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Sample records for borexino counting test

  1. Test of Electric Charge Conservation with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    Borexino is a liquid scintillation detector located deep underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). Thanks to the unmatched radio purity of the scintillator, and to the well understood detector response at low energy, a new limit on the stability of the electron for decay into a neutrino and a single monoenergetic photon was obtained. This new bound, τ ≥6.6 ×1028 yr at 90% C.L., is 2 orders of magnitude better than the previous limit.

  2. Test of Electric Charge Conservation with Borexino.

    PubMed

    Agostini, M; Appel, S; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Caccianiga, B; Calaprice, F; Caminata, A; Cavalcante, P; Chepurnov, A; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Di Noto, L; Drachnev, I; Empl, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Gromov, M; Hagner, C; Hungerford, E; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K; Kaiser, M; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lehnert, B; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Lukyanchenko, G; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Marcocci, S; Meroni, E; Meyer, M; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Montuschi, M; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Neumair, B; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Roncin, R; Rossi, N; Schönert, S; Semenov, D; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Thurn, J; Toropova, M; Unzhakov, E; Vishneva, A; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Wang, H; Weinz, S; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wurm, M; Yokley, Z; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2015-12-01

    Borexino is a liquid scintillation detector located deep underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). Thanks to the unmatched radio purity of the scintillator, and to the well understood detector response at low energy, a new limit on the stability of the electron for decay into a neutrino and a single monoenergetic photon was obtained. This new bound, τ≥6.6×10^{28}  yr at 90% C.L., is 2 orders of magnitude better than the previous limit. PMID:26684111

  3. Test of the electric charge conservation law with Borexino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishneva, A.; Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D' Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schonert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    The new limit on the electron lifetime is obtained from data of the Borexino experiment. The expected signal from the e → γν decay mode is a 256 keV photon detected in liquid scintillator. Because of the extremely low radioactive background level in the Borexino detector it was possible to improve the previous measurement by two orders of magnitude.

  4. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  5. Performances of the CTF experiment in prospect of Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, E.

    1997-02-01

    BOREXINO is a high radiopurity scintillation counter for low energy neutrino physics, mainly intended for the underground study of Solar Neutrinos. As a preparatory phase of the experiment, a low background Counting Test Facility (CTF) has been set up at Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso (LNGS). The purpose of the CTF is to test the feasibility of Borexino. The radiopurity of the detector in terms of Uranium (226Ra) and Th contamination has found to be a few times 10-16g/g. In addition, the 14C/12C isotopic abundance has been measured at the 10-18 level.

  6. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  7. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  8. The Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment: Scintillator purification and surface contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Michael

    The Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment will observe the monoenergetic (862 keV) 7Be neutrinos, produced in the solar reaction 7Be+e- →7 Li+nue. These neutrinos are the second most abundant species of solar neutrinos, with an expected flux at earth of 5 x 109/cm2/s. Using nu - e scattering in an aromatic liquid scintillator, Borexino will make the first real time measurement of the solar neutrino flux at energies less than 1 MeV. In addition to checking Standard Solar Model and neutrino oscillation predictions at low energies, Borexino will test the MSW vacuum-matter transition, luminosity constraint, and non-standard theories such as mass varying neutrinos. The Borexino detector will also be sensitive to supernova neutrinos, geoneutrinos, reactor neutrinos, and pep solar neutrinos. The pep measurement will tightly constrain the primary pp solar neutrino flux whose energy is below the Borexino threshold. With an expected rate of 35 events per day from solar 7Be neutrinos, the maximum tolerable background rate is one count per day. Removal of radioactive isotopes from the liquid scintillator is essential for the experiment's success and will be achieved with purification techniques including filtration, distillation, water extraction, nitrogen stripping, and silica gel adsorption. Results from small-scale purification efficiency tests are presented. Water extraction showed moderate but inadequate removal of 210Po which is a dominant background. Distillation reduced 210Po by a factor of more than 500. Online purification involves cycling over 300 m3 of scintillator from the detector though the purification plants. Flow patterns within the detector that influence the purification efficiency were determined with numerical simulations. Poor flow in the prototype Counting Test Facility showed effectively stagnant volumes within the detector. These are not present in the larger Borexino detector. Surface contamination in Borexino arises primarily from contact with

  9. The 51Cr neutrino source and Borexino: a desirable marriage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, N.; Fiorentini, G.; Ricci, B.

    1996-02-01

    Exposure to a 51Cr neutrino source as that used in Gallex will provide an excellent overall performance test of Borexino, which should collect about 1400 source induced events, with an initial rate of about 35 counts per day. This will be particularly important if MSW-small-angle turns out to be the solution of the solar neutrino problem. In addition, if an independent, accurate calibration is available, one will have an interesting experiment on neutrino properties: as an example, a neutrino magnetic moment of the order 5 . 10-11 μB could be detected/excluded at the 90% C.L.

  10. Water purification in Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Giammarchi, M.; Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S.; Goretti, A.; Ianni, A.; Miramonti, L.

    2013-08-08

    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

  11. The Borexino purification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benziger, Jay

    2014-05-01

    Purification of 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system of combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification system removed K, U and Th by distillation of the pseudocumene solvent and the PPO fluor. Noble gases, Rn, Kr and Ar were removed by gas stripping. Distillation was also employed to remove optical impurities and reduce the attenuation of scintillation light. The success of the purification system has facilitated the first time real time detection of low energy solar neutrinos.

  12. The impact of Borexino on the solar and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Gianpaolo

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino detector is characterized by a very low background level due to an unprecedented radio-purity, which allows to study the entire spectrum of solar neutrinos from very low energies (∼150 keV). The solar neutrino rates from pp, 7Be, pep, 8B (with a threshold down to 3 MeV) and a stringent limit of the CNO cycle rate have been already measured. In addition evidences of a null day/night asymmetry and of the solar neutrino flux seasonal variation have been reached. The contribution provided until now by Borexino in understanding the neutrino oscillation phenomenon concerns the first evidence of the oscillation in vacuum and the determination of the νe survival probability in vacuum: these results validate the paradigmatic MSW model in the vacuum regime. The Borexino results are also in good agreement with the Standard Solar Model predictions, but the metallicity puzzle is still unsolved. In addition the pp flux measured by Borexino shows a good agreement with the Solar luminosity. Evidence of geo-neutrinos has been also obtained at the level of 5.9σ C.L. Borexino is still taking data in order to: upgrade the precision of the solar neutrino rates already measured, increase the sensitivity to the neutrino flux from the CNO cycle and hopefully measure it (very challenging), and test the existence of very short base-line neutrino oscillations.

  13. Low background techniques for the Borexino nylon vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Pocar, Andrea

    2005-09-08

    Borexino is an organic liquid scintillator underground detector for low energy solar neutrinos. The experiment has to satisfy extremely stringent low background requirements. The thin nylon spherical scintillator containment vessel has to meet cleanliness and low radioactivity levels second only, within the detector, to the scintillator itself. Overall, the background from the vessel in the fiducial volume of the detector must be kept at the level of one event per day or better. The requirements, design choices, results from laboratory tests, and fabrication techniques that have been adopted to meet this goal are presented. Details of the precautions taken during the installation of the vessels inside the Borexino detector are also discussed.

  14. The Borexino solar neutrino experiment and its scintillator containment vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadonati, Laura

    2001-05-01

    Thirty years ago, the first solar neutrino detector proved fusion reactions power the Sun. However, the total rate detected in this and all subsequent solar neutrino experiments is consistently two to three times lower than predicted by the Standard Solar Model. Current experiments seek to explain this ``solar neutrino puzzle'' through non-standard particle properties, like neutrino mass and flavor mixing, within the context of the MSW theory. The detection of the monoenergetic 7Be solar neutrino is the missing clue for the solution of the solar neutrino problem; this constitutes the main physics goal of Borexino, a real- time, high-statistics solar neutrino detector located under the Gran Sasso mountain, in Italy. In the first part of this thesis, I present a Monte Carlo study of the expected performance of Borexino, with simulations of the neutrino rate, the external y background and the α/β/γ activity in the scintillator. The Standard Solar Model predicts a solar neutrino rate of about 60 events/day in Borexino in the 0.25-0.8 MeV window, mostly due to 7Be neutrinos. Given the design scintillator radiopurity levels (10-16 g/g 238U and 232Th and 10-14 g/g K), Borexino will detect such a rate with a ~2.4% statistical error, after one year. In the MSW Small (Large) Angle scenario, the predicted rate of ~13 (33) events/day will be detected with 8% (4%) error. The sensitivity of Borexino to 8B and pp neutrinos and to a Galactic supernova event is also discussed. The second part of this dissertation is devoted to the liquid scintillator containment vessel, an 8.5 m diameter sphere built of bonded panels of 0.125 mm polymer film. Through an extensive materials testing program we have identified an amorphous nylon-6 film which meets all the critical requirements for the success of Borexino. I describe tests of tensile strength, measurements of 222Rn diffusion through thin nylon films and of optical clarity. I discuss how the materials' radiopurity and mechanical

  15. Testing for trend with count data.

    PubMed

    Weller, E A; Ryan, L M

    1998-06-01

    Among the tests that can be used to detect dose-related trends in count data from toxicological studies are nonparametric tests such as the Jonckheere-Terpstra and likelihood-based tests, for example, based on a Poisson model. This paper was motivated by a data set of tumor counts in which conflicting conclusions were obtained using these two tests. To define situations where one test may be preferable, we compared the small and large sample performance of these two tests as well as a robust and conditional version of the likelihood-based test in the absence and presence of a dose-related trend for both Poisson and overdispersed Poisson data. Based on our results, we suggest using the Poisson test when little overdispersion is present in the data. For more overdispersed data, we recommend using the robust Poisson test for highly discrete data (response rate lower than 2-3) and the robust Poisson test or the Jonckheere-Terpstra test for moderately discrete or continuous data (average responses larger than 2 or 3). We also studied the effects of dose metameter misspecification. A clear effect on efficiency was seen when the 'wrong' dose metameter was used to compute the test statistic. In general, unless there is strong reason to do otherwise, we recommend the use of equally spaced dose levels when applying the Poisson or robust Poisson test for trend. PMID:9629655

  16. SOX: search for short baseline neutrino oscillations with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivier, M.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cribier, M.; D’Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffliot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, T.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquàres, N.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Veyssiére, C.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Borexino detector has convincingly shown its outstanding performances in the low energy regime through its accomplishments in the observation and study of the solar and geo neutrinos. It is then an ideal tool to perform a state of the art source-based experiment for testing the longstanding hypothesis of a fourth sterile neutrino with ~ eV2 mass, as suggested by several anomalies accumulated over the past three decades in source, reactor, and accelerator-based experiments. The SOX project aims at successively deploying two intense radioactive sources, made of Cerium (antineutrino) and Chromium (neutrino), respectively, in a dedicated pit located beneath the detector. The existence of such an ~ eV2 sterile neutrino would then show up as an unambiguous spatial and energy distortion in the count rate of neutrinos interacting within the active detector volume. This article reports on the latest developments about the first phase of the SOX experiment, namely CeSOX, and gives a realistic projection of CeSOX sensitivity to light sterile neutrinos in a simple (3+1) model.

  17. Testing gravity with gravitational wave source counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Battaglia, Nicholas; Spergel, David N.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise ratio (ρ) from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as {R}-1, thus we expect the source counts to follow {{d}}{N}/{{d}}ρ \\propto {ρ }-4. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the strain falls as {R}-γ , where γ =1 recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled Universe, and forecast the sensitivity of future observations to deviations from standard General Relativity. We first consider the case of few objects, seven sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on γ, finding γ \\gt 0.33 at 95% confidence level. The distribution of our simulated sample is very consistent with the distribution of the trigger events reported by Advanced LIGO. Future measurements will improve these constraints: with 100 events, we estimate that γ can be measured with an uncertainty of 15%. We generalize the formalism to account for a range of chirp masses and the possibility that the signal falls as {exp}(-R/{R}0)/{R}γ .

  18. α/β discrimination in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbiati, C.; Misiaszek, M.; Rossi, N.

    2016-04-01

    In this report we describe the unique capabilities of the α / β discrimination of the Borexino experiment. This capability is the direct result of years of development aimed at the design of an experiment that could withstand contamination from α-emitting nuclides. The combination of the excellent α/β discrimination and of the excellent radiopurity of the detector permitted to extract information on the solar neutrino interactions in Borexino without interference from α particles.

  19. Low background techniques and experimental challenges for Borexino and its nylon vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocar, Andrea Pietro

    . Finally, trace scintillator radioactivity data are reported from CTF3, a counting test facility for Borexino now in its third data-taking phase. An intrinsic 14C isotopic contamination of the scintillator ˜5 x 10-18 has been measured. Upper limits of ˜3.5 x 10-16 g/g on {\\uranium} contamination and of ˜10 -4 Bq/ton for the 85Kr residual activity have also been set. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. New results of the Borexino experiment: pp solar neutrino detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino experiment is an ultra-pure liquid scintillator detector, running at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). Borexino has completed the real time spectroscopy of the solar neutrinos generated in the proton-proton chain in the core of the Sun. This article reviews the Borexino experiment and the first direct measurment of pp solar neutrinos.

  1. Geo-neutrino results with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncin, R.; Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    Borexino is a liquid scintillator detector primary designed to observe solar neutrinos. Due to its low background level as well as its position in a nuclear free country, Italy, Borexino is also sensitive to geo-neutrinos. Borexino is leading this interdisciplinary field of neutrino geoscience by studying electron antineutrinos which are emitted from the decay of radioactive isotopes present in the crust and the mantle of the Earth. With 2056 days of data taken between December 2007 and March 2015, Borexino observed 77 antineutrino candidates. If we assume a chondritic Th/U mass ratio of 3.9, the number of geo-neutrino events is found to be 23.7+6.5 -5.7(stat) +0.9-0.6 (syst). With this measurement, Borexino alone is able to reject the null geo-neutrino signal at 5.9σ, to claim a geo-neutrino signal from the mantle at 98% C.L. and to restrict the radiogenic heat production for U and Th between 23 and 36 TW.

  2. Short distance neutrino oscillations with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminata, A.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; di Noto, L.; Durero, M.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jonquères, N.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Veyssière, C.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino detector has convincingly shown its outstanding performances in the low energy, sub-MeV regime through its unprecedented accomplishments in the solar and geo-neutrinos detection. These performances make it the ideal tool to accomplish a state-of-the-art experiment able to test unambiguously the long-standing issue of the existence of a sterile neutrino, as suggested by the several anomalous results accumulated over the past two decades, i.e. the outputs of the LSND and Miniboone experiments, the results of the source calibration of the two Gallium solar neutrino experiments, and the recently hinted reactor anomaly. The SOX project will exploit two sources, based on Chromium and Cerium, respectively, which deployed under the experiment, in a location foreseen on purpose at the time of the construction of the detector, will emit two intense beams of neutrinos (Cr) and anti-neutrinos (Ce). Interacting in the active volume of the liquid scintillator, each beam would create an unmistakable spatial wave pattern in case of oscillation of the νe (or ν̅e) into the sterile state: such a pattern would be the smoking gun proving the existence of the new sterile member of the neutrino family. Otherwise, its absence will allow setting a very stringent limit on its existence.

  3. Solar and Terrestrial Neutrino Results from Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaprice, Frank; Borexino Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    Borexino is a low background liquid scintillation detector currently acquiring solar and terrestrial neutrino data at the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy. In the three years since the start of operations in 2007, Borexino has produced measurements of 7Be and 8B solar neutrinos, as well as measurements of terrestrial and long-baseline reactor anti-neutrinos. The measurements of sub-MeV neutrinos were possible owing to a breakthrough in low background methods. Current results and prospects for future measurements with lower background and higher accuracy are discussed in the context of exploring the transition from vacuum to matter enhanced neutrino oscillations.

  4. Results from the Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaprice, Frank; Galbiati, Cristiano; Wright, Alex; Ianni, Aldo

    2012-11-01

    Borexino is a low-background liquid scintillation detector currently acquiring solar and terrestrial neutrino data at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy. Since the start of operations in 2007, Borexino has produced measurements of 7Be, 8B, and pep solar neutrinos, as well as measurements of terrestrial and long-baseline reactor antineutrinos. The measurements were made possible by the development of low-background scintillator spectroscopy that enabled direct detection of sub-MeV solar neutrinos. The general design features of the detector are described together with current results and prospects for future measurements.

  5. Overview and accomplishments of the Borexino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranucci, G.; Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    The Borexino experiment is running at the Laboratori del Gran Sasso in Italy since 2007. Its technical distinctive feature is the unprecedented ultralow background of the inner scintillating core, which is the basis of the outstanding achievements accumulated by the experiment. In this talk, after recalling the main features of the detector, the impressive solar data gathered so far by the experiment will be summarized, with special emphasis to the most recent and prominent result concerning the detection of the fundamental pp solar neutrino flux, which is the direct probe of the engine mechanism powering our star. Such a milestone measurement puts Borexino in the unique situation of being the only experiment able to do solar neutrino spectroscopy over the entire solar spectrum; the counterpart of this peculiar status in the oscillation interpretation of the data is the capability of Borexino alone to perform the full validation across the solar energy range of the MSW-LMA paradigm. The talk will be concluded highlighting the perspectives for the final stage of the solar program of the experiment, centered on the goal to fully complete the solar spectroscopy with the missing piece of the CNO neutrinos. If successful, such a measurement would represent the final crowning of the long quest of Borexino to unravel all the properties of the neutrinos from the Sun.

  6. Collaborative essay testing: group work that counts.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Peggy A

    2009-01-01

    Because much of a nurse's work is accomplished through working in groups, nursing students need an understanding of group process as well as opportunities to problem-solve in groups. Despite an emphasis on group activities as critical for classroom learning, there is a lack of evidence in the nursing literature that describes collaborative essay testing as a teaching strategy. In this class, nursing students worked together in small groups to answer examination questions before submitting a common set of answers. In a follow-up survey, students reported that collaborative testing was a positive experience (e.g., promoting critical thinking, confidence in knowledge, and teamwork). Faculty were excited by the lively dialog heard during the testing in what appeared to be an atmosphere of teamwork. Future efforts could include providing nursing students with direct instruction on group process and more opportunities to work and test collaboratively. PMID:19954422

  7. The electronic counting arm movement test (eCAM test).

    PubMed

    Bodranghien, Florian; Martin, Claire; Ansay, Caroline; Camut, Stephane; Busegnies, Yves; Manto, Mario

    2015-06-01

    A novel transportable electronic platform aiming to characterize the performance of successive fast vertical visually guided pointing movements toward two fixed targets (eCAM test: electronic counting arm movement test) is described and one validation test is presented. This platform is based on an Arduino(®) micro-controller and a Processing(®) routine. It records both the pointing performance (number of clicks) and the elapsed time between two successive pointing movements. Using this novel platform, we studied the effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied on the dominant upper limb in 15 healthy volunteers (mean age ± SD: 22.3 ± 4.3 years; 5 males/10 females). The following muscles were stimulated: flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB). The intensities of the stimulation were 2 and 3 mA above the sensory threshold (ST). Movement times were lesser when performed against gravity and pointing performance improved with FES. We provide the first demonstration that low-intensity FES impacts on motor performances during successive vertical goal-directed pointing movements under visual guidance. The eCAM test is currently the sole electronic tool to assess quickly and easily the performances of successive vertical pointing movements. Future potential applications include, in particular, the follow-up of the effects of neurorehabilitation of neurological/neurosurgical disorders associated with hand-eye incoordination, the functional evaluation of upper limb prosthesis or orthosis, and the analysis of the effects of FES in central or peripheral nervous system disorders. PMID:25413688

  8. Terrestrial and Reactor Antineutrinos in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. C.; Calaprice, F. P.; Rothschild, C. G.

    1998-10-01

    The Earth is an abundant source of antineutrinos coming from the decay of radioactive elements in the mantle and crust. Detecting these antineutrinos is a challenge due to their small cross section and low energies. The Borexino solar neutrino experiment will also be an excellent detector for barν_e. With 300 tons of ultra-low-background liquid scintillator, surrounded by an efficient muon veto, the inverse-β-decay reaction: barνe + p arrow e^+ + n (Q = 1.8 MeV), can be exploited to detect terrestrial antineutrinos from the uranium and thorium decay chains, with little background. A direct measurement of the total uranium and thorium abundance would establish important geophysical constraints on the heat generation and thermal history of the Earth. Starting with the most recent uranium and thorium distribution and abundance data, and employing a global map of crustal type and thickness, we calculated the antineutrino fluxes for several sites. We estimate a terrestrial antineutrino event rate in Borexino of 10 events per year. This small signal can be distinguished over the neutrino background from the world's nuclear power reactors by measuring the positron energy spectrum from the barνe events. The possibility to perform a long-baseline oscillation experiment, reaching Δ m^2 ≈ 10-6 eV^2, using the nuclear reactors in Europe will also be discussed.

  9. Testing Crater Counting Assumptions with the Cratered Terrain Evolution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minton, D. A.; Richardson, J. E.; Fassett, C. I.

    2015-05-01

    Using CTEM to answer the questions; 1) How close to Poisson-distributed are crater count uncertainties? and 2) How does observed clustering in crater count densities of large craters relate to the changes in the impactor flux?

  10. New experimental limits on the probabilities of pauli-forbidden transitions in the {sup 12}C nucleus from data obtained with the borexino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Derbin, A. V.; Fomenko, K. A.

    2010-12-15

    The Pauli exclusion principle was tested for nucleons in the {sup 12}C nucleus by using data from the Borexino detector. The approach used consisted in seeking photons, neutrons, and protons, as well as electrons and positrons, emitted in the Pauli-forbidden transitions of nucleons from the 1P{sub 3/2} shell to the filled 1S{sub 1/2} shell. Owing to a uniquely low background level in the Borexino detector and its large mass, the currently most stringent experimental limits were obtained for the probabilities and relative intensities of Pauli-forbidden transitions for the electromagnetic, strong, and weak channels.

  11. Achievements in solar neutrino physics with the Borexino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramonti, L.; Borexino Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Borexino is an organic liquid scintillator detector located in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in central Italy. It has been designed for real-time spectroscopy of low energy solar neutrinos. In Phase I of the experiment lasting for three years, between May 2007 and May 2010, the Collaboration performed the first independent measurements of 7Be, 8B, and pep solar neutrino fluxes. After a dedicated purification campaign of the liquid scintillator in 2011, Borexino entered into Phase II which allowed to investigate the seasonal modulation in the 7Be signal. In 2014, Borexino provided the first direct real time measurement of pp neutrinos accomplishing the whole pp-cycle that powers the Sun.

  12. SOX: Short distance neutrino Oscillations with BoreXino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fernandes, G.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Krasnicky, D.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Link, J. M.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Papp, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wang, H.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-08-01

    The very low radioactive background of the Borexino detector, its large size, and the well proved capability to detect both low energy electron neutrinos and antineutrinos make an ideal case for the study of short distance neutrino oscillations with artificial sources at Gran Sasso. This paper describes the possible layouts of 51Cr ( ν e ) and 144Ce-144Pr source experiments in Borexino and shows the expected sensitivity to eV mass sterile neutrinos for three possible different phases of the experiment. Expected results on neutrino magnetic moment, electroweak mixing angle, and couplings to axial and vector currents are shown too.

  13. CNO and pep solar neutrino measurements and perspectives in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    The detection of neutrinos emitted in the CNO reactions in the Sun is one of the ambitious goals of Borexino Phase-II. A measurement of CNO neutrinos would be a milestone in astrophysics, and would allow to solve serious issues in current solar models. A precise measurement of the rate of neutrinos from the pep reaction would allow to investigate neutrino oscillations in the MSW transition region. The pep and CNO solar neutrino physics, the measurement in Borexino Phase-I and the perspectives for the new phase are reviewed in this proceeding.

  14. Low background techniques applied in the BOREXINO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzel, G.

    2015-08-17

    The BOREXINO detector, located in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy, has been designed for real-time spectroscopy of low-energy solar neutrinos. Within the experiment several novel background reduction and assay techniques have been established. In many cases they are still the most sensitive world-wide. Developed methods and apparatus provided tools for a strict quality control program during the construction phase of the BOREXINO detector, which was the key to meet the background requirements. Achievement of extremely low background rate opened the possibility to probe in realtime almost entire spectrum of the solar neutrinos.

  15. Measurement of Solar pp-neutrino flux with Borexino: results and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O. Yu; Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, O.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of the Solar pp-neutrino flux completed the measurement of Solar neutrino fluxes from the pp-chain of reactions in Borexino experiment. The result is in agreement with the prediction of the Standard Solar Model and the MSW/LMA oscillation scenario. A comparison of the total neutrino flux from the Sun with Solar luminosity in photons provides a test of the stability of the Sun on the 105 years time scale, and sets a strong limit on the power production by the unknown energy sources in the Sun.

  16. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2008-03-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  17. Synchrotron beam test with a photon-counting pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Brönnimann, C; Florin, S; Lindner, M; Schmitt, B; Schulze-Briese, C

    2000-09-01

    Synchrotron beam measurements were performed with a single-photon-counting pixel detector to investigate the influence of threshold settings on charge sharing. Improvement of image homogeneity by adjusting the threshold of each pixel individually was demonstrated. With a flat-field correction, the homogeneity could be improved. A measurement of the point spread function is reported. PMID:16609212

  18. Fiber mass, count and breaking force from Stelometer test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fundamental understanding of the relationship among cotton fiber mass, count, and breaking force is important, as bundle fiber tenacity, elongation, and linear density can be calculated from these three parameters. In this study, the Stelometer instrument was employed, mostly because it is the tra...

  19. Spectroscopy of geoneutrinos from 2056 days of Borexino data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fiorentini, G.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, T.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Mantovani, F.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Ricci, B.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    We report an improved geoneutrino measurement with Borexino from 2056 days of data taking. The present exposure is (5.5 ±0.3 )×1031 proton ×yr . Assuming a chondritic Th/U mass ratio of 3.9, we obtain 23.7-5.7+6.5(stat)-0.6+0.9(sys) geoneutrino events. The null observation of geoneutrinos with Borexino alone has a probability of 3.6 ×10-9 (5.9 σ ). A geoneutrino signal from the mantle is obtained at 98% C.L. The radiogenic heat production for U and Th from the present best-fit result is restricted to the range 23-36 TW, taking into account the uncertainty on the distribution of heat producing elements inside the Earth.

  20. Status of the Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, Kevin B.

    2006-11-17

    The Borexino experiment is designed to measure the flux of 7Be solar neutrinos. The experiment, having a 100-ton fiducial volume of organic liquid scintillator, should detect roughly 35 neutrinos per day in the energy range 250 - 1300 keV, a range lower than that of any previous real-time neutrino detector. Though the 862-keV 7Be neutrinos make up roughly 10% of the total solar neutrino flux, they have not previously been directly observed. Their energy is at a delicate point for confirmation of the vacuum-to-matter oscillation transition. In these proceedings, I will present the status of the Borexino experiment as of August 2006, as we prepare for final filling of the detector.

  1. Testing the importance of auditory detections in avian point counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewster, J.P.; Simons, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the methods used to estimate detection probability during point counts suggest that the detection process is shaped by the types of cues available to observers. For example, models of the detection process based on distance-sampling or time-of-detection methods may yield different results for auditory versus visual cues because of differences in the factors that affect the transmission of these cues from a bird to an observer or differences in an observer's ability to localize cues. Previous studies suggest that auditory detections predominate in forested habitats, but it is not clear how often observers hear birds prior to detecting them visually. We hypothesized that auditory cues might be even more important than previously reported, so we conducted an experiment in a forested habitat in North Carolina that allowed us to better separate auditory and visual detections. Three teams of three observers each performed simultaneous 3-min unlimited-radius point counts at 30 points in a mixed-hardwood forest. One team member could see, but not hear birds, one could hear, but not see, and the third was nonhandicapped. Of the total number of birds detected, 2.9% were detected by deafened observers, 75.1% by blinded observers, and 78.2% by nonhandicapped observers. Detections by blinded and nonhandicapped observers were the same only 54% of the time. Our results suggest that the detection of birds in forest habitats is almost entirely by auditory cues. Because many factors affect the probability that observers will detect auditory cues, the accuracy and precision of avian point count estimates are likely lower than assumed by most field ornithologists. ?? 2009 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  2. First evidence of pep solar neutrinos by direct detection in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbiati, C.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Dangelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Quirk, J.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    We observed, for the first time, solar neutrinos in the 1.0-1.5 MeV energy range. We determined the rate of pep solar neutrino interactions in Borexino to be 3.l±0.6stat±0.3syst counts/(day-100 ton). Assuming the pep neutrino flux predicted by the Standard Solar Model, we obtained a constraint on the CNO solar neutrino interaction rate of <7.9 counts/(day-100 ton) (95% C.L.). The absence of the solar neutrino signal is disfavored at 99.97% C.L., while the absence of the pep signal is disfavored at 98% C.L. The necessary sensitivity was achieved by adopting data analysis techniques for the rejection of cosmogenic 11C, the dominant background in the 1-2 MeV region. Assuming the MSW-LMA solution to solar neutrino oscillations, these values correspond to solar neutrino fluxes of (1.6±0.3)×l08cm-2s-1 and <7.7×l08 cm-2s-1 (95% C.L.), respectively, in agreement with both the High and Low Metallicity Standard Solar Models. These results represent the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutrino flux to date.

  3. Detecting trends in raptor counts: power and type I error rates of various statistical tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatfield, J.S.; Gould, W.R., IV; Hoover, B.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Lindquist, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    We conducted simulations that estimated power and type I error rates of statistical tests for detecting trends in raptor population count data collected from a single monitoring site. Results of the simulations were used to help analyze count data of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 7 national forests in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin during 1980-1989. Seven statistical tests were evaluated, including simple linear regression on the log scale and linear regression with a permutation test. Using 1,000 replications each, we simulated n = 10 and n = 50 years of count data and trends ranging from -5 to 5% change/year. We evaluated the tests at 3 critical levels (alpha = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10) for both upper- and lower-tailed tests. Exponential count data were simulated by adding sampling error with a coefficient of variation of 40% from either a log-normal or autocorrelated log-normal distribution. Not surprisingly, tests performed with 50 years of data were much more powerful than tests with 10 years of data. Positive autocorrelation inflated alpha-levels upward from their nominal levels, making the tests less conservative and more likely to reject the null hypothesis of no trend. Of the tests studied, Cox and Stuart's test and Pollard's test clearly had lower power than the others. Surprisingly, the linear regression t-test, Collins' linear regression permutation test, and the nonparametric Lehmann's and Mann's tests all had similar power in our simulations. Analyses of the count data suggested that bald eagles had increasing trends on at least 2 of the 7 national forests during 1980-1989.

  4. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  5. First Evidence of pep Solar Neutrinos by Direct Detection in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Quirk, J.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-02-01

    We observed, for the first time, solar neutrinos in the 1.0-1.5 MeV energy range. We determined the rate of pep solar neutrino interactions in Borexino to be 3.1±0.6stat±0.3systcounts/(day·100ton). Assuming the pep neutrino flux predicted by the standard solar model, we obtained a constraint on the CNO solar neutrino interaction rate of <7.9counts/(day·100ton) (95% C.L.). The absence of the solar neutrino signal is disfavored at 99.97% C.L., while the absence of the pep signal is disfavored at 98% C.L. The necessary sensitivity was achieved by adopting data analysis techniques for the rejection of cosmogenic C11, the dominant background in the 1-2 MeV region. Assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle solution to solar neutrino oscillations, these values correspond to solar neutrino fluxes of (1.6±0.3)×108cm-2s-1 and <7.7×108cm-2s-1 (95% C.L.), respectively, in agreement with both the high and low metallicity standard solar models. These results represent the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutrino flux to date.

  6. High precision 7Be solar neutrinos measurement and day night effect obtained with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testera, G.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Kobychev, V.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Leung, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, F.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pena-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-11-01

    We report the direct measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino signal rate performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and the search for a day-night asymmetry of this interaction rate. The interaction rate of the 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is 46±1.6(stat)-1.6+1.5(syst) counts/(day · 100 ton). The hypothesis of no oscillation for this solar neutrinos is inconsistent with our measurement at the 5.8σ C.L. Our result is the first direct measurement of solar neutrinos with an accuracy better than 5%. We report the survival probability for solar νe in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations. The measured day night asymmetry is Adn=0.001±0.012 (stat)±0.007 (syst), in agreement with the predicition of MSW-LMA neutrino [13] oscillations. This result discourages MSW oscillations with mixing parameters in the LOW region at more than 8.5σ, meaning that this region is, for the first time, strongly rejected without the assumption of CPT symmetry. The result can also be used to constrain some neutrino oscillation scenarios involving new physics.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A

    2013-01-01

    The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2®, Etest® and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing. PMID:22390723

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in 90 min by bacterial cell count monitoring.

    PubMed

    Broeren, M A C; Maas, Y; Retera, E; Arents, N L A

    2013-03-01

    The rise in antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global health problem. Restrictive use of antibiotics seems the only option to temper this accession since research in new antibiotics has halted. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes rely on quick access to susceptibility data. This study evaluated the concept of bacterial cell count monitoring as a fast method to determine susceptibility. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for amoxicillin/piperacillin and gentamicin by three conventional methods (VITEK2(®) , Etest(®) and broth-macrodilution). Bacterial cell count monitoring reliably predicted susceptibility after 90 min for Escherichia coli and after 120 min for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus without any minor, major or very major discrepancies. Time-to-result was reduced by 74%, 83% and 76%, respectively. Bacterial cell count monitoring shows great potential for rapid susceptibility testing. PMID:22390723

  9. Neutrino measurements from the Sun and Earth: Results from Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-07-01

    Important neutrino results came recently from Borexino, a massive, calorimetric liquid scintillator detector installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. With its unprecedented radiopurity levels achieved in the core of the detection medium, it is the only experiment in operation able to study in real time solar neutrino interactions in the challenging sub-MeV energy region. The recently achieved breakthrough observation of the fundamental pp flux, the precise measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux, and the results concerning the pep, 8B and CNO fluxes, together with their physics implications, are described in this work. Moreover, the detector has also provided a clean detection of terrestrial neutrinos, from which they emerge as a new probe of the interior of the Earth.

  10. Neutrino measurements from the Sun and Earth: Results from Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; D’Angelo, D.; Giammarchi, M.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Ranucci, G. Re, A.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Hagner, C.; Meyer, M.; Bonfini, G.; Cavalcante, P.; Gabriele, F.; Gazzana, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Laubenstein, M.; and others

    2015-07-15

    Important neutrino results came recently from Borexino, a massive, calorimetric liquid scintillator detector installed at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. With its unprecedented radiopurity levels achieved in the core of the detection medium, it is the only experiment in operation able to study in real time solar neutrino interactions in the challenging sub-MeV energy region. The recently achieved breakthrough observation of the fundamental pp flux, the precise measurement of the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux, and the results concerning the pep, {sup 8}B and CNO fluxes, together with their physics implications, are described in this work. Moreover, the detector has also provided a clean detection of terrestrial neutrinos, from which they emerge as a new probe of the interior of the Earth.

  11. Precision Measurement of the Beryllium-7 Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Richard Nigel

    Solar neutrinos, since their first detection nearly forty years ago, have revealed valuable information regarding the source of energy production in the Sun, and have demonstrated that neutrino oscillations are well described by the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) oscillation parameters with matter interactions due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. This thesis presents a precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate within Borexino, an underground liquid scintillator detector that is designed to measure solar neutrino interactions through neutrino-electron elastic scattering. The thesis includes a detailed description of the analysis techniques developed and used for this measurement as well as an evaluation of the relevant systematic uncertainties that affect the precision of the result. The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering from 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is determined to be 45.4 +/- 1.6 (stat) +/- 1.5 (sys) counts/day/100 ton. Due to extensive detector calibrations and improved analysis methods, the systematic uncertainty in the interaction rate has been reduced by more than a factor of two from the previous evaluation. In the no-oscillation hypothesis, the interaction rate corresponds to a 0.862 MeV 7Be electron neutrino flux of (2.75 +/- 0.13) x 10 9 cm-2 sec-1. Including the predicted neutrino flux from the Standard Solar Model yields an electron neutrino survival probability of Pee 0.51 +/- 0.07 and rules out the no-oscillation hypothesis at 5.1sigma The LMA-MSW neutrino oscillation model predicts a transition in the solar Pee value between low (< 1 MeV) and high (> 10 MeV) energies which has not yet been experimentally confirmed. This result, in conjunction with the Standard Solar Model, represents the most precise measurement of the electron neutrino survival probability for solar neutrinos at sub-MeV energies.

  12. Platelet function tests, independent of platelet count, are associated with bleeding severity in ITP

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Rachael F.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Brown, Travis; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients with similarly low platelet counts differ in their tendency to bleed. To determine if differences in platelet function in ITP patients account for this variation in bleeding tendency, we conducted a single-center, cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with ITP. Bleeding severity (assessed by standardized bleeding score) and platelet function (assessed by whole blood flow cytometry) with and without agonist stimulation was evaluated in 57 ITP patients (median age, 9.9 years). After adjustment for platelet count, higher levels of thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP)-stimulated percent P-selectin- and activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa–positive platelets were significantly associated with a lower bleeding score, whereas higher levels of immature platelet fraction (IPF), TRAP-stimulated platelet surface CD42b, unstimulated platelet surface P-selectin, and platelet forward light scatter (FSC) were associated with a higher bleeding score. Thus, platelet function tests related to platelet age (IPF, FSC) and activation through the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) thrombin receptor (TRAP-stimulated P-selectin, activated GPIIb-IIIa, and CD42b), independent of platelet count, are associated with concurrent bleeding severity in ITP. These tests may be useful markers of future bleeding risk in ITP. PMID:26138687

  13. A Maximum Entropy Test for Evaluating Higher-Order Correlations in Spike Counts

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Arno; Dragoi, Valentin; Obermayer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the importance of higher-order correlations of neural spike counts has been notoriously hard. A large number of samples are typically required in order to estimate higher-order correlations and resulting information theoretic quantities. In typical electrophysiology data sets with many experimental conditions, however, the number of samples in each condition is rather small. Here we describe a method that allows to quantify evidence for higher-order correlations in exactly these cases. We construct a family of reference distributions: maximum entropy distributions, which are constrained only by marginals and by linear correlations as quantified by the Pearson correlation coefficient. We devise a Monte Carlo goodness-of-fit test, which tests - for a given divergence measure of interest - whether the experimental data lead to the rejection of the null hypothesis that it was generated by one of the reference distributions. Applying our test to artificial data shows that the effects of higher-order correlations on these divergence measures can be detected even when the number of samples is small. Subsequently, we apply our method to spike count data which were recorded with multielectrode arrays from the primary visual cortex of anesthetized cat during an adaptation experiment. Using mutual information as a divergence measure we find that there are spike count bin sizes at which the maximum entropy hypothesis can be rejected for a substantial number of neuronal pairs. These results demonstrate that higher-order correlations can matter when estimating information theoretic quantities in V1. They also show that our test is able to detect their presence in typical in-vivo data sets, where the number of samples is too small to estimate higher-order correlations directly. PMID:22685392

  14. Crater Count Ages of Young Martian Ray Craters: a Successful Test of the Crater Chronometry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.; Quantin, C.; Werner, S. C.; Popova, O.

    2008-09-01

    McEwen et al. (2005) developed a useful test of crater-count chronometry systems [1]. They argued that fresh-looking, Zunil-style Martian ray craters are the youngest or near-youngest craters in their size ranges. The "McEwen et al. test" is that crater-count ages from small craters (D 10-25 m), superimposed on these "Zunils," should be comparable to the expected formation intervals of these host Zunil-style primaries themselves, typically 1 to a few My. McEwen et al., however, found few or no small superposed craters in MOC frames, and concluded that crater chronometry systems are in error by factors of 700 to 2000. Since then, Malin et al. discovered that 10-25m craters form at essentially the rate we used in our isochron system [2,3,4]. Thus, 10-25m craters should be usable for dating these "Zunils." We re-evaluate the "McEwen et al. test" with HiRise images, studying three young craters they discussed, and five others. In every case we found small-crater populations, giving approximately the expected ages. We conclude that the alleged large errors are incorrect. The semi-independent crater count systems of Neukum and of Hartmann agree with the Malin cratering rate, are internally consistent, and appear to give valid age information within about a factor 2 to 4. We thank the International Space Science Institute (ISSI), Bern, for hosting our working group. [1] McEwen et al. 2005 Icarus,176, 351-381. [2] Malin, M. et al. 2006 Science 314, 1573-1557. [3] Hartmann, W.K. 2007 Icarus, 189, 274-278. [4] Kreslavsky, M.A. 2007 7th Internatl. Conf. on Mars, Abstract 3325.

  15. Transmission Disequilibrium Tests Based on Read Counts for Low-Coverage Next-Generation Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonkuk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the introduction of new statistical methods for case-parent trio association studies based on the read counts that can be obtained from next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments. This work focuses on the inclusion of low-coverage data into the case-parent trio design without genotype classification or imputation. Two different approaches are considered: (1) a likelihood-based approach implementing a 15-component parametric mixture model and (2) a model-free approach that applies non-parametric statistical methods to the ratios of the read counts to coverage. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the performances of the proposed tests. In addition, the non-centrality parameters of the mixture likelihood-based tests are derived to determine sample sizes and coverage for a NGS experimental design. As an example, the sample sizes to maintain specified powers of a published adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) study are presented. The simulation results show that the tests using the genotypes classified by the maximum Bayesian posterior probability have significantly inflated type I error rates for low-coverage data. The tests using the posterior probabilities instead of the classified genotypes show lower power than the proposed tests. Generally, power for the likelihood-based approach is higher than that for the non-parametric ratio-based approach. For the AIS example, approximately 654 trios with 4× coverage are necessary to maintain 90% power when detecting an association of odds ratio 2 at a locus with a minor allele frequency of 0.35 at the level of significance α = 5 × 10(-8). By comparison, approximately 416 trios with 25× coverage are required to maintain the same power with the same settings. The R and C source codes to calculate the proposed test statistics, the sample sizes and power can be obtained by contacting the author (wkim@cau.ac.kr). PMID:26278553

  16. Prospects for the measurement of pep and CNO solar neutrino rates with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarria, Alvaro

    2011-04-01

    Borexino is the only detector currently able to perform neutrino spectroscopy below 2 MeV. The Borexino Collaboration has already published the first and only real-time measurement of the ^7Be neutrino flux from the Sun. Of great interest are also the measurements of the CNO and pep neutrino rates. Knowledge of the CNO neutrino rate is key to answer the Solar Metallicity Problem, while the pep neutrinos are an excellent probe for the vacuum-matter transition region of the LMA-MSW solution to the Solar Neutrino Problem. The main challenge for these measurements is the characterization and removal of cosmogenic and radiogenic background in the scintillator. I will present data analysis techniques that can significantly reduce the cosmogenic ^11C background in Borexino's energy spectrum, which should allow for the measurement of the pep neutrino rate. Additionally, I will discuss the status of the detector in terms of radiogenic background and the possibility for the eventual measurement of the CNO neutrino rate with Borexino.

  17. Test Scores Count! A Handbook for Teaching Test-Taking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenigs, Sharon

    This handbook provides guidelines for teaching test-taking skills to students of all grade levels to help the students raise their standardized test scores. Topics covered include: understanding instructions and following directions, efficient use of time, intelligent guessing, and application of special strategies for multiple-choice and…

  18. Construction and testing of a Top Counting Detector and a Bottom Counting Detector for the Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, H. J.; Anderson, T.; Angelaszek, D.; Copley, M.; Coutu, S.; Han, J. H.; Huh, H. G.; Kah, D. H.; Kim, K. C.; Kwashnak, K.; Lee, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Lutz, L.; Malinin, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nutter, S.; Ofoha, O.; Jeon, H. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Park, H.; Park, J. M.; Patterson, P.; Seo, E. S.; Wu, J.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2015-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) mission is planned for launch in 2015 to the International Space Station (ISS) to research high-energy cosmic rays. Its aim is to understand the acceleration and propagation mechanism of high-energy cosmic rays by measuring their compositions. The Top Counting Detector and Bottom Counting Detector (T/BCD) were built to discriminate electrons from protons by using the difference in cascade shapes between electromagnetic and hadronic showers. The T/BCD provides a redundant instrument trigger in flight as well as a low-energy calibration trigger for ground testing. Each detector consists of a plastic scintillator and two-dimensional silicon photodiode array with readout electronics. The TCD is located between the carbon target and the calorimeter, and the BCD is located below the calorimeter. In this paper, we present the design, assembly, and performance of the T/BCD.

  19. Relationship between test-day measures of somatic cell count and milk production in California dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, J W; Thurmond, M C; Lasslo, L

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between test-day measures of milk somatic cell count and milk yield was evaluated using the November 1985 test data from 8352 Holstein cattle (2923 primiparous and 5429 multiparous cows) located in ten Tulare County, California dairies. Following correction for herd and stage of lactation effects, design variable regression was used to create separate models for primiparous and multiparous cows predicting the changes in milk production associated with milk somatic cell count class. Cell counts were stratified by 1/2 loge cell count (x1000 cells/mL) units, permitting comparisons with previous studies. Cell counts less than 148,000/mL were not found to be associated with significant reductions in milk yield when compared to the reference class (cell counts less than 20,000/mL). Consistent incremental decreases in milk production were not noted with increasing cell count strata, even following the natural log transformation. The most dramatic production losses were noted in the range of 148,000 to 665,000 cells/mL. Primiparous cattle in the 403,000 to 665,000 cell count strata experienced a 5.22 kg (19.72%) decrease in test-day milk yield. Multiparous cattle in the same class experienced 3.01 kg (7.82%) reductions in milk production. Primiparous and multiparous cows had similar production losses. The study population differed from previous studies on the basis of herd size, milk production and the level of udder health, measured by milk somatic cell count. These differences and the choice of experimental design may in part explain differences in study results and conclusions. PMID:2713782

  20. Testing the odds of inherent vs. observed overdispersion in neural spike counts.

    PubMed

    Taouali, Wahiba; Benvenuti, Giacomo; Wallisch, Pascal; Chavane, Frédéric; Perrinet, Laurent U

    2016-01-01

    The repeated presentation of an identical visual stimulus in the receptive field of a neuron may evoke different spiking patterns at each trial. Probabilistic methods are essential to understand the functional role of this variance within the neural activity. In that case, a Poisson process is the most common model of trial-to-trial variability. For a Poisson process, the variance of the spike count is constrained to be equal to the mean, irrespective of the duration of measurements. Numerous studies have shown that this relationship does not generally hold. Specifically, a majority of electrophysiological recordings show an "overdispersion" effect: responses that exhibit more intertrial variability than expected from a Poisson process alone. A model that is particularly well suited to quantify overdispersion is the Negative-Binomial distribution model. This model is well-studied and widely used but has only recently been applied to neuroscience. In this article, we address three main issues. First, we describe how the Negative-Binomial distribution provides a model apt to account for overdispersed spike counts. Second, we quantify the significance of this model for any neurophysiological data by proposing a statistical test, which quantifies the odds that overdispersion could be due to the limited number of repetitions (trials). We apply this test to three neurophysiological data sets along the visual pathway. Finally, we compare the performance of this model to the Poisson model on a population decoding task. We show that the decoding accuracy is improved when accounting for overdispersion, especially under the hypothesis of tuned overdispersion. PMID:26445864

  1. Use of domestic detergents in the California mastitis test for high somatic cell counts in milk.

    PubMed

    Leach, K A; Green, M J; Breen, J E; Huxley, J N; Macaulay, R; Newton, H T; Bradley, A J

    2008-11-01

    The California mastitis test (CMT) is used on farms to identify subclinical mastitis by an indirect estimation of the somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. Four commercially available detergents were compared with a bespoke cmt fluid for their ability to detect milk samples with a scc above 200,000 cells/ml; differences between the interpretation of the results of the tests by eight operators were also investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were affected by the type of detergent, and by the operators' interpretations. When used by the most sensitive operator, suitably diluted Fairy Liquid performed almost identically to cmt fluid in identifying milk samples with more than 200,000 cells/ml. The average sensitivities achieved by the eight operators for detecting this threshold were 82 per cent for Fairy Liquid and 84 per cent for cmt fluid, and the specificities were 93 and 91 per cent respectively. The other detergents contained less anionic surfactants and were less sensitive but similarly specific. PMID:18997186

  2. First measurement of pp neutrinos in real time in the Borexino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosteiro, Pablo

    2014-09-01

    The Sun is fueled by a series of nuclear reactions that produce the energy that makes it shine. Neutrinos (nu) produced by these nuclear reactions exit the Sun and reach Earth within minutes, providing us with key information about what goes on at the core of our star. For over twenty years since the first detection of solar neutrinos in the late 1960's, an apparent deficit in their detection rate was known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Today, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect is the accepted mechanism by which neutrinos oscillate inside the Sun, arriving at Earth as a mixture of nue, numu and nutau, the latter two of which were invisible to early detectors. Several experiments have now confirmed the observation of neutrino oscillations. These experiments, when their results are combined together, have demonstrated that neutrino oscillations are well described by the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) solution of the MSW effect. This thesis presents the first measurement of pp neutrinos in the Borexino detector, which is another validation of the LMA-MSW model of neutrino oscillations. In addition, it is one more step towards the completion of the spectroscopy of pp chain neutrinos in Borexino, leaving only the extremely faint hep neutrinos undetected. This advance validates the experiment itself and its previous results. This is, furthermore, the first direct real-time measurement of pp neutrinos. We find a pp neutrino detection rate of 143+/-16 (stat)+/-10 (syst) cpd/100 t in the Borexino experiment, which translates, according to the LMA-MSW model, to (6.42+/-0.85)x1010 cm -2 s-1. We also report on a measurement of neutrons in a dedicated system within the Borexino detector, which resulted in an improved understanding of neutron rates in liquid scintillator detectors at Gran Sasso depths. This result is crucial to the development of novel direct dark matter detection experiments.

  3. Production and suppression of {sup 11}C in the solar neutrino experiment Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Meindl, Quirin; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Avanzini, M. Buizza; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Kerret, H. de; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.

    2011-04-27

    Cosmogenic {sup 11}C is produced in-situ by atmospheric muons and forms the main background for the measurement of solar pep- and CNO-neutrinos. However, FLUKA simulations show that the majority of {sup 11}C is accompanied by a free neutron in the final state, thus allowing for an efficient tagging method, the so-called Three-Fold Coincidence technique. The technique and its first applications on Borexino data are presented.

  4. Experimental evidence of electron neutrino oscillations and validation of MSW-LMA model with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanzini, M. Buizza

    2011-04-01

    We report the real time measurements of 7Be and 8B solar neutrino fluxes performed with the Borexino experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The achievement of these measurements was possible thanks to the excellent levels of the radiopurity reached. The measurement of the 7Be in real time is the first direct measurements of the survival probability for solar electron neutrinos in the vacuum region. For 8B we reached a threshold energy of 3MeV which is the lowest achieved so far in real time. For the first time, the same apparatus can measure two different oscillation regions (vacuum-driven and matter-enhanced) predicted by the MSW-LMA model. Borexino also quotes the ratio between the survival probabilities, corresponding to 1.93 ± 0.75, and validates the presence of the transition region between the two oscillation regimes, according to the MSW-LMA solution.In addition, a preliminary result on the Day-Night Asymmetry (ADN) for the 7Be neutrino flux is presented and corresponds to 0.007 ± 0.073. This measurement makes Borexino able to give once more an independent confirmation of the MSW-LMA solution.

  5. Implementation and Initial Testing of Advanced Processing and Analysis Algorithms for Correlated Neutron Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter Angelo; Cutler, Theresa Elizabeth; Favalli, Andrea; Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth; Henzl, Vladimir; Henzlova, Daniela; Parker, Robert Francis; Croft, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and capabilities of neutron multiplicity counting, additional quantifiable information is needed in order to address the assumptions that are present in the point model. Extracting and utilizing higher order moments (Quads and Pents) from the neutron pulse train represents the most direct way of extracting additional information from the measurement data to allow for an improved determination of the physical properties of the item of interest. The extraction of higher order moments from a neutron pulse train required the development of advanced dead time correction algorithms which could correct for dead time effects in all of the measurement moments in a self-consistent manner. In addition, advanced analysis algorithms have been developed to address specific assumptions that are made within the current analysis model, namely that all neutrons are created at a single point within the item of interest, and that all neutrons that are produced within an item are created with the same energy distribution. This report will discuss the current status of implementation and initial testing of the advanced dead time correction and analysis algorithms that have been developed in an attempt to utilize higher order moments to improve the capabilities of correlated neutron measurement techniques.

  6. Prediction of outcome in breast cancer patients using test parameters from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, PINGPING; ZONG, YULONG; LIU, MOHAN; TAI, YANHONG; CAO, YUAN; HU, CHENGIIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of test parameters from pretreatment complete blood count (CBC) for predicting outcome in breast cancer patients. A total of 162 patients with breast cancer and a long follow-up were enrolled in this study. Red cell indices (RCIs) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) from CBC prior to treatment, as well as related clinical data, were retrospectively collected. We evaluated the association of RCI and NLR with tumor size, clinical stage, histological grade, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. We further performed survival analysis and Cox multivariate analysis, stratified by RCI and NLR median values, to evaluate their prognostic effects. In the disease-free survival (DFS) analysis, patients in the higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and NLR groups exhibited shorter DFS times compared with those in the lower MCH and NLR groups (P=0.017 for MCH and P=0.039 for NLR). The univariate analysis revealed that both MCH and NLR were significantly associated with DFS. The Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that only MCH was an independent predictor associated with disease relapse (hazard ratio = 1.975, 95% confidence interval: 1.118–3.487, P=0.019), whereas no index was associated with overall survival. Our results suggest that MCH prior to treatment may be a predictive marker associated with DFS in breast cancer. PMID:27284423

  7. Reflex Testing Rules for Cell Count and Differentiation of Nucleated Elements in Pleural and Ascitic Fluids on Sysmex XE-5000.

    PubMed

    Buoro, Sabrina; Appassiti Esposito, Sara; Vavassori, Mauro; Mecca, Tommaso; Ottomano, Cosimo; Dominoni, Paola; Seghezzi, Michela; Candiago, Elisabetta; Farina, Claudio; Gianatti, Andrea; Crippa, Alberto; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Flow cytometry is widely used in many laboratories for automated nucleated cell counts and their differentiation in body fluids. The implementation of new reflex testing rules on these automated instruments could open new frontiers in laboratory workflow, improving characterization of body fluids and clinical diagnosis and decreasing costs. Ascitic (150) and pleural (33) fluids were collected and assessed by XE-5000 and optical microscopy. Cell counts performed with the methods showed a Pearson's correlation of 0.98 (p < 0.0001), Passing-Bablok regression y = 0.99x + 2.44, and bias of 32.3. In ascitic fluids, the best diagnostic performance was found for polymorphonuclear and neutrophil counts on XE-5000, which exhibited areas under the curve (AUCs) 0.98 (p < 0.0001) and 0.99 (p < 0.0001), respectively. In pleural fluids the best diagnostic performance was found for polymorphonuclear percent parameter, which displayed 0.97 (p < 0.0001). Specific reflex test rules based on these parameters were characterized by 92% diagnostic concordance, 1.00 sensitivity, and 0.84 specificity with optical microscopy. The application of a set of reflex testing rules may improve the diagnostic performance of XE-5000, increasing its reliability for routine automated cell count in body fluids. We acknowledge that further studies should be planned to validate our findings according to clinical data. PMID:26149816

  8. Study on pep and CNO solar neutrino interaction rates in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarria, Alvaro Eugenio

    We observed, for the first time, solar neutrinos in the 1.0-1.5 MeV energy range. We determined the rate of pep solar neutrino interactions in Borexino to be 3.28±0.56stat±0.26syst day-1(100ton)-1. Assuming the pep neutrino flux predicted by the Standard Solar Model, we obtained a constraint on the CNO solar neutrino interaction rate of <8.3 day-1(100 ton)-1 (95% C.L.). The absence of the solar neutrino signal is disfavored at 99.99997% C.L., while the absence of the pep neutrino signal is disfavored at 98% C.L. The necessary sensitivity was achieved due to the extremely low levels of radioactive contamination in Borexino and by adopting data analysis techniques for the rejection of cosmogenic 11C, the dominant background in the 1-2 MeV region. Assuming the LMA-MSW solution to solar neutrino oscillations, these values correspond to solar neutrino fluxes of (1.7±0.3)×108 cm-2s-1 and <7.9×108 cm-2s-1 (95% C.L.), respectively, in agreement with both the High and Low Metallicity Standard Solar Models. These results represent the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutrino flux to date [1]. [1] G. Bellini et al. First evidence of pep solar neutrinos by direct detection in Borexino. Phys.Rev.Lett., 108:051302, 2012.

  9. First real-time detection of solar pp neutrinos by Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, M.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Kayser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablëv, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    Solar neutrinos have been pivotal to the discovery of neutrino flavour oscillations and are a unique tool to probe the reactions that keep the Sun shine. Although most of solar neutrino components have been directly measured, the neutrinos emitted by the keystone pp reaction, in which two protons fuse to make a deuteron, have so far eluded direct detection. The Borexino experiment, an ultra-pure liquid scintillator detector running at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy, has now filled the gap, providing the first direct real time measurement of pp neutrinos and of the solar neutrino luminosity.

  10. Independent validation test of the vote-counting strategy used to rank biomarkers from published studies

    PubMed Central

    Rikke, Brad A.; Wynes, Murry W.; Rozeboom, Leslie M.; Barón, Anna E.; Hirsch, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Vote counting is frequently used in meta-analyses to rank biomarker candidates, but to our knowledge, there have been no independent assessments of its validity. Here, we used predictions from a recent meta-analysis to determine how well number of supporting studies, combined sample size and mean fold change performed as vote-counting strategy criteria. Materials & methods Fifty miRNAs previously ranked for their ability to distinguish lung cancer tissue from normal were assayed by RT-qPCR using 45 paired tumor-normal samples. Results Number of supporting studies predicted biomarker performance (p = 0.0006; r = 0.44), but sample size and fold change did not (p > 0.2). Conclusion Despite limitations, counting the number supporting studies appears to be an effective criterion for ranking biomarkers. Predictions based on sample size and fold change provided little added value. External validation studies should be conducted to establish the performance characteristics of strategies used to rank biomarkers. PMID:26223535

  11. Factors influencing utilization of postpartum CD4 count testing by HIV-positive women not yet eligible for antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Kate P; Zimba, Chifundo; Mofolo, Innocent; Bobrow, Emily; Hamela, Gloria; Martinson, Francis; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina

    2011-03-01

    Delayed antiretroviral initiation is associated with increased mortality, but individuals frequently delay seeking treatment. To increase early antiretroviral therapy (ART) enrollment of HIV-positive women, antenatal clinics are implementing regular, postpartum CD4 count testing. We examined factors influencing women's utilization of extended CD4 count testing. About 53 in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses, patients, social support persons, and government health officials at three antenatal clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. Counseling and positive interactions with staff emerged as facilitating factors. Women wanted to know their CD4 count, but didn't understand the importance of early ART initiation. Support from husbands facilitated women's return to the clinic. Reminders were perceived as helpful but ineffectively employed. Staff identified lack of communication, difficulty in tracking, and referring women as barriers. Counseling messages should emphasize the importance of starting ART early. Clinics should focus on male partner involvement, case management, staff communication, and appointment reminders. Follow-up should be offered at multiple service points. PMID:21347895

  12. Development and test of photon-counting microchannel plate detector arrays for use on space telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    The full sensitivity, dynamic range, and photometric stability of microchannel array plates(MCP) are incorporated into a photon-counting detection system for space operations. Components of the system include feedback-free MCP's for high gain and saturated output pulse-height distribution with a stable response; multi-anode readout arrays mounted in proximity focus with the output face of the MCP; and multi-layer ceramic headers to provide electrical interface between the anode array in a sealed detector tube and the associated electronics.

  13. Combined analysis of KamLAND and Borexino neutrino signals from Th and U decays in the Earth's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Palazzo, A.; Rotunno, A. M.

    2010-11-01

    The KamLAND and Borexino experiments have detected electron antineutrinos produced in the decay chains of natural thorium and uranium (Th and U geoneutrinos). We analyze the energy spectra of current geoneutrino data in combination with solar and long-baseline reactor neutrino data, with marginalized three-neutrino oscillation parameters. We consider the case with unconstrained Th and U event rates in KamLAND and Borexino, as well as cases with fewer degrees of freedom, as obtained by successively assuming for both experiments a common Th/U ratio, a common scaling of Th+U event rates, and a chondritic Th/U value. In combination, KamLAND and Borexino can reject the null hypothesis (no geoneutrino signal) at 5σ. Interesting bounds or indications emerge on the Th+U geoneutrino rates and on the Th/U ratio, in broad agreement with typical Earth model expectations. Conversely, the results disfavor the hypothesis of a georeactor in the Earth’s core, if its power exceeds a few TW. The interplay of KamLAND and Borexino geoneutrino data is highlighted.

  14. Combined analysis of KamLAND and Borexino neutrino signals from Th and U decays in the Earth's interior

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Rotunno, A. M.; Lisi, E.; Palazzo, A.

    2010-11-01

    The KamLAND and Borexino experiments have detected electron antineutrinos produced in the decay chains of natural thorium and uranium (Th and U geoneutrinos). We analyze the energy spectra of current geoneutrino data in combination with solar and long-baseline reactor neutrino data, with marginalized three-neutrino oscillation parameters. We consider the case with unconstrained Th and U event rates in KamLAND and Borexino, as well as cases with fewer degrees of freedom, as obtained by successively assuming for both experiments a common Th/U ratio, a common scaling of Th+U event rates, and a chondritic Th/U value. In combination, KamLAND and Borexino can reject the null hypothesis (no geoneutrino signal) at 5{sigma}. Interesting bounds or indications emerge on the Th+U geoneutrino rates and on the Th/U ratio, in broad agreement with typical Earth model expectations. Conversely, the results disfavor the hypothesis of a georeactor in the Earth's core, if its power exceeds a few TW. The interplay of KamLAND and Borexino geoneutrino data is highlighted.

  15. The status of the study of solar CNO neutrinos in the Borexino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanchenko, G. A.; Collaboration: Borexino Collaboration

    2015-12-15

    Although less than 1% of solar energy is generated in the CNO cycle, it plays a critical role in astrophysics, since this cycle is the primary source of energy in certain more massive stars and at later stages of evolution of solar-type stars. Electron neutrinos are produced in the CNO cycle reactions. These neutrinos may be detected by terrestrial neutrino detectors. Various solar models with different abundances of elements heavier than helium predict different CNO neutrino fluxes. A direct measurement of the CNO neutrino flux could help distinguish between these models and solve several other astrophysical problems. No CNO neutrinos have been detected directly thus far, and the best upper limit on their flux was set in the Borexino experiment. The work on reducing the background in the region of energies of CNO neutrinos (up to 1.74 MeV) and developing novel data analysis methods is presently under way. These efforts may help detect the CNO neutrino flux in the Borexino experiment at the level predicted by solar models.

  16. The nylon scintillator containment vessels for the Borexino solar neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Pocar, A.; Shutt, T.

    2014-06-01

    The neutrino event rate in the Borexino scintillator is very low ( 0.5 events per day per ton) and concentrated in an energy region well below the 2.6 MeV threshold of natural radioactivity. The intrinsic radioactive contaminants in the photomultipliers (PMTs), in the Stainless Steel Sphere, and in other detector components, play special requirements on the system required to contain the scintillator. The liquid scintillator must be shielded from the Stainless Steel Sphere and from the PMTs by a thick barrier of buffer fluid. The fluid barrier, in addition, needs to be segmented in order to contain migration of radon and daughters emanated by the Stainless Steel Sphere and by the PMTs. These requirements were met by designing and building two spherical vessel made of thin nylon film. The inner vessel contains the scintillator, separating it from the surrounding buffer. The buffer region itself is divided into two concentric shells by the second, outer nylon vessel. In addition, the two nylon vessels must satisfy stringent requirements for radioactivity and for mechanical, optical and chemical properties. This paper describes the requirements of the the nylon vessels for the Borexino experiment and offers a brief overview of the construction methods adopted to meet those requirements.

  17. A large-scale low-background liquid scintillation detector: the counting test facility at Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimonti, G.; Arpesella, C.; Bacchiocchi, G.; Balata, M.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Brigatti, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F. P.; Cavaletti, R.; Cecchet, G.; Chen, M.; Darnton, N.; Debari, A.; Deutsch, M.; Elisei, F.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Galbiati, C.; Garagiola, A.; Gatti, F.; Giammarchi, M. G.; Giugni, D.; Goldbrunner, T.; Golubchikov, A.; Goretti, A.; Grabar, S.; Hagner, T.; Hartmann, F.; von Hentig, R.; Heusser, G.; Ianni, A.; Jochum, J.; Johnson, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Loeser, F.; Lombardi, P.; Magni, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Manno, I.; Manuzio, G.; Masetti, F.; Mazzucato, U.; Meroni, E.; Neff, M.; Nisi, S.; Nostro, A.; Oberauer, L.; Perotti, A.; Preda, A.; Raghavan, P.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Resconi, E.; Ruscitti, P.; Scardaoni, R.; Schoenert, S.; Smirnov, O.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Ullucci, P.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Vitale, S.; Zaimidoroga, O.

    1998-02-01

    A 4.8 m3 unsegmented liquid scintillation detector at the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso has shown the feasibility of multi-ton low-background detectors operating to energies as low as 250 keV. Detector construction and the handling of large volumes of liquid scintillator to minimize the background are described. The scintillator, 1.5 g PPO/L-pseudocumene, is held in a flexible nylon vessel shielded by 1000 t of purified water. The active detector volume is viewed by 100 photomultipliers, which measure time and charge for each event, from which energy, position and pulse shape are deduced. On-line purification of the scintillator by water extraction, vacuum distillation and nitrogen stripping removed radioactive impurities. Upper limits were established of < 10-7 Bq/kg-scintillator for events with energies 250 keV < E < 800 keV, and < 10-9 Bq/kg-scintillator due to the decay products of uranium and thorium. The isotopic abundance of 14C/12C in the scintillator was shown to be approximately 10-18 by extending the energy window of the detector to 25-250 keV. The 14C abundance and uranium and thorium levels in the CTF are compatible with the Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment.

  18. Prediction of Preeclampsia by First Trimester Combined Test and Simple Complete Blood Count Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Daglar, Korkut; Dikici, Turkan; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ozgur; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a serious disease which may result in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Improving the outcome for preeclampsia necessitates early prediction of the disease to identify women at high risk. Measuring blood cell subtype ratios, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, might provide prognostic and diagnostic clues to diseases. Aim To investigate hematological changes in early pregnancy, using simple complete blood count (CBC) and blood concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to determine whether these measures are of any value in the prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods Six hundred fourteen consecutive pregnant women with preeclampsia (288 with mild disease and 326 with severe disease) and 320 uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and first trimester screen, which combines PAPP-A and free β-hCG blood concentrations, were analyzed. Results The NLR values were significantly higher in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the control group (p<0.001). We also confirmed that levels of PAPP-A were lower in patients who developed preeclampsia. Conclusion Because measuring CBC parameters, particularly NLR, is fast and easily applicable, they may be used to predict preeclampsia. PMID:26674673

  19. Cosmic-muon flux and annual modulation in Borexino at 3800 m water-equivalent depth

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, G.; Avanzini, M. Buizza; Caccianiga, B.; D'Angelo, D.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Cavalcante, P.; Bravo, D.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chavarria, A.; Carraro, C.; Davini, S.; Chepurnov, A.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; and others

    2012-05-01

    We have measured the muon flux at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (3800 m w.e.) to be (3.41±0.01)⋅10{sup −4}m{sup −2}s{sup −1} using four years of Borexino data. A modulation of this signal is observed with a period of (366±3) days and a relative amplitude of (1.29±0.07)%. The measured phase is (179±6) days, corresponding to a maximum on the 28{sup th} of June. Using the most complete atmospheric data models available, muon rate fluctuations are shown to be positively correlated with atmospheric temperature, with an effective coefficient α{sub T} = 0.93±0.04. This result represents the most precise study of the muon flux modulation for this site and is in good agreement with expectations.

  20. Absence of a day-night asymmetry in the 7Be solar neutrino rate in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, F.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Peña-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the result of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate in the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The measured asymmetry is Adn = 0.001 ± 0.012 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst), in agreement with the prediction of MSW-LMA solution for neutrino oscillations. This result disfavors MSW oscillations with mixing parameters in the LOW region at more than 8.5 σ. This region is, for the first time, strongly disfavored without the use of reactor anti-neutrino data and therefore the assumption of CPT symmetry. The result can also be used to constrain some neutrino oscillation scenarios involving new physics.

  1. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  2. Final results of Borexino Phase-I on low-energy solar neutrino spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pena-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Borexino has been running since May 2007 at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy with the primary goal of detecting solar neutrinos. The detector, a large, unsegmented liquid scintillator calorimeter characterized by unprecedented low levels of intrinsic radioactivity, is optimized for the study of the lower energy part of the spectrum. During Phase-I (2007-2010), Borexino first detected and then precisely measured the flux of the Be7 solar neutrinos, ruled out any significant day-night asymmetry of their interaction rate, made the first direct observation of the pep neutrinos, and set the tightest upper limit on the flux of solar neutrinos produced in the CNO cycle (carbon, nitrogen, oxigen) where carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen serve as catalysts in the fusion process. In this paper we discuss the signal signature and provide a comprehensive description of the backgrounds, quantify their event rates, describe the methods for their identification, selection, or subtraction, and describe data analysis. Key features are an extensive in situ calibration program using radioactive sources, the detailed modeling of the detector response, the ability to define an innermost fiducial volume with extremely low background via software cuts, and the excellent pulse-shape discrimination capability of the scintillator that allows particle identification. We report a measurement of the annual modulation of the Be7 neutrino interaction rate. The period, the amplitude, and the phase of the observed modulation are consistent with the solar origin of these events, and the absence of their annual modulation is rejected with higher than 99% C.L. The physics implications of Phase-I results in the context of the neutrino oscillation physics and solar models are presented.

  3. Digital Advances Reshaping K-12 Testing. Technology Counts, 2014. Education Week. Volume 33 Number 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Virginia B., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Figuring out how to use digital tools to transform testing requires a willingness to invest in new technologies and the patience to experiment with novel approaches, a commitment to ongoing professional development and reliable technical support, and an openness to learn from mistakes. Whatever bumpy ride this technological journey takes, experts…

  4. Left behind By Design: Proficiency Counts and Test-Based Accountability. NBER Working Paper No. 13293

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Derek; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2007-01-01

    Many test-based accountability systems, including the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), place great weight on the numbers of students who score at or above specified proficiency levels in various subjects. Accountability systems based on these metrics often provide incentives for teachers and principals to target children near current…

  5. A molecular diagnostic tool to replace larval culture in conventional faecal egg count reduction testing in sheep.

    PubMed

    Roeber, Florian; Larsen, John W A; Anderson, Norman; Campbell, Angus J D; Anderson, Garry A; Gasser, Robin B; Jex, Aaron R

    2012-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of parasitic nematode infections in livestock (including sheep and goats) is central to their effective control and the detection of the anthelmintic resistance. Traditionally, the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), combined with the technique of larval culture (LC), has been used widely to assess drug-susceptibility/resistance in strongylid nematodes. However, this approach suffers from a lack of specificity, sensitivity and reliability, and is time-consuming and costly to conduct. Here, we critically assessed a specific PCR assay to support FECRT, in a well-controlled experiment on sheep with naturally acquired strongylid infections known to be resistant to benzimidazoles. We showed that the PCR results were in close agreement with those of total worm count (TWC), but not of LC. Importantly, albendazole resistance detected by PCR-coupled FECRT was unequivocally linked to Teladorsagia circumcincta and, to lesser extent, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, a result that was not achievable by LC. The key findings from this study demonstrate that our PCR-coupled FECRT approach has major merit for supporting anthelmintic resistance in nematode populations. The findings also show clearly that our PCR assay can be used as an alternative to LC, and is more time-efficient and less laborious, which has important practical implications for the effective management and control strongylid nematodes of sheep. PMID:22629381

  6. Precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux and its day-night asymmetry with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccianiga, Barbara; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, L.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Quirk, J.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    Borexino measures the 7Be solar neutrino flux on 740 live days of data-taking to be 46±1.5+1.6-1.5 events/(day · 100 tons) which corresponds to an equivalent unoscillated flux on Earth of (3.11±0.10+0.11-0.10)·109sec -1 cm-2. This result excludes the no-oscillation hypothesis at 5 σ and provides a precise measurement of the survival probability Pee in the vacuum dominated oscillation regime Pee = 0.51±0.07. Borexino also measures the day-night asymmetry of the 7Be neutrino rate with a total error of 1.4% and finds it to be consistent with zero. This result is in agreement with the MSW-LMA hypothesis and disfavours at more than 8.5 σ the so-called LOW region of the oscillation parameter space.

  7. Lifetimes of (214)Po and (212)Po measured with Counting Test Facility at Gran Sasso National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Miramonti, L; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Buizza Avanzini, M; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Carraro, C; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; Chubakov, V; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Göger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grandi, L; Guardincerri, E; Hardy, S; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Koshio, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lewke, T; Lissia, M; Litvinovich, E; Loer, B; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Mantovani, F; Manuzio, G; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Misiaszek, M; Montanari, D; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Nisi, S; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Rossi, N; Sabelnikov, A; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Xhixha, G; Xu, J; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuzel, G

    2014-12-01

    The decays of (214)Po into (210)Pb and of (212)Po into (208)Pb tagged by the previous decays from (214)Bi and (212)Bi have been studied inserting quartz vials inside the Counting Test Facility (CTF) at the underground laboratory in Gran Sasso (LNGS). We find that the mean lifetime of (214)Po is (236.00 ± 0.42(stat) ± 0.15(syst)) μs and that of (212)Po is (425.1 ± 0.9(stat) ± 1.2(syst)) ns. Our results are compatible with previous measurements, have a much better signal to background ratio, and reduce the overall uncertainties. PMID:24725806

  8. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method.

    PubMed

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2016-07-01

    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry. PMID:27085396

  9. Different screening tests and milk somatic cell count for the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Nazmul; Das, Ziban Chandra; Talukder, Anup Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Shah; Rahman, Abu Nasar Md Aminoor

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing effective mastitis control strategies. A total of 892 quarters milk samples from 228 lactating cows were screened by California mastitis test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf field mastitis test (SFMT), and somatic cell count (SCC) to study the prevalence of bovine SCM in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Out of 228 cows, 148 (64.9%), 138 (60.5%), 132 (57.9%), and 164 (71.9%) were found positive for SCM by CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC, respectively. The prevalence of bovine SCM was diagnosed 45.7, 40.2, 36.6, and 29.6% in Chittagong, Sirajgonj, Mymensingh, and Gazipur districts, respectively, based on a combination of all tests. The overall quarter-wise prevalence of SCM was 45.7, 43.5, 41.2, and 55.0% for CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC. Single quarters and left front quarters were more prone to SCM (P < 0.05). Friesian crossbred cows (56.4%), BCS 2.0-2.5 (55.4%), and parity 4-6 (52.4%), the late lactation stage (5-8 months; 64.7%) and high yielding cows (16-20 L/day; 65.3%) were more susceptible to SCM (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of the CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC was 65.8, 57.9, 51.0, and 82.5%; specificity 76.2, 72.4, 69.5, and 89.4%; percentage accuracy 70.0, 64.8, 59.9, and 85.2%; positive predictive value 75.2, 69.8, 64.9, and 92.7%, respectively. The categories of CMT reactions were strongly correlated with SCC (P < 0.05). Kappa value of SCC was higher than that of other tests (SCC>CMT>WST>SFMT). Thus, CMT was concluded to be the most accurate (r = 0.782) field diagnostic test after laboratory test like SCC (r = 0.924). However, the use of any single test may not be reliable in diagnosing SCM, while the result of CMT supported by SCC might be used effectively to pinpoint diagnosis of SCM in dairy animals than alone. PMID:25326717

  10. "Every Child Counts": Testing Policy Effectiveness Using a Randomised Controlled Trial, Designed, Conducted and Reported to CONSORT Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgerson, Carole; Wiggins, Andy; Torgerson, David; Ainsworth, Hannah; Hewitt, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We report a randomised controlled trial evaluation of an intensive one-to-one numeracy programme--"Numbers Count"--which formed part of the previous government's numeracy policy intervention--"Every Child Counts." We rigorously designed and conducted the trial to CONSORT guidelines. We used a pragmatic waiting list design to…

  11. EUCAST testing of Isavuconazole susceptibility in Aspergillus: comparison of results for Inoculum standardization using Conidium counting versus optical density.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Howard, Susan; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mouton, Johan W; Meletiadis, Joseph; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    The EUCAST E.DEF9.1 standard recommends standardization of the inoculum concentration by conidium counting using a hemocytometer rather than a spectrophotometer. In this study, we investigated whether the choice of these methods influenced isavuconazole MICs. A blinded collection of 30 molecularly characterized azole-resistant isolates and 10 wild-type Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was shared with four different laboratories. Additionally, each laboratory selected approximately 100 A. fumigatus isolates and 50 isolates each of A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus (1,237 isolates in total). Three laboratories (laboratories 1 to 3) used conidium counting. One laboratory standardized the inoculum using a spectrophotometer (that is, by use of the optical density [OD]) and is referred to as the OD laboratory. Correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients, and essential agreement were calculated, and 2-log-unit differences were assessed (paired t test). The MIC range for the blinded collection was 0.25 to 16 mg/liter, and a 1-dilution-step difference between the MIC50 and MIC90 across the four laboratories was detected and a 2-dilution-step difference between the modal MICs was detected. Compared to the results for laboratories 1 and 2, a significant correlation was found for the OD laboratory MIC data (correlation coefficients, 0.85 and 0.93, respectively; intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.88 and 0.96, respectively). The number of mutant isolates whose MICs overlapped those of the wild-type isolates was the lowest for the OD laboratory (14/30 [46.7%] mutant isolates), whereas the numbers were 18/30 (60%) isolates for laboratory 1, 17/30 (56.7%) isolates for laboratory 2, and 21/30 (70%) isolates for laboratory 3. For the A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus isolates, comparative analysis again defined the MIC distributions from the OD laboratory to be in excellent agreement with those from laboratories 1 and 2

  12. Galaxy formation in Lambda greater than 0 Friedmann models: Consequences for the number counts versus redshift test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martel, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    We study the effect of the cosmological constant Lambda on galaxy formation using a simple spherical top-hat overdensity model. We consider models with Omega(sub 0) = 0.2, lambda(sub 0) = 0, and Omega(sub 0) = 0.2, lambda(sub 0) = 0.8 (where Omega(sub 0) is the density parameter, and lambda(sub 0) identically equal Lambda/3 H(sub 0 exp 2) where H(sub 0) is the Hubble constant). We adjust the initial power spectrum amplitude so that both models reproduce the same large-scale structures. The galaxy formation era in the lambda(sub 0) = 0 model occurs early (z approximately 6) and is very short, whereas in the lambda(sub 0) = 0.8 model the galaxy formation era starts later (z approximately 4), and last much longer, possibly all the way to the present. Consequently, galaxies at low redshift (z less than 1) are significantly more evolved in the lambda(sub 0) = 0 model than in the lambda(sub 0) = 0.8 model. This result implies that previous attempts to determine Lambda using the number counts versus redshift test are probably unreliable.

  13. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  14. Microbiological screening test validation for detection of tylosin excretion in milk of cows with low and high somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Litterio, N J; Calvinho, L F; Flores, M M; Tarabla, H D; Boggio, J C

    2007-02-01

    Antibiotic residues in milk above tolerance levels interfere with dairy product processing and pose potential health risks to consumers. Residue avoidance programmes include, among other components, the observance of withdrawal times indicated in label instructions. Persistence of antibiotics in milk following treatment is influenced by drug, dosage, route of administration, body weight and mammary gland health status. Compositional changes that take place during intramammary infection (IMI) can affect antibiotic excretion in milk, thus modifying milk withdrawal time. The objectives of this study were to validate sensitivity and specificity of a qualitative microbiological method (Charm AIM-96) to detect tylosin in bovine composite milk and to determine the influence of subclinical IMI in tylosin excretion following intramuscular administration. For test validation, two groups of approximately 120 cows were used; one received a single intramuscular injection of tylosin tartrate at a dose of 20 mg/kg, while the other group remained as untreated control. Test sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94.1% respectively. To determine the influence of subclinical IMI in tylosin excretion, two groups of seven cows, one with somatic cell counts (SCC) < or =250 000 cells/ml and the other with SCC > or =900 000, were administered a single intramuscular injection of tylosin tartrate at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Milk samples were obtained every 12 h for 10 days following treatment. Milk tylosin excretion averaged between 5 and 9 days for cows with low and high SCC respectively (P < 0.0001). Compositional changes in cows with high SCC most likely affect the pharmacokinetic characteristics of tylosin, extending the presence of the antibiotic in milk, thus influencing milk withdrawal times. PMID:17359452

  15. Fluorescence depolarization of rhodamine 6G in glycerol: a photon-counting test of three-dimensional excitation transport theory

    SciTech Connect

    Anfinrud, P.A.; Hart, D.E.; Hedstrom, J.F.; Struve, W.S.

    1986-05-22

    Time-correlated photon counting has been used to measure fluorescence concentration depolarization for rhodamine 6G in glycerol. The excitation transport theory developed by Gochanour, Andersen, and Fayer yields good approximations to the experimental decay profiles over the concentration range 1.7 x 10/sup -4/ to 2.4 x 10/sup -3/ M. Although the differences between optimized theoretical and experimental profiles are fractionally small, they are readily characterized under present counting statistics. They prove to be dominated by experimental artifacts, arising from excitation trapping by rhodamine 6G aggregates and from self-absorption in solution cells thicker than approx. 10 ..mu..m.

  16. Portrait of a Population: How English-Language Learners Are Putting Schools to the Test. Quality Counts, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Quality Counts 2009 is the 13th edition of "Education Week's" series of annual report cards tracking state education policies and outcomes. Drawing heavily on data from the Editorial Projects in Education Research Center's annual state policy survey, the report once again offers a comprehensive state-by-state analysis of key indicators of student…

  17. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  18. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs that can increase the RBC count include: Gentamicin Methyldopa Lower-than-normal numbers of RBCs may be due to: Anemia Bleeding Bone marrow failure (for example, from radiation, toxins, or tumor) Deficiency of a hormone called erythropoietin (caused by ...

  19. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  20. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests ...

  1. Counting alveolar macrophages (AM) from expectorate samples of exposed workers as a test for lung irritation from occupational exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gullvag, B.; Mylius, E.; Nilsen, A.

    1985-05-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) have a natural function in the human body in keeping the lung tissue sterile and in dealing with any foreign material contaminating the airways. AM increase in number when the lungs are exposed to inhaled particles or gases. These investigations have shown that the number of AM changes in relation to the quantity and the type of compounds inhaled, and that this change can be measured by differential counting of the total number of free lung cells, or of AM alone in samples recovered by lung lavage. A method had been developed by which AM are counted in expectorate samples from exposed workers. A primary aluminum reduction plant was chosen, because the kind and degree of chemical pollution of the working atmosphere had already been relatively well investigated.

  2. Lessons from the organization of a proficiency testing program in food microbiology by interlaboratory comparison: analytical methods in use, impact of methods on bacterial counts and measurement uncertainty of bacterial counts.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Vincent

    2006-02-01

    The proficiency testing program in food microbiology RAEMA (Réseau d'Analyses et d'Echanges en Microbiologie des Aliments), created in 1988, currently includes 450 participating laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison establishes proficiency in detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Twice a year, five units samples are sent to participants to assess their precision and trueness for enumeration and detection of micro-organisms. Most of participating laboratories use standard or validated alternative methods, they were 50-70% in 1994 and, for 5 years, they are 95%. An increasing use of alternative methods was also observed. This phenomenon is all the more significant as standard methods are laborious and time consuming; thus, 50% of the laboratories use alternative methods for the detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. More and more laboratories use ready-to-use media and although the percentage is variable according to the microflora, we can consider that, today, 50-60% of the laboratories participating to the proficiency program only use ready-to-use media. The internal quality assurance programs lead also to an increasing use of media quality controls. The impact of analytical methods on bacterial counts was assessed by grouping together the results obtained by participating laboratories during the 10 last testing schemes from 1999 to 2003. The identified significant factors influencing enumeration results are variable from one microflora to another. Some of them significantly influence many microflora: the plating method (spiral plating or not) is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and staphylococci, the type of culture medium and the medium manufacturer is

  3. Measurement of the solar B8 neutrino rate with a liquid scintillator target and 3 MeV energy threshold in the Borexino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; de Kerret, H.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Joyce, M.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Leung, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Risso, P.; Romani, A.; Rountree, D.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2010-08-01

    We report the measurement of ν-e elastic scattering from B8 solar neutrinos with 3 MeV energy threshold by the Borexino detector in Gran Sasso (Italy). The rate of solar neutrino-induced electron scattering events above this energy in Borexino is 0.22±0.04(stat)±0.01(syst)cpd/100t, which corresponds to ΦB8ES=2.4±0.4±0.1×106cm-2s-1, in good agreement with measurements from SNO and SuperKamiokaNDE. Assuming the B8 neutrino flux predicted by the high metallicity standard solar model, the average B8 νe survival probability above 3 MeV is measured to be 0.29±0.10. The survival probabilities for Be7 and B8 neutrinos as measured by Borexino differ by 1.9σ. These results are consistent with the prediction of the MSW-LMA solution of a transition in the solar νe survival probability Pee between the low-energy vacuum-driven and the high-energy matter-enhanced solar neutrino oscillation regimes.

  4. Testing multistage gain and offset trimming in a single photon counting IC with a charge sharing elimination algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyżanowska, A.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.; Maj, P.

    2015-12-01

    Designing a hybrid pixel detector readout electronics operating in a single photon counting mode is a very challenging process, where many main parameters are optimized in parallel (e.g. gain, noise, and threshold dispersion). Additional requirements for a smaller pixel size with extended functionality push designers to use new deep sub-micron technologies. Minimizing the channel size is possible, however, with a decreased pixel size, the charge sharing effect becomes a more important issue. To overcome this problem, we designed an integrated circuit prototype produced in CMOS 40 nm technology, which has an extended functionality of a single pixel. A C8P1 algorithm for the charge sharing effect compensation was implemented. In the algorithm's first stage the charge is rebuilt in a signal rebuilt hub fed by the CSA (charge sensitive amplifier) outputs from four neighbouring pixels. Then, the pixel with the biggest amount of charge is chosen, after a comparison with all the adjacent ones. In order to process the data in such a complicated way, a certain architecture of a single channel was proposed, which allows for: ṡ processing the signal with the possibility of total charge reconstruction (by connecting with the adjacent pixels), ṡ a comparison of certain pixel amplitude to its 8 neighbours, ṡ the extended testability of each block inside the channel to measure CSA gain dispersion, shaper gain dispersion, threshold dispersion (including the simultaneous generation of different pulse amplitudes from different pixels), ṡ trimming all the necessary blocks for proper operation. We present a solution for multistage gain and offset trimming implemented in the IC prototype. It allows for minimization of the total charge extraction errors, minimization of threshold dispersion in the pixel matrix and minimization of errors of comparison of certain pixel pulse amplitudes with all its neighbours. The detailed architecture of a single channel is presented together

  5. Platelet Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash Small purplish spots on the skin called purpura, caused by bleeding under the skin Testing may ... Idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP), also known as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, is the result of antibody production against platelets. ...

  6. Radiation hardness tests and characterization of the CLARO-CMOS, a low power and fast single-photon counting ASIC in 0.35 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, M.; Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Luppi, E.; Maino, M.; Malaguti, R.; Pessina, G.; Tomassetti, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CLARO-CMOS is a prototype ASIC that allows fast photon counting with 5 ns peaking time, a recovery time to baseline smaller than 25 ns, and a power consumption of less than 1 mW per channel. This chip is capable of single-photon counting with multi-anode photomultipliers and finds applications also in the read-out of silicon photomultipliers and microchannel plates. The prototype is realized in AMS 0.35 micron CMOS technology. In the LHCb RICH environment, assuming 10 years of operation at the nominal luminosity expected after the upgrade in Long Shutdown 2 (LS2), the ASIC must withstand a total fluence of about 6×1012 1 MeV neq /cm2 and a total ionizing dose of 400 krad. A systematic evaluation of the radiation effects on the CLARO-CMOS performance is therefore crucial to ensure long term stability of the electronics front-end. The results of multi-step irradiation tests with neutrons and X-rays up to the fluence of 1014 cm-2 and a dose of 4 Mrad, respectively, are presented, including measurement of single event effects during irradiation and chip performance evaluation before and after each irradiation step.

  7. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  8. Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  9. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  10. Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

  11. Mice can count and optimize count-based decisions.

    PubMed

    Çavdaroğlu, Bilgehan; Balcı, Fuat

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies showed that rats and pigeons can count their responses, and the resultant count-based judgments exhibit the scalar property (also known as Weber's Law), a psychophysical property that also characterizes interval-timing behavior. Animals were found to take a nearly normative account of these well-established endogenous uncertainty characteristics in their time-based decision-making. On the other hand, no study has yet tested the implications of scalar property of numerosity representations for reward-rate maximization in count-based decision-making. The current study tested mice on a task that required them to press one lever for a minimum number of times before pressing the second lever to collect the armed reward (fixed consecutive number schedule, FCN). Fewer than necessary number of responses reset the response count without reinforcement, whereas emitting responses at least for the minimum number of times reset the response counter with reinforcement. Each mouse was tested with three different FCN schedules (FCN10, FCN20, FCN40). The number of responses emitted on the first lever before pressing the second lever constituted the main unit of analysis. Our findings for the first time showed that mice count their responses with scalar property. We then defined the reward-rate maximizing numerical decision strategies in this task based on the subject-based estimates of the endogenous counting uncertainty. Our results showed that mice learn to maximize the reward-rate by incorporating the uncertainty in their numerosity judgments into their count-based decisions. Our findings extend the scope of optimal temporal risk-assessment to the domain of count-based decision-making. PMID:26463617

  12. Comparison of California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations for detection of camel (Camelus dromedarius) mastitis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abdel Gadir Atif, E; Hildebrandt, Goetz; Kleer, Josef N; Molla, Bayleyegn; Kyule, Moses N; Baumann, Maximilian P O

    2006-01-01

    A total of 956 quarter milk samples from 253 traditionally managed lactating camels were collected aseptically from Negele (Borena Region), Dire Dawa, and Gewane (Afar Region), Ethiopia, according to multi-stage sampling. The quarter milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations. Five hundred and seventy one (59.7%) quarter milk samples had microorganisms. Of these, 428 (75.0%) had isolates that were identified as major pathogens (MAP) and 143 (25.0%) as minor pathogens (MIP). A positive correlation was found between CMT scores and bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) (p-value = 0.00). Strong correlation (p-value = 0.00) between CMT scores and SCC was recorded. The differences among the median log SCC of bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) were not significant (p-value = 0.24). Similarly, the application of the cut-off level of 2.5 x 10(5) ml(-1) indicated less agreement (p-value = 0.32) for bacteriological classes MAP and MIP. PMID:16450708

  13. Complete blood counts, liver function tests, and chest x-rays as routine screening in early-stage breast cancer: value added or just cost?

    PubMed

    Louir, Raphael J; Tonneson, Jennifer E; Gowarty, Minda; Goodney, Philip P; Barth, Richard J; Rosenkranz, Kari M

    2015-11-01

    Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for breast cancer staging include pre-treatment complete blood count (CBC) and liver function tests (LFT) to screen for occult metastatic disease. To date, the relevance of these tests in detecting metastatic disease in asymptomatic women with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I/II) has not been demonstrated. Although chest x-rays are no longer recommended in the NCCN guidelines, many centers continue to include this imaging as part of their screening process. We aim to determine the clinical and financial impact of these labs and x-rays in the evaluation of early-stage breast cancer patients. A single institution IRB-approved retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer treated from January 1, 2005–December 31, 2009. We collected patient demographics, clinical and pathologic staging, chest x-ray, CBC, and LFT results at the time of referral. Patients were stratified according to radiographic stage at the time of diagnosis. We obtained Medicare reimbursement fees for cost analysis. From 2005 to 2009, 1609 patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were treated at our institution. Of the 1082 patients with radiographic stage I/II disease, 27.3 % of patients had abnormal CBCs. No additional testing was performed to evaluate these abnormalities. In the early-stage population, 24.7 % of patients had elevated LFTs, resulting in 84 additional imaging studies. No metastatic disease was detected. The cost of CBC, LFTs and chest x-rays was $110.20 per patient, totaling $106,410.99. Additional tests prompted by abnormal results cost $58,143.30 over the five-year period. We found that pre-treatment CBCs, LFTs, and chest x-rays did not improve detection of occult metastatic disease but resulted in additional financial costs. Avoiding routine ordering of these tests would save the US healthcare system $25.7 million annually. PMID:26467045

  14. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  15. Accuracy of Carbohydrate Counting in Adults.

    PubMed

    Meade, Lisa T; Rushton, Wanda E

    2016-07-01

    In Brief This study investigates carbohydrate counting accuracy in patients using insulin through a multiple daily injection regimen or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The average accuracy test score for all patients was 59%. The carbohydrate test in this study can be used to emphasize the importance of carbohydrate counting to patients and to provide ongoing education. PMID:27621531

  16. Correlations among the somatic cell count of individual bulk milk, result of the California Mastitis Test and bacteriological status of the udder in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jánosi, Sz; Baltay, Zs

    2004-01-01

    In a survey of about 3000 dairy cows producing low somatic cell count (SCC) milk and kept on a large-scale dairy farm, California Mastitis Test (CMT) positivity was found in 2714 udder quarters of 1491 cows. Pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from 57.6% of these 2714 udder quarters during bacteriological examination. The commonest pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 41%) and Staphylococcus aureus (32.5%); however, udder infections caused by environmental streptococci (12.8%) and coliform bacteria (6.8%) were also common. All pathogens resulted in a significant increase of the SCC in individual bulk milk (IBM) samples. In the case of CNS, this SCC elevation in IBM was significantly lower than in the case of infection by the other pathogens. In spite of this, because of the high number of udder infections caused by CNS, the adverse effect exerted by CNS on dairy herds is considered to be substantial. It was found that 54.6% of all CMT-positive cows produced IBM of an SCC below 400 thousand per ml. The milk produced by 41% of the 315 cows excreting S. aureus also had an SCC below 400 thousand per ml. This poses a serious risk of infection to the healthy herdmates. At the same time, 11% of the infected cows produced IBM with an SCC below 100 thousand per ml. On the basis of these findings, only the regular analysis of SCC of IBM can be a reliable indicator of chronic intramammary infection. As the SCC of milk produced by CMT-positive cows (and especially of those excreting pathogens) tended to increase with advancing lactation, the authors suggest that an efficient drying-off therapy should be used to restore udder health and, whenever justified, culling of cows cannot be avoided either. PMID:15168749

  17. Effect of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva of Caries Free Children Using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Test: A Randomized Controlled Triple Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    A, Deepti; Jeevarathan, J; Muthu, MS; Prabhu V, Rathna; Chamundeswari

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of caries free children using Dentocult SM strip mutans and to evaluate the effect of fluoride varnish on the Streptococcus mutans count in saliva of these caries free children. Methods and material: Thirty caries free children were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire prepared. They were randomly assigned into the control group and the study group consisting of ten and twenty children respectively. Samples of saliva were collected using the saliva strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation the presence of the Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturers’ chart. The study group was subjected to Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application after 24 hours following which the samples were collected again. Results: The average Streptococcus mutans count in primary dentition of caries free children was in the range of 104 to 105 colony forming units/ml. The average Streptococcus mutans count in primary dentition of caries free children after Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application was below 104 colony forming units/ml. Conclusion: Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application showed a statistically significant reduction in the Streptococcus mutans count in saliva of the caries free children in the study group. PMID:25206081

  18. TVFMCATS. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, R.K.

    1999-05-01

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor`s hardware.

  19. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-06-03

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor''s hardware.

  20. The development and test of a pulse-counting imaging detector system for solar system studies at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1986-05-01

    The goal of this program is the development of light-weight, pulse-counting imaging detector tubes for solar system missions. The Multi-anode Microchannel Array (MAMA), have demonstrated the best combination of spatial resolution and dynamic range of any pulse-counting detector system available to date. Under this grant, compact sealed MAMA detector tubes compatible with the weight and volume limitations of deep space missions were fabricated for the first time. The principal task of the development program to date has been the definition of the appropriate processes for conditioning the high-gain, curved-channel microchannel plate (MCP) by means of bake and scrub procedures. The curved-channel MCPs currently available are fabricated from Corning 8161 glass or equivalent, and a bake at temperatures in excess of 300 C for a period well in excess of 48 hours is required to completely desorb the internal surface area and arrive at a pressure asymptote. Following this, a scrub by stimulating the MCP with either 600 eV electrons or with UV radiation from a mercury penray lamp is required to further clean up the internal surfaces and to reach a stable gain plateau. After conditioning, a stable response to an accumulated signal level of greater than 2.5 x 10 to the 11th power counts sq/mm has far been demonstrated.

  1. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  2. The Makah Counting Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, Arlington A., Jr.

    The first edition of the counting workbook centers around the numbers from 1 to 100 and focuses on number and set concepts. The workbook introduces the Makah spelling of each number and reinforces the spelling with exercises such as matching words to numbers, writing the words, counting symbols, and circling the correct number. Spaced throughout…

  3. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral," funded by…

  4. Statistical aspects of point count sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The dominant feature of point counts is that they do not census birds, but instead provide incomplete counts of individuals present within a survey plot. Considering a simple model for point count sampling, we demon-strate that use of these incomplete counts can bias estimators and testing procedures, leading to inappropriate conclusions. A large portion of the variability in point counts is caused by the incomplete counting, and this within-count variation can be confounded with ecologically meaningful varia-tion. We recommend caution in the analysis of estimates obtained from point counts. Using; our model, we also consider optimal allocation of sampling effort. The critical step in the optimization process is in determining the goals of the study and methods that will be used to meet these goals. By explicitly defining the constraints on sampling and by estimating the relationship between precision and bias of estimators and time spent counting, we can predict the optimal time at a point for each of several monitoring goals. In general, time spent at a point will differ depending on the goals of the study.

  5. Sublattice counting and orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Abelian orbifolds of mathbb{C}3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L aba theories, and of mathbb{C}4.

  6. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach. PMID:10165241

  7. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to watch how much you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you find you are having trouble cutting back on alcohol , talk with your doctor. Here is a list ...

  8. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  9. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  10. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  11. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside. PMID:25274878

  12. Photon counting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  13. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type and W-type entangled coherent states: Generation and Bell-type inequality tests without photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunseok; Nguyen Ba An

    2006-08-15

    We study Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type (GHZ-type) and W-type three-mode entangled coherent states. Both types of entangled coherent states violate Mermin's version of the Bell inequality with threshold photon detection (i.e., without photon counting). Such an experiment can be performed using linear optics elements and threshold detectors with significant Bell violations for GHZ-type entangled coherent states. However, to demonstrate Bell-type inequality violations for W-type entangled coherent states, additional nonlinear interactions are needed. We also propose an optical scheme to generate W-type entangled coherent states in free-traveling optical fields. The required resources for the generation are a single-photon source, a coherent state source, beam splitters, phase shifters, photodetectors, and Kerr nonlinearities. Our scheme does not necessarily require strong Kerr nonlinear interactions; i.e., weak nonlinearities can be used for the generation of the W-type entangled coherent states. Furthermore, it is also robust against inefficiencies of the single-photon source and the photon detectors.

  14. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  15. Making Research Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Yvon; Kerwin, Marie; McCulloch, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Making research count in the education sector is often difficult to achieve as people, quite properly, question its relevance, purpose and impact. One of the significant barriers to research supporting practice in the lifelong learning sector is that funded research carried out in higher education institutions is frequently privileged above…

  16. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  17. Counting digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

  18. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  19. Anthelmintic resistance in Swedish sheep flocks based on a comparison of the results from the faecal egg count reduction test and resistant allele frequencies of the beta-tubulin gene.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Johan; Gustafsson, Katarina; Ljungström, Britt-Louise; Engström, Annie; Donnan, Alison; Skuce, Philip

    2009-04-01

    A faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) survey was conducted during the grazing season 2006 and 2007 to provide an updated indication of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks in Sweden. A total of 1330 faecal samples from 90 flocks on 45 farms, with a minimum of 20 ewes each, was collected by local sheep veterinarians. Per treatment group, approximately 15 lambs were dewormed either with oral suspensions of ivermectin (Ivomec vet.) or albendazole (Valbazen vet.). The efficacy on each farm was investigated either in 2006 or 2007 by faecal egg counts collected on the day of treatment and in a new sample from the same animals 7-10 days later. Third-stage larvae (L3) were initially identified morphologically from pooled cultures. These were then used as the source of genomic DNA template for two molecular tests. The first was a PCR-based test for specific identification of Haemonchus contortus, and the second was a Pyrosequencing assay for the analysis of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance targeting the P200 mutation in the parasite's beta-tubulin gene. Larval cultures indicated that Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus were the predominant genera, but Haemonchus was diagnosed in 37% of the flocks. The PCR results revealed an almost 100% agreement with those farms that had previously been shown to have Haemonchus present, even when the % prevalence was low (approximately 3%). Only two (4%) of the surveyed farms showed evidence of BZ-resistant worm populations, with H. contortus being the species implicated according to post-treatment larval culture results. The Pyrosequencing assay detected BZ resistant allele frequencies of >40% in the Haemonchus-positive farms and 100% resistant alleles in the clinically most resistant farms. These preliminary results suggest that the FECRT is less sensitive than the molecular test at detecting BZ resistance. However, both tests need to be interpreted carefully, bearing in mind the relative proportions of species

  20. Counting every quantum

    PubMed Central

    Sakitt, B.

    1972-01-01

    1. Human subjects were asked to rate both blanks and very dim flashes of light under conditions of complete dark adaptation at 7° in the periphery. The ratings used were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 2. For one subject (B.S.) the distributions of ratings were approximately Poisson distributions. The data were consistent with each rating being the actual number of effective quantal absorptions plus the number of noise events. This subject was presumably able to count every rod signal (effective absorptions plus noise). 3. For two other subjects, the data were consistent with the ratings being one less (L.F.) and two less (K.D.) than the number of effective absorptions plus noise. They were able to count every rod signal beginning with 2 and 3 respectively. A fourth subject's erratic data could not be fitted. 4. The fraction of quanta incident at the cornea that resulted in a rod signal was estimated to be about 0·03 which is consistent with physical estimates of effective absorption for that retinal region. 5. A simulated forced choice experiment leads to an absolute threshold about 0·40 log units below the normal yes-no absolute threshold. This and other results indicate that subjects can use the sensory information they receive even when only 1, 2 or 3 quanta are effectively absorbed, depending on the individual. Humans may be able to count every action potential or every discrete burst of action potentials in some critical neurone. PMID:5046137

  1. Integrated Community Case Management of Fever in Children under Five Using Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Respiratory Rate Counting: A Multi-Country Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mukanga, David; Tiono, Alfred B.; Anyorigiya, Thomas; Källander, Karin; Konaté, Amadou T.; Oduro, Abraham R.; Tibenderana, James K.; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Cousens, Simon; Barnish, Guy; Pagnoni, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the impact of using diagnostic tests in community case management of febrile children is limited. This effectiveness trial conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Uganda, compared a diagnostic and treatment package for malaria and pneumonia with presumptive treatment with anti-malarial drugs; artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). We enrolled 4,216 febrile children between 4 and 59 months of age in 2009–2010. Compliance with the malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results was high in the intervention arm across the three countries, with only 4.9% (17 of 344) of RDT-negative children prescribed an ACT. Antibiotic overuse was more common: 0.9% (4 of 446) in Uganda, 38.5% (114 of 296) in Burkina Faso, and 44.6% (197 of 442) in Ghana. Fever clearance was high in both intervention and control arms at both Day 3 (97.8% versus 96.9%, P = 0.17) and Day 7 (99.2% versus 98.8%, P = 0.17). The use of diagnostic tests limits overuse of ACTs. Its impact on antibiotic overuse and on fever clearance is uncertain. PMID:23136274

  2. Modeling Repeated Count Data: Some Extensions of the Rasch Poisson Counts Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijn, Marijtje A. J. van; Jansen, Margo G. H.

    1995-01-01

    The Rasch Poisson Counts Model, a unidimensional latent trait model for tests that postulates that intensity parameters are products of test difficulty and subject ability parameters, is expanded into the Dirichlet-Gamma-Poisson model that takes into account variation between subjects and interaction between subjects and tests. (SLD)

  3. Counting supersymmetric branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel

    2011-10-01

    Maximal supergravity solutions are revisited and classified, with particular emphasis on objects of co-dimension at most two. This class of solutions includes branes whose tension scales with xxxx. We present a group theory derivation of the counting of these objects based on the corresponding tensor hierarchies derived from E 11 and discrete T- and U-duality transformations. This provides a rationale for the wrapping rules that were recently discussed for σ ≤ 3 in the literature and extends them. Explicit supergravity solutions that give rise to co-dimension two branes are constructed and analysed.

  4. Fasciola hepatica: a comparative survey of adult fluke resistance to triclabendazole, nitroxynil and closantel on selected upland and lowland sheep farms in Northern Ireland using faecal egg counting, coproantigen ELISA testing and fluke histology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, R E B; McMahon, C; Ellison, S; Edgar, H W; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A; Irwin, D; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-01-15

    In order to investigate the incidence and distribution of adult fluke resistance to the fasciolicide tricalbendazole (TCBZ) amongst populations of Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in Northern Ireland (NI), individual rectal faeces samples were collected from 3 groups of 20 sheep, before (pre-dose), and 21 days after (post-dose) treatment of the animals with TCBZ, nitroxynil or closantel, on each of 13 well-managed sheep farms distributed across the province. The efficacy of each flukicide was determined for each farm, using faecal egg count reduction (FECRT) and F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA testing. In certain flocks, 2 sheep with high pre-dose faecal egg counts (FEC) were killed 3 days and 21 days respectively after TCBZ treatment, and the histology of the fluke reproductive organs was compared with that of flukes from untreated sheep, and from sheep treated with nitroxynil or closantel 2 days prior to death, using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and an in situ hybridisation method (TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling [TUNEL]) to demonstrate apoptosis. Results from FECRT revealed that in all flocks with a high fluke burden, TCBZ was ineffective in treating chronic fasciolosis, and this finding was generally supported by the results of the coproantigen reduction test (CRT). The histology of reproductive organs of flukes from TCBZ-treated sheep in these flocks was normal, when compared with untreated flukes, and this, together with the FECRT and CRT findings, indicated a likely diagnosis of TCBZ resistance in all the flocks with a high fluke burden. In contrast, nitroxynil and closantel were found to be fully effective against TCBZ-resistant flukes in each of the flocks bearing a high chronic fluke burden. All of the flocks with a high fluke burden and TCBZ resistance were managed on lowland in the South and East of NI. Upland flocks, in the North and West, had low fluke burdens, or were clear of infection; and FECs were too low to allow valid resistance

  5. High background photon counting lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.

  6. Counting solutions from finite samplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted. PMID:22463290

  7. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  8. Weighted power counting and perturbative unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Dylan

    2011-02-15

    We consider the relationship between renormalizability and unitarity at a Lifshitz point in d dimensions. We test tree unitarity for theories containing only scalars and fermions, and for pure gauge theory. In both cases, we find the requirement of weighted power-counting renormalizability is equivalent to that of tree unitarity.

  9. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

    This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

  10. Stability of prepared iodine counting standards

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, M.E.; Yoon, S.C. )

    1987-05-01

    This paper reports that the uses for iodine-125 in the medical sciences are increasing. I-125 is often used to label organic molecules in the performance of radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures, and it has recently been used in the form of 800-mCi sealed sources employed by bone mineral (density) analyzers in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. These applications of the 59.9-day half-life I-125 incur the need to perform contamination surveys. In the case of the use of I-125 labeled compounds, laboratory benches and floors must be regularly checked for the presence of contamination by counting smear or wipe samples. Where multimillicurie sealed I-125 sources are employed, leak tests must be performed, again by counting smear or wipe samples. The most sensitive method readily available for the measurement of I-125 on these smear samples is scintillation counting with a thin NaI(Tl) detector. The counting system used must be calibrated for I-125 counting efficiency.

  11. Data that Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    What standardized tests can not do--indeed, what almost no test can do--is capture a child's essence. Tests don't speak to the internal factors that play a major role in life success: curiosity, effort, resilience, and compassion. Howard Gardner and Daniel Goleman have each noted that success stems largely from interpersonal skills. Educators know…

  12. Making environmental DNA count.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?' PMID:26768195

  13. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  14. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  15. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  16. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  17. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called "Getting…

  18. Preschooler's Counting in Peer Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Reagan P.

    For this experiment, part of a larger study on preschoolers' counting competence, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds played a counting game with their peers after becoming familiar with the game during structured interviews with an adult. It was expected that the symmetrical nature of peer interaction would allow children to display quantitative knowledge in…

  19. Uncertainty in measurements by counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

    2012-02-01

    Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

  20. Data To Count On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes student-performance data-analysis system developed by the Hueneme School District in Port Hueneme, California, to meet state and federal accountability requirements. Tracks student-achievement data from four measures into database: Districtwide assessment, report cards, SAT-9 results, a California achievement test, and comprehensive…

  1. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  2. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  3. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. PMID:25386148

  4. von Willebrand Factor Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Platelet Count , Platelet Function Tests , Complete Blood Count , Coagulation Factor VIII , PT , PTT At a Glance Test ... a protein , one of several components of the coagulation system that work together to stop bleeding and ...

  5. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  7. Photon Counting - One More Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Richard H.

    2012-05-01

    Photon counting has been around for more than 60 years, and has been available to amateurs for most of that time. In most cases single photons are detected using photomultiplier tubes, "old technology" that became available after the Second World War. But over the last couple of decades the perfection of CCD devices has given amateurs the ability to perform accurate photometry with modest telescopes. Is there any reason to still count photons? This paper discusses some of the strengths of current photon counting technology, particularly relating to the search for fast optical transients. Technology advances in counters and photomultiplier modules are briefly mentioned. Illustrative data are presented including FFT analysis of bright star photometry and a technique for finding optical pulses in a large file of noisy data. This latter technique is shown to enable the discovery of a possible optical flare on the polar variable AM Her.

  8. Thousand Papers and Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) has just passed an impressive milestone with the publication of the 1,000th peer-reviewed scientific article based on data from the world's largest and most advanced optical and near-infrared telescope. "This remarkable landmark, reached in only six years of operations is another clear demonstration of the unique capabilities of this telescope, a true flagship in European research that is continuously opening new horizons in astrophysics", says Catherine Cesarsky, ESO Director General. The number of scientific papers quantifies the success of an observatory. The passing of this milestone demonstrates the excellent acceptance of the VLT and its instrumentation by the astronomers. For Alvio Renzini, VLT Programme Scientist: "It is exhilarating to see how well the astronomical community has made use of the capabilities offered by the VLT and VLTI. The astronomers are fully exploiting the unique flexibility of the VLT, which with four telescopes and ten instruments permanently mounted offers at any time a set of observational opportunities that has no parallel at any other observatory worldwide. This explains the still increasing demand of observing time, and only one out of four or five submitted research proposals can be given observing time." In 2004 alone, 338 refereed papers using VLT data appeared. This corresponds to almost one new scientific paper being published per day, an increase of more than 25% compared to the previous year. The Very Large Telescope comprises four 8.2-m reflecting Unit Telescopes (UTs) and will in due time also include four moving 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs), two of which have successfully passed their first tests in January 2004 and February 2005 (see ESO PR 01/04 and ESO PR 06/05). In routine operation since April 1, 1999 when the first Unit Telescope became operational, the VLT has grown to include all four Unit Telescopes. The instrument suite covers most wavelengths accessible from the ground

  9. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  10. A fast position sensitive microstrip-gas-chamber detector at high count rate operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolbnya, I. P.; Alberda, H.; Hartjes, F. G.; Udo, F.; Bakker, R. E.; Konijnenburg, M.; Homan, E.; Cerjak, I.; Goedtkindt, P.; Bras, W.

    2002-11-01

    Testing of a newly developed position sensitive high count rate microstrip gas chamber (MSGC) detector at high count rate operation has been carried out at the Dutch-Belgian x-ray scattering beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France) with a high intensity x-ray beam. The measurements show local count rate capabilities up to approx4.5 x105 counts/s/channel. Experimental data taken with this detector are also shown. These tests show that both time resolution down to 1.5 ms/frame and a reliable operation at high counting rates can be achieved.

  11. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  12. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  13. What Really Counts in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot W.

    1991-01-01

    Brains are biological, but minds are cultural achievements. What really counts in schools is teaching children the excitement of exploring ideas, helping youngsters formulate their own problems and resolution strategies, developing multiple literacy forms, imparting the importance of wonder, creating a sense of community, and recognizing each…

  14. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  15. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This Kids Count Factbook details county and statewide trends in the well-being of children in Oklahoma. The statistical portrait is based on seven indicators or benchmarks of child well-being: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) births to young teens; (4) child abuse and neglect; (5) child and teen death; (6) high school…

  16. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  17. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  18. Automatic Crater Counts on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C.; Brumby, S.; Asphaug, E.; Chamberlain, D.; Engel, T.

    2004-03-01

    We present results of an automated crater counting technique for THEMIS data. Algorithms were developed using GENIE machine learning software. The technique detects craters, generalizes well to new data, and is used to rapidly produce R-plots and statistical data.

  19. Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.

  20. Wiskids Count Data Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranley, M. Martha; Bianchi, J. P.; Eleson, Charity; Hall, Linda; Jacobson, Bob; Jackson, Kristin; Peacock, Jon

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of Wisconsin's children. In addition to demographic data indicating changing communities, the indicators and data are organized into five overarching goals: (1) Healthy Families and Children Thrive, including births to single women, infant deaths, and health care…

  1. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  2. KIDS COUNT Data Brief, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 KIDS COUNT Data Brief features highlights of the enhanced, mobile-friendly Data Center; data on the 10 key indicators of child well-being for all U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and many cities, counties, and school districts; and a summary of this year's essay, which calls for improvements to the nation's ability to design and…

  3. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  4. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  5. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  6. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  7. Oklahoma Kids Count Factbook '96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Sandy

    This data book presents findings of the Kids Count Project on current conditions faced by Oklahoma children age birth through 18. This second annual factbook organizes state and county data over a period of time to enable conditions for children in each county to be compared and ranked. The benchmark indicators studied include low birthweight…

  8. Procalcitonin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests: C-Reactive Protein , Complete Blood Count , Blood Culture , CSF Analysis ... test is relatively new, but its utilization is increasing. Recent studies have shown that it has promise in helping ...

  9. Does Learning to Count Involve a Semantic Induction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Kathryn; Eng, Kortney; Barner, David

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, when children learn to correctly count sets, they make a semantic induction about the meanings of their number words. We tested the logical understanding of number words in 84 children that were classified as "cardinal-principle knowers" by the criteria set forth by Wynn (1992). Results show that these children often…

  10. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Miklas S; Dueholm, Jacob V; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences. PMID:26742047

  11. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Miklas S.; Dueholm, Jacob V.; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences. PMID:26742047

  12. Imaging by terahertz photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikushima, Kenji; Komiyama, Susumu

    2010-08-01

    Photon counting method is indispensable in visible/near-infrared optical measurements for detecting extremely weak radiation. The method, however, has been inaccessible in terahertz region, where the photon energies are more than 100 times smaller and catching individual photons is difficult. Here we review photon counting measurements of terahertz waves, by incorporating a semiconductor quantum-dot terahertz-photon detector into a scanning terahertz microscope. By using a quantum Hall effect detector as well, measurements cover the intensity dynamic range more than six orders of magnitude. Applying the measurement system to the study of semiconductor quantum Hall effect devices, we image extremely weak cyclotron radiation emitted by nonequilibrium electrons. Owing to the unprecedented sensitivity, a variety of new features of electron kinetics are unveiled. Besides semiconductor electric devices studied here, the experimental method will find application in diverse areas of molecular dynamics, microthermography, and cell activities.

  13. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  14. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    PubMed

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  15. 1/Nc Countings in Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Goity

    2004-05-01

    The 1/N{sub c} power countings for baryon decays and configuration mixings are determined by means of a non-relativistic quark picture. Such countings are expected to be robust as the quark masses are decreased towards the chiral limit. It is shown that excited baryons have natural widths of {Omicron}(N{sub c}{sup 0}). These dominant widths are due to the decays that proceed directly to the ground state baryons, with cascade decays being suppressed to {Omicron}(1/N{sub c}). Configuration mixings, defined as mixings between states belonging to different O(3) x SU(2N{sub f}) multiplets, are shown to be sub-leading in an expansion in 1/{radical}N{sub c}, except for certain mixings between excited multiplets belonging to the mixed-symmetric spin-flavor representation and different O(3) representations, where the mixings are of zeroth order in 1/N{sub c}.

  16. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Iseley

    2009-10-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

  17. Stability of fringe counting interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, J. W.; Andrew, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    Two configurations of an automatic bidirectional, fringe-counting corner-cube interferometer are compared. They differ only in the method of quadrature phase introduction. The one using polarization coding has good phase stability at optical path differences as large as 955 mm, the one using adjacent beams has such poor phase stability as to render it useless at path differences greater than 700 mm. A useful well-defined alignment procedure is given for the corner-cube interferometer.

  18. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  19. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    PubMed

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations. PMID:26161994

  20. Spurious platelet count due to cryoglobulins in a patient with smoldering myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Naveen; John, M Joseph; Mathew, Amrith; Chawla, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Use of automated hematology analyzers for routine blood count reporting has increased the reproducibility and accuracy of test results. However, at times, these instruments may generate spurious test results. Such results can result in inappropriate investigations or treatment decisions in patients. Spuriously normal or high platelet counts carry the risk of under diagnosis of the true thrombocytopenia with adverse clinical implications. We present a patient with smoldering myeloma with spurious platelet count due to cryoglobulins. PMID:25118751

  1. What I Need to Know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... URL Español What I need to know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes Page Content On this page: ... counting? Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate * counting, also called carb counting, is ...

  2. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  3. Dengue Fever Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dengue Virus by PCR Related tests: Arbovirus Testing , West Nile Virus Testing , Zika Virus Testing , Complete Blood Count , Electrolytes ... person is infected with another arbovirus such as West Nile virus . A health practitioner will consider a person's test ...

  4. What counts in estimation? The nature of the preverbal system.

    PubMed

    Karolis, V; Butterworth, B

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that the development of verbal counting is supported by a more ancient preverbal system of estimation, the most widely canvassed candidates being the accumulator originally proposed by Gibbon and colleagues and the analogue magnitude system proposed by Dehaene and colleagues. The aim of this chapter is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of these models in terms of their capacity to emulate the statistical properties of verbal counting. The emphasis is put on the emergence of exact representations, autoscaling, and commensurability of noise characteristics. We also outline the modified architectures that may help improve models' power to meet these criteria. We propose that architectures considered in this chapter can be used to generate predictions for experimental testing and provide an example where we test the hypothesis whether the visual sense of number, ie, ability to discriminate numerosity without counting, entails enumeration of objects. PMID:27339007

  5. Analysis of Parasite and Other Skewed Counts

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review methods for the statistical analysis of parasite and other skewed count data. Methods Statistical methods for skewed count data are described and compared, with reference to those used over a ten year period of Tropical Medicine and International Health. Two parasitological datasets are used for illustration. Results Ninety papers were identified, 89 with descriptive and 60 with inferential analysis. A lack of clarity is noted in identifying measures of location, in particular the Williams and geometric mean. The different measures are compared, emphasizing the legitimacy of the arithmetic mean for skewed data. In the published papers, the t test and related methods were often used on untransformed data, which is likely to be invalid. Several approaches to inferential analysis are described, emphasizing 1) non-parametric methods, while noting that they are not simply comparisons of medians, and 2) generalized linear modelling, in particular with the negative binomial distribution. Additional methods, such as the bootstrap, with potential for greater use are described. Conclusions Clarity is recommended when describing transformations and measures of location. It is suggested that non-parametric methods and generalized linear models are likely to be sufficient for most analyses. PMID:22943299

  6. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  7. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  8. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  9. A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ∼2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ∼15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

  10. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  11. Somatic Cell Counts in Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, I. R.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Factors which influence somatic cell counts in bovine milk are reviewed and guidelines for their interpretation are presented. It is suggested that the thresholds of 300 000 and 250 000 cells/mL be used to identify infected quarters and cows respectively. However, it is stressed that somatic cell counts are general indicators of udder health which are subject to the influence of many factors. Therefore the evaluation of several successive counts is preferable to the interpretation of an individual count. Relationships between somatic cell counts and both milk production and milk composition are discussed. Subclinical mastitis reduces milk quality and decreases yield although the relationship between production loss and somatic cell count requires clarification. Finally the availability of somatic cell counting programs in Canada is presented. PMID:17422127

  12. Sampling and counting genome rearrangement scenarios

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Even for moderate size inputs, there are a tremendous number of optimal rearrangement scenarios, regardless what the model is and which specific question is to be answered. Therefore giving one optimal solution might be misleading and cannot be used for statistical inferring. Statistically well funded methods are necessary to sample uniformly from the solution space and then a small number of samples are sufficient for statistical inferring. Contribution In this paper, we give a mini-review about the state-of-the-art of sampling and counting rearrangement scenarios, focusing on the reversal, DCJ and SCJ models. Above that, we also give a Gibbs sampler for sampling most parsimonious labeling of evolutionary trees under the SCJ model. The method has been implemented and tested on real life data. The software package together with example data can be downloaded from http://www.renyi.hu/~miklosi/SCJ-Gibbs/ PMID:26452124

  13. Number counts and dynamical vacuum cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, N. Chandrachani; Borges, H. A.; Carneiro, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2015-03-01

    We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, ρΛ ∝ H, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses (M ≳ 1014 M⊙ h-1) when compared to the standard Λ cold dark matter model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.

  14. A particle counting EM calorimeter using MAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooren, G.; Rocco, E.

    2015-02-01

    The availability of full size MAPS sensors makes it possible to construct a calorimeter with pixelsize of a few tens of micrometers. This would be small enough to count individual shower particles and would allow a shower shape analysis on an unprecedented, small scale. Interesting features would be tracking capability for particle flow algorithms and a superior discrimination of single photons from neutral and charged pions at high momenta. A small Molière radius together with high transverse resolution would allow to separate close showers, induced by photons from neutral pion decay. A full scale (4 RM, 28 X0) prototype was constructed to demonstrate this. It features 30 micron pixelsize and a longitudinal sampling at 1 radiation length. We will show results from beam tests of this prototype at electron energies of 2 to 200 GeV.

  15. Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  16. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  17. Semantic Inferences: The Role of Count/Mass Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study tested the validity of a theory of count/mass syntax in word learning. The theory proposes that children infer one of two procedures, depending on whether the referent is an object or a non-solid substance. Subjects were 36 2-year-olds, divided according to three experimental conditions. All were taught a novel word with reference to…

  18. Counting statistics of many-particle quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Klaus; Tichy, Malte C.; Buchleitner, Andreas; Mintert, Florian; Konrad, Thomas

    2011-06-15

    We study quantum walks of many noninteracting particles on a beam splitter array as a paradigmatic testing ground for the competition of single- and many-particle interference in a multimode system. We derive a general expression for multimode particle-number correlation functions, valid for bosons and fermions, and infer pronounced signatures of many-particle interferences in the counting statistics.

  19. Photon counting compressive depth mapping.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 × 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 × 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second. PMID:24104293

  20. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  1. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  2. Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

    We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

  3. Implementation of Point-of-Care Diagnostics Leads to Variable Uptake of Syphilis, Anemia and CD4+ T-Cell Count Testing in Rural Maternal and Child Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    De Schacht, Caroline; Lucas, Carlota; Sitoe, Nádia; Machekano, Rhoderick; Chongo, Patrina; Temmerman, Marleen; Tobaiwa, Ocean; Guay, Laura; Kassaye, Seble; Jani, Ilesh V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Anemia, syphilis and HIV are high burden diseases among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in four health facilities in Southern Mozambique to evaluate the effect of point-of-care technologies for hemoglobin quantification, syphilis testing and CD4+ T-cell enumeration performed within maternal and child health services on testing and treatment coverage, and assessing acceptability by health workers. Methods Demographic and testing data on women attending first antenatal care services were extracted from existing records, before (2011; n = 865) and after (2012; n = 808) introduction of point-of-care testing. Study outcomes per health facility were compared using z-tests (categorical variables) and Wilcoxon rank-sum test (continuous variables), while inverse variance weights were used to adjust for possible cluster effects in the pooled analysis. A structured acceptability-assessment interview was conducted with health workers before (n = 22) and after (n = 19). Results After implementation of point-of-care testing, there was no significant change in uptake of overall hemoglobin screening (67.9% to 83.0%; p = 0.229), syphilis screening (80.8% to 87.0%; p = 0.282) and CD4+ T-cell testing (84.9% to 83.5%; p = 0.930). Initiation of antiretroviral therapy for treatment eligible women was similar in the weighted analysis before and after, with variability among the sites. Time from HIV diagnosis to treatment initiation decreased (median of 44 days to 17 days; p<0.0001). A generally good acceptability for point-of-care testing was seen among health workers. Conclusions Point-of-care CD4+ T-cell enumeration resulted in a decreased time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy among treatment eligible women, without significant increase in testing coverage. Overall hemoglobin and syphilis screening increased. Despite the perception that point-of-care technologies increase access to health services, the variability in

  4. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  5. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, G.G.; Post, G. )

    1989-07-01

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

  6. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrer, Ruth; Tansella, Vittorio

    2016-07-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  7. Howell-Jolly body counting as a measure of splenic function. A reassessment.

    PubMed

    Corazza, G R; Ginaldi, L; Zoli, G; Frisoni, M; Lalli, G; Gasbarrini, G; Quaglino, D

    1990-01-01

    Non-surgical and surgical asplenia predisposes to fatal infections; therefore, simple, non-invasive and repeatable tests for assessing splenic function are required, even in non-specialized medical institutions. Howell-Jolly bodies are the most characteristic peripheral blood abnormality after splenectomy, but their counting is not considered a reliable measure of splenic function. In this study, in a group of splenectomized subjects and of patients with non-surgical hyposplenism, we have compared counting of Howell-Jolly bodies, stained by both the May-Grünwald/Giemsa method and the Feulgen reaction, with pitted cell counting which is considered a reliable technique for the assessment of splenic hypofunction. A significant correlation has been found between Howell-Jolly body counts, stained by either technique, and pitted cell counts (P less than 0.0001). Through Howell-Jolly bodies were never detectable when pitted cell counts fell between 4 and 8%, values consistent with a very mild splenic hypofunction, for pitted cell counts above 8% their increase was always associated with increasing Howell-Jolly body counts. These data suggest that, although pitted cell counting represents a more sensitive method for evaluating splenic function, Howell-Jolly body counting may still be regarded as a simple and reliable technique for identifying and monitoring those cases associated with a real risk of overwhelming infections. PMID:2125541

  8. Photon counting with an EMCCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Olivier; Blais-Ouellette, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    In order to make faint flux imaging efficient with an EMCCD, the Clock Induced Charges (CIC) must be reduced to a minimum. Some techniques were proposed to reduce the CIC but until now, neither commercially available CCD controller nor commercial cameras were able to implement them and get satisfying results. CCCP, the CCD Controller for Counting Photons, has been designed with the aim of reducing the CIC generated when an EMCCD is read out. It is optimized for driving EMCCDs at high speed (>= 10MHz), but may be used also for driving conventional CCDs (or the conventional output of an EMCCD) at high, moderate, or low speed. This new controller provides an arbitrary clock generator, yielding a timing resolution of ~20 ps and a voltage resolution of ~2mV of the overlap of the clocks used to drive the EMCCD. The frequency components of the clocks can be precisely controlled, and the inter-clock capacitance effect of the CCD can be nulled to avoid overshoots and undershoots. Using this controller, CIC levels as low as 0.001 - 0.002 e per pixel per frame were measured on a 512×512 CCD97 operating in inverted mode, at an EM gain of ~2000. This is 5 to 10 times less than what is usually seen in commercial EMCCD cameras using the same EMCCD chip.

  9. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228.

    PubMed

    Aleissa, Khalid A; Almasoud, Fahad I; Islam, Mohammed S; L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    The activities of (228)Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide (228)Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO(2) and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter (228)Ra((228)Ac), the daughter nuclide (228)Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by (228)Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9+/-0.1% was measured for (228)Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317+/-0.013cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of (228)Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for (228)Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure (228)Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid

  10. Diagnostic Value of Fetal Movement Counting by Mother and the Optimal Recording Duration

    PubMed Central

    Kamalifard, Mahin; Abbasalizadeh, Shamsi; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Ghatreh Samani, Fatemeh; Rabiei, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fetal movement counting is a method used by mother to quantify her baby's movements. However, the optimal number of movements and the ideal duration of counting them have not been recognized. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of the two common fetal movements counting methods by mother including "ten fetal movements counting in two hours" and "three fetal movements counting in one hour" and to compare the required mean time for counting fetal movements in the two methods. Methods: 300 subjects were selected by random sampling among clients with complains of decreased fetal movements referring to AL-Zahra teaching hospital in Tabriz, Iran. Full training about how to perform the two methods of fetal movements counting and how to record in related tables was instructed by researcher. Immediately after counting movements, biophysical profile test was performed. Results: Among 291 mothers in the two groups, 99.7% had active fetuses based on both methods of fetal movement counting. 96.9% of these active fetuses obtained score of 10 in biophysical profile. There was a statistically significant relation between the results of both two methods of fetal movement counting and the biophysical profile as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both methods were equally 100%, 96%, 10% and 100%, respectively.Mean time (SD) for ten movement counting was 22.1(4.6) and for three movementcounting was 8.0(2.8) minutes Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that fetal movement counting test can be used as an initial screening method in predicting fetal health. PMID:25276714

  11. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Counting requests. 1220.625 Section 1220.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.625 Counting requests. (a)...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Counting requests. 1220.625 Section 1220.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.625 Counting requests. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Counting requests. 1220.625 Section 1220.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.625 Counting requests. (a)...

  14. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  15. Photon counts from stellar occultation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, James J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using stars as radiation sources for Earth atmospheric occultation experiments is investigated. Exoatmospheric photon counts of the order of 10 to the 6th power photons/sq cm/sec are realized for the 15 visually brightest stars. Most photon counts appear to be marginally detectable unless photomultiplier or cascade detection devices can be used.

  16. 2009 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  17. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  18. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  19. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  20. Kids Count in Indiana: 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This Kids Count report is the third in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. The report combines statistics of special concern in Indiana with 10 national Kids Count well-being indicators: (1) percent low birthweight; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) birth rate to unmarried teens ages 15…

  1. An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, T.J.; Vehar, D.W.

    2011-07-01

    Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because it

  2. Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12 mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ≤ 25,000 cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000 cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ≤ 25,000 or >25,000 cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC. PMID:24630657

  3. Do Not Divide Count Data with Count Data; A Story from Pollination Ecology with Implications Beyond.

    PubMed

    Reitan, Trond; Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Studies in ecology are often describing observed variations in a certain ecological phenomenon by use of environmental explanatory variables. A common problem is that the numerical nature of the ecological phenomenon does not always fit the assumptions underlying traditional statistical tests. A text book example comes from pollination ecology where flower visits are normally reported as frequencies; number of visits per flower per unit time. Using visitation frequencies in statistical analyses comes with two major caveats: the lack of knowledge on its error distribution and that it does not include all information found in the data; 10 flower visits in 20 flowers is treated the same as recording 100 visits in 200 flowers. We simulated datasets with various "flower visitation distributions" over various numbers of flowers observed (exposure) and with different types of effects inducing variation in the data. The different datasets were then analyzed first with the traditional approach using number of visits per flower and then by using count data models. The analysis of count data gave a much better chance of detecting effects than the traditionally used frequency approach. We conclude that if the data structure, statistical analyses and interpretations of results are mixed up, valuable information can be lost. PMID:26872136

  4. Do Not Divide Count Data with Count Data; A Story from Pollination Ecology with Implications Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Reitan, Trond; Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Studies in ecology are often describing observed variations in a certain ecological phenomenon by use of environmental explanatory variables. A common problem is that the numerical nature of the ecological phenomenon does not always fit the assumptions underlying traditional statistical tests. A text book example comes from pollination ecology where flower visits are normally reported as frequencies; number of visits per flower per unit time. Using visitation frequencies in statistical analyses comes with two major caveats: the lack of knowledge on its error distribution and that it does not include all information found in the data; 10 flower visits in 20 flowers is treated the same as recording 100 visits in 200 flowers. We simulated datasets with various “flower visitation distributions” over various numbers of flowers observed (exposure) and with different types of effects inducing variation in the data. The different datasets were then analyzed first with the traditional approach using number of visits per flower and then by using count data models. The analysis of count data gave a much better chance of detecting effects than the traditionally used frequency approach. We conclude that if the data structure, statistical analyses and interpretations of results are mixed up, valuable information can be lost. PMID:26872136

  5. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book 1999 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen…

  6. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  7. Quantitative sputum cell counts to monitor bronchitis: A qualitative study of physician and patient perspectives

    PubMed Central

    D’silva, Liesel; Neighbour, Helen; Gafni, Amiram; Radford, Katherine; Hargreave, Frederick E; Nair, Parameswaran

    2013-01-01

    Many common diseases affecting the airways are characterized by airway inflammation. The measurement of this inflammation has a significant role in the management of these diseases. Quantitative sputum cell counts provide a measurement of the type and severity of inflammation present. Sputum cell counts are used in routine clinical practice in some centres but their use is not widespread. The present study used a standardized questionnaire to determine both patients’ and physicians’ attitudes toward the use of sputum cell counts. The use of sputum cell counts was well accepted by patients and physicians. Ninety per cent of patients were satisfied with the test. Sixty per cent of family physicians were satisfied with the test and 80% were in favour of it being funded by the government. The authors recommend more widespread use of sputum cell counts to guide the management of airway diseases. PMID:23457675

  8. Unannounced telephone-based pill counts: a valid and feasible method for monitoring adherence

    PubMed Central

    Fredericksen, R; Feldman, BJ; Brown, T; Schmidt, S; Crane, PK; Harrington, RD; Dhanireddy, S; McReynolds, J; Lober, WB; Bangsberg, DR; Kitahata, MM; Crane, HM

    2015-01-01

    Phone-based unannounced pill counts to measure medication adherence are much more practical and less expensive than home-based unannounced pill counts, but their validity has not been widely assessed. We examined the validity of phone vs. home-based pill counts using a simplified protocol streamlined for studies embedded in clinical care settings. A total of 100 paired counts were used to compare concordance between unannounced phone and home-based pill counts using interclass correlations. Discrepancy analyses using χ2 tests compared demographic and clinical characteristics across patients who were concordant between phone and home-based pill counts and patients who were not concordant. Concordance was high for phone-based and home-based unannounced total pill counts, as well as individual medication counts and calculated adherence. This study demonstrates that a simplified phone-based pill count protocol can be implemented among patients from a routine clinical care setting and is a feasible means of monitoring medication adherence. PMID:25331265

  9. A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.

    PubMed

    Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B

    1980-08-01

    The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost. PMID:7405890

  10. Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-10-01

    The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (<20 MHz), low dark count rate (<50 counts per second), and wideband responsivity (UV to near infrared) is used as the trigger detector, enabling correlated photons calibration capabilities into shortwave visible range. For a 355nm single longitudinal mode pump laser, when a superconducting nanowire single photon detector is used as the trigger detector at 1064nm and 1560nm in the near infrared range, the photon counting efficiency calibration capabilities can be realized at 532nm and 460nm. The quantum efficiency measurement on photon counters such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes can be then further extended in a wide wavelength range (e.g. 400-1000nm) using a flat spectral photon flux source to meet the calibration demands in cutting edge low light applications such as time resolved fluorescence and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.

  11. Modeling patterns in count data using loglinear and related models

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the use of loglinear and logit models, for analyzing Poisson and binomial counts in the presence of explanatory variables. The explanatory variables may be unordered categorical variables or numerical variables, or both. The report shows how to construct models to fit data, and how to test whether a model is too simple or too complex. The appropriateness of the methods with small data sets is discussed. Several example analyses, using the SAS computer package, illustrate the methods.

  12. IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY: THIRTY YEARS AND COUNTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The science of immunotoxicology arguably began in the early 1970s, following the recognition of increased sensitivity to infection following exposure of test species, including guinea pigs, [1] mice, [2, 3] rats, [4] ducks, [5] hamsters and monkeys [6] to various xenobiotics. Re...

  13. English Counts More than Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garin, Christine

    1990-01-01

    Examines the test results from the French Administration of Evaluation and Long-term Planning to determine which subject has the greatest impact on channeling students into academic, technical, or vocational programs. Finds that French, English, and mathematics have greater influence on the teacher recommendations for future progress, but that…

  14. Cluster evolution and microwave source counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markevitch, M.; Blumenthal, G. R.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    We present the modeled counts for the expected Sunyaev-Zel'dovich microwave sources associated with clusters of galaxies, predicted for experiments with arcminute-scale spatial resolution, assuming self-similar cluster evolution, for different spectra of the primordial density fluctuations and values of the cosmological density parameter Omega. Our simulations show that the source counts should be a powerful test of the evolution of very high redshift clusters. Experiments with 1 - 2 min spatial resolution, with moderate sensitivity but covering a large area of the sky, would be most effective for studying the SZ source population. Recent arcminute-scale radio experiments, the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) RING experiment and VLA deep imaging, achieved sensitivity and sky coverage close to that needed for the detection of negative sources associated with very distant clusters. From the absence of cluster detections in these experiments, we rule out, with 90% confidence, models with Omega less than 0.3 and n = +1 as predicting too many bright sources; or there is no hot gas in clusters more distant than z(sub max) = 5 in such models. If the single negative source detected in the RING experiment is a distant cluster, the Omega = 1, n = -2 model also may be ruled out as it predicts too few sources. The new generation of telescopes, including the new SUZIE and Ryle instruments, will soon be able to detect distant clusters. The cluster population in the past has been modeled by scaling the observed present-day sample of X-ray clusters back to high redshifts, an approach which makes the best use of the observed cluster gas parameters, and makes the simulations robust to the assumed evolution at very early epochs. Although the pure self-similar model may be incompatible with the variety of observed evolutionary effects, we show that reasonable modifications to the intracluster gas history in that model, proposed to reconcile the self-similar evolution of cluster

  15. B Counting at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  16. Study of Basic Coagulation Parameters among HIV Patients in Correlation to CD4 Counts and ART Status

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, D; Rachakatla, Praveen; Bharathi, K; Afroz, Tameem; Sagar, Radha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection is known to cause coagulation abnormalities by various mechanism, especially during its late course. Aim The objective of this study was to analyse platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time among HIV infected patients and to analyse these parameters with respect to their CD4 count and ART status. Materials and Methods A case control study was conducted with 120 HIV infected patients and 40 normal individuals. The blood samples were collected after obtaining consent from the subjects. The blood samples were processed for platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and CD4 count. The results were tabulated and analysed with statistical package. Results The platelet count was significantly decreased in HIV infected patients compared to controls. Though HIV patients with CD4 count less than 200cells/mm3 showed a decreased platelet count compared to those with CD4 count greater than 200cells/mm3, it was not statistically significant. Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) was significantly prolonged in HIV patients, but only aPTT showed significant inverse correlation with CD4 count. None of the parameters showed statistical significance on comparing HIV patients on ART with those not on ART. Conclusion Basic coagulation tests like platelet count, PT and especially aPTT can be used as prospective screening test to assess severity in HIV patients in resource limited settings where CD4 count is not available. PMID:27437222

  17. 'Whose failure counts?' A critical reflection on definitions of failure for community health volunteers providing HIV self-testing in a community-based HIV/TB intervention study in urban Malawi.

    PubMed

    Sambakunsi, Rodrick; Kumwenda, Moses; Choko, Augustine; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Desmond, Nicola Ann

    2015-12-01

    The category of community health worker applied within the context of health intervention trials has been promoted as a cost-effective approach to meeting study objectives across large populations, relying on the promotion of the concept of 'community belonging' to encourage altruistic volunteerism from community members to promote health. This community-based category of individuals is recruited to facilitate externally driven priorities defined by large research teams, outside of the target research environment. An externally defined intervention is then 'brought to' the community through locally recruited community volunteers who form a bridge between the researchers and participants. The specific role of these workers is context-driven and responsive to the needs of the intervention. This paper is based on the findings from an annual evaluation of community health worker performance employed as community counsellors to deliver semi-supervised HIV self-testing (HIVST) at community level of a large HIV/TB intervention trial conducted in urban Blantyre, Malawi. A performance evaluation was conducted to appraise individual service delivery and assess achievements in meeting pre-defined targets for uptake of HIVST with the aim of improving overall uptake of HIVST. Through an empirical 'evaluation of the evaluation' this paper critically reflects on the position of the community volunteer through the analytical lens of 'failure', exploring the tensions in communication and interpretation of intervention delivery between researchers and community volunteers and the differing perspectives on defining failure. It is concluded that community interventions should be developed in collaboration with the population and that information guiding success should be clearly defined. PMID:26762610

  18. ‘Whose failure counts?’ A critical reflection on definitions of failure for community health volunteers providing HIV self-testing in a community-based HIV/TB intervention study in urban Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Sambakunsi, Rodrick; Kumwenda, Moses; Choko, Augustine; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Desmond, Nicola Ann

    2015-01-01

    The category of community health worker applied within the context of health intervention trials has been promoted as a cost-effective approach to meeting study objectives across large populations, relying on the promotion of the concept of ‘com-munity belonging’ to encourage altruistic volunteerism from community members to promote health. This community-based category of individuals is recruited to facilitate externally driven priorities defined by large research teams, outside of the target research environment. An externally defined intervention is then ‘brought to’ the community through locally recruited community volunteers who form a bridge between the researchers and participants. The specific role of these workers is context-driven and responsive to the needs of the intervention. This paper is based on the findings from an annual evaluation of community health worker performance employed as community counsellors to deliver semi-supervised HIV self-testing (HIVST) at community level of a large HIV/TB intervention trial conducted in urban Blantyre, Malawi. A performance evaluation was conducted to appraise individual service delivery and assess achievements in meeting pre-defined targets for uptake of HIVST with the aim of improving overall uptake of HIVST. Through an empirical ‘evaluation of the evaluation’ this paper critically reflects on the position of the community volunteer through the analytical lens of ‘failure’, exploring the tensions in communication and interpretation of intervention delivery between researchers and community volunteers and the differing perspectives on defining failure. It is concluded that community interventions should be developed in collaboration with the population and that information guiding success should be clearly defined. PMID:26762610

  19. Pneumotachometer counts respiration rate of human subject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, O.

    1964-01-01

    To monitor breaths per minute, two rate-to-analog converters are alternately used to read and count the respiratory rate from an impedance pneumograph sequentially displayed numerically on electroluminescent matrices.

  20. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R(2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R(2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out. PMID:25001206

  1. SIS Detectors for Terahertz Photon Counting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Hajime; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Ukibe, Masahiro; Fujii, Go; Shiki, Shigetomo

    2016-07-01

    An Intensity interferometer with photon counting detector is a candidate to realize a THz interferometer for astronomical observations. We have demonstrated that synthesis imaging is possible even with intensity interferometers. An SIS junction (or STJ) with low leakage current of 1 pA is a suitable device for photon counting detectors. Readout circuit utilizing FETs with low gate leakage, low gate capacitance, and fast response is discussed.

  2. Minimum Disclosure Counting for the Alternative Vote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard

    Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.

  3. Clicks counting system for a riflescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Granciu, Dana

    2015-02-01

    A very useful requirement for a zoom aiming scope with high magnification used for long range rifle shooting is counting and display of knob's clicks number needed for elevation corrections. The paper analyzes one method for clicks counting usable with existing mechanical knobs and describes a microcontroller based system that implements it. Practical aspects like required changes in mechanical construction, influence of perturbations, complexity of electronics or power consumption are also analyzed.

  4. A priori precision estimation for neutron triples counting

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, S.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Henzl, V.

    2011-07-01

    overlap. For Singles and Doubles simple approximate analytical empirical rules for how to estimate the variance have been developed guided by theory and refined by experiment. However, for Triples no equivalent rules have been put forward and tested until now. In this work we propose an analytical expression, the CSH relation, for the variance on the Triples count and exercise it against experimental data gathered for Pu items measured in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). Preliminary results are encouraging and reasonable agreement with observation, considered fit for scoping studies, is obtained. We have also looked at the behavior using Monte Carlo simulations. (authors)

  5. Counting 241Am in the BfS human skull phantom on contact-evaluation in the human monitoring laboratory.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Hauck, Barry; Capello, Kevin; Nogueira, Pedro; Lopez, Maria A; Kramer, Gary H

    2015-03-01

    Skull counting can be used to assess the activity of radionuclides internally deposited in the bone. The Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) at Health Canada conducted the measurement of 241Am in the BfS (Bundesamt für Strahlenschuts) skull phantom on contact with the skull for various positions. By placing the detector in contact, the HML can improve the counting efficiency by over 20% compared to placing the detector 1 cm above the surface of the skull. Among all the positions tested, the forehead position is the preferred counting geometry due to the design of HML's counting facility and the comfort it would provide to the individual being counted, although this counting position did not offer the highest counting efficiency for the gamma rays (either the 59.5 keV or the 26.3 keV) emitted by 241Am. PMID:25627952

  6. Power counting to better jet observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2014-12-01

    Optimized jet substructure observables for identifying boosted topologies will play an essential role in maximizing the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider. Ideally, the design of discriminating variables would be informed by analytic calculations in perturbative QCD. Unfortunately, explicit calculations are often not feasible due to the complexity of the observables used for discrimination, and so many validation studies rely heavily, and solely, on Monte Carlo. In this paper we show how methods based on the parametric power counting of the dynamics of QCD, familiar from effective theory analyses, can be used to design, understand, and make robust predictions for the behavior of jet substructure variables. As a concrete example, we apply power counting for discriminating boosted Z bosons from massive QCD jets using observables formed from the n-point energy correlation functions. We show that power counting alone gives a definite prediction for the observable that optimally separates the background-rich from the signal-rich regions of phase space. Power counting can also be used to understand effects of phase space cuts and the effect of contamination from pile-up, which we discuss. As these arguments rely only on the parametric scaling of QCD, the predictions from power counting must be reproduced by any Monte Carlo, which we verify using Pythia 8 and Herwig++. We also use the example of quark versus gluon discrimination to demonstrate the limits of the power counting technique.

  7. Contribution of hand motor circuits to counting.

    PubMed

    Andres, Michael; Seron, Xavier; Olivier, Etienne

    2007-04-01

    The finding that number processing activates a cortical network partly overlapping that recruited for hand movements has renewed interest in the relationship between number and finger representations. Further evidence about a possible link between fingers and numbers comes from developmental studies showing that finger movements play a crucial role in learning counting. However, increased activity in hand motor circuits during counting may unveil unspecific processes, such as shifting attention, reciting number names, or matching items with a number name. To address this issue, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure changes in corticospinal (CS) excitability during a counting task performed silently and using either numbers or letters of the alphabet to enumerate items. We found an increased CS excitability of hand muscles during the counting task, irrespective of the use of numbers or letters, whereas it was unchanged in arm and foot muscles. Control tasks allowed us to rule out a possible influence of attention allocation or covert speech on CS excitability increase of hand muscles during counting. The present results support a specific involvement of hand motor circuits in counting because no CS changes were found in arm and foot muscles during the same task. However, the contribution of hand motor areas is not exclusively related to number processing because an increase in CS excitability was also found when letters were used to enumerate items. This finding suggests that hand motor circuits are involved whenever items have to be put in correspondence with the elements of any ordered series. PMID:17381248

  8. Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Carel, R S; Eviatar, J

    1985-09-01

    The relationships between white blood cell (WBC) count, smoking, and other health variables were determined among 35,000 apparently healthy men and women. The effect of smoking on the WBC count was greater than that of all other variables. The leukocyte level and the variance in WBC count values increased with increased smoking intensity. The relationship between smoking intensity and leukocyte level is expressed quantitatively by the following regression equation: WBC (10(3)/mm3) = 7.1 + 0.05(SM), where SM has seven values according to the smoking level. Multiple regression analysis with additional variables other than smoking did not much improve the predictive value of the equation. The effect of smoking on WBC count could be only partially explained by an inflammatory process, e.g., chronic bronchitis. Relationships of statistical significance (but mostly with r values of less than 0.10) were found between WBC count and the following variables: hemoglobin, heart rate, weight (or Quetelet index), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, sex, ethnic origin, systolic blood pressure, height, blood sugar, and diastolic blood pressure. The normal WBC count range for smokers differs from that of nonsmokers and is shifted to the right according to the smoking level. This may have both a diagnostic and prognostic significance in different clinical settings. PMID:4070192

  9. Modeling avian detection probabilities as a function of habitat using double-observer point count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heglund, P.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.; Fallon, J.; Fallon, F.

    2001-01-01

    Point counts are a controversial sampling method for bird populations because the counts are not censuses, and the proportion of birds missed during counting generally is not estimated. We applied a double-observer approach to estimate detection rates of birds from point counts in Maryland, USA, and test whether detection rates differed between point counts conducted in field habitats as opposed to wooded habitats. We conducted 2 analyses. The first analysis was based on 4 clusters of counts (routes) surveyed by a single pair of observers. A series of models was developed with differing assumptions about sources of variation in detection probabilities and fit using program SURVIV. The most appropriate model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion. The second analysis was based on 13 routes (7 woods and 6 field routes) surveyed by various observers in which average detection rates were estimated by route and compared using a t-test. In both analyses, little evidence existed for variation in detection probabilities in relation to habitat. Double-observer methods provide a reasonable means of estimating detection probabilities and testing critical assumptions needed for analysis of point counts.

  10. Mini-FLOTAC for counting Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from cat feces--comparison with cell counting plates.

    PubMed

    Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Rinaldi, Laura; Le Roux, Delphine; Ducry, Tamara; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Perret, Catherine; Djurkovic Djakovic, Olgica; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Boireau, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    Oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii represent one of the most common environmental contaminants causing the zoonotic infection toxoplasmosis. The aim of the present study was to compare the Mini-FLOTAC device with traditional cell counting plates (Kova Slide) for the detection of T. gondii oocysts from feline feces. Two types of experiments were performed: (i) purified oocysts were counted in different dilutions and (ii) specific pathogen free T. gondii-negative cat feces was inoculated with numbers of purified oocysts and counting was performed directly from feces. Our analysis showed a thousand times higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC (5 × 10(2) oocysts) compared to Kova Slide (5 × 10(5) oocysts). Also, when compared by McNemar's test, counting of the purified oocysts showed a higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC compared to Kova Slide, for a dilution of 10(3) oocysts/ml (chi(2) = 6.1; P < 0.05). A better sensitivity was also found with Mini-FLOTAC in dilutions of 10(5) and 10(4) oocysts/ml, when counted from feces (chi(2) = 4.2 and 8.1, respectively, P < 0.05). Our results show that Mini-FLOTAC is more sensitive than traditional methods of T. gondii oocysts detection and quantification is more accurate. Furthermore, Mini-FLOTAC simplicity and cost effectiveness allow it to be used with light microscopes in any laboratory or field conditions. We therefore recommend its use for regular screening. Further studies are needed to validate Mini-FLOTAC for the detection of oocysts in soil and water samples in field conditions. PMID:25448359

  11. Detection and counting of Nitrobacter populations in soil by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Degrange, V; Bardin, R

    1995-01-01

    Although the biological conversion of nitrite to nitrate is a well-known process, studies of Nitrobacter populations are hindered by their physiological characteristics. This report describes a new method for detecting and counting Nitrobacter populations in situ with the PCR. Two primers from the 16S rRNA gene were used to generate a 397-bp fragment by amplification of Nitrobacter species DNA. No signal was detected from their phylogenetic neighbors or the common soil bacteria tested. Extraction and purification steps were optimized for minimal loss and maximal purity of soil DNA. The detection threshold and accuracy of the molecular method were determined from soil inoculated with 10, 10(2), or 10(3) Nitrobacter hamburgensis cells per g of soil. Counts were also done by the most-probable-number (MPN)-Griess and fluorescent antibody methods. PCR had a lower detection threshold (10(2) Nitrobacter cells per g of soil) than did the MPN-Griess or fluorescent antibody method. When PCR amplification was coupled with the MPN method, the counting rate reached 65 to 72% of inoculated Nitrobacter cells. Tested on nonsterile soil, this rapid procedure was proved efficient. PMID:7793930

  12. Variability analysis in low count rate sources. [in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collura, A.; Maggio, A.; Sciortino, S.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1987-01-01

    A method, based on the chi-square statistics, is described for detecting pulselike time variability in low count rate sources observed with photon-counting instruments. This method can be used even in the presence of observational gaps, takes full advantage of the filtering effect due to binning with different bin sizes, and takes into account the arbitrariness introduced by the binning phase. The procedure developed to limit the dependence of the results on the binning phase and ensure statistically correct results is described along with the application of the proposed procedure to a model of a variable source. Monte Carlo simulations are used to show how the method can be used to derive the characteristic variability time scales and that the method is more sensitive than the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test in detecting variability to a given confidence level.

  13. Real-time aqueous tritium monitor using liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.A.; McCarty, J.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Sanders, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    An ability to continuously monitor low-level tritium releases in aqueous effluents is of particular interest to heavy water facilities such as those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Canadian CANDU reactors. SRS developed a real-time monitoring system based on flow-through liquid scintillation (LS) counting. Sensitivities of 16 pCi/mL and 1 pCi/mL result from five minute and daily averages of counting data respectively. This sensitivity is about 200 times better than similar methods using solid scintillants. The LS system features uncomplicated sample pretreatment, precise of the cocktail and sample water, system features uncomplicated sample pretreatment, precise proportioning of the cocktail and sample water, on-line quench corrections, cocktail consumption as low as 0.15 mL/min, and response to changes in environmental tritium is less than 30 minutes. Field tests demonstrate that conditions necessary for stable analytical results are achieved.

  14. Photon-counting image sensors for the ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation on specific performance details of photon counting, ultraviolet image sensors having 2-dimensional formats is reviewed. In one study, controlled experiments were performed which compare the quantum efficiencies, in pulse counting mode, of CsI photocathodes deposited on: (1) the front surface of a microchannel plate (MCP), (2) a solid surface in front of an MCP, and (3) an intensified CCD image sensor (ICCD) where a CCD is directly bombarded by accelerated photoelectrons. Tests indicated that the detection efficiency of the CsI-coated MCP at 1026 A is lower by a factor of 2.5 than that of the MCP with a separate, opaque CsI photocathode, and the detection efficiency ratio increases substantially at longer wavelengths (ratio is 5 at 1216 A and 20 at 1608 A).

  15. Performance of single-photon-counting PILATUS detector modules

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, P.; Bergamaschi, A.; Broennimann, Ch.; Dinapoli, R.; Eikenberry, E. F.; Henrich, B.; Johnson, I.; Mozzanica, A.; Schlepütz, C. M.; Willmott, P. R.; Schmitt, B.

    2009-01-01

    PILATUS is a silicon hybrid pixel detector system, operating in single-photon-counting mode, that has been developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut for the needs of macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). A calibrated PILATUS module has been characterized with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The influence of charge sharing on the count rate and the overall energy resolution of the detector were investigated. The dead-time of the system was determined using the attenuated direct synchrotron beam. A single module detector was also tested in surface diffraction experiments at the SLS, whereby its performance regarding fluorescence suppression and saturation tolerance were evaluated, and have shown to greatly improve the sensitivity, reliability and speed of surface diffraction data acquisition. PMID:19395800

  16. TESTING FOR TREND WITH COUNT DATA. (R824757)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  18. Genetic regulatory networks that count to 3.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Malte; Sneppen, Kim

    2013-07-21

    Sensing a graded input and differentiating between its different levels is at the core of many developmental decisions. Here, we want to examine how this can be realized for a simple system. We model gene regulatory circuits that reach distinct states when setting the underlying gene copy number to 1, 2 and 3. This distinction can be considered as counting the copy number. We explore different circuits that allow for counting and keeping memory of the count after resetting the copy number to 1. For this purpose, we sample different architectures and parameters, only considering circuits that contain repressive links, which we model by Michaelis-Menten terms. Interestingly, we find that counting to 3 does not require a hierarchy in Hill coefficients, in contrast to counting to 2, which is known from lambda phage. Furthermore, we find two main circuit architectures: one design also found in the vertebrate neural tube in a development governed by the sonic hedgehog morphogen and the more robust design of a repressilator supplemented with a weak repressilator acting in the opposite direction. PMID:23567648

  19. Fatigue analysis of WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) components using a rainflow counting algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.J.; Schluter, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    A rainflow counting algorithm'' has been incorporated into the LIFE2 fatigue/fracture analysis code for wind turbines. The count algorithm, with its associated pre- and post-count algorithms, permits the code to incorporate time-series data into its analysis scheme. After a description of the algorithms used here, their use is illustrated by the examination of stress-time histories from the Sandia 34-m Test Bed vertical axis wind turbine. The results of the rainflow analysis are compared and contrasted to previously reported predictions for the service lifetime of the fatigue critical component for this turbine. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-06-01

    The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.

  1. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  2. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications. PMID:26738016

  3. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-06-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

  4. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H.; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-01-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

  5. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-01

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm2 for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm2, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τn for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  6. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Joseph D.; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller. PMID:27446749

  7. Tooth counts through growth in diapsid reptiles: implications for interpreting individual and size-related variation in the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb Marshall; VanBuren, Collin S; Larson, Derek W; Brink, Kirstin S; Campione, Nicolás E; Vavrek, Matthew J; Evans, David C

    2015-04-01

    Tooth counts are commonly recorded in fossil diapsid reptiles and have been used for taxonomic and phylogenetic purposes under the assumption that differences in the number of teeth are largely explained by interspecific variation. Although phylogeny is almost certainly one of the greatest factors influencing tooth count, the relative role of intraspecific variation is difficult, and often impossible, to test in the fossil record given the sample sizes available to palaeontologists and, as such, is best investigated using extant models. Intraspecific variation (largely manifested as size-related or ontogenetic variation) in tooth counts has been examined in extant squamates (lizards and snakes) but is poorly understood in archosaurs (crocodylians and dinosaurs). Here, we document tooth count variation in two species of extant crocodylians (Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus) as well as a large varanid lizard (Varanus komodoensis). We test the hypothesis that variation in tooth count is driven primarily by growth and thus predict significant correlations between tooth count and size, as well as differences in the frequency of deviation from the modal tooth count in the premaxilla, maxilla, and dentary. In addition to tooth counts, we also document tooth allometry in each species and compare these results with tooth count change through growth. Results reveal no correlation of tooth count with size in any element of any species examined here, with the exception of the premaxilla of C. porosus, which shows the loss of one tooth position. Based on the taxa examined here, we reject the hypothesis, as it is evident that variation in tooth count is not always significantly correlated with growth. However, growth trajectories of smaller reptilian taxa show increases in tooth counts and, although current samples are small, suggest potential correlates between tooth count trajectories and adult size. Nevertheless, interspecific variation in growth patterns

  8. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

  9. Advances in photon counting for bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, Martin B.; Powell, Ralph

    1998-11-01

    Photon counting systems were originally developed for astronomy, initially by the astronomical community. However, a major application area is in the study of luminescent probes in living plants, fishes and cell cultures. For these applications, it has been necessary to develop camera system capability at very low light levels -- a few photons occasionally -- and also at reasonably high light levels to enable the systems to be focused and to collect quality images of the object under study. The paper presents new data on MTF at extremely low photon flux and conventional ICCD illumination, counting efficiency and dark noise as a function of temperature.

  10. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960

  11. Novel Photon-Counting Detectors for Free-Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yang, Guan; Sun, Xiaoli; Lu, Wei; Merritt, Scott; Beck, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We present performance data for novel photon counting detectors for free space optical communication. NASA GSFC is testing the performance of three novel photon counting detectors 1) a 2x8 mercury cadmium telluride avalanche array made by DRS Inc. 2) a commercial 2880 silicon avalanche photodiode array and 3) a prototype resonant cavity silicon avalanche photodiode array. We will present and compare dark count, photon detection efficiency, wavelength response and communication performance data for these detectors. We discuss system wavelength trades and architectures for optimizing overall communication link sensitivity, data rate and cost performance. The HgCdTe APD array has photon detection efficiencies of greater than 50 were routinely demonstrated across 5 arrays, with one array reaching a maximum PDE of 70. High resolution pixel-surface spot scans were performed and the junction diameters of the diodes were measured. The junction diameter was decreased from 31 m to 25 m resulting in a 2x increase in e-APD gain from 470 on the 2010 array to 1100 on the array delivered to NASA GSFC. Mean single photon SNRs of over 12 were demonstrated at excess noise factors of 1.2-1.3.The commercial silicon APD array has a fast output with rise times of 300ps and pulse widths of 600ps. Received and filtered signals from the entire array are multiplexed onto this single fast output. The prototype resonant cavity silicon APD array is being developed for use at 1 micron wavelength.

  12. Prediction of in vivo background in phoswich lung count spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, N.W. . Office of Radiation Protection)

    1999-05-01

    Phoswich scintillation counters are used to detect actinides deposited in the lungs. The resulting spectra, however, contain Compton background from the decay of [sup 40]K, which occurs naturally in the striated muscle tissue of the body. To determine the counts due to actinides in a lung count spectrum, the counts due to [sup 40]K scatter must first be subtracted out. The [sup 40]K background in the phoswich NaI(Tl) spectrum was predicted from an energy region of interest called the monitor region, which is above the [sup 238]Pu region and the [sup 241]Am region, where photopeaks from [sup 238]Pu and [sup 241]Am region, where photopeaks from [sup 238]Pu and [sup 241]Am occur. Empirical models were developed to predict the backgrounds in the [sup 238]Pu and [sup 241]Am regions by testing multiple linear and nonlinear regression models. The initial multiple regression models contain a monitor region variable as well as the variables gender, (weight/height)[sup [alpha

  13. Novel photon-counting detectors for free-space communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainak, M. A.; Yang, G.; Sun, X.; Lu, W.; Merritt, S.; Beck, J.

    2016-03-01

    We present performance data for novel photon-counting detectors for free space optical communication. NASA GSFC is testing the performance of three types of novel photon-counting detectors 1) a 2x8 mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) avalanche array made by DRS Inc., and a 2) a commercial 2880-element silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) array. We present and compare dark count, photon-detection efficiency, wavelength response and communication performance data for these detectors. We discuss system wavelength trades and architectures for optimizing overall communication link sensitivity, data rate and cost performance. The HgCdTe APD array routinely demonstrated photon detection efficiencies of greater than 50% across 5 arrays, with one array reaching a maximum PDE of 70%. We performed high-resolution pixel-surface spot scans and measured the junction diameters of its diodes. We found that decreasing the junction diameter from 31 μm to 25 μm doubled the e- APD gain from 470 for an array produced in the year 2010 to a gain of 1100 on an array delivered to NASA GSFC recently. The mean single-photon SNR was over 12 and the excess noise factors measurements were 1.2-1.3. The commercial silicon APD array exhibited a fast output with rise times of 300 ps and pulse widths of 600 ps. On-chip individually filtered signals from the entire array were multiplexed onto a single fast output.

  14. Correcting the NICMOS count-rate dependent non-linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Roelof S.

    2006-03-01

    We describe a routine to correct NICMOS imaging data for the NICMOS count-rate dependent non-linearity recently discovered by Bohlin et al. (2005) and quantified by deJong et al. (2006) and Bohlin et al. (2006). The routine has been implemented in the python scripting language and is callable from the shell command line and from iraf. The routine corrects NICMOS count-rate images assuming the non-linearity follows a powerlaw behavior. The wavelength dependence of the non-linearity is interpolated between the measured points of de Jong et al. (2006) and Bohlin et al. (2006) if necessary. The count rates in the output images are modified and hence the standard NICMOS calibration zero-points are no longer valid. New calibration zero-points have been derived from standard star images corrected with the routine. The routine was tested on the lamp-on/off data used in de Jong et al. (2006) to measure the non-linearity effect. We apply the correction to the NGC1850 stellar cluster field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) to show the magnitude offsets expected due to the non-linearity on objects with a range in luminosity and surface brightness.

  15. Normal somatic cell count and subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, I P

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the normal somatic cell count (SCC) and to define subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes. Data were collected from 60 clinically normal buffaloes stationed at five farms of Chitwan Nepal and Buffalo Research Center, Hissar, India. Somatic cell count was measured using the Newman-Lampert staining technique. The upper limit of SCC was determined >or=200 000/ml of milk based on the mean +/- 2SD of a total SCC. Abnormal data of the SCC was repeatedly removed, which lie beyond the values of more than mean + 2SD until all the data come to lie within (mean + 2SD). Averages of SCC of right front and right hind quarters were significantly higher than left front and left hind quarters. Nearly 94% of California mastitis test (CMT) negative quarters were having somatic cells >or=200 000/ml. The mean SCC of CMT positive quarter was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than CMT negative quarters. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed on the basis of samples with SCCs >or=200 000/ml with positive bacterial cultures. Subclinical mastitis was found in 21.7% buffaloes and 8% of the quarter foremilk samples. Neutrophil counts were significantly higher in subclinical mastitis milk. PMID:16626405

  16. Direction counts: a comparative study of spatially directional counting biases in cultures with different reading directions.

    PubMed

    Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H; Göbel, Silke M

    2012-06-01

    Western adults associate small numbers with left space and large numbers with right space. Where does this pervasive spatial-numerical association come from? In this study, we first recorded directional counting preferences in adults with different reading experiences (left to right, right to left, mixed, and illiterate) and observed a clear relationship between reading and counting directions. We then recorded directional counting preferences in preschoolers and elementary school children from three of these reading cultures (left to right, right to left, and mixed). Culture-specific counting biases existed before reading acquisition in children as young as 3 years and were subsequently modified by early reading experience. Together, our results suggest that both directional counting and scanning activities contribute to number-space associations. PMID:22341408

  17. Classifiers as Count Syntax: Individuation and Measurement in the Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peggy; Barner, David; Huang, Becky H.

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between mass nouns (e.g., butter) and count nouns (e.g., table) offers a test case for asking how the syntax and semantics of natural language are related, and how children exploit syntax-semantics mappings when acquiring language. Virtually no studies have examined this distinction in classifier languages (e.g., Mandarin Chinese) due to the widespread assumption that such languages lack mass-count syntax. However, Cheng and Sybesma (1998) argue that Mandarin encodes the mass-count at the classifier level: classifiers can be categorized as “mass-classifiers” or “count-classifiers.” Mass and count classifiers differ in semantic interpretation and occur in different syntactic constructions. The current study is first an empirical test of Cheng and Sybesma’s hypothesis, and second, a test of the acquisition of putative mass and count classifiers by children learning Mandarin. Experiments 1 and 2 asked whether count-classifiers select individuals and mass classifiers select nonindividuals and sets of individuals. Adult Mandarin-speakers indeed showed this pattern of interpretation, while 4- to 6-year-olds had not fully mastered the distinction. Experiment 3 tested participants’ syntactic sensitivity by asking them to match two syntactic constructions (one that supported the mass or portion reading and one that did not) to two contrasting choices (a portion of an object and a whole object). A developmental trend was observed for the syntactic knowledge from 4-year-old children into adulthood: adults were near perfect and the older children were more likely than the younger children to correctly match the contrasting phrases to the objects. Thus, in three experiments we find support for Cheng and Sybesma’s analysis, but also find that children master the syntax and semantics of Mandarin classifiers much later than English-speaking children acquire knowledge of the English mass-count distinction. PMID:20151047

  18. Novel Photon-Counting Detectors for Free-Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, M. A.; Yang, G.; Sun, X.; Lu, W.; Merritt, S.; Beck, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present performance data for novel photon-counting detectors for free space optical communication. NASA GSFC is testing the performance of two types of novel photon-counting detectors 1) a 2x8 mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) avalanche array made by DRS Inc., and a 2) a commercial 2880-element silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) array. We present and compare dark count, photon-detection efficiency, wavelength response and communication performance data for these detectors. We successfully measured real-time communication performance using both the 2 detected-photon threshold and AND-gate coincidence methods. Use of these methods allows mitigation of dark count, after-pulsing and background noise effects. The HgCdTe APD array routinely demonstrated photon detection efficiencies of greater than 50% across 5 arrays, with one array reaching a maximum PDE of 70%. We performed high-resolution pixel-surface spot scans and measured the junction diameters of its diodes. We found that decreasing the junction diameter from 31 micrometers to 25 micrometers doubled the e- APD gain from 470 for an array produced in the year 2010 to a gain of 1100 on an array delivered to NASA GSFC recently. The mean single-photon SNR was over 12 and the excess noise factors measurements were 1.2-1.3. The commercial silicon APD array exhibited a fast output with rise times of 300 ps and pulse widths of 600 ps. On-chip individually filtered signals from the entire array were multiplexed onto a single fast output.

  19. Disk-based k-mer counting on a PC

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The k-mer counting problem, which is to build the histogram of occurrences of every k-symbol long substring in a given text, is important for many bioinformatics applications. They include developing de Bruijn graph genome assemblers, fast multiple sequence alignment and repeat detection. Results We propose a simple, yet efficient, parallel disk-based algorithm for counting k-mers. Experiments show that it usually offers the fastest solution to the considered problem, while demanding a relatively small amount of memory. In particular, it is capable of counting the statistics for short-read human genome data, in input gzipped FASTQ file, in less than 40 minutes on a PC with 16 GB of RAM and 6 CPU cores, and for long-read human genome data in less than 70 minutes. On a more powerful machine, using 32 GB of RAM and 32 CPU cores, the tasks are accomplished in less than half the time. No other algorithm for most tested settings of this problem and mammalian-size data can accomplish this task in comparable time. Our solution also belongs to memory-frugal ones; most competitive algorithms cannot efficiently work on a PC with 16 GB of memory for such massive data. Conclusions By making use of cheap disk space and exploiting CPU and I/O parallelism we propose a very competitive k-mer counting procedure, called KMC. Our results suggest that judicious resource management may allow to solve at least some bioinformatics problems with massive data on a commodity personal computer. PMID:23679007

  20. Single Photon Counting Detectors for Low Light Level Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Kimberly

    2015-10-01

    This dissertation presents the current state-of-the-art of semiconductor-based photon counting detector technologies. HgCdTe linear-mode avalanche photodiodes (LM-APDs), silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs), and electron-multiplying CCDs (EMCCDs) are compared via their present and future performance in various astronomy applications. LM-APDs are studied in theory, based on work done at the University of Hawaii. EMCCDs are studied in theory and experimentally, with a device at NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab. The emphasis of the research is on GM-APD imaging arrays, developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory and tested at the RIT Center for Detectors. The GM-APD research includes a theoretical analysis of SNR and various performance metrics, including dark count rate, afterpulsing, photon detection efficiency, and intrapixel sensitivity. The effects of radiation damage on the GM-APD were also characterized by introducing a cumulative dose of 50 krad(Si) via 60 MeV protons. Extensive development of Monte Carlo simulations and practical observation simulations was completed, including simulated astronomical imaging and adaptive optics wavefront sensing. Based on theoretical models and experimental testing, both the current state-of-the-art performance and projected future performance of each detector are compared for various applications. LM-APD performance is currently not competitive with other photon counting technologies, and are left out of the application-based comparisons. In the current state-of-the-art, EMCCDs in photon counting mode out-perform GM-APDs for long exposure scenarios, though GM-APDs are better for short exposure scenarios (fast readout) due to clock-induced-charge (CIC) in EMCCDs. In the long term, small improvements in GM-APD dark current will make them superior in both long and short exposure scenarios for extremely low flux. The efficiency of GM-APDs will likely always be less than EMCCDs, however, which is particularly disadvantageous for

  1. Prediction of bulk tank somatic cell count violations based on monthly individual cow somatic cell count data.

    PubMed

    Fauteux, V; Bouchard, E; Haine, D; Scholl, D T; Roy, J P

    2015-04-01

    The regulatory limit in Canada for bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) was recently lowered from 500,000 to 400,000 cells/mL. Herd indices based on changes in cow somatic cell count over 2 consecutive months (e.g., proportion of healthy or chronically infected cows, cows cured, and new intramammary infection rate) could be used as predictors for BTSCC violations. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for exceeding the limit of 400,000 cells/mL in the next month using these herd indices. Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data were used from 924 dairy herds in Québec, Canada. Test-day BTSCC was estimated by dividing the sum of all cows' DHI test-day somatic cell count times DHI test-day milk production by the total volume of milk produced by the herd on that test-day. In total, 986 of 8,681 (11.4%) estimated BTSCC exceeded 400,000 cells/mL. The final predictive model included 6 variables: mean herd somatic cell score at the current test-month, proportion of cows >500,000 cells/mL at the current test-month, proportion of healthy cows during lactation at the current test-month, proportion of chronically infected cows at the current test-month, average days in milk at the current test-month, and annual mean daily milk production. The optimized sensitivity and specificity of the model were 76 and 74%, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 25 and 95%, respectively. This low positive predictive value and high negative predictive value demonstrated that the model was less accurate at predicting herds that would violate the estimated BTSCC threshold but very accurate at identifying herds that would not. In addition, the area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.82, suggesting that the model had excellent discrimination between test-months that did and did not exceed 400,000 cells/mL. An internal validation was completed using a bootstrapped resampling-based estimation method and

  2. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they meet... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...

  3. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1242 - Count per pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Count per pound. 51.1242 Section 51.1242 Agriculture... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single...

  5. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  6. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  7. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  8. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. 20 CFR 418.3410 - Whose resources do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whose resources do we count? 418.3410 Section... Subsidies Resources § 418.3410 Whose resources do we count? (a) We count your resources. We count the resources of both you and your spouse regardless of whether one or both of you apply or are eligible for...

  12. Maine KIDS COUNT 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Lynn

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The data book presents state level trend data, a…

  13. Maine Kids Count 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) community and family environment; (3) social and economic opportunity; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  14. Maine Kids Count 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indictors children's well-being in four areas: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) community and family environment; and (4) education and learning. The report's introduction describes…

  15. WisKids Count Data Book, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Bob; Grigsby, Tamara; Roberts, Brandon; Wehrly, Mark

    This WisKids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Wisconsin's children, revisiting indicators that have been followed since 1991. The statistical portrait is based on ten general areas: (1) county demographics; (2) county labor market; (3) housing; (4) maternal and child health; (5) early childhood program participation;…

  16. County Data Book 1996: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky children on a state-wide, county, and school district basis. An introductory essay finds a strong link between the percentage of adults completing high school in a given school district and various indicators: As the percentage of adults completing high school increases, the…

  17. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1995 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ. Medical Center, Omaha.

    While a vast majority of children in Nebraska are experiencing a safe, healthy, and nurturing childhood, a significant number are not, and some of these numbers are growing. This Kids Count report is the third annual comprehensive review of available data in nine areas of child health and well-being in the state. Presented with these statistics…

  18. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1999 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report is the seventh to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and substantiated cases, who reports, types of abuse, domestic…

  19. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2000 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on juvenile justice in Nebraska. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents findings on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence (investigated and…

  20. Kids Count Report in Nebraska, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trend data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 of the report presents U.S. Census data on population trends in Nebraska as well as child poverty rates, and urges Nebraskans to work together to ensure that its youngest citizens have the best start possible. Section 2, the bulk of this…

  1. Kids Count in Nebraska: 2001 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet M.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. Section 1 contains a commentary on promoting quality early childhood care and education services. Section 2, the bulk of this statistical report, presents finding on indicators of well-being in eight areas: (1) child abuse and…

  2. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  3. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…

  4. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  5. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 43 indicators in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population and children in single-parent families); (2) economic well-being (including median household income,…

  6. Maine KIDS COUNT 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT Report details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on a variety of indicators in the areas of: (1) physical and mental health; (2) social and economic opportunity; (3) education and learning; and (4) child health care access. The report contains a special section on Maine…

  7. WisKids Count Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Laura; Grigsby, Tamera; Peacock, Jon; Brien, Nan

    This WisKids Count data book provides a statistical portrait of K-12 education in the state of Wisconsin. The introduction to the data book examines financing of education, including special education, and the issue of financing private education with public dollars; barriers to school success, including mobility and racial disparities; what…

  8. Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

  9. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  10. Optical Ranicon detectors for photon counting imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Crocker, Jim; Paresce, Francesco; Rafal, Marc

    1988-08-01

    The design and development of two detectors, known as Ranicon and advanced Ranicon, for optical photon counting imaging on ground-based telescopes are discussed. The proximity focusing, microchannel-plate stack, resistive anode, and signal processing characteristics are described. The theory behind the overall resolution of the Ranicon system is reviewed. Resolution measurements for the instruments are reported and discussed.

  11. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  12. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  13. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  14. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  15. Wilmington Kids Count Fact Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book provides a statistical portrait of the well-being of children in Wilmington, Delaware, and is designed as a resource for policymakers and citizens to use in shaping local action to improve the status of children and families in Wilmington. In addition to demographic information, 11 featured indicators are used to describe…

  16. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  18. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.228 - Counting ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Counting ballots. 1221.228 Section 1221.228 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  20. KIDS COUNT in Missouri 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children in the areas of economic security, school success, child health, child safety, and adolescent success. The statistical portrait is based on the following indicators: (1) students enrolled in free/reduced price lunch programs; (2) births to mothers without a…

  1. Kansas KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    This Kids Count Data Book provides state and county trends in the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 21 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children in poverty; (3) children approved for free school meals; (4) childhood deaths; (5) infant mortality; (6) births with early prenatal care; (7)…

  2. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

  3. Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

  4. KidsCount in Colorado! 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide, countywide, and citywide trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Following a brief foreword, the report presents state data and city data for 15 major cities in the form of a report card. The report cards relay: demographic data related to number of children by age and race; indicators of child…

  5. KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jenifer

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

  6. KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

  7. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  8. Kids Count Alaska Data Book: 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Anchorage. Inst. of Social and Economic Research.

    This second annual Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) early childhood, including prenatal care, infant mortality, and children with developmental disabilities; (2) economic well-being, including children living in poverty and…

  9. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  10. Estimating mutation rate: how to count mutations?

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yun-Xin; Huai, Haying

    2003-01-01

    Mutation rate is an essential parameter in genetic research. Counting the number of mutant individuals provides information for a direct estimate of mutation rate. However, mutant individuals in the same family can share the same mutations due to premeiotic mutation events, so that the number of mutant individuals can be significantly larger than the number of mutation events observed. Since mutation rate is more closely related to the number of mutation events, whether one should count only independent mutation events or the number of mutants remains controversial. We show in this article that counting mutant individuals is a correct approach for estimating mutation rate, while counting only mutation events will result in underestimation. We also derived the variance of the mutation-rate estimate, which allows us to examine a number of important issues about the design of such experiments. The general strategy of such an experiment should be to sample as many families as possible and not to sample much more offspring per family than the reciprocal of the pairwise correlation coefficient within each family. To obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of mutation rate, the number of sampled families needs to be in the same or higher order of magnitude as the reciprocal of the mutation rate. PMID:12807798

  11. County Data Book 1995: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Kentucky children age birth through 19. For each county, and for the state, comparisons are provided between the base years of 1980-1982 and the most recent years 1992-1994. Counties are ranked against each other and trend graphs are provided for the studied…

  12. Numbers, Counting, and Infinity in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meconi, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of middle-school students' natural understanding of large numbers to introduce the concept of infinity. Presents activities that investigate infinite sets by demonstrating a one-to-one correspondence between the counting numbers and the given set. Examples include prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, fractions, even and odd numbers,…

  13. Technology Counts 2007: A Digital Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Technology Counts 2007" looks back, and ahead, after a decade of enormous upheaval in the educational technology landscape. This special issue of "Education Week" includes the following articles: (1) A Digital Decade; (2) Getting Up to Speed (Andrew Trotter); (3) E-Rate's Imprint Seen in Schools (Andrew Trotter); (4) Teaching Assistants (Rhea R.…

  14. Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention;…

  15. Restricted Schur polynomials and finite N counting

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Storm

    2009-01-15

    Restricted Schur polynomials have been posited as orthonormal operators for the change of basis from N=4 SYM to type IIB string theory. In this paper we briefly expound the relationship between the restricted Schur polynomials and the operators forwarded by Brown, Heslop, and Ramgoolam. We then briefly examine the finite N counting of the restricted Schur polynomials.

  16. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These two Kids Count brief reports discuss issues related to the well-being of Rhode Island children. The first report identifies ways to measure the impact of state and federal welfare reform proposals on children who receive benefits through Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Potential measures of success for welfare reform include…

  17. Making Academics Count: Action Guide. Successful Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Amanda Sodoma; Meeder, Hans; Rosen, Linda P.; Silver, Steve; Williams, Andra

    This document is intended to help communities plan and implement initiatives modeled after Making Academics Count, a campaign that was launched in 1997 by the Business Coalition for Education Reform (BCER) to encourage employers to ask job applicants for their school records and thereby help motivate students to achieve at higher levels. The guide…

  18. Implementing Graduation Counts: State Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides information on states' progress in implementing the graduation rate all 50 governors agreed by signing the Graduation Counts Compact in 2005 to adopt. The governors undertook this commitment because they understand the imperative to gather more accurate, comparable data on how many of their students graduate from high school…

  19. Montana Kids Count 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This 1996 KIDS COUNT data book presents comparative data on child well-being for each county in Montana and for the state as a whole. Data in the county profiles, which comprise the bulk of the report, are grouped into: background facts (demographic, mental health, education, security, and income support information); charts showing changes in…

  20. Kentucky Kids Count 2002 County Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of child well-being in the areas of: (1) child poverty; (2) family types; (4) child living arrangements and parental employment; (4) births; (5) child and teen deaths; (6) economic security; (7) student…

  1. KidsCount in Colorado! 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1997 Kids Count report examines challenges to Colorado children and youth and how prevention and early intervention can enhance their well-being. The report includes a summary of recent research on brain development and the importance of early experience and stimulation in early intervention programs. The levels of state funding for various…

  2. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1997 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentz, Cara Anderson

    This Kids Count report is the fifth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) juvenile justice, including juvenile arrests, and numbers committed to youth rehabilitation and treatment centers; (2)…

  3. Kids Count in Nebraska: 1998 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassatt, Susan

    This Kids Count report is the sixth to examine statewide trends and county data on the well-being of Nebraska's children. The bulk of this statistical report presents findings on 32 indicators of well-being in 8 areas: (1) child abuse and neglect/domestic violence, including abuse fatalities and serious injuries; (2) early childhood care and…

  4. Rhode Island Kids Count Factbook, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the eighth annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 53 indicators (3 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic diversity);…

  5. Atom counting in expanding ultracold clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Braungardt, Sibylle; Rodriguez, Mirta; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2011-10-15

    We study the counting statistics of ultracold bosonic atoms that are released from an optical lattice. We show that the counting probability distribution of the atoms collected at a detector located far away from the optical lattice can be used to characterize the initially trapped states. We consider trapped superfluid and insulating states with different occupation patterns. We analyze how the correlations between the modes that develop during the expansion in the gravitational field appear in the counting distribution and find that the ratio of the detector size with respect to the expanded wave function determines whether short-range or long-range correlations of the initial state are reflected in the counting statistics. We find that detectors which are large compared to the size of the expanded wave function distinguish insulating and superfluid phases irrespective of the occupation pattern. We show that using detectors that are small compared to the size of the expanded wave function, occupation patterns in insulating and supersolid states can be distinguished. Finally, we show how the magnetic phase patterns are dramatically reflected in the number distribution.

  6. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  7. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality; (5) low birth weight…

  8. South Dakota KIDS COUNT Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 25 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) population; (2) family profile; (3) poverty thresholds; (4) infant mortality rate; (5) low birth…

  9. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  10. KIDS COUNT in Virginia: 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on five general areas of children's well being: health, safety, education, families, and economic factors. Key indicators in these five areas include: (1) prenatal care rates; (2) low birthweight; (3) child deaths; (4)…

  11. Kids Count Alaska, 2000 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, and teen births; (3)…

  12. Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…

  13. Maine Kids Count 2003 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelcich, Susan, Ed.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of physical and mental health, including insurance enrollment, adolescent health and safety, and child welfare; social and economic status, including poverty, unemployment, and teen pregnancies; and…

  14. Kids Count Alaska Data Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda, Ed.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Alaska's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in six areas: (1) infancy, including prenatal care, low birth weight, and infant mortality; (2) economic well-being, including child poverty, children with no parent working full-time, children in single…

  15. Multidimensional time-correlated single photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Axel

    2006-10-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) is based on the detection of single photons of a periodic light signal, measurement of the detection time of the photons, and the build-up of the photon distribution versus the time in the signal period. TCSPC achieves a near ideal counting efficiency and transit-time-spread-limited time resolution for a given detector. The drawback of traditional TCSPC is the low count rate, long acquisition time, and the fact that the technique is one-dimensional, i.e. limited to the recording of the pulse shape of light signals. We present an advanced TCSPC technique featuring multi-dimensional photon acquisition and a count rate close to the capability of currently available detectors. The technique is able to acquire photon distributions versus wavelength, spatial coordinates, and the time on the ps scale, and to record fast changes in the fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence intensity of a sample. Biomedical applications of advanced TCSPC techniques are time-domain optical tomography, recording of transient phenomena in biological systems, spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging, FRET experiments in living cells, and the investigation of dye-protein complexes by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We demonstrate the potential of the technique for selected applications.

  16. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Factbook, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This KIDS COUNT databook is the seventh annual profile examining statewide trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children. The statistical portrait is based on 49 indicators (6 new indicators in this databook) in 5 areas: (1) family and community (including child population, children in single parent families, and racial and ethnic…

  17. Kids Count in Nebraska 1996 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Nebraska's children. The statistical portrait is based on seven general areas of children's well-being: (1) early care and education; (2) physical and behavioral health; (3) child abuse, neglect, and domestic violence; (4) out of home care; (5) education; (6) economic…

  18. County Data Book 1997: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children on a statewide and county basis. An introduction summarizes some of the trends for Kentucky's children in the 1990s. The bulk of the report presents statewide and county data grouped into five categories: (1) poverty rates and programs (persons in poverty; median…

  19. An Optical Bit-Counting Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Marilyn; Lapir, Gennadi M.; Berkovich, Simon

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the omnipresent problem of counting bits - an operation discussed since the very early stages of the establishing of computer science. The need for a quick bit-counting method acquires a special significance with the proliferation of search engines on the Internet. It arises in several other computer applications. This is especially true in information retrieval in which an array of binary vectors is used to represent a characteristic function (CF) of a set of qualified documents. The number of "I"s in the CF equals the cardinality of the set. The process of repeated evaluations of this cardinality is a pivotal point in choosing a rational strategy for deciding whether to constrain or broaden the search criteria to ensure selection of the desired items. Another need for bit-counting occurs when trying to determine the differences between given files, (images or text), in terms of the Hamming distance. An Exclusive OR operation applied to a pair of files results in a binary vector array of mismatches that must be counted.

  20. South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  1. Kansas Kids Count Data Book, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    This 1996 Kids Count data book presents data on 20 indicators of child well-being in Kansas, grouped into 6 areas: economic well-being, physical health and safety, educational achievement, early childhood care and education, emotional well-being, and social behavior and social control. The data are grouped by county for each indicator, by…

  2. Kids Count in Indiana: 1995 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This Kids Count report is the second in a series examining statewide trends in the well-being of Indiana's children. After an introduction and an explanation of the statistics, sections of the statistical report contain data on several indicators of well-being: (1) Indiana's children and their families, including population estimates, ethnicity,…

  3. Kids Count in Missouri 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on outcome measures of general areas of children's well being: (1) students free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  4. KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  5. KidsCount in Colorado! 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shanna

    This 1995 KidsCount in Colorado report examines challenges and offers examples of how prevention and early intervention strategies can make a difference in the lives of Colorado children. The report looks at the state of child well-being in Colorado in terms of health, early care and education, and primary education. Statistics and descriptions…

  6. KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  7. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  8. Dead time and count loss determination for radiation detection systems in high count rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Amol

    This research is focused on dead time and the subsequent count loss estimation in radiation detection systems. The dead time is the minimum amount of time required between two events to permit detection of those events individually by a radiation detection system. If events occur during the system dead time, they are lost. Such lost information can be important in many applications including high-precision spectroscopy, positron emission tomography (PET), and the scanning of spent nuclear fuel. Understanding of the behavior of radiation detection systems is important; thus this work included a comprehensive review of dead time and pulse pile-up models and methods. The most common way to estimate detector dead time is by one-parameter approximations known as nonparalyzable and paralyzable models. This research proposes a two parameter model that estimates the detector paralysis factor and the dead time based on a graphical method. To determine the two parameters characteristics of a detection system, this work tested a novel technique to saturate the detector using a decaying source. The modified decaying source method, unlike other methods, does not assume the idealized behavior of detection system in use and calculates the overall dead time of the detection system. The paralysis factor for high purity germanium detection system was estimated approaching 100% and the dead time was on the order of 5--10 micros which compares well with the literature.

  9. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter’s performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  10. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-15

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  11. Methodology for creating dedicated machine and algorithm on sunflower counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muracciole, Vincent; Plainchault, Patrick; Mannino, Maria-Rosaria; Bertrand, Dominique; Vigouroux, Bertrand

    2007-09-01

    In order to sell grain lots in European countries, seed industries need a government certification. This certification requests purity testing, seed counting in order to quantify specified seed species and other impurities in lots, and germination testing. These analyses are carried out within the framework of international trade according to the methods of the International Seed Testing Association. Presently these different analyses are still achieved manually by skilled operators. Previous works have already shown that seeds can be characterized by around 110 visual features (morphology, colour, texture), and thus have presented several identification algorithms. Until now, most of the works in this domain are computer based. The approach presented in this article is based on the design of dedicated electronic vision machine aimed to identify and sort seeds. This machine is composed of a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) and a PC bearing the GUI (Human Machine Interface) of the system. Its operation relies on the stroboscopic image acquisition of a seed falling in front of a camera. A first machine was designed according to this approach, in order to simulate all the vision chain (image acquisition, feature extraction, identification) under the Matlab environment. In order to perform this task into dedicated hardware, all these algorithms were developed without the use of the Matlab toolbox. The objective of this article is to present a design methodology for a special purpose identification algorithm based on distance between groups into dedicated hardware machine for seed counting.

  12. [Quantitative urine microscopic examination using disposable counting chamber for diagnosis of urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Hida, Y; Yamashita, M; Gejyo, F; Hiraoka, M; Hori, C; Sudo, M

    1995-12-01

    Routine urinalysis is performed as a screening test for urinary tract infection (UTI) in out-patients or in-patients. We assessed the usefulness of microscopic examination of unspun and unstained urine using a disposable slide with counting chambers (Kova Slide 10 grid, Miles-Sankyo) for diagnosis of significant bacteriuria. 173 fresh urine samples were obtained from 173 subjects (89 male and 84 (female), including 117 inpatients, aged from 0 to 96 years. Urine samples were examined for bacteriuria by the standard culture method and counting chamber method. Significant bacteriuria was defined as 10(5)/ml or more of bacilli for midstream urine and urine collected by bags and 10(4)/ml or more for urine collected by catheterization and from indwelling catheters. Urine leukocytes were also counted on disposable slide. The rapid dipstick test (N-multistix-SG-10, Miles-Sankyo) of leukocyte esterase activity and nitrite were measured in the urine specimens read by a photometer (Clinitek-10, Miles-Sankyo). Significant bacteriuria was diagnosed by standard culture method in 67 urine samples. Close correlation was obtained between bacterial counts determined by the bacterial culture and counting chamber method (Spearman's correlation coefficient p < 0.001). Sensitivity and negative predictive value for significant bacteriuria were 94.0 and 95.1%, respectively, when bacteriuria or pyuria was present in the counting chamber. Dipstick test had a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 86.6 and 89.9%, respectively, when either leukocyte esterase activity of + or more, or nitrite of + was found. In out-patients, both sensitivity and negative predictive value were as high as 100% in counting chamber method. Thus, we can conclude that urine microscopy on disposable counting chambers is a very sensitive, simple, time-saving and lost-effective method for diagnosis of UTI. PMID:8569040

  13. Amp-hour counting charge control for photovoltaic hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Thompson, B.

    1997-10-01

    An amp-hour counting battery charge control algorithm has been defined and tested using the Digital Solar Technologies MPR-9400 microprocessor based photovoltaic hybrid charge controller. This work included extensive laboratory and field testing of the charge algorithm on vented lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid batteries. The test results have shown that with proper setup amp-hour counting charge control is more effective than conventional voltage regulated sub-array shedding in returning the lead-acid battery to a high state of charge.

  14. What Counts as Knowing? The Development of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Counting from Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L.; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S.; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-01-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual…

  15. Calibration of photon counting imaging microchannel plate detectors for EUV astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Jelinsky, P.

    1986-01-01

    The calibration of photon counting imaging detectors for satellite based EUV astronomy is a complex process designed to ensure the validity of the data received 'in orbit'. The methods developed to accomplish calibration of microchannel plate detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer are described and illustrated. The characterization of these detectors can be subdivided into three categories: stabilization, performance tests, and environmental tests.

  16. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2010 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to somatic cell count (SCC) for calculating herd and State averages. The ...

  17. Some special problems in the determination of viable counts of groundwater microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, P; Rades-Rohkohl, E

    1988-07-01

    Factors affecting viable cell counts in groundwater or sediments were studied with samples from the Segeberg Forest test area in northern Germany. There was very little variation in results with the season (April, August, November) or depth of sampling; generally there were 10(3)-10(4) aerobic cells per ml or g sediment. Long incubation times resulted in higher cell counts; groundwater samples required 4-5 weeks, and sediment extracts had to be cultured for 7 weeks. Total cell counts in sediment were 10(2)-10(4) cell/g higher than viable cell counts of aerobes. This was explained partly by the additional presence of anaerobes and partly by the observation that some morphotypes may not have grown under our conditions. Viable cell counts were not influenced by cell extraction from the sediment with either Na-pyrophosphate or groundwater extracts. However, iron-precipitating or manganese-oxidizing bacteria were better extracted with sterile groundwater. The microflora of wells was more numerous than that of the free aquifer; consequently it was better to pump off all well water before aquifer water was sampled. The diameter of the well was also important; thinner tubes had higher cell counts than those with wider diameter. For sampling, wells should be at least 1 year old, since young wells contain higher numbers of microorganisms due to underground disturbances from the drilling. Turbid water samples could be clarified by filtration, but this reduced the viable counts by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Two different media inoculated with a sample dilution resulted in the same cell counts, but their microbial diversity was different. Storage of groundwater samples before processing resulted in up to 17-fold increases in cell counts and loss of diversity in the first 24 hours. Cell numbers decreased slowly during longer storage. PMID:24201536

  18. Density estimation in aerial images of large crowds for automatic people counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Christian; Metzler, Juergen

    2013-05-01

    Counting people is a common topic in the area of visual surveillance and crowd analysis. While many image-based solutions are designed to count only a few persons at the same time, like pedestrians entering a shop or watching an advertisement, there is hardly any solution for counting large crowds of several hundred persons or more. We addressed this problem previously by designing a semi-automatic system being able to count crowds consisting of hundreds or thousands of people based on aerial images of demonstrations or similar events. This system requires major user interaction to segment the image. Our principle aim is to reduce this manual interaction. To achieve this, we propose a new and automatic system. Besides counting the people in large crowds, the system yields the positions of people allowing a plausibility check by a human operator. In order to automatize the people counting system, we use crowd density estimation. The determination of crowd density is based on several features like edge intensity or spatial frequency. They indicate the density and discriminate between a crowd and other image regions like buildings, bushes or trees. We compare the performance of our automatic system to the previous semi-automatic system and to manual counting in images. By counting a test set of aerial images showing large crowds containing up to 12,000 people, the performance gain of our new system will be measured. By improving our previous system, we will increase the benefit of an image-based solution for counting people in large crowds.

  19. Evaluation of heterotrophic plate and chromogenic agar colony counting in water quality laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Gary; Monis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of bacteria using plate-based counts is a core technique used by food and water microbiology testing laboratories. However, manual counting of bacterial colonies is both time and labour intensive, can vary between operators and also requires manual entry of results into laboratory information management systems, which can be a source of data entry error. An alternative is to use automated digital colony counters, but there is a lack of peer-reviewed validation data to allow incorporation into standards. We compared the performance of digital counting technology (ProtoCOL3) against manual counting using criteria defined in internationally recognized standard methods. Digital colony counting provided a robust, standardized system suitable for adoption in a commercial testing environment. The digital technology has several advantages:•Improved measurement of uncertainty by using a standard and consistent counting methodology with less operator error.•Efficiency for labour and time (reduced cost).•Elimination of manual entry of data onto LIMS.•Faster result reporting to customers. PMID:26649275

  20. Evaluation of heterotrophic plate and chromogenic agar colony counting in water quality laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Hallas, Gary; Monis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of bacteria using plate-based counts is a core technique used by food and water microbiology testing laboratories. However, manual counting of bacterial colonies is both time and labour intensive, can vary between operators and also requires manual entry of results into laboratory information management systems, which can be a source of data entry error. An alternative is to use automated digital colony counters, but there is a lack of peer-reviewed validation data to allow incorporation into standards. We compared the performance of digital counting technology (ProtoCOL3) against manual counting using criteria defined in internationally recognized standard methods. Digital colony counting provided a robust, standardized system suitable for adoption in a commercial testing environment. The digital technology has several advantages:•Improved measurement of uncertainty by using a standard and consistent counting methodology with less operator error.•Efficiency for labour and time (reduced cost).•Elimination of manual entry of data onto LIMS.•Faster result reporting to customers. PMID:26649275

  1. Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

    2014-03-01

    Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here. PMID:24864622

  2. The performance of photon counting imaging with a Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ji, Zhong-Jie; Chen, Qian

    2013-10-01

    In principle, photon counting imaging can detect a photon. With the development of low-level-light image intensifier techniques and low-level-light detection devices, photon counting imaging can now detect photon images under extremely low illumination. Based on a Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiode single photon counter, an experimental system for photon counting imaging was built through two-dimensional scanning of a SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector. The feasibility of the imaging platform was validated experimentally. Two images with different characteristics, namely, the USAF 1951 resolution test panel and the image of Lena, were chosen to evaluate the imaging performance of the experimental system. The results were compared and analysed. The imaging properties under various illumination and scanning steps were studied. The lowest illumination limit of the SPAD photon counting imaging was determined.

  3. Gluing Lidar Signals Detected in Analog-to-Digital and Photon Counting Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chang-Zhong; Liu, Bing-Yi; Liu, Jin-Tao; Wu, Song-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Lidar is one of the most effective tools for atmospheric remote sensing. For a ground-based lidar system, the backscattered light usually has large dynamic range. Photon-counting mode has the capability to measure weak signal from high altitude, while Analog-to-Digital mode with better linearity is good at measuring strong signal at low altitude. In some lidar systems, atmospheric return signal is measured in both Analog-to-Digital and Photon Counting modes and combined into an entire profile by using a gluing algorithm. A method for gluing atmospheric return signal is developed and tested. For the Photon Counting signal, the saturation characteristics are analyzed to calculate the coefficients for correction. Then the Analog-to-Digital and Photon Counting signals are glued by a weighted average process. Results show the glued signal is reliable at both low and high altitudes.

  4. Improved light microscopy counting method for accurately counting Plasmodium parasitemia and reticulocytemia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Caeul; Pereira, Ligia; Shardul, Pritish; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Maki, Jennifer; Rixon, Jordan; Shaw-Saliba, Kathryn; White, John; Silveira, Maria; Gomes, Edwin; Chery, Laura; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2016-08-01

    Even with the advances in molecular or automated methods for detection of red blood cells of interest (such as reticulocytes or parasitized cells), light microscopy continues to be the gold standard especially in laboratories with limited resources. The conventional method for determination of parasitemia and reticulocytemia uses a Miller reticle, a grid with squares of different sizes. However, this method is prone to errors if not used correctly and counts become inaccurate and highly time-consuming at low frequencies of target cells. In this report, we outline the correct guidelines to follow when using a reticle for counting, and present a new counting protocol that is a modified version of the conventional method for increased accuracy in the counting of low parasitemias and reticulocytemias. Am. J. Hematol. 91:852-855, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27074559

  5. Effects of sampling strategy, detection probability, and independence of counts on the use of point counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Many factors affect the use of point counts for monitoring bird populations, including sampling strategies, variation in detection rates, and independence of sample points. The most commonly used sampling plans are stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling. Each of these might be most useful for different objectives or field situations. Variation in detection probabilities and lack of independence among sample points can bias estimates and measures of precision. All of these factors should be con-sidered when using point count methods.

  6. Impact of Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy on Platelet Counts in Patients With Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohamadreza

    2016-01-01

    This study was a before and after clinical evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication on platelet counts in a group of 23 patients with chronic Idiopathic (Autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura (CITP). H. pylori infection was identified in patients by a 13C-urea breath test and confirmed by an H. pylori stool antigen test. Eradication was conducted in patients testing positive. Infected (n = 10) and uninfected (n = 13) patient groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, history of previous splenectomy, treatment with anti-D, current treatment with corticosteroids, or initial platelet counts. H. pylori eradication was successful in eight infected CITP patients, with two patients not responsive to treatment. Compared to the uninfected group, patients in the infected group who responded to eradication therapy had significantly increased platelet counts after six months (56.2 ± 22.2 vs. 233 ± 85.6 ×103 million cells/L; P < 0.01), whereas platelet counts in the non-responding patients and uninfected group did not differ after this period of time. H. pylori eradication promotes significant platelet count improvement in patients with CITP. Thus, all patients with CITP should be tested and treated for H. pylori infections. PMID:26925898

  7. Impact of Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy on Platelet Counts in Patients With Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mohamadreza

    2016-01-01

    This study was a before and after clinical evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication on platelet counts in a group of 23 patients with chronic Idiopathic (Autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura (CITP). H. pylori infection was identified in patients by a (13)C-urea breath test and confirmed by an H. pylori stool antigen test. Eradication was conducted in patients testing positive. Infected (n = 10) and uninfected (n = 13) patient groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, history of previous splenectomy, treatment with anti-D, current treatment with corticosteroids, or initial platelet counts. H pylori eradication was successful in eight infected CITP patients, with two patients not responsive to treatment. Compared to the uninfected group, patients in the infected group who responded to eradication therapy had significantly increased platelet counts after six months (56.2 ± 22.2 vs. 233 ± 85.6 ×10(3) million cells/L; P < 0.01), whereas platelet counts in the non-responding patients and uninfected group did not differ after this period of time. H. pylori eradication promotes significant platelet count improvement in patients with CITP. Thus, all patients with CITP should be tested and treated for H. pylori infections. PMID:26925898

  8. A microfluidic biochip for complete blood cell counts at the point-of-care

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, U.; Reddy, B.; Damhorst, G.; Sonoiki, O.; Ghonge, T.; Yang, C.; Bashir, R.

    2016-01-01

    Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility. There is a tremendous need for an automated, portable point-of-care blood cell counter that could yield results in a matter of minutes from a drop of blood without any trained professionals to operate the instrument. We have developed microfluidic biochips capable of a partial CBC using only a drop of whole blood. Total leukocyte and their 3-part differential count are obtained from 10 μL of blood after on-chip lysing of the RBCs and counting of the leukocytes electrically using microfabricated platinum electrodes. For RBCs and platelets, 1 μL of whole blood is diluted with PBS on-chip and the cells are counted electrically. The total time for measurement is under 20 minutes. We demonstrate a high correlation of blood cell counts compared to results acquired with a commercial hematology analyzer. This technology could potentially have tremendous applications in hospitals at the bedside, private clinics, retail clinics and the developing world. PMID:26909365

  9. Count-Rate Statistics for Drift Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Pietraski, Philip J.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron light sources are low-duty-cycle pulsed X-ray sources, a fact that is often neglected in estimating the count-rate capabilities of photon-counting detectors in synchrotron-based experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate the effect that this has on the pileup statistics of drift detectors. We derive expressions for the cases of continuous and pulsed X-ray sources. We consider a pulsed source with period that is either much less than the shaper support time or much less than the average drift time. We also consider a pulsed source with a period that is long or comparable to both the shaper support and the drift time. These conditions correspond to normal and reduced bunch fill patterns of synchrotrons. PMID:27103751

  10. MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka; Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

    2006-12-01

    We used very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We observed a 4' × 7' field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N), and our data reached J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5σ, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J - K > 2.3 is 2.35 ± 0.31 arcmin-2 at K < 22 and 3.54 ± 0.38 arcmin-2 at K < 23, respectively. These values are consistent with those in the GOODS-South and FIRES. Our deep and wide data suggest that the number counts of DRGs turn over at K ˜ 22, and the surface density of the faint DRGs with K > 22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 2 < z < 4 with the relatively old stellar population and/or heavy dust extinction, the number of faint galaxies with a similar red color is relatively small. Different behavior patterns of the number counts of the DRGs and bluer galaxies with 2 < zphot < 4 at K > 22 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of the low-mass galaxies are blue, while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

  11. High-rate counting efficiency of VLPC

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, H.H.

    1998-11-01

    A simple model is applied to describe dependencies of Visible Light Photon Counter (VLPC) characteristics on temperature and operating voltage. Observed counting efficiency losses at high illumination, improved by operating at higher temperature, are seen to be a consequence of de-biasing within the VLPC structure. A design improvement to minimize internal de-biasing for future VLPC generations is considered. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Capacity approaching codes for photon counting receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondin, Marina; Daneshgaran, Fred; Bari, Inam; Delgado, Maria Teresa

    2012-10-01

    [1] a low-complexity photon-counting receiver has been presented, which may be employed for weak-energy optical communications and which is typically modeled through its equivalent Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC) model. In this paper we consider the scheme described in [1], we model it as a time varying Binary Input-Multiple Output (BIMO) channel and analyze its performance in presence of soft-metric based capacity approaching iteratively decoded error correcting codes, and in particular using soft-metric based Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes. To take full advantage of such detector, soft information is generated in the form of Log-Likelihood Ratios (LLRs), achieving reduction in Bit Error Rate (BER) and Frame Error Rate (FER) with respect to classical BSC and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel models. Furthermore, we explore the limits of the achievable performance gains when using photon counting detectors as compared to the case when such detectors are not available. To this end, we find the classical capacity of the considered BIMO channel, clearly showing the potential gains that photon counting detectors can provide in the context of a realistic cost-effective scheme from an implementation point of view. Furthermore, we show that from a channel modeling point of view, we can observe that the BIMO channel can be approximated with an AWGN channel for high values of mean photon count Nc, while the AWGN model offers an unreliable result with a low mean photon number Nc, (i.e. with low raw BER). This effect is more evident with lower coding rates.

  13. Physical characterization of photon-counting tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, Karl; Lundqvist, Mats; Cederström, Björn; Danielsson, Mats E.; Fredenberg, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Tomosynthesis is emerging as a next generation technology in mammography. Combined with photon-counting detectors with the ability for energy discrimination, a novel modality is enabled — spectral tomosynthesis. Further advantages of photon-counting detectors in the context of tomosynthesis include elimination of electronic noise, efficient scatter rejection (in some geometries) and no lag. Fourier-based linear-systems analysis is a well-established method for optimizing image quality in two-dimensional x-ray systems. The method has been successfully adapted to threedimensional imaging, including tomosynthesis, but several areas need further investigation. This study focuses on two such areas: 1) Adaption of the methodology to photon-counting detectors, and 2) violation of the shift-invariance and stationarity assumptions in non-cylindrical geometries. We have developed a Fourier-based framework to study the image quality in a photon-counting tomosynthesis system, assuming locally linear, stationary, and shift-invariant system response. The framework includes a cascaded-systems model to propagate the modulation-transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS) through the system. The model was validated by measurements of the MTF and NPS. High degrees of non-shift invariance and non-stationarity were observed, in particular for the depth resolution as the angle of incidence relative the reconstruction plane varied throughout the imaging volume. The largest effects on image quality in a given point in space were caused by interpolation from the inherent coordinate system of the x-rays to the coordinate system that was used for reconstruction. This study is part of our efforts to fully characterize the spectral tomosynthesis system, we intend to extend the model further to include the detective-quantum efficiency, observer modelling, and spectral effects.

  14. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  15. Decay counting in the age of AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, James R.

    1987-11-01

    Up to the advent of AMS, all the accomplishments of 14C dating, and the studies of 10Be and other long-lived radionuclides, were made by low-level decay counting, the technique pioneered by W.F. Libby. It will hardly be news to people at this conference that, while much was accomplished in the three decades when counting prevailed, the world has now changed decisively. I will try to give an account of where low-level counting was "before the revolution," and of what its usefulness is today. There are still some remarkable examples of its application, the best being the neutrino experiment of Raymond Davis, and its potential successors. Some cosmogenic nuclides, whose half-lives are less than 10 3 yr, are still best measured by decay; this will continue unless the overall ion yield of AMS systems rises markedly from present levels. One long-lived nuclide, 53Mn, is still best measured by neutron activation as 312-day 54Mn, but this may not continue.

  16. Estimation of population trajectories from count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring of changes in animal population size is rarely possible through complete censuses; frequently, the only feasible means of monitoring changes in population size is to use counts of animals obtained by skilled observers as indices to abundance. Analysis of changes in population size can be severely biased if factors related to the acquisition of data are not adequately controlled for. In particular we identify two types of observer effects: these correspond to baseline differences in observer competence, and to changes through time in the ability of individual observers. We present a family of models for count data in which the first of these observer effects is treated as a nuisance parameter. Conditioning on totals of negative binomial counts yields a Dirichlet compound multinomial vector for each observer. Quasi-likelihood is used to estimate parameters related to population trajectory and other parameters of interest; model selection is carried out on the basis of Akaike's information criterion. An example is presented using data on Wood thrush from the North American Breeding Bird Survey.

  17. Duplication count distributions in DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindi, Suzanne S.; Hunt, Brian R.; Yorke, James A.

    2008-12-01

    We study quantitative features of complex repetitive DNA in several genomes by studying sequences that are sufficiently long that they are unlikely to have repeated by chance. For each genome we study, we determine the number of identical copies, the “duplication count,” of each sequence of length 40, that is of each “40-mer.” We say a 40-mer is “repeated” if its duplication count is at least 2. We focus mainly on “complex” 40-mers, those without short internal repetitions. We find that we can classify most of the complex repeated 40-mers into two categories: one category has its copies clustered closely together on one chromosome, the other has its copies distributed widely across multiple chromosomes. For each genome and each of the categories above, we compute N(c) , the number of 40-mers that have duplication count c , for each integer c . In each case, we observe a power-law-like decay in N(c) as c increases from 3 to 50 or higher. In particular, we find that N(c) decays much more slowly than would be predicted by evolutionary models where each 40-mer is equally likely to be duplicated. We also analyze an evolutionary model that does reflect the slow decay of N(c) .

  18. Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Carin, Lawrence

    2015-02-01

    The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB) process. A gamma process is employed to model the rate measure of a Poisson process, whose normalization provides a random probability measure for mixture modeling and whose marginalization leads to an NB process for count modeling. A draw from the NB process consists of a Poisson distributed finite number of distinct atoms, each of which is associated with a logarithmic distributed number of data samples. We reveal relationships between various count- and mixture-modeling distributions and construct a Poisson-logarithmic bivariate distribution that connects the NB and Chinese restaurant table distributions. Fundamental properties of the models are developed, and we derive efficient Bayesian inference. It is shown that with augmentation and normalization, the NB process and gamma-NB process can be reduced to the Dirichlet process and hierarchical Dirichlet process, respectively. These relationships highlight theoretical, structural, and computational advantages of the NB process. A variety of NB processes, including the beta-geometric, beta-NB, marked-beta-NB, marked-gamma-NB and zero-inflated-NB processes, with distinct sharing mechanisms, are also constructed. These models are applied to topic modeling, with connections made to existing algorithms under Poisson factor analysis. Example results show the importance of inferring both the NB dispersion and probability parameters. PMID:26353243

  19. Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Carin, Lawrence

    2013-10-17

    The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB) process. A gamma process is employed to model the rate measure of a Poisson process, whose normalization provides a random probability measure for mixture modeling and whose marginalization leads to a NB process for count modeling. A draw from the NB process consists of a Poisson distributed finite number of distinct atoms, each of which is associated with a logarithmic distributed number of data samples. We reveal relationships between various count- and mixture-modeling distributions distributions, and construct a Poisson-logarithmic bivariate distribution that connects the NB and Chinese restaurant table distributions. Fundamental properties of the models are developed, and we derive efficient Bayesian inference. It is shown that with augmentation and normalization, the NB process and gamma-NB process can be reduced to the Dirichlet process and hierarchical Dirichlet process, respectively. These relationships highlight theoretical, structural and computational advantages of the NB process. A variety of NB processes, including the beta-geometric, beta-NB, marked-beta-NB, marked-gamma-NB and zero-inflated-NB processes, with distinct sharing mechanisms, are also constructed. These models are applied to topic modeling, with connections made to existing algorithms under Poisson factor analysis. Example results show the importance of inferring both the NB dispersion and probability parameters. PMID:24144977

  20. Enabling photon counting detectors with dynamic attenuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are being investigated as a replacement for conventional x-ray detectors because they promise several advantages, including better dose efficiency, higher resolution and spectral imaging. However, many of these advantages disappear when the x-ray flux incident on the detector is too high. We recently proposed a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator (or beam shaping filter) that can control the flux incident on the detector. This can restrict the operating range of the PCXD to keep the incident count rate below a given limit. We simulated a system with the piecewise-linear attenuator and a PCXD using raw data generated from forward projected DICOM files. We investigated the classic paralyzable and nonparalyzable PCXD as well as a weighted average of the two, with the weights chosen to mimic an existing PCXD (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). The dynamic attenuator has small synergistic benefits with the nonparalyzable detector and large synergistic benefits with the paralyzable detector. Real PCXDs operate somewhere between these models, and the weighted average model still shows large benefits from the dynamic attenuator. We conclude that dynamic attenuators can reduce the count rate performance necessary for adopting PCXDs.

  1. Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim

    2006-10-01

    The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.

  2. Shuffler bias corrections using calculated count rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, Phillip M.; Hurd, J. R.; Hsue, F.

    2001-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has two identical shufflers that have been calibrated with a dozen U{sub 3}O{sub 8} certified standards from 10 g {sup 235}U to 3600 g {sup 235}U. The shufflers are used to assay a wide variety of material types for their {sup 235}U contents. When the items differ greatly in chemical composition or shape from the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} standards a bias is introduced because the calibration is not appropriate. Recently a new tool has been created to calculate shuffler count rates accurately, and this has been applied to generate bias correction factors. The tool has also been used to verify the masses and count rates of some uncertified U{sub 3}O{sub 8} standards up to 8.0 kg of {sup 235}U which were used to provisionally extend the calibration beyond the 3.6 kg of {sup 235}U mass when a special need arose. Metallic uranium has significantly different neutronic properties from the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} standards and measured count rates from metals are biased low when the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} calibration is applied. The application of the calculational tool to generate bias corrrections for assorted metals will be described. The accuracy of the calculational tool was verified using highly enriched metal disk standards that could be stacked to form cylinders or put into spread arrays.

  3. Particle Energy Spectrum, Revisited from a Counting Statistics Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-28

    In nuclear science, gamma and neutron spectra are counted energy by energy, and then particle by particle. Until recently, few studies have been performed on how exactly those energy spectra are counted, or how those counts are correlated. Because of lack of investigation, cross section covariance and correlation matrices are usually estimated using perturbation method. We will discuss a statistical counting scheme that shall mimic the gamma and neutron counting process used in nuclear science. From this counting scheme, the cross section covariance and correlation can be statistically derived.

  4. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  5. Effective estimation of correct platelet counts in pseudothrombocytopenia using an alternative anticoagulant based on magnesium salt.

    PubMed

    Schuff-Werner, Peter; Steiner, Michael; Fenger, Sebastian; Gross, Hans-Jürgen; Bierlich, Alexa; Dreissiger, Katrin; Mannuß, Steffen; Siegert, Gabriele; Bachem, Maximilian; Kohlschein, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia remains a challenge in the haematological laboratory. The pre-analytical problem that platelets tend to easily aggregate in vitro, giving rise to lower platelet counts, has been known since ethylenediamine-tetra acetic acid EDTA and automated platelet counting procedures were introduced in the haematological laboratory. Different approaches to avoid the time and temperature dependent in vitro aggregation of platelets in the presence of EDTA were tested, but none of them proved optimal for routine purposes. Patients with unexpectedly low platelet counts or flagged for suspected aggregates, were selected and smears were examined for platelet aggregates. In these cases patients were asked to consent to the drawing of an additional sample of blood anti-coagulated with a magnesium additive. Magnesium was used in the beginning of the last century as anticoagulant for microscopic platelet counts. Using this approach, we documented 44 patients with pseudothrombocytopenia. In all cases, platelet counts were markedly higher in samples anti-coagulated with the magnesium containing anticoagulant when compared to EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples. We conclude that in patients with known or suspected pseudothrombocytopenia the magnesium-anticoagulant blood samples may be recommended for platelet counting. PMID:23808903

  6. Effective estimation of correct platelet counts in pseudothrombocytopenia using an alternative anticoagulant based on magnesium salt

    PubMed Central

    Schuff-Werner, Peter; Steiner, Michael; Fenger, Sebastian; Gross, Hans-Jürgen; Bierlich, Alexa; Dreissiger, Katrin; Mannuß, Steffen; Siegert, Gabriele; Bachem, Maximilian; Kohlschein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Pseudothrombocytopenia remains a challenge in the haematological laboratory. The pre-analytical problem that platelets tend to easily aggregate in vitro, giving rise to lower platelet counts, has been known since ethylenediamine-tetra acetic acid EDTA and automated platelet counting procedures were introduced in the haematological laboratory. Different approaches to avoid the time and temperature dependent in vitro aggregation of platelets in the presence of EDTA were tested, but none of them proved optimal for routine purposes. Patients with unexpectedly low platelet counts or flagged for suspected aggregates, were selected and smears were examined for platelet aggregates. In these cases patients were asked to consent to the drawing of an additional sample of blood anti-coagulated with a magnesium additive. Magnesium was used in the beginning of the last century as anticoagulant for microscopic platelet counts. Using this approach, we documented 44 patients with pseudothrombocytopenia. In all cases, platelet counts were markedly higher in samples anti-coagulated with the magnesium containing anticoagulant when compared to EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples. We conclude that in patients with known or suspected pseudothrombocytopenia the magnesium-anticoagulant blood samples may be recommended for platelet counting. PMID:23808903

  7. Feasibility of Amorphous Selenium Based Photon Counting Detectors for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; O'Connor, P.; Lehnert, J., De Geronimo, G., Dolazza, E., Tousignant, O., Laperriere, L., Greenspan, J., Zhao, W.

    2009-02-27

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) has been incorporated successfully in direct conversion flat panel x-ray detectors, and has demonstrated superior image quality in screening mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) under energy integration mode. The present work explores the potential of a-Se for photon counting detectors in DBT. We investigated major factors contributing to the variation in the charge collected by a pixel upon absorption of each x-ray photon. These factors included x-ray photon interaction, detector geometry, charge transport, and the pulse shaping and noise properties of the photon counting readout circuit. Experimental measurements were performed on a linear array test structure constructed by evaporating an a-Se layer onto an array of 100 {mu}m pitch strip electrodes, which are connected to a 32 channel low noise photon counting integrated circuit. The measured pulse height spectrum (PHS) under polychromatic xray exposure was interpreted quantitatively using the factors identified. Based on the understanding of a-Se photon counting performance, design parameters were proposed for a 2D detector with high quantum efficiency and count rate that could meet the requirements of photon counting detector for DBT.

  8. A Comparison of Automated and Manual Crater Counting Techniques in Images of Elysium Planitia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Brumby, S. P.; Asphaug, E.

    2004-11-01

    Surveys of impact craters yield a wealth of information about Martian geology, providing clues to the relative age, local composition and erosional history of the surface. Martian craters are also of intrinsic geophysical interest, given that the processes by which they form are not entirely clear, especially cratering in ice-saturated regoliths (Plesko et al. 2004, AGU) which appear common on Mars (Squyres and Carr 1986). However, the deluge of data over the last decade has made comprehensive manual counts prohibitive, except in select regions. Given that most small craters on Mars may be secondaries from a few very recent impact events (McEwen et al. in press, Icarus 2004), using select regions for age dating introduces considerable potential for sampling error. Automation is thus an enabling planetary science technology. In contrast to machine counts, human counts are prone to human decision making, thus not intrinsically reproducible. One can address human "noise" by averaging over many human counts (Kanefsky et al. 2001), but this multiplies the already laborious effort required. In this study, we test automated crater counting algorithms developed with the Los Alamos National Laboratory genetic programming suite GENIE (Harvey et al., 2002) against established manual counts of craters in Elysium Planitia, using MOC and THEMIS data. We intend to establish the validity of our method against well-regarded hand counts (Hartmann et al. 2000), and then apply it generally to larger regions of Mars. Previous work on automated crater counting used customized algorithms (Bierhaus et al. 2003, Burl et al.. 2001). Algorithms generated by genetic programming have the advantage of requiring little time or user effort to generate, so it is relatively easy to generate a suite of algorithms for varied terrain types, or to compare results from multiple algorithms for improved accuracy (Plesko et al. 2003).

  9. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

  10. PT and INR Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Time ; Partial Thromboplastin Time ; Prothrombin Consumption Time; Fibrinogen ; Coagulation Factors ; Platelet Count ; Platelet Function Tests ; Thrombin Time ; ... thinning medication ( anticoagulant ) warfarin (Coumadin®). Several proteins called coagulation factors are involved in the process that the ...

  11. Markov counting models for correlated binary responses.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Forrest W; Zelterman, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We propose a class of continuous-time Markov counting processes for analyzing correlated binary data and establish a correspondence between these models and sums of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. Our approach generalizes many previous models for correlated outcomes, admits easily interpretable parameterizations, allows different cluster sizes, and incorporates ascertainment bias in a natural way. We demonstrate several new models for dependent outcomes and provide algorithms for computing maximum likelihood estimates. We show how to incorporate cluster-specific covariates in a regression setting and demonstrate improved fits to well-known datasets from familial disease epidemiology and developmental toxicology. PMID:25792624

  12. Emerging technologies for point-of-care CD4 T-lymphocyte counting

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, David S.; Hawkins, Kenneth R.; Steele, Matthew S.; Singhal, Mitra; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2012-01-01

    A CD4 T-lymphocyte count determines eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) with patients recently diagnosed with HIV and also monitors the efficacy of ART treatment thereafter. ART slows the progression of HIV to AIDS. In the developing world, CD4 tests are often performed in centralized laboratories, typically in urban areas. The expansion of ART programs into rural areas has created a need for rapid CD4 counting as logistical barriers can delay the timely dissemination of test results and affect patient care through delay in intervention or loss of follow-up care. CD4 measurement at the point-of-care (POC) in rural areas could help facilitating ART and monitoring of treatment. This review highlights recent technology developments with applications towards determining CD4 counts at the POC. PMID:21798607

  13. FPGA-based gating and logic for multichannel single photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Pooser, Raphael C; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Evans, Philip G; Williams, Brian P; Schaake, Jason; Humble, Travis S

    2012-01-01

    We present results characterizing multichannel InGaAs single photon detectors utilizing gated passive quenching circuits (GPQC), self-differencing techniques, and field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based logic for both diode gating and coincidence counting. Utilizing FPGAs for the diode gating frontend and the logic counting backend has the advantage of low cost compared to custom built logic circuits and current off-the-shelf detector technology. Further, FPGA logic counters have been shown to work well in quantum key distribution (QKD) test beds. Our setup combines multiple independent detector channels in a reconfigurable manner via an FPGA backend and post processing in order to perform coincidence measurements between any two or more detector channels simultaneously. Using this method, states from a multi-photon polarization entangled source are detected and characterized via coincidence counting on the FPGA. Photons detection events are also processed by the quantum information toolkit for application testing (QITKAT)

  14. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  15. Ion-counting nanodosemeter with particle tracking capabilities.

    PubMed

    Bashkirov, V; Schulte, R; Breskin, A; Chechik, R; Schemelinin, S; Garty, G; Wroe, A; Sadrozinski, H; Grosswendt, B

    2006-01-01

    An ion-counting nanodosemeter (ND) yielding the distribution of radiation-induced ions in a low-pressure gas within a millimetric, wall-less sensitive volume (SV) was equipped with a silicon microstrip telescope that tracks the primary particles, allowing correlation of nanodosimetric data with particle position relative to the SV. The performance of this tracking ND was tested with a broad 250 MeV proton beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center. The high-resolution tracking capability made it possible to map the ion registration efficiency distribution within the SV, for which only calculated data were available before. It was shown that tracking information combined with nanodosimetric data can map the ionisation pattern of track segments within 150 nm-equivalent long SVs with a longitudinal resolution of approximately 5 tissue-equivalent nanometers. Data acquired in this work were compared with results of Monte Carlo track structure simulations. The good agreement between 'tracking nanodosimetry' data acquired with the new system and simulated data supports the application of ion-counting nanodosimetry in experimental track-structure studies. PMID:17283009

  16. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  17. Evaluating the (your country here) olympic medal count.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    An Olympic Games is a measurable test of a nation´s sporting power. Medal counts are the object of intense scrutiny after every Olympiad. Most countries celebrate any medal with national glee, since 60% of competing countries will win none. In 2012, 10% of the competing countries won 75% of all medals. Despite this concentration among a few countries, more countries are winning more medals now than 20 years ago, thanks in part to athlete-support and -development programs arising around the globe. Small strong sporting countries like Norway are typified by fairly large variation in medal results from Olympiad to Olympiad and a high concentration of results in a few sports. These are important factors to consider when evaluating national performance and interpreting the medal count. Medal conversion, podium placements relative to top 8 placements, may provide a measure of the competitiveness of athlete-support programs in this international zero sum game where the cost of winning Olympic gold keeps rising whether measured in dollars or human capital.  PMID:23428493

  18. Knowledge of Counting Principles: How Relevant Is Order Irrelevance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamawar, Deepthi; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Smith-Chant, Brenda; Penner-Wilger, Marcie

    2010-01-01

    Most children who are older than 6 years of age apply essential counting principles when they enumerate a set of objects. Essential principles include (a) one-to-one correspondence between items and count words, (b) stable order of the count words, and (c) cardinality--that the last number refers to numerosity. We found that the acquisition of a…

  19. 20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whose income do we count? 418.3310 Section 418.3310 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your income. If you are married and...

  20. 20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whose income do we count? 418.3310 Section 418.3310 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your income. If you are married and...

  1. 20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whose income do we count? 418.3310 Section 418.3310 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your income. If you are married and...

  2. 20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whose income do we count? 418.3310 Section 418.3310 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your income. If you are married and...

  3. Putting Counting to Work: Preschoolers' Understanding of Cardinal Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon, Kevin; Lewis, Charlie; Freeman, Norman H.

    2003-01-01

    Preschool children are often good at counting things but seem slow to learn that there is more to counting than simply finding out how many are in a single set. Counting is useful when comparing sets and when creating new sets to match existing ones. This is part of the numerical understanding that educators wish to foster in schools. In two…

  4. 20 CFR 418.3310 - Whose income do we count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whose income do we count? 418.3310 Section... Subsidies Income § 418.3310 Whose income do we count? (a) We count your income. If you are married and live with your spouse in the month you file for a subsidy, or when we redetermine your eligibility for...

  5. EVALUATING POINT COUNT VERSUS TERRITORY MAPPING CROPLAND BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species richness, composition and abundance of farmland birds were compared between point counts (50,100, and 150 m radius half circles) and territory mapping on three 40 ha plots in Quebec, Canada. oint counts of smaller radii tended to have larger density estimates than counts ...

  6. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements as to count. 51.564 Section 51.564... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of...-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be permitted as follows: Provided, That the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements as to count. 51.564 Section 51.564... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of...-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be permitted as follows: Provided, That the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.564 - Requirements as to count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements as to count. 51.564 Section 51.564... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Count § 51.564 Requirements as to count. (a) The number of...-dozens. Variations from the number specified shall be permitted as follows: Provided, That the...

  9. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used...

  10. Tutorial on Using Regression Models with Count Outcomes Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander; Morgan, Grant B.

    2016-01-01

    Education researchers often study count variables, such as times a student reached a goal, discipline referrals, and absences. Most researchers that study these variables use typical regression methods (i.e., ordinary least-squares) either with or without transforming the count variables. In either case, using typical regression for count data can…

  11. Evaluation of Pulse Counting for the Mars Organic Mass Analyzer (MOMA) Ion Trap Detection Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Amerom, Friso H.; Short, Tim; Brinckerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul; Kleyner, Igor; Cotter, Robert J.; Pinnick, Veronica; Hoffman, Lars; Danell, Ryan M.; Lyness, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Organic Mass Analyzer is being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to identify organics and possible biological compounds on Mars. In the process of characterizing mass spectrometer size, weight, and power consumption, the use of pulse counting was considered for ion detection. Pulse counting has advantages over analog-mode amplification of the electron multiplier signal. Some advantages are reduced size of electronic components, low power consumption, ability to remotely characterize detector performance, and avoidance of analog circuit noise. The use of pulse counting as a detection method with ion trap instruments is relatively rare. However, with the recent development of high performance electrical components, this detection method is quite suitable and can demonstrate significant advantages over analog methods. Methods A prototype quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer with an internal electron ionization source was used as a test setup to develop and evaluate the pulse-counting method. The anode signal from the electron multiplier was preamplified. The an1plified signal was fed into a fast comparator for pulse-level discrimination. The output of the comparator was fed directly into a Xilinx FPGA development board. Verilog HDL software was written to bin the counts at user-selectable intervals. This system was able to count pulses at rates in the GHz range. The stored ion count nun1ber per bin was transferred to custom ion trap control software. Pulse-counting mass spectra were compared with mass spectra obtained using the standard analog-mode ion detection. Prelin1inary Data Preliminary mass spectra have been obtained for both analog mode and pulse-counting mode under several sets of instrument operating conditions. Comparison of the spectra revealed better peak shapes for pulse-counting mode. Noise levels are as good as, or better than, analog-mode detection noise levels. To artificially force ion pile-up conditions, the ion trap was overfilled

  12. Evaluation of the platelet counting by Abbott CELL-DYN SAPPHIRE haematology analyser compared with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, E; Del Vecchio, L; Scopacasa, F; Lo Pardo, C; Capone, F; Pariante, S; Scalia, G; De Caterina, M

    2009-04-01

    The Abbot Cell-Dyn Sapphire is a new generation haematology analyser. The system uses optical/fluorescence flow cytometry in combination with electronic impedance to produce a full blood count. Optical and impedance are the default methods for platelet counting while automated CD61-immunoplatelet analysis can be run as selectable test. The aim of this study was to determine the platelet count performance of the three counting methods available on the instrument and to compare the results with those provided by Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur flow cytometer used as reference method. A lipid interference experiment was also performed. Linearity, carryover and precision were good, and satisfactory agreement with reference method was found for the impedance, optical and CD61-immunoplatelet analysis, although this latter provided the closest results in comparison with flow cytometry. In the lipid interference experiment, a moderate inaccuracy of optical and immunoplatelet counts was observed starting from a very high lipid value. PMID:18177435

  13. Automated Counting of Particles To Quantify Cleanliness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, James

    2005-01-01

    A machine vision system, similar to systems used in microbiological laboratories to count cultured microbes, has been proposed for quantifying the cleanliness of nominally precisely cleaned hardware by counting residual contaminant particles. The system would include a microscope equipped with an electronic camera and circuitry to digitize the camera output, a personal computer programmed with machine-vision and interface software, and digital storage media. A filter pad, through which had been aspirated solvent from rinsing the hardware in question, would be placed on the microscope stage. A high-resolution image of the filter pad would be recorded. The computer would analyze the image and present a histogram of sizes of particles on the filter. On the basis of the histogram and a measure of the desired level of cleanliness, the hardware would be accepted or rejected. If the hardware were accepted, the image would be saved, along with other information, as a quality record. If the hardware were rejected, the histogram and ancillary information would be recorded for analysis of trends. The software would perceive particles that are too large or too numerous to meet a specified particle-distribution profile. Anomalous particles or fibrous material would be flagged for inspection.

  14. Spontaneous non-verbal counting in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment) to assess whether pre-counters would spontaneously deploy sequential (item-by-item) enumeration and whether this ability would rely on the object tracking system (OTS) or on the approximate number system (ANS). Two-and-a-half-year-olds watched the experimenter performing one-by-one insertion of 'food tokens' into an opaque animal puppet and then were asked to imitate the puppet-feeding behavior. The number of tokens varied between 1 and 6 and each numerosity was presented many times to obtain a distribution of responses during imitation. Many children demonstrated attention to the numerosity of the food tokens despite the lack of any explicit cueing to the number dimension. Most notably, the response distributions centered on the target numerosities and showed the classic variability signature that is attributed to the ANS. These results are consistent with previous studies on sequential enumeration in non-human primates and suggest that pre-counting children are capable of sequentially updating the numerosity of non-visible sets through additive operations and hold it in memory for reproducing the observed behavior. PMID:25754974

  15. Language and counting: Some recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Garry

    1990-02-01

    It has long been recognised that the language of mathematics is an important variable in the learning of mathematics, and there has been useful work in isolating and describing the linkage. Steffe and his co-workers at Georgia, for example, (Steffe, von Glasersfeld, Richardson and Cobb, 1983) have suggested that young children may construct verbal countable items to count objects which are hidden from their view. Although there has been a surge of research interest in counting and early childhood mathematics, and in cultural differences in mathematics attainment, there has been little work reported on the linkage between culture as exemplified by language, and initial concepts of numeration. This paper reports on some recent clinical research with kindergarten children of European and Asian background in Australia and America. The research examines the influence that number naming grammar appears to have on young children's understandings of two-digit numbers and place value. It appears that Transparent Standard Number Word Sequences such as Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese which follow the numerical representation pattern by naming tens and units in order ("two tens three"), may be associated with distinctive place value concepts which may support sophisticated mental algorithms.

  16. High-order counting statistics and interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flindt, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Full counting statistics concerns the stochastic transport of electrons in mesoscopic structures [1]. Recently it has been shown that the charge transport statistics for noninteracting electrons in a two-terminal system is always generalized binomial: it can be decomposed into independent single-particle events, and the zeros of the generating function are real and negative [2]. In this talk I show how the zeros of the generating function move into the complex plane due to interactions and demonstrate how the positions of the zeros can be detected using high-order factorial cumulants [3]. As an illustrative example I discuss electron transport through a Coulomb blockade quantum dot for which the interactions on the quantum dot are clearly visible in the high-order factorial cumulants. These findings are important for understanding the influence of interactions on counting statistics, and the characterization in terms of zeros of the generating function provides a simple interpretation of recent experiments, where high-order statistics have been measured [4]. [4pt] [1] Yu. V. Nazarov, ed., Quantum Noise in Mesoscopic Physics, NATO Science Series, Vol. 97 (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2003) [2] A. G. Abanov and D. A. Ivanov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 086602 (2008), Phys. Rev. B 79, 205315 (2009) [3] D. Kambly, C. Flindt, and M. B"uttiker, Phys. Rev. B 83, 075432 (2011) -- Editors' Suggestion [4] C. Flindt, C. Fricke, F. Hohls, T. Novotn'y, K. Netocn'y, T. Brandes, and R. J. Haug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10116 (2009)

  17. Martian crater counts on Elysium Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Kathleen; Barlow, Nadine G.

    1990-01-01

    Without returned samples from the Martian surface, relative age chronologies and stratigraphic relationships provide the best information for determining the ages of geomorphic features and surface regions. Crater-size frequency distributions of six recently mapped geological units of Elysium Mons were measured to establish their relative ages. Most of the craters on Elysium Mons and the adjacent plains units are between 500 and 1000 meters in diameter. However, only craters 1 km in diameter or larger were used because of inadequate spatial resolution of some of the Viking images and to reduce probability of counting secondary craters. The six geologic units include all of the Elysium Mons construct and a portion of the plains units west of the volcano. The surface area of the units studied is approximately 128,000 sq km. Four of the geologic units were used to create crater distribution curves. There are no craters larger than 1 km within the Elysium Mons caldera. Craters that lacked raised rims, were irregularly shaped, or were arranged in a linear pattern were assumed to be endogenic in origin and not counted. A crater frequency distribution analysis is presented.

  18. Hazards of parenteral treatment: do particles count?

    PubMed Central

    Puntis, J W; Wilkins, K M; Ball, P A; Rushton, D I; Booth, I W

    1992-01-01

    After prolonged parenteral nutrition a 12 month old infant died with pulmonary hypertension and granulomatous pulmonary arteritis. A review of necropsy findings in 41 infants who had been fed parenterally showed that two of these also had pulmonary artery granulomata, while none of 32 control patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome had similar findings. Particulate contaminants have been implicated in the pathogenesis of such lesions and these were quantified in amino acid/dextrose solutions and fat emulsions using automated particle counting and optical microscope counting respectively. Parenteral feed infusions compounded for a 3000 g infant according to standard nutritional regimens were found to include approximately 37,000 particles between 2 and 100 microns in size in one day's feed, of which 80% were derived from the fat emulsion. In-line end filtration of intravenous infusions may reduce the risk of particle associated complications. A suitable particle filter is required for use with lipid. Images p1476-a PMID:1489228

  19. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  20. DUSEL Ultra-Low Background Counting Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keenan

    2007-10-01

    The Homestake Mine in western South Dakota has been confirmed by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as the site for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Many of the physics, geosciences, and microbiology experiments in the facility will be funded by DOE and NSF, and will benefit the missions of these agencies. In support of these programs, physics faculty in South Dakota and scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been working together to establish a multidisciplinary research cluster to provide baseline characterization for physics and geosciences/geomicrobiology experiments at the Homestake Mine through an Ultra-Low Background Counting Facility (ULBCoF). The proposed project utilizes two low-background germanium detectors with massive shielding underground to carefully analyze materials for low background experiments. Low background experiments such as double-beta decay, solar neutrino, geoneutrino, and dark matter must control the purity of all the materials used in the construction of a detector. Measuring such low counting rates is a very challenging task that will be best accomplished by primarily using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors.

  1. Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... White Blood Cell Count ; Blood Smear ; CMV Tests ; Toxoplasmosis Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ... be ordered along with tests for cytomegalovirus (CMV) , toxoplasmosis , and other infections (sometimes as part of a ...

  2. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1

  3. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…

  4. Point count length and detection of forest neotropical migrant birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Smith, D.R.; Robbins, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of bird abundances among years or among habitats assume that the rates at which birds are detected and counted are constant within species. We use point count data collected in forests of the Mid-Atlantic states to estimate detection probabilities for Neotropical migrant bird species as a function of count length. For some species, significant differences existed among years or observers in both the probability of detecting the species and in the rate at which individuals are counted. We demonstrate the consequence that variability in species' detection probabilities can have on estimates of population change, and discuss ways for reducing this source of bias in point count studies.

  5. Mapping of bird distributions from point count surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Pendleton, G.W.; Orsillo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Maps generated from bird survey data are used for a variety of scientific purposes, but little is known about their bias and precision. We review methods for preparing maps from point count data and appropriate sampling methods for maps based on point counts. Maps based on point counts can be affected by bias associated with incomplete counts, primarily due to changes in proportion counted as a function of observer or habitat differences. Large-scale surveys also generally suffer from regional and temporal variation in sampling intensity. A simulated surface is used to demonstrate sampling principles for maps.

  6. Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pisania, Anna; Papas, Klearchos K; Powers, Daryl E; Rappel, Michael J; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C; Colton, Clark K

    2010-11-01

    Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, and we combined it with morphological analysis by light microscopy (LM) for estimating the volume fraction of islets in impure preparations. Cells and islets were disrupted with lysis solution and shear, and accuracy of counting successively diluted nuclei suspensions was verified with (1) visual counting in a hemocytometer after staining with crystal violet, and automatic counting by (2) aperture electrical resistance measurement and (3) flow cytometer measurement after staining with 7-aminoactinomycin-D. DNA content averaged 6.5 and 6.9 pg of DNA per cell for rat and human islets, respectively, in agreement with literature estimates. With pure rat islet preparations, precision improved with increasing counts, and samples with about ≥160 islets provided a coefficient of variation of about 6%. Aliquots of human islet preparations were processed for LM analysis by stereological point counting. Total nuclei counts and islet volume fraction from LM analysis were combined to obtain the number of islet equivalents (IEs). Total number of IE by the standard method of dithizone staining/manual counting was overestimated by about 90% compared with LM/nuclei counting for 12 freshly isolated human islet research preparations. Nuclei counting combined with islet volume fraction measurements from LM is a novel method for achieving accurate islet enumeration. PMID:20697375

  7. Optimization of high count rate event counting detector with Microchannel Plates and quad Timepix readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Vallerga, J. V.; McPhate, J. B.; Siegmund, O. H. W.

    2015-07-01

    Many high resolution event counting devices process one event at a time and cannot register simultaneous events. In this article a frame-based readout event counting detector consisting of a pair of Microchannel Plates and a quad Timepix readout is described. More than 104 simultaneous events can be detected with a spatial resolution of ~55 μm, while >103 simultaneous events can be detected with <10 μm spatial resolution when event centroiding is implemented. The fast readout electronics is capable of processing >1200 frames/sec, while the global count rate of the detector can exceed 5×108 particles/s when no timing information on every particle is required. For the first generation Timepix readout, the timing resolution is limited by the Timepix clock to 10-20 ns. Optimization of the MCP gain, rear field voltage and Timepix threshold levels are crucial for the device performance and that is the main subject of this article. These devices can be very attractive for applications where the photon/electron/ion/neutron counting with high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as energy resolved neutron imaging, Time of Flight experiments in lidar applications, experiments on photoelectron spectroscopy and many others.

  8. Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

  9. What counts and how to count it: physicians' constructions of evidence in a disinvestment context.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Elshaug, Adam G; Hiller, Janet E

    2012-12-01

    Internationally, there is an increasing focus on quality and sustainability measures oriented to reducing inefficiencies in health provision. The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for older women represents a case study in this area. This paper analyses the constructions of evidence brought to bear by ART physicians in the context of deliberative stakeholder engagements (held 2010) around options for restricting public subsidy of ART in Australia. Physicians participated in two deliberative engagements during which they were presented with results of a systematic review of ART effectiveness, as well as ethical and cost analyses. These sessions were part of a broader research program of engagements held with policymakers, community members and consumers. Physicians deliberated around the data presented with a view to formulating an informed contribution to policy. The ensuing discussions were transcribed and subject to discourse analysis. Physicians questioned the evidence presented on the grounds of 'currency', 'proximity', 'selectivity' and 'bias'. We outline physicians' accounts of what should count as evidence informing ART policy, and how this evidence should be counted. These accounts reflect implicit decisions around both the inclusion of evidence (selection) and the status it is accorded (evaluation). Our analysis suggests that participatory policy processes do not represent the simple task of assessing the quality/effectiveness of a given technology against self-evident criteria. Rather, these processes involve the negotiation of different orders of evidence (empirical, contextual and anecdotal), indicating a need for higher-level discussion around 'what counts and how to count it' when making disinvestment decisions. PMID:22963922

  10. Learning to Count: School Finance Formula Count Methods and Attendance-Related Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Todd L.; Fermanich, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    School systems are under increasing pressure to improve student performance. Several states have recently explored adopting student count methods for school funding purposes that incentivize school attendance and continuous enrollment by adjusting funding for changes in enrollment or attendance over the course of the school year. However, no…

  11. Effects of Perceptually Rich Manipulatives on Preschoolers' Counting Performance: Established Knowledge Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Lori A.; McNeil, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Educators often use concrete objects to help children understand mathematics concepts. However, findings on the effectiveness of concrete objects are mixed. The present study examined how two factors--perceptual richness and established knowledge of the objects--combine to influence children's counting performance. In two experiments, preschoolers…

  12. Make Kids Count in '97: Hawai'i Kids Count 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Marcia; Davidson, Dana; Greenfield, Theresa; Grogan, Beverley

    This Kids Count report is the third to examine statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator results and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, children in single parent families, births to single teens, and…

  13. Make Kids Count in '99: Hawai'i Kids Count 1999 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Marcia

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Hawaii's children. The bulk of this statistical report is comprised of indicator findings and is divided into four major sections: (1) family composition and resources, including children in poverty, family formation, births to teens, children in single-parent families, children…

  14. Processing of Mass/Count Information in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taler, Vanessa; Jarema, Gonia

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the processing of a specific linguistic distinction, the mass/count distinction, in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fourteen AD and 10 MCI subjects were tested using a sentence grammaticality judgement task where grammaticality violations were caused by determiner--noun…

  15. SPERM COUNT, MORPHOLOGY AND FLUORESCENT BODY FREQUENCY IN AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology a...

  16. High counting rates of x-ray photon detection using APD detectors on synchrotron machines

    SciTech Connect

    Kakuno, E. M.; Giacomolli, B. A.; Scorzato, C. R.

    2012-05-17

    In this work we show the results of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} Si-APD detector's test with guard ring detecting x-rays. The result of mapping surface is also exhibited. We show and discuss the difficulty of single photon detection in high counting rate experiments in synchrotrons machines.

  17. COUNTING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM, AN ANALYSIS OF THE UTILITY OF VARIOUS CYTOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To develop, evaluate and implement methods to detect C. parvum oocysts in water, samples must be seeded with known concentrations of oocysts. Methods for counting oocysts are inaccurate and highly variable. To address this, several cytometric methods were tested: flow cytometry...

  18. Using automatic particle counting to monitor aluminum cold mill coolant{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    A comprehensive program of testing and evaluation of aluminum cold rolling coolant conditions has been conducted using an automatic particle counting instrument. The project had three objectives. First, there was a need to know at what level of coolant particle contamination is surface cleanliness of an aluminum sheet affected during the rolling process. Secondly, is application of particle counting technology a reliable tool for troubleshooting coolant filtration systems and finally, what are the advantages of analyzing rolling coolants for contamination levels? A testing program was designed and performed over a two-year period. The test results revealed that mineral seal and synthetic-type coolants can begin to affect aluminum sheet surface cleanliness levels when particle sizes greater than five microns are in excess of 10,000 particles power 100 milliliters of rolling coolant. After performing over 3,000 separate tests, it was very clean that particle count levels are direct indicators of how well a filtration facility is performing. Through the application of particle counting, a number of conditions in coolant filtration facilities can be readily detected. Such items as defective filter valving, torn or fractured filter cloth, damaged filter parts, improper equipment operation and many other factors will directly impact the operation of aluminum cold rolling coolant filters. 11 figs.

  19. The Teen Report: A Factual Assessment of Today's Tennessee Teens. A Tennessee KIDS COUNT Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Commission on Children and Youth, Nashville.

    This Kids Count report focuses on the well being of Tennessee's teenagers. The statistical portrait is based on 10 indicators of well being: (1) teen pregnancy; (2) drug abuse; (3) HIV infection; (4) sexually transmitted diseases; (5) high school dropout; (6) scores on the American College Testing Program (ACT); (7) teen employment; (8) school…

  20. Medical audit data: counting is not enough.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, C; Gumpert, R

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the meaningfulness of a year's worth of audit data relating to all the inpatients of one consultant general surgeon and to question the usefulness of certain outcome measures. DESIGN--Analysis of records entered on to audit computer (Dunnfile) and relating to inpatient episodes for one consultant general surgeon over one year. Data obtained were compared with ward records and the patient administration system to check their accuracy. SETTING--The three hospitals and 12 wards in Brighton health district where the surgeon admitted patients. SUBJECTS--859 Records relating to inpatient episodes from 1 January to 31 December 1988. These covered 655 main procedures and 79 secondary procedures performed at the same time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Procedures were analysed by complexity of operation (BUPA code) and grade of surgeon; complications were counted and rates constructed by surgeon and by BUPA code: returns to theatre were analysed. RESULTS--Simple counts revealed some data, such as the fact that one registrar performed more major operations (32) than the senior registrars (22 and 14), and an analysis of complications showed that he had a lower complication rate (11.4% v 20.0% and 19.4%). But the simple complication rate disclosed nothing about whether the complication was avoidable. Likewise, the number of returns to theatre needed further qualification. Analysis of data collection for February to April 1988 showed a 30% deficit of information on the audit system compared with ward records and prompted a re-examination of everyone's role in collecting data. After the year's audit there was still a 17% shortfall compared with the district's patient administration system, though some of this was accounted for by a backlog of work. CONCLUSIONS--It is difficult to ensure adequate data collection and entails everyone in an unfamiliar discipline. Connecting the audit system to the patient administration system would help. Despite the limitations of

  1. Evaluation of a Novel Dry Sheet Culture Method for Rapid Enumeration of Total Aerobic Count in Foods.

    PubMed

    Teramura, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mihoko; Ushiyama, Masashi; Ogihara, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    A novel dry sheet culture method (Sanita-kun ACplus; SkACp) for rapid enumeration of total viable count has been developed. This rehydrated plate system comprises an adhesive sheet, nonwoven fabric coated with nutrients, and two types of water absorption polymers. In addition, SkACp facilitates methods for both rapid count (rapid mode: 24-h incubation) and accurate enumeration (standard mode: 48-h incubation) because it not only contains conventional 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride but also contains two kinds of new tetrazolium salts for rapid and accurate enumeration of total aerobic count. When SkACp was assessed with 91 microorganisms, 87 strains (95.6%), excluding lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria, formed red-colored colonies within 24 h, whereas all microorganisms tested formed colonies within 48 h. The SkACp method, with both 24 and 48 h of incubation, was compared with plate count agar (PCA) and 3M Petrifilm AC (PAC) by using 107 naturally contaminated foods. For all foods tested (n = 107), the linear correlation coefficients of 48-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.98 and 0.75, respectively, while the 24-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.77 and 0.96, respectively. For foods tested, excluding yogurt and lactic beverages ( n = 101), the linear correlation coefficients of 48-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively, while the 24-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.96 and 0.95, respectively. These results demonstrated that SkACp (48 h) is a useful alternative for the enumeration of the total aerobic count for all foods, whereas SkACp (24 h) was also an effective method for rapid enumeration in foods, excluding yogurt and lactic beverages. PMID:26408139

  2. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  3. Counting lattice animals in high dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Sebastian; Mertens, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    We present an implementation of Redelemeier's algorithm for the enumeration of lattice animals in high-dimensional lattices. The implementation is lean and fast enough to allow us to extend the existing tables of animal counts, perimeter polynomials and series expansion coefficients in d-dimensional hypercubic lattices for 3 <= d <= 10. From the data we compute formulae for perimeter polynomials for lattice animals of size n <= 11 in arbitrary dimension d. When amended by combinatorial arguments, the new data suffice to yield explicit formulae for the number of lattice animals of size n <= 14 and arbitrary d. We also use the enumeration data to compute numerical estimates for growth rates and exponents in high dimensions that agree very well with Monte Carlo simulations and recent predictions from field theory.

  4. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  5. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A. S.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.-H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  6. Radionuclide counting technique for measuring wind velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.J.; Khandelwal, G.S.

    1981-12-01

    A technique for measuring wind velocities of meteorological interest is described. It is based on inverse-square-law variation of the counting rates as the radioactive source-to-counter distance is changed by wind drag on the source ball. Results of a feasibility study using a weak bismuth 207 radiation source and three Geiger-Muller radiation counters are reported. The use of the technique is not restricted to Martian or Mars-like environments. A description of the apparatus, typical results, and frequency response characteristics are included. A discussion of a double-pendulum arrangement is presented. Measurements reported herein indicate that the proposed technique may be suitable for measuring wind speeds up to 100 m/sec, which are either steady or whose rates of fluctuation are less than 1 kHz.

  7. Orbiting meteoroid and debris counting experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Armstrong, Dwayne; Crockett, Sharon K.; Jones, James L., Jr.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Wortman, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Orbiting Meteoroid and Debris Counting Experiment (OMDC) flew for approximately 90 days in a highly elliptical earth orbit onboard the Clementine Interstage Adapter (ISA) Spacecraft. This experiment obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and it provided limited information on the population of small mass man-made debris as a function of altitude in near earth space. The flight of the OMDC experiment on the ISA spacecraft also demonstrated that the ultra-lightweight, low-power, particle impact detector system that was used is a viable system for flights on future spacecraft to monitor the population of small mass man-made debris particles and to map the cosmic dust environment encountered on interplanetary missions. An overview of the ISA spacecraft mission, the approach to the OMDC experiment, and the data obtained by the experiment are presented.

  8. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

  9. On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldiceanu, Nicolas; Carlsson, Mats; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin

    Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

  10. Neutron triples counting data for uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Stephen; LaFleur, Adrienne M.; McElroy, Robert D.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2015-06-01

    Correlated neutron counting using multiplicity shift register logic extracts the first three factorial moments from the detected neutron pulse train. The descriptive properties of the measurement item (mass, the ratio of (α,n) to spontaneous fission neutron production, and leakage self-multiplication) are related to the observed singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (T) rates, and this is the basis of the widely used multiplicity counting assay method. The factorial moments required to interpret and invert the measurement data in the framework of the point kinetics model may be calculated from the spontaneous fission prompt neutron multiplicity distribution P(ν). In the case of 238U very few measurements of P(ν) are available and the derived values, especially for the higher factorial moments, are not known with high accuracy. In this work, we report the measurement of the triples rate per gram of 238U based on the analysis of a set of measurements in which a collection of 10 cylinders of UO2F2, each containing about 230 g of compound, were measured individually and in groups. Special care was taken to understand and compensate the recorded multiplicity histograms for the effect of random cosmic-ray induced background neutrons, which, because they also come in bursts and mimic fissions but with a different and harder multiplicity distribution. We compare our fully corrected (deadtime, background, efficiency, multiplication) experimental results with first principles expectations based on evaluated nuclear data. Based on our results we suspect that the current evaluated nuclear data is biased, which points to a need to undertake new basic measurements of the 238U prompt neutron multiplicity distribution.

  11. Counting OCR errors in typeset text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Jonathan S.

    1995-03-01

    Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

  12. Garment Counting in a Textile Warehouse by Means of a Laser Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sala, Alejandro Santos; Sánchez-Aartnoutse, Juan Carlos; Egea-López, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Textile logistic warehouses are highly automated mechanized places where control points are needed to count and validate the number of garments in each batch. This paper proposes and describes a low cost and small size automated system designed to count the number of garments by processing an image of the corresponding hanger hooks generated using an array of phototransistors sensors and a linear laser beam. The generated image is processed using computer vision techniques to infer the number of garment units. The system has been tested on two logistic warehouses with a mean error in the estimated number of hangers of 0.13%. PMID:23628760

  13. Radioassay of dual-labeled samples with a Cherenkov counting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Haruo; Takiue, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    A new Cherenkov counting technique which allows radioactivities of a dual-labeled sample to be determined simultaneously by using a wavelength shifter has been proposed, and tested for the pairs 32P-36Cl and 86Rb-36Cl. The minimum requirements for this method are a single channel liquid scintillation counter, a wavelength shifter and a reference sample for determining the Cherenkov counting efficiency. The simple procedure for sample preparation and measurement makes the technique very useful for routine radioassay with the help of a desk-top computer.

  14. Radioassay of dual-labeled samples with a Cherenkov counting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Haruo; Takiue, Makoto

    1988-03-01

    A new Cherenkov counting technique which allows radioactivities of a dual-labeled sample to be determined simultaneously by using a wavelength shifter has been proposed, and tested for the pairs 32P 36Cl and 86Rb 36Cl. The minimum requirements for this method are a single channel liquid scintillation counter, a wavelength shifter and a reference sample for determining the Cherenkov counting efficiency. The simple procedure for sample preparation and measurement makes the technique very useful for routine radioassay with the help of a desk-top computer.

  15. Estimating the effects of detection heterogeneity and overdispersion on trends estimated from avian point counts.

    PubMed

    Etterson, Matthew A; Niemi, Gerald J; Danz, Nicholas P

    2009-12-01

    Point counts are a common method for sampling avian distribution and abundance. Although methods for estimating detection probabilities are available, many analyses use raw counts and do not correct for detectability. We use a removal model of detection within an N-mixture approach to estimate abundance trends corrected for imperfect detection. We compare the corrected trend estimates to those estimated from raw counts for 16 species using 15 years of monitoring data on three national forests in the western Great Lakes, USA. We also tested the effects of overdispersion by modeling both counts and removal mixtures under three statistical distributions: Poisson, zero-inflated Poisson, and negative binomial. For most species, the removal model produced estimates of detection probability that conformed to expectations. For many species, but not all, estimates of trends were similar regardless of statistical distribution or method of analysis. Within a given combination of likelihood (counts vs. mixtures) and statistical distribution, trends usually differed by both stand type and national forest, with species showing declines in some stand types and increases in others. For three species, Brown Creeper, Yellow-rumped Warbler, and Black-throated Green Warbler, temporal patterns in detectability resulted in substantial differences in estimated trends under the removal mixtures compared to the analysis of raw counts. Overall, we found that the zero-inflated Poisson was the best distribution for our data, although the Poisson or negative binomial performed better for a few species. The similarity in estimated trends that we observed among counts and removal mixtures was probably a result of both experimental design and sampling effort. First, the study was originally designed to avoid confounding observer effects with habitats or time. Second, our time series is relatively long and our sample sizes within years are large. PMID:20014578

  16. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h. PMID:16349033

  17. Simulation of autocorrelation function and photon counting distribution in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shingaryov, Igor P; Skakun, Victor V; Apanasovich, Vladimir V

    2014-01-01

    In modern fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy, the autocorrelation function and photon counting distribution are two widely used statistical characteristics of the measured fluctuating fluorescence intensity signal. Applying special analysis methods such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and photon counting histogram (PCH) to these properties, it is possible to recover values of different parameters of fluorescent molecules such as the concentration, diffusion coefficient, molecular brightness, and kinetic rate constants. The development of new analysis methods is senseless without testing their validity, accuracy, and robustness. The most appropriate check of a method is its application to experimental data. However, sometimes it is more convenient and easier to verify a method on simulated data. Simulation is also useful for better understanding the processes that were modeled during the development of analysis methods. Here, we present two simulation models providing an autocorrelation function and photon counting distribution of a sequence of photon arrival times detected in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy. PMID:24108653

  18. Optimal experimental design for nano-particle atom-counting from high-resolution STEM images.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; De Wael, A; Gonnissen, J; Van Aert, S

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, the principles of detection theory are used to quantify the probability of error for atom-counting from high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR STEM) images. Binary and multiple hypothesis testing have been investigated in order to determine the limits to the precision with which the number of atoms in a projected atomic column can be estimated. The probability of error has been calculated when using STEM images, scattering cross-sections or peak intensities as a criterion to count atoms. Based on this analysis, we conclude that scattering cross-sections perform almost equally well as images and perform better than peak intensities. Furthermore, the optimal STEM detector design can be derived for atom-counting using the expression for the probability of error. We show that for very thin objects LAADF is optimal and that for thicker objects the optimal inner detector angle increases. PMID:25499018

  19. Development and construction of the photon counting receiver for the European laser time transfer space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Kodet, Jan; Brinek, Jan

    2011-06-01

    We are presenting the work progress and recent results in the development and construction of the photon counting receiver, which is prepared for the European Laser Timing experiment in space. It is an optical link prepared in the frame of the ESA mission Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space. The ultra short laser pulses will be used to synchronize the time scales ground to space with picosecond precision. To minimize the timing biases the photon counting concept of the space born receiver was selected. The requirements put on the photon counting receiver are quite challenging in terms of the long term detection delay stability, wide operation temperature range, extremely high background photon flux and others. Recently, the bread board version of the detector has been constructed and is under extensive test in our labs. The concept and construction will be presented along with the achieved device parameters.

  20. Using BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes for Absolute Cluster of Differentiation Type 4 Cell Count Measurement on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow Cytometers: A Method Comparison Study from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Florian; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Bernasconi, Andrea; Moyo, Buhlebenkosi; Havazvidi, Liberty; Bastard, Mathieu; Flevaud, Laurence; Taziwa, Fabian; Makondo, Eliphas; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood collected in conventional EDTA tubes requires laboratory analysis within 48 hours to provide valid CD4 cell count results. This restricts access to HIV care for patients from rural areas in resource-constraint settings due to sample transportation problems. Stabilization Tubes with extended storage duration have been developed but not yet evaluated comprehensively. Objective To investigate stability of absolute CD4 cell count measurement of samples in BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes over the course of 30 days. Methods This was a laboratory-based method comparison study conducted at a rural district hospital in Beitbridge, Zimbabwe. Whole peripheral blood from 88 HIV positive adults was drawn into BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes and re-tested 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 30 days after collection on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow cytometers in parallel. Absolute CD4 cell levels were compared to results from paired samples in EDTA tubes analysed on BD FacsCount at the day of sample collection (references methodology). Bland-Altman analysis based on ratios of the median CD4 counts was used, with acceptable variation ranges for Limits of Agreements of +/-20%. Results Differences in ratios of the medians remained below 10% until day 21 on BD FacsCount and until day 5 on Partec Cyflow. Variations of Limits of Agreement were beyond 20% after day 1 on both cytometers. Specimen quality decreased steadily after day 5, with only 68% and 40% of samples yielding results on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow at day 21, respectively. Conclusions We do not recommend the use of BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes for absolute CD4 cell count measurement on BD FacsCount or Partec Cyflow due to large variation of results and decay of specimen quality. Alternative technologies for enhanced CD4 testing in settings with limited laboratory and sample transportation capacity still need to be developed. PMID:26295802