  19. Development of life tables to assess the establishment and population impact of parasitoids for control of the emerald ash borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Life tables may be used as a quantitative tool to assess the establishment and impact of introduced natural enemies. One of the critical challenges in constructing life tables for concealed insects such as emerald ash borer is to establish cohorts of the pest. The present study investigates and co...

  20. Relationships between the emergence and oviposition of ectoparasitoid Spathius agrili Yang and its host emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyi Wang; Zhongqi Yang; Guijun Liu; Enshan Liu

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), (= A. marcopoli Obenberger), is an important bark beetle attacking ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). It is very difficult to detect and control because of its highly concealed life history. This pest mainly distributed\\u000a in partial Asian countries (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia) and Far East Russia, while in China it presented in

  1. Nontarget effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kreutzweiser; Kevin Good; Derek Chartrand; Taylor Scarr; Dean Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an

  2. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus s...

  3. douBlE-dECKERs And ToWERs: EmERAld Ash BoRER TRAPs in 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea C. Anulewicz

    Effective and efficient methods to detect and monitor emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus plani- pennis Fairmaire, have been a high priority for scientists since this invasive pest was identified in 2002. In 2006, our objectives included development of a practical trap design suitable for operational programs and evaluation of lures. In 2007, we continued this work and assessed additional trap

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED TOOL FOR PROJECTING COSTS OF MANAGING EMERALD ASH BORER IN MUNICIPAL FORESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Sadof

    2009-01-01

    City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city foresters can avoid harm from falling trees by removing, replacing, or treating them with insecticides. Costs for these activities

  5. Population responses of hymenopteran parasitoids to the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in recently invaded areas in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with immature stages of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were surveyed in 2009 and 2010 in the recently invaded areas in Michigan, where the two introduced EAB larval parasitoids, Tetrastic...

  6. Interactive Influence of Leaf Age, Light Intensity, and Girdling on Green Ash Foliar Chemistry and Emerald Ash Borer Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland

    2009-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance\\u000a to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected

  7. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003–2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against A. planipennis adults in greenhouse studies. However, efficacy was improved in the field when B.

  8. Combination treatments with diatomaceous earth and methoprene to control the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in stored rough rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major insect pest of stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust that can be used to control stored-grain beetles, however, R. dominica is more tolerant to DE compared to other beetle species. Mortality of ad...

  9. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a new yeast species isolated from frass of the litchi fruit borer Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vu Nguyen Thanh; Dao Anh Hai; Marc-André Lachance

    2003-01-01

    The new ascogenous yeast species Issatchenkia hanoiensis was discovered in the frass of the litchi fruit borer Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen. The yeast forms unconjugated persistent asci containing one to two roughened ascospores. The yeast has a CoQ-7 system, which is typical for the genus Issatchenkia. The closest species to I. hanoiensis as indicated by analysis of the partial ribosomal DNA

  10. Impact of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as an augmentative biocontrol agent for sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to find an appropriate biological control agent for release in rice, a 2-year field cage experiment was conducted in Beaumont, Texas to estimate parasitism of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron). The effective search rate was 0.0049 square meter gro...

  11. Host Stage Selection and Suitability in Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a Parasitoid of the Coffee Berry Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Lauzière; Jacques Brodeur; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    2001-01-01

    Paired choice experiments were used to evaluate host feeding and oviposition preferences of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a solitary ectoparasitoid of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Immature and ovipositing females may feed on all developmental stages of the host, but prefer eggs and adults. Parasitoid females parasitize prepupae, pupae, and full-grown larvae of H. hampei, the

  12. Insect gladiators II: Competitive interactions within and between bethylid parasitoid species of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim P. Batchelor; Ian C. W. Hardy; Juan F. Barrera; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    2005-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) causes substantial reductions in coffee production. It originates from Africa but is now present in almost all of the major coffee producing countries. Classical biological control attempts around the world, including South and Central America, the Caribbean, Indian sub-continent, Indonesia, and Polynesia, including introductions of the African bethylid wasps Prorops nasuta

  13. Natural parasitism of Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...

  14. Karnyothrips flavipes, a previously unreported predatory thrips of the coffee berry borer: DNA-based gut content analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new predator of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was found in the coffee growing area of Kisii in Western Kenya. Field observations, laboratory trials and gut content analysis using molecular tools have confirmed the role of the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Phlaeothrip...

  15. Chemical cues used in host location by Phymastichus coffea, a parasitoid of coffee berry borer adults, Hypothenemus hampei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio C. Rojas; Alfredo Castillo; Armando Virgen

    2006-01-01

    The wasp Phymastichus coffea LaSalle is a primary parasitoid that attacks adults of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, the most serious pest of coffee in the world. We carried out a series of experiments in the laboratory to elucidate the role of chemical cues used by P. coffea during host location. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, P. coffea females

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of the Impact of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a Parasitoid of the Coffee Berry Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. de la Rosa; H. R. Segura; J. F. Barrera; T. Williams

    2000-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and the bethylid parasitoid Prorops nasuta Waterston are natural enemies of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and are considered valuable biocontrol agents in the coffee-growing regions of Central and South America. Laboratory evaluations were made on the impact of three isolates of each fungus on adult

  17. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  18. Characterization of Some Beauveria bassianaIsolates and Their Virulence toward the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Varela; Esperanza Morales

    1996-01-01

    Some morphological and physiological characteristics and electrophoretic esterase profiles of six isolates ofBeauveria bassianawere evaluated, and laboratory bioassays were performed to assess their virulence against the coffee berry borerHypothenemus hampei. The relationship among these characteristics and virulence againstH. hampeiand their utility in selecting isolates for further studies are discussed.

  19. Insect gladiators: competitive interactions between three species of bethylid wasps attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Ian C. W Hardy; Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2002-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), originates from Africa and has since invaded all major coffee growing areas in the world. The parasitoid species, Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem and Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) have been introduced into many countries as biological control agents. Recently, a further bethylid, Cephalonomia hyalinipennis Ashmead, was found naturally attacking the coffee berry

  20. The effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism on the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) in southern Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivette Perfecto; John Vandermeer

    2006-01-01

    The indirect effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism was investigated in the coffee agroecosystem of Southern Mexico. The ant, Azteca instabilis, forms a mutualistic relationship with the coccid, Coccus viridis, on coffee plants. Through field surveys and experimental studies, the indirect effect of this mutualism on the main coffee pest in the region, Hypothenemus hampei, the coffee berry borer (CBB), was

  1. Susceptibility of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon Exitiosa, to Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrave in laboratory and field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach that attacks the trunk and roots at, and just below, soil level. At present, a trunk-applied insecticide is the only control used against this pest throughout the southeastern US. We investigated the susc...

  2. The biology and ecology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, En-shan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

  3. The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

  4. Evaluation of the CatanDog's tag to prevent flea infestations, inhibit flea reproduction or repel existing flea infestations on cats.

    PubMed

    Dryden, M W; Payne, P A; Smith, V

    2000-10-20

    To evaluate the ability of the CatanDog's tag to eliminate fleas, inhibit egg production and prevent flea infestations, six domestic shorthaired cats were randomly allocated to two treatment groups and housed individually in stainless steel metabolic cages. Three cats were each fitted with a CatanDog's tag; the other three cats were not fitted with tags and served as controls. Following a 42-day acclimation period, each of the six cats was infested with 100, 1-3 day post-emergence, adult Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 27. Flea egg production was determined by collecting and enumerating eggs 2, 4 and 6 days after each infestation. Viability of eggs was determined by placing 100 eggs recovered from each cat in rearing media in an insect rearing chamber and determining adult emergence at 28 days. Adult fleas were recovered from cats 6 days post-infestation by thoroughly combing each cat to remove fleas. To determine if the tags provided protection from infestation, the six cats were placed into a 8.53mx4.36 m room with 400 cat fleas for 3h. Cats were then combed to remove and enumerate fleas. The CatanDog's tags had no significant effect upon egg production, egg viability, or adult fleas infesting cats. In addition there was no difference in the numbers of fleas recovered from the cats placed in the flea-infested room. PMID:10996742

  5. Limnatis nilotica infestation in ram and kid in Dehloran city, Ilam province, west of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rasouli, Maryam; Parsaei, Pouya; Bahnihabib, Ebrahimkhalil; Saki, Koroosh; Ghotbian, Fereidon

    2013-01-01

    Leech infestation can cause various clinical symptoms in human and animals. There are a few reports about this infestation in the world. In this report, we represented two cases of leech infestation of Limnatis nilotica in domestic kid and ram with anorexia, little respiratory disorders and restlessness in Dehloran city, Ilam province, west of Iran. Based on author's knowledge, there is no report of leech infestation on ram and kid and the present case is the first report of internal hirudiniasis of ram and kid due to Limnatis niloticain in literature.

  6. Relationship between spike worm (Raghuva albipunctella) infestation and flowering of pearl

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Relationship between spike worm (Raghuva albipunctella) infestation and flowering of pearl millet, génotypes résistants. I. INTRODUCTION Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) is a major cereal food crop

  7. Human botfly infestation: the tip of the iceberg.

    PubMed

    Nduka, Jude Chiedu; Mcnair, Rory

    2014-01-01

    A retired man in his 60s was referred to the on call orthopaedic team by his general practitioner following several attempts to extricate a human botfly larva from his forearm. While on holiday in Belize with his daughter 8 weeks previously they both were bitten by some insects. She developed an infestation which was treated locally. Once back in the UK, he subsequently reported of localised itching and discomfort. A botfly larva was successfully removed in the emergency department following local anaesthetic infiltration. PMID:25527681

  8. Identification and management of bed bug infestations in austere environments.

    PubMed

    Amodt, Zachary T

    2013-01-01

    Military forces have missions that send them all over the globe. With the reemergence of bed bugs worldwide, the possibility of Servicemembers encountering them has increased. Special Operations Forces are often sent to locations that may not have integrated pest management support. Knowing how to identify and manage a bed bug infestation, with and without proper equipment and supplies, may become necessary in the very near future. It is also important that Servicemembers are aware of how bed bugs travel, to prevent their dispersal back to the United States and into their barracks and homes. PMID:24227555

  9. Tick (Acari) infestations of bats in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Steinlein, D B; Durden, L A; Cannon, W L

    2001-07-01

    A total of 278 bats belonging to 16 species was examined for ticks from various sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998. Seven species of bats were parasitized by ticks: larvae of Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls, Ornithodoros rossi Kohls, Sonenshine & Clifford (Argasidae), or both. Both species of ticks are reported from New Mexico for the first time. Infestation prevalences for parasitized bats ranged from 2 to 25% on different host species for O. kelleyi and from 7 to 25% for O. rossi. The pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus, and the big brown bat. Eptesicus fuscus, were parasitized by both tick species. No distinct host specificity was noted for either tick species. PMID:11476346

  10. Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 107GTR-NRS-P-105 EMERALD ASH BORER MODELING METHODS

    E-print Network

    Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 107GTR-NRS-P-105 EMERALD. Huggett, Jr., Ruhong Li, David N. Wear, and Patrick D. Miles1 Abstract.--The emerald ash borer (Agrilus

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF AND ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE LARGER GRAIN BORER PROSTEPHANUS TRUNCATUS (HORN) (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) AND THE MAIZE WEEVIL SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTSCHULSKY (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) IN MAIZE STORES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecific interactions between the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera Curculionidae) were studied during two storage seasons in maize stores, in Bénin. Maize ears, randomly sampled from far...

  12. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United St...

  13. Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiming

    Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total Pigment to Chlorophyll Index (NPCI) could be used to distinguish greenbug infestation and infestation caused by Russian wheat aphid. Finally, stress was detected in a shorter time interval when wheat plants were infested with greenbugs at two-leaf stage than wheat plants infested at tillering stage. This study demonstrated the utility of adopting remote sensing techniques for detecting greenbug infestation on wheat. Further field-based studies are suggested to apply the technology that has great potential for integrated pest management.

  14. Mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance against second-generation European corn borer in maize with the aid of RFLPs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris C Schön; Michael Lee; Albrecht E Melchinger; Wilbur D Guthrie; Wendy L Woodman

    1993-01-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) is an important pest in the global production of maize (Zea mays L.). In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) significantly affecting resistance against second-generation European corn borer (2ECB) and plant height with the aid of RFLP markers. A total of 300 F3 lines derived from cross B73 (susceptible)

  15. Space-time cluster analysis of sea lice infestation (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on wild juvenile Pacific salmon in the Broughton Archipelago of Canada.

    PubMed

    Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Revie, Crawford W

    2015-06-15

    Sea lice infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago region are known to vary spatially and temporally; however, the locations of areas associated with a high infestation level had not been investigated yet. In the present study, the multivariate spatial scan statistic based on a Poisson model was used to assess spatial clustering of elevated sea lice (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon sampled between March and July of 2004 to 2012 in the Broughton Archipelago and Knight Inlet regions of British Columbia, Canada. Three covariates, seine type (beach and purse seining), fish size, and year effect, were used to provide adjustment within the analyses. The analyses were carried out across the five months/datasets and between two fish species to assess the consistency of the identified clusters. Sea lice stages were explored separately for the early life stages (non-motile) and the late life stages of sea lice (motile). Spatial patterns in fish migration were also explored using monthly plots showing the average number of each fish species captured per sampling site. The results revealed three clusters for non-motile C. clemensi, two clusters for non-motile L. salmonis, and one cluster for the motile stage in each of the sea lice species. In general, the location and timing of clusters detected for both fish species were similar. Early in the season, the clusters of elevated sea lice infestation levels on wild fish are detected in areas closer to the rivers, with decreasing relative risks as the season progresses. Clusters were detected further from the estuaries later in the season, accompanied by increasing relative risks. In addition, the plots for fish migration exhibit similar patterns for both fish species in that, as expected, the juveniles move from the rivers toward the open ocean as the season progresses The identification of space-time clustering of infestation on wild fish from this study can help in targeting investigations of factors associated with these infestations and thereby support the development of more effective sea lice control measures. PMID:25869117

  16. TETRASTICHUS PLANIPENNISIS (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE), A GREGARIOUS LARVAL ENDOPARASITOID OF EMERALD ASH BORER FROM CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agrilus planipennisFairmaire, a buprestid native to Asia, was identifi ed in 2002 as the causal agent of ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality in Michigan and Ontario. Since then, infestations have been found in Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia, and Illinois. E fforts to contain and eradicate this pest in North America are proving,diffi cult due to the size of

  17. A Method for Field Infestation with Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Xing, L J; Westphal, A

    2005-12-01

    A field inoculation method was developed to produce Meloidogyne spp. infestation sites with minimal quantities of nematode inoculum and with a reduced labor requirement compared to previous techniques. In a preseason-methyl bromidefumigated site, nematode egg suspensions were delivered at concentrations of 0 or 10(x) eggs/m of row where x = 2.12, 2.82, 3.52, or 4.22 through a drip line attached to the seed firmer of a commercial 2-row planter into the open seed furrow while planting cowpea. These treatments were compared to a hand-inoculated treatment, in which 10(3.1) eggs were delivered every 30 cm in 5 ml of water agar suspension 2 weeks after planting. Ten weeks after planting, infection of cowpea roots was measured by gall rating and gall counts on cowpea roots. A linear relationship between the inoculation levels and nematode-induced galls was found. At this time, the amount of galling per root system in the hand-inoculated treatment was less than in the machine-applied treatments. Advantages of this new technique include application uniformity and low population level requisite for establishing the nematode. This method has potential in field-testing of Meloidogyne spp. management strategies by providing uniform infestation of test sites at planting time. PMID:19262898

  18. Abnormal gray and white matter volume in delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Robert Christian; Huber, Markus; Depping, Malte Sebastian; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Karner, Martin; Lepping, Peter; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the neural basis of delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens. Case series and the response to anti-dopaminergic medication indicate disruptions in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum (caudate, putamen), but did not allow for population-based inference. Here, we report the first whole-brain structural neuroimaging study to investigate gray and white matter abnormalities in DI compared to controls. In this study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to investigate gray and white matter volume in 16 DI patients and 16 matched healthy controls. Lower gray matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in left medial, lateral and right superior frontal cortices, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left thalamus, right striatal areas and in lateral and medial temporal cortical regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). Higher white matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in right middle cingulate, left frontal opercular and bilateral striatal regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). This study shows that structural changes in prefrontal, temporal, insular, cingulate and striatal brain regions are associated with DI, supporting a neurobiological model of disrupted prefrontal control over somato-sensory representations. PMID:23791615

  19. Associations of wheat with pea can reduce aphid infestations.

    PubMed

    Lopes, T; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2015-06-01

    Increasing plant diversity within crops can be beneficial for pest control. In this field study, the effects of two wheat and pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) on aphid populations were compared with pure stands of both crops by observations on tillers and plants. Pea was more susceptible to infestations than wheat. As expected, the density of aphid colonies was significantly higher in pure stands during the main occurrence periods, compared with associations. Additionally, flying beneficials, such as not only aphidophagous adult ladybirds but also parasitoid, hoverfly and lacewing species that feed on aphids at the larval stage, were monitored using yellow pan traps. At specific times of the sampling season, ladybirds and hoverflies were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of pea and wheat, respectively, compared with associations. Few parasitoids and lacewings were trapped. This study showed that increasing plant diversity within crops by associating cultivated species can reduce aphid infestations, since host plants are more difficult to locate. However, additional methods are needed to attract more efficiently adult beneficials into wheat and pea associations. PMID:26013274

  20. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylurastrongylura.

    PubMed

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoafrontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropustylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodeslacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochusbellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasiluscoleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylurastrongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylurastrongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoafrontalis, 252 Lernanthropustylosuri, 31 Caligodeslacinatus, 24 Bomolochusbellones and 32 Dermoergasiluscoleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropustylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  1. Occurrence and histopathology of Przhevalskiana silenus larvae infestation in sheep of Jammu, India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anish; Katoch, R; Godara, R; Borah, M K; Khajuria, J K; Borkataki, S; Ahamed, Irshad

    2014-09-01

    Warble fly infestation is primarily a myiasis of cattle and goat. However, a nondescript sheep from an endemic region was observed with nodules under subcutaneous tissue. So, this paper reports infestation of a sheep with Przhevalskiana silenus larvae in Jammu region of North India. The myiasis was confirmed with parasite morphology and specific histopathological changes observed in cutaneous myiasis. PMID:25035594

  2. How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost heaps

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost the deposition of pest-infested litter on private compost heaps was dissuaded because of the risk of leafminer emergence in the following spring. Thus, the aim of this study was to test safe ways to compost pest

  3. Infestation of wild and ornamental non-crop fruits by Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii is a pest of small fruits and cherries, and has also been noted to infest a variety of wild, ornamental, and uncultivated hosts. Identifying alternative hosts is critical for pest management. Research objectives were to: 1) survey fruits in fields for natural infestation of D. ...

  4. Using airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...

  5. Bees with Varroa Sensitive Hygiene preferentially remove mite infested pupae aged ? five days post capping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey W. Harris

    2007-01-01

    Summary Suppressed Mite Reproduction (SMR) is a trait of honey bees that provides resistance to Varroa destructor. The mechanism of resistance in SMR bees is the removal of infested pupae from capped brood, so a better name is VSH bees (acronym for Varroa Sensitive Hygiene). This study compared the removal of infested brood by VSH and control bees to determine

  6. Detection and characterization of kodamaea ohmeri associated with Small Hive Beetle Aethina tumida infesting honeybee hives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeybee hive infestation by the Small Hive Beetle (SHB) is associated with fermentation of hive materials. Pollen, beetles, and robbing bees (ten of each) were collected from hives infested with SHB in both Florida and Kenya. Plating of homogenized bodies of beetles and bees and comb swabs result...

  7. Soybean Cyst Nematode-Resistant and Suseptible Culticar Yield in Infested Soil in North Central USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) (SCN) is a widely-distributed, economically important pest in the soybean production regions of the United States. To assess the impact of planting SCN-resistant and -susceptible soybean cultivars in SCN-infested or -non-infested fields on soy...

  8. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  9. Appendiceal Enterobius Vermicularis Infestation Associated With Right-Sided Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Nackley, Anna C.; Nackley, James J.; Gunasekaran, Sivaselvi

    2004-01-01

    Parasitic infestation is an uncommon cause of chronic pelvic pain among women of reproductive age. A case of chronic right-sided pelvic pain associated with appendiceal Enterobius vermicularis infestation was managed with appendectomy and antiparasitic therapy resulting in a complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:15119664

  10. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  11. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the contagion of splenetic, Southern or Texas fever when imported for animal feed or...

  12. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...

  13. End-Use Quality of Flour from Rhyzopertha dominica Infested Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. Sánchez-Mariñez; M. O. Cortez-Rocha; F. Ortega-Dorame; M. Morales-Valdes; M. I. Silveira

    1997-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 74(4):481-483 The objective of this study was to evaluate how Rhyzopertha dominica infestation of stored wheat grain affects the rheological and baking prop- erties of bread made with the milled flour. Wheat samples were infested with R. dominica and stored for up to 180 days at room temperature. Every 45 days, samples of wheat were collected and evaluated

  14. Detection of internal wheat seed infestation by Rhyzopertha dominica using X-ray imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Karunakaran; D. S Jayas; N. D. G White

    2004-01-01

    Standardization for grain grades has been established in most countries to maintain the quality of a crop until it reaches consumers. Different methods have been investigated for their potential to detect insect infestations in grain destined for domestic and export markets. The potential of detecting infestations caused by Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat kernels using a real-time soft X-ray method was

  15. Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

  16. Field Infestation of Rambutan Fruits by Internal-Feeding Pests in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant T. McQuate; Peter A. Follett; Judy M. Yoshimoto

    2000-01-01

    More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental

  17. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for...BABESIOSIS § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. Cattle of the quarantined area shall be...

  18. Soils as a factor in Pinyon Pine mortality due to Ips Beetle infestation in Garden Park, Colorado: a case study.

    E-print Network

    Krecic, Jeffrey

    2008-02-25

    , along with ips beetle infestations have led to destruction of entire viewsheds of pinyon pine trees. The reduced availability of moisture associated with drought stresses pinyon pines and reduces their ability to resist ips beetle infestation...

  19. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ponson, Laura; Andersson, Frédéric; El-Hage, Wissam

    2015-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown. Case presentation Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Conclusion Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. PMID:25673993

  20. Assessment of Immune Activation in Mice before and after Eradication of Mite Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Nancy A; Trammell, Rita A; Ball-Kell, Susan; Verhulst, Steven; Toth, Linda A

    2009-01-01

    Mite infestation of mice remains a persistent problem for many institutions, leading to numerous health problems and creating unknown and unwanted variables for research. In this study, mice with mite infestation demonstrated significantly higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, both at draining lymph nodes (axillary) and systemically, as compared with mice without mites. In addition, histologic evaluation revealed significant inflammation in mite-infested mice. Inflammatory changes were still present in the skin of mice at 6 to 8 wk after treatment, despite absence of detectable infestation at that time. Because these significant and lasting local and systemic changes have the potential to alter research findings, eradication of mites infestations should be an important goal for all institutions. PMID:19653944

  1. A review of the biology and control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Damon, A

    2000-12-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, is a serious problem for the majority of the world's coffee growers and has proved to be one of the most intractable of present day pests. Despite a great deal of research, control still depends largely on the application of the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan, which is damaging to the environment, or a series of cultural and biological control methods which give variable and unpredictable results. This review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology and ecology of H. hampei and its control and identifies weak points in the knowledge about this pest. Emphasis is placed upon an analysis of the non-chemical control methods available and suggestions are offered for novel ecological and environmental factors worthy of further research, in the search for viable and sustainable control methods. PMID:11107248

  2. Protein profiling and tps23 induction in different maize lines in response to methyl jasmonate treatment and Diabrotica virgifera infestation.

    PubMed

    Capra, Emanuele; Colombi, Cinzia; De Poli, Pamela; Nocito, Fabio Francesco; Cocucci, Maurizio; Vecchietti, Alberto; Marocco, Adriano; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Plant responses to herbivore insects involve direct and indirect defense with the production of signal molecules including jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives (e.g. methyl jasmonate, MeJA). In maize (Zea mays), root feeding by Diabrotica virgifera larvae activates an indirect defense mechanism, through enthomopathogenic nematodes that are recruited after Terpene Synthase 23 (tps23) upregulation and (E)-?-caryophyllene root emission. In order to gain insight into the correlation between JA signaling and response to Diabrotica attack, we analyzed tps23 expression and protein profiles in maize roots in response to MeJA treatment and insect infestation. Similar to herbivore feeding, MeJA treatment was found to increase tps23 transcript accumulation, with consistent variations for both treatments in maize lines differing in (E)-?-caryophyllene production. Analysis of root protein profiles showed specific alterations leading to the identification of three proteins that were induced by MeJA treatment. We focused on a peroxidase-like protein (Px-like) showing that the corresponding transcripts accumulated in all tested lines. Results show that exogenous application of MeJA upregulates tps23 expression and specifically alters protein patterns in maize roots. Parallel effects on tps23 transcript accumulation were observed upon hormone exposure and insect infestation in different maize lines. In contrast, Px-like transcript profiling showed differences between treatments. These results support the possible involvement of MeJA in mediating the upregulation of tps23 in response to Diabrotica attack. PMID:25506768

  3. Sugarcane Giant Borer Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Genes Related to Digestion

    PubMed Central

    de Assis Fonseca, Fernando Campos; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect’s biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control. PMID:25706301

  4. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma.

    PubMed

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366

  5. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    PubMed Central

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366

  6. Mustard aphid infestation in India: development of forewarning models.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Bapuji; Rao, V U M; Nair, Linitha; Prasad, Y G; Ramaraj, A P; Chattopadhyay, C

    2014-07-01

    Aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) infestation on mustard (Brassica juncea L.) account for considerable yield losses in India. Experimental data from six north Indian locations were used to study the role of weather on the incidence and development of mustard aphid. Temperature was found to regulate the aphid appearance and population build-up. In warm humid climate, time to attain peak population was relatively shorter than in cool climates. Aphids appeared mostly when the accumulated thermal time ranged between 810-847 degrees cd. Functional relations proposed in the present investigation between aphid incidence and peak population, using previous weeks weather and pest data for majority of the locations, could be used for taking any prophylactic/control measures. PMID:25004753

  7. Diferulate content of maize sheaths is associated with resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Butrón, Ana; Reid, Lana M; Arnason, John T; Sandoya, German; Souto, Xose C; Malvar, Rosa A

    2006-11-29

    The leaf sheaths of selected inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) with variable levels of stem resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèvbre) were evaluated for antibiotic effect on insect development. Phytochemical analyses of leaf sheaths were conducted for cell wall phenylpropanoid content to gain a better understanding of maize-resistance mechanisms. Laboratory bioassays established that sheath tissues from different genotypes significantly affected the growth of neonate larvae. Three hydroxycinnamates, p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, and cis-ferulic acids, and three isomers of diferulic acid, 8-5', 8-O-4', and 8-5' b (benzofuran form), were identified. Significant negative correlations were found between larvae weight and diferulic acid content for six genotypes. These results are in agreement with previous studies concerning the role of cell wall structural components in stem borer resistance. PMID:17117802

  8. Efficacy of inundative release of Trichogramma chilonis in the management of the sugarcane internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (K.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Mukunthan

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors governing the efficacy ofTrichogramma chilonis and the basis for its popularity as a management tool for sugarcane internode borer. Published evidences were taken as the\\u000a basis for the analysis. The factors taken in to consideration in the analysis are, the capabilities of egg parasitoids as\\u000a prime tool to manage pests, attributes in the biology and

  9. Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h2?=?0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level (?=??0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to prevent rapid selection of high levels of resistance and the potential for its spread to new areas. PMID:25122089

  10. Dispersal of Adult Diatraea grandiosella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Its Implications for Corn Borer Resistance Management in Bacillus thuringiensis Maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jawwad A. Qureshi; Lawrent L. Buschman; James E. Throne; Sonny B. Ramaswamy

    2006-01-01

    Dispersal of the southwestern corn borer,Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, was examined by release and recapture of dye-marked adults and by capture of feral adults in and around 50-ha center pivot irrigated Þelds of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize. Pheromone and blacklight traps were used to capture the adults. In 1999, 2000, and 2001, a total of 177, 602, and 1,292 marked males,

  11. Transgenic fertile japonica rice plants expressing a modified cryIA(b) gene resistant to yellow stem borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Wu; Y. Fan; C. Zhang; N. Oliva; S. K. Datta

    1997-01-01

    The japonica rice variety Taipei 309 was cotransformed by particle bombardment of immature embryo-derived embryogenic calli\\u000a with a modified ?-endotoxin gene cryIA(b) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of the rice Actin1 promoter, and the hygromycin resistance gene, hph driven by the CaMV35S promoter. Selected transgenic rice plants showed enhanced insecticidal activity against yellow stem\\u000a borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), with

  12. Synthesis of (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, a Potential Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. I. MaGee; P. D. Mayo; P. J. Silk; B. Beattie

    2012-01-01

    Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), AgrilusplanipennisFairmaire, is an invasive insect that has killed millions of ash trees in the USA and Canada. A concise synthesis of a potential EAB pheromone component, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, using a highly stereoselective Julia-Kocienski olefination as the key step, is reported.Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Synthetic Communications® to view

  13. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions. PMID:19568811

  14. Electrophysiological Response and Attraction of Emerald Ash Borer to Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs) Emitted by Host Foliage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter de Groot; Gary G. Grant; Therese M. Poland; Roger Scharbach; Linda Buchan; Reginald W. Nott; Linda Macdonald; Doug Pitt

    2008-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) function as host attractants, pheromone synergists, or sexual kairomones for a number of coleopteran\\u000a folivores. Hence, we focused on host GLVs to determine if they were attractive to adults of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feeds on ash (Fraxinus) foliage. Eight GLVs were identified by chromatography-electroantennogram (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry in foliar

  15. Phylogenetic origins of African and Neotropical Beauveria bassiana s.l. pathogens of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Rehner; Francisco Posada; Ellen P. Buckley; Francisco Infante; Alfredo Castillo; Fernando E. Vega

    2006-01-01

    A phylogenetic epidemiological study of Beauveria bassiana s.l. was conducted for African and Neotropical pathogens of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, based on inferences from two nuclear intergenic regions, EFutr and Bloc. CBB pathogens were distributed among four terminal clades, however, the majority of African and Neotropical isolates cluster in a well-supported monophyletic group, informally designated AFNEO_1. Although

  16. Genetic hitchhiking associated with life history divergence and colonization of North America in the European corn borer moth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik B. Dopman

    2011-01-01

    A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation.\\u000a Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of\\u000a DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories

  17. Dominicalure 1 and 2: Components of aggregation pheromone from male lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Williams; R. M. Silverstein; W. E. Burkholder; A. Khorramshahi

    1981-01-01

    Volatiles from lesser grain borers,Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), were collected on Porapak Q, and those from the male beetles were shown to contain two compounds, that were attractive individually and in combination to both sexes. These compounds were identified as (S)-(+)-1-methylbutyl (E)-2-methyl-2-pentenoate and (S)-(+)-1-methylbutyl (E)-2,4-dimethyl-2-pentenoate by spectrometry and comparison with synthesized compounds. The two compounds have been assigned the

  18. Bacterial community structure in freshwater springs infested with the invasive plant species Hydrilla verticillata

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Bradley, N.; Li, N.

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic composition and physiological profiles of bacterial communities in freshwater springs were evaluated during the blooming and non-blooming stages of the invasive plant species, Hydrilla verticillata. Community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons were used to study potential Hydrilla mediated shifts in the physiological potential and phylogenetic composition of the bacterial community in infested systems. The results of CLPP revealed that the microbes in the Hydrilla invaded sites utilized less substrates during blooming periods than during nonblooming periods of the plant. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis showed some relationships between the relative abundances of bacterial taxa and the Biolog substrate utilization pattern. The relative abundance of the identified taxa showed some striking differences based on the blooming status of Hydrilla and to a lesser extent on site variation. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, and Verrucomicrobia was generally higher during Hydrilla blooms, while Deltaproteobacteria was generally higher during non-blooming stages of Hydrilla. The detected genera also varied based on the blooming stages of the plant. Based on the findings, it appears that Hydrilla alters the phylogenetic composition and structure of the bacterial community during the blooming stage.

  19. Oviposition behavior of the wheat stem sawfly when encountering plants infested with cryptic conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Buteler, Micaela; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

    2009-12-01

    Insect herbivores typically oviposit on the most suitable hosts, but choices can be modulated by detection of potential competition among conspecifics, especially when eggs are deposited cryptically. Larvae of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, developing within an already infested stem, experience elevated risk when only one will survive because of cannibalism. To increase our understanding of host selection when the choices made by females can lead to severe intraspecific competition, females were presented with either uninfested wheat plants or with plants previously exposed to other females in laboratory choice tests. The oviposition behavior of this insect was described by recording the behavioral sequences that lead to and follow the insertion of the ovipositor in both previously infested and uninfested stems. No significant differences were found in frequencies of specific behaviors or behavioral transitions associated with oviposition. In choice tests, there was no difference in the numbers of eggs laid in infested and uninfested plants. Taller plants received more eggs, irrespective of infestation. Females neither preferred nor avoided previously infested hosts. Other characteristics of the host, such as stem height, may be more important in determining suitability for oviposition. These findings support the use of management tactics relying on the manipulation of oviposition behavior, such as trap cropping. Given that there is no evidence for response to previously infested hosts, the infested plants in a trap crop would remain as suitable as they were when uninfested, which could also lead to an increase in mortality caused by intraspecific competition. PMID:20021767

  20. Field infestation of rambutan fruits by internal-feeding pests in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    McQuate, G T; Follett, P A; Yoshimoto, J M

    2000-06-01

    More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to assess host suitability. When all varieties were combined over two field seasons of sampling, fruit infestation rates were 0.021% for oriental fruit fly, 0.097% for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and 0.85% for pyralids (Lepidoptera). Species of Cryptophlebia included both C. illepida (Butler), the native Hawaiian species, and C. ombrodelta (Lower), an introduced species from Australia. Cryptophlebia spp. had not previously been known to attack rambutan. The pyralid infestation was mainly attributable to Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere), a species also not previously recorded on rambutan in Hawaii. Overall infestation rate for other moths in the families Blastobasidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, and Tortricidae was 0.061%. In artificially infested fruits, both species of fruit fly showed moderately high survivorship for all varieties tested. Because rambutan has such low rates of infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp., the two primary internal-feeding regulatory pests of rambutan in Hawaii, it may be amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach to postharvest quarantine treatment. PMID:10902340

  1. Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2011-06-01

    Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps. PMID:21735910

  2. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Chilo auricilius and comparison with three other rice stem borers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-09-15

    The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths. PMID:25042162

  3. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively. PMID:22299352

  4. Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) Infestations in Northwestern Nevada Mapped Using Landsat TM Imagery and GIS Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, D.; Geraci, C.; Kolkowitz, S.

    2004-12-01

    Tamarisk, also known as salt cedar (Tamarix sp.) is a prevalent invasive species that has infested many riparian areas in the southwestern United States. Mature salt cedar plants are resistant to high stress environments and fare well in drought conditions, mainly due to their extensive root systems that derive much of their sustenance from the water table rather than surface water and precipitation. The salt cedar root systems have altered hydrological patterns by tapping into underlying aquifers. This has decreased water available for recreational use, regional ecology and plant diversity. Many states have implemented salt cedar monitoring programs at the local level, but the problem of large-scale mapping of this invasive species has continued to be a challenge to land management agencies. Furthermore, inaccessible and unexplored areas continue to be absent in the mapping process. In August 2004, using field data consisting of large areas as training sets for classification of Landsat TM imagery, the DEVELOP student research team at NASA Ames Research Center generated a preliminary map of areas that that were susceptible to salt cedar growth for a region in northwestern Nevada. In addition to the remote sensing-based classification of satellite imagery, the team used the variables of elevation and estimated distance to the water table in conjunction with collected field data and knowledge of salt cedar growth habits to further refine the map. The team has further extended the mapping of key environmental factors of water availability for salt cedar, soil types and species distribution in regions infested by salt cedar. The investigation was carried out by 1) improving an existing GIS layer for water access using a suitable interpolation method, 2) including a GIS layer for soils associated with salt cedar growth and 3) completing field work to evaluate species distribution and regions of presence or absence of salt cedar. The outcome of this project served to improve the salt cedar mapping methods already in place in Nevada, to create a guideline for future salt cedar management efforts and to evaluate the usefulness of satellite imagery in the detection of an invasive species. The results will be presented through both the final maps and visualization.

  5. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran. PMID:25629073

  6. HISTOPATHOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEOTROMBICULA MICROTI INFESTATION IN THE ENDANGERED AMARGOSA VOLE (MICROTUS CALIFORNICUS SCIRPENSIS).

    PubMed

    Ott-Conn, Caitlin N; Woods, Leslie W; Clifford, Deana L; Branston, Tammy; Foley, Janet

    2015-07-01

    The Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis) is a profoundly endangered rodent found only in the Central Mojave Desert, Inyo County, California, US. In 2010, severe cases of trombiculiasis, caused by larval Neotrombicula microti mites, were discovered among voles and sympatric small mammals. We evaluated Amargosa voles and sympatric rodents for infestation with N. microti December 2011-November 2012 and evaluated histopathology of ear tissue from 13 actively N. microti-infested Amargosa voles and 10 Amargosa voles with no gross evidence of current or past infestation. Rodents with current infestation had mites visible on tissue, typically ear pinnae, whereas mites were not seen on rodents with presumptive past infestation, but some of these animals had gross tissue scarring and loss consistent with healing from infestation. Ears from infested voles had severe granulocytic and necrotizing dermatitis, most associated with stylostome fragments, whereas few lesions were present in grossly uninfested voles. There was no association between body condition and infestation or severity of lesions. Significantly more voles were infested (37%) with N. microti than sympatric rodents (3%), suggesting that sympatric rodents do not serve as an important source of N. microti exposure to voles. Although this chigger infestation was common and induced severe localized pathology, we did not detect a fitness cost to infestation and recommend further evaluation of the disease to discern its significance in this conservation context. PMID:25919470

  7. Abiotic and biotic factors associated with tick population dynamics on a mammalian host: Ixodes hexagonus infesting otters, Lutra lutra.

    PubMed

    Sherrard-Smith, Ellie; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Cable, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, hosts several parasites with zoonotic potential. As this semiaquatic mammal has large ranges across terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, it has the capacity for wide dispersion of pathogens. Despite this, parasites of otters have received relatively little attention. Here, we examine their ectoparasite load and assess whether this is influenced by abiotic or biotic variables. Climatic phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affect weather conditions in northern Europe. Consequently parasite distributions, particularly species with life stages exposed to the external environment, can be affected. We assessed the extent to which inter-annual variations in large-scale weather patterns (specifically the NAO and Central England (CE) temperatures) and host characteristics influenced tick prevalence and intensity. Ectoparasites consisted of a single species, the nidiculous tick Ixodes hexagonus (prevalence = 24.3%; mean intensity = 7.2; range = 1-122; on n = 820 otter hosts). The prevalence, but not intensity of infestation, was associated with high CE temperatures, while both prevalence and intensity were associated with positive phases of the NAO. Such associations indicate that I. hexagonus are most abundant when weather conditions are warmer and wetter. Ticks were more prevalent on juvenile than sub-adult or adult otters, which probably reflects the length of time the hosts spend in the holt where these ticks quest. High tick number was associated with poor host condition, so either poor condition hosts are more susceptible to ticks, or tick infestations negatively impact on host condition. Otters are clearly an important and common host for I. hexagonus, which has implications for vector-borne diseases. This work is the first to consider the impacts of long-term weather patterns on I. hexagonus and uses wild-animal cadavers to illustrate the importance of abiotic and biotic pressures impacting parasitic populations. PMID:23071736

  8. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer. PMID:25026653

  9. Efficacy of 35% PEROX-AID (Hydrogen Peroxide) in Reducing an Infestation of Gyrodactylus salmonis in Freshwater-Reared Rainbow Trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Bowker; Daniel Carty; Miranda M. Dotson

    2012-01-01

    Gyrodactylus salmonis is a monogenean ectoparasite that can infest a variety of captive-reared salmonid fishes. The physical damage inflicted during severe infestations can cause osmoregulatory disturbances and potentially render individuals more vulnerable to secondary pathogens. If not treated, G. salmonis infestations can reduce growth and survival in affected fish populations. Many chemical compounds have been used to treat Gyrodactylus infestations;

  10. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    PubMed

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. PMID:24681362

  11. Transcriptional Profiling of Immune Responses in Cattle Experimentally Infested with Amblyomma americanum ticks 

    E-print Network

    Brannan, Jaime Lynette

    2013-07-25

    that mediate immune responses in cattle infested with A. americanum using gene expression techniques. Methods for isolation of total RNA from bovine tick bite-site biopsies and blood leukocytes were optimized to provide RNA suitable for gene expression studies...

  12. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle...

  13. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle...

  14. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle...

  15. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle...

  16. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

  18. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

  20. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization...or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been... (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted...

  1. Applying image transformation and classification techniques to airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping Ashe juniper infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz), in excessive coverage, reduces forage production, interferes with livestock management, and degrades watersheds and wildlife habitat in infested rangelands. The objective of this study was to apply minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and different cla...

  2. Neascus Infestation of BlackHead, Blunt-Nosed, and Other Forage Minnows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George E. Klak

    1940-01-01

    Black-head, blunt-nosed, and other minnows were found infested with encysted flatworms in ponds at Leetown, West Virginia. The mortality in a 2.2-acre pond stocked with 100,000 black-head minnows was about 250 per day during four weeks of observation. Heavy infestations caused sterility in the minnows. The cyst and parasite are described briefly and the probable life cycle given, followed by

  3. Comparative therapeutic effect of moxidectin, doramectin and ivermectin on psoroptes mites infestation in buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabry A. El-Khodery; Mitsu Ishii; Salama A. Osman; Magdy H. Al-Gaabary

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out comparative therapeutic effect of moxidectin pour on, doramectin and ivermectin\\u000a on psoroptes infestation in buffalo. A total of 318 buffalo in 77 small scale herds suspected to have mange mites were examined\\u000a clinically and parasitologically. Fifty-three (16.66%) buffalo in 25 herds were recorded to be infested; 51 (16.35%) with\\u000a psoroptic

  4. Parasitism of Diatraea saccharalis (F.) infesting Johnson grass, by the braconid parasite Apanteles flavipes (Cameron)

    E-print Network

    Van Leerdam, Marinus Bartholomeus

    1981-01-01

    PARASITISM OF DIATRAEA SACCHARALIS (F. ) INFESTING JOHNSON GRASS, BY THE BRACONID PARASITE APANTELES FLAVIPES (CAMERON) A Thesis by Marinus Bartholomeus van Leerdam Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1981 Major Subject: Entomology PARASITISM OF DIATRAEA SACCHARALIS (F. ) INFESTING JOHNSON GRASS, BY THE BRACONID PARASITE APANTELES FLAVIPES (CAMERON) A Thesis by Marinus...

  5. Parasitism of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella , infesting hawthorns in Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Gut; J. F. Brunner

    1994-01-01

    Five species of larval parasitoids were reared fromRhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) infested fruit of hawthorn,Crataegus, collected from several locations in southwest Washington over a four year period. A braconid,Biosteres melleus (Gahan), parasitized larvae infesting fruits of a native hawthorn species,Crataegus douglasii Lindl. Another braconid,Opius downesi Gahan, emerged exclusively fromR. pomonella pupae reared from fruits of an introduced species of hawthorn,Crataegus monogyna

  6. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix *

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Moumita, D.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November–February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

  7. Incidental parasitic infestations in surgically removed appendices: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Özgür

    2007-01-01

    Background Appendiceal parasites can cause symptoms of appendiceal pain, independent of microscopic evidence of acute inflammation. The diagnosis of a parasitic infestation is generally achieved only after the pathologic examination of the resected appendices. Patients/Methods Pathology department records were reviewed for all patients who required an operation for symptoms of acute appendicitis between 2000 and 2006. The specimens which were pathologically diagnosed to contain parasites were reevaluated for features of acute inflamation, and parasite type. The medical records were reviewed in detail to achieve a diagnostic score(Eskelinen). Radiologic imaging findings were correlated, if present. Results Of the 190 appendectomies performed, 6 specimens (3,15%) were found to contain parasites(4 Enterobius vermicularis, 2 Taenia subspecies). Appendectomies with Taenia showed acute inflamation, while acute inflamation was absent in the ones with Enterobius vermicularis. The Eskelinen score was higher than the treshold in two cases with an acute inflamation, and in two without. Ultrasound scans, and a computed tomography scan were performed in 5 patients. In 3 of 4 bland appendices, results favored acute appendicitis. Conclusion The diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites is not only made by examining the stool but the diagnosis can be made by histology from surgical specimens. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy might prevent probable future complications that may necessitate surgical procedures, at least in some of the patients. The clinical management of these infections is different from that for classical appendicitis. PMID:17524150

  8. Curative and preventive efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Ctenocephalides canis infestation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ? 99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ? 94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks. PMID:24631503

  9. Differential induction of Pisum sativum defense signaling molecules in response to pea aphid infestation.

    PubMed

    Mai, Van Chung; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Jele?, Henryk; Naro?na, Dorota; Ruci?ska-Sobkowiak, Renata; K?sy, Jacek; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Gabry?, Beata; Morkunas, Iwona

    2014-05-01

    This study demonstrates the sequence of enhanced generation of signal molecules such as phytohormones, i.e. jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), and a relatively stable free radical, nitric oxide (NO), in response of Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski seedling leaves to the infestation of pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) at a varied population size. In time from 0 to 96h after A. pisum infestation these signal molecules accumulated transiently. Moreover, the convergence of these signaling pathways occurred. JA and its methyl derivative MeJA reached the first maximum of generation at 24th hour of infestation. An increase in ET and NO generation was observed at 48th hour of infestation. The increase in SA, JA/MeJA and ET concentrations in aphid-infested leaves occurred from the 72nd to 96th hour. In parallel, an increase was demonstrated for the activities of enzymes engaged in the biosynthesis of SA, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H). Additionally, a considerable post-infestation accumulation of transcripts for PAL was observed. An increase in the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX), an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of JA was noted. This complex signaling network may contribute to the coordinated regulation of gene expression leading to specific defence responses. PMID:24656330

  10. Modeling Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) within-tree colonization patterns and development of a subsampling technique.

    PubMed

    Foelker, C J; Vandenberg, J D; Whitmore, M; Fierke, M K

    2013-06-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an insect native to central Asia, was first detected in southeast Michigan in 2002, and has since killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine an optimal sampling location on girdled ash trap trees for detection of A. planipennis larvae based on measurements of tree characteristics, and 2) develop a whole-tree estimation method for extrapolating larval densities from subsampled heights. We conducted sampling at 1-m increments, recording larval presence, height on tree bole, bolt diameter, and bark roughness for 58 infested ash trees. Analyzing height and diameter separately, generalized linear mixed models indicated the probability of A. planipennis detection was maximized at 17.2 cm for diameter and increased linearly as vertical height increased. There was also a positive relationship between intermediate bark roughness and A. planipennis presence. Stepwise regression indicated the optimal bolts for extrapolating whole tree larval densities were, in order of importance, at heights of 1-2 m, 4-5 m, 7-8 m, and 0-1 m. Subsampling with just one or two bolts explained 70% and 86%, respectively, of the variance in A. planipennis densities. Our results can be used by resource managers to improve efficiency of detection efforts and estimate infestations of A. planipennis. PMID:23726062

  11. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

  12. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418

  13. Artificial carbon dioxide source to attract lesser cornstalk borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Mack, T P

    2001-08-01

    Different combinations of urea, urease (in jack bean meal, Canavalia DC.), and water were tested as carbon dioxide sources to attract larvae of lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalus lignosellus (Zeller), by using olfactory bioassays with an olfactometer and infrared gas analysis. A combination of urea, jack bean meal, and water was necessary to release a high level of carbon dioxide to attract the larvae. Different proportions of the three ingredients had different carbon dioxide release rates and exhibited different levels of attraction to the larvae. When carbon dioxide concentration was too high, attractiveness declined. Combinations with different amounts of water remained attractive for a period of up to 3 d, depending on the moisture of the samples. When Zonolite was used to simulate the soil conditions in the olfactometer, significantly more larvae located the area near the artificial carbon dioxide sources compared with the control. When combined with the artificial carbon dioxide sources, three insecticides (Lorsban, Temik, and Force) did not obviously affect the release rates of carbon dioxide, and more larvae were attracted to samples with the carbon dioxide source than to the samples without carbon dioxide. PMID:11561844

  14. Analysis of gene expression in emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) using quantitative real time-PCR.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America. EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1(st)-, 2(nd)-, 3(rd)-, 4(th)-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium. PMID:20445495

  15. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a ?-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. PMID:25541004

  16. Chemical cues from the coffee berry borer influence the locomotory behaviour of its bethylid parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Chiu-Alvarado, P; Valle-Mora, J; Rojas, J C

    2010-12-01

    Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta are two bethylid wasps released into several Latin American countries for classical biological control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most serious insect pest of coffee worldwide. Recent studies on the host location behaviour of these parasitoids have shown that females of both species are attracted to volatile compounds released by immature stages and dust and frass of H. hampei. In this study, we investigated the role of the contact chemicals present in dust and frass of H. hampei on the behaviour of P. nasuta and C. stephanoderis females. Parasitoids remained longer on patches treated with methanol extracts than on acetone and hexane extracts. Females spent more time on the patch treated with the methanol extract of dust and frass than on the patches treated with the methanol extract of dry coffee and methanol control. The concentration of the methanol extracts from dust and frass influenced the locomotory activity of parasitoids of both species. The time that females spent in the patch tended to increase as the concentration of the methanol extracts increased. A further experiment aimed to identify other behavioural descriptors and gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response of parasitoids to methanol extracts was performed. Females of both species spent more time, covered more distance, turned more (per unit time and per unit distance), and decreased their speed when they contacted patches treated with methanol extracts in comparison to patches treated with methanol control. PMID:20307343

  17. Genetic similarity of eggplant shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis, populations.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Murugan; Perumal, Yasodha; Salim, Abida Puthenpeedikal; Sharma, Gautam

    2009-12-01

    Shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) (Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera), has become a production constraint in all eggplant (Solanum melongena Linn. [Solanaceae])-growing countries. In India, transgenic eggplants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins have been tested in fields by private- and public-sector agencies. Understanding population diversity is important in designing strategies for better pest management. In the present investigation, random-amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of L. orbonalis population collected from different field locations in the Tamilnadu State of India. Of 17 random-amplified polymorphic DNA primers screened, only 11 primers generated polymorphic bands (up to 14 bands). According to their level of similarities, only two major clusters with no variation among population were deduced. Our results indicated that there is a steady genetic flow among the present population of L. orbonalis alleviating genetic variation, which may be attributed to passive and active dispersal of the insect besides absence of host-induced variations among the population. As molecular variability of L. orbonalis population is an important consideration for shoot and fruit damage of the eggplant, constant monitoring is essential to study the possible development of Cry protein resistance in L. orbonalis. PMID:19715478

  18. Nutritional Performance of the Tomato Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on Different Tomato Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25204681

  19. Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H; Throne, James E

    2012-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), selects rough rice (Oryza sativa L. (Poales: Poaceae)) kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction when these kernels are mixed with intact kernels. Differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) of the varieties Francis and Wells were mixed with intact kernels, and the number of adult progeny emerging from intact kernels and from kernels with cracked hulls was determined. The Wells variety had been previously classified as tolerant to R. dominica, while the Francis variety was classified as moderately susceptible. Few F 1 progeny were produced in Wells regardless of the percentage of kernels with cracked hulls, few of the kernels with cracked hulls had emergence holes, and little firass was produced from feeding damage. At 10 and 20% kernels with cracked hulls, the progeny production, number of emergence holes in kernels with cracked hulls, and the amount of firass was greater in Francis than in Wells. The proportion of progeny emerging from kernels with cracked hulls increased as the proportion of kernels with cracked hulls increased. The results indicate that R. dominica select kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction. PMID:22943499

  20. Infestation of rural houses by Triatoma infestans in the region of Los Llanos (La Rioja, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Porcasi, X; Hrellac, H; Catalá, S; Moreno, M; Abrahan, L; Hernandez, L; Gorla, D E

    2007-02-01

    Vectorial transmission of Chagas disease has been strongly reduced in most parts of the Southern Cone countries of South America, except in the Gran Chaco region of Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Given periodical interruptions of the vector control programmes in the endemic region of the Gran Chaco of Argentina, the vectorial transmission of the disease has been increasing during the last years. From the beginning of 2004, the provincial Ministry of Health of La Rioja, Argentina, started a vector control programme to cover the rural houses of the Los Llanos area in the southwestern area of the Gran Chaco region. This article reports the result of a standardized entomological survey and insecticide application against Chagas disease vectors in the intra and peridomestic structures of the rural houses of Los Llanos. A total of 4062 houses were inspected, of which 46.8% were found to be infested by Triatoma infestans. Infestation by vector species other than T. infestans was less than 0.5%(T. eratyrusiformis and T. platensis). Intradomestic infestation was found in 27.2%, whereas peridomestic infestation was found in 39.3% of the houses. The lowest figure of intradomestic infestation was 6.6% (Department F Varela), and the highest value of intradomestic infestation was 45.1% (Department Independencia). In spite of the demonstrated success of vector control elsewhere, this study shows that the vector populations are susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides in the southern area of the Gran Chaco of Argentina, that there still are regions where rural houses show heavy infestation by T. infestans associated with big peridomestic structures and that the vectorial transmission of the Chagas disease will continue, unless a sustained and well organized vector control effort is installed in the region. PMID:17294001

  1. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close. PMID:24690169

  2. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Woli, P; Ortiz, B V; Buntin, D; Flanders, K

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is expected to have an influence on the population of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a serious insect pest of winter wheat in the southeastern United States. This study had two objectives: 1) to examine the effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Hessian fly infestation and 2) to develop a weather-based Hessian fly infestation model for wheat yield loss prediction. At least 20 years of Hessian fly infestation and wheat yield records from two locations in South Georgia were used for this study. The yearly values of infestation were separated by ENSO phase and tested to assess the infestation differences across ENSO phases. Each year, yield losses from infestation were calculated by subtracting the yields of resistant varieties from those of susceptible ones. The yield losses were then separated by ENSO phase and tested. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the contribution of monthly weather variables and changes in wheat acreage to Hessian fly infestation. Results showed that Hessian fly infestation and yield losses were greatest during the La Niña and least during the El Niño phase. The weather conditions that significantly increased the risk for infestation were those of the August-February period. The risk of infestation was higher during August-September under wetter, cooler conditions and during October-February under drier, warmer conditions. These findings could help wheat growers reduce the risk of infestation in the years that are expected to have more infestation through the adoption of necessary mitigation measures before the crop season. PMID:25290163

  3. Constituents of wing gland and abdominal hair pencil secretions of male African sugarcane borer, Eldana saccharina walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Burger; A. E. Nell; D. Smit; H. S. C. Spies; W. M. Mackenroth; D. Groche; P. R. Atkinson

    1993-01-01

    In addition totrans-3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-4-olide (eldanolide), vanillin, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, identified by French workers in the wing gland and abdominal hair pencil secretions of the male African sugarcane borer,Eldana saccharina, we have, in an earlier note, reported the presence of several other terpenoid, aromatic, and unbranched-chain compounds such as, (Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoic acid, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol, 1-octadecane thiol, 16-hexadecanolide, and 18-octadecanolide in these secretions. In

  4. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    Durand, R.; Cannet, A.; Berdjane, Z.; Bruel, C.; Haouchine, D.; Delaunay, P.; Izri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97%) and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6%) apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6%) reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%). DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124) had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs. PMID:23193523

  5. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Durand, R; Cannet, A; Berdjane, Z; Bruel, C; Haouchine, D; Delaunay, P; Izri, A

    2012-11-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97%) and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6%) apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6%) reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%). DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n=124) had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs. PMID:23193523

  6. Effect of bark beetle infestation on secondary organic aerosol precursor emissions.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hardik; Atkins, P Tyson; Russo, Rachel S; Brown, Aaron W; Sive, Barkley; Hallar, A Gannet; Huff Hartz, Kara E

    2012-06-01

    Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosystems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled i.) from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) trees and ii.) from sites with and without active mountain pine beetle infestation. The emissions from the trunk and the canopy were collected via sorbent traps. After collection, the sorbent traps were extracted with hexane, and the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Canister samples were also collected and analyzed by a multicolumn gas chromatographic system. The samples from bark beetle infested lodgepole pine trees suggest a 5- to 20-fold enhancement in total VOCs emissions. Furthermore, increases in the ?-phellandrene emissions correlated with bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions can be used to identify bark beetle infestation but, more importantly, can lead to increases in secondary organic aerosol from these forests as potent SOA precursors are produced. PMID:22545866

  7. Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Ab resistance in sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Leonard, B Rogers; Chen, Mao; Clark, Thomas; Anilkumar, Konasale; Huang, Fangneng

    2014-03-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a major target species of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the U.S. mid-south region. In this study, the fitness of seven insect genotypes of D. saccharalis were assayed on non-toxic diet, which included a Cry1Ab-susceptible strain (SS-2009), two Cry1Ab-resistant strains (RR-43A(BC), RR-L5B(BC)), and four F1 hybrids (F1-R43A(m)S(f), F1-R43A(f)S(m), F1-R5B(m)S(f), and F1-R5B(f)S(m)). The F1 hybrids were generated by reciprocal crosses of SS-2009 with RR-43ABC and RR-L5BBC, respectively. Biological parameters measured were neonate-to-pupa survivorship, neonate-to-pupa development time, pupal mass, pupa-to-adult emergence rate, and progeny (neonates) production. The overall performance of the two resistant strains and the four F1 genotypes was either similar or better than SS-2009 for all biological parameters measured, suggesting a lack of fitness costs associated with the Cry1Ab resistance traits in both RR-43A(BC) and RR-L5B(BC). In addition, resistance stability was evaluated by measuring the Cry1Ab susceptibility of RR-43A(BC) and RR-L5B(BC) in the absence of selection pressure. Laboratory bioassays showed that larval mortality of the two resistant strains did not significantly increase after selection pressure was removed for 16 generations across all Cry1Ab concentrations assayed. The results provide valuable information on assessing resistance risk and developing effective management strategies for the sustainable use of Bt corn technology. PMID:24503242

  8. New Artificial Diet for Continuous Rearing of the Bean Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero (1993), called the “D-OO diet.” However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15–25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata. PMID:24785903

  9. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) induced responses enhance susceptibility in maize.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Thomas, James D; Shirk, Paul D; Legaspi, Michelle E; Vaughan, Martha M; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems. PMID:24023868

  10. Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    PubMed Central

    Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary trajectories of sexual signals and lead to their divergence, with speciation being the ultimate result. PMID:19257880

  11. Characterization of a tyramine receptor type 2 from hemocytes of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Xu, Gang; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-04-01

    Calcium acts as a second messenger in many cell types, including insect hemocytes. Intracellular calcium level has a definite role in innate and adaptive immune signaling. Biogenic amines such as octopamine (OA), tyramine (TA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) play various important physiological roles in insects by activating distinct G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that share a putative seven transmembrane domain structure. OA and 5-HT have been shown that can mediate insect hemocytic immune reactions to infections and invasions. Here, we showed that TA increase hemocyte spreading in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. Furthermore, we cloned a cDNA encoding a tyramine receptor type 2 from the hemocytes in the C. suppressalis, viz., CsTA2, which shares high sequence similarity to members of the invertebrate tyramine receptor family. The CsTA2 receptor was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and its ligand response has been examined. Receptor activation with TA induced a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cells, with an EC50 value of 18.7±5.3 nM, whereas OA, DA, 5-HT and other potential agonists did not have this response. The mRNA is present in various tissues including nerve cord, hemocytes, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and epidermis in the larval stage. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry assay displayed that CsTA2 was detected and presented on hemocytes. We also showed that TA induced Ca(2+) release from the hemocytes of C. suppressalis. PMID:25772095

  12. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence and Expression Profiling for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N.; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2011-01-01

    We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21311752

  13. Molecular characterization of mariner-like elements in emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera, Polyphaga).

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vega, L; Mittapalli, O

    2010-08-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an exotic invasive pest, has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and continues to threaten the very survival of the entire Fraxinus genus. Despite its high-impact status, to date very little knowledge exists for this devastating insect pest at the molecular level. Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are transposable elements, which are ubiquitous in occurrence in insects and other invertebrates. Because of their low specificity and broad host range, they can be used for epitope-tagging, gene mapping, and in vitro mutagenesis. The majority of the known MLEs are inactive due to in-frame shifts and stop codons within the open reading frame (ORF). We report on the cloning and characterization of two MLEs in A. planipennis genome (Apmar1 and Apmar2). Southern analysis indicated a very high copy number for Apmar1 and a moderate copy number for Apmar2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both elements belong to the irritans subfamily. Based on the high copy number for Apmar1, the full-length sequence was obtained using degenerate primers designed to the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences of irritans MLEs. The recovered nucleotide sequence for Apmar1 consisted of 1,292 bases with perfect ITRs, and an ORF of 1,050 bases encoding a putative transposase of 349 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Apmar1 contained the conserved regions of mariner transposases including WVPHEL and YSPDLAP, and the D,D(34)D motif. Both Apmar1 and Apmar2 could represent useful genetic tools and provide insights on EAB adaptation. PMID:20602451

  14. Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): gene characterization and expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mamidala, Praveen; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-06-01

    Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of ash trees and continues to invade North America at a rapid pace. From an on-going expressed sequence tag (EST) project of A. planipennis larval tissues, we identified ESTs coding for a Cu-Zn SOD (ApSOD1), a CAT (ApCAT1) and a GPX (ApGPX1). A multiple sequence alignment of the derived A. planipennis sequences revealed high homology with other insect sequences at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis of ApSOD1 grouped it with Cu-Zn SODs of other insect taxa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different larval tissues (midgut, fat body, Malpighian tubule and cuticle) revealed high mRNA levels of ApCAT1 in the midgut. Interestingly, high mRNA levels for both ApSOD1 and ApGPX1 were observed in the Malpighian tubules. Assay of mRNA levels in developmental stages (larva, prepupa and adults) by qRT-PCR indicated high transcript levels of ApCAT1 and ApGPX1 in larval and prepupal stages with a decline in adults. On the other hand, the transcript levels of ApSOD1 were observed to be constitutive in all the developmental stages assayed. Results obtained reflect a plausible role of these A. planipennis antioxidant genes in quenching ROS from both diet (ash allelochemicals) as well as endogenous sources. These studies further help in understanding the adaptation/invasiveness of A. planipennis. PMID:21439289

  15. Emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) attraction to stressed or baited ash trees.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Anulewicz, Andrea C; Cappaert, David

    2009-12-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus sp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. Efficient methods to detect low-density A. planipennis populations remain a critical priority for regulatory and resource management agencies. We compared the density of adult A. planipennis captured on sticky bands and larval density among ash trees that were girdled for 1 or 2 yr, wounded, exposed to the stress-elicitor methyl jasmonate, baited with Manuka oil lures, or left untreated. Studies were conducted at four sites in 2006 and 2007, where A. planipennis densities on untreated trees ranged from very low to moderate. In 2006, 1-yr girdled trees captured significantly more adult A. planipennis and had higher larval densities than untreated control trees or trees treated with methyl jasmonate or Manuka oil. Open-grown trees captured significantly more A. planipennis beetles than partially or fully shaded trees. In 2007, A. planipennis population levels and captures of adult A. planipennis were substantially higher than in 2006. The density of adults captured on sticky bands did not differ significantly among canopy exposure classes or treatments in 2007. Larval density was significantly higher in untreated, wounded, and 1-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2007) than in 2-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2006), where most phloem was consumed by A. planipennis larvae the previous year. A total of 36 trees (32 in 2006, 4 in 2007) caught no beetles, but 16 of those trees (13 in 2006, 3 in 2007) had A. planipennis larvae. In 2006, there was a positive linear relationship between the density of adults captured on sticky bands and larval density in trees. Our results show that freshly girdled and open grown trees were most attractive to A. planipennis, especially at low-density sites. If girdled trees are used for A. planipennis detection or survey, debarking trees to locate larval galleries is crucial. PMID:20021763

  16. Characterization and virulence of Beauveria spp. recovered from emerald ash borer in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George; Gauthier, Debbie; Frankenhuyzen, Kees van; Krell, Peter J

    2012-09-15

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive wood boring beetle that is decimating North America's ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To find effective and safe indigenous biocontrol agents to manage EAB, we conducted a survey in 2008-2009 of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) infecting EAB in five outbreak sites in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 78 Beauveria spp. isolates were retrieved from dead and mycosed EAB cadavers residing in the phloem tissues of dead ash barks, larval frass extracted from feeding galleries under the bark of dead trees. Molecular characterization using sequences of the ITS, 5' end of EF1-? and intergenic Bloc region fragments revealed that Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria pseudobassiana were commonly associated with EAB in the sampled sites. Based on phylogenetic analysis inferred from ITS sequences, 17 of these isolates clustered with B. bassiana, which further grouped into three different sub-clades. However, the combined EF1-? and Bloc sequences detected five genotypes among the three sub-clades. The remaining 61 isolates clustered with B. pseudobassiana, which had identical ITS sequences but were further subdivided into two genotypes by variation in the EF1-? and Bloc regions. Initial virulence screening against EAB adults of 23 isolates representing the different clades yielded 8 that produced more than 90% mortality in a single concentration assay. These isolates differed in virulence based on LC(50) values estimated from multiple concentration bioassay and based on mean survival times at a conidia concentration of 2×10(6) conidia/ml. B. bassiana isolate L49-1AA was significantly more virulent and produced more conidia on EAB cadavers compared to the other indigenous isolates and the commercial strain B. bassiana GHA suggesting that L49-1AA may have potential as a microbiological control agent against EAB. PMID:22664171

  17. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ?-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption. PMID:25786893

  18. Differential response in foliar chemistry of three ash species to emerald ash borer adult feeding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to EAB adult feeding. Black ash was the least responsive to EAB adult feeding in terms of the induction of volatile compounds, and levels of only two (indole and benzyl cyanide) of the 11 compounds studied increased. In green ash, levels of two [(E)-?-ocimene and indole] of the 11 volatile compounds studied were elevated, while the levels of two green leaf volatiles [hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal] decreased. White ash showed the greatest response with an increase in levels of seven of the 11 compounds studied. Qualitative differences among ash species were detected. Among the phenolic compounds detected, ligustroside was the only one detected in all three species. Oleuropein aglycone and 2 unidentified compounds were found only in black ash; coumaroylquinic acid and feruloylquinic acid were detected only in green ash; and verbascoside hexoside was detected only in white ash. EAB adult feeding did not elicit or decrease concentrations of any selected individual phenolic compounds. However, although levels of total phenolics from black and green ash foliage were not affected by EAB adult feeding, they decreased significantly in white ash. EAB adult feeding elevated chymotrypsin inhibitors in black ash. The possible ecological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21153046

  19. Distinguishing defensive characteristics in the phloem of ash species resistant and susceptible to emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Wang, Qin; Whitehill, Justin G A; Powell, Jeff R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-05-01

    We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high soluble protein concentration, low trypsin inhibitor activities, and intermediate levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentration. The EAB-susceptible white ash (F. americana, cv. Autumn Purple) was characterized by a slow wound browning rate and low levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentrations. An EAB-susceptible green ash cultivar (F. pennsylvanica, cv. Patmore) and a wild accession were similar to each other on the basis of several chemical defense traits, and were characterized by high activities of peroxidase and trypsin inhibitor, a high total soluble phenolic concentration, and an intermediate rate of wound browning. Lignin concentration and polyphenol oxidase activities did not differentiate resistant and susceptible species. Of 33 phenolic compounds separated by HPLC and meeting a minimum criterion for analysis, nine were unique to Manchurian ash, five were shared among all species, and four were found in North American ashes and not in the Manchurian ash. Principal components analysis revealed clear separations between Manchurian, white, and green ashes on the basis of all phenolics, as well as clear separations on the basis of quantities of phenolics that all species shared. Variation in some of these constitutive chemical defense traits may contribute to variation in resistance to EAB in these species. PMID:21537902

  20. Susceptibility of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to flubendiamide in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shunfan; Su, Jianya; Gao, Congfen

    2014-06-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important rice pest in China, and has evolved resistance to several classes of insecticides. Flubendiamide is a phthalic diamide insecticide that shows selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. The susceptibility of 40 field populations of C. suppressalis, collected in 2011 and 2012 in seven provinces of south-eastern China, to flubendiamide was determined through rice seedling dipping bioassay method. Of these 40 populations, seven populations that were seldom exposed to flubendiamide were used to set up the baseline sensitivity, and the LC50 value was 0.092 mg/L. Variation in susceptibility among the 40 field populations was high (34-fold). The range of mean lethal concentration (LC50) values in response to this chemical was between 0.032 mg/L (FS11) and 1.090 mg/L (JH12) across the populations. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to flubendiamide were detected among different geographic populations. There was no significant difference observed between years for most populations, except for populations from Jinhua and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 0.8 to 11.8, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. It was found that 16 of the 40 populations had some level of resistance. However, moderate level of resistance was discovered in only one population from JH12 from Zhejiang province (11.8-fold). Other 15 populations showed low level of resistance (5.1-9.3-fold) to flubendiamide. These data are useful in future monitoring programs for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of using flubendiamide. PMID:25026690