Science.gov

Sample records for born mineral density

  1. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... Bone density testing can be done several ways. The most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x- ...

  2. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  3. Mineral deposit density; an update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Menzie, W. David; Sutphin, David M.; Mosier, Dan L.; Bliss, James D.; contributions to global mineral resource assessment research edited by Schulz, Klaus J.

    2001-01-01

    A robust method to estimate the number of undiscovered deposits is a form of mineral deposit model wherein numbers of deposits per unit area from well-explored regions are counted and the resulting frequency distribution is used either directly for an estimate or indirectly as a guideline in some other method. The 27 mineral deposit density estimates reported here for 13 different deposit types represent a start at compiling the estimates necessary to guide assessments.

  4. Molar volumes and densities of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Bethke, Philip M.

    1962-01-01

    These tables present critically chosen "best values" for the density and molar volume of selected mineral compounds. No attempt was made to be all-inclusive; rather we have tried to present data for chemically and physically well-defined phases for which the molar volume and/or density was knovvn to the order of 0. 2 percent.

  5. Electronic Flux Density beyond the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation.

    PubMed

    Schild, Axel; Agostini, Federica; Gross, E K U

    2016-05-19

    In the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the electronic wave function is typically real-valued and hence the electronic flux density (current density) seems to vanish. This is unfortunate for chemistry, because it precludes the possibility to monitor the electronic motion associated with the nuclear motion during chemical rearrangements from a Born-Oppenheimer simulation of the process. We study an electronic flux density obtained from a correction to the electronic wave function. This correction is derived via nuclear velocity perturbation theory applied in the framework of the exact factorization of electrons and nuclei. To compute the correction, only the ground state potential energy surface and the electronic wave function are needed. For a model system, we demonstrate that this electronic flux density approximates the true one very well, for coherent tunneling dynamics as well as for over-the-barrier scattering, and already for mass ratios between electrons and nuclei that are much larger than the true mass ratios. PMID:26878256

  6. [Hyperprolactinaemia and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Kostrzak, Anna; Męczekalski, Błażej

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is one of the most common endocrinological disorder at women at the reproductive age. Prolactin is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary.The main role of prolactin is associated with mamotrophic action and lactogenesis. Hyperprolactinaemia causes several symptoms such as menstrual disorders, infertility, decrease of sexual function, galactorrhea in women and gynecomasty, impotence and decrease of semen quality in men. Recent studies have presented prolactin as a homone involved in many metabolic processes. Long-term consequences of high prolactin serum concentration are related to higher risk of cardiovascular system disease, disturbances in lipid profile and immunological system. Hyperprolactiaemia causes decrease of bone mass density (BMD). High serum prolactin levels lead to increase of the risk of osteopenia or/and osteoporosis. Decrease of BMD results from hypoestrogenism induced by hyperprolactinaemia and also by the direct negative influence of prolactin on bone. Hyperprolactinaemia related to prolactinoma significantly (more than functional hyperprolactiaemia) increases the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis and bone fractures. Important group of patients threatened by osteoporosis and bone fracture is constituted by women which use antipsychotic drugs (which induce hyperprolactinaemia). Hyperprolactinaemia diagnosed in patients should be treated as soon as possible. Hyperprolactinaemic patients should be diagnosed in the direction of osteopenia and osteoporosis. When diagnosis is confirmed proper treatment is indicated. PMID:26319389

  7. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  8. [Bone mineral density in residents living on radioactive territories of Cheliabinsk Region].

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, E I; Shagina, N B; Peremyslova, L M; Degteva, M O

    2010-01-01

    Operation of "Mayak" plutonium production complex resulted in radioactive contamination of the part of Chelyabinsk Region in 1950-60s. Significant gas-aerosol emissions of 1311 occurred since 1948; in 1957, a radiation accident resulted in 90Sr contamination of large territories. This paper presents comparison of bone mineral density of persons lived on territories with different levels of soil 90Sr-contamination with a control group. It was found that in 1970-1975 the bone mineral density, estimated from mineral content in bone samples, in residents of contaminated areas born in 1936-1952 was significantly lower compared with the control group. For persons born in 1880-1935 such differences were not found. It was shown that the decrease in bone mineral density was not related to 90Sr exposure of osteogenic cells in the dose range from 0.1 to 1300 mGy: the coefficient of correlation between individual 90Sr-doses and bone mineral contents was not significant. The decrease in bone mineral density of persons born in 1936-1952 could be associated with exposure of thyroid and parathyroid glands (systemic regulators of calcium turnover) by 131I from gas-aerosol emissions from "Mayak". Maximum gas-aerosol emissions occurred in 1948-1954 and coincided with growth and development of thyroid gland, characterizing by intensive accumulation of 131I, and with growth and maturation of the skeleton of persons born in these calendar years. PMID:20968060

  9. Mineral density of hypomineralised and sound enamel.

    PubMed

    Garot, Elsa; Rouas, Patrick; D'Incau, Emmanuel; Lenoir, Nicolas; Manton, David; Couture-Veschambre, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a structural anomaly that affects the quality of tooth enamel and has important consequences for oral health. The developmentally hypomineralised enamel has normal thickness and can range in colour from white to yellow or brown. The purpose of the present study is to compare the mineral density of hypomineralised and normal enamel. The sample included eight MIH teeth from seven patients. MIH teeth were scanned using high resolution microtomography. Non-parametric statistical tests (Wilcoxon test for paired samples) were carried out. Hypomineralised enamel has decreased mineral density (mean 19%; p < 0.0001) compared to normal enamel. This weak enamel has implications in clinical management of MIH lesions. PMID:27352426

  10. Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Research 2012 May 2012 (historical) Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals How often a woman should have bone mineral density (BMD) tests to track bone mass is ...

  11. Bone mineral density: testing for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary osteoporosis is related to bone loss from ageing. Secondary osteoporosis results from specific conditions that may be reversible. A thoracolumbar X-ray is useful in identifying vertebral fractures, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is the preferred method of calculating bone mineral density. The density of the total hip is the best predictor for a hip fracture, while the lumbar spine is the best site for monitoring the effect of treatment. The T-score is a comparison of the patient’s bone density with healthy, young individuals of the same sex. A negative T-score of –2.5 or less at the femoral neck defines osteoporosis. The Z-score is a comparison with the bone density of people of the same age and sex as the patient. A negative Z-score of –2.5 or less should raise suspicion of a secondary cause of osteoporosis. Clinical risk calculators can be used to predict the 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. A probability of more than 5% for the hip or more than 20% for any fracture is abnormal and treatment may be warranted. PMID:27340320

  12. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  13. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  14. DXA parameters: beyond bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Briot, Karine

    2013-05-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) to diagnose osteoporosis. However, BMD measurement alone does not reliably predict the fracture risk. DXA can be used to assess other parameters (e.g. presence of vertebral fractures, bone microarchitecture, bone geometry, and body composition) simultaneously with BMD measurements, to help identify individuals at high fracture risk. Among these parameters, some are suitable for use in clinical practice, whereas others are reserved for research. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a very low radiation-dose method for detecting thoracic and lumbar vertebral fractures. Compared to standard radiography, VFA can be used in a broader population to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures. The very good negative predictive value of VFA leads, in one-third of cases, to changes in patient management (drug treatment and prescription of radiographs). The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a noninvasively measured texture parameter that correlates with 3D bone microarchitecture parameters independently from BMD and that can be determined from lumbar-spine DXA images. Several cross-sectional studies and a prospective study established that the TBS was effective in identifying individuals with fractures. Additional studies will have to be performed to determine whether TBS determination can be recommended for everyday practice when treatment decisions are difficult. PMID:23622733

  15. Bone mineral density testing after fragility fracture

    PubMed Central

    Posen, Joshua; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Sale, Joanna; Bogoch, Earl R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the proportion of patients with fragility fractures who can be expected to have low bone mineral density (BMD) at the time of fracture and to assist FPs in deciding whether to refer patients for BMD testing. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from the earliest available dates through September 2009. Study selection English-language articles reporting BMD test results of patients with fragility fractures who were managed in an orthopedic environment (eg, fracture clinic, emergency management by orthopedic surgeons, inpatients) were eligible for review. While the orthopedic environment has been identified as an ideal point for case finding, FPs are often responsible for investigation and treatment. Factors that potentially influenced BMD test results (eg, selection of fracture types, exclusion criteria) were identified. Studies with 2 or more selection factors of potential influence were flagged, and rates of low BMD were calculated including and excluding these studies. Synthesis The distribution of the proportion of persons with low BMD was summarized across studies using descriptive statistics. We calculated lower boundaries on this distribution, using standard statistical thresholds, to determine a lower threshold of the expected rate of low BMD. Conclusion Family physicians evaluating patients with fragility fractures can expect that at least two-thirds of patients with fragility fractures who are older than 50 years of age will have low BMD (T score ≤ −1.0). With this a priori expectation, FPs might more readily conduct a fracture risk assessment and pursue warranted fracture risk reduction strategies following fragility fracture. PMID:24336562

  16. Total body bone mineral density in young children: influence of head bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Konrad, P T; Norman, M E; Harcke, H T

    1997-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with its short scan time, low radiation dose, and high precision and accuracy have made this technique particularly suitable for measuring total body bone mineral density (TBMD) in children. Other published reports have related TBMD to age in children 2-18 years of age. However, in young normal children aged 2-9 years (51 girls, 43 boys), we found that regression equations for TBMD with age as the predictor did not explain enough of the variance to warrant their use for predicting TBMD (adjusted R2 0.47, females; 0.41, males). Subtotal BMD (TBMD-head BMD) is predicted better by age because of a possibly invalid adult algorithm for head BMD (adjusted R2 0.73, females; 0.71, males). PMID:9101377

  17. PRECISION OF SINGLE VERSUS BILATERAL HIP BONE MINERAL DENSITY SCANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the hip and lumbar spine are currently the "gold standard" for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). DXA allows swift, noninvasive measurements with minimal radiation for both clinical practice and research. Traditional testing has used results ...

  18. Can Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography Assess Bone Mineral Density?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mineral density distribution of bone tissue is altered by active bone modeling and remodeling due to bone complications including bone disease and implantation surgery. Clinical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been examined whether it can assess oral bone mineral density (BMD) in patient. It has been indicated that CBCT has disadvantages of higher noise and lower contrast than conventional medical computed tomography (CT) systems. On the other hand, it has advantages of a relatively lower cost and radiation dose but higher spatial resolution. However, the reliability of CBCT based mineral density measurement has not yet been fully validated. Thus, the objectives of this review are to discuss 1) why assessment of BMD distribution is important and 2) whether the clinical CBCT can be used as a potential tool to measure the BMD. Brief descriptions of image artefacts associated with assessment of gray value, which has been used to account for mineral density, in CBCT images are provided. Techniques to correct local and conversion errors in obtaining the gray values in CBCT images are also introduced. This review can be used as a quick reference for users who may encounter these errors during analysis of CBCT images. PMID:25006568

  19. Race/ethnic differences in bone mineral density in men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of osteoporosis in male and minority populations is understudied. To address this concern, we conducted a study of skeletal health in a diverse population of adult males, comparing Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in 367 Black, 401 Hispanic, and 451 White men aged 30-79 years who were ran...

  20. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  1. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  2. Biomimetic Mineralization of Recombinamer-Based Hydrogels toward Controlled Morphologies and High Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuping; Chen, Xi; Fok, Alex; Rodriguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Aparicio, Conrado

    2015-11-25

    The use of insoluble organic matrices as a structural template for the bottom-up fabrication of organic-inorganic nanocomposites is a powerful way to build a variety of advanced materials with defined and controlled morphologies and superior mechanical properties. Calcium phosphate mineralization in polymeric hydrogels is receiving significant attention in terms of obtaining biomimetic hierarchical structures with unique mechanical properties and understanding the mechanisms of the biomineralization process. However, integration of organic matrices with hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, different in morphology and composition, has not been well-achieved yet at nanoscale. In this study, we synthesized thermoresponsive hydrogels, composed of elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), to template mineralization of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals using a biomimetic polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) mineralization process. Different from conventional mineralization where minerals were deposited on the surface of organic matrices, they were infiltrated into the frameworks of ELR matrices, preserving their microporous structure. After 14 days of mineralization, an average of 78 μm mineralization depth was achieved. Mineral density up to 1.9 g/cm(3) was found after 28 days of mineralization, which is comparable to natural bone and dentin. In the dry state, the elastic modulus and hardness of the mineralized hydrogels were 20.3 ± 1.7 and 0.93 ± 0.07 GPa, respectively. After hydration, they were reduced to 4.50 ± 0.55 and 0.10 ± 0.03 GPa, respectively. These values were lower but still on the same order of magnitude as those of natural hard tissues. The results indicated that inorganic-organic hybrid biomaterials with controlled morphologies can be achieved using organic templates of ELRs. Notably, the chemical and physical properties of ELRs can be tuned, which might help elucidate the mechanisms by which living organisms regulate the mineralization process. PMID:26516652

  3. Application of Polychromatic µCT for Mineral Density Determination

    PubMed Central

    Zou, W.; Hunter, N.; Swain, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate assessment of mineral density (MD) provides information critical to the understanding of mineralization processes of calcified tissues, including bones and teeth. High-resolution three-dimensional assessment of the MD of teeth has been demonstrated by relatively inaccessible synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography (SRµCT). While conventional desktop µCT (CµCT) technology is widely available, polychromatic source and cone-shaped beam geometry confound MD assessment. Recently, considerable attention has been given to optimizing quantitative data from CµCT systems with polychromatic x-ray sources. In this review, we focus on the approaches that minimize inaccuracies arising from beam hardening, in particular, beam filtration during the scan, beam-hardening correction during reconstruction, and mineral density calibration. Filtration along with lowest possible source voltage results in a narrow and near-single-peak spectrum, favoring high contrast and minimal beam-hardening artifacts. More effective beam monochromatization approaches are described. We also examine the significance of beam-hardening correction in determining the accuracy of mineral density estimation. In addition, standards for the calibration of reconstructed grey-scale attenuation values against MD, including K2PHO4 liquid phantom, and polymer-hydroxyapatite (HA) and solid hydroxyapatite (HA) phantoms, are discussed. PMID:20858779

  4. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  5. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-raymore » fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.« less

  6. Mineral Density Volume Gradients in Normal and Diseased Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations. PMID:25856386

  7. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues.

    PubMed

    Djomehri, Sabra I; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S H; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P

    2015-01-01

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095 mg/cc, bone: 570-1415 mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340 mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590 mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220 mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450 mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740 mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770 mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations. PMID:25856386

  8. [Inflammatory bowel disease and bone decreased bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Wada, Yasuyo; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic bone diseases such as osteopenia and osteoporosis increase the risk of bone fracture that negatively affects quality of life of individuals. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD), including ulcerative colitis(UC)and Crohn's disease(CD), have been shown to be at increased risk of decreased bone mineral density, however frequency of metabolic bone disease in IBD and identified risk factors are varied among reports. PMID:26503868

  9. Mapping of natural and man-made groundwater mineralization by helicopter-borne electromagnetics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, A.; Siemon, B.; Meyer, U.

    2010-12-01

    Helicopter-borne electromagnetics (HEM) is an important tool for hydrogeological questions. HEM investigations enable the differentiation of sandy and clayey sediments as well as saltwater and freshwater saturated sediments down to about 150 meters depth. The frequency-domain HEM system operated at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) is the RESOLVE system manufactured by Fugro Airborne Surveys. In 2008 and 2009, BGR conducted airborne geophysical measurements for saltwater-freshwater investigation at several survey areas at the German North Sea coast. The surveys were carried out in cooperation with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (LIAG) in frame of the project D-AERO. One of these survey areas covers the estuary of the Elbe river to the north-west of the city of Hamburg. Parts of the results of this survey are involved in the project KLIMZUG-NORD, where the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg investigates the environmental effects of the climate change on the estuary of the Elbe river. The HEM measurements reveal both the course of the Geest ridge (high-lying hinterland consisting of pleistocenic moraine sediments) and the swamp belt due to their elevated resistivities, whereas the Marsch land (plain holocenic wet land, alluvium) occurred more conductive. Here, an electrical conductivity anomaly was detected witch could neither be related with seawater intrusion nor with anthropogenic sources. The significant low-resistivity zone of about three square kilometers was identified as a saltwater-rising zone by water analyses of surface water and is an example for natural groundwater mineralization. A man-made groundwater mineralization was investigated by HEM in the Werra river valley in central Germany. About 1000 million cubic meters saline waste water from potash mining have been stored in a karstic limestone and dolomite bed to reduce the amount of saline water emissions directly into the river. BGR conducted surveys in

  10. Quantitative CT for determination of bone mineral density: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Cann, C.E.

    1988-02-01

    One of the major uses of quantitative computed tomography (CT) has been the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) at various skeletal sites. The published literature on this subject from 1974 to the present is extensive. Because many investigators and clinicians are just now starting to explore the utility of this technique, the author reviewed this literature to provide both the historic perspective and current status of BMD measurement with CT. The physical and physiologic bases of the method, accuracy, reproducibility, radiation dose, and clinical utility are all discussed.103 references.

  11. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  12. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (p<0.05) in dancers of both genders than in untrained controls. Elite dancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; p<0.05) in dancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values. PMID:26966961

  13. Multiple vibration intensities and frequencies for bone mineral density improvement.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Bertram; Burns, Edith; Wilson, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Devices that deliver controlled quantum vibration intensities at multiple frequencies (QVIMF) provide optimal stress to the musculoskeletal system for improved bone mineral density and muscle strength. This paper presents development of a QVIMF system and pilot study to determine device performance. Development is centered on specially-designed actuators that comprise multiple nodes of controlled and smooth, but variable rates of contact on a telescoping platform through sets of damping subsystems. The combination of specially-designed actuators and damping subsystems, powered by a DC controlled motor, delivers quantum busts of vibration at multiple frequencies resulting in whole body vibration. An initial feasibility study involved a 79 year old adult male. After IRB approval from both the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) and the Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, the subject's bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual x-ray absorptimetry (DXA) at baseline. The subject then visited the UWM laboratory for two fifteen-minute vibration sessions per visit, three times a week for a total of 60 visits. Post-vibration BMD was again measured by DXA. Comparison pre- and post-vibration test results showed increases in BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, forearm and lower lumbar spine (L1-4). PMID:19163635

  14. Effects of tick population dynamics and host densities on the persistence of tick-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Rosà, Roberto; Pugliese, Andrea

    2007-07-01

    The transmission and the persistence of tick-borne infections are strongly influenced by the densities and the structure of host populations. By extending previous models and analysis, in this paper we analyse how the persistence of ticks and pathogens, is affected by the dynamics of tick populations, and by their host densities. The effect of host densities on infection persistence is explored through the analysis and simulation of a series of models that include different assumptions on tick-host dynamics and consider different routes of infection transmission. Ticks are assumed to feed on two types of host species which vary in their reservoir competence. Too low densities of competent hosts (i.e., hosts where transmission can occur) do not sustain the infection cycle, while too high densities of incompetent hosts may dilute the competent hosts so much to make infection persistence impossible. A dilution effect may occur also for competent hosts as a consequence of reduced tick to host ratio; this is possible only if the regulation of tick populations is such that tick density does not increase linearly with host densities. PMID:17125804

  15. Effects of aluminum exposure on bone mineral density, mineral, and trace elements in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinwei; Hu, Chongwei; Zhu, Yanzhu; Sun, Hao; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on bone mineral elements, trace elements, and bone mineral density (BMD) in rats. One hundred Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups. Experimental rats were given drinking water containing aluminum chloride (AlCl(3), 430 mg Al(3+)/L), whereas control rats were given distilled water for up to 150 days. Ten rats were sacrificed in each group every 30 days. The levels of Al, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), boron (B), and strontium (Sr) in bone and the BMD of femur were measured. Al-treated rats showed lower deposition of Ca, P, and Mg compared with control rats. Levels of trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, B, and Sr) were significantly lower in the Al-treated group than in the control group from day 60, and the BMD of the femur metaphysis in the Al-treated group was significantly lower than in the control group on days 120 and 150. These findings indicate that long-term Al exposure reduces the levels of mineral and trace elements in bone. As a result, bone loss was induced (particularly in cancellous bone). PMID:20886309

  16. Bone mineral density of healthy Turkish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran; Coker, Mahmut; Kose, Timur

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to gain reference values of lumbar and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) for healthy Turkish children. Three hundred forty-five children aged 2-18 years were examined. Weight and height development were normal for age according to national growth charts. Areal BMD (aBMD) was corrected using the model of Kroger et al (9). The results of the lumbar and femoral aBMD increased progressively from childhood to adulthood. Statistically significant correlation was found between lumbar and femoral neck aBMD and age and height (p<0.01). Lumbar volumetric (vBMD) data were similar between males and females. Femoral vBMD was only significantly different at the ages of 8 and 16 (p<0.05) in girls and boys and did not increase with age. A significant increase in aBMD L1-L4 values according to puberty was observed between all Tanner stages, except Tanner stages 3 and 4 (p>0.05). A significant difference was found between stages 1 and 2, and 2 and 3 in femoral neck aBMD (p<0.05). This data provides a tool for the investigation and follow-up of Turkish children at risk for low-bone mineralization. PMID:16731436

  17. Bone mineral density in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Athanassiadou, Fani; Tragiannidis, Athanassios; Rousso, Israel; Katsos, Georgios; Sidi, Vassiliki; Papageorgiou, Theodotis; Papastergiou, Christos; Tsituridis, Ioannis; Koliouskas, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate bone metabolism with measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) after management (chemo-, radiotherapy) for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bone mineral density (g/cm2) of lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Norland bone densitometer) in 18 children with ALL and a median of 34 months' post-diagnosis with no history of relapse, secondary malignancy, or transplantation. In addition, patients' BMDs were correlated with particular attention to age, sex and time (years) from completion of chemotherapy. The results were compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls of the same population and expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS). Mean age of children was 9.8 +/- 3.7 years. Of 18 children (10 boys and 8 girls), 13 were grouped as standard and 5 as high-risk, respectively. Based on z-score values, 9 were classified as normal (z-score <1 SD), 7 as osteopenic (z-score 1-2.5 SD) and 2 as osteoporotic (z-score >2.5 SD). Children with ALL had reduced lumbar BMDs (z score -0.99) in comparison to healthy controls (z score -0.14) (p=0.011), which is indicative of relative osteopenia. Moreover, the reduced BMD was associated with patient age (z score -0.14 and -1.52 for ages <10 and >10 years, respectively, p=0.016). Reduced BMD was not correlated with time from completion of chemotherapy (p=0.33), risk group (p=0.9) and sex (p=0.3). We conclude that children's BMDs are reduced after completion of chemotherapy for ALL. The causes are multifactorial and mainly related to antineoplastic treatments, such as corticosteroids and methotrexate, physical inactivity and cranial irradiation. We suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effect on BMD in these children and to prevent pathological fractures later in life. PMID:16848106

  18. Treatment of Premenopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of bone mineral density (BMD) results in premenopausal women is particularly challenging, because the relationship between BMD and fracture risk is not the same as for postmenopausal women. Z scores rather than T scores should be used to define “low BMD” in premenopausal women. The finding of low BMD in a premenopausal woman should prompt an evaluation for secondary causes of bone loss. If a secondary cause is found, management should focus on treatment of this condition. In some cases in which the secondary cause cannot be addressed, such as glucocorticoid therapy or cancer chemotherapy, treatment with a bone-active agent to prevent bone loss should be considered. In women with no fractures and no known secondary cause, low BMD may not signify compromised bone strength. BMD is likely to remain stable in these women, and pharmacologic therapy is rarely justified. Assessment of markers of bone turnover and follow-up bone density measurements can help to identify those with an ongoing process of bone loss that may indicate a higher risk for fracture, and possible need for pharmacologic intervention. PMID:18430399

  19. Factors associated with bone mineral density in healthy African women

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cliff; Gati, Brenda; Greenspan, Susan; Dai, James Y.; Bragg, Vivian; Livant, Edward; Piper, Jeanna M.; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Magure, Tsitsi; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Chirenje, Z. Mike; Riddler, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of normative bone mineral density (BMD) data in healthy African women. Baseline total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured in premenopausal women. BMD distribution was comparable to that of a reference population and was impacted by several factors including contraception and duration of lactation. Introduction Normative data on bone mineral density (BMD) and the cumulative impact of lactation, contraceptive use, and other factors on BMD in healthy African women have not been well studied. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with BMD in healthy premenopausal women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Methods Baseline total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in 518 healthy, premenopausal black women enrolling in VOICE, an HIV-1 chemoprevention trial, at sites in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Contraceptive and lactation histories, physical activity assessment, calcium intake, and serum vitamin D levels were assessed. Independent factors associated with BMD were identified using an analysis of covariance model. Results The study enrolled 331 women from Zimbabwe and 187 women from Uganda. Median age was 29 years (IQR 25, 32) and median body mass index (BMI) was 24.8 kg/m2 (IQR 22.2, 28.6). In univariate analyses, lower TH BMD values were associated with residence in Uganda (p<0.001), lower BMI (p<0.001), and any use of and duration of depot-medroxyprogresterone acetate. Use of oral contraceptives, progestin-only implants, and higher physical activity levels were protective against reduced BMD. Similarly, lower LS BMD values were associated with these same factors but also higher parity and history of breastfeeding. In a multivariable analysis, lower TH and LS BMD values were associated with enrollment in Uganda, lower BMI, and lower physical activity level; contraceptive use was associated with lower spine BMD, and breastfeeding contributed to lower total hip BMD. Conclusions

  20. Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L.; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 9,724 nationally representative adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Factor Serum bicarbonate level. Outcomes Lumbar and total BMD as well as low lumbar and total bone mass defined as 1.0 SD below sex-specific mean of young adults. Measurements BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate levels were measured in all participants. Results Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD among the total population as well as in sex-specific models (p=0.02 for all three models, p=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate levels among women but not men (p=0.02 and p=0.1, respectively; p=0.8 for interaction); and a significant association was seen among post-menopausal women but not pre-menopausal women (p=0.02 and p=0.2, respectively; p=0.5 for interaction). Compared to women with serum bicarbonate level <24 mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate ≥27 mEq/L had 0.018 g/cm2 higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; p=0.01) and had 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; p=0.05). Limitations Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate level. The subgroup differences are not definitive. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be

  1. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  2. Optical studies of changes in bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen J.; Attenburrow, Don P.

    2003-07-01

    The ability to measure changes in bone-mineral-density (BMD) in-vivo has potential applications in monitoring stress-induced bone remodelling in, for example, competition race horses. In this study we have begun to investigate the potential of optical techniques to monitor such changes via changes in bone optical scattering. Using integrating spheres, we have investigated the optical properties of bone samples taken from the leg of the horse. Since our samples have stable characteristics over the time, we are able to use a single integrating-sphere technique. Diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients have been measured over the wavelength range 520 to 960 nm. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time; this was to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. The experimental results and a Monte-Carlo based inversion method were used to extract the absorption coefficient and unmodified scattering coefficient of the samples. After full demineralisation scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. This shows that the calcium-content in bone influences its optical properties considerably. Our experiments confirm the possibility of using optical techniques to determine changes in the BMD of samples.

  3. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young Kwon; Kim, Ae Ryoung; Kim, On Yoo; Lee, Kilchan; Suh, Young Joo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clarify factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Method Thirty-five patients with CP participated in this study. Demographic data including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), subtype according to neuromotor type and topographical distribution, ambulatory function, and functional independence measure (FIM) were investigated. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur were measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the factors affecting BMD were analyzed. Results The BMD had no significant association with factors such as gender, age, and subtype in adults with CP. However, BMI was significantly correlated with the BMD of lumbar spine and femur (p<0.05). The FIM score was also positively correlated with the BMD of femur (p<0.05). Moreover, CP patients with higher ambulatory function had significantly higher BMD of femur (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that BMI and functional levels such as FIM and ambulatory function can affect BMD in adults with CP. The results might be used as basic data, suggesting the importance of treatment including weight bearing exercise and gait training in adults with CP. PMID:23342308

  4. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  5. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  6. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  7. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, AZ; Mumford, SL; Wactawski-Wende, J; Yeung, E; Mendola, P; Mattison, DR; Schisterman, EF

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was, 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages. PMID:23122770

  8. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  9. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3–6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  10. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods - 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results - The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation - Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3-6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  11. Bone Mineral Density of the Tarsals and Metatarsals With Reloading

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Mary Kent; Gelber, Judy; Commean, Paul K; Prior, Fred; Sinacore, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases rapidly with prolonged non–weight bearing. Maximizing the BMD response to reloading activities after NWB is critical to minimizing fracture risk. Methods for measuring individual tarsal and metatarsal BMD have not been available. This case report describes tarsal and metatarsal BMD with a reloading program, as revealed by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Case Description: A 24-year-old woman was non–weight bearing for 6 weeks after right talocrural arthroscopy. Tarsal and metatarsal BMD were measured with QCT 9 weeks (before reloading) and 32 weeks (after reloading) after surgery. A 26-week progressive reloading program was completed. Change scores were calculated for BMD before reloading and BMD after reloading for the total foot (average of all tarsals and metatarsals), tarsals, metatarsals, bones of the medial column (calcaneus, navicular, cuneiforms 1 and 2, and metatarsal 1), and bones of the lateral column (calcaneus, cuboid, cuneiform 3, and metatarsals 2–5). The percent differences in BMD between the involved side and the uninvolved side were calculated. Outcomes: Before reloading, BMD of the involved total foot was 9% lower than that on the uninvolved side. After reloading, BMD increased 22% and 21% for the total foot, 16% and 14% for the tarsals, 29% and 30% for the metatarsals, 14% and 15% for the medial column bones, and 28% and 26% for the lateral column bones on the involved and uninvolved sides, respectively. After reloading, BMD of the involved total foot remained 8% lower than that on the uninvolved side. Discussion: The increase in BMD with reloading was not uniform across all pedal bones; the metatarsals showed a greater increase than the tarsals, and the lateral column bones showed a greater increase than the medial column bones. PMID:18388153

  12. New efforts using helicopter-borne and ground based electromagnetics for mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Siemon, B.; Noell, U.; Gutzmer, J.; Spitzer, K.; Becken, M.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the last decades mineral resources, especially rare earth elements, gained a steadily growing importance in industry and therefore as well in exploration. New targets for mineral investigations came into focus and known sources have been and will be revisited. Since most of the mining for mineral resources in the past took place in the upper hundred metres below surface new techniques made deeper mining economically feasible. Consequently, mining engineers need the best possible knowledge about the full spatial extent of prospective geological structures, including their maximum depths. Especially in Germany and Europe, politics changed in terms not to rely only on the global mineral trade market but on national resources, if available. BGR and partners therefore started research programs on different levels to evaluate and develop new technologies on environmental friendly, non-invasive spatial exploration using airborne and partly ground-based electromagnetic methods. Mining waste heaps have been explored for valuable residual minerals (research project ROBEHA), a promising tin bearing ore body is being explored by airborne electromagnetics (research project E3) and a new airborne technology is aimed at to be able to reach investigation depths of about 1 km (research project DESMEX). First results of the projects ROBEHA and E3 will be presented and the project layout of DESMEX will be discussed.

  13. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Frances; Fulcher, Greg R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study was undertaken to study the relationships between bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and the serum ferritin and serum iron in postmenopausal women heterozygous for the C282Y mutation. The spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, was significantly less than age matched community controls (P = 0.016). There was no significant change in the femoral neck bone mineral density compared to age matched community controls. The correlation between the spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, the femoral neck bone mineral density, and the serum ferritin was not significant. The serum iron correlated significantly inversely with the femoral neck bone mineral density (P = 0.048). The heterozygous C282Y mutation may be associated with impairment of bone cell function in postmenopausal women when only small increases in the serum iron or serum ferritin have occurred. PMID:27123357

  14. Rocket-borne instrument for measuring vibrational-rotational temperature and density in the lower thermosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Junichi; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro

    2005-08-15

    We applied the electron beam fluorescence (EBF) technique to measure the vibrational temperature, rotational temperature, and number density of atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) in the altitude range of 100-150 km. The atmospheric N{sub 2} is excited and ionized by electron beam of the energy of 1 keV and the subsequent fluorescence of the N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band is detected by a sensitive spectrometer, which covers the 360-440 nm wavelength range. In contrast to previous rocket-borne photometric measurements using the EBF technique, the spectrometric measurement provides the above three parameters simultaneously and more accurately. Preflight laboratory experiments were carried out in order to test the spectral sensitivity over the whole spectral range, to calibrate the number density from the band intensity, and to know the accuracy of the rotational temperature measurement. Finally, we tried to calibrate the vibrational temperature measurement by using heated N{sub 2} gas which is ejected from the small nozzle.

  15. Preoperative Periarticular Knee Bone Mineral Density in Osteoarthritic Patients Undergoing TKA

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Sato, Junko; Todoroki, Koji; Ezawa, Nobukazu; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preoperative periarticular bone quality is affected by joint loading. The purpose of this study was to determine the periarticular bone mineral density of the knee joint of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, and whether the location of the load-bearing axis correlates with the measured bone mineral density. Materials and Methods: The bone mineral densities of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the medial and lateral tibial condyles were analyzed in consecutive 116 osteoarthritic patients (130 knees) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: The median bone mineral density values in the condyles were 1.138 in femoral medial, 0.767 in femoral lateral, 1.056 in tibial medial, and 0.714 in tibial lateral. The medial condyles showed significantly higher bone mineral densities than the lateral condyles in both the femur and tibia. In addition, the femoral medial showed significantly higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial medial, and the femoral lateral condyle had higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial lateral. The bone mineral density Medial/Lateral ratio was significantly negatively correlated with the location (tibial medial edge 0%, lateral edge 100%) of the load-bearing axis in the femur and tibia. Conclusion: Preoperative bone mineral density values may provide against the changes in bone mineral density after total knee arthroplasty by reflecting the correlation with joint loading axis. These results help explain why total knee arthroplasty has such good long-term clinical outcomes with a low frequency of component loosening and periarticular fractures despite a high degree of postoperative bone loss. PMID:27583058

  16. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm{sup 3}) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm{sup 3} and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0

  17. Effects of Statins on Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongze; Li, Ying; Zhou, Fengxin; Piao, Zhe; Hao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although observational studies have identified the protective effect of statins on bone health, the effects remain controversial in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a meta-analysis of RCTs to evaluate the effects of statins on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk among adults. We searched electronic databases of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and conducted a bibliography review to identify articles published until May, 2015. Studies included in this meta-analysis should be randomized controlled trials conducted in adults, using statins in the intervention group. Information on changes in BMD or odds ratio, relative risk or hazard ratio (HR) for fracture risk with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was provided. Two investigators independently reviewed the title or abstract, further reviewed the full-texts and extracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Net change estimates of BMD and pooled HR of fracture risk comparing the intervention group with the control group were estimated across trials using random-effects models. Of the relevant 334 citations, 7 trials (including 27,900 randomized participants in total) meeting the eligibility criteria were included. Of the 7 trials, 5 were conducted to assess the association of statins use with BMD change and 2 with fracture risk. Compared with the control group, statins use was associated with significant increase in BMD of 0.03 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.006, 0.053; I2 = 99.2%; P < 0.001), but null association with fracture risk, with the pooled HR of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.15; I2 = 0; P = 0.396). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the associations were consistent and robust. The effect of statins use on bone health among subpopulation could not be identified due to limited number of trials. These findings provide evidence that statins could be used to increase BMD other than decreasing fracture

  18. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulation maintains bone mineral density in mice.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Sylvia; Ziegler, Nicole; Tsourdi, Elena; De Bosscher, Karolien; Tuckermann, Jan P; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2012-11-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, but their use is limited by their adverse effects on the skeleton. Compound A (CpdA) is a novel GC receptor modulator with the potential for an improved risk/benefit profile. We tested the effects of CpdA on bone in a mouse model of GC-induced bone loss. Bone loss was induced in FVB/N mice by implanting slow-release pellets containing either vehicle, prednisolone (PRED) (3.5 mg), or CpdA (3.5 mg). After 4 weeks, mice were killed to examine the effects on the skeleton using quantitative computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, serum markers of bone turnover, and gene expression analysis. To assess the underlying mechanisms, in vitro studies were performed with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and murine osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4 cells). PRED reduced the total and trabecular bone density in the femur by 9% and 24% and in the spine by 11% and 20%, respectively, whereas CpdA did not influence these parameters. Histomorphometry confirmed these results and further showed that the mineral apposition rate was decreased by PRED whereas the number of osteoclasts was increased. Decreased bone formation was paralleled by a decline in serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP), reduced skeletal expression of osteoblast markers, and increased serum levels of the osteoblast inhibitor dickkopf-1 (DKK-1). In addition, serum CTX-1 and the skeletal receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio were increased by PRED. None of these effects were observed with CpdA. Consistent with the in vivo data, CpdA did not increase the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells or the expression of DKK-1 in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. Finally, CpdA also failed to transactivate DKK-1 expression in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. This study underlines the bone-sparing potential of CpdA and suggests that by preventing increases in the RANKL/OPG ratio or DKK-1 in osteoblast lineage cells, GC

  19. Bone mineral density and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Debjani; Cooke, Andrew L; Lix, Lisa; Metge, Colleen; Lu, Huimin; Leslie, William D

    2011-04-01

    To determine if higher bone mineral density (BMD) is a risk factor for breast cancer in women age 50 years and older. 37,860 women ≥ 50-year old with no previous breast cancer diagnosis had baseline BMD assessment between January 1999 and December 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were created for time to a new breast cancer as a function of lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD quartile (1st = lowest as reference) with adjustment for relevant covariates. A secondary analysis was performed to look for an association with estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) breast cancers. 794 invasive and in situ breast cancers (484 ER-positive) occurred with a median follow up of 5.4 years. Increased breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd and 4th quartiles of lumbar spine BMD with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01-1.58) and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.16-1.81), respectively and for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.07-1.64). A test for linear trend showed that lumbar spine BMD (P < 0.001) and femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04) were associated with increased risk. Higher lumbar spine BMD was also associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer with HR of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.08-1.94), and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.24-2.27) for women in the 2nd and 4th quartiles, respectively. A test for linear trend showed lumbar spine BMD was associated with increasing risk of ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.003). Increased ER-positive breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08-1.89). Higher lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with higher risk of breast cancer in women ≥50-year old. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer. PMID:20838879

  20. Geographic differences in bone mineral density of Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Delezé, M; Cons-Molina, F; Villa, A R; Morales-Torres, J; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J G; Calva, J J; Murillo, A; Briceño, A; Orozco, J; Morales-Franco, G; Peña-Rios, H; Guerrero-Yeo, G; Aguirre, E; Elizondo, J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate standard curves for normal spinal and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) in Mexican women using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to analyze geographic differences and to compare these with 'Hispanic' reference data to determine its applicability. This was a cross-sectional study of 4460 urban, clinically normal, Mexican women, aged 20-90 years, from 10 different cities in Mexico (5 in the north, 4 in the center and 1 in the southeast) with densitometry centers. Women with suspected medical conditions or who had used drugs affecting bone metabolism, were excluded. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher (1.089 +/- 0.18 g/cm2) in women from the northern part of Mexico, with intermediate values in the center (1.065 +/- 0.17 g/cm2) and lower values (1.013 +/- 0.19 g/cm2) in the southeast (p < 0.0001). Similarly, femoral neck BMD was significantly higher in women from the north (0.895 +/- 0.14 g/cm2), intermediate in the center (0.864 +/- 0.14 g/cm2) and lower (0.844 +/- 0.14 g/cm ) in the southeast part of Mexico (p < 0.0001). Northern Mexican women tend to be taller and heavier than women from the center and, even more, than those from the southeast of Mexico (p < 0.0001). However, these differences in BMD remained significant after adjustment for weight (p < 0.0001). A significant loss (p < 0.0001) in BMD was observed from 40 to 69 years of age at the lumbar spine and up to the eighth decade at the femoral neck. Higher and lower lumbar spine values, as compared with the 'Hispanic' population, were observed in Mexican mestizo women from the northern and southeastern regions, respectively. In conclusion, there are geographic differences in weight and height of Mexican women, and in BMD despite adjustment for weight. PMID:11069189

  1. Mineral Metabolism and Cortical Volumetric Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsampalieros, Anne K.; de Boer, Ian H.; Shults, Justine; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Zemel, Babette S.; Foerster, Debbie; Stokes, David; Leonard, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The relationships among cortical volumetric bone mineral density (CortBMD) and comprehensive measures of mineral metabolism have not been addressed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the determinants of CortBMD in childhood CKD. A secondary objective was to assess whether CortBMD was associated with subsequent fracture. Design and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 171 children, adolescents, and young adults (aged 5–21 years) with CKD stages 2–5D at enrollment and 89 1 year later. Outcomes: Serum measures included vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D], vitamin D-binding protein, intact PTH, fibroblast growth factor 23, calcium, and phosphorus. Tibia quantitative computed tomography measures of CortBMD were expressed as sex-, race-, and age-specific Z-scores based on 675 controls. Multivariable linear regression identified the independent correlates of CortBMD Z-scores and the change in CortBMD Z-scores. Results: Lower calcium (β = .31/1 mg/dL, P = .01) and 25(OH)D (β = .18/10 ng/mL, P = .04) and higher PTH (β = −.02/10%, P = .002) and 1,25(OH)2D (β = −.07/10%, P < .001) were independently associated with lower CortBMD Z-scores at baseline. The correlations of total, free, and bioavailable 25(OH)D with CortBMD did not differ. Higher baseline 1,25(OH)2D (P < .05) and greater increases in PTH (P < .001) were associated with greater declines in CortBMD Z-scores. Greater increases in calcium concentrations were associated with greater increases in CortBMD Z-scores in growing children (interaction P = .009). The hazard ratio for fracture was 1.75 (95% confidence interval 1.15–2.67; P = .009) per SD lower baseline CortBMD. Conclusions: Greater PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and lower calcium concentrations were independently associated with baseline and progressive cortical deficits in childhood CKD. Lower CortBMD Z-score was

  2. Bone mineral density and disorders of mineral metabolism in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Joe; Ganesh, Hosahithlu K; Acharya, Shrikrishna; Bandgar, Tushar R; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Karvat, Anjana; Bhatia, Shobna J; Shah, Samir; Menon, Padmavathy S; Shah, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for metabolic bone disease in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: The study was performed on 72 Indian patients with cirrhosis (63 male, nine female; aged < 50 years). Etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholism (n = 37), hepatitis B (n = 25) and hepatitis C (n = 10). Twenty-three patients belonged to Child class A, while 39 were in class B and 10 in class C. Secondary causes for metabolic bone disease and osteoporosis were ruled out. Sunlight exposure, physical activity and dietary constituents were calculated. Complete metabolic profiles were derived, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as a Z score below -2. RESULTS: Low BMD was found in 68% of patients. Lumbar spine was the most frequently and severely affected site. Risk factors for low BMD included low physical activity, decreased sunlight exposure, and low lean body mass. Calcium intake was adequate, with unfavorable calcium: protein ratio and calcium: phosphorus ratio. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent (92%). There was a high incidence of hypogonadism (41%). Serum estradiol level was elevated significantly in patients with normal BMD. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and IGF binding protein 3 levels were below the age-related normal range in both groups. IGF-1 was significantly lower in patients with low BMD. Serum osteocalcin level was low (68%) and urinary deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio was high (79%), which demonstrated low bone formation with high resorption. CONCLUSION: Patients with cirrhosis have low BMD. Contributory factors are reduced physical activity, low lean body mass, vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism and low IGF-1 level. PMID:19630107

  3. Efficient parallel linear scaling construction of the density matrix for Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mniszewski, S M; Cawkwell, M J; Wall, M E; Mohd-Yusof, J; Bock, N; Germann, T C; Niklasson, A M N

    2015-10-13

    We present an algorithm for the calculation of the density matrix that for insulators scales linearly with system size and parallelizes efficiently on multicore, shared memory platforms with small and controllable numerical errors. The algorithm is based on an implementation of the second-order spectral projection (SP2) algorithm [ Niklasson, A. M. N. Phys. Rev. B 2002 , 66 , 155115 ] in sparse matrix algebra with the ELLPACK-R data format. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm within self-consistent tight binding theory by total energy calculations of gas phase poly(ethylene) molecules and periodic liquid water systems containing up to 15,000 atoms on up to 16 CPU cores. We consider algorithm-specific performance aspects, such as local vs nonlocal memory access and the degree of matrix sparsity. Comparisons to sparse matrix algebra implementations using off-the-shelf libraries on multicore CPUs, graphics processing units (GPUs), and the Intel many integrated core (MIC) architecture are also presented. The accuracy and stability of the algorithm are illustrated with long duration Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations of 1000 water molecules and a 303 atom Trp cage protein solvated by 2682 water molecules. PMID:26574255

  4. Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Karlie J; Rozenek, Ralph; Clippinger, Karen; Gunter, Kathy; Russo, Albert C; Sklar, Susan E

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates body composition (BC), bone mineral density (BMD), eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate modern dancers. Thirty-one female collegiate modern dance majors (D), 18 to 25 years of age, and 30 age-matched controls (C) participated in the study. BC and BMD were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Upper and lower body strength was assessed by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Participants completed three-day food records, and the diet was analyzed using nutritional software. Menstrual dysfunction (MD) and history of eating disorder (ED) data were collected via questionnaires. BC and BMD variables were analyzed using MANCOVA and frequency of ED and MD by Chi-Square analysis. BMD was greater in D than C at the spine (1.302 ± 0.135 g/cm(2) vs. 1.245 ± 0.098 g/cm(2)), and both the right hip (1.163 ± 0.111 g/cm(2) vs. 1.099 ± 0.106 g/cm(2)) and left hip (1.160 ± 0.114 g/cm(2) vs. 1.101 ± 0.104 g/cm(2); p ≤ 0.05). Total body fat percentage was lower in D than C (25.9 ± 4.2% vs. 32.0 ± 5.9%; p ≤ 0.05), and percent of fat distributed in the android region was also lower in D than C (28.0 ± 6.2% vs. 37.6 ± 8.6%; p ≤ 0.05). With regard to diet composition, only percent fat intake was lower in D than C (27.54 ± 6.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.4%, p ≤ 0.05). A greater incidence of ED was reported by D than C (12.9% vs. 0%; p ≤ 0.05), as well as a greater incidence of secondary amenorrhea (41.9% vs 13.3%; p ≤ 0.05). No differences were found for incidence of primary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or use of birth control. Strength values were higher in D than C for both chest press (30.1 ± 0.9 kg vs. 28.4 ± 1.0 kg; p ≤ 0.05) and leg press (170.7 ± 4.2 kg vs.163.1 ± 3.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the dancers in our study had a healthy body weight, yet reported a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction, than non-dancers. These dancers' higher BMD may be

  5. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  6. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  7. Bone mineral density in asthmatic patients using low dose inhaled glucocorticosteroids.

    PubMed

    El, O; Gulbahar, S; Ceylan, E; Ergor, G; Sahin, E; Senocak, O; Oncel, S; Cimrin, A

    2005-01-01

    Inhaled glucocorticosteroids are clearly beneficial in subjects with moderate or severe asthma since they are well tolerated, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life. Some studies suggest that inhaled glucocorticosteroids can adversely affect bone mineral density. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of inhaled glucocorticosteroid therapy on bone mineral density in female patients. Forty-five asthmatic female patients (36 premenopousal and 9 postmenopausal) and forty-six healthy control subjects were included in the study. Bone mineral density was measured from lumbar spine (L1-4) and femur (neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle) by dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Age, occupation, menopause and smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, previous fractures, family history of fractures, menstrual history, ooferectomy, number of pregnancies, the duration of lactation, physical activity and calcium intake were questioned according to the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group (EVOS) form. Cumulative inhaled glucocorticosteroid dose was calculated. T score of femoral neck and T score and bone mineral density of Ward's triangle were significantly lower in asthmatic patients compared to control group but no statistically significant correlation was found between the disease duration, inhaled steroid treatment duration, cumulative inhaled dose and annual inhaled steroid dose and bone mineral density measurement. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients using low dose inhaled corticosteroids bone mineral density is lower than in healthy controls but it is still unclear if asthma by itself is a risk factor for osteoporosis. PMID:15864884

  8. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  9. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G.; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm2)], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  10. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm(2))], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones. PMID:22225247

  11. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  12. Association between mean platelet volume and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Aypak, Cenk; Türedi, Özlem; Bircan, Mustafa A.; Civelek, Gul M.; Araz, Mine

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Osteoporosis is an inflammatory disease, and platelets play a critical role in bone remodeling. Mean platelet volume has been shown to be influenced by inflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between mean platelet volume and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] The records of female patients who had been referred to a tertiary hospital for bone mineral density analysis were retrospectively reviewed. [Results] A total of 175 patients (mean age: 61.3 ± 9.0 years) were enrolled. Overall, 72% (126/175) of patients met the criteria for osteoporosis. Mean platelet volume was found to be inversely correlated with body mass index. There was a significant positive correlation between mean platelet volume and femoral neck bone mineral density in our normal weight osteoporotic group, whereas there was a significant negative correlation in our overweight-obese osteoporotic group. The negative correlation between mean platelet volume and femoral neck bone mineral density in the overweight-obese osteoporotic group persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. Multivariate analyses revealed that mean platelet volume was significantly associated with femoral neck bone mineral density in osteoporotic patients in both our normal weight and overweight-obese groups. [Conclusion] Regardless of mechanisms, mean platelet volume might be used as a biomarker for osteoporosis in clinical settings. PMID:27390409

  13. Comparative Analysis of Linear and Angular Measurements on Digital Orthopantomogram with Calcaneus Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramaniam Vasudevan; Koliyan, Ramadoss; Kumar, Jimsha Vannathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone remodeling is a continuous and complex process which occurs throughout life. Radiomorphometric and radioangular indices on the orthopantomogram are the predictors of bone remodeling associated with mandible. Bone mineral density is the amount of calcified tissue in a certain volume of the bone. Materials and Methods Fifty normal healthy individuals within the age range of 25-55 years were included in the study. Linear measurements including mandibular cortical width (MCW) and panoramic mandibular index (PMI); and angular measurements including mandibular angle (MA) and antegonial angle (AGA) were recorded. Quantitative ultrasound bone mineral density (BMD) scan of the heel bone (calcaneus) of the same patient were also performed. Results In our study, for both males and females, antegonial angle (AGA) had highest correlation with calcaneus bone mineral density. In the age group of less than 35 years, PMI in males, and AGA in females had highest correlation. In the age range of more than 35 years, MA in males and AGA in females had highest correlation. Conclusion There is a correlation between the mandibular bone remodelling changes and calcaneal bone mineral density in case of elder subjects and thus these parameters may be used as an inexpensive alternative screening method to assess the bone mineral density and identify individuals at risk for osteoporosis and fractures and also for dental treatment planning. PMID:26393197

  14. Orientation of mineral crystallites and mineral density during skeletal development in mice deficient in tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Tesch, W; Vandenbos, T; Roschgr, P; Fratzl-Zelman, N; Klaushofer, K; Beertsen, W; Fratzl, P

    2003-01-01

    Tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) is thought to play an important role in mineralization processes, although its exact working mechanism is not known. In the present investigation we have studied mineral crystal characteristics in the developing skeleton of TNALP-deficient mice. Null mutants (n = 7) and their wild-type littermates (n = 7) were bred and killed between 8 and 22 days after birth. Skeletal tissues were processed to assess mineral characteristics (small angle X-ray scattering, quantitative backscattered electron imaging), and to analyze bone by light microscopy and immunolabeling. The results showed a reduced longitudinal growth and a strongly delayed epiphyseal ossification in the null mutants. This was accompanied by disturbances in mineralization pattern, in that crystallites were not orderly aligned with respect to the longitudinal axis of the cortical bone. Among the null mutants, a great variability in the mineralization parameters was noticed. Also, immunolabeling of osteopontin (OPN) revealed an abnormal distribution pattern of the protein within the bone matrix. Whereas in the wild-type animals OPN was predominantly observed in cement and reversal lines, in the null mutants, OPN was also randomly dispersed throughout the nonmineralized matrix, with focal densities. In contrast, the distribution pattern of osteocalcin (OC) was comparable in both types of animals. It is concluded that ablation of TNALP results not only in hypomineralization of the skeleton, but also in a severe disorder of the mineral crystal alignment pattern in the corticalis of growing long bone in association with a disordered matrix architecture, presumably as a result of impaired bone remodeling and maturation. PMID:12510812

  15. Bone mineral density in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Duzova, Ali; Ozaltin, Fatih; Ozon, Alev; Besbas, Nesrin; Topaloglu, Rezan; Ozen, S; Bakkaloglu, A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC), serum and urinary bone turnover parameters in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of serous membranes. Demographic characteristics and MEFV mutations were defined in 48 children diagnosed with FMF (23 F, 25 M; median age 7.0 years (3.0-10.0)). We evaluated the blood counts, acute-phase proteins and serum and urinary bone turnover parameters during attack-free periods. The BMC and BA (bone area) of vertebrae L1-L4 were measured by DEXA. Thirty-eight age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy children constituted the control group. Mean L1-L4 BMC in Group I (patients with two mutations) and II (patients with no or single mutations) were 15.49+/-5.99 g and 15.68+/-4.89 g, respectively, both significantly lower than the mean L1-L4 BMC of control patients, which was 19.59+/-6.7 g (p<0.05). Mean L1-L4 BMD in Group I, Group II and the control group were 0.466+/-0.066 g/cm(2), 0.487+/-0.085 g/cm(2 )and 0.513+/-0.079 g/cm(2), respectively. Mean z-scores in Group I, Group II and the control group were -1.87+/-0.74, -1.55+/-0.92 and -1.39+/-0.84, respectively. Mean L1-L4 BMD and z-score of Group I were lower than in the control group (p<0.05). ESR and SAA (serum amyloid A) levels were higher in Group I patients: 28.3+/-14.5 mm/h and 350+/-62 mg/l in Group I; and 20.5+/-11.7 mm/h and 190+/-68 mg/l in Group II, respectively. In conclusion, FMF patients had lower BMC, BMD and z-scores than a control group. We suggest that decreased BMD, BMC and z-score in FMF patients may be secondary to subclinical inflammation. PMID:15168151

  16. An Approach to Calculate Mineralś Bulk Moduli KS from Chemical Composition and Density ρ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Drüppel, K.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are fundamental parameters for technical and geotechnical applications and an important research topic towards a better understanding of the Eart&hacute;s interior. Published elastic properties, chemical composition, and density data of 86 minerals (total of 258 data including properties of minerals at various p, T conditions) were collected into a database. It was used to test different hypotheses about relationships between these properties (e.g. water content in minerals and their Poisson's ratio). Furthermore, a scheme to model the average elastic properties, i.e. the bulk modulus KS, based on mineral density and composition was developed. Birc&hacute;s law, a linearity between density ρ and wave velocity (e.g. vp.), is frequently used in seismic and seismology to derive density of the Eart&hacute;s interior from seismic velocities. Applying the compiled mineral data contradicts the use of a simple velocity-density relation (e.g. Gardneŕs relation, 1974). The presented model-approach to estimate the mineralś bulk moduli Ks (as Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) is based on the idea of pressure-temperature (p-T) dependent ionś bulk moduli. Using a multi-exponential regression to ascertain the ionś bulk moduli and by applying an exponential scaling with density ρ, their bulk moduli could be modelled. As a result, > 88 % of the 258 bulk moduli data are predicted with an uncertainty of < 20 % compared to published values. Compared to other models (e.g. Anderson et al. 1970 and Anderson & Nafe 1965), the here presented approach to model the bulk moduli only requires the density ρ and chemical composition of the mineral and is not limited to a specific group of minerals, composition, or structure. In addition to this, by using the pressure and temperature dependent density ρ(p, T), it is possible to predict bulk moduli for varying p-T conditions. References:Gardner, G.H.F, Gardner, L.W. and Gregory, A.R. (1974). Geophysics, 39, No. 6

  17. An Approach to Calculate Mineralś Bulk Moduli KS from Chemical Composition and Density ρ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Drüppel, K.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are fundamental parameters for technical and geotechnical applications and an important research topic towards a better understanding of the Earth's interior. Published elastic properties, chemical composition, and density data of 86 minerals (total of 258 data including properties of minerals at various p, T conditions) were collected into a database. It was used to test different hypotheses about relationships between these properties (e.g. water content in minerals and their Poisson's ratio). Furthermore, a scheme to model the average elastic properties, i.e. the bulk modulus KS, based on mineral density and composition was developed. Birch's law, a linearity between density ρ and wave velocity (e.g. vp.), is frequently used in seismic and seismology to derive density of the Earth's interior from seismic velocities. Applying the compiled mineral data contradicts the use of a simple velocity-density relation (e.g. Gardneŕs relation, 1974). The presented model-approach to estimate the mineralś bulk moduli Ks (as Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) is based on the idea of pressure-temperature (p-T) dependent ionś bulk moduli. Using a multi-exponential regression to ascertain the ionś bulk moduli and by applying an exponential scaling with density ρ, their bulk moduli could be modelled. As a result, > 88 % of the 258 bulk moduli data are predicted with an uncertainty of < 20 % compared to published values. Compared to other models (e.g. Anderson et al. 1970 and Anderson & Nafe 1965), the here presented approach to model the bulk moduli only requires the density ρ and chemical composition of the mineral and is not limited to a specific group of minerals, composition, or structure. In addition to this, by using the pressure and temperature dependent density ρ(p, T), it is possible to predict bulk moduli for varying p-T conditions. References:Gardner, G.H.F, Gardner, L.W. and Gregory, A.R. (1974). Geophysics, 39, No. 6, 770

  18. Non-Born-Oppenheimer electronic and nuclear densities for a Hooke-Calogero three-particle model: Non-uniqueness of density-derived molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludeña, E. V.; Echevarría, L.; Lopez, X.; Ugalde, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    We consider the calculation of non-Born-Oppenheimer, nBO, one-particle densities for both electrons and nuclei. We show that the nBO one-particle densities evaluated in terms of translationally invariant coordinates are independent of the wavefunction describing the motion of center of mass of the whole system. We show that they depend, however, on an arbitrary reference point from which the positions of the vectors labeling the particles are determined. We examine the effect that this arbitrary choice has on the topology of the one-particle density by selecting the Hooke-Calogero model of a three-body system for which expressions for the one-particle densities can be readily obtained in analytic form. We extend this analysis to the one-particle densities obtained from full Coulomb interaction wavefunctions for three-body systems. We conclude, in view of the fact that there is a close link between the choice of the reference point and the topology of one-particle densities that the molecular structure inferred from the topology of these densities is not unique. We analyze the behavior of one-particle densities for the Hooke-Calogero Born-Oppenheimer, BO, wavefunction and show that topological transitions are also present in this case for a particular mass value of the light particles even though in the BO regime the nuclear masses are infinite. In this vein, we argue that the change in topology caused by variation of the mass ratio between light and heavy particles does not constitute a true indication in the nBO regime of the emergence of molecular structure.

  19. Non-Born-Oppenheimer electronic and nuclear densities for a Hooke-Calogero three-particle model: Non-uniqueness of density-derived molecular structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ludena, E. V.; Echevarria, L.; Lopez, X.; Ugalde, J. M.

    2012-02-28

    We consider the calculation of non-Born-Oppenheimer, nBO, one-particle densities for both electrons and nuclei. We show that the nBO one-particle densities evaluated in terms of translationally invariant coordinates are independent of the wavefunction describing the motion of center of mass of the whole system. We show that they depend, however, on an arbitrary reference point from which the positions of the vectors labeling the particles are determined. We examine the effect that this arbitrary choice has on the topology of the one-particle density by selecting the Hooke-Calogero model of a three-body system for which expressions for the one-particle densities can be readily obtained in analytic form. We extend this analysis to the one-particle densities obtained from full Coulomb interaction wavefunctions for three-body systems. We conclude, in view of the fact that there is a close link between the choice of the reference point and the topology of one-particle densities that the molecular structure inferred from the topology of these densities is not unique. We analyze the behavior of one-particle densities for the Hooke-Calogero Born-Oppenheimer, BO, wavefunction and show that topological transitions are also present in this case for a particular mass value of the light particles even though in the BO regime the nuclear masses are infinite. In this vein, we argue that the change in topology caused by variation of the mass ratio between light and heavy particles does not constitute a true indication in the nBO regime of the emergence of molecular structure.

  20. [Physical activity/sports and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Inomoto, Takeaki

    2008-09-01

    This study observed the amount of exercise of Japanese schoolchildren as recorded by pedometer. Schools are necessary venues to increase children's mobility, but home environments are hotbeds for lack of exercise on weekends and during holidays and vacations. This research measured the L(2 - 4)BMD of 185 male and female primary schoolchildren using a DEXA method. Results showed significant partial correlations for measurements of boys' grip strength, boys' standing broad jump, and girls' grip strength, indicating the influence of mechanical stress. In a parallel study, L(2 - 4)BMD measurements for high school athletic club members (14 and 10 sports for boys and girls respectively) were taken, and it was found that the L(2 - 4)BMD (60 kg/weight) values were significantly higher than the control values for boys' boxing and weightlifting but significantly lower for boys' sumo. No significance was found in L(2 - 4)BMD (50 kg/weight) among the different girls' sports. From both studies, it was concluded that with approximately 2 hours of moderate play and exercise daily, the bone density of children rises with increase of overall muscle quantity, resulting in higher athletic ability and overall physical strength. PMID:18758041

  1. Effects of resistance training on bone mineral content and density in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Blimkie, C J; Rice, S; Webber, C E; Martin, J; Levy, D; Gordon, C L

    1996-09-01

    Postmenarcheal adolescent girls performed resistance training (RT) for 26 weeks, which consisted of 4 sets of 13 exercises of varying and progressive intensity performed 3 times weekly on hydraulic resistance machines. Bone mineral was assessed by dual photon absorptiometry. Resistance training resulted in significant increases (pre-post) in biceps curl (21.4%), triceps press (21.5%), knee extension (25.1%), knee flexion (52.8%), and squat press (21.5%) strength. There were no significant differences between RT and control (C) groups initially, and no significant effects of training (pre-post) for total body (TB) or lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD). The largest increases in LS bone mineral occurred during the first 13 weeks, and although not significant, the increases in LS BMC (g) (3.9 vs. 5.9%), LS BMC (g.cm-1) (2.6 vs. 5.9%), LS areal BMD (g.cm-2) (1.48 vs. 4.75%), and LS bone mineral apparent density (BMAD, g.cm-3) (0.47 vs. 4.13%) were greater in the RT compared with the C group during this period. In conclusion, resistance training resulted in a trend towards a transient increase in LS bone mineral during the first 13 weeks, but despite significant strength gains, there were no significant changes in TB or LS bone mineral after 26 weeks of training. PMID:8960394

  2. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  3. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  4. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    PubMed Central

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density. PMID:24587733

  5. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  6. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  7. Strong Association Between Tibial Plateau Bone Mineral Density and Cartilage Damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with radiographic features of osteoarthritis (OA), but no study has looked at its relationship with a direct measure of cartilage damage. We hypothesize that a relative increase in medial and lateral tibial BMD will be associated with cartilage damage...

  8. Associations of APOE gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density and fracture risk: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been studied for its potential role in osteoporosis risk. It is hypothesized that genetic variation at common APOE loci, known as E2, E3, and E4, may modulate bone mineral density (BMD) through its effects on lipoproteins and vitamin K transport. To determine the associa...

  9. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  10. Do the Determinants of Bone Mineral Density Differ by Gender? The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a disease that affects both men and women yet it remains unclear whether determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) differ by gender since few population-based osteoporosis studies have included both men and women. Our study goal was to determine factors associated with BMD and wheth...

  11. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  12. Effect of probiotics supplementation on bone mineral content and bone mass density.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density. PMID:24587733

  13. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58-69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  14. Development of phantom for quantitative analyses of human dentin mineral density.

    PubMed

    Hayashi-Sakai, Sachiko; Kondo, Tatsuya; Kasuga, Yuto; Sakamoto, Makoto; Endo, Hideaki; Sakai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a novel-designed phantom that could be scanned with a sample in the same image, that specialize for quantitative analyses of human dentin mineral density using the X-ray attenuation method. A further attempt was made to demonstrate the intracoronal dentin mineral density using this phantom in mandibular incisors. The phantom prepared with a 15 mm hole in the center of an acrylic resin bar having an outside diameter of 25 mm and 8 small holes (diameter, 3 mm) were made at equal intervals around the center. Liquid dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) solutions were established at 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/cm3, and were arranged to these holes. The mean value of the intracoronal dentin mineral density was 1.486 ± 0.016 g/cm3 in the present study. As the results of the present study corresponded to previous reports, this new phantom was considered to be useful. This phantom enables the analysis of samples that are not readily available by conventional mechanical tests and may facilitate biomechanical investigations using X-ray images. It was suggested that this system is a simple, accurate and novel mineralization measuring system. PMID:26484556

  15. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Badescu, Laurentiu; Badulescu, Oana; Badescu, Magda; Ciocoiu, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and fat (%Fat) in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight) revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA) increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS) dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (P < 0.001) in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis. PMID:23024697

  16. Bone mineral density of skeletal remains: Discordant results between chemical analysis and DXA method.

    PubMed

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Boric, Igor; Sliskovic, Livia; Popovic, Marijana; Knezovic, Zlatka; Nikolic, Ivana; Vucinovic, Ana; Vucinovic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning is a gold standard for bone mineral density measurement and diagnosis of primary and secondary osteoporosis in living persons. DXA is becoming widespread when analysing archaeological material, and is considered to provide an accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis in skeletal samples. The aim of this study was to explain the differences in results between bone mineral density (obtained with DXA) and chemical determination of calcium and phosphorus concentrations in skeletal remains. We examined bone mineral density (BMD) and mineral content of femoral bone samples exhumed from mass graves of the Second World War. BMD was determined by Hologic QDR 4500 C (S/N 48034) Bone Densitometer. Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined with AAS (Atomic absorption spectroscopy) and UV/VIS (Ultraviolet-visible) spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study do not support the hypothesis according to which BMD measured by DXA scan has positive correlation with chemically determined concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in bones, especially in acidic soils where there was significant impact of diagenesis observed. PMID:27161916

  17. [MINERAL BONE DENSITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PARTICIPANTS IN EXPERIMENT MARS-500].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Oganov, V S; Kabitskaya, O E; Murashko, L M; Naidina, V P; Chernikhova, E A

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the bone system and body composition in Mars-500 test-subjects (prior to and on completion of the experiment) involved dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using the HOLOGIC Delphy densitometer and the protocol performed to examine cosmonauts. Bone density of lumber vertebrae and femoral proximal epiphysis, and body composition were measured. Reliable changes in vertebral density found in 3 test-subjects displayed different trends from +2.6 to -2.4%. At the same time, the experiment decreased significantly mineral density of the femoral proximal epiphysis, including the neck, in all test-subjects. Four test-subjects had cranial mineralization increased by 5-9%, same as in some cosmonauts after space flight. All tests-subjects incurred adipose loss from 2 to 7 kg; one test-subject lost 20 kg, i.e. his adipose mass became three times less. Changes in lean mass (1-3 kg) typically were negative; as for changes in lean mass of extremities, they could be linked with adherence to one or another type of physical activity. Therefore, extended exposure to confinement may affect mineralization of some parts of the skeleton. Unlike real space missions and long-term bedrest studies conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems in the past, Mars-500 did not cause clinically significant mineral losses (osteoporosis, osteopenia), probably because of the absence of effects of microgravity. PMID:27344855

  18. Evidence of decreasing mineral density in wheat grain over the last 160 years.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming-Sheng; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Poulton, Paul R; Dunham, Sarah J; McGrath, Steve P

    2008-01-01

    Wheat is an important source of minerals such as iron, zinc, copper and magnesium in the UK diet. The dietary intake of these nutrients has fallen in recent years because of a combination of reduced energy requirements associated with sedentary lifestyles and changes in dietary patterns associated with lower micronutrient density in the diet. Recent publications using data from food composition tables indicate a downward trend in the mineral content of foods and it has been suggested that intensive farming practices may result in soil depletion of minerals. The aim of our study was to evaluate changes in the mineral concentration of wheat using a robust approach to establish whether trends are due to plant factors (e.g. cultivar, yield) or changes in soil nutrient concentration. The mineral concentration of archived wheat grain and soil samples from the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment (established in 1843 at Rothamsted, UK) was determined and trends over time examined in relation to cultivar, yield, and harvest index. The concentrations of zinc, iron, copper and magnesium remained stable between 1845 and the mid 1960s, but since then have decreased significantly, which coincided with the introduction of semi-dwarf, high-yielding cultivars. In comparison, the concentrations in soil have either increased or remained stable. Similarly decreasing trends were observed in different treatments receiving no fertilizers, inorganic fertilizers or organic manure. Multiple regression analysis showed that both increasing yield and harvest index were highly significant factors that explained the downward trend in grain mineral concentration. PMID:19013359

  19. Risk Factors for Low Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Residing in a Facility for the People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, J. S.; Timell, A. M.; Elolia, R.; Thatcher, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are known to have a high prevalence of both low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures with significant attendant morbidity. Effective strategies aimed at reducing fractures will be facilitated by the identification of predisposing risk factors. Methods: Bone mineral density was measured…

  20. Longitudinal bone mineral content and density in Rett syndrome and their contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Amanda; Fyfe, Sue; Downs, Jenny; Woodhead, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Bone mass and density are low in females with Rett syndrome. This study used Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure annual changes in z-scores for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar spine and total body in an Australian Rett syndrome cohort at baseline and then after three to four years. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated in the lumbar spine. Annual changes in lean tissue mass (LTM) and bone area (BA) were also assessed. The effects of age, genotype, mobility, menstrual status and epilepsy diagnosis on these parameters were also investigated. The baseline sample included 97 individuals who were representative of the total live Australian Rett syndrome population under 30years in 2005 (n=274). Of these 74 had a follow-up scan. Less than a quarter of females were able to walk on their own at follow-up. Bone area and LTM z-scores declined over the time between the baseline and follow-up scans. Mean height-standardised z-scores for the bone outcomes were obtained from multiple regression models. The lumbar spine showed a positive mean annual BMAD z-score change (0.08) and a marginal decrease in aBMD (-0.04). The mean z-score change per annum for those 'who could walk unaided' was more positive for LS BMAD (p=0.040). Total body BMD mean annual z-score change from baseline to follow-up was negative (-0.03). However this change was positive in those who had achieved menses prior to the study (0.03, p=0,040). Total body BMC showed the most negative change (-0.60), representing a decrease in bone mineral content over time. This normalised to a z-score change of 0.21 once adjusted for the reduced lean tissue mass mean z-score change (-0.21) and bone area mean z-score change (-0.14). Overall, the bone mineral content, bone mineral density, bone area and lean tissue mass z-scores for all outcome measures declined, with the TB BMC showing significant decreases. Weight, height and muscle mass appear to have

  1. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  2. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  3. Tenofovir treatment of primary osteoblasts alters gene expression profiles: implications for bone mineral density loss

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Iwen F.; Pham, Lan; Mansky, Louis M.; Gopalakrishnan, Raj; Carlson, Ann E.; Mansky, Kim C.

    2010-01-01

    There is strong clinical evidence that implicates tenofovir in the loss of bone mineral density during treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that tenofovir treatment of osteoblasts causes changes in the gene expression profile that would impact osteoblast function during bone formation. Primary osteoblasts were isolated and then treated with the tenofovir prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Total RNA from TDF-treated and untreated osteoblasts were extracted and used for microarray analysis to assess TDF-associated changes in the gene expression profile. Strikingly, the changes in gene expression profiles involved in cell signaling, cell cycle and amino acid metabolism, which would likely impact osteoblast function in bone formation. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that tenofovir treatment of primary osteoblasts results in gene expression changes that implicate loss of osteoblast function in tenofovir-associated bone mineral density loss. PMID:20171173

  4. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females.

    PubMed

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  5. Distinct Tissue Mineral Density in Plate- and Rod-like Trabeculae of Human Trabecular Bone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X Tony; Guo, X Edward

    2015-09-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various orientations in micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck, greater trochanter, and proximal tibia. ITM analyses indicated that trabecular plates, on average, had significantly higher TMD than trabecular rods. In addition, the distribution of TMD in trabecular plates depended on trabecular orientation with the lowest TMD in longitudinal plates and the highest TMD in transverse plates. Conversely, there was a relatively uniform distribution of TMD among trabecular rods, with respect to trabecular orientation. Further analyses of TMD distribution revealed that trabecular plates had higher mean and peak TMD, whereas trabecular rods had a wider TMD distribution and a larger portion of low mineralized trabeculae. Comparison of apparent Young's moduli derived from micro-finite element models with and without heterogeneous TMD demonstrated that heterogeneous TMD in trabecular plates had a significant influence on the elastic mechanical property of trabecular bone. In conclusion, this study revealed differences in TMD between plate- and rod-like trabeculae and among various trabecular orientations. The observation of less mineralized longitudinal trabecular plates suggests interesting implications of these load-bearing plates in bone remodeling. The newly developed ITM analysis can be a valuable technique to assess the influence of metabolic bone diseases and their pharmaceutical treatments on not only microstructure of trabecular bone but

  6. Assessment of bone mineral density in the jaws and its relationship to radiomorphometric indices

    PubMed Central

    Gulsahi, A; Paksoy, CS; Ozden, S; Kucuk, NO; Cebeci, ARI; Genc, Y

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate maxillary, mandibular and femoral neck bone mineral density using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to determine any correlation between the bone mineral density of the jaws and panoramic radiomorphometric indices. Methods 49 edentulous patients (18 males and 31 females) aged between 41 and 78 years (mean age 60.2 ± 11.04) were examined by panoramic radiography. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the jaws and femoral neck was measured with a DXA; bone mineral density was calculated at the anterior, premolar and molar regions of the maxilla and mandible. Results The mean maxillary molar BMD (0.45 g cm−2) was significantly greater than the maxillary anterior and premolar BMD (0.31 g cm−2, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean mandibular anterior and premolar BMD (1.39 g cm−2 and 1.28 g cm−2, respectively) was significantly greater than the mean mandibular molar BMD (1.09 g cm−2, P < 0.01). Although BMD in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions were correlated, BMD in all the mandibular regions were highly correlated. Maxillary and mandibular BMD were not correlated with femoral BMD. In addition, mandibular cortical index (MCI) classification, mental index (MI) or panoramic mandibular index (PMI) values were not significantly correlated with the maxillary and mandibular BMDs (P > 0.05). Conclusions The BMD in this study was highest in the mandibular anterior region and lowest in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions. The BMD of the jaws was not correlated with either femoral BMD or panoramic radiomorphometric indices. PMID:20587652

  7. Association of Circulating Renin and Aldosterone With Osteocalcin and Bone Mineral Density in African Ancestry Families.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Allison L; Kammerer, Candace M; Pratt, J Howard; Bunker, Clareann H; Wheeler, Victor W; Patrick, Alan L; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is associated with accelerated bone loss, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a key regulator of blood pressure. Although components of this system are expressed in human bone cells, studies in humans are sparse. Thus, we studied the association of circulating renin and aldosterone with osteocalcin and bone mineral density. We recruited 373 African ancestry family members without regard to health status from 6 probands (mean family size: 62 and relative pairs: 1687). Participants underwent a clinical examination, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and quantitative computed tomographic scans. Renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and osteocalcin were measured in fasting blood samples. Aldosterone/renin ratio was calculated as aldosterone concentration/renin activity. All models were analyzed using pedigree-based variance components methods. Full models included adjustment for age, sex, body composition, comorbidities, lifestyle factors, blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication. Higher renin activity was significantly associated with lower total osteocalcin and with higher trabecular bone mineral density (bothP<0.01). There were also significant genetic correlations between renin activity and whole-body bone mineral density. There were no associations with aldosterone concentration in any model and results for aldosterone/renin ratio were similar to those for renin activity. This is the first study to report a significant association between renin activity and a marker of bone turnover and bone mineral density in generally healthy individuals. Also, there is evidence for significant genetic pleiotropy and, thus, there may be a shared biological mechanism underlying both the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and bone metabolism that is independent of hypertension. PMID:26975710

  8. Endurance training associated with slightly lowered serum estradiol levels decreases mineral density of canine skeleton.

    PubMed

    Puustjärvi, K; Karjalainen, P; Nieminen, J; Arokoski, J; Parviainen, M; Helminen, H J; Soimakallio, S

    1992-06-01

    The effects of long-term running exercise were studied in 20 beagle dogs. A total of 10 dogs ran from the age of 15 weeks to the age of 70 weeks in a progressive program for up to 40 km/day. A total of 10 sister dogs spent the study period in individual cages. When the dogs were 70 weeks old, bone mineral density of the vertebrae, hip, and radius was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Lunar) and the vertebrae were also assessed by quantitative computed tomography (QCT; Siemens DR 1). Mineral density was lower in the running dogs than in the controls. The difference was greatest in the spine in the QCT analysis. Blood chemistry analyses revealed that the metabolism of the bone was significantly accelerated. The estradiol levels showed the trend to be reduced in the running group. The beneficial effect of exercise on mineral density has been shown in many earlier studies. However, in this study we demonstrate the possibility of adverse effects of long-term exercise on bone tissue. The change was associated with a decrease of serum estradiol level. PMID:1414479

  9. Inhibitory effect of mineral ion accumulation on high density growth of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Park, C B; Lee, S B

    1999-01-01

    A fed-batch operation for high density cultivation of Sulfolobus solfataricus (DSM 1617) in a bench-top fermentor using a feed medium composed of glucose and yeast extract was investigated. The highest maximal cell density obtained in controlled fed-batch cultures was 21.7 g/l. Although higher yeast extract concentrations in the medium favored greater cell biomass yield, cell growth ceased with low cell densities. It was observed that large amounts of inorganic ions, such as sulfate, ammonium, potassium and phosphate ions, were accumulated in the culture broth at higher yeast extract concentrations. This was due to either the addition of the titrant or feeding of yeast extract during cultivation. Fed-batch cultures with additional mineral salts in the feed medium showed much lower cell biomass, indicating that accumulation of inorganic ions has a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. solfataricus. Inhibition of cell growth by the presence of mineral ions was further confirmed by the batch culture experiments. Some plausible mechanisms which can account for the growth inhibition at higher mineral ion concentrations have been suggested. PMID:16232474

  10. Serum Dickkopf-1 Level in Postmenopausal Females: Correlation with Bone Mineral Density and Serum Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Neveen; Abbas, Amal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess serum level of Dickkopf-1 in postmenopausal females and its correlation with bone mineral density and serum biochemical markers. Methods. Bone densitometry, serum Dickkopf-1, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were done in sixty postmenopausal females. Patients were divided according to T score into osteoporosis (group I), osteopenia (group II), and normal bone mineral density that served as controls. Results. There was highly significant increase in serum Dickkopf-1 levels in postmenopausal females with abnormal T score versus controls (P < 0.001). Serum DKK-1 levels correlated negatively with both lumbar T score (r = −0.69, P < 0.001) and femur T score (r = −0.64, P < 0.001) and correlated positively with duration of menopause (r = 0.61, P < 0.001), while there was no significant correlation between serum levels of either calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphatase, and both serum Dickkopf-1 levels and the level of bone mineral density (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Postmenopausal females may suffer from osteoporosis as evidenced by bone densitometry. Postmenopausal women with significantly increased serum Dickkopf-1 had more significant osteoporosis. Prolonged duration of menopause and increased serum Dickkopf-1 are important risk factors for the development and severity of osteoporosis. PMID:23878759

  11. Bone mineral density in cone beam computed tomography: Only a few shades of gray

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcio José da Silva; de Souza, Thainara Salgueiro; Mota Júnior, Sergio Luiz; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2014-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has often been used to determine the quality of craniofacial bone structures through the determination of mineral density, which is based on gray scales of the images obtained. However, there is no consensus regarding the accuracy of the determination of the gray scales in these exams. This study aims to provide a literature review concerning the reliability of CBCT to determine bone mineral density. The gray values obtained with CBCT show a linear relationship with the attenuation coefficients of the materials, Hounsfield Units values obtained with medical computed tomography, and density values from dual energy X-ray absorciometry. However, errors are expected when CBCT images are used to define the quality of the scanned structures because these images show inconsistencies and arbitrariness in the gray values, particularly when related to abrupt change in the density of the object, X-ray beam hardening effect, scattered radiation, projection data discontinuity-related effect, differences between CBCT devices, changes in the volume of the field of view (FOV), and changes in the relationships of size and position between the FOV and the object evaluated. A few methods of mathematical correction of the gray scales in CBCT have been proposed; however, they do not generate consistent values that are independent of the devices and their configurations or of the scanned objects. Thus, CBCT should not be considered the examination of choice for the determination of bone and soft tissue mineral density at the current stage, particularly when values obtained are to be compared to predetermined standard values. Comparisons between symmetrically positioned structures inside the FOV and in relation to the exomass of the object, as it occurs with the right and left sides of the skull, seem to be viable because the effects on the gray scale in the regions of interest are the same. PMID:25170398

  12. Effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bone-conserving effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang (RC-CGJ) supplemented with more intensified phytochemicals compared to general Cheonggukjang (CGJ) in growing rats. Eighteen rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (Control, CGJ, and RC-CGJ) and were given experimental diets for 9 weeks. All of the rats in this study were fed a AIN-93G-based diet. Both CGJ groups were fed with 33.1% CGJ and RC-CGJ powder, respectively. The results of this study indicate that weight gain, mean food intake, and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different by the experimental diets among all groups. Spine bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD were not significantly different by the experimental diets. Spine bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ and CGJ groups than in the control group, regardless of CGJ type. The femur BMC of the CGJ supplemented group was significantly higher compared with the control group and the RC-CGJ group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the RC-CGJ and CGJ group regardless of CGJ type. Also, spine BMC per weight was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ group than in the CGJ group. However, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the CGJ group than in the RC-CGJ group. It can be concluded that RC-CGJ and CGJ supplemented diets have more beneficial effects on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing rats. PMID:26770913

  13. Effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Ja

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bone-conserving effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang (RC-CGJ) supplemented with more intensified phytochemicals compared to general Cheonggukjang (CGJ) in growing rats. Eighteen rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (Control, CGJ, and RC-CGJ) and were given experimental diets for 9 weeks. All of the rats in this study were fed a AIN-93G-based diet. Both CGJ groups were fed with 33.1% CGJ and RC-CGJ powder, respectively. The results of this study indicate that weight gain, mean food intake, and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different by the experimental diets among all groups. Spine bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD were not significantly different by the experimental diets. Spine bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ and CGJ groups than in the control group, regardless of CGJ type. The femur BMC of the CGJ supplemented group was significantly higher compared with the control group and the RC-CGJ group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the RC-CGJ and CGJ group regardless of CGJ type. Also, spine BMC per weight was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ group than in the CGJ group. However, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the CGJ group than in the RC-CGJ group. It can be concluded that RC-CGJ and CGJ supplemented diets have more beneficial effects on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing rats. PMID:26770913

  14. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures. PMID:19146196

  15. Energy density at a buffet-style lunch differs for adolescents born at high and low risk of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Tanja V.E.; Stunkard, Albert J.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A.; Kabay, April; Faith, Myles S.

    2009-01-01

    The energy density (ED; kcal/g) of foods, when manipulated in the laboratory, affects short-term energy intake. The aim of this study was to examine if, when given a choice, dietary ED (foods only) and energy intake (expressed as a percentage of subjects’ estimated daily energy requirement) at a self-selected, single meal differs for teens born with a different familial predisposition to obesity and as a function of their sex. Subjects (13 males, 17 females) were 12 years of age and born at high-risk (HR; n = 15) or low-risk (LR; n = 15) for obesity based on maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). The buffet meal, served for lunch and consumed ad libitum, consisted of a variety of foods and beverages with a range in ED. HR subjects consumed a more energy-dense meal (foods only) than LR subjects (1.84 vs. 1.42 kcal/g; P = 0.02) and males consumed a more energy-dense meal than females (1.83 vs. 1.43 kcal/g; P = 0.03). Total energy intake, when expressed as a percentage of subjects’ daily EER, did not differ between HR and LR subjects (42% vs. 33%; P = 0.16). Males, compared to females, consumed ∼ 59% more energy from foods and beverages during the meal (46 vs. 29%; P = 0.008). During a single multi-item lunch meal, teens with a familial predisposition to obesity and males, independent of their obesity risk status, self-selected a more energy-dense meal. Familial risk for obesity, through either genetic or environmental pathways, may facilitate a more energy-dense diet. PMID:19778749

  16. Quantitative evaluation of bone-mineral density loss using X-ray coherent scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, Regina Cély; Oliveira, Luis Fernando; Castro, Carlos Roberto Ferreira; Lima, João Carlos; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Droppa, Roosevel; Tromba, Giuliana; Mancini, Lucia; Zanini, Franco; Rigon, Luigi; Dreossi, Diego

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we intend to relate the mineral to non-mineral bone scattering intensity ratio with the bone-mineral density (BMD) reduction. In this way, EDXRD can be a novel technique to measure BMD loss in function of the mineral and non-mineral scattering intensity. The scattering profiles were obtained at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS) at the X-ray diffraction beamline XD2. A double-crystal Si(1 1 1) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth (Δ λ/ λ≈10 -4) at 11 keV. The sample holder has a circle depression in the center to contain a range of bone and fat mixture ratios. The mixture consists of powdered cortical bone and fat, which together simulate in vivo bone. The diffraction patterns were carried out with 0.5 mm slits after and behind of the sample holder. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 0.5 s. EDXRD results show an indication of different bone densities may be distinguished which suggested that X-ray coherent scattering technique may have a role in monitoring changes in BMD via changes in the related scattering intensity of mineral and non-mineral bone. The main aim of the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) project at the ELETTRA is the investigation and the development of innovative techniques for medical imaging. The beamline provides, at a distance of about 23 m from the source, a monochromatic, laminar section X-ray beam with a maximum area of about 160×5 mm 2 at 20 keV. The monochromator, that covers the entire angular acceptance of the beamline, is based on a double-Si (1 1 1) crystal system working in Bragg configuration. A micrometric vertical and horizontal translation stage allows the positioning and scanning of the sample with respect to the stationary beam. In this case, the detector is kept stationary in front of the beam, while the object is rotated in discrete steps in front of it. At each rotation, a projection is acquired. A goniometric

  17. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Elsisi, Hany Farid Eid Morsy; Mousa, Gihan Samir Mohamed; ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF) or circuit weight training (CWT) on short-run basis (after 12 weeks). Patients and methods Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT) (n=15 each group). The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05). But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. PMID:25834412

  18. The Progression of Bone Mineral Density Abnormalities After Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vitanza, Nicholas A; Hogan, Laura E; Zhang, Guangxiang; Parker, Robert I

    2015-07-01

    Although reduced bone mineral density in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is well documented, the degree of demineralization and relation to age are not well described. This is a retrospective chart analysis of 58 patients consecutively treated for ALL without relapse, cranial irradiation, or transplantation. Bone mineral densities were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and patients were divided by sex and age (≤5, 6 to 10, and >10 y) at diagnosis. Serial scans for 6 years after therapy were analyzed as Z-scores. Over 6 years after therapy, 93.1% of patients exhibited a decreased Z-score in at least 1 anatomic site. The difference in Z-score among the age cohorts was significant at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Patients older than 10 years at diagnosis had the lowest Z-scores: -2.78 and -2.87 for boys and -2.39 and -2.91 for girls at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively. Children after ALL therapy exhibit a significant bone mineral deficit shortly after completion of therapy that persists for at least 6 years. The degree of bone demineralization can be followed up by a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan and is most severe in patients older than 10 years at the initiation of therapy. PMID:25222061

  19. Spectroscopic and thermal properties of minerals from density-functional perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refson, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ab-initio calculations based on density-functional theory have provento give a highly accurate description of structural and elastic properties of minerals under pressure. To evaluate spectroscopic, dielectric and thermal properties it is necessary to compute the second derivatives of the energy with respect to a displacement or electric field perturbation. While the Hellman-Feynmann theorem makes the computation of forces (first derivatives of the energy) straightforward, second derivatives depend on the linear response of the orbitals and density to the perturbation. I will sketch the variational formulation of density-function perturbation theory, and it's implementation in the CASTEP plane-wave code. The capabilities will be illustrated with calculation of the full phonon dispersion spectra and dielectric properties of a-quartz, ZrO2 and NaHF2.

  20. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients with Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Mahesh Chand; Hemal, Alok; Satija, Mukul; Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Bano, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia are associated with many osteopathies like osteoporosis. Methods. This observational study was carried out to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) in transfusion dependent thalassemics with that of healthy controls. Thirty-two thalassemia patients, aged 2–18 years, and 32 age and sex matched controls were studied. The bone mineral concentration (BMC) and BMD were assessed at lumbar spine, distal radius, and neck of femur. Biochemical parameters like serum calcium and vitamin D levels were also assessed. Results. The BMC of neck of femur was significantly low in cases in comparison to controls. We also observed significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine in cases in comparison to controls. A significantly positive correlation was observed between serum calcium levels and BMD at neck of femur. Conclusion. Hence, low serum calcium may be used as a predictor of low BMD especially in populations where incidence of hypovitaminosis D is very high. PMID:26880923

  1. PTH increases jaw mineral density in a rabbit model of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Bellido, M; Lugo, L; Castañeda, S; Roman-Blas, J A; Rufián-Henares, J A; Navarro-Alarcón, M; Largo, R; Herrero-Beaumont, G

    2010-04-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration has been shown to be a promising therapy for systemic bone loss. Accordingly, we hypothesized that PTH could have positive results in treating oral complications of osteoporosis. Hence, we evaluated both mandibular bone loss and its response to PTH in a rabbit model of osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy and glucocorticoid administration. There was a significant and marked decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and calcium content in ash from the osteoporotic peri-alveolar region, which influenced global jaw loss. Remarkably, PTH (1-34) administration to osteoporotic rabbits almost completely reversed BMD, BMC, and calcium content fall in the peri-alveolar region, subsequently reducing global mandibular bone loss. Thus, although the peri-alveolar region is particularly susceptible to osteoporosis, it also responds well to intermittent PTH. Therefore, these results suggest that PTH might represent a valid therapy for improving the osseointegration of dental implants in persons with osteoporosis. PMID:20177133

  2. Bone mineral density and diet of teachers of College of Home Economics at Lahore

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Zahra; Imam, Sardar Fakhar; Imam, Neelam; Saba, Kanwal; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and diet of teachers of a Govt. College of Home Economics in Lahore. Methods: It was survey research. Purposive sampling technique was adopted for the selection of 50 teachers from Govt. College of Home Economics of age group 30 – 60 years. Results: About 46% of the subjects had BMD ratio in between -2.58 to -4.0 (Osteoporotic category). The root cause of low BMD ratio was not really age related but in majority of the sample it was due to sedentary life style and lack of awareness about the importance of exercise in relation to bone health. Conclusion: The total mineral and vitamin intake required for bone health (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus & vitamin D) was below the recommended, among majority of the sample. PMID:26430440

  3. Sustained swimming increases the mineral content and osteocyte density of salmon vertebral bone

    PubMed Central

    Totland, Geir K; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Kryvi, Harald; Løkka, Guro; Wargelius, Anna; Sagstad, Anita; Hansen, Tom; Grotmol, Sindre

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of increased mechanical load on the vertebral bone of post-smolt Atlantic salmon by forcing them to swim at controlled speeds. The fish swam continuously in four circular tanks for 9 weeks, two groups at 0.47 body lengths (bl) × s−1 (non-exercised group) and two groups at 2 bl × s−1 (exercised group), which is just below the limit for maximum sustained swimming speed in this species. Qualitative data concerning the vertebral structure were obtained from histology and electron microscopy, and quantitative data were based on histomorphometry, high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography images and analysis of bone mineral content, while the mechanical properties were tested by compression. Our key findings are that the bone matrix secreted during sustained swimming had significantly higher mineral content and mechanical strength, while no effect was detected on bone in vivo architecture. mRNA levels for two mineralization-related genes bgp and alp were significantly upregulated in the exercised fish, indicating promotion of mineralization. The osteocyte density of the lamellar bone of the amphicoel was also significantly higher in the exercised than non-exercised fish, while the osteocyte density in the cancellous bone was similar in the two groups. The vertebral osteocytes did not form a functional syncytium, which shows that salmon vertebral bone responds to mechanical loading in the absence of an extensive connecting syncytial network of osteocytic cell processes as found in mammals, indicating the existence of a different mechanosensing mechanism. The adaptive response to increased load is thus probably mediated by osteoblasts or bone lining cells, a system in which signal detection and response may be co-located. This study offers new insight into the teleost bone biology, and may have implications for maintaining acceptable welfare for farmed salmon. PMID:21615400

  4. Milk consumption throughout life and bone mineral content and density in elderly men and women

    PubMed Central

    Eysteinsdottir, T.; Halldorsson, T. I.; Thorsdottir, I.; Sigurdsson, G.; Sigurðsson, S.; Harris, T.; Launer, L. J.; Gudnason, V.; Gunnarsdottir, I.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Association between bone mineral density and bone mineral content in old age and milk consumption in adolescence, midlife, and old age was assessed. The association was strongest for milk consumption in midlife: those drinking milk daily or more often had higher bone mineral density and content in old age than those drinking milk seldom or never. Introduction The role of lifelong milk consumption for bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in old age is not clear. Here we assess the association between hip BMD and BMC in old age and milk consumption in adolescence, midlife, and current old age. Methods Participants of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, aged 66–96 years (N=4,797), reported retrospective milk intake during adolescence and midlife as well as in current old age, using a validated food frequency questionnaire. BMC of femoral neck and trochanteric area was measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography and BMD obtained. Association was assessed using linear regression models. Differences in BMC, bone volume, and BMD in relation to milk intake were portrayed as gender-specific Z-scores. Results Men consuming milk≥once/day during midlife had 0.21 higher Z-scores for BMD and 0.18 for BMC in femoral neck (95 % confidence interval 0.05–0.39 and 0.01–0.35, respectively) compared with

  5. [Exercise and bone mineral density in old subjects: theorical and practical implications].

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    With age advancement, the decrease of bone mineral density is ineluctable. Physical exercise constitutes a physiological approach likely to attenuate or limit the effects of normal bone demineralization (i.e. not pathological) particularly in elderly subjects. Indeed, physical exercise induces mechanical constraints generating bone deformation which stimulates osteogenesis and favors bone remodelage. Physical activities achieved in condition of body discharge (e.g. swimming, cycling) or in static condition (e.g. stretching, balance) do not stimulate (or very weakly) osteogenesis. The osteogenic function of aerobic training (e.g. walking, running) is effective only if the intensity of exercise is high (i.e. the impacts on the ground and thus the bone deformation) and that of strength training is effective only if the completed muscular contractions are dynamic and carried out with heavy loads. The calcium concentration increase is greater on the concave side than on the convex side for the bones which undergo strong mechanical pressures during exercise. Hence, it is advisable to vary the directions of mechanical constraints during physical activity to strengthen the resistance of the bone in all the plans. In order to obtain significant effects in terms of bone remodelage, the optimal duration of training programs should last at least 4 to 6 months. The osteogenic effects of regular exercise begin from 2-3 weekly sessions. The activation of osteogenesis by means of physical exercise is more difficult in aging women than in aging men because of hormonal factors that are not favorable in aging women. At last, regular exercise is fundamental not only to maintain bone mineral density but also to reduce the risk of bone fracture since there is a relationship between the bone mineral density and the risk of bone fracture. PMID:25245313

  6. Improved Contact X-Ray Microradiographic Method to Measure Mineral Density of Hard Dental Tissues.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, B D; Carey, C M

    2010-03-01

    Contact X-ray microradiography is the current gold standard for measuring mineral densities of partially demineralized tooth specimens. The X-ray sensitive film specified in the last J Res NIST publication on the subject is no longer commercially available. OBJECTIVES: Develop a new microradiographic method by identifying a commercially available film with greater than 3000 lines per millimeter resolution, which is sensitive to X rays, and develop correct film processing for X-ray microradiographic application. METHODS: A holographic film was identified as a potential replacement film. Proper exposure was determined utilizing a thick nickel plate to create test-strips. Film development was bracketed around manufacturer suggestions. Film linearity was determined with aluminum step-wedges. Microradiographs of 100 µm thick tooth sections, before and after acidic challenges, were a final test for film. Magnified images were captured with a digital microscope camera with 0.305 micrometers per pixel resolution. RESULTS: The appropriate film exposure was 30 minutes at 80 kV(p) and 3 mA with a development time of 2 minutes. Step-wedge experiments show the system to be linear in terms of pixel intensities with respect to x-ray attenuation for normalized pixel intensity values that are 10% to 90% of full scale (r(2) = 0.997) which encompasses the full exposure region of tooth tissue. Enamel sections were analyzed and show distinctive differences between erosion and demineralization. The image capture device resolution of 0.305 micrometers per pixel limits the system resolution. CONCLUSION: Use of the identified holographic film when combined with the described processing modifications has resulted in an improved X-ray microradiographic method for the measurement of mineral density of dental hard tissues. The method described can be further improved by using a higher resolution digitization system. The method is appropriate for quantitatively measuring changes in mineral

  7. Dietary Pseudopurpurin Effects on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Geometry Architecture in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Chen; Li, Xiao-Bing; Han, Tie-Suo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guo-Wen; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate whether feeding pseudopurpurin affects bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats. Pseudopurpurin was extracted, analyzed and purified using an HLPC-ESI-MS. Rats were given 0% and 0.5% pseudopurpurin powder in their diet. Femurs of rats were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Compared with rats in the group 0%, the bone mineral density, and the calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese concentrations in the rats femur in the group 0.5% increased significantly at 1 month and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Analytical results of micro-computed tomography showed that the group 0.5% displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness and trabecular number of the distal femur at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding, and the mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femur diaphysis were significantly increased at 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding compared with the group 0%. In parallel, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, compared with the group 0% at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. In the 0.5% and 0% groups, there was no damage to kidney and liver by histopathology analysis. The long-term feeding of pseudopurpurin is safe for rats. The feeding of 0.5% pseudopurpurin which has specific chemical affinities for calcium for bone improvement and level of bone mineral density, enhances the geometry architecture compared with the 0% group. PMID:22489160

  8. Factors in Daily Physical Activity Related to Calcaneal Mineral Density in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Teresa M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Cleek, Tammy M.; Vogel, John M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the factors in daily physical activity that influence the mineral density of the calcaneus, we recorded walking steps and the type and duration of exercise in 43 healthy 26-to 51-yr-old men. Areal (g/sq cm) calcaneal bone mineral density (CBMD) was measured by single energy x-ray densitometry. Subjects walked a mean (+/- SD) of 7902(+/-2534) steps per day or approximately 3.9(+/-1.2) miles daily. Eight subjects reported no exercise activities. The remaining 35 subjects spent 143(2-772) (median and range) min/wk exercising. Twenty-eight men engaged in exercise activities that generate single leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF(sub z)) of 2 or more body weights (high loaders, HL), and 15 reported exercise or daily activities that typically generate GRF(sub z) less than 1.5 body weights (low loaders, LL). CBMD was 12% higher in HL than LL (0.668 +/- 0.074 g/sq cm vs 0.597 +/- 0.062 g/sq cm, P less than 0.004). In the HL group, CBMD correlated to reported minutes of high load exercise (r = 0.41, P less than 0.03). CBMD was not related to the number of daily walking steps (N = 43, r = 0.03, NS). The results of this study support the concept that the dominant factor in daily physical activity relating to bone mineral density is the participation in site specific high loading activities, i.e., for the calcaneus, high calcaneal loads.

  9. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Scott; Bhatt, Harikrashna

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  10. Linear Calibration of Radiographic Mineral Density Using Video-Digitizing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. Bruce; Papamichos, Thomas; Dannucci, Greg A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiographic images can provide quantitative as well as qualitative information if they are subjected to densitometric analysis. Using modem video-digitizing techniques, such densitometry can be readily accomplished using relatively inexpensive computer systems. However, such analyses are made more difficult by the fact that the density values read from the radiograph have a complex, nonlinear relationship to bone mineral content. This article derives the relationship between these variables from the nature of the intermediate physical processes, and presents a simple mathematical method for obtaining a linear calibration function using a step wedge or other standard.

  11. Linear Calibration of Radiographic Mineral Density Using Video-Digitizing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. Bruce; Papamichos, Thomas; Dannucci, Greg A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiographic images can provide quantitative as well as qualitative information if they are subjected to densitometric analysis. Using modern video-digitizing techniques, such densitometry can be readily accomplished using relatively inexpensive computer systems. However, such analyses are made more difficult by the fact that the density values read from the radiograph have a complex, nonlinear relationship to bone mineral content. This article derives the relationship between these variables from the nature of the intermediate physical processes, and presents a simple mathematical method for obtaining a linear calibration function using a step wedge or other standard.

  12. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  13. Abnormal bone mineral density and bone turnover marker expression profiles in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lixin; Hou, Shengcai; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Liqiang; Miao, Jinbai; Wang, Yang; Li, Tong; Zhang, Zhenkui; You, Bin; Pang, Baosen; Liang, Yufang; Zhao, Yi; Hao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine the bone mineral density (BMD) and the role of bone biomarkers, including bone formation marker procollagen type I aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) and N-terminal midmolecule fragment osteocalcin (N-MID), bone resorption marker b-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (b-CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) in the pathogenesis of PSP. Methods Eighty-three consecutive primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) patients (PSP group) and 87 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled in this study. General data, including gender, age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), were recorded. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and ELISA were used to evaluate bone mineral density and expression levels of bone metabolism markers, including PINP, b-CTX, TRACP5b, N-MID, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH VD). Results Mean height was significantly greater in the PSP group compared with the control group, whereas weight and BMI were lower. Patients in the PSP group had significantly lower average bone mineral density, which mainly manifested as osteopenia (11/12, 91.7%); however, only one patient (8.3%) developed osteoporosis. Serum overexpression of PINP, b-CTX, TRACP5b, and N-MID were found in PSP patients. Expression of 25-OH VD was low in PSP patients. Bone resorption markers showed positive linear relationships with bone formation markers in all participants; whereas only TRACP5b expression negatively correlated with 25-OH VD. Expression levels of all bone turnover markers negatively correlated with BMI. Regression analysis identified risk factors of PSP as age, height, weight, and TRACP5b and 25-OH VD expression levels; whereas gender and PINP, b-CTX, and N-MID expression levels were not significantly associated with the onset of PSP. Conclusions It had lower bone mineral density in PSP patients. Bone formation marker PINP, N-MID and bone resorption marker b-CTX, TRACP5b were upregulated in

  14. Method for improved prediction of bone fracture risk using bone mineral density in structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher E. (Inventor); Faulkner, Kenneth G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive in-vivo method of analyzing a bone for fracture risk includes obtaining data from the bone such as by computed tomography or projection imaging which data represents a measure of bone material characteristics such as bone mineral density. The distribution of the bone material characteristics is used to generate a finite element method (FEM) mesh from which load capability of the bone can be determined. In determining load capability, the bone is mathematically compressed, and stress, strain force, force/area versus bone material characteristics are determined.

  15. Detecting low bone mineral density from dental radiographs: a mini-review

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over a number of years researchers have reported associations between osteoporosis or low bone mineral density and signs that can be detected on dental radiographs, particularly in the width of the inferior mandibular cortex and the texture of the trabecular bone. As patients visit the dentist more regularly than they visit their doctor, there is the possibility that such signs could be used as a means of identifying individuals at risk of developing osteoporosis or suffering from consequent fracture. This paper reviews the historical background behind this research and the current status, including recent developments in automation of measurement using computer image analysis. PMID:26604946

  16. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Your body needs just small amounts of trace minerals. These include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. The best way to ...

  17. Modulation of Vitamin D Status and Dietary Calcium Affects Bone Mineral Density and Mineral Metabolism in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E.; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Günter; Açil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jürgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6 g calcium and 6,500 IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2 g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with −51.2 ± 14.7 mg/cm3 in contrast to controls (−2.3 ± 11.8 mg/cm3), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4 nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4 nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects. PMID:24062955

  18. Bone Mineral Density and Microarchitecture in Patients With Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Mariana; Coelho, Maria Caroline Alves; Moraes, Aline Barbosa; de Paula Paranhos-Neto, Francisco; Madeira, Miguel; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Neto, Leonardo Vieira

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this case study is to describe changes in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, as well as volumetric bone density and microarchitecture by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in two patients with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO) and compare with 20 healthy subjects. We describe a 44-year-old male patient with six low-impact fractures since he was age 16 years, and a 32-year-old female patient with four low-impact fractures on her past history. Radiographic changes were typical of ADO. Consistent with the much higher aBMD, total volumetric BMD (average bone density of the whole bone, including trabecular and cortical compartments) at distal radius and tibia (HR-pQCT) was more than twice the mean values found in healthy subjects in both patients. Trabecular number and thickness were higher, leading to an evident increase in trabecular bone volume to tissue volume. Also, an enormous increase in cortical thickness was found. Most important, a great heterogeneity in bone microstructure of the affected patients was evident on HR-pQCT images: islets of very dense bone were interposed with areas with apparent normal density. The increase in aBMD, volumetric BMD, and most indices of trabecular and cortical bone, associated with the great heterogeneity on bone tridimensional microarchitecture, reflect the accumulation of old and fragile bone randomly distributed along the skeleton. These alterations in bone microstructure probably compromise bone quality, which might justify the high prevalence of low-impact fractures in patients with ADO, despite abnormally elevated BMD. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26387875

  19. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  20. Next-generation sequencing for disorders of low and high bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Sule, Gautam; Campeau, Philippe M.; Zhang, Victor Wei; Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Dawson, Brian C.; Grover, Monica; Bacino, Carlos A.; Sutton, V. Reid; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lu, James T.; Lemire, Edmond; Gibbs, Richard A.; Cohn, Dan H.; Cui, Hong; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Lee, Brendan H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), and osteopetrosis (OPT)are collectively common inherited skeletal diseases. Evaluation of subjects with these conditions often includes molecular testing which has important counseling, therapeutic and sometimes legal implications. Since several different genes have been implicated in these conditions, Sanger sequencing of each gene can be a prohibitively expensive and time consuming way to reach a molecular diagnosis. Methods In order to circumvent these problems, we have designed and tested a NGS platform that would allow simultaneous sequencing on a single diagnostic platform of different genes implicated in OI, OPT, EDS, and other inherited conditions leading to low or high bone mineral density. We used a liquid-phase probe library that captures 602 exons (~100 kb) of 34 selected genes and have applied it to test clinical samples from patients with bone disorders. Results NGS of the captured exons by Illumina HiSeq2000 resulted in an average coverage of over 900X. The platform was successfully validated by identifying mutations in 6 patients with known mutations. Moreover, in 4 patients with OI or OPT without a prior molecular diagnosis, the assay was able to detect the causative mutations. Conclusions In conclusion, our NGS panel provides a fast and accurate method to arrive at a molecular diagnosis in most patients with inherited high or low bone mineral density disorders. PMID:23443412

  1. Bone Mineral Density in Children and Adolescents with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, David A.; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J.; Murray, Mary; Slater, Hillarie; Sheng, Xiaoming; Carey, John C.; Dube, Bukhosi; Viskochil, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess if children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Study design Bone densitometry of the whole body, hip and lumbar spine was utilized in a case:control design (84 individuals with NF1: 293 healthy individuals without NF1). Subjects were 5–18 years of age. Individuals with NF1 were compared to controls using an analysis-of-covariance with a fixed set of covariates (age, weight, height, Tanner stage, and sex). Results Individuals with NF1 had decreased areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of the hip (p<0.0001), femoral neck (p<0.0001), lumbar spine (p=0.0025), and whole body subtotal (p<0.0001). When individuals with NF1 were separated into groups with and without a skeletal abnormality, the NF1 individuals without a skeletal abnormality still had statistically significant decreases compared to controls (p<0.0001 for whole body subtotal aBMD) albeit less pronounced than those with osseous abnormalities. Conclusions These data suggest that individuals with NF1 have a unique generalized skeletal dysplasia, predisposing them to localized osseous defects. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may prove useful to identify individuals with NF1 who are at risk for clinical osseous complications, and monitoring therapeutic trials. PMID:17188620

  2. Influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the different types of hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yizhong; Lin, Jinkuang; Cai, Siqing; Yan, Lisheng; Pan, Yuancheng; Yao, Xuedong; Zhuang, Huafeng; Wang, Peiwen; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of bone mineral density and hip geometry on the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were 95 menopausal females of age ≥ 50 years with fragility fracture of hip, including 55 cases of femoral neck fracture and 40 cases of trochanteric fracture. Another 63 non-fractured females with normal bone mineral density (BMD) were chosen as control. BMD, hip axis length, neck-shaft angle and structural parameters including cross surface area, cortical thickness and buckling ratio were detected and compared. Compared with control group, the patients with femoral neck fracture or trochanteric fractures had significantly lower BMD of femoral neck, as well as lower cross surface area and cortical thickness and higher buckling ratio in femoral neck and trochanteric region. There were no significant differences of BMD and structural parameters in the femoral neck fracture group and intertrochanteric fracture group. Hip axis length and neck-shaft angle were not significantly different among three groups. The significant changes of BMD and proximal femur geometry were present in the fragility fracture of femoral neck and trochanteric region. The different types of hip fractures cannot be explained by these changes. PMID:26773177

  3. Relationships of ultrasonic backscatter with ultrasonic attenuation, sound speed and bone mineral density in human calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Wear, K A; Stuber, A P; Reynolds, J C

    2000-10-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed have been investigated in trabecular bone by numerous authors. Ultrasonic backscatter has received much less attention. To investigate relationships among these three ultrasonic parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), 30 defatted human calcanei were investigated in vitro. Normalized broadband ultrasonic attenuation (nBUA), sound speed (SOS), and logarithm of ultrasonic backscatter coefficient (LBC) were measured. Bone mineral density was assessed using single-beam dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The correlation coefficients of least squares linear regressions of the three individual ultrasound (US) parameters with BMD were 0.84 (nBUA), 0.84 (SOS) and 0.79 (LBC). The 95% confidence intervals for the correlation coefficients were 0. 69-0.92 (nBUA), 0.68-0.92 (SOS) and 0.60-0.90 (LBC). The correlations among pairs of US variables ranged from 0.63-0.79. Variations in nBUA accounted for r(2) = 62% of the variations in LBC. Variations in SOS accounted for r(2) = 40% of the variations in LBC. These results suggest that ultrasonic backscattering properties may contain substantial information not already contained in nBUA and SOS. A multiple regression model including all three US variables was somewhat more predictive of BMD than a model including only nBUA and SOS. PMID:11120369

  4. Impact of Strength Training on Bone Mineral Density in Patients Infected With HIV Exhibiting Lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Wlaldemir R; Santos, Walmir R; Paes, Pedro P; Ferreira-Silva, Isac A; Santos, André P; Vercese, Natan; Machado, Dalmo R L; de Paula, Francisco José A; Donadi, Eduardo A; Navarro, Anderson M; Fernandes, Ana Paula M

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of strength training on bone mineral density (BMD) in individuals harboring HIV exhibiting lipodystrophy. The study included 20 subjects (16 men) aged 50.60 ± 6.40 years with reduced BMD, presenting positive serology for HIV, using highly active antiretroviral therapy, and performing no regular practice of physical exercise before being enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density levels were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and 1/3 radius, before and after 36 sessions (12 weeks) of strength training. Compared with pre-exercise period, the results showed increased BMD in lumbar spine (3.28%; p = 0.012), femoral neck (8.45%; p = 0.044), and 1/3 radius (5.41%; p = 0.035). This is the first study evaluating the impact of strength training in patients living with HIV and exhibiting lipodystrophy, showing an increased BMD in all the regions measured (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and 1/3 radius). This study showed the beneficial impact of the strength training on BMD increase in patients living with HIV as an effective and available approach to improve bone health. PMID:25970490

  5. The Choice of Normative Pediatric Reference Database Changes Spine Bone Mineral Density Z-scores But Not The Relationship Between Bone Mineral Density and Prevalent Vertebral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinhui; Siminoski, Kerry; Alos, Nathalie; Halton, Jacqueline; Ho, Josephine; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, MaryAnn; Shenouda, Nazih; Atkinson, Stephanie; Barr, Ronald; Cabral, David A.; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Grant, Ronald M.; Rodd, Celia; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Scharke, Maya; Rauch, Frank; Ward, Leanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our objectives were to assess the magnitude of the disparity in lumbar spine bone mineral density (LSBMD) Z-scores generated by different reference databases and to evaluate whether the relationship between LSBMD Z-scores and vertebral fractures (VF) varies by choice of database. Patients and Design Children with leukemia underwent LSBMD by cross-calibrated dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with Z-scores generated according to Hologic and Lunar databases. VF were assessed by the Genant method on spine radiographs. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between fractures and LSBMD Z-scores. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated to assess the predictive accuracy of LSBMD Z-scores for VF. Results For the 186 children from 0–18 years of age, 6 different age ranges were studied. The Z-scores generated for the 0 to 18 group were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.90), but the proportion of children with LSBMD Z-scores ≤ −2.0 among those with VF varied substantially (from 38 to 66%). Odds ratios (OR) for the association between LSBMD Z-score and VF were similar regardless of database (OR = 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44, 2.56 to OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.70, 4.28). AUC and NRI ranged from 0.71 to 0.75 and −0.15 to 0.07 respectively. Conclusions Although the use of a LSBMD Z-score threshold as part of the definition of osteoporosis in a child with VF does not appear valid, the study of relationships between BMD and VF is valid regardless of the BMD database that is used. PMID:25494661

  6. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  7. Determinants of bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in a cohort of healthy children: influence of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Emanuele; Rigante, Donato; Salvaggio, Elio; Focarelli, Benedetta; Rendeli, Claudia; Ansuini, Valentina; Paolucci, Valentina; Triarico, Silvia; Martini, Lucilla; Caradonna, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    Interventions directed to the recognition of abnormal bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in the pediatric age require the definition of factors influencing bone mass acquisition during growth. We have evaluated in a cross-sectional manner by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry the impact of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity on total body areal bone mineral density, regional (lumbar and femoral) bone mineral densities, bone mineral content, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) in a cohort of 359 healthy Italian children aged 3-14 years and investigated their specific contribution to bone mass accrual. Statistical multiple regression analysis was performed dividing the population in pre- and post-pubertal groups. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine has resulted equally distributed in both sexes before puberty while has resulted higher at the femoral necks in males at whatever age. A significant effect on bone mass acquisition was exerted by male sex and lean mass. In the areas where the cortical bone is prevalent, males of the pre-pubertal group have presented the highest values; in the areas where the cancellous bone is prevalent, both sexes were equivalent until the age of 9 years, but after this age, females have presented higher increases, probably related to the inferior dimensional development of lumbar vertebrae. Conclusively, male sex and lean mass seem to represent independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the cortical bone of the examined children, while female sex and pubertal maturation are independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the trabecular bone. PMID:21809005

  8. Revised Reference Curves for Bone Mineral Content and Areal Bone Mineral Density According to Age and Sex for Black and Non-Black Children: Results of the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Gilsanz, Vicente; Lappe, Joan M.; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John A.; Frederick, Margaret M.; Huang, Xiangke; Lu, Ming; Mahboubi, Soroosh; Hangartner, Thomas; Winer, Karen K.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Deficits in bone acquisition during growth may increase fracture risk. Assessment of bone health during childhood requires appropriate reference values relative to age, sex, and population ancestry to identify bone deficits. Objective: The objective of this study was to provide revised and extended reference curves for bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in children. Design: The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study was a multicenter longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 yr. Setting: The study was conducted at five clinical centers in the United States. Participants: Two thousand fourteen healthy children (992 males, 22% African-Americans) aged 5–23 yr participated in the study. Intervention: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: Reference percentiles for BMC and aBMD of the total body, lumbar spine, hip, and forearm were obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for Black and non-Black children. Adjustment factors for height status were also calculated. Results: Extended reference curves for BMC and aBMD of the total body, total body less head, lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and forearm for ages 5–20 yr were constructed relative to sex and age for Black and non-Black children. Curves are similar to those previously published for 7–17 year olds. BMC and aBMD values were greater for Black vs. non-Black children at all measurement sites. Conclusions: We provide here dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry reference data on a well-characterized cohort of 2012 children and adolescents. These reference curves provide the most robust reference values for the assessment and monitoring of bone health in children and adolescents in the literature to date. PMID:21917867

  9. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

    PubMed Central

    Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Allali, Fadoua; Khazzani, Hamza; Bennani, Loubna; Mansouri, Leila EL; Ichchou, Linda; Cherkaoui, Mohammed; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2009-01-01

    Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD) in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT) in carotid artery (CA) and femoral artery (FA). Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33), Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23), Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30) and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28) while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in patients with vascular

  10. Comparison of DXA and MRI methods for interpreting femoral neck bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Arokoski, Merja H; Arokoski, Jari P A; Vainio, Pauli; Niemitukia, Lea H; Kröger, Heikki; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the practical implementation of the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) by converting the areal bone mineral density BMD (BMD(areal)) to volumetric BMD using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) because a failure to control for the femoral neck size can lead to erroneous interpretation of BMD values. We also evaluated the feasibility of MR T2* relaxation time in assessing bone mineral status of the femoral neck. Twenty-eight randomly selected 47- to 64-yr-old healthy men were studied. The men had neither unilateral nor bilateral hip osteoarthritis according to radiographs. Bone width, mineral content (BMC), BMD(areal), and apparent volumetric BMD (BMD(vol)) of the right femoral neck were measured with DXA. The BMD(vol) was calculated by approximating the femoral neck to be cylindrical with a circular cross-section (Vol(dxa)). Volumetric measurements from MR (Vol(mri)) images of the femoral neck were also used to create a BMD measure that was corrected for the femoral neck volume (BMD(mri)). T2* measurements were performed with a 1.5-T scanner (Siemens Magnetom 63SP, Erlangen, Germany). A single 10-mm-thick coronal slice was generated on the femur with a repetition time of 60 ms, and nine echo times (4-20 ms) were used to derive T2* values. Vol(mri) correlated positively (r = 0.828, p < 0.001) with Vol(dxa). However, the Vol(mri) of the femoral neck was 18% lower than the Vol(dxa). Similarly, the BMD(mri) was related to the BMD(vol) (r = 0.737, p < 0.001). Because of the difference in the volumetric measures, the BMD(mri) of the femoral neck was 21% higher than the BMD(vol) (p < 0.001). T2* relaxation time showed a significant negative correlation with BMC, BMD(areal), BMD(vol), and BMD(mri) (r = -0.423 to -0.757, p < 0.05-0.001). In conclusion, these results are evidence that DXA-derived volume approximations by the cylinder with circular cross-section geometry may lead to lower DXA-derived BMD(vol) values, as compared to true MRI

  11. Genetic Sharing with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Diabetes Reveals Novel Bone Mineral Density Loci

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Wesley K.; McEvoy, Linda K.; Schork, Andrew J.; Zuber, Verena; LeBlanc, Marissa; Bettella, Francesco; Mills, Ian G.; Desikan, Rahul S.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Gautvik, Kaare M.; Dale, Anders M.; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. We used a novel genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional False Discovery Rate (FDR) method to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMD by leveraging cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated disorders and metabolic traits. By conditioning on SNPs associated with the CVD-related phenotypes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and waist hip ratio, we identified 65 novel independent BMD loci (26 with femoral neck BMD and 47 with lumbar spine BMD) at conditional FDR < 0.01. Many of the loci were confirmed in genetic expression studies. Genes validated at the mRNA levels were characteristic for the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage, Wnt signaling pathway and bone metabolism. The results provide new insight into genetic mechanisms of variability in BMD, and a better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of clinical comorbidity. PMID:26695485

  12. Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Females Using Injectable or Oral Contraceptives: A 24 Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cromer, Barbara A.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Stager, Margaret; Lazebnik, Rina; Rome, Ellen; Ziegler, Julie; Camlin-Shingler, Kelly; Secic, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Study Objective To determine whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in hormonal contraceptive users than that in an untreated, comparison group. Design Observational, prospective cohort; duration: 24 months. Setting Adolescent clinics in a midwestern, metropolitan setting. Patients 433 postmenarcheal girls, aged 12–18 years, on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) [n=58], oral contraceptives (OC) [n=187], or untreated (n=188). Intervention DMPA and OC containing 100 mcg levonorgestrel and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol. Main Outcome Measure BMD measurements at spine and femoral neck were obtained with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and 6-month intervals. Results Over 24 months, mean percent change in spine BMD was: DMPA −1.5%, OC +4.2%, and untreated +6.3%. Mean percent change in femoral neck BMD was: DMPA −5.2%, OC +3.0%, untreated +3.8%. Statistical significance was found between the DMPA group and other two groups (p<.001). In the DMPA group, mean percent change in spine BMD over the first 12 months was −1.4%; the rate of change slowed to −0.1% over the second 12 months. No bone density loss reached the level of osteopenia. Conclusions Adolescent girls receiving DMPA had significant loss in BMD compared with bone gain in the OC and untreated group. However, its clinical significance is mitigated by slowed loss after the first year of DMPA use and general maintenance of bone density values within the normal range. PMID:18222431

  13. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol® by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. Results: At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P < 0.01) while serum minerals and ALP concentrations showed no significant difference. The treatment group had dramatically decreased biomarkers and increased BMD than OVX group (P < 0.01). Histomorphometry analysis showed worse bone microarchitecture parameters in the OVX group compared with the SHAM group which were significantly improved in the treatment group compared with the OVX group (P < 0.01). Discussion and conclusion: Pycnogenol® (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention. PMID:26379883

  14. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  15. A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Skinner, T L; Sax, A T; Adlard, K N; Taaffe, D R

    2016-08-01

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs. PMID:27203576

  16. [Relation between body mass index and bone mineral density in a sample population of Mexican women].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Uribe, A; Aranda-Gallegos, J E; Río de la Loza-Cava, M F; Ortíz-Luna, G; Mendoza-Torres, L J; Santos-González, J

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this trial is to demonstrate that a women with high body mass index (BMI > or = 28) has greater bone mineral density (BMD) from that with lower BMI. We studied 922 healthy women who met the inclusion criteria. They were classified into four groups according to their BMI (> or = 28 and < 28) and age (> or = 35 and < 35 years). Bone mineral measurement was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the hip and at the lumbar region. BMD in overweight women older than 35 years was significantly higher in comparison with that of women with lower BMI, both in the hip and the lumbar spine. In overweight women younger than 35 years, we found greater BMD in the hip reaching statistical significance, but not at the lumbar spine. We conclude that obesity is associated with greater BMD (4% at the lumbar spine; 11% at the hip) probably due to both greater physical stress and higher estrogen levels. PMID:9737066

  17. In vivo measurement of the trabecular bone mineral density by coherent and Compton. gamma. -ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Karellas, A.

    1984-01-01

    A photon scattering method for measuring the mineral density of trabecular bone (BMD) is described. By computing the ratio of the coherent to Compton scattered photons, the BMD can be measured accurately and without any significant interference by the surrounding tissue. This study shows theoretically and experimentally that an increase in the scatter angle, when using 60 keV photons from Am-241, results in a stronger power dependence on Z. This implies that by increasing the scatter angle, smaller changes in BMD can be detected, thus improving the sensitivity of the measurement. The dependence of the sensitivity on the energy of the incident photons was also investigated. A collimated beam of photons from 1200 mCi of Am-241 (60 keV) was used and the scattered photons were detected at a scatter angle of 71/sup 0/. The system was calibrated by using a new standard which contains bone mineral mixed homogeneously with a marrow simulating substance. This method was applied for the measurement of the calcaneal BMD in 21 normal volunteers and seven paraplegic patients. The BMD values for the normal group ranged from 170-300 mg/cm/sup 3/. The BMD for the paraplegics with injuries older than one year ranged from 90-150 mg/cm/sup 3/. This measurement has potential application in the diagnosis of early osteopenia and in monitoring the effect of various treatment regimens.

  18. Experimental assessment of bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maetani, Ayami; Itoh, Megumi; Nishihara, Kahori; Aoki, Takahiro; Ohtani, Masayuki; Shibano, Kenichi; Kayano, Mitsunori; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), comparing the relationships of BMD between QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and between QCT and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) in the metacarpal bone of Holstein dairy cows (n=27). A significant positive correlation was found between QCT and DXA measurements (r=0.70, P<0.01), and a significant correlation was found between QCT and RA measurements (r=0.50, P<0.01). We conclude that QCT provides quantitative evaluation of BMD in dairy cows, because BMD measured by QCT showed positive correlations with BMD measured by the two conventional methods: DXA and RA. PMID:27075115

  19. Brief Report: HIV Infection Is Associated With Worse Bone Material Properties, Independently of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Güerri-Fernández, Robert; Molina, Daniel; Villar-García, Judit; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Nogués, Xavier; González-Mena, Alicia; Guelar, Ana; Trenchs-Rodríguez, Marta; Herrera-Fernández, Sabina; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Knobel, Hernando

    2016-07-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected individuals has been documented in an increasing number of studies. However, it is not clear whether it is the infection itself or the treatment that causes bone impairment. Microindentation measures bone material strength (Bone Material Strength index) directly. We recruited 85 patients, 50 infected with HIV and 35 controls. Median Bone Material Strength index was 84.5 (interquartile range 83-87) in HIV-infected patients and 90 (88.5-93) in controls (P < 0.001). No significant differences in BMD between cases and controls at any of the sites examined (total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine). HIV infection is associated with bone damage, independently of BMD. PMID:26910501

  20. Experimental assessment of bone mineral density using quantitative computed tomography in holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    MAETANI, Ayami; ITOH, Megumi; NISHIHARA, Kahori; AOKI, Takahiro; OHTANI, Masayuki; SHIBANO, Kenichi; KAYANO, Mitsunori; YAMADA, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), comparing the relationships of BMD between QCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and between QCT and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) in the metacarpal bone of Holstein dairy cows (n=27). A significant positive correlation was found between QCT and DXA measurements (r=0.70, P<0.01), and a significant correlation was found between QCT and RA measurements (r=0.50, P<0.01). We conclude that QCT provides quantitative evaluation of BMD in dairy cows, because BMD measured by QCT showed positive correlations with BMD measured by the two conventional methods: DXA and RA. PMID:27075115

  1. Long-term Bone Mineral Density Changes in Antiretroviral-Treated HIV-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip M; Kitch, Douglas; McComsey, Grace A; Collier, Ann C; Koletar, Susan L; Erlandson, Kristine M; Yin, Michael T; Bartali, Benedetta; Ha, Belinda; Melbourne, Kathy; Brown, Todd T

    2016-08-15

    We compared adjusted bone mineral density (BMD) changes between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals during the first approximately 7.5 years after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and HIV-uninfected controls. HIV-infected individuals (n = 97) had significantly greater adjusted BMD decline than controls (n = 614) during the first 96 weeks of ART. Subsequently, the rate of BMD decline slowed in HIV-infected individuals but remained greater than the rate of decline in HIV-uninfected individuals at the lumbar spine but not at the hip. In HIV-infected individuals after 96 weeks, no HIV- or treatment-related characteristic was associated with BMD loss, but lower lean body mass was associated with greater BMD loss at both lumbar spine and hip. PMID:27330053

  2. [Effects of alfacalcidol on mineral density of bone tissue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Gukasian, D A; Nasonov, E L; Balabanova, R M; Smirnov, A V; Vlasova, I S

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of antiosteoporotic efficacy of alphacalcidol was made in 50 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 30 RA patients received alphacalcidol in a dose 0.75-1.0 mcg/day for 12 months. 20 control RA patients did not receive the drug. Mineral density of the bone tissue (MD) of the proximal femur and low back spine was studied using double x-ray absorptiometry at the start of the treatment and 12 months after it. It was established that alphacalcidol stabilizes MD of the neck of the femur and low spine. A significant MD increase was observed in those areas of the proximal femur where cortical bone tissue prevails. PMID:11641938

  3. Bone mineral density evaluation among patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to cerebral palsy☆

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Rodrigo; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Leonel, Rayana Bomfim; Perim, Larissa Grobério Lopes; Oliveira, Tarcísio Guimarães Silva; Jacob Júnior, Charbel; Júnior, José Lucas Batista; Lourenço, Rafael Burgomeister

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate bone mineral density among patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Methods This was a descriptive prospective study in which both bone densitometric and anthropometric data were evaluated. The inclusion criteria used were that the patients should present quadriplegic cerebral palsy, be confined to a wheelchair, be between 10 and 20 years of age and present neuromuscular scoliosis. Results We evaluated 31 patients (20 females) with a mean age of 14.2 years. Their mean biceps circumference, calf circumference and body mass index were 19.4 cm, 18.6 cm and 16.9 kg/m2, respectively. The mean standard deviation from bone densitometry was −3.2 (z-score), which characterizes osteoporosis. Conclusion There is high incidence of osteoporosis in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to quadriplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:26229882

  4. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density by Computed Tomography in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Satoshi; Ikezoe, Kohei; Hirai, Toyohiro; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Clinical studies have investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can modulate bone metabolism but data are conflicting. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is the standard technique for quantifying bone strength but has limitations in overweight patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2). The aim of this study was to examine the association between OSA and BMD by examining CT images that allow true volumetric measurements of the bone regardless of BMI. Methods: Lumbar vertebrae BMD was evaluated in 234 persons (180 males and 54 females) by CT scan. The method was calibrated by a phantom containing a known concentration of hydroxyapatite. Results: BMD was lower in male patients with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30/h) than non OSA (AHI < 5; p < 0.05), while OSA and BMD had no association in females. Linear and multiple regression analyses revealed that age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.52), hypertension (p = 0.0068, β = −0.17), and the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (A-aDO2) (p = 0.012, β = −0.15) in males were associated with BMD, while only age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.68) was associated with BMD in females. Conclusion: Males with severe OSA had a significantly lower BMD than non OSA participants. Age, hypertension, and elevation of A-aDO2 were significant factors for BMD by CT imaging. The usefulness of measuring BMD in OSA patients by CT scanning should be studied in future. Citation: Hamada S, Ikezoe K, Hirai T, Oguma T, Tanizawa K, Inouchi M, Handa T, Oga T, Mishima M, Chin K. Evaluation of bone mineral density by computed tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):25–34. PMID:26235157

  5. Ethnic and sex differences in bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density relationship

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Gantz, M.; Punyanitya, M.; Heymsfield, S. B.; Gallagher, D.; Albu, J.; Engelson, E.; Kotler, D.; Pi-Sunyer, X.; Shapses, S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. Introduction It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Methods Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18–88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r=−0.533, −0.576, respectively; P<0.001). In multiple regression analyses with BMD as the dependent variable, ethnicity significantly entered the regression models as either an individual term or an interaction with BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premeno-pausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT. Conclusions An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. PMID

  6. Effect of body composition on bone mineral density in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    El Badri, Dalal; Rostom, Samira; Bouaddi, Ilham; Hassani, Asmae; Chkirate, Bouchra; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The link between bone mass and body composition is widely recognized, but only few works were selectively performed on subjects with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of body composition on bone mineral density (BMD) in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Methods Thirty three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were included in a cross-sectional study. The diagnosis of JIA was made according to the criteria of the International League of Association of Rheumatology (ILAR). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the ratio of weight/height2(kg/m2). Pubertal status was determined according to the Tanner criteria. Bone status, body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) were analyzed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at total body in (g/cm2). Total body fat tissue mass (FTM) and lean tissue mass (LTM) were also analyzed by DXA and expressed in kilograms. In children, low BMD was defined as a Z-score less than -2 and osteoporosis was defined as a Z-score less than -2 with a fracture history. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 Moroccan patients with JIA aged between 4 and 16 years, Fat mass was not related to bone density; in contrast, BMD was positively associated to LTM in total body(r = =0.41, p= 0.04) but not in lumbar spine (r = 0.29, p= 0.17). There exist significant correlation between BMC and BMD in total body (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Conclusion This study suggests that the LTM is a determining factor of the BMD during adolescence. Other studies with a broader sample would be useful to confirm this relation. PMID:25120859

  7. Bone mineral density and factors influencing it in Asian Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Nambiar, Vimal; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess bone mineral density (BMD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and its relation, if any, to clinical, hormonal and metabolic factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective evaluation of 194 T2DM patients (97 men and 97 women) was carried out. BMD was done with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and total hip. Physical activity, nutritional intake and sunlight exposure were calculated. Biochemical and hormonal tests included serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D], parathyroid hormone, estrogen, testosterone and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Glycosylated hemoglobin and complete lipid profiles were done in patients with diabetes. Five hundred and seventy one non-diabetic controls (262 males and 309 females) were evaluated for BMD alone. Results: BMD was normal (Z score > -2) in 156 (80.5%) and low (Z score ≤ -2) in 38 (19.5%) patients in the diabetes study group. BMD in the diabetes group was significantly higher than the control group in both sexes at the hip and spine. The difference was no longer significant on analysis of a BMI matched control subgroup. Weight and BMI showed significant correlation to BMD. Duration of T2DM, degree of glycemic control, use of drugs like statins and thiazolidinediones, 25(OH) D levels, calcium intake, sunlight exposure and physical activity did not significantly affect BMD in this cohort of individuals with diabetes. Conclusions: Bone mineral density of Asian Indian T2DM subjects was similar to that of healthy volunteers in this study. PMID:25364679

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 23 contributes to diminished bone mineral density in childhood inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diminished bone mineral density (BMD) is of significant concern in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Exact etiology is debatable. The recognition of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a phosphaturic hormone related to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) makes it plausible to hypothesize its possible relation to this pathology. Methods In this follow up case control study, BMD as well as serum levels of FGF23, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 and 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 were measured in 47 children with IBD during flare and reassessed in the next remission. Results Low BMD was frequent during IBD flare (87.2%) with significant improvement after remission (44.7%). During disease flare, only 21.3% of patients had vitamin D deficiency, which was severe in 12.8%. During remission, all patients had normal vitamin D except for two patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who remained vitamin D deficient. Mean value of serum FGF23 was significantly higher among patients with IBD during flare compared to controls. It showed significant improvement during remission but not to the control values. 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3, FGF23, serum calcium and urinary phosphorus were significant determinants of BMD in IBD patients. Conclusions We can conclude that diminished BMD in childhood IBD is a common multifactorial problem. Elevated FGF23 would be a novel addition to the list of factors affecting bone mineral density in this context. Further molecular studies are warranted to display the exact interplay of these factors. PMID:22551310

  9. Electrical and dielectric properties of bovine trabecular bone - relationships with mechanical properties and mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierpowska, J.; Töyräs, J.; Hakulinen, M. A.; Saarakkala, S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Lappalainen, R.

    2003-03-01

    Interrelationships of trabecular bone electrical and dielectric properties with mechanical characteristics and density are poorly known. While electrical stimulation is used for healing fractures, better understanding of these relations has clinical importance. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that bone electrical and dielectric properties depend on the bone density and could, therefore, be used to predict bone strength. To clarify these issues, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol), electrical and dielectric as well as mechanical properties were determined from 40 cylindrical plugs of bovine trabecular bone. Phase angle, relative permittivity, loss factor and conductivity of wet bovine trabecular bone were correlated with Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, resilience and BMDvol. The reproducibility of in vitro electrical and dielectric measurements was excellent (standardized coefficient of variation less than 1%, for all parameters), especially at frequencies higher than 1 kHz. Correlations of electrical and dielectric parameters with the bone mechanical properties or density were frequency-dependent. The relative permittivity showed the strongest linear correlations with mechanical parameters (r > 0.547, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz) and with BMDvol (r = 0.866, p < 0.01, n = 40, at 50 kHz). In general, linear correlations between relative permittivity and mechanical properties or BMDvol were highest at frequencies over 6 kHz. In addition, a significant site-dependent variation of electrical and dielectric characteristics, mechanical properties and BMDvol was revealed in bovine femur (p < 0.05, Kruskall-Wallis H-test). Based on the present results, we conclude that the measurement of electrical and dielectric properties provides quantitative information that is related to bone quantity and quality.

  10. Bone mineral density and survival of elements and element portions in the bones of the Crow Creek massacre victims.

    PubMed

    Willey, P; Galloway, A; Snyder, L

    1997-12-01

    The interpretation of archaeologically-derived skeletal series is dependent on the elements and portions of elements preserved for examination. Bone and bone portion survival is affected by factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the elements themselves, that influence deterioration and preservation. Among the intrinsic variables, the density of the element and element portion are particularly important with respect to the degree of preservation. Recently reported bone mineral density values from a contemporary human sample are compared to the survival of prehistoric limb bones of the Crow Creek specimens, a fourteenth-century massacre skeletal series. The contemporary density values are positively correlated with Crow Creek element and element portion survival. Two calculations of bone mineral density, however, are more closely related to preservation than a third. Such density information has implications for assessing minimum number of elements and individuals and documenting taphonomic processes. PMID:9453699

  11. Adsorption of guanidinium collectors on aluminosilicate minerals - a density functional study.

    PubMed

    Nulakani, Naga Venkateswara Rao; Baskar, Prathab; Patra, Abhay Shankar; Subramanian, Venkatesan

    2015-10-01

    In this density functional theory based investigation, we have modelled and studied the adsorption behaviour of guanidinium cations and substituted (phenyl, methoxy phenyl, nitro phenyl and di-nitro phenyl) guanidinium cationic collectors on the basal surfaces of kaolinite and goethite. The adsorption behaviour is assessed in three different media, such as gas, explicit water and pH medium, to understand the affinity of GC collectors to the SiO4 tetrahedral and AlO6 octahedral surfaces of kaolinite. The tetrahedral siloxane surface possesses a larger binding affinity to GC collectors than the octahedral sites due to the presence of surface exposed oxygen atoms that are active in the intermolecular interactions. Furthermore, the inductive electronic effects of substituted guanidinium cations also play a key role in the adsorption mechanism. Highly positive cations result in a stronger electrostatic interaction and preferential adsorption with the kaolinite surfaces than low positive cations. Computed interaction energies and electron densities at the bond critical points suggest that the adsorption of guanidinium cations on the surfaces of kaolinite and goethite is due to the formation of intra/inter hydrogen bonding networks. Also, the electrostatic interaction favours the high adsorption ability of GC collectors in the pH medium than gas phase and water medium. The structures and energies of GC collectors pave an intuitive view for future experimental studies on mineral flotation. PMID:26303845

  12. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  13. The association between systemic sclerosis and bone mineral density- a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yan, Jun-Wei; Wang, Bing-Xiang; Wang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has shown inconsistent effect of systemic sclerosis (SSc) on bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of previous articles to investigate the differences in BMD (g/cm(2) ) between SSc and non-SSc populations and to discuss potential underlying mechanisms. Twelve full-text articles (including an outlier study and two studies with identical data) with 662 SSc patients and 886 controls were identified by searching Medline prior to 10 September, 2013 using search terms 'Systemic sclerosis' OR 'scleroderma' and 'osteoporosis' OR 'bone density' OR 'bone mass'. BMD (mean and standard deviation), T-scores and Z-scores at lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were extracted. Meta-analysis showed that a lower level of BMD was found in SSc patients, with weighted mean difference of -0.343 (95% CI: -0.500 to -0.186) at femoral neck, -0.084 (95% CI: -0.110 to -0.057) at total hip and -0.104 (95% CI: -0.135 to -0.073) at the lumbar spine. We conclude that patients with SSc may have a lower BMD level than healthy controls. PMID:24894309

  14. Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral density in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngjae; Choi, Wooshin; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Ki-Jeong; Chang, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Canine hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is one of the most common causes of general osteopenia. In this study, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to compare the bone mineral densities (BMD) between 39 normal dogs and 8 dogs with HAC (6 pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [PDH]; pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism, 2 adrenal hyperadrenocorticism [ADH]; adrenal dependent hyperadrenocorticism) diagnosed through hormonal assay. A computed tomogaraphy scan of the 12th thoracic to 7th lumbar vertebra was performed and the region of interest was drawn in each trabecular and cortical bone. Mean Hounsfield unit values were converted to equivalent BMD with bone-density phantom by linear regression analysis. The converted mean trabecular BMDs were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. ADH dogs showed significantly lower BMDs at cortical bone than normal dogs. Mean trabecular BMDs of dogs with PDH using QCT were significantly lower than those of normal dogs, and both mean trabecular and cortical BMDs in dogs with ADH were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. Taken together, these findings indicate that QCT is useful to assess BMD in dogs with HAC. PMID:26040613

  15. Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral density in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngjae; Choi, Wooshin; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Canine hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is one of the most common causes of general osteopenia. In this study, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to compare the bone mineral densities (BMD) between 39 normal dogs and 8 dogs with HAC (6 pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [PDH]; pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism, 2 adrenal hyperadrenocorticism [ADH]; adrenal dependent hyperadrenocorticism) diagnosed through hormonal assay. A computed tomogaraphy scan of the 12th thoracic to 7th lumbar vertebra was performed and the region of interest was drawn in each trabecular and cortical bone. Mean Hounsfield unit values were converted to equivalent BMD with bone-density phantom by linear regression analysis. The converted mean trabecular BMDs were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. ADH dogs showed significantly lower BMDs at cortical bone than normal dogs. Mean trabecular BMDs of dogs with PDH using QCT were significantly lower than those of normal dogs, and both mean trabecular and cortical BMDs in dogs with ADH were significantly lower than those of normal dogs. Taken together, these findings indicate that QCT is useful to assess BMD in dogs with HAC. PMID:26040613

  16. Molecular Variation in Neuropeptide Y and Bone Mineral Density Among Men of African Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich, Louis J.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Miljkovic, Iva; Nestlerode, Cara S.; Kuipers, Allison L.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Patrick, Alan L.; Wheeler, Victor W.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a physiological candidate gene for the regulation of body weight and has more recently been implicated in regulating bone mass. The current study sought to test if inherited variation in NPY might influence BMD in a population of African-ancestry men who have high bone mineral density (BMD). We genotyped 17 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the NPY gene region in 1,113 randomly selected men of African ancestry aged ≥40 years and tested for association with anthropometric characteristics and proximal femur BMD. The homozygous rare genotype of four SNPs was associated with a 0.92–1.59% decrease in stature (corrected P < 0.05). No SNP was associated with body mass index or body weight. Two SNPs in a 5-kb linkage disequilibrium block encompassing exons 3 and 4 were associated with proximal femur BMD, adjusted for age, body weight, and height (corrected P < 0.05). These results suggest that genetic variation at the NPY locus may contribute to bone density, independently of body weight. PMID:19865784

  17. HDL cholesterol and bone mineral density: Is there a genetic link?

    PubMed Central

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence has linked cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, but the shared root cause of these two diseases of the elderly remains unknown. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and bone mineral density (BMD) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis respectively. A number of correlation studies have attempted to determine if there is a relationship between serum HDL and BMD but these studies are confounded by a number of variables including age, diet, genetic background, gender and hormonal status. Collectively, these data suggest that there is a relationship between these two phenotypes, but that the nature of this relationship is context specific. Studies in mice plainly demonstrate that genetic loci for BMD and HDL co-map and transgenic mouse models have been used to show that a single gene can affect both serum HDL and BMD. Work completed to date has demonstrated that HDL can interact directly with both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, but no direct evidence links bone back to the regulation of HDL levels. Understanding the genetic relationship between BMD and HDL has huge implications for understanding the clinical relationship between CVD and osteoporosis and for the development of safe treatment options for both diseases. PMID:21810493

  18. Vitamin D–Binding Protein Modifies the Vitamin D–Bone Mineral Density Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Powe, Camille E; Ricciardi, Catherine; Berg, Anders H; Erdenesanaa, Delger; Collerone, Gina; Ankers, Elizabeth; Wenger, Julia; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi; Bhan, Ishir

    2011-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between total circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded mixed results. Vitamin D–binding protein (DBP), the major carrier protein for 25(OH)D, may alter the biologic activity of circulating vitamin D. We hypothesized that free and bioavailable 25(OH)D, calculated from total 25(OH)D, DBP, and serum albumin levels, would be more strongly associated with BMD than levels of total 25(OH)D. We measured total 25(OH)D, DBP, and serum albumin levels in 49 healthy young adults enrolled in the Metabolic Abnormalities in College-Aged Students (MACS) study. Lumbar spine BMD was measured in all subjects using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Clinical, diet, and laboratory information also was gathered at this time. We determined free and bioavailable (free + albumin-bound) 25(OH)D using previously validated formulas and examined their associations with BMD. BMD was not associated with total 25(OH)D levels (r = 0.172, p = .236). In contrast, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D levels were positively correlated with BMD (r = 0.413, p = .003 for free, r = 0.441, p = .002 for bioavailable). Bioavailable 25(OH)D levels remained independently associated with BMD in multivariate regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and race (p = .03). It is concluded that free and bioavailable 25(OH)D are more strongly correlated with BMD than total 25(OH)D. These findings have important implications for vitamin D supplementation in vitamin D–deficient states. Future studies should continue to explore the relationship between free and bioavailable 25(OH)D and health outcomes. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:21416506

  19. Forearm bone mineral density in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Troels; Nielsen, Christian Stoltz; Christensen, Signe Engkjær; Nissen, Peter H; Heickendorff, Lene; Mosekilde, Leif

    2011-10-01

    Studies have shown that cancellous bone is relatively preserved in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), whereas bone loss is seen in cortical bone. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) patients seem to preserve bone mineral in spite of hypercalcemia and often elevated plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH). The objective of this study was to compare total and regional forearm bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with PHPT and FHH and to examine if differences can be used to separate the two disorders. We included 63 FHH, and 121 PHPT patients in a cross-sectional study. We performed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of the forearm, hip and lumbar spine and measured a number of biochemical variables. PTH patients had significantly lower Z-scores in all parts of the forearm compared to FHH. This was also the case after adjustment for body mass index. When stratifying for age, gender and PTH, T-scores were still significantly lower in PHPT patients than in FHH patients at the total, the mid and the ultradistal forearm, but not at the proximal 1/3 forearm. In a multiple regression analysis BMD Z-score was lower in PHPT compared to FHH at the total forearm, the mid forearm and the ultradistal forearm but not the proximal forearm when adjusting for biochemical variables including PTH, 1,25(OH)(2)D and Ca(2+). These observations support that inactivating mutations in the CASR gene in bone cells in FHH may protect against forearm bone loss. Differences between the two groups in total or regional forearm BMD were inferior to the calcium/creatinine clearance ratio as a diagnostic tool to separate FHH from PHPT. PMID:21785908

  20. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  1. Lack of deleterious effect on bone mineral density of long-term thyroxine suppressive therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reverter, J L; Holgado, S; Alonso, N; Salinas, I; Granada, M L; Sanmartí, A

    2005-12-01

    The effect of subclinical hyperthyroidism on bone mineral density is controversial and could be significant in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who receive suppressive doses of levothyroxine (LT4). To ascertain whether prolonged treatment with LT4 to suppress thyrotropin had a deleterious effect on bone mineral density and/or calcium metabolism in patients thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid cancer we have performed a cross-sectional study in a group of 88 women (mean +/- SD age: 51 +/- 12 years) treated with LT4 after near-total thyroidectomy and in a control group of 88 healthy women (51 +/- 11 years) matched for body mass index and menopausal status. We determined calcium metabolism parameters, bone turnover marker N-telopeptide and bone mass density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. No differences were found between patients and controls in calcium metabolism parameters or N-telopeptide except for PTH, which was significantly increased in controls. No differences were found between groups in bone mineral density in femoral neck (0.971 +/- 0.148 gr/cm(2) vs 0.956 +/- 0.130 gr/cm(2) in patients and controls respectively, P = 0.5). In lumbar spine, bone mineral density values were lower in controls than in patients (1.058 +/- 0.329 gr/cm(2) vs 1.155 +/- 0.224 gr/cm(2) respectively, P < 0.05). When premenopausal (n = 44) and postmenopausal (n = 44) patients were compared with their respective controls, bone mineral density was similar both in femoral neck and lumbar spine. The proportion of women with normal bone mass density, osteopenia and osteoporosis in patient and control groups was similar in pre- and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, long-term suppressive LT4 treatment does not appear to affect skeletal integrity in women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. PMID:16322336

  2. LINEAR INVERSION OF TRANSMITTED ACOUSTIC WAVE FIELDS FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODULUS AND DENSITY PERTURBATIONS USING A BORN-TYPE APPROXIMATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauber, Douglas A.

    1985-01-01

    A Born approximation is used to linearize the relationship, in the horizontal-wavenumber and frequency domains, between lateral perturbations of modulus and density in a layered half-space and the acoustic wave field observed at the surface when a plane wave is incident from below. The resulting equations can be used to perform a linear inversion of observed acoustic wave fields to obtain lateral perturbations in modulus and density. Since modulus and density effects are separated, gravity observations can be included in the inversion procedure without any assumptions about the relationship between density and acoustic velocity. Tests with synthetic data sets reveal that the inversion method gives useful results when the spatial scales of the inhomogeneities are smaller than several acoustic wavelengths. Refs.

  3. Serum 25 Hydroxyvitamin D, Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk Across the Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Greendale, Gail A.; Ruppert, Kristine; Lian, Yinjuan; Randolph, John F.; Lo, Joan C.; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann; Finkelstein, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Low levels of serum 25 Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] have been linked to greater fracture risk in older women. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether higher 25(OH)D is associated with slower loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and lower fracture risk during the menopausal transition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective cohort study at five clinical centers in the United States. Mean age was 48.5 ± 2.7 years. The fracture analysis included 124 women with an incident traumatic fracture, 88 with incident nontraumatic fracture, and 1532 women without incident fractures; average followup was 9.5 years. BMD analysis included 922 women with a documented final menstrual period. Main Outcome Measures: Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry at the third annual clinic visit. BMD was measured and incident fractures ascertained at each annual visit. Results: The mean 25(OH)D was 21.8 ng/mL; seven-hundred two (43%) of the women had 25(OH)D values <20 ng/mL. There was no significant association between 25(OH)D and traumatic fractures. In multivariate adjusted hazards models, the hazard ratio (HR) for nontraumatic fractures (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 0.72 (0.54–0.96) for each 10-ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D. Comparing women whose 25(OH)D was ≥20 vs <20 ng/mL, the HR (95% CI) for fracture was 0.54 (0.32–0.89). Changes in lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density across menopause were not significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D level. Conclusion: Serum 25(OH)D levels are inversely associated with nontraumatic fracture in mid-life women. Vitamin D supplementation is warranted in midlife women with 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL. PMID:25719933

  4. Effects of risedronate on femoral bone mineral density and bone strength in sciatic neurectomized young rats.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Seki, Azusa; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Harumoto

    2005-01-01

    Immobilization induces a rapid loss of bone density and bone strength in rats. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of risedronate (Ris) on the femoral bone density and bone strength of sciatic neurectomized young rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats, 6 weeks of age, were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following four treatment groups of 10 rats each: sham-operation, bilateral sciatic neurectomy (NX), NX + low-dose Ris (0.25 mg/kg/day, orally), and NX + high-dose Ris (0.5 mg/kg/day, orally). After 8 weeks of feeding, the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and stress strain index (SSI) of the femoral distal metaphysis and middiaphysis of the rats were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The mechanical properties of the femoral distal metaphysis and middiaphysis were measured by the compression and three-point bending tests, respectively. The femoral length was also measured. As compared with the findings in the sham-operated controls, NX resulted in a loss of femoral length, cancellous vBMD, SSI, maximum load, stiffness, and breaking energy of the femoral distal metaphysis; there was also loss of cortical thickness, SSI, maximum load, and stiffness of the femoral middiaphysis, with no significant effects on the cortical vBMD or breaking energy of the femoral middiaphysis. High-dose Ris increased the vBMD to values higher than those in the sham-operated controls, and prevented the loss of SSI, maximum load, and stiffness of the femoral distal metaphysis, while low-dose Ris prevented the loss of cancellous vBMD of the femoral distal metaphysis. Neither high- nor low-dose Ris affected any of the cortical bone parameters of the femoral middiaphysis, except for cortical thickness, or the femoral length. These findings suggest that Ris may prevent immobilization-induced loss of cancellous bone density and bone strength in a dose-dependent manner without interfering with bone growth, but has no apparent

  5. Effects of cadmium, calcium, age and parity on bone mineral, density and strength in female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, B.F.

    1985-06-01

    Weanling female rats were fed diets containing one of three levels of calcium and one of four levels of cadmium in the drinking water. Approximately 10 animals from each group were sacrificed after the first pregnancy and the remaining animals after the fourth pregnancy. Reproductive performance, plasma and bone Ca and P and bone density and strength were measured. After the first pregnancy, offspring of dams treated with 5 or 10 ppM Cd were smaller at birth than offspring of dams treated with 0 or 1 ppM Cd. Offspring of dams fed 5 or 10 ppM Cd or the 0.3% Ca diet had decreased weaning weight regardless of parity. Cadmium treatment had no effect on the plasma Ca or the Ca-P ratio. At Cd levels of 5 or 10 ppM the plasma P was increased. The 0.3% Ca diet depressed the plasma Ca and the 0.9% Ca diet elevated the plasma Ca and depressed the plasma P when compared to the 0.6% diet. Parity did not affect plasma Ca but, after four pregnancies, plasma P was decreased. Plasma Ca of mature dams was higher than that of adolescent dams but plasma P was unaffected. Bone mineral, density and strength were decreased by the 0.3% Ca diet especially when Cd levels reached 10 ppM. Increasing dietary Ca above normal increased femur Ca of dams fed 1 ppM Cd but did not increase the Ca of the femur of dams given higher levels of Cd. After the first pregnancy, femur Ca of mature dams was greater than that of adolescent dams. After the fourth pregnancy, femurs of mature dams were less strong than those of adolescent dams; however, the density was the same. Increasing dietary Ca above 0.6% lessened the detrimental effects of 5 ppM Cd ingestion on bone density. Mature dams were less affected by the 0.3% Ca 10 ppM Cd treatment than were adolescent dams. 60 refs., 3 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ye Seul; Im, Sun-Wha; Kang, Mi So; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Soon Hang; Cho, Be Long; Park, Jin Ho; Nam, You-Seon; Son, Ho-Young; Yang, San Deok; Sung, Joohon; Oh, Kwang Ho; Yun, Jae Moon; Kim, Jong Il

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a medical condition of global concern, with increasing incidence in both sexes. Bone mineral density (BMD), a highly heritable trait, has been proven a useful diagnostic factor in predicting fracture. Because medical information is lacking about male osteoporotic genetics, we conducted a genome-wide association study of BMD in Korean men. With 1,176 participants, we analyzed 4,414,664 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after genomic imputation, and identified five SNPs and three loci correlated with bone density and strength. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to adjust for age and body mass index interference. Rs17124500 (p = 6.42 × 10-7), rs34594869 (p = 6.53 × 10-7) and rs17124504 (p = 6.53 × 10-7) in 14q31.3 and rs140155614 (p = 8.64 × 10-7) in 15q25.1 were significantly associated with lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD), while rs111822233 (p = 6.35 × 10-7) was linked with the femur total BMD (FT-BMD). Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between BMD and five genes previously identified in Korean men. Rs61382873 (p = 0.0009) in LRP5, rs9567003 (p = 0.0033) in TNFSF11 and rs9935828 (p = 0.0248) in FOXL1 were observed for LS-BMD. Furthermore, rs33997547 (p = 0.0057) in ZBTB and rs1664496 (p = 0.0012) in MEF2C were found to influence FT-BMD and rs61769193 (p = 0.0114) in ZBTB to influence femur neck BMD. We identified five SNPs and three genomic regions, associated with BMD. The significance of our results lies in the discovery of new loci, while also affirming a previously significant locus, as potential osteoporotic factors in the Korean male population. PMID:27445649

  7. Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    El-Maouche, Diala; Collier, Suzanne; Prasad, Mala; Reynolds, James C; Merke, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies reveal that bone mineral density (BMD) in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is mostly in the osteopenic range and is associated with lifetime glucocorticoid dose. The forearm, a measure of cortical bone density, has not been evaluated. Objective We aimed to evaluate BMD at various sites, including the forearm, and the factors associated with low BMD in CAH patients. Methods Eighty CAH adults (47 classic, 33 nonclassic) underwent dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry and laboratory and clinical evaluation. BMD Z-scores at the AP spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearm, and whole body were examined in relation to phenotype, body mass index, current glucocorticoid dose, average 5-year glucocorticoid dose, vitamin D, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Results Reduced BMD (T-score < −1 at hip, spine, or forearm) was present in 52% and was more common in classic than nonclassic patients (P = .005), with the greatest difference observed at the forearm (P = .01). Patients with classic compared to nonclassic CAH, had higher 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P = .005), lower DHEAS (P = .0002), and higher non-traumatic fracture rate (P = .0005). In a multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, sex, height standard deviation, phenotype, and cumulative glucocorticoid exposure, higher DHEAS was independently associated with higher BMD at the spine, radius, and whole body. Conclusion Classic CAH patients have lower BMD than nonclassic patients, with the most affected area being the forearm. This first study of forearm BMD in CAH patients suggests that low DHEAS may be associated with weak cortical bone independent of glucocorticoid exposure. PMID:24862755

  8. Influences of Endplate Removal and Bone Mineral Density on the Biomechanical Properties of Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wen; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate (1) effects of endplate removal and bone mineral density (BMD) on biomechanical properties of lumbar vertebrae (2) whether the distributions of mechanical strength and stiffness of endplate are affected by BMD. Methods A total of thirty-one lumbar spines (L1-L5) collected from fresh cadavers were used in this study. Bone density was measured using lateral DEXA scans and parts of samples were performed with partial or entire endplate removal. All the specimens were divided into three BMD groups. According to endplate integrity of the lumbar vertebrae, each BMD group was then divided into three subgroups: subgroup A: intact endplate; subgroup B: central region of endplate removal; subgroup C: entire endplate removal. The axial compression test was conducted with material testing system at a speed of 2mm/min. The experimental results were statistically analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results (1) Significant differences of biomechanical properties occurred among normal BMD, osteoporotic and serious osteoporotic group (P<0.05). (2) Spearman analysis showed that BMD was positively correlated with the failure load and stiffness of lumbar vertebrae. (3) For each BMD group, significant differences of biomechanical properties were found between subgroup A and C, and between subgroup B and C (P<0.05). (4) For each BMD group, there was no statistical difference of biomechanical properties between subgroup A and B (P>0.05). Conclusions Entire endplate removal can significantly decrease the structural properties of lumbar vertebrae with little change in biomechanical properties by preservation of peripheral region of the endplate. BMD is positively correlated to the structural properties of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:24244269

  9. Mendelian randomization analysis to examine for a causal effect of urate on bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Topless, Ruth; Flynn, Tanya; Cadzow, Murray; Bolland, Mark J; Merriman, Tony R

    2015-06-01

    In observational studies, serum urate concentrations are positively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of fragility fractures, raising the possibility that urate is a direct mediator of bone density. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to examine whether urate has a causal effect on BMD. We analyzed data from the Generation 3 cohort in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (N = 2501 total; 1265 male, 1236 female). A weighted genetic urate score was calculated using the SLC2A9, ABCG2, SLC17A1, SLC22A11, and SLC22A12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that explains 3.4% of the variance in serum urate. Mendelian randomization analysis was performed using the two-stage least squares method with >80% power at α = 0.05 to detect an effect size equivalent to that observed in the ordinary least squares analysis between serum urate and total femur BMD. A strong association between serum urate and BMD was observed in the crude ordinary least squares analysis (total femur crude beta = 0.47, p = 1.7E-51). In the two-stage least squares analysis using the weighted genetic urate score as the instrumental variable, no significant relationship was observed between serum urate and BMD (total femur crude beta =-0.36, p = 0.06). Similar findings were observed in both the male and female subgroups, and there was no evidence for causality when individual SNPs were analyzed. Serum urate is strongly associated with BMD. However, controlling for confounders by Mendelian randomization analysis does not provide evidence that increased urate has a causal effect on increasing BMD. PMID:25502344

  10. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged women are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race. Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables. Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116]) and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129]) were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098]) and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134]) were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD. Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors. PMID:26000242

  11. Effects of the antiepileptics phenytoin and zonisamide on dentin formation and bone mineral density of the mandible in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, A; Saito, T; Mayanagi, H; Kamei, J; Onodera, K

    2004-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of the antiepileptics phenytoin and zonisamide on changes in the mineral density of the incisor and bone mineral density (BMD) of the mandibular head, and on the rate of dentin formation using histomorphometric measurements. After repeated administration of phenytoin or zonisamide to male growing rats, the mineral density of the lower incisors and mandibular head were determined by analyzing microradiographs and dentin formation rates were determined by histomorphometric measurements. Results showed a significant decrease in the mean values of BMD of the mandibular head and lower incisors in groups treated with phenytoin or zonisamide compared with the vehicle-treated group (p < 0.05). The percent rates of decrease in mineral density of the incisors for phenytoin and zonisamide were 6.8% and 4.0%, respectively. Phenytoin and zonisamide significantly reduced the dentin formation rate for the mesial and distal areas compared with the vehicle-treated group. Thus, epileptic children who are treated over a long period with antiepileptics, especially at primary school age, should ensure good oral hygiene so as not to suffer bone loss, edentulism or gingival overgrowth. PMID:15672119

  12. Bone Mineral Density and Respiratory Muscle Strength in Male Individuals with Mental Retardation (with and without Down Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Vinicius Zacarias Maldaner; Barros, Jonatas de Franca; de Azevedo, Monique; de Godoy, Jose Roberto Pimenta; Arena, Ross; Cipriano, Gerson, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in individuals with mental retardation (MR), with or without Down Syndrome (DS), and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-five male individuals (15 with DS, 15 with mental retardation (MR) and 15 apparently healthy controls), aged 20-35, participated in…

  13. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Physical Training and Calcium Intake in Students with Attention Deficit and Hyper Activity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab ameri, Elahe; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with attention deficit and hyper activity (ADHD) disorder. For this reason 54 male students with ADHD (age 8-12 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  14. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  15. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  16. Menatetrenone ameliorates reduction in bone mineral density and bone strength in sciatic neurectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki-Ishizuka, Yoshiko; Yamato, Hideyuki; Murayama, Hisashi; Abe, Masako; Takahashi, Kei; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Ezawa, Ikuko

    2003-08-01

    Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) acts on the bone metabolism. Menatetrenon (MK-4) is a vitamin K2 homologue that has been used as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in Japan. Rat models of immobilization induced by sciatic neurectomy are characterized by transiently increased bone resorption and sustained reduction in bone formation. Using such a rat model, we investigated the efficacy of MK-4 on bone loss. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral sciatic neurectomy and administered MK-4 for 28 d beginning day 21 after operation. The effect of MK-4 on the immobilized bone was assessed by measuring the bone mineral density of the femur, breaking force of the femoral diaphysis, and bone histomorphometry in tibial diaphysis. The BMD on both the femoral distal metaphysis and diaphysis was reduced by sciatic neurectomy. The administration of MK-4 ameliorated this reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The administration of 30 mg/kg MK-4 ameliorated the reduction in bone strength. An improvement in bone formation was observed following the administration of MK-4. These results suggest that MK-4 has a therapeutic potential for immobilization-induced osteopenia. PMID:14598912

  17. Genes influencing spinal bone mineral density in inbred F344, LEW, COP, and DA rats

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Koller, Daniel L.; Liu, Lixiang; Liu, Yunlong; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we identified the regions of chromosomes 10q12–q31 and 15p16–q21 harbor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for lumbar volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in female F2 rats derived from Fischer 344 (F344) × Lewis (LEW) and Copenhagen 2331 (COP) × Dark Agouti (DA) crosses. The purpose of this study is to identify the candidate genes within these QTL regions contributing to the variation in lumbar vBMD. RNA was extracted from bone tissue of F344, LEW, COP, and DA rats. Microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 Arrays. Genes differentially expressed among the rat strains were then ranked based on the strength of the correlation with lumbar vBMD in F2 animals derived from these rats. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis was performed to confirm the prioritized candidate genes. A total of 285 genes were differentially expressed among all strains of rats with a false discovery rate less than 10%. Among these genes, 18 candidate genes were prioritized based on their strong correlation (r2 > 0.90) with lumbar vBMD. Of these, 14 genes (Akap1, Asgr2, Esd, Fam101b, Irf1, Lcp1, Ltc4s, Mdp-1, Pdhb, Plxdc1, Rabep1, Rhot1, Slc2a4, Xpo4) were confirmed by qPCR. We identified several novel candidate genes influencing spinal vBMD in rats. PMID:19841953

  18. Bone mineral density of recent African immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Gordon; Haynatzki, Gleb; Haynatzka, Vera; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Howell, Ryan; Fu, Yun-Xin; Gallagher, John C.; Wilson, M. Roy

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic difference in bone mineral density (BMD) exists. The underlying mechanism is unclear and needs investigation. PURPOSE: To determine BMD and its relation to environmental exposure in recent African immigrants. METHODS: BMD in recent sub-Saharan Sudanese immigrants (55 men and 88 premenopausal women) in the United States was measured. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model was performed, with total body, spine and hip BMD as dependent variables; and sex, age, body weight, the length of stay in the United States, and milk intake as independent variables. RESULTS: BMD Z score in the spine but not total body or hip in the Sudanese immigrants was significantly lower compared with the normative values of African Americans and Caucasians. Total body and hip BMD was positively correlated (p < 0.015) with their length of stay in the United States. Hip BMD was significantly correlated with milk intake (p < 0.02) and marginally (p = 0.052) with their length of stay in the United States, independent of body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal BMD was significantly lower in recent Sudanese immigrants than in African Americans or Caucasians. Their hip and total body BMD was associated with their length of stay in the United States, suggesting a potential environmental factors in the ethnic diversity of BMD. PMID:16749650

  19. A Common Variant in CLDN14 is Associated with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ruqi; Wei, Yiran; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Haoyan; Miao, Qi; Bian, Zhaolian; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Qixia; Wang, Zhaoyue; Lian, Min; Yang, Fan; Jiang, Xiang; Yang, Yue; Li, Enling; Seldin, Michael F; Gershwin, M Eric; Liao, Wilson; Shi, Yongyong; Ma, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a chronic autoimmune liver disease, has been associated with increased incidence of osteoporosis. Intriguingly, two PBC susceptibility loci identified through genome-wide association studies are also involved in bone mineral density (BMD). These observations led us to investigate the genetic variants shared between PBC and BMD. We evaluated 72 genome-wide significant BMD SNPs for association with PBC using two European GWAS data sets (n = 8392), with replication of significant findings in a Chinese cohort (685 cases, 1152 controls). Our analysis identified a novel variant in the intron of the CLDN14 gene (rs170183, Pfdr = 0.015) after multiple testing correction. The three associated variants were followed-up in the Chinese cohort; one SNP rs170183 demonstrated consistent evidence of association in diverse ethnic populations (Pcombined = 2.43 × 10(-5)). Notably, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data revealed that rs170183 was correlated with a decline in CLDN14 expression in both lymphoblastoid cell lines and T cells (Padj = 0.003 and 0.016, respectively). In conclusion, our study identified a novel PBC susceptibility variant that has been shown to be strongly associated with BMD, highlighting the potential of pleiotropy to improve gene discovery. PMID:26842849

  20. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  1. Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models.

    PubMed

    Allen, P Danny; Graham, Jim; Farnell, Damian J J; Harrison, Elizabeth J; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Nicopolou-Karayianni, Kety; Lindh, Christina; van der Stelt, Paul F; Horner, Keith; Devlin, Hugh

    2007-11-01

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis. We have implemented a method of automatic measurement of the width by active shape model search, using as training data 132 DPTs of female subjects whose BMD has been established by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We demonstrate that widths measured after fully automatic search are significantly correlated with BMD, and exhibit less variability than manual measurements made by different experts. The correlation is highest towards the lateral region of the mandible, in a position different from that previously employed for manual width measurement. An receiver-operator characterstic (ROC) analysis for identifying osteopenia (T < -1: BMD more than one standard deviation below that of young healthy females) gives an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.64. Using a minimal interaction to initiate active shape model (ASM) search, the measurement can be made at the optimum region of the mandible, resulting in an AUC value of 0.71. Using an independent test set, AUC for detection of osteoporosis (T < -2.5) is 0.81. PMID:18046935

  2. Effects of Antipsychotics on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Schizophrenia: Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2016-08-31

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis are common in patients with schizophrenia and detrimental to illness prognosis and life quality. Although the pathogenesis is not fully clear, series of studies have revealed factors related to low BMD such as life style, psychotic symptoms, medication use and the activity of bone absorption markers. It has been known that antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia plays a critical role on decreased BMD. However, it remains uncertain whether the risk factors differ between men and women. According to the effect on prolactin, antipsychotics can be classified into two groups: prolactin-sparing (PS) and prolactin-raising (PR). Our previous study has demonstrated that clozapine which is among the PS antipsychotics is beneficial for BMD when compared with PR antipsychotics in women with chronic schizophrenia. We have also found that risks factors associated with low BMD are different between men and women, suggesting that gender-specific risk factors should be considered for intervention of bone loss in patients with schizophrenia. This article reviews the effects of antipsychotics use on BMD with particular discussion for the differences on gender and age, which implicate the alterations of sex and other related hormones. In addition, currently reported protective and risk factors, as well as the effects of medication use on BMD including the combination of antipsychotics and other psychotropic agents and other potential medications are also reviewed. PMID:27489377

  3. Change in bone mineral density at one year following glucocorticoid withdrawal in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ing, Steven W; Sinnott, Loraine T; Donepudi, Sirisha; Davies, Elizabeth A; Pelletier, Ronald P; Lane, Nancy E

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy induces deleterious effects on the skeleton in kidney transplantation but studies of GC discontinuation in this population are limited. This study evaluated changes in areal bone mineral density (BMD) with GC withdrawal. Subjects were enrolled one yr after renal transplantation and randomized to continue or stop prednisone; all subjects continued cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at enrollment and repeated at one yr and values were standardized. Mean ± standard deviation of annualized change in standardized BMD between GC withdrawal vs. continuation group at the lumbar spine was +4.7% ± 5.5 vs. +0.9% ± 5.3 (p = 0.0014); total hip +2.4% ± 4.2 vs. -0.4% ± 4.2 (p = 0.013), and femoral neck +2.1% ± 4.6 vs. +1.0% ± 6.0 (p = 0.37). There was no confounding by prednisone dose prior to enrollment, change in creatinine clearance, weight, or use of bone-active medications following study entry. Multivariate analysis determined that the change in BMD was positively associated with baseline alkaline phosphatase and creatinine clearance and negatively associated with baseline BMD. BMD improves with GC withdrawal after renal transplantation, and this gain in BMD is dependent on the baseline bone turnover, renal function, and BMD. PMID:20961333

  4. Integrating Epigenomic Elements and GWASs Identifies BDNF Gene Affecting Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporotic Fracture Risk

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Dong, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Jing, Ying-Aisha; Yang, Man; Yan, Han; Shen, Hui; Chen, Xiang-Ding; Tan, Li-Jun; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen; Yang, Tie-Lin

    2016-01-01

    To identify susceptibility genes for osteoporosis, we conducted an integrative analysis that combined epigenomic elements and previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) data, followed by validation at population and functional levels, which could identify common regulatory elements and predict new susceptibility genes that are biologically meaningful to osteoporosis. By this approach, we found a set of distinct epigenomic elements significantly enriched or depleted in the promoters of osteoporosis-associated genes, including 4 transcription factor binding sites, 27 histone marks, and 21 chromatin states segmentation types. Using these epigenomic marks, we performed reverse prediction analysis to prioritize the discovery of new candidate genes. Functional enrichment analysis of all the prioritized genes revealed several key osteoporosis related pathways, including Wnt signaling. Genes with high priority were further subjected to validation using available GWASs datasets. Three genes were significantly associated with spine bone mineral density, including BDNF, PDE4D, and SATB2, which all closely related to bone metabolism. The most significant gene BDNF was also associated with osteoporotic fractures. RNA interference revealed that BDNF knockdown can suppress osteoblast differentiation. Our results demonstrated that epigenomic data could be used to indicate common epigenomic marks to discover additional loci with biological functions for osteoporosis. PMID:27465306

  5. Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk Assessment to Optimize Prosthesis Selection in Total Hip Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Pétursson, Þröstur; Edmunds, Kyle Joseph; Gíslason, Magnús Kjartan; Magnússon, Benedikt; Magnúsdóttir, Gígja; Halldórsson, Grétar; Jónsson, Halldór; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The variability in patient outcome and propensity for surgical complications in total hip replacement (THR) necessitates the development of a comprehensive, quantitative methodology for prescribing the optimal type of prosthetic stem: cemented or cementless. The objective of the research presented herein was to describe a novel approach to this problem as a first step towards creating a patient-specific, presurgical application for determining the optimal prosthesis procedure. Finite element analysis (FEA) and bone mineral density (BMD) calculations were performed with ten voluntary primary THR patients to estimate the status of their operative femurs before surgery. A compilation model of the press-fitting procedure was generated to define a fracture risk index (FRI) from incurred forces on the periprosthetic femoral head. Comparing these values to patient age, sex, and gender elicited a high degree of variability between patients grouped by implant procedure, reinforcing the notion that age and gender alone are poor indicators for prescribing prosthesis type. Additionally, correlating FRI and BMD measurements indicated that at least two of the ten patients may have received nonideal implants. This investigation highlights the utility of our model as a foundation for presurgical software applications to assist orthopedic surgeons with selecting THR prostheses. PMID:26417376

  6. Parametric electrical impedance tomography for measuring bone mineral density in the pelvis using a computational model.

    PubMed

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Abboud, Shimon; Arad, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as bone microstructure deterioration resulting a decrease of bone's strength. Measured bone mineral density (BMD) constitutes the main tool for Osteoporosis diagnosis, management, and defines patient's fracture risk. In the present study, parametric electrical impedance tomography (pEIT) method was examined for monitoring BMD, using a computerized simulation model and preliminary real measurements. A numerical solver was developed to simulate surface potentials measured over a 3D computerized pelvis model. Varying cortical and cancellous BMD were simulated by changing bone conductivity and permittivity. Up to 35% and 16% change was found in the real and imaginary modules of the calculated potential, respectively, while BMD changes from 100% (normal) to 60% (Osteoporosis). Negligible BMD relative error was obtained with SNR>60 [dB]. Position changes errors indicate that for long term monitoring, measurement should be taken at the same geometrical configuration with great accuracy. The numerical simulations were compared to actual measurements that were acquired from a healthy male subject using a five electrodes belt bioimpedance device. The results suggest that pEIT may provide an inexpensive easy to use tool for frequent monitoring BMD in small clinics during pharmacological treatment, as a complementary method to DEXA test. PMID:27185035

  7. Mandibular bone mineral density in patients with Behçet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Asutay, Fatih; Atalay, Yusuf; Acar, Ahmet Hüseyin; Asutay, Hilal; Eroğlu, Selma; Burdurlu, Muammer Çağrı

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic, recurring vasculitis of unknown etiology. Patients with BD may use a lot of medications associated with the clinical symptoms. Drugs that are used in the treatment of BD may cause bone loss. The aims of the current study were to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) values between BD and healthy volunteers and describe the effect of disease duration on mandibular BMD. Materials and methods The study comprised 30 healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females, mean age 35.50±6.80 years) and 45 patients with BD (24 males and 21 females, mean age 38.93±8.93 years). The BD group was subdivided according to disease duration (0–5, 6–10, and >10 years). The BMD value of the mandibular body was determined by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry technique. Results The mean mandibular body BMD values were 1.294±0.21 g/cm2 in the control group and 1.216±0.22 g/cm2 in the BD patients, although there was no statistically significant difference. The BMD was observed to decrease with increased disease duration but not to a statistically significant degree. Conclusion The results of this study showed that although the BMD value decreased as the duration of the disease increased, no statistically significant difference was found between the BD patients and the healthy control group. PMID:26508868

  8. Decreased bone mineral density is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seok Kyo; Yun, Bo Hyon; Noe, Eun Bee; Suh, Jong Wook; Choi, Young Sik

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 252 postmenopausal women who had visited a health promotion center for a routine checkup. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and coronary atherosclerosis was assessed using 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Participants were divided into normal BMD and osteopenia-osteoporosis groups, according to the T-scores of their lumbar spine or femoral neck. Results Participants with osteopenia-osteoporosis had a significantly higher proportion of coronary atherosclerosis than did those with normal BMD at the lumbar spine (P=0.003) and femoral neck (P=0.004). Osteopenia-osteoporosis at the lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 7.27) or femoral neck (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.57) was associated with coronary atherosclerosis, after controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Decreased BMD is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women, independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors. Postmenopausal women with decreased BMD may have a higher risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:25798428

  9. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Fumio; Higuchi, Tohru; Nishihara, Kaori; Kayano, Mitsunori; Sasaki, Naoki; Nambo, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured by DXA and RBAE. There was a strong correlation between BMD values measured by QCT and those measured by DXA (R(2)=0.85); correlation was also observed between values obtained by QCT and those obtained by RBAE (R(2)=0.61). To investigate changes in BMD with age, 37 right metacarpal bones, including 7 from horses euthanized because of fracture were examined by QCT. The BMD value of samples from horses dramatically increased until 2 years of age and then plateaued, a pattern similar to the growth curve. The BMD values of bone samples from horses euthanized because of fracture were within the population range, and samples of morbid fracture were not included. The relationship between BMD and age provides a reference for further quantitative studies of bone development and remodeling. Quantitative measurement of BMD using QCT may have great potential for the evaluation of bone biology for breeding and rearing management. PMID:26435681

  10. Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk Assessment to Optimize Prosthesis Selection in Total Hip Replacement.

    PubMed

    Pétursson, Þröstur; Edmunds, Kyle Joseph; Gíslason, Magnús Kjartan; Magnússon, Benedikt; Magnúsdóttir, Gígja; Halldórsson, Grétar; Jónsson, Halldór; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The variability in patient outcome and propensity for surgical complications in total hip replacement (THR) necessitates the development of a comprehensive, quantitative methodology for prescribing the optimal type of prosthetic stem: cemented or cementless. The objective of the research presented herein was to describe a novel approach to this problem as a first step towards creating a patient-specific, presurgical application for determining the optimal prosthesis procedure. Finite element analysis (FEA) and bone mineral density (BMD) calculations were performed with ten voluntary primary THR patients to estimate the status of their operative femurs before surgery. A compilation model of the press-fitting procedure was generated to define a fracture risk index (FRI) from incurred forces on the periprosthetic femoral head. Comparing these values to patient age, sex, and gender elicited a high degree of variability between patients grouped by implant procedure, reinforcing the notion that age and gender alone are poor indicators for prescribing prosthesis type. Additionally, correlating FRI and BMD measurements indicated that at least two of the ten patients may have received nonideal implants. This investigation highlights the utility of our model as a foundation for presurgical software applications to assist orthopedic surgeons with selecting THR prostheses. PMID:26417376

  11. Factors associated with decreased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ying; Huang, Jian; Tian, Jing-bin; Cao, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Guo-ling; Wang, Chun-gang; Cao, Ying; Li, Jian-rong

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the risk factors for decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. Methods Cluster sampling method was adopted in this large-sample, cross-sectional study. A total of 219 postmenopausal female inpatients with schizophrenia were selected and interviewed in Beijing. The average age of the patients was 60.4±7.0 years. Clinical assessment instruments included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and a questionnaire with detailed general information and disease-related investigations. Laboratory measurements included prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, thyroid stimulating hormone, FT3, and FT4. BMD testing was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis or osteopenia was 66.2% (n=145). Decreased BMD was associated with age, illness duration, therapeutic dose (equivalent chlorpromazine dose), treatment duration, PANSS-negative scores, body mass index (BMI), daily exercises (min/d), drinking (unit/wk), PRL, and estradiol. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, treatment duration, PANSS-negative score, BMI, and PRL were significantly associated with decreased BMD. Conclusion Prevalence of BMD loss was higher in Chinese postmenopausal women with schizophrenia compared to the normal BMD group. A combination of demographic and clinical factors play important roles in determining decreased BMD, including older age, longer treatment duration, more PANSS-negative scores, higher BMI, and higher PRL level. PMID:26937181

  12. Bone mineral density reference range in Estonia: a comparison with the standard database (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    Kull, Mart; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2009-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accepted as a standard for diagnosing osteoporosis. Several databases are available for T-score calculation worldwide. Our aim was to compare hip bone mineral density (BMD) in young Estonian adults with the mean BMD in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) femur database and to compare the performance of these 2 databases. A population sample of 304 subjects was analyzed with a Lunar DPX-IQ DXA machine (GE Lunar Co., Madison, WI). Seventy-seven healthy young individuals were selected based on their age (25-39 yr). Their femur neck, trochanter, and total hip mean standardized BMD was compared with the corresponding data from the NHANES III database. Diagnostic agreement was assessed in a population sample of adults and in a clinical convenience sample from the densitometry unit. The BMD in the proximal femur in healthy young Estonian adults did not differ from the mean BMD in the NHANES subjects (p > 0.05). Differences in diagnosing osteoporosis and osteopenia are present if the Estonian reference database is used instead of the US standard database. Prospective studies with fracture data for assessing the predictive capability of these reference databases and the additional benefit of adding the FRAX (World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK) tool to fracture prediction and osteoporosis diagnosis are needed in Estonia. PMID:19880053

  13. Experimental investigation of bone mineral density in Thoroughbreds using quantitative computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HIGUCHI, Tohru; NISHIHARA, Kaori; KAYANO, Mitsunori; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the indications of the strength and health. BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was compared with that measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic bone aluminum equivalence (RBAE). Limbs were removed from horses that had been euthanized for reasons not associated with this study. Sixteen limbs (left and right metacarpals and metatarsals) from 4 horses were used to compare BMD as measured by QCT with those measured by DXA and RBAE. There was a strong correlation between BMD values measured by QCT and those measured by DXA (R2=0.85); correlation was also observed between values obtained by QCT and those obtained by RBAE (R2=0.61). To investigate changes in BMD with age, 37 right metacarpal bones, including 7 from horses euthanized because of fracture were examined by QCT. The BMD value of samples from horses dramatically increased until 2 years of age and then plateaued, a pattern similar to the growth curve. The BMD values of bone samples from horses euthanized because of fracture were within the population range, and samples of morbid fracture were not included. The relationship between BMD and age provides a reference for further quantitative studies of bone development and remodeling. Quantitative measurement of BMD using QCT may have great potential for the evaluation of bone biology for breeding and rearing management. PMID:26435681

  14. Effect of Sunlight Exposure on Bone Mineral Density in Children with Severe Disability.

    PubMed

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Kazuo; Sano, Fumikazu; Yagasaki, Hideaki; Sugita, Kanji; Aihara, Masao

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of sunlight exposure for increasing bone mineral density (BMD) in children with severe disability. The subjects were five children with severe disability, aged 6 to 8 years. BMD was measured at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of starting sunlight exposure. All caregivers of patients were instructed to create opportunities to stay outdoors. Daily sunlight exposure time was defined as hours of staying outdoors. Mean hours of sunbathing per day were calculated at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of starting sunlight exposure. Sunlight exposure tended to be longer after starting than before starting in all patients, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.052). Along with the increase in sunlight exposure, BMD increased significantly after the start of sunlight exposure in all patients (p < 0.01). The serum values of total alkaline phosphatase and intact parathyroid hormone were significantly decreased and that of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly increased 12 months after starting sunlight exposure. No patients had bone fractures after the start of sunlight exposure. These results suggest that sunlight exposure increased BMD, and that this may reduce the risk of bone fracture in children with disability. PMID:27227999

  15. Osteoporotic Fracture Risk Assessment Using Bone Mineral Density in Korean: A Community-based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Young-Kyun; Choi, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Fracture-risk assessment tool (FRAX) using just clinical risk factors of osteoporosis has been developed to estimate individual risk of osteoporotic fractures. We developed prediction model of fracture risk using bone mineral density (BMD) as well as clinical risk factors in Korean, and assessed the validity of the final model. Methods To develop and validate an osteoporotic FRAX, a total of 768 Korean men and women aged 50 to 90 years were followed for 7 years in a community-based cohort study. BMD as well as clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture including age, sex, body mass index, history of fragility fracture, family history of fracture, smoking status, alcohol intake, use of oral glucocorticoid, rheumatoid arthritis, and other causes of secondary osteoporosis were assessed biannually. Results During the follow-up period, 86 osteoporotic fractures identified (36 in men and 50 in women). The developed prediction models showed high discriminatory power and had goodness of fit. Conclusions The developed a Korean specific prediction model for osteoporotic fractures can be easily used as a screening tool to identify individual with high risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further studies for validation are required to confirm the clinical feasibility in general Korean population. PMID:26981519

  16. Relationship between Weight and Bone Mineral Density in Adolescents on Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Bonny, Andrea E.; Secic, Michelle; Cromer, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective Since bone loss has been observed among adolescents on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a clinical population that commonly experiences weight gain, we were interested in examining the direct relationship between body weight and bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescents on DMPA as compared to those on oral contraceptive pills (OC) or on no hormonal contraception (control). Design Prospective, Longitudinal study. Setting Four urban adolescent health clinics in a large metropolitan area. Participants Post-menarcheal girls, age 12 – 18 years, selecting DMPA, OC or no hormonal contraception. Interventions At baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, all study participants underwent measurement of weight and BMD of the hip and spine. Main Outcome Measures The correlation between weight and BMD, and the correlation between change in weight and change in BMD were assessed at each time point. Results Body weight was significantly (p < .05) positively correlated with femoral neck BMD and spine BMD at each time point regardless of contraceptive method. Change in body weight at 12 and 24 months was highly correlated with change in femoral neck BMD (p < .0001) for all treatment groups. No statistically significant correlation between change in weight and change in spine BMD was seen in the DMPA, OC or control subjects at 12 or 24 months. Conclusion Weight gain on DMPA may mitigate loss of BMD among adolescent users. PMID:20709582

  17. Bone Mineral Density in the Noninstitutionalized Elderly: Influence of Sociodemographic and Anthropometric Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cristina de Sousa e Silva Araujo, Ellen; Pagotto, Valéria; Silveira, Erika Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly and its associated factors according to sex. Methods. A cross-sectional study is presented herein, with a random sample of 132 noninstitutionalized elderly people. Individuals who did not use diuretics were excluded. BMD was obtained from examination of total body densitometry and its association with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, anthropometric, and body composition was verified. Results. Mean BMD for men was 1.17 ± 0.12 g/cm2 and for women was 1.04 ± 0.11 g/cm2. Higher education was associated with higher BMD values in men (p < 0.05). There was a reduction in BMD in the age group 75–79 years of age in women and over 80 years of age in men (p < 0.05). Underweight was associated with significantly low BMD for both sexes (p < 0.01), while normal weight was associated with low BMD in women (p < 0.001). Discussion. The elderly with low schooling and in older age groups are more probable to also present low BMD. Lower levels of body mass index also indicated towards low BMD. PMID:27127504

  18. Effects of Antipsychotics on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Schizophrenia: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis are common in patients with schizophrenia and detrimental to illness prognosis and life quality. Although the pathogenesis is not fully clear, series of studies have revealed factors related to low BMD such as life style, psychotic symptoms, medication use and the activity of bone absorption markers. It has been known that antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia plays a critical role on decreased BMD. However, it remains uncertain whether the risk factors differ between men and women. According to the effect on prolactin, antipsychotics can be classified into two groups: prolactin-sparing (PS) and prolactin-raising (PR). Our previous study has demonstrated that clozapine which is among the PS antipsychotics is beneficial for BMD when compared with PR antipsychotics in women with chronic schizophrenia. We have also found that risks factors associated with low BMD are different between men and women, suggesting that gender-specific risk factors should be considered for intervention of bone loss in patients with schizophrenia. This article reviews the effects of antipsychotics use on BMD with particular discussion for the differences on gender and age, which implicate the alterations of sex and other related hormones. In addition, currently reported protective and risk factors, as well as the effects of medication use on BMD including the combination of antipsychotics and other psychotropic agents and other potential medications are also reviewed. PMID:27489377

  19. Bone mineral density in female athletes representing sports with different loading characteristics of the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, A; Oja, P; Kannus, P; Sievänen, H; Haapasalo, H; Mänttäri, A; Vuori, I

    1995-09-01

    To address the hypothesis that osteogenic effect of physical loading increases with increasing strain rates and peak forces, we examined 59 competitive Finnish female athletes (representing three sports with different skeletal loading characteristics), physically active referents (they reported an average of five various types of exercise sessions per week), and sedentary referents (two sessions per week) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measured anatomic sites were at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, distal femur, patella, proximal tibia, calcaneus, and distal radius. The athlete group consisted of aerobic dancers (N = 27), squash players (N = 18), and speed skaters (N = 14). The squash players had the highest values for weight-adjusted bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (13.8% p < 0.001 as compared with the sedentary reference group), femoral neck (16.8%, p < 0.001), proximal tibia (12.6%, p < 0.001) and calcaneus (18.5%, p < 0.001). Aerobic dancers and speed skaters also had significantly higher BMD values at the loaded sites than the sedentary reference group, the difference ranging from 5.3% to 13.5%. The physically active referents' BMD values did not differ from those of the sedentary referents at any site. The results support the concept that training, including high strain rates in versatile movements and high peak forces, is more effective in bone formation than training with a large number of low-force repetitions. PMID:8541131

  20. Lack of Association between Pulse Steroid Therapy and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zengin Karahan, Serap; Boz, Cavit; Kilic, Sevgi; Can Usta, Nuray; Ozmenoglu, Mehmet; Altunayoglu Cakmak, Vildan; Gazioglu, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of this study was to determine the possible factors affecting BMD in patients with MS. We included consecutive 155 patients with MS and 90 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Patients with MS exhibited significantly lower T-scores and Z-scores in the femoral neck and trochanter compared to the controls. Ninety-four (61%) patients had reduced bone mass in either the lumbar spine or the femoral neck; of these, 64 (41.3%) had osteopenia and 30 (19.4%) had osteoporosis. The main factors affecting BMD were disability, duration of MS, and smoking. There was a negative relationship between femoral BMD and EDSS and disease duration. No association with lumbar BMD was determined. There were no correlations between BMD at any anatomic region and cumulative corticosteroid dose. BMD is significantly lower in patients with MS than in healthy controls. Reduced BMD in MS is mainly associated with disability and duration of the disease. Short courses of high dose steroid therapy did not result in an obvious negative impact on BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck in patients with MS. PMID:26966578

  1. Efficacy of pamidronate in pediatric osteosarcoma patients with low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se Won; Ahn, Ju Hyun; Choi, Aery; Cho, Wan Hyeong; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho; Seo, Ju-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Most surviving pediatric osteosarcoma patients experience osteoporosis, bone pain, and pathologic fracture during and after therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of pamidronate therapy in these patients. Methods Nine osteosarcoma patients (12.8±1.6 years of age; 5 boys and 4 girls) who had a history of nontraumatic fracture or severe pain after completing chemotherapy were included. Intravenous pamidronate (1.5 mg/kg) was given every 6 weeks for 4 to 6 cycles. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Clinical outcomes including acute side effects were also evaluated. Results After pamidronate treatments, all patients experienced decreased pain. Seven of 9 patients could walk without a crutch. The BMD of lumbar spine was increased by 0.108±0.062 mg/cm2 after 8.4±1.0 months (n=8, P=0.017) and the mean z-score improved from –2.14±0.94 to –1.76±0.95 (P=0.161). Six patients (67%) had an acute-phase reaction, and 2 patients had symptomatic hypocalcemia. Conclusion Pamidronate appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of osteosarcoma in children with low BMD and bone pain. PMID:27104175

  2. Bone mineral density and changes in bone metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Rabia; Yılmaz, Zahide

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and phenotypically similar subjects without OSAS in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. The study was conducted on 30 males diagnosed with OSAS and 20 healthy males. All subjects underwent polysomnographic testing. Calcium, phosphorus parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, and beta-CrossLaps (β-CTx) were measured. BMD in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data with the exception of bone mass index and waist circumference. (p < 0.05). Analyses showed significantly lower BMD measurements in the femoral neck and T-scores in the femoral neck in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Serum β-CTx levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the OSAS group (p = 0.017). In multivariate assessments performed for apnea/hypopnea index values, mean saturation O2 levels were found to be significantly associated with osteocalcin levels and neck BMD. OSAS patients might represent a risk group with respect to loss of BMD and bone resorption. It is important to evaluate bone loss in these patients. Further studies should be carried out on larger study populations to evaluate the effects of chronic hypoxia on BMD in detail. PMID:26204846

  3. Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Spinal Muscle Area in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Young; Yang, Jae-Ho; Ki, Chul-Hyun; Ko, Min-Seok; Suk, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hak-Sun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is known to have a positive correlation with lean body mass. Several studies have also reported the positive correlation between muscle power and BMD. From this point of view, we hypothesized BMD of lumbar spine to have a positive correlation with muscle mass. Methods Seventy-nine female patients aged between 60 and 75 years old and who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and BMD studies were included. Muscle mass in spine MRI was defined by the sum of the average muscle area of three axial images for each disc level. Lumbosacral muscle is the sum of paraspinal muscle and psoas muscle. Results In correlation analysis, paraspinal muscle mass showed positive correlation with BMD of lumbar spine. Lumbosacral muscle mass showed positive correlation with BMD of trochanteric area of the femur. However, BMD of other area showed no significant correlation with muscle mass. Conclusions Therefore, postmenopausal women older than 60 years with a well developed spine muscle mass, have a high BMD. PMID:26713311

  4. A Common Variant in CLDN14 is Associated with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ruqi; Wei, Yiran; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Haoyan; Miao, Qi; Bian, Zhaolian; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Qixia; Wang, Zhaoyue; Lian, Min; Yang, Fan; Jiang, Xiang; Yang, Yue; Li, Enling; Seldin, Michael F.; Gershwin, M. Eric; Liao, Wilson; Shi, Yongyong; Ma, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a chronic autoimmune liver disease, has been associated with increased incidence of osteoporosis. Intriguingly, two PBC susceptibility loci identified through genome-wide association studies are also involved in bone mineral density (BMD). These observations led us to investigate the genetic variants shared between PBC and BMD. We evaluated 72 genome-wide significant BMD SNPs for association with PBC using two European GWAS data sets (n = 8392), with replication of significant findings in a Chinese cohort (685 cases, 1152 controls). Our analysis identified a novel variant in the intron of the CLDN14 gene (rs170183, Pfdr = 0.015) after multiple testing correction. The three associated variants were followed-up in the Chinese cohort; one SNP rs170183 demonstrated consistent evidence of association in diverse ethnic populations (Pcombined = 2.43 × 10−5). Notably, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data revealed that rs170183 was correlated with a decline in CLDN14 expression in both lymphoblastoid cell lines and T cells (Padj = 0.003 and 0.016, respectively). In conclusion, our study identified a novel PBC susceptibility variant that has been shown to be strongly associated with BMD, highlighting the potential of pleiotropy to improve gene discovery. PMID:26842849

  5. Understanding Referral Patterns for Bone Mineral Density Testing among Family Physicians: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Munce, Sarah E. P.; Allin, Sonya; Carlin, Leslie; Sale, Joanna; Hawker, Gillian; Kim, Sandra; Butt, Debra A.; Polidoulis, Irene; Tu, Karen; Jaglal, Susan B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Evidence of inappropriate bone mineral density (BMD) testing has been identified in terms of overtesting in low risk women and undertesting among patients at high risk. In light of these phenomena, the objective of this study was to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing among Ontario's family physicians (FPs). Methods. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Twenty-two FPs took part in a semi-structured interview lasting approximately 30 minutes. An inductive thematic analysis was performed on the transcribed data in order to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing. Results. We identified a lack of clarity about screening for osteoporosis with a tendency for baseline BMD testing in healthy, postmenopausal women and a lack of clarity on the appropriate age for screening for men in particular. A lack of clarity on appropriate intervals for follow-up testing was also described. Conclusions. These findings lend support to what has been documented at the population level suggesting a tendency among FPs to refer menopausal women (at low risk). Emphasis on referral of high-risk groups as well as men and further clarification and education on the appropriate intervals for follow-up testing is warranted. PMID:26904357

  6. Relationship of Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Adult Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 64 men divided into three BMI groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements were done in all the study participants. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between weight and BMI and BMD in femur neck and in total hip, and a significant negative correlation between age and femur neck BMD. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that weight and BMI had a significant positive association with BMD levels. Conclusion: Although the results show significant relationship between BMI and BMD, the negative relationship between age and femur neck BMD may serve as guidance to initiate early assessment of the BMD in this region as well as preventive measures of osteoporosis and fractures among ageing men population PMID:25568627

  7. Can ultrasound be used to estimate bone mineral density in children with growth problems?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Khalid M; Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Somani, Arif; Frohnert, Brigitte; Miller, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess predictability of bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (LS) determined by duel energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using by ultrasound- speed of sound of the right and left radii (SOS-R and SOS-L) in patients with growth problems. Methods Ultrasound and DXA were compared in patients with advanced, normal and delayed bone ages assessed by Greulich and Pyle (GP) and Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) methods. Results There was a strong correlation (r), of raw scores, between SOS-R and SOS-L, r=0.81, P=0.000, and their respective Z-scores, r=0.78, P=0.000. Z-score correlations were poor between SOS-R or SOS-L and LS-BMD. Sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative predictive value of SOS-R, Z-scores for predicting normal (>−1 to < 1) and low (< −1) LS-BMD, Z scores were poor. For high (> 1) LS-BMD, Z scores were 22%, 93%, 29%, and 90% respectively for SOS-R and for SOS-L, 25%, 89%, 20%, and 91%. For very low (< −2) LS-BMD, SOS-R and SOS-L were the same, respectively 29%, 91%, 40%, and 86%. Conclusion Ultrasound of the radius is a poor predictor of radiologically assessed BMD at the lumbar spine, especially with delayed bone age. PMID:23750846

  8. Genetically Low Vitamin D Levels, Bone Mineral Density, and Bone Metabolism Markers: a Mendelian Randomisation Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-Shan; Gao, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ya; He, Jin-We; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Liu, Yu-Juan; Hu, Yun-Qiu; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is associated with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, but it remains uncertain whether these associations are causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study of 1,824 postmenopausal Chinese women to examine whether the detected associations between serum 25OHD and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers were causal. In observational analyses, total serum 25OHD was positively associated with BMD at lumbar spine (P = 0.003), femoral neck (P = 0.006) and total hip (P = 0.005), and was inversely associated with intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P = 8.18E-09) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) (P = 0.020). By contract, the associations of bioavailable and free 25OHD with all tested outcomes were negligible (all P > 0.05). The use of four single nucleotide polymorphisms, GC-rs2282679, NADSYN1-rs12785878, CYP2R1-rs10741657 and CYP24A1-rs6013897, as candidate instrumental variables in MR analyses showed that none of the two stage least squares models provided evidence for associations between serum 25OHD and either BMD or bone metabolism markers (all P > 0.05). We suggest that after controlling for unidentified confounding factors in MR analyses, the associations between genetically low serum 25OHD and BMD and bone metabolism markers are unlikely to be causal. PMID:27625044

  9. Measurements of bone mineral density and stiffness index in young Saudi females

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, Lina Fahmi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the ability to use Quantitative Ultrasonography (QUS) densitometer for screening of osteoporosis and osteopenia by comparing QUS values obtained at the calcaneus region to bone mineral density (BMD) values measured at the spine and the neck of the femur using Dual Energy X-ray Absorbemetry (DXA). Methods: QUS (in the calcaneus region) and DXA (the spine and the neck of femur respectively) measurements were performed in 101 females. Results: The precision of the QUS parameters varied from 1.77-1.78, whereas the reliability ranged from 92.2%-98.6%. For the QUS parameters variability between subjects was greater than that within subjects. Positive correlation were found between stiffness index (SI) and BMDspine and BMDN.femur (r= 0.29 & r=0.25 respectively, P < 0.05) and a strong positive correlation between T-scorecalcaneus and both T-scoreSpine and T-scoreN.femur (r= 0.5 & r=0.58 respectively, P < 0.01). Conclusions: QUS is a reliable technique to be used in combination with DXA for the investigation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. PMID:27182248

  10. Body composition and bone mineral density of national football league players.

    PubMed

    Dengel, Donald R; Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weir, Nate L; Weston, Todd D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the body composition of National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the regular season. Four hundred eleven NFL players were measured for height, weight and lean, fat, and bone mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were categorized by their offensive or defensive position for comparison. On average, positions that mirror each other (i.e., offensive lineman [OL] vs. defensive lineman [DL]) have very similar body composition. Although OL had more fat mass than DL, they were similar in total and upper and lower lean mass. Linebackers (LB) and running backs (RB) were similar for all measures of fat and lean mass. Tight ends were unique in that they were similar to RB and LB on measures of fat mass; however, they had greater lean mass than both RB and LB and upper-body lean mass that was similar to OL. Quarterbacks and punters/kickers were similar in fat and lean masses. All positions had normal levels of bone mineral density. The DXA allowed us to measure differences in lean mass between arms and legs for symmetry assessments. Although most individuals had similar totals of lean mass in each leg and or arms, there were outliers who may be at risk for injury. The data presented demonstrate not only differences in total body composition, but also show regional body composition differences that may provide positional templates. PMID:24149760

  11. The Relationship between Cortisol and Bone Mineral Density in Competitive Male Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Shannon L.; Farley, Richard S.; Fuller, Dana K.; Jetton, Amy E.; Caputo, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether race day cortisol was related to bone mineral density (BMD) in competitive male cyclists. A secondary purpose was to determine additional factors associated with BMD in competitive male cyclists. Methods. Measurements of lumbar spine and hip BMD were performed in 35 male competitors in a state championship cycling time trial event. Salivary cortisol was measured 10 minutes prior to the start of the race and 5 minutes after race finished. Participants reported daily calcium intake, age, years of bike training, races per season, and average weekly minutes spent riding a bike, weight training, and running on a survey. Results. Cortisol level increased significantly from pre- to postcompetition but was not significantly associated with BMD. Increased weekly minutes of weight training was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and the hip. The increased number of years of cycling experience was associated with lower BMD of the femoral neck. Increased daily calcium intake was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Conclusions. Findings indicate that cyclists should participate in weight training and increase calcium intake in order to increase or maintain BMD of the lumbar spine and hip. PMID:26464885

  12. Bone mineral density in children with fanconi anemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Petryk, Anna; Polgreen, Lynda E; Barnum, Jessie L; Zhang, Lei; Hodges, James S; Baker, K Scott; Wagner, John E; Steinberger, Julia; MacMillan, Margaret L

    2015-05-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder associated with short stature and bone marrow failure, usually requiring hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in leukemia patients after HCT, little is known about BMD in FA children after HCT (FA HCT). This study's goals were to compare BMD in FA HCT to BMD in healthy controls and in children who received HCT for hematologic malignancy (cancer HCT), and to test for associations between BMD and risk factors for bone loss. This cross-sectional study included 20 FA HCT, 13 cancer HCT, and 90 healthy controls, age-matched and <18 years old at evaluation. BMD Z-scores for total body (TBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and adjusted for height-for-age Z-score (HAZ). FA HCT had lower mean TBMDHAZ Z-score (by .8 SD) and higher fraction with Z-score ≤ -1 than healthy controls (42% versus 11%). No LBMD deficits were detected. FA HCT and cancer HCT groups did not differ significantly in TBMD or LBMD Z-scores. In FA HCT patients, lower body mass index and lower percent fat were associated with lower BMD. This study highlights the importance of monitoring BMD to optimize bone health in FA patients. PMID:25591848

  13. Association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shao, Haiyu; Xu, Shaonan; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jiayin; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Yazeng; Ru, Bin; Jin, Yongming; Zhang, Qi; Ying, Qifeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese adolescents. Three hundred eighty-four Chinese adolescents aged 14-18 yr (148 males and 236 females) were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Total body and regional BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Duration of playing video games, defined as hours per day, was measured by a self-report questionnaire. We examined the association between duration of playing video games and BMD using multiple linear regression analysis. After adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, parental education, body mass index, adolescents with longer video game duration were more likely to have lower legs, trunk, pelvic, spine, and total BMD (p < 0.05). We concluded that duration of video game was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese adolescents. These findings provide support for reducing duration of playing video games as a possible means to increase BMD in adolescents. Future research is needed to elucidate the underlined mechanisms linking playing video games and osteoporosis. PMID:25937308

  14. Femoral head bone mineral density patterns may identify hips at risk of degeneration.

    PubMed

    Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S; Schwager, Steven J; Todhunter, Rory J; Reeves, Anthony P

    2011-01-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common abnormality that causes elevated contact stress and early onset osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that adaptation of femoral head bone mineral density (BMD) patterns to focal loading during postnatal development could be used to identify hips at risk of degeneration. Evolving BMD patterns of the femoral head secondary center of ossification (SCO) were quantified and tested for differences with hip subluxation and degeneration. BMD was measured using quantitative computed tomography of hips in a canine model of DDH from 4 weeks to early skeletal maturity at 32 weeks. During body weight and SCO volumetric growth deceleration, SCO mean BMD increased rapidly and local regions of high BMD formed. Greater subluxation was associated with a lower mean BMD up to 14 weeks. At 32 weeks, greater subluxation was associated with a larger area of high BMD that was more laterally located and had a greater maximum BMD. BMD differences were associated with a higher probability of cartilage degeneration. Measurement and visualization of BMD pattern changes due to altered mechanical loading provide a basis for identifying hips at risk of early onset OA and a tool for surgical planning of contact stress reduction procedures. PMID:20845071

  15. Association Between Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Men on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Sandra M S de A; Wahrlich, Vivian; Mafra, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Studies have revealed complex interactions between bone and fat, however there are few studies about this crosstalk in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study investigated possible relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in patients who underwent hemodialysis. Twenty patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (47.0 [42.3-56.8] years, body mass index 26.0 ± 4.2 kg/m, dialysis vintage of 48.5 [26.7-95.7] months). Body composition and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leptin and parathormone levels were analyzed using Multiplex kits (R&D System Inc). Low bone mass in the femoral neck was reported in 54.8% of patients. Total BMD and total T-score were positively correlated with lean mass (r = 0.46, P = 0.04; r = 0.47, P = 0.04, respectively), but not with leptin or body fat mass. In conclusion, lean body mass is probably important to maintain bone health in male patients who underwent hemodialysis. PMID:26418381

  16. Integrating Epigenomic Elements and GWASs Identifies BDNF Gene Affecting Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporotic Fracture Risk.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Dong, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Jing, Ying-Aisha; Yang, Man; Yan, Han; Shen, Hui; Chen, Xiang-Ding; Tan, Li-Jun; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen; Yang, Tie-Lin

    2016-01-01

    To identify susceptibility genes for osteoporosis, we conducted an integrative analysis that combined epigenomic elements and previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) data, followed by validation at population and functional levels, which could identify common regulatory elements and predict new susceptibility genes that are biologically meaningful to osteoporosis. By this approach, we found a set of distinct epigenomic elements significantly enriched or depleted in the promoters of osteoporosis-associated genes, including 4 transcription factor binding sites, 27 histone marks, and 21 chromatin states segmentation types. Using these epigenomic marks, we performed reverse prediction analysis to prioritize the discovery of new candidate genes. Functional enrichment analysis of all the prioritized genes revealed several key osteoporosis related pathways, including Wnt signaling. Genes with high priority were further subjected to validation using available GWASs datasets. Three genes were significantly associated with spine bone mineral density, including BDNF, PDE4D, and SATB2, which all closely related to bone metabolism. The most significant gene BDNF was also associated with osteoporotic fractures. RNA interference revealed that BDNF knockdown can suppress osteoblast differentiation. Our results demonstrated that epigenomic data could be used to indicate common epigenomic marks to discover additional loci with biological functions for osteoporosis. PMID:27465306

  17. Swimming and cycling do not cause positive effects on bone mineral density: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane Pequeno; Marçal, Anderson Carlos; Alves, Erik Artur Cortinhas; Figueiredo, Rosa Costa; de Sousa, Evitom Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is considered a common metabolic bone disease and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. In this context, physical activity has been used as a non-pharmacological tool for prevention and auxiliary treatment of this disease. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of cycling and swimming practice on bone mineral density (BMD). This research was conducted in accordance with the recommendations outlined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The studies were consulted in the period from 2004 to 2014, through major electronic databases: PubMed(®), SciELO(®) and LILACS(®). Ten studies evaluated the effects of cycling on BMD, and the results showed that nine studies have linked the practice of professional cycling with low levels of BMD. Another 18 studies have reported that swimming has no positive effects on bone mass. We conclude that cycling and swimming do not cause positive effects on BMD; thus, these are not the most suitable exercises for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27476628

  18. Lycopene intake facilitates the increase of bone mineral density in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Iimura, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Takeda, Satoko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Yoshida, Shigeki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Intake of the antioxidant lycopene has been reported to decrease oxidative stress and have beneficial effects on bone health. However, few in vivo studies have addressed these beneficial effects in growing female rodents or young women. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene intake on bone metabolism through circulating oxidative stress in growing female rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into 3 groups according to the lycopene content in their diet: 0, 50, and 100 ppm. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the tibial proximal metaphysis increased with lycopene content in a dose-dependent manner; the BMD in 100 ppm group was significantly higher than in the 0 ppm group. The urine deoxypyridinoline concentrations were significantly lower in the 50 and 100 ppm groups than in the 0 ppm group, and the serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in 100 ppm group than in the 0 ppm group. No difference in systemic oxidative stress level was observed; however, the oxidative stress level inversely correlated with the tibial BMD. Our findings suggested that lycopene intake facilitates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption, leading to an increase of BMD in growing female rats. PMID:24975219

  19. Physical Activity Level of Post-menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Dallanezi, Glauber; Freire, Beatriz Funayama Alvarenga; Nahás, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahás-Neto, Jorge; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Proper physical activity is related to the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. Purpose To assess the level of physical activity (PA) in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional clinical study included 123 post-menopausal women. The inclusion criteria were: age of ≥ 45 years with last menses at least 12 months prior to the initiation of the study, and bone density scan (BDS) values measured over the preceding 12 months. Women with severe osteoarthritis were excluded. Women were allocated into three groups, according to BMD measured by BDS [osteoporosis (OP; 54 women), osteopenia (35 women), and normal bone density (NBD; 35 women)], and compared for general, clinical, and anthropometric data, and for PA level. The latter was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) units. Participants were classified as sedentary, active or very active. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Associations between qualitative variables were tested by Chi-square (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. In order to check for differences among groups and IPAQ domains, a generalized linear model with Gamma distribution was adjusted for values in METs. Results The OP group differed from the NBD group regarding age (61.8 ± 10.1 and 52.9 ± 5.4 years), percentage of participants with self-declared white ethnicity (43.9 and 28.0%), body mass index (BMI - 25.7 ± 5.4 and 30.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)), and time since menopause (15.5 ± 7.5 and 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Smoking rates were higher in the OP (55.6%) and NBD groups (33.3%) than in the osteopenia group (11.1%). Within the OP group, the rate of subjects with sedentary lifestyles was higher (42.6%), and time spent sitting was greater (344.3 ± 204.8 METs) than in the groups with osteopenia (20.0% and 300.9 ± 230.6 METs) and NBD (17.7% and 303

  20. Changes in the mineral density distribution in human bone with age: image analysis using backscattered electrons in the SEM.

    PubMed

    Reid, S A; Boyde, A

    1987-02-01

    We report a study to test the feasibility of studying mineral density distributions in bone using the backscattered electron signal in scanning electron microscopy. Samples were human sixth ribs ranging in age from 8 weeks to 59 years, embedded in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), cut, polished, and carbon coated. The proportions of pixels falling in a uniform set of gray level slices of the BSE signal were determined using a microcomputer-based image analysis system interfaced directly to the SEM. The amount of high-density bone gradually increased with age at the expense of low-density bone, and there was an associated compression of the range of the mineral density distribution. Age-related differences were noted between the density distributions in the outer and inner rib cortices. The distribution in the inner cortex in neonates was influenced by the inclusion of densely mineralized endochondral bone and cartilage trabeculae formed at the growth cartilage zone. In adults it appeared that greater bone turnover occurred in the outer cortex, perhaps reflecting a differential mechanical loading across the rib. The technique enabled rapid, unbiased discrimination between the bone of neonates, children, and adults. PMID:3455153

  1. How to improve x-ray scattering techniques to quantify bone mineral density using spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Krmar, M.; Ganezer, K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a new diagnostic technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) for the assessment of osteoporosis, which improves upon the coherent to Compton scattering ratio (CCSR) method, which was first developed in the 1980s. To help the authors achieve these goals, they have identified and studied two new indices for CCSR, the forward scattered to backward scattered (FS-BS) and the forward scattered to transmitted (FS-T) ratios. They believe that, at small angles, these two parameters can offer a practical in vivo determination of BMD that can be used to overcome the limitations of past CCSR systems, including high radiation dosages, costs, and examination durations. Methods: In previous CCSR studies, a high-activity radioactive source with a long half-live (usually 241Am) and an expensive and bulky cryogenic HPGe detector were applied to both in vivo and in vitro measurements. To make this technique more suitable for clinical applications, the possibility of using a standard diagnostic x-ray tube generating a continuous spectrum was investigated in this paper. Scattered radiation from trabecular bone-simulating phantoms containing various mineral densities that span the normal range of in vivo BMD was collected in this study using relatively inexpensive noncryogenic CdTe or NaI detectors. Results: The initial results demonstrate that a modified version of CCSR can be successfully applied to trabecular bone assessment using a diagnostic x-ray tube with a continuous spectrum in two variations, the FS-BS and the FS-T ratio. When FS-BS is measured, intensity spectra in the forward and backward directions must be collected while FS-T requires only the integral intensity of the scattered and transmitted (T) spectra in the energy region above 40 keV. For both of these methods, forward scattering angles less than or equal to 15° and backward scattering angles greater than or equal to (165°= 180° − 15°) are needed

  2. Bone Mineral Density and Cognitive Decline in Elderly Women: Results from the InCHIANTI Study.

    PubMed

    Laudisio, Alice; Fontana, Davide Onofrio; Rivera, Chiara; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gemma, Antonella; Ferrucci, Luigi; Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    Osteoporosis and cognitive impairment, which are highly prevalent conditions in elderly populations, share several risk factors. This study aims at evaluating the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with prevalent and incident cognitive impairment after a 3-year follow-up. We studied 655 community-dwelling women aged 65+ participating in the InCHIANTI study, who had been followed for 3 years. Total, trabecular, and cortical BMD were estimated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography using standard transverse scans at 4 and 38 % of the tibial length. Cognitive performance was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B; a MMSE score <24 was adopted to define cognitive impairment. The TMT A-B score was calculated as the difference between TMT-A and TMT-B times (ΔTMT). The association of cognitive performance after 3 years with baseline indices of BMD was assessed by logistic and linear regression analyses. Cortical, but not trabecular, BMD was independently associated with incident cognitive impairment (OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.88-0.98; P = 0.012), worsening cognitive performance (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.92-0.98; P = 0.039), and worsening performance in ΔTMT (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.92-0.99; P = 0.047). Increasing cortical BMD tertiles was associated with decreasing probability of incident cognitive impairment (P for linear trend =0.001), worsening cognitive performance (P = 0.013), and a worsening performance below the median value (P for linear trend <0.0001). In older women, low BMD might represent an independent and early marker of subsequent cognitive impairment. Physicians should assess and monitor cognitive performance in the routine management of elderly women with osteoporosis. PMID:26713334

  3. Assessment of Gene-by-Sex Interaction Effect on Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Amin, Najaf; Evangelou, Evangelos; Li, Guo; Minster, Ryan L.; Carless, Melanie A.; Kammerer, Candace M.; Oei, Ling; Zhou, Yanhua; Alonso, Nerea; Dailiana, Zoe; Eriksson, Joel; García-Giralt, Natalia; Giroux, Sylvie; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Khusainova, Rita I.; Koromila, Theodora; Kung, Annie WaiChee; Lewis, Joshua R.; Masi, Laura; Mencej-Bedrac, Simona; Nogues, Xavier; Patel, Millan S.; Prezelj, Janez; Richards, J Brent; Sham, Pak Chung; Spector, Timothy; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Xiao, Su-Mei; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Zhu, Kun; Balcells, Susana; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Frost, Morten; Goltzman, David; González-Macías, Jesús; Karlsson, Magnus; Khusnutdinova, Elza K.; Kollia, Panagoula; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Marc, Janja; Mellström, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes; Olmos, José M.; Ralston, Stuart H.; Riancho, José A.; Rousseau, François; Urreizti, Roser; Van Hul, Wim; Zarrabeitia, María T.; Castano-Betancourt, Martha; Demissie, Serkalem; Grundberg, Elin; Herrera, Lizbeth; Kwan, Tony; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Pastinen, Tomi; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; vanMeurs, Joyce B.J.; Blangero, John; Hofman, Albert; Liu, Yongmei; Mitchell, Braxton D.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Rotter, Jerome I; Stefansson, Kari; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Uitterlinden, Andre; Cauley, Jane A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Robbins, John A; Zillikens, M. Carola; vanDuijn, Cornelia M.; Prince, Richard L.; Karasik, David; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Kiel, Douglas P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and performed eQTL analysis and bioinformatics network analysis. Methods We conducted an autosomal genome-wide meta-analysis of gene-by-sex interaction on lumbar spine (LS-) and femoral neck (FN-) BMD, in 25,353 individuals from eight cohorts. In a second stage, we followed up the 12 top SNPs (P<1×10−5) in an additional set of 24,763 individuals. Gene-by-sex interaction and sex-specific effects were examined in these 12 SNPs. Results We detected one novel genome-wide significant interaction associated with LS-BMD at the Chr3p26.1-p25.1 locus, near the GRM7 gene (male effect = 0.02 & p-value = 3.0×10−5; female effect = −0.007 & p-value=3.3×10−2) and eleven suggestive loci associated with either FN- or LS-BMD in discovery cohorts. However, there was no evidence for genome-wide significant (P<5×10−8) gene-by-sex interaction in the joint analysis of discovery and replication cohorts. Conclusion Despite the large collaborative effort, no genome-wide significant evidence for gene-by-sex interaction was found influencing BMD variation in this screen of autosomal markers. If they exist, gene-by-sex interactions for BMD probably have weak effects, accounting for less than 0.08% of the variation in these traits per implicated SNP. PMID:22692763

  4. Steroidal contraceptive use is associated with lower bone mineral density in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lisa J; Thomson, R L; Buckley, J D; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M; Norman, R J; Brinkworth, G D

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition affecting reproductive-aged women with features including hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularity frequently treated with hormonal steroidal contraceptives. Women with PCOS appear to have lower bone mineral density (BMD). While steroidal contraceptives may positively affect bone health, their effect on BMD in PCOS is not known. The aim of this study was to assess BMD in women with PCOS according to recent contraceptive use. A cross-sectional analysis of 95 pre-menopausal overweight or obese sedentary women with PCOS [age 29.4 ± 6.4 years, body mass index (BMI) 36.1 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)] who either recently took steroidal contraceptives (ceased 3 months prior) or were not taking steroidal contraceptives was conducted. Clinical outcomes included BMD, anthropometry, insulin, glucose, reproductive hormones, dietary intake and vitamin use. BMD was significantly lower for women who used contraceptives compared to those who did not (mean difference 0.06 g/cm(2) 95 % confidence interval -0.11, -0.02, p = 0.005). In regression models, lower BMD was independently associated with contraceptive use (β = -0.05, 95 % CI -0.094, -0.002, p = 0.042), higher testosterone (β = -0.03, 95 % CI -0.05, -0.0008, p = 0.043) and lower BMI (β = 0.006, 95 % CI 0.002, 0.01, p = 0.007) (r (2) = 0.22, p = 0.001 for entire model). We report for the first time that overweight and obese women with PCOS with recent steroidal contraceptive use had lower BMD in comparison to non-users independent of factors known to contribute to BMD. Whether this observation is directly related to steroidal contraceptive use or other factors requires further investigation. PMID:25957668

  5. Prolonged Practice of Swimming Is Negatively Related to Bone Mineral Density Gains in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Marcelo R.; Lynch, Kyle R.; Maillane-Vanegas, Santiago; Turi-Lynch, Bruna; Ito, Igor H.; Luiz-de-Marco, Rafael; Rodrigues-Junior, Mario A.; Fernandes, Rômulo A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The practice of swimming in "hypogravity" conditions has potential to decrease bone formation because it decreases the time engaged in weight-bearing activities usually observed in the daily activities of adolescents. Therefore, adolescents competing in national levels would be more exposed to these deleterious effects, because they are engaged in long routines of training during most part of the year. To analyze the effect of swimming on bone mineral density (BMD) gain among adolescents engaged in national level competitions during a 9-month period. Methods Fifty-five adolescents; the control group contained 29 adolescents and the swimming group was composed of 26 athletes. During the cohort study, BMD, body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) were assessed using a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanner. Body weight was measured with an electronic scale, and height was assessed using a stadiometer. Results During the follow-up, swimmers presented higher gains in FFM (Control 2.35 kg vs. Swimming 5.14 kg; large effect size [eta-squared (ES-r)=0.168]) and BMD-Spine (Swimming 0.087 g/cm2 vs. Control 0.049 g/cm2; large effect size [ES-r=0.167]) compared to control group. Male swimmers gained more FFM (Male 10.63% vs. Female 3.39%) and BMD-Spine (Male 8.47% vs. Female 4.32%) than females. Longer participation in swimming negatively affected gains in upper limbs among males (r=-0.438 [-0.693 to -0.085]), and in spine among females (r=-0.651 [-0.908 to -0.036]). Conclusions Over a 9-month follow-up, BMD and FFM gains were more evident in male swimmers, while longer engagement in swimming negatively affected BMD gains, independently of sex. PMID:27622179

  6. Genotypes and clinical aspects associated with bone mineral density in Argentine postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Ulla, María; García, Beatriz; Lavezzo, María; Elías, Eliana; Binci, Miriam; Rivoira, María; Centeno, Viviana; Alisio, Arturo; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine genotypes and clinical aspects associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women from Córdoba, Argentina. Polymorphisms were assessed by RFLP-PCR technique using BsmI and FokI for vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and XbaI and PvuII for estrogen receptor-alpha gene (ERalpha) as restrictases. Sixty-eight healthy, 54 osteopenic, and 64 osteoporotic postmenopausal women were recruited. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were inversely correlated with age in the entire analyzed population. Height was lower in osteopenic and osteoporotic women as compared to healthy women (P < 0.05). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were the lowest in osteoporotic women (P < 0.01 versus healthy group). Serum procollagen type I Nterminal propeptide (PINP) was higher in osteoporotic women as compared to the other groups. Distribution of VDR and ERalpha genotypes was similar in the three groups. Genotype bb (VDR) was associated with low values of lumbar BMD in the healthy group (P < 0.05 versus genotype Bb), and with low values of femoral BMD (P < 0.05 versus genotype BB) in osteoporotic women. BB*Pp interaction was associated with the highest femoral neck BMD (P < 0.05), whereas the bb*xx interaction was associated with the lowest femoral neck BMD in the total population analyzed (P < 0.05). In conclusion, parameters such as age, height, weight, BMI, serum PINP, VDR genotypes, and interactions between VDR and ERalpha genotypes could be useful to predict a decrease in BMD in Argentine postmenopausal women. PMID:18600402

  7. Low bone mineral density and associated risk factors in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiţu-Tișu, Cristina-Emilia; Barbu, Ecaterina-Constanţa; Lazăr, Mihai; Ion, Daniela Adriana; Bădărău, Ioana Anca

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resulted in high rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Multiple cohort studies have reported an increased prevalence of bone demineralization among HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and risk factors for osteopenia/osteoporosis among HIV-positive patients attending the National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Prof.Dr. Matei Balș”, Bucharest, Romania. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that enrolled 60 patients with HIV. The association between BMD and lifestyle habits (smoking), body mass index (BMI), nadir cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count, current CD4 cell count, HIV viral load and history of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were investigated. The BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, hips and total body using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Results In the present study, DEXA evaluation showed an overall prevalence of osteoporosis of 16.66% (ten patients) and a prevalence of osteopenia of 48.33% (29 patients). In men, low BMI and cigarette smoking showed significant association with the diagnosis of lumbar spine demineralization (p=0.034 and p=0.041, respectively). Duration of exposure to cART classes in relation to BMD was also evaluated. The use of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was associated with low lumbar spine BMD in all patients (p=0.015). Reduced BMD was significantly associated with protease inhibitors (PIs)-containing treatment (p=0.043) in women. Conclusion At lumbar spine DEXA, male gender was statistically associated with reduced BMD. At the left hip Ward’s area, decreased BMD T scores were significantly associated with aging. The reduced BMD was higher in patients receiving PI- or NNRTI-containing regimens. PMID:27482514

  8. Association of chemerin levels and bone mineral density in Chinese obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Mao, Chaoming; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Rencong; Li, Lin; Mou, Xiao; Xu, Ping; Li, Hongli; Xu, Chengcheng; Yuan, Guoyue; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests the association between obesity and bone metabolism. However, whether excessive fat accumulation has a beneficial or adverse effect on bone health remains controversial. Chemerin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone and a chemoattractant cytokine that regulates adipogenesis. This study was performed to investigate the associations of serum chemerin with bone mineral density (BMD) and serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in 543 Chinese obese postmenopausal women. BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine, lean mass, and fat mass were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric assessment and laboratory measurements were performed. The age, time after menopause, and fat mass were negatively correlated with femoral and lumbar BMD, whereas lean mass was positively correlated with aforementioned variables. Furthermore, BMD at the lumbar spine was inversely associated with serum chemerin and TNF-α levels (r = -0.155, P = 0.001; r = -0.147, P = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that serum chemerin levels were negatively correlated with BMD at the lumbar site after controlling for the age, lean, and fat mass (β = -0.125, P = 0.001). Chronic low-grade inflammation state in obese population has an inverse effect on bone mass. Chemerin as an adipocytokine and chemoattractant negatively affects the bone mass of Chinese obese postmenopausal women. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential role of chemerin in the crosstalk between bone and fat accumulation in obese population. PMID:27583869

  9. Effect of Self-Referral on Bone Mineral Density Testing and Osteoporosis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Warriner, Amy H.; Outman, Ryan C.; Feldstein, Adrianne C.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Redden, David T.; Rix, Mary M.; Robinson, Brandi E.; Rosales, A. Gabriela; Safford, Monika M.; Saag, Kenneth G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite national guidelines recommending bone mineral density screening with dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DXA) in women ≥65 years old, many women do not receive initial screening. Objective To determine the effectiveness of health system and patient-level interventions designed to increase appropriate DXA testing and osteoporosis treatment through (1) an invitation to self-refer for DXA (self-referral), (2) self-referral plus patient educational materials, and (3) usual care (UC, physician referral). Research Design Parallel, group-randomized, controlled trials performed at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) and Kaiser Permanente Georgia (KPG). Subjects Women ≥ 65 years old without a DXA in past 5 years. Measures DXA completion rates 90 days after intervention mailing and osteoporosis medication receipt 180 days after initial intervention mailing. Results From >12,000 eligible women, those randomized to self-referral were significantly more likely to receive a DXA than UC (13.0 – 24.1% self-referral vs. 4.9 – 5.9% UC, p < 0.05). DXA rates did not significantly increase with patient educational materials. Osteoporosis was detected in a greater proportion of self-referral women compared to UC (p < 0.001). The number needed to receive an invitation to result in a DXA in KPNW and KPG regions was approximately 5 and 12, respectively. New osteoporosis prescription rates were low (0.8 – 3.4%) but significantly greater among self-referral versus UC in KPNW. Conclusions DXA rates significantly improved with a mailed invitation to schedule a scan without physician referral. Providing women the opportunity to self-refer may be an effective, low-cost strategy to increase access for recommended osteoporosis screening. PMID:24984211

  10. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  11. Subgroup Variations in Bone Mineral Density Response to Zoledronic Acid After Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Magaziner, Jay S; Orwig, Denise L; Lyles, Kenneth W; Nordsletten, Lars; Boonen, Steven; Adachi, Jonathan D; Recknor, Chris; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Mesenbrink, Peter; Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina; Su, Guoqin; Johnson, Rasheeda; Pieper, Carl F

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing post-fracture bone loss is an important aspect of recovery from hip fracture, and determination of factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) response to treatment after hip fracture may assist in the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. A post hoc analysis of the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial was done to determine the effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD in subgroups with low-trauma hip fracture. A total of 2127 patients were randomized (1:1) to yearly infusions of ZOL 5 mg (n = 1065) or placebo (n = 1062) within 90 days of operation for low-trauma hip fracture. The 1486 patients with a baseline and at least one post-baseline BMD assessment at TH or FN (ZOL = 745, placebo = 741) were included in the analyses. Percentage change from baseline in TH and FN BMD was assessed at months 12 and 24 and compared across subgroups of hip fracture patients. Percentage change from baseline in TH and FN BMD at months 12 and 24 was greater (p < 0.05) in ZOL-treated patients compared with placebo in most subgroups. Treatment-by-subgroup interactions (p < 0.05) indicated that a greater effect on BMD was observed for TH BMD at month 12 in females, in patients in the lower tertile body mass index at baseline (≤22.6 kg/m2), and in patients with baseline FN BMD T-score of ≤ –2.5; for FN BMD in patients who received ZOL for >6 weeks post-surgery; and for TH and FN BMD in patients with a history of one or more prior fractures. All interactions were limited to the first 12 months after treatment with none observed for the 24-month comparisons. (Clinical trial registration number NCT00046254.) PMID:24839241

  12. Selenium Status Is Positively Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Aging European Men

    PubMed Central

    Beukhof, Carolien M.; Medici, Marco; van den Beld, Annewieke W.; Hollenbach, Birgit; Hoeg, Antonia; Visser, W. Edward; de Herder, Wouter W.; Visser, Theo J.; Schomburg, Lutz; Peeters, Robin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status in a cohort of 387 healthy elderly men (median age 77 yrs; inter quartile range 75–80 yrs) in relation to TFTs and BMD. Se status was determined by measuring both plasma selenoprotein P (SePP) and Se. Results The overall Se status in our population was low normal with only 0.5% (2/387) of subjects meeting the criteria for Se deficiency. SePP and Se levels were not associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) or reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. The T3/T4 and T3/rT3 ratios, reflecting peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone, were not associated with Se status either. SePP and Se were positively associated with total BMD and femoral trochanter BMD. Se, but not SePP, was positively associated with femoral neck and ward's BMD. Multivariate linear analyses showed that these associations remain statistically significant in a model including TSH, FT4, body mass index, physical performance score, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus and number of medication use. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that Se status, within the normal European marginally supplied range, is positively associated with BMD in healthy aging men, independent of thyroid function. Thyroid function tests appear unaffected by Se status in this population. PMID:27055238

  13. Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki Noda, Shin-ei; Ohno, Tatsuya; Oike, Takahiro; Ohkubo, Yu; Ando, Ken; Sato, Hiro; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) after pelvic radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Of 52 cervical cancer patients who received pelvic RT in our university hospital between 2009 and 2011, 46 patients without recurrence and who were followed up for more than 12 months were included in the study. The BMD of the irradiated region and nonirradiated regions, serum estradiol, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b, and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 were measured before, at 3 months after, and at 12 months after RT. The patient cohort was divided into 2 groups according to estradiol level before RT, and the groups were defined as postmenopausal (<40 pg/mL) and premenopausal (≥40 pg/mL). Results: The mean BMDs within the irradiation field (lumbar vertebra 5) in the postmenopausal and the premenopausal groups were 0.825 and 0.910 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and 0.746 and 0.841 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in both groups (P<.05 and P<.01, respectively). In addition, in the premenopausal group the mean BMDs of the nonirradiated regions at thoracic vertebrae 9-12 and lumbar vertebrae 2-4 were 0.753 and 0.958 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and were significantly decreased to 0.706 and 0.921 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). Estradiol significantly decreased 3 months after RT, whereas tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 continued to increase over time in the premenopausal group. Conclusions: A decrease in BMD in the irradiated region after RT was observed within 1 year, regardless of menopausal status. Furthermore, in premenopausal patients, pelvic RT caused a decrease in systemic BMD.

  14. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  15. Negative association between metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density in Koreans, especially in men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Young; Choe, Jae Won; Kim, Hong Kyu; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Beom Jun; Lee, Seung Hun; Koh, Jung-Min; Han, Ki Ok; Park, Hyoung Moo; Kim, Ghi Su

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are thought to share common risk factors, and metabolic syndrome (MS) is composed of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to investigate the relationships between specific MS components and bone mineral density (BMD). BMD was measured at the femoral neck of Korean men aged 40 years or more (n = 1,780) and postmenopausal women (n = 1,108) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We identified subjects with MS as defined by two criteria, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI). Body fat and lean mass were measured via bioimpedance analysis. The prevalence of MS was 19.8% and 7.7% in men and 20.8% and 11.6% in postmenopausal women according to the AHA/NHLBI definition and the IDF definition, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, femoral neck BMD was significantly lower in subjects with MS regardless of diagnostic criteria. BMD decreased as the number of MS components increased (P < 0.001 for trends in both sexes). Among MS components, waist circumference was the most important factor in this negative association. When multiple linear regression models were applied to each 5-kg weight stratum to test for a linear trend, waist circumference and fat mass were negatively associated with BMD and lean mass was positively associated with BMD in men but not in women. MS was associated with a lower BMD in Korean men and postmenopausal women, suggesting that visceral fat may lead to bone loss, especially in men. PMID:20354685

  16. Effects of menstrual history and use of medications on bone mineral density: the EVOS Study.

    PubMed

    Masaryk, P; Lunt, M; Benevolenskaya, L; Cannata, J; Dequeker, J; Dohenhof, C; Falch, J A; Felsenberg, D; Pols, H A; Poor, G; Reid, D M; Scheidt-Nave, C; Weber, K; O'Neill, T; Silman, A J; Reeve, J

    1998-10-01

    We have previously shown considerable between-center variation in bone mineral density (BMD) in the 13 EVOS centers that performed bone densitometry on their sex- and age-stratified population samples, after adjusting for weight and age. We have now investigated whether part of the between-center variability may be attributed to between-center variations in the use of medications. Information was collected from 2088 women and 1908 men at baseline on whether the subjects had ever been prescribed calcium, calcitonin, anabolic steroids, fluoride, vitamin D, or glucocorticoids and, for the women, whether they had ever used the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Each of these variables was fitted into a regression model adjusted for age, height, weight, and center. Only OCP and HRT significantly affected BMD. Those who had ever used OCPs had spinal BMD 0.029 g/cm2 greater than those who had never used them. Users of HRT had higher BMD than nonusers: 0. 037 g/cm2 at the spine, 0.018 g/cm2 at the trochanter, and 0.018 g/cm2 at the femoral neck. As expected, there was a great variation between centers in the use of OCP and HRT, but there were no significant correlations between mean BMD at any site in a given center and the prevalence of OCP or HRT use in that center. The between-center variance in BMD at all three sites remained highly significant after adjusting for treatment (P < 0.001). We conclude that HRT and OCP use are associated with moderate increases in BMD. The geographical variability of BMD in Europe was not explained by treatment with pharmaceuticals. PMID:9744982

  17. Modulation and predictors of periprosthetic bone mineral density following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Behrens, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Bruhn, Sven; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer; Skripitz, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD). Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2) to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1) the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2) the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count), and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008) 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ(2) = 0.002; df = 1; P = 0.96; χ(2)/df = 0.002; RMSEA < 0.01; TLI = 1.5; CFI = 1.0). A significant direct effect was only evidenced by the variable lean mass (β = 0.38; b = 0.15; SE = 0.07; C.R. = 2.0; P = 0.046). It can be assumed that a large muscle mass with accompanying distribution of high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass. PMID:25793194

  18. A Systematic Review of Bone Mineral Density and Fractures in Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Ney, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Our objective was to systematically review and analyze published data on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture rates in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), and relationships between BMD and phenylalanine levels. Methodology We searched PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane databases from January 1966 to November 2013 for studies of spine BMD or fracture in PKU and control subjects. We excluded studies assessing skeletal health by ultrasound or peripheral quantitative computer tomography. Both authors reviewed abstracts for inclusion, and read full text papers to extract data. Results Sixteen studies met eligibility criteria. Meta-analysis of 3 studies found that spine BMD was 0.100 g/cm2 lower (95% CI, −0.110, −0.090 g/cm2) in 67 subjects with PKU, compared to 161 controls. Among 6 studies, 20% (53 of 263) of PKU subjects experienced clinical fractures. In the single study with controls, the fracture rate was 2.6 fold higher (95% CI, 1.1–6.1) after age 8 in PKU subjects, compared to healthy sibling controls. When considering a total of 12 studies in 412 subjects, 9 or 75% of studies representing 71% of studied subjects reported no association between phenylalanine levels and BMD. Summary Spine BMD is lower in PKU than control subjects, but only one study controlled for smaller body size. Existing studies suggest a clinical fracture rate of 20% among PKU subjects, but fracture rates in controls are lacking. Finally, existing data shows no consistent relationship between phenylalanine levels and BMD. Future studies are needed to clarify the etiology and health consequences of low BMD in PKU. PMID:25005329

  19. Correlates of Use of Antifracture Therapy in Older Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Kathryn M; Shorr, Ronald I; Tylavsky, Frances A; Bush, Andrew J; Bauer, Douglas C; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Harris, Tamara B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Guidelines exist for treatment of low bone mineral density (BMD). Little is known about patient characteristics associated with use of treatment. OBJECTIVES To determine patient-related correlates of medication use following screening dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of older adults. DESIGN Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. SETTING Pittsburgh, PA and Memphis, TN. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling women between the ages 70 and 79 years enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. MEASUREMENTS Risk factors for fracture and BMD of the hip were assessed at baseline. Patients and their community physicians were supplied the results of the DXA scan. Prescription and over-the-counter medication use was collected at annual exams for 2 years. RESULTS Of 1,584 women enrolled in Health ABC, 378 had an indication for antifracture therapy and were not receiving such treatment at baseline. By the second annual follow-up examination, prescription antiresorptive medication was reported in 49 (13.0%), whereas 65 (17.2%) received calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation. In adjusted models, the strongest predictor for use of any antifracture medicine was presence of osteoporosis [vs osteopenia, odds ratio (OR), 2.9 (1.7 to 4.7)], white race [OR, 2.6 (1.5 to 4.8)], and receipt of the flu shot [OR, 2.2 (1.3 to 3.8)]. Neither a history of falls nor prior fracture was associated with use of antifracture medications. CONCLUSION Even when physicians of study participants were provided with DXA scan results, 70% of older high-functioning women with an indication for therapy did not start or remain on an antifracture therapy. Substantial room for improvement exists in fracture prevention following a diagnosis of low BMD—especially among women with a history of falls, prior fractures, and among black women. PMID:16808749

  20. Living near a Freeway is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density among Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Karim, Roksana; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Xiang, Anny H.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M.; Lurmann, Fred; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John P.; Trigo, Enrique; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adults residing in rural areas have been linked with higher bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to determine if this difference is due in part to air pollution by examining the relationships between traffic metrics and ambient air pollution with total body and pelvic BMD. Methods Mexican-American adults (n=1,175; mean 34 years; 72% female) who had participated in the BetaGene study of air pollution, obesity and insulin resistance were included in this analysis. Total body and pelvic BMD were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Traffic and ambient air pollutant exposures were estimated at residences using location and ambient monitoring data. Variance component models were used to analyze the associations between residential distance to the nearest freeway and ambient air pollutants with BMD. Results Residential proximity to a freeway was associated with lower total body BMD (p-trend=0.01) and pelvic BMD (p-trend=0.03) after adjustment for age, sex, weight and height. The adjusted mean total body and pelvic BMD in participants living within 500m of a freeway were 0.02 g/cm2 and 0.03 g/cm2 lower than participants living greater than 1,500m from a freeway. These associations did not differ significantly by age, sex or obesity status. Results were similar after further adjustment for body fat and weekly physical activity minutes. Ambient air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) were not significantly associated with BMD. Conclusions Traffic-related exposures in overweight and obese Mexican-Americans may adversely affect BMD. Our findings indicate that long-term exposures to traffic may contribute to the occurrence of osteoporosis and its consequences. PMID:25677718

  1. Do Premenopausal Women with Major Depression Have Low Bone Mineral Density? A 36-Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, Giovanni; Mistry, Sima; Nguyen, Vi T.; Eskandari, Farideh; Martinez, Pedro; Torvik, Sara; Reynolds, James C.; Gold, Philip W.; Sinai, Ninet; Csako, Gyorgy

    2012-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested, but prospective evaluation in premenopausal women is lacking. Methods Participants of this prospective study were 21 to 45 year-old premenopausal women with MDD (n = 92) and healthy controls (n = 44). We measured BMD at the anteroposterior lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, mid-distal radius, trochanter, and Ward's triangle, as well as serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), ionized calcium, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol, and 24-hour urinary-free cortisol levels at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured at baseline. Results At baseline, BMD tended to be lower in women with MDD compared to controls and BMD remained stable over time in both groups. At baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months intact PTH levels were significantly higher in women with MDD vs. controls. At baseline, ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower in women with MDD compared to controls. At baseline and 12 months, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a marker of bone formation, was significantly higher in women with MDD vs. controls. Plasma ACTH was also higher in women with MDD at baseline and 6 months. Serum osteocalcin, urinary N-telopeptide, serum cortisol, and urinary free cortisol levels were not different between the two groups throughout the study. Conclusion Women with MDD tended to have lower BMD than controls over time. Larger and longer studies are necessary to extend these observations with the possibility of prophylactic therapy for osteoporosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00006180 PMID:22848407

  2. Bone Mineral Density Changes Among Women Initiating Blood Pressure Lowering Drugs: A SWAN Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Daniel H.; Ruppert, Kristine; Zhao, Zhenping; Lian, YinJuan; Kuo, I-Hsin; Greendale, Gail A.; Finkelstein, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several blood pressure lowering drugs may affect bone mineral density (BMD), leading to altered fracture risk. We examined the effect of blood pressure lowering drugs on BMD using data from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Methods We conducted a propensity score matched cohort study. Women were initiators of ACE inhibitors (ACEi), beta-blockers (BB), or thiazide diuretics (THZD). Their annualized BMD changes during the 14-years of observation were compared with non-users. Results Among the 2312 eligible women, we found 69 ACEi, 71 BB, and 74 THZD users who were matched by a propensity score with the same number of non-users. THZD users had a slower annual percent decline in BMD compared to nonusers at the femoral neck (FN) (−0.28% vs −0.88%; p = 0.008) and the spine (−0.74% vs −1.0%; p = 0.34), albeit not statistically significant. Annual percent changes in BMD among ACEi and BB users were similar to rates in non-users. In comparison with BB, THZD use was associated with a trend toward less annualized BMD loss at the spine (−0.35% vs −0.60%; p = 0.08) and a similar trend at the FN (−0.39% vs −0.64%; p = 0.08); in comparisons with ACEi, THZD was also associated with less loss at the FN (−0.48% vs −0.82%; p = 0.02), but not at the spine (−0.40% vs −0.56%; p = 0.23). Conclusions Neither ACEi nor BB were associated with improvements in BMD. THZD use was associated with less annualized loss of BMD compared with non-users, as well as compared with ACEi and BB. PMID:26449354

  3. Bone Mineral Density Changes Among Young, Healthy African Women Receiving Oral Tenofovir for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Clifton W.; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Greenspan, Susan; Dai, James Y.; Mayo, Ashley; Piper, Jeanna; Akello, Carolyne A.; Kiweewa, Flavia M.; Magure, Tsitsi; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Chirenje, Z. Mike; Riddler, Sharon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist on effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) when used for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-negative women. We evaluated the effect of daily oral TDF and emtricitabine/TDF compared with placebo on BMD among women enrolled in an HIV-1 PrEP trial. Methods: HIV-uninfected women in Uganda and Zimbabwe had BMD measurements of lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and every 24 weeks for 48 weeks of active treatment and for 48 weeks after discontinuation of study medication. Plasma tenofovir levels were assessed every 12 weeks for the first 48 weeks. Results: Of 518 women enrolled, 432 had dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry results at baseline and week 48. In the primary analysis, no significant differences in percent BMD change in hip or spine between arms observed, likely because of low product adherence. Among the subset with tenofovir detection in 75%–100% of plasma samples, the mean percent BMD change from baseline to week 48 in the LS was 1.4% lower for TDF or emtricitabine/TDF recipients than for placebo (P = 0.002) and TH BMD was 0.9% lower (P = 0.018). BMD changes from end of active treatment to 48 weeks were significantly greater in the active arm participants compared with placebo participants with a net difference of approximately +0.9% at the LS (P = 0.007) and +0.7% (P = 0.003) at the TH. Conclusions: TDF-containing oral PrEP resulted in small but significant reversible decreases in hip and spine BMD among young African women. PMID:26866954

  4. Predictors of Higher Bone Mineral Density Loss and Use of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify possible predictive factors of higher bone loss, defined as at least 5%, at the spine or femoral neck, over time in depot medroxyprogesterone (DMPA) users. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck every 6 months in 240 white, black, and Hispanic women using DMPA. For purpose of analysis, an arbitrary value of at least 5% BMD loss from the baseline value after 24 months of DMPA use at either the lumbar spine or femoral neck was considered as higher BMD loss. Logistic regression analysis was then used to examine factors predictive of at least 5% BMD loss at either site. Results Of the initial 240 DMPA users, 95 completed 24 months of follow-up. Forty-five of the 95 DMPA users (47.4%) had at least 5% BMD loss at the lumbar spine or femoral neck by 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression model showed that at least 5% BMD loss was associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.88, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–11.96), calcium intake (in 100 mg) (OR 0.81, 95% CI, 0.65–0.99), and parity (OR 0.49, 95% CI, 0.29–0.82). Age, race or ethnicity, previous contraceptive use and body mass index were not associated with higher BMD loss. Conclusions The risk of higher BMD loss associated with DMPA use may be reduced by quitting smoking and increasing calcium intake. Having had a child is also protective. PMID:20027031

  5. Impact of Geographic Location on Vitamin D Status and Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Song, Byeng Chun; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-01-01

    A significant decline of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OH)D] with increasing latitude has been reported only for Caucasians. To determine the association between serum 25(OH)D and geographic location and its impact on bone mineral density (BMD) in an Asian population, a total of 17,508 subjects (8910 men and 8598 women) from the 2008–2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were stratified into four age groups and analyzed for 25(OH)D and BMD according to geographic location (South, 33° N–35° N; Middle, 36° N; North, 37° N–38° N). Mean 25(OH)D were 47.7 and 41.2 nmol/L; calcium intake, 564.9 & 442.3 mg/d; femoral neck BMD, 0.829 & 0.721 g/cm2; and lumbar spine BMD, 0.960 & 0.918 g/cm2 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women living in the South had significantly higher 25(OH)D and femoral neck BMD for those ≥50 years old. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in men ≥50 years old, and for women 10–29 & 50–69 years old living in the South. A 1 or 2 degree difference in latitude has a significant effect on serum 25(OH)D and BMD in this low vitamin D status population. Thus, consideration of geographic location for a recommendation of vitamin D intake may be necessary. PMID:26848670

  6. Dietary calcium and bone mineral density in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chong, H C; Chee, S S; Goh, E M L; Chow, S K; Yeap, S S

    2007-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on corticosteroids (CS). The secondary aim was to identify other risk factors for osteoporosis in these patients. A cross-sectional sample of patients attending the SLE Clinic at a teaching hospital was recruited. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Daily dietary calcium intake was assessed using a structured validated food frequency questionnaire, in which patients were asked to estimate their food intake based on their recent 2-month dietary habits. Sixty subjects were recruited with a mean age of 33.70+/-8.46 years. The median duration of CS use was 5.5 years (range 0.08-24). The median cumulative dose of steroids was 17.21 g (range 0.16-91.37). The median daily dietary calcium intake was 483 mg (range 78-2101). There was no significant correlation between calcium intake and BMD, even after correcting for CS use. There were also no correlations between BMD and the duration of SLE, cumulative CS use, duration of CS use, smoking, alcohol intake, and SLE disease activity index score. Twenty-eight (46.7%) patients had normal BMD, 28 (46.7%) had osteopenia, and four (6.6%) had osteoporosis. Duration of SLE significantly correlated with cumulative CS dosage. In conclusion, 6.7% of these Asian premenopausal SLE women had osteoporosis and only 46.7% had normal BMD. Daily dietary calcium intake did not correlate with BMD. PMID:16565892

  7. Vitamin D receptor alleles and bone mineral density in a normal premenopausal Brazilian female population.

    PubMed

    Lazaretti-Castro, M; Duarte-de-Oliveira, M A; Russo, E M; Vieira, J G

    1997-08-01

    Studies on the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD) in different populations have produced conflicting results probably due to ethnic differences in the populations studied. The Brazilian population is characterized by a very broad genetic background and a high degree of miscegenation. Of an initial group of 164, we studied 127 women from the city of São Paulo, aged 20 to 47 years (median, 31 years), with normal menses, a normal diet and no history of diseases or use of any medication that could alter BMD. VDR genotype was assessed by PCR amplification followed by BsmI digestion of DNA isolated from peripheral leukocytes. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX) at the lumbar site (L2-L4) and femoral neck. Most of the women (77.6%) were considered to be of predominantly European ancestry (20.6% of them reported also native American ancestry), 12.8% were of African-Brazilian ancestry and 9.6% of Asian ancestry, 41.0% (52) were classified as bb, 48.8% (62) as Bb and 10.2% (13) as BB. The BB, Bb and bb groups did not differ in age, height, weight, body mass index or age at menarche. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in the bb group (1.22 +/- 0.16 g/cm2) than in the BB group (1.08 +/- 0.14; P < 0.05), and the Bb group presented an intermediate value (1.17 +/- 0.15). Femoral neck BMD was higher in the bb group (0.99 +/- 0.11 g/cm2) compared to Bb (0.93 +/- 0.12) and BB (0.90 +/- 0.09) (P < 0.05). These data indicate that there is a significant correlation between the VDR BsmI genotype and BMD in healthy Brazilian premenopausal females. PMID:9361720

  8. Modulation and Predictors of Periprosthetic Bone Mineral Density following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Felser, Sabine; Skripitz, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) leads to a loss of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD). Great importance is attached to the prevention of periprosthetic bone loss with a view to ensuring a long service life of the prosthesis. In order to provide appropriate recommendations for preventive movement therapy measures to combat peri-implant bone loss, it is necessary to know the predictors of periprosthetic BMD. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the change of periprosthetic BMD of the femur and tibia and (2) to analyse the effects of different predictors on periprosthetic BMD. Twenty-three patients with primary TKA were evaluated 10 days and 3 months postoperatively. The data analysis comprised (1) the change in periprosthetic BMD from pretest to posttest and (2) the correlations between BMD and the variables isometric maximum voluntary force, lean mass, physical activity (step count), and BMI using multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). BMD of the distal femur was significantly reduced by 19.7% (P = 0.008) 3 months after surgery, while no changes were found in BMD of the tibia. The results of SEM demonstrate that 55% of the BMD variance was explained by the model (χ2 = 0.002; df = 1; P = 0.96; χ2/df = 0.002; RMSEA < 0.01; TLI = 1.5; CFI = 1.0). A significant direct effect was only evidenced by the variable lean mass (β = 0.38; b = 0.15; SE = 0.07; C.R. = 2.0; P = 0.046). It can be assumed that a large muscle mass with accompanying distribution of high mechanical load in the bones can contribute to local changes of periprosthetic BMD. Concrete recommendations for preventing peri-implant bone loss therefore include exercises which have the aim of maintaining or building up muscle mass. PMID:25793194

  9. Development of an Automated Bone Mineral Density Software Application: Facilitation Radiologic Reporting and Improvement of Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Ta; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Ting; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang

    2016-06-01

    The conventional method of bone mineral density (BMD) report production by dictation and transcription is time consuming and prone to error. We developed an automated BMD reporting system based on the raw data from a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner for facilitating the report generation. The automated BMD reporting system, a web application, digests the DXA's raw data and automatically generates preliminary reports. In Jan. 2014, 500 examinations were randomized into an automatic group (AG) and a manual group (MG), and the speed of report generation was compared. For evaluation of the accuracy and analysis of errors, 5120 examinations during Jan. 2013 and Dec. 2013 were enrolled retrospectively, and the context of automatically generated reports (AR) was compared with the formal manual reports (MR). The average time spent for report generation in AG and in MG was 264 and 1452 s, respectively (p < 0.001). The accuracy of calculation of T and Z scores in AR is 100 %. The overall accuracy of AR and MR is 98.8 and 93.7 %, respectively (p < 0.001). The mis-categorization rate in AR and MR is 0.039 and 0.273 %, respectively (p = 0.0013). Errors occurred in AR and can be grouped into key-in errors by technicians and need for additional judgements. We constructed an efficient and reliable automated BMD reporting system. It facilitates current clinical service and potentially prevents human errors from technicians, transcriptionists, and radiologists. PMID:26644156

  10. Training-induced Increase in Bone Mineral Density between Growing Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Joo, W; Singh, H; Ahles, C P; Lee, Y; Colazas, W; Lee, L C; Prakash, A; Jaque, S V; Sumida, K D

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of sex differences in the resistance training-induced elevation in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength (Fmax) during the growth period in rats. 16 male (M) and 16 female (F) rats (approx. 8 weeks old) were randomly divided into sedentary control (MC=8, FC=8), and resistance-trained (RT) groups (M-RT=8, F-RT=8). The RT groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder 4 consecutive times (per exercise session) with weights attached to their tail 3 days per week for a total of 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, there were no interaction effects (sex×exercise). The main effect of sex indicated no difference in tibial BMD (in g/cm(2)) for males (0.226±0.005) compared to females (0.221±0.004). However, Fmax (in Newtons) was significantly greater for males (131.3±5.3) compared to females (89.9±3.0). The main effect of exercise indicated that tibial BMD and Fmax were significantly greater for RT groups (0.234±0.004 g/cm(2) and 120.9±7.4 Newtons) compared to controls (0.212±0.003 g/cm(2) and 100.3±5.1 Newtons). The results indicate that during growth, there were no sex differences in the training-induced elevation in BMD and bone mechanical properties. PMID:26212247

  11. Asymmetric loading and bone mineral density at the asymptomatic knees of subjects with unilateral hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Najia; Dua, Anisha; Thorp, Laura; Mikolaitis, Rachel A.; Wimmer, Markus A.; Foucher, Kharma C.; Fogg, Louis F.; Block, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The contralateral knee of those with unilateral endstage hip OA is known to be at greater risk for endstage knee OA compared to the ipsilateral, same side knee. Likewise, in endstage hip OA, this contralateral knee is known to have increased dynamic joint loads compared to the ipsilateral knee. Here, we study a population with unilateral hip OA, who are asymptomatic at the knees, for early asymmetries in knee loading. Methods Data from 62 subjects with unilateral hip OA were evaluated. Subjects underwent gait analyses for evaluation of dynamic knee loads as well as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) at both knees. Differences between knees were compared. Results Peak dynamic knee loads were significantly higher at the contralateral knee compared to the ipsilateral knee (2.46±0.71 vs 2.23±0.81 %BW*ht, p=0.029). Similarly, medial compartment tibial BMD was significantly higher at the contralateral knee compared to the ipsilateral knee (0.897±0.208 vs 0.854±0.206 gm/c2, p=0.033). Interestingly, there was a direct correlation between contralteral:ipsilateral dynamic knee load and contralateral:ipsilateral medial compartment tibial BMD (Spearman’s rho= 0.287, p=0.036). Conclusions This study demonstrates that at the contralateral knees of patients with unilateral hip OA, which are at higher risk of developing progressive symptomatic OA compared to the ipsilateral knees, loading and structural asymmetries appear early in the disease course, while the knees are still asymptomatic. These early biomechanical asymmetries may have corresponding long term consequences, providing further support for the potential role of loading in OA onset and progression. PMID:22127702

  12. Identification of genes for bone mineral density variation by computational disease gene identification strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Gloria H Y; Deng, Hong-Wen; Kung, Annie W C; Huang, Qing-Yang

    2011-11-01

    We previously used five freely available bioinformatics tools (Prioritizer, Geneseeker, PROSPECTR and SUSPECTS, Disease Gene Prediction, and Endeavour) to analyze the thirteen well-replicated osteoporosis susceptibility loci and identify a subset of most likely candidate osteoporosis susceptibility genes (Huang et al. in J Hum Genet 53:644-655, 2008). In the current study, we experimentally tested the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and the 9 most likely candidate genes [LAMC2(1q25-q31), MATN3(2p24-p23), ITGAV(2q31-q32), ACVR1(2q23-q24), TDGF1(3p21.31), EGF(4q25), IGF1(12q22-q23), ZIC2(13q32), BMP2(20p12)] which were pinpointed by 4 or more bioinformatics tools. Forty tag SNPs in nine candidate genes were genotyped in a southern Chinese female case-control cohort consisting of 1643 subjects. Single- and multi-marker association analyses were performed using logistic regression analysis implemented by PLINK. Potential transcription factor binding sites were predicted by MatInspector. The strongest association was observed between rs10178256 (MATN3) and trochanter (P < 0.001) and total hip BMD (P = 0.002). The SNP rs6214 (IGF1) showed consistent association with BMD at all the four measured skeletal sites (P = 0.005-0.044). Prediction of transcription factor binding suggested that the minor allele G of rs10178256 might abolish the binding of MESP1 and MESP2 which play vital roles in bone homeostasis, whereas the minor allele G of rs6214 might create an additional binding site for XBP1, a constitutive regulator of endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Our data suggested that variants in MATN3 and IGF1 were involved in BMD regulation in southern Chinese women. PMID:21638018

  13. Bone mineral density predicts posttransplant survival among hepatocellular carcinoma liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pratima; Parikh, Neehar D; Yu, Jessica; Barman, Pranab; Derstine, Brian A; Sonnenday, Christopher J; Wang, Stewart C; Su, Grace L

    2016-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common indication for liver transplantation (LT). Recent data suggest that body composition features strongly affect post-LT mortality. We examined the impact of body composition on post-LT mortality in patients with HCC. Data on adult LT recipients who received Model for End-Stage Liver Disease exception for HCC between February 29, 2002, and December 31, 2013, and who had a computed tomography (CT) scan any time 6 months prior to LT were reviewed (n = 118). All available CT scan Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine files were analyzed using a semiautomated high throughput methodology with algorithms programmed in MATLAB. Analytic morphomics measurements including dorsal muscle group (DMG) area, visceral and subcutaneous fat, and bone mineral density (BMD) were taken at the bottom of the eleventh thoracic vertebral level. Thirty-two (27%) patients died during the median follow-up of 4.4 years. The number of HCC lesions (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81; P < 0.001), BMD (HR = 0.90/Hounsfield units [HU]; P = 0.03), pre-LT locoregional therapy (HR = 0.14; P < 0.001), and donor age (HR = 1.05; P < 0.001) were the independent predictors of post-LT mortality. DMG area did not affect post-LT survival. In conclusion, in addition to number of HCC lesions and pre-LT locoregional therapy, low BMD, a surrogate for bone loss rather than DMG area, was independently associated with post-LT mortality in HCC patients. Bone loss may be an early marker of deconditioning that precedes sarcopenia and may affect transplant outcomes. Liver Transplantation 22 1092-1098 2016 AASLD. PMID:27064263

  14. Relationship of Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Structural Parameters with ERα Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Cepollaro, C.; Lauretani, F.; Gozzini, A.; Masi, L.; Falchetti, A.; Monte, F.; Carbonell-Sala, S.; Tanini, A.; Corsi, A.M.; Bandinelli, S.; Ferrucci, L.; Brandi, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) contributes to bone strength, and methods for clinical assessment of bone quality characteristics beyond what can be gathered by BMD are awaited. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) allows for separate assessments of cortical and trabecular bone, providing information on bone geometry. Previous studies examining the relationship between estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene polymorphisms and BMD have been performed in large populations. However, only limited information is available on the possible segregation of ERα gene polymorphisms with bone structural properties. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of XbaI and PvuII ERα gene polymorphisms with QCT parameters. We studied 900 subjects (541 women, 449 men) participating to the InCHIANTI study. By tibial pQCT we evaluated trabecular volumetric BMD, cortical volumetric BMD, cortical bone area, and cortical thickness (CtTh). Subjects were genotyped for ERα gene PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. Male subjects with PP and XX genotypes had higher geometric parameters, and female subjects with XX and PP genotypes showed higher densitometric parameters than other genotypes; however, the differences did not reach statistical significance. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found a significant (P = 0.002) CtTh difference across PvuII polymorphism in male subjects, with higher CtTh values in PP genotypes with respect to Pp and pp genotypes. These results show a relationship between the presence of the P allele and higher values of CtTh in male subjects, indicating for ERα a role in the control of tibial bone geometry. PMID:17505773

  15. Predicting Fractures in an International Cohort using Risk Factor Algorithms, Without Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Sambrook, Philip N; Flahive, Julie; Hooven, Fred H; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland; Lindsay, Robert; Nguyen, Tuan V; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Greenspan, Susan L; Hosmer, David; Netelenbos, J Coen; Adachi, Jonathan D; Watts, Nelson B; Cooper, Cyrus; Roux, Christian; Rossini, Maurizio; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Saag, Kenneth G; Compston, Juliet E; LaCroix, Andrea; Gehlbach, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Clinical risk factors are associated with increased probability of fracture in postmenopausal women. We sought to compare prediction models using self-reported clinical risk factors, excluding bone-mineral density (BMD), to predict incident fracture among postmenopausal women. The GLOW study enrolled women aged ≥55 years were seen at 723 primary care practices in 10 countries. The population comprised 19,586 women aged ≥60 years who were not receiving anti-osteoporosis medication and were followed annually for 2 years. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on characteristics, fracture risk factors, previous fractures, and health status. The main outcome measure compares the c index for models using the WHO Fracture Risk (FRAX), the Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator (FRC), and a simple model using age and prior fracture. Over 2 years, 880 women reported incident fractures including 69 hip fractures, 468 “major fractures” (as defined by FRAX) and 583 “osteoporotic fractures” (as defined by FRC). Using baseline clinical risk factors, both FRAX and FRC showed moderate ability to correctly order hip fracture times (c index for hip fracture: 0.78 and 0.76, respectively). C indices for “major” and “osteoporotic” fractures showed lower values, at 0.61 and 0.64. Neither algorithm was better than the model based on age+fracture history alone (c index for hip fracture: 0.78). In conclusion, estimation of fracture risk in an international primary care population of postmenopausal women can be made using clinical risk factors alone, without BMD. However, more sophisticated models incorporating multiple clinical risk factors including falls were not superior to more parsimonious models in predicting future fracture in this population. PMID:21887705

  16. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  17. Associations Between Bone Mineral Density, Grip Strength, and Lead Body Burden Among Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Naila; Faulkner, Kimberly A.; Greenspan, Susan L.; Cauley, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of blood lead concentration (BPb) to bone mineral density (BMD), physical, and cognitive function in non-institutionalized community dwelling older men. Design Cross sectional study. Setting University of Pittsburgh clinic, Pittsburgh, PA. Participants Non-Hispanic Caucasian men aged 65 or older (N=445) recruited as a subset of a prospective cohort Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Measurement BPb was measured in 2007-2008. From 2007-2009 BMD (g/cm2) was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). At the same time physical performance was measured with five tests: grip strength, leg extension power, walking speed, narrow-walk pace, and chair stands. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and the Trail Making Test Part B. Participants were categorized into quartiles of BPb. Multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate independent relationship between BPb, BMD, cognitive and physical function. Results Mean ±sd BPb was 2.25±1.20 μg/dL (median =2 μg/dL, range 1-10). In multivariable adjusted models, men in higher BPb quartiles had lower BMD at femoral neck, and total hip (p-trend =<0.001 for both). Men with higher BPb had lower age adjusted score for grip strength (p-trend<0.001). However, this association was not significant in multivariate adjusted models (p-trend <0.148). BPb was not associated with lumbar spine BMD, cognition, leg extension power, walking speed, narrow-walk pace, and chair stands. Conclusion Environmental lead exposure may adversely affect bone health in older men. These findings support consideration of environmental exposures in age associated bone fragility. PMID:24383935

  18. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual. PMID:24176431

  19. Association of chemerin levels and bone mineral density in Chinese obese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Mao, Chaoming; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Rencong; Li, Lin; Mou, Xiao; Xu, Ping; Li, Hongli; Xu, Chengcheng; Yuan, Guoyue; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence suggests the association between obesity and bone metabolism. However, whether excessive fat accumulation has a beneficial or adverse effect on bone health remains controversial. Chemerin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone and a chemoattractant cytokine that regulates adipogenesis. This study was performed to investigate the associations of serum chemerin with bone mineral density (BMD) and serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in 543 Chinese obese postmenopausal women. BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine, lean mass, and fat mass were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric assessment and laboratory measurements were performed. The age, time after menopause, and fat mass were negatively correlated with femoral and lumbar BMD, whereas lean mass was positively correlated with aforementioned variables. Furthermore, BMD at the lumbar spine was inversely associated with serum chemerin and TNF-α levels (r = −0.155, P = 0.001; r = −0.147, P = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that serum chemerin levels were negatively correlated with BMD at the lumbar site after controlling for the age, lean, and fat mass (β = −0.125, P = 0.001). Chronic low-grade inflammation state in obese population has an inverse effect on bone mass. Chemerin as an adipocytokine and chemoattractant negatively affects the bone mass of Chinese obese postmenopausal women. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential role of chemerin in the crosstalk between bone and fat accumulation in obese population. PMID:27583869

  20. Correlations Between Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density or Bone Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Kang, Ming-Yang; Dong, Rong-Peng; Zhao, Jian-Wu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the correlations of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified using computerized and manual search strategies. The included studies were in strict accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analyses were conducted with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). RESULTS Our present meta-analysis initially searched 844 studies, and 7 studies were eventually incorporated in the present meta-analysis. These 7 cohort studies included 1123 subjects altogether (560 patients with AGM and 563 healthy controls). The results showed that bone mass index (BMI), insulin, and insulin resistance (IR) of patients with AGM were significantly higher than that of the population with normal glucose metabolism (BMI: SMD=1.658, 95% CI=0.663~2.654, P=0.001; insulin: SMD=0.544, 95% CI=0.030~1.058, P=0.038; IR: SMD=8.767, 95% CI=4.178~13.356, P<0.001). However, the results also indicated there was no obvious difference in osteocalcin (OC) and BMD in patients with AGM and the population with normal glucose metabolism (OC: SMD=0.293, 95% CI=-0.023~0.609, P=0.069; BMD: SMD=0.805, 95% CI=-0. 212~1.821, P=0.121). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis results suggest that AGM might lead to increased BMI, insulin, and IR, while it has no significant correlation with BMD or bone metabolism. PMID:26970713

  1. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Design Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) in participants aged over 50 with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, total body, or forearm as an outcome. Results We identified 59 eligible randomised controlled trials: 15 studied dietary sources of calcium (n=1533) and 51 studied calcium supplements (n=12 257). Increasing calcium intake from dietary sources increased BMD by 0.6-1.0% at the total hip and total body at one year and by 0.7-1.8% at these sites and the lumbar spine and femoral neck at two years. There was no effect on BMD in the forearm. Calcium supplements increased BMD by 0.7-1.8% at all five skeletal sites at one, two, and over two and a half years, but the size of the increase in BMD at later time points was similar to the increase at one year. Increases in BMD were similar in trials of dietary sources of calcium and calcium supplements (except at the forearm), in trials of calcium monotherapy versus co-administered calcium and vitamin D, in trials with calcium doses of ≥1000 versus <1000 mg/day and ≤500 versus >500 mg/day, and in trials where the baseline dietary calcium intake was <800 versus ≥800 mg/day. Conclusions Increasing calcium intake from dietary sources or by taking calcium supplements produces small non-progressive increases in BMD, which are unlikely to lead to a clinically significant reduction in risk of fracture. PMID:26420598

  2. [Evaluation of bone mineral density in hyperthyroid patients before and after medical therapy].

    PubMed

    Safi, S; Hassikou, H; Hadri, L; Sbihi, A; Kadiri, A

    2006-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a common complication of hyperthyroidism, but it is not often evaluated. The aim of this study is to examine bone mineral density (BMD) (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry: DEXA) in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck (FN) and Ward's triangle (TW) in 45 hyperthyroid patients (group A: n 25 active hyperthyroidism, group B: n 20 controlled hyperthyroidism on medical therapy, after a mean of 7 months of euthyroidism), compared to control group (group C: n 22). These 3 groups are adjusted by age, sex, menopausal status and BMI. In hyperthyroid patients (group A), as compared to the control group, we noticed a significant reduction of BMD (z score) in different sites, more markedly in the lumbar spine (p L1-L4: 0,005; p FN: 0,011; p TW: 0,019). In group A, no differences were found between BMD values after adjustment for Z score whatever the menopausal status (p L: 0.12; p FN: 0.33; p TW: 0.09) and degree ofhyperthyroidism (p L: 0.48; p FN: 0.41; p TW: 0.21). The degree of BMD in group B patients was different from that of patients in group A (p L: 0.37; p FN: 0.28; p TW: 0.31). and was significantly lower than in those of group C except for the TW (p L: 0.009; p CF: 0.038; p TW: 0.068). We conclude that it is important to consider that after reaching euthyroidism hyperthyroidism patients present a bone risk. PMID:16596054

  3. Association of sarcopenia and physical activity with femur bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhwan; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the association of femur bone mineral density (BMD) with body composition and physical activity in elderly women. [Methods] This was a cross sectional study involving 119 women with mean age of 73.1±5.5 years. Body composition parameters including body mass index (BMI), percent of body fat (%BF), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) index and femur BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Physical activity was assessed by the uniaxial accelerometer for 7 consecutive days including weekends. Based on femur BMD T-scores, subjects were classified as optimal group, osteopenia group, and osteoporosis group. Based on ASM index, subjects were classified as normal group and sarcopenia group. According to WHO recommendations of physical activity for elderly, the subjects were classified as active group or inactive group. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the odds ratio (OR) for osteopenia and osteoporosis. [Results] There were linear decreases for body composition parameters including weight (P=.023), BMI (P=.039), lean mass (P=.032), ASM index (P=.007) and physical activity parameters including daily of step (P<.001), low intensity physical activity (P<.001), moderate intensity physical activity (P=.001) across femur BMD levels. Compared to the normal group (OR=1), the sarcopenia group had a significantly higher OR (OR=4.823; P=.042), and the inactive group had a significantly higher OR (OR=5.478; P=.005) having osteopenia and osteoporosis when compared to the active group (OR=1). [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggested that physical activity along with a healthy nutrition should be promoted as a preventive strategy against osteopenia and osteoporosis in elderly women. PMID:27298809

  4. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  5. Correlations Between Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density or Bone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yang; Kang, Ming-Yang; Dong, Rong-Peng; Zhao, Jian-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the correlations of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. Material/Methods Relevant studies were identified using computerized and manual search strategies. The included studies were in strict accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analyses were conducted with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Results Our present meta-analysis initially searched 844 studies, and 7 studies were eventually incorporated in the present meta-analysis. These 7 cohort studies included 1123 subjects altogether (560 patients with AGM and 563 healthy controls). The results showed that bone mass index (BMI), insulin, and insulin resistance (IR) of patients with AGM were significantly higher than that of the population with normal glucose metabolism (BMI: SMD=1.658, 95% CI=0.663~2.654, P=0.001; insulin: SMD=0.544, 95% CI=0.030~1.058, P=0.038; IR: SMD=8.767, 95% CI=4.178~13.356, P<0.001). However, the results also indicated there was no obvious difference in osteocalcin (OC) and BMD in patients with AGM and the population with normal glucose metabolism (OC: SMD=0.293, 95% CI=−0.023~0.609, P=0.069; BMD: SMD=0.805, 95% CI=−0. 212~1.821, P=0.121). Conclusions Our meta-analysis results suggest that AGM might lead to increased BMI, insulin, and IR, while it has no significant correlation with BMD or bone metabolism. PMID:26970713

  6. Approach to diagnosing celiac disease in patients with low bone mineral density or fragility fractures

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Lorena P.; Khan, Aliya; Sultan, Muhammad; McAssey, Karen; Fouda, Mona A.; Armstrong, David

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide clinicians with an update on the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) and to make recommendations on the indications to screen for CD in patients presenting with low bone mineral density (BMD) or fragility fractures. Quality of evidence A multidisciplinary task force developed clinically relevant questions related to the diagnosis of CD as the basis for a literature search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases (January 2000 to January 2009) using the key words celiac disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia, low bone mass, and fracture. The existing literature consists of level I and II studies. Main message The estimated prevalence of asymptomatic CD is 2% to 3% in individuals with low BMD. Routine screening for CD is not justified in patients with low BMD. However, targeted screening for CD is recommended for patients who have T-scores of −1.0 or less at the spine or hip, or a history of fragility fractures in association with any CD-related symptoms or conditions; family history of CD; or low urinary calcium levels, vitamin D insufficiency, and raised parathyroid hormone levels despite adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Celiac disease testing should be performed while the subject is consuming a gluten-containing diet; initial screening should be performed with human recombinant immunoglobulin (Ig) A tissue transglutaminase or other IgA tissue transglutaminase assays, in association with IgA endomysial antibody immunofluorescence. Duodenal biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of CD. Human leukocyte antigen typing might assist in confirming or ruling out the diagnosis of CD in cases where serology and histology are discordant. Definitive diagnosis is based on clinical, serologic, and histologic features, combined with a positive response to a gluten-free diet. Conclusion Current evidence does not support routine screening for CD in all patients with low BMD. A targeted case-finding approach is appropriate for patients

  7. Effect of Transdermal Teriparatide Administration on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cosman, Felicia; Lane, Nancy E.; Bolognese, Michael A.; Zanchetta, Jose R.; Garcia-Hernandez, Pedro A.; Sees, Karen; Matriano, James A.; Gaumer, Kim; Daddona, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Treatment of osteoporosis with an anabolic agent, teriparatide [human PTH 1-34 (TPTD)], is effective in reducing incident fractures, but patient resistance to daily sc injections has limited its use. A novel transdermal patch, providing a rapid, pulse delivery of TPTD, may provide a desirable alternative. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a novel transdermal TPTD patch compared to placebo patch and sc TPTD 20-μg injection in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Design: Our study consisted of 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, positive control, multidose daily administration. Patients: We enrolled 165 postmenopausal women (mean age, 64 yr) with osteoporosis. Interventions: A TPTD patch with a 20-, 30-, or 40-μg dose or a placebo patch was self-administered daily for 30-min wear time, or 20 μg of TPTD was injected daily. Outcomes: The primary efficacy measure was mean percentage change in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) from baseline at 6 months. Results: TPTD delivered by transdermal patch significantly increased lumbar spine BMD vs. placebo patch in a dose-dependent manner at 6 months (P < 0.001). TPTD 40-μg patch increased total hip BMD compared to both placebo patch and TPTD injection (P < 0.05). Bone turnover markers (procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen) increased from baseline in a dose-dependent manner in all treatment groups and were all significantly different from placebo patch (P < 0.001). All treatments were well tolerated, and no prolonged hypercalcemia was observed. Conclusion: Transdermal patch delivery of TPTD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis for 6 months is safe and effective in increasing lumbar spine and total hip BMD. PMID:19858319

  8. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Nishant; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2) in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029). BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057). The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range). There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored. PMID:26904470

  9. Effect of Bone Mineral Density on Rotator Cuff Tear: An Osteoporotic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobin; Giambini, Hugo; Ben-Abraham, Ephraim; An, Kai-Nan; Nassr, Ahmad; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximity to tendon insertion can improve rotator cuff repair and healing. However, how a decrease of BMD in the humeral head affects the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon is still unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated ovariectomy in animals to lead to osteoporosis and decreased BMD, and Teriparatide (PTH) administration to improve BMD and strength of bone. This study aimed to explore the correlation between humeral head BMD and infraspinatus (ISP) tendon insertion strength, and if an increase in bone quantity of the humeral head can improve the strength of the rotator cuff. Materials and Methods Eighteen New England white rabbits were divided into the 3 groups: Control, Ovariectomy-Saline (OVX-Saline), and Ovariectomy-PTH (OVX-PTH). The OVX-Saline group and the OVX-PTH were administered daily saline and Teriparatide injections for 8 weeks starting at 17 weeks of OVX. BMD of the humeral head was measured, the ISP tendon failure load was tested and the failure stress was calculated. One specimen from each group was used for histological analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to derive equations for the BMD and failure stress. Results Significant differences were observed in the measured humeral head BMD of the Control and OVX-PTH groups compared to the OVX-Saline group (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0024, respectively). No significant difference was found in failure stress among the three groups, but an expected trend with the control group and OVX-PTH group presenting higher failure strength compared to the OVX-Saline group. BMD at the humeral head showed a positive linear correlation with stress (r2 = 0.54). Histology results showed the superiority in OVX-PTH group ISP enthesis compared to the OVX-Saline group. Conclusion Bone loss of the humeral head leads to decreased tendon/bone insertion strength of the infraspinatus tendon enthesis. Teriparatide administration can increase bone

  10. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum iron and bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Imel, Erik A; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n=994), age 20-55years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (p<0.001). Serum iron (p<0.0001) and intact FGF23 (p<0.01) were higher in white women. C-terminal FGF23 did not differ between races. Phosphorus correlated with intact FGF23 (white women, r=0.120, p<0.0001; black women r=0.163, p<0.01). However, phosphorus correlated with C-terminal FGF23 only in black women (r=0.157, p<0.01). Intact FGF23 did not correlate with iron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=-0.134, p<0.0001; black women r=-0.188, p<0.01), having a steeper slope at iron <50mcg/dl than ≥50mcg/dl. Longitudinal changes in iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.076, p<0.01) in white women; femur neck BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.119, p<0.0001) in black women. Both relationships were eliminated in weight-adjusted models. BMD did not correlate with FGF23. Serum iron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important in

  11. Relationship of bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in cortical and cancellous bone within the iliac crest of healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Dempster, D W; Zhou, Hua; Roschger, P; Fratzl-Zelman, N; Fratzl, P; Silverberg, S J; Shane, E; Cohen, A; Stein, E; Nickolas, T L; Recker, R R; Lappe, J; Bilezikian, J P; Klaushofer, K

    2014-10-01

    Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) is an important determinant of bone mechanical properties. The most available skeletal site for access to the BMDD is the iliac crest. Compared to cancellous bone much less information on BMDD is available for cortical bone. Hence, we analyzed complete transiliac crest bone biopsy samples from premenopausal women (n = 73) aged 25-48 years, clinically classified as healthy, by quantitative backscattered electron imaging for cortical (Ct.) and cancellous (Cn.) BMDD. The Ct.BMDD was characterized by the arithmetic mean of the BMDD of the cortical plates. We found correlations between Ct. and Cn. BMDD variables with correlation coefficients r between 0.42 and 0.73 (all p < 0.001). Additionally to this synchronous behavior of cortical and cancellous compartments, we found that the heterogeneity of mineralization densities (Ct.Ca(Width)), as well as the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) was larger for a lower average degree of mineralization (Ct.Ca(Mean)). Moreover, Ct.Po correlated negatively with the percentage of highly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(High)) and positively with the percentage of lowly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(Low)). In conclusion, the correlation of cortical with cancellous BMDD in the iliac crest of the study cohort suggests coordinated regulation of bone turnover between both bone compartments. Only in a few cases, there was a difference in the degree of mineralization of >1wt % between both cortices suggesting a possible modeling situation. This normative dataset of healthy premenopausal women will provide a reference standard by which disease- and treatment-specific effects can be assessed at the level of cortical bone BMDD. PMID:25134800

  12. Vasomotor symptoms in infertile premenopausal women: a hitherto unappreciated risk for low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Lubna; Norian, John; Zeitlian, Gohar; Bevilacqua, Kris; Freeman, Ruth; Santoro, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in a population of premenopausal infertile women and to determine if VMS associate with enhanced bone turnover and low bone mineral density (BMD). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic infertility practice. Patients 82 premenopausal infertile but otherwise healthy women attending for routine infertility care. Intervention BMD testing, general health and profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaires, serum samples (cycle days 1–3). Main Outcome Measures VMS, specifically hot flashes-HF and night sweats-NS; BMD-Z score, BMD categorized as “Low” (Z ≤ −1.0 ) or “Normal” (Z > −1.0); ovarian reserve assessment (biochemical and ovarian dimensions on transvaginal ultrasound); serum markers of bone turnover (NTX, TRAP, BSAP) and ovarian reserve (FSH, Estradiol and Inhibin B). Multivariable regression analyses determined the associations between VMS, BMD and bone turnover (individual markers and composite turnover score). Results The prevalence of VMS was 12% in this relatively young population (mean age 34.53 ± SD 4.32). Symptomatic women were significantly more likely to report sleep disturbances (p<0.01), exhibit evidence of low BMD (p<0.01), enhanced bone turnover and poorer ovarian reserve parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed HF (p<0.01) and NS (p<0.01) as independent correlates to low BMD after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, menstrual regularity and ovarian reserve status. Multivariable linear regression analyses demonstrated that NS, but not HF, predicted higher bone turnover (p= 0.02) after adjusting for age, smoking, menstrual regularity and ovarian reserve. Conclusions We demonstrate, in a premenopausal population of infertile women, evidence of morbid accompaniments to VMS, including sleep disturbances and evidence of low BMD. Our data further suggest a state of enhanced bone turnover in association with VMS, specifically in those

  13. Serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density in premenopausal Egyptian women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Olama, Shereem Mohamed; Senna, Mohammed K; Elarman, Mohammed Mohamed; Elhawary, Galal

    2013-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) have impaired mobility and therefore get less sunlight exposure, we postulated that they may be at increased risk of developing osteoporosis (OP). The aim of this study was to assess and compare serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density (BMD) value in patients with primary FMS (PFMS) and healthy controls. A total of 50 patients with PFMS participated in this case-control study, and 50 healthy females who were age-matched to the patients were used as the control group. Venous blood samples collected from all subjects were used to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) anteroposterior, femoral neck and forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Patients with PFMS had significantly lower serum 25-OHD than controls (15.1 ± 6.1 and 18.8 ± 5.4 ng/ml, respectively, p = 0.0018). Apart from the BMD in the lumbar spine, which was significantly lower in the PFMS patients compared with controls (p = 0.0012), no significant difference was found in other measures of BMD. Compared to PFMS patients who had serum level of the 25-OHD >20 ng/ml, the patients with 25-OHD ≤20 ng/ml are more likely to have impaired short memory (46.4 vs. 13.6%, respectively, p = 0.0136), confusion (50 vs. 18.2%, respectively, p = 0.0199), mood disturbance (60.7 vs. 27.3%, respectively, p = 0.0185), sleep disturbance (53.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, p = 0.0271), restless leg syndrome (57.1 vs. 27.3%, respectively, p = 0.0346) and palpitation (67.9 vs. 36.4%, respectively, p = 0.0265). Serum level of the 25-OHD is inversely correlated with visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain (p = 0.016), Beck score for depression (p = 0.020) and BMD at lumbar spine (p = 0.012). The lumbar BMD inversely correlated with VAS of pain (p = 0.013) and Beck score for depression (p = 0.016). This study confirmed high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among in patients with PFMS. This study confirmed the concept that FMS is a risk

  14. Normal parathyroid function with decreased bone mineral density in treated celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, B; Boivin, M; Brossard, J H; Lepage, R; Picard, D; Rousseau, L; D'Amour, P

    2001-05-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in patients with celiac disease in association with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The present study investigated whether basal parathyroid hormone (PTH) remained elevated and whether abnormalities of parathyroid function were still present in celiac disease patients treated with a gluten-free diet. Basal seric measurements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and BMD were obtained in 17 biopsy-proven patients under treatment for a mean period of 5.7+/-3.7 years (range 1.1 to 15.9). In addition, parathyroid function was studied with calcium chloride and sodium citrate infusions in seven patients. Basal measurements of patients were compared with those of 26 normal individuals, while parathyroid function results were compared with those of seven sex- and age-matched controls. Basal results were similar in patients and controls except for intact PTH (I-PTH) (3.77+/-0.88 pmol/L versus 2.28+/-0.63 pmol/L, P<0.001), which was higher in the former group but still within normal limits. Mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D values were normal in patients. Parathyroid function results were also found to be similar in both groups. Compared with a reference population of the same age (Z score), patients had significantly lower BMDs of the hip (-0.60+/-0.96 SDs, P<0.05) and lumbar spine (-0.76+/-1.15 SDs, P<0.05). T scores were also decreased for the hip (-1.3+/-0.9 SDs, P<0.0001) and lumbar spine (-1.4+/-1.35 SDs, P<0.0001), with two to three patients being osteoporotic (T score less than -2.5 SDs) and seven to eight osteopenic (T score less than -1 SDs but greater than or equal to -2.5 SDs) in at least one site. Height and weight were the only important determinants of BMD values by multivariate or logistical regression analysis in these patients. The results show higher basal I-PTH values with normal parathyroid function in treated celiac disease. Height and weight values are, but I-PTH values are not

  15. Bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Nuri; Inci, Ayca; Coban, Melahat; Ulman, Cevval; Kursat, Seyhun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum bone turnover markers (BTM) and bone mineral density (BMD) determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We enrolled 83 patients with CKD, 41 (49.4%) males, 42 (50.6%) females, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 23.90±12 (range=6.0-56.0). BMD of the lumbar spine (LS) (anteroposterior, L2 through L4), femoral neck (FN) and femoral trochanter (FT) were measured by DEXA. Biochemical BTM, including calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum specific alkaline phosphatase (serum AP), bone-specific AP (BSAP), plasma bicarbonate and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25hD) were used for the prediction of BMD loss. T score results of LS and FN were worse than FT. BMD levels were lower in females than in males (all p<0.05). According to different BMD T score levels, patients with age ≥65 years and patients in menopause were significantly more osteopenic (p=0.026) and there was no relation between different BMD T scores and presence of diabetes (p=0.654). A positive correlation was identified between the BMD of FN T-Z scores (r=0.270, p=0.029, r=0.306, p=0.012), FT T-Z scores (r=0.220, p=0.076, r:0.250, p=0.043) and serum HCO3, while the correlation with serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) and BSAP was considered to be negative. No statistically significant association was found between BMD of all the measured skeletal sites and eGFR. Loss of BMD was identified mostly in females over ≥65 years of age and after menopause. Higher serum levels of BSAP and AP can be determined in the advanced stages of renal failure and they reflect fracture risk of the femur, but not spine. Measurements of BMD by DEXA are useful to demonstrate bone loss, but not technical enough to distinguish the quantity of bone loss between different stages of CKD. PMID:26969749

  16. Strontium ranelate effect on bone mineral density is modified by previous bisphosphonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Brun, Lucas R; Galich, Ana M; Vega, Eduardo; Salerni, Helena; Maffei, Laura; Premrou, Valeria; Costanzo, Pablo R; Sarli, Marcelo A; Rey, Paula; Larroudé, María S; Moggia, María S; Brance, María L; Sánchez, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strontium ranelate (SrR) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of SrR in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve) compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior) was analyzed. This retrospective study included 482 postmenopausal women treated with SrR (2 g/day) for 1 year in ten Argentine centers; 41 patients were excluded due to insufficient data, while 441 were included. Participants were divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment in two groups: BP-naïve (n = 87) and BP-prior (n = 350). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with SrR the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were increased (p < 0.0001), while the bone resorption marker s-CTX was decreased (p = 0.0579). Also increases in BMD at the lumbar spine (LS, 3.73%), femoral neck (FN, 2.00%) and total hip (TH, 1.54%) [p < 0.0001] were observed. These increments were significant (p < 0.0001) both among BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. Interestingly, the change in BMD after 1 year of SrR treatment was higher in BP-naïve patients: LS: BP-naïve = 4.58 ± 0.62%; BP-prior = 3.45 ± 0.28% (p = 0.078). FN: BP-naïve = 2.79 ± 0.56%; BP-prior = 2.13 ± 0.29% (p = 0.161). TH: BP-naïve = 3.01 ± 0.55%; BP-prior = 1.22 ± 0.27% (p = 0.0006). SrR treatment increased BMD and bone formation markers and decreased a bone resorption marker in the whole group, with better response in BP-naïve patients. PMID:25520906

  17. Tibolone increases bone mineral density but also relapse in breast cancer survivors: LIBERATE trial bone substudy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Livial Intervention Following Breast Cancer: Efficacy, Recurrence and Tolerability Endpoints (LIBERATE: Clinical http://Trials.gov number NCT00408863), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that demonstrated that tibolone (Livial), a tissue-selective hormone-replacement therapy (HRT), increased breast cancer (BC) recurrence HR 1.40 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.70; P = 0.001). A subgroup of women was entered into a study of bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Women with surgically excised primary BC (T1-3, N0-2, M-0) within the last 5 years, complaining of vasomotor symptoms, were assigned to tibolone, 2.5 mg daily, or placebo treatment for a maximum of 5 years. The BMD substudy enrolled 763 patients, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning at baseline and at 2 years. Results In the bone substudy, 699 of 763 women were eligible (345 allocated to tibolone, and 354, to placebo). After undergoing DXA scans, 300 (43%) women had normal BMD; 317 (45%), osteopenia; and 82 (11.7%), osteoporosis. Low body-mass index (P < 0.001), Asian race (P < 0.001), and late age at menarche (P < 0.04) predicted low bone mass at baseline. Tibolone increased BMD by 3.2% at the lumbar spine and 2.9% at the hip compared with placebo (both P < 0.001). The majority of fractures (55%) occurred in osteopenic patients. Women with normal BMD had increased recurrence with tibolone, 22 (15.6%) of 141 compared with placebo, 11 (6.9%) of 159 (P = 0.016), whereas no increased BC recurrence was seen in women with low BMD; 15 (7.4%) of 204 taking tibolone versus 13 (6.7%) of 195 taking placebo. Conclusions Tibolone is contraindicated after BC treatment, as it increases BMD and BC recurrence. Risk of BC recurrence was elevated in BC women with normal BMD (compared with low) who took tibolone. PMID:22251615

  18. Multistage genome-wide association meta-analyses identified two new loci for bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Choi, Hyung Jin; Estrada, Karol; Leo, Paul J.; Li, Jian; Pei, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Yinping; Lin, Yong; Shen, Hui; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Liu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yingchun; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Tian, Qing; Wang, Yu-ping; Han, Yingying; Ran, Shu; Hai, Rong; Zhu, Xue-Zhen; Wu, Shuyan; Yan, Han; Liu, Xiaogang; Yang, Tie-Lin; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Guo, Yan-fang; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Xiangding; Tan, Lijun; Zhang, Lishu; Deng, Fei-Yan; Deng, Hongyi; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Duncan, Emma L; Lee, Jong Young; Han, Bok Ghee; Cho, Nam H.; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; McCloskey, Eugene; Eastell, Richard; Prince, Richard L.; Eisman, John A.; Jones, Graeme; Reid, Ian R.; Sambrook, Philip N.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Danoy, Patrick; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Hu, Tian; Xiang, Shuanglin; Papasian, Christopher J.; Brown, Matthew A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Uitterlinden, André G.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to identify novel genetic variants and to confirm previously identified genetic variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD), we conducted a three-stage genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis in 27 061 study subjects. Stage 1 meta-analyzed seven GWA samples and 11 140 subjects for BMDs at the lumbar spine, hip and femoral neck, followed by a Stage 2 in silico replication of 33 SNPs in 9258 subjects, and by a Stage 3 de novo validation of three SNPs in 6663 subjects. Combining evidence from all the stages, we have identified two novel loci that have not been reported previously at the genome-wide significance (GWS; 5.0 × 10−8) level: 14q24.2 (rs227425, P-value 3.98 × 10−13, SMOC1) in the combined sample of males and females and 21q22.13 (rs170183, P-value 4.15 × 10−9, CLDN14) in the female-specific sample. The two newly identified SNPs were also significant in the GEnetic Factors for OSteoporosis consortium (GEFOS, n = 32 960) summary results. We have also independently confirmed 13 previously reported loci at the GWS level: 1p36.12 (ZBTB40), 1p31.3 (GPR177), 4p16.3 (FGFRL1), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 5q14.3 (MEF2C), 6q25.1 (C6orf97, ESR1), 7q21.3 (FLJ42280, SHFM1), 7q31.31 (FAM3C, WNT16), 8q24.12 (TNFRSF11B), 11p15.3 (SOX6), 11q13.4 (LRP5), 13q14.11 (AKAP11) and 16q24 (FOXL1). Gene expression analysis in osteogenic cells implied potential functional association of the two candidate genes (SMOC1 and CLDN14) in bone metabolism. Our findings independently confirm previously identified biological pathways underlying bone metabolism and contribute to the discovery of novel pathways, thus providing valuable insights into the intervention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24249740

  19. Bone mineral density in MPS IV A (Morquio syndrome type A).

    PubMed

    Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Kubaski, Francyne; Harcke, H T; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A (MPS IV A), Morquio A, is caused by deficiency in lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), which is responsible for the catabolism of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin 6-sulfate (C6S). Accumulation of GAGs results in disrupted cartilage formation and skeletal dysplasia. In this prospective cross-sectional study, bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), and lateral distal femur (LDF) was acquired by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on patients with MPS IV A. Functional abilities, medical history, Tanner score, and laboratory results were reviewed. Age and sex-matched norms were used to calculate Z-scores. Participants included 18 patients (13 females; 16 were unrelated) with a mean age of 21.4years (3.3 to 40.8years). While every patient was able to bear weight, 9 were full-time ambulators. Whole-body DXA could be obtained on only 6 patients (5 full-time ambulators) because of respiratory compromise caused by the position, presence of hardware, or positioning difficulties. Mean WB Z-score was -2.0 (range-0.3 to -4.1). Technical issues invalidating LS DXA in 8 patients included kyphosis at the thoracolumbar junction resulting in overlap of vertebrae in the posterior-anterior view. Mean LS BMD Z-score in full-time ambulators was -3.4 (range-1.6 to -5.0) and in the non-/partial ambulator was -4.0 (-3.7 to -4.2). Lateral distal femur BMD was acquired on every patient, and average Z-scores were -2 or less at all sites; full-time ambulators exhibited higher BMD. In conclusion, the LDF proved to be the most feasible site to measure in patients with MPS IV A. The higher LDF values in ambulators suggest this should be a consideration in promoting bone health for this group. PMID:26670863

  20. Association Between Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms and Bone Mineral Density: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Yang, Yonghong; He, Minjuan; Wang, Ran; Ma, Juming; Zhang, Yimin; Zhao, Lingyun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many studies have examined the association between interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density (BMD). However, the results remain conflicting. To assess the relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Chinese BioMedical Literature (CBM), Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database were searched for relevant articles published up to March 2013. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Results: A total of 16 articles with 11,957 subjects were investigated in this meta-analysis. Overall, −634C/G polymorphism was significantly associated with BMD at the femoral neck (WMD, −0.016 g/cm2; 95% CI, −0.028 to −0.003 g/cm2), lumbar spine (WMD, −0.049 g/cm2; 95% CI, −0.069 to −0.030 g/cm2), and whole body (WMD, −0.023 g/cm2; 95% CI, −0.037 to −0.009 g/cm2) for GG versus CC+CG. In subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, individuals carrying −634GG genotype had a significantly lower mean BMD at any skeletal site examined, compared with individuals with −634CC or −634CG genotype in Asian populations. For −174G/C polymorphism, the BMD differences between CC+CG and GG genotype were 0.004 g/cm2 at the distal radius (95% CI, 0.004 to 0.005 g/cm2), 0.011 g/cm2 at the trochanter (95% CI, 0.002 to 0.020 g/cm2), and 0.017 g/cm2 at the Ward's triangle (95% CI, 0.003 to 0.032 g/cm2). No significant publication bias was observed in either the −634C/G or −174G/C polymorphism. Conclusions: This suggests that there are modest effects of the −634C/G and −174G/C polymorphisms on BMD. Large-scale and well-designed studies are required to further investigate gene–gene and gene–environment interactions on IL-6 polymorphisms and BMD in various populations. PMID:24053561

  1. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  2. Modeling correlates of low bone mineral density in patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Kathryn E; Douglas, Teresa D; Goodman, Michael; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Singh, Rani H

    2016-05-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is an inherited metabolic disorder requiring life-long restriction of dietary protein and phenylalanine-free medical food. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is reported, but factors associated with BMD Z-score (standard deviations from normal) are unknown. We examined associations between clinical and dietary parameters and total BMD Z-score in PAH deficiency patients, and developed models to predict Z-score. Data collected from patients >4 years of age (n = 88; mean age = 18.8 y; 61 % female) included demographic, clinical, laboratory, and dietary intakes. Adjusted Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated between parameters and TBMD Z-score, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Parameters approaching significance (p-value < 0.10) were candidate predictors for four linear regression models predicting TBMD Z-score. To validate, model-predicted Z-scores were compared to DXA Z-scores. Mean TBMD Z-score was -0.326; 18 (20.4 %) had Z-score < -1. Z-scores were positively correlated with dietary vitamin D, calcium, and medical food intake and compliance with prescription, and negatively with dietary carbohydrate, sugar, caffeine intake, glycemic load, and prescribed medical food (grams protein/day; p-value < 0.05). The best model included medical food compliance, medical food intake, caffeine intake, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (r-square = 0.364). This model predicted Z-score category [normal or low (<-1)] with sensitivity = 66.7 %, likelihood ratio = 14.7, and AUC = 0.83 compared to DXA Z-score. No subjects had low BMD for chronological age (Z-score ≤ -2). Compliance with medical food prescription was the strongest predictor of TBMD Z-score. One model, if validated in a separate sample of patients with more cases of low BMD, showed potential to estimate TBMD Z-score using routine clinical patient parameters. PMID:26883219

  3. Relationship between spine osteoarthritis, bone mineral density and bone turn over markers in post menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have observed an inverse relationship between osteoporosis and spinal osteoarthritis, the latter being considered as possibly delaying the development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine the association between individual radiographic features of spine degeneration, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone-turn over markers. Methods It was a cross sectional study of 277 post menopausal women. BMD of all patients was assessed at the spine and hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral spinal radiographs were evaluated for features of disc degeneration. Each vertebral level from L1/2 to L4/5 was assessed for the presence and severity of osteophytes and disc space narrowing (DSN). For Bone turn-over markers, we assessed serum osteocalcin and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). Linear regressions and partial correlation were used respectively to determine the association between each of disc degeneration features, BMD, and both CTX and osteocalcin. Results Mean age of patients was 58.7 ± 7.7 years. Eighty four patients (31.2%) were osteoporotic and 88.44% had spine osteoarthritis. At all measured sites, there was an increase in BMD with increasing severity of disc narrowing while there was no association between severity of osteophytes and BMD. After adjustment for age and BMI, there was a significant negative correlation between CTX and DSN. However, no significant correlation was found between CTX and osteophytes and between osteocalcin and both osteophytes or DSN. Conclusion In post menopausal women the severity of disc narrowing, but not osteophytes, is associated with a generalized increase in BMD and a decreased rate of bone resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that osteoarthritis, through DSN, has a protective effect against bone loss, mediated by a lower rate of bone resorption. However, spine BMD is not a relevant surrogate marker for the assessment of

  4. Cathepsin K inhibitors increase distal femoral bone mineral density in rapidly growing rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective and reversible inhibitors of human Cathepsin K (CatK), including odanacatib (ODN), have been developed as potential therapeutics for the treatment of osteoporosis. Inhibitors of human CatK show significantly less potency for the rodent enzymes compared with that for the human or rabbit enzymes; thus the Schenk model in growing rabbit was developed as a screening assay for the in vivo activity of CatK inhibitors in blocking bone resorption. Methods In this study, the efficacy of the selective inhibitors L-833905, L-006235, L-873724, and L-1037536 (ODN) of human CatK in the rapidly growing rabbit ‘Schenk’ model (age seven weeks) was compared to vehicle, using the bisphosphonate, alendronate (ALN), as a positive control, to assess inhibition of bone resorption. An enzyme inhibition assay (EIA) and an in vitro bone resorption assay using rabbit osteoclasts on bovine cortical bone slices were performed to evaluate the potency of these CatK inhibitors. Bone mineral density of the distal femur (DFBMD) was measured after ten days of treatment using ex vivo DXA densitometry. Results Results of the EIA using rabbit CatK and the rabbit bone resorption assay showed that three of the four compounds (L-006235, L-873724, and ODN) had similar potencies in the reduction of collagen degradation. L-833905 appeared to be a weaker inhibitor of CatK. Taking into account the respective in vitro potencies and pharmacokinetic profiles via oral administration, the efficacy of these four CatK inhibitors was demonstrated in a dose-related manner in the growing rabbit. Significant increases in DFBMD in animals dosed with the CatK inhibitors compared to vehicle were seen. Conclusions Efficacy of the CatK inhibitors in the Schenk rabbit correlated well with that in the in vitro rabbit bone resorption assay and in the ovariectomized rabbit model as previously published. Hence, these studies validated the rabbit Schenk assay as a rapid and reliable in vivo model for

  5. Vitamin D Status, Bone Mineral Density and Mental Health in Young Australian Women: The Safe-D Study

    PubMed Central

    Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M.; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study). Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life. Significance for public health Vitamin D deficiency, depression and osteoporosis are all major public health issues. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both reduced bone mineral density and depressive symptoms. Moreover, cohort studies have found that subjects with depression have lower bone mineral density when compared

  6. Bone Mineral Density at Diagnosis of Celiac Disease and after 1 Year of Gluten-Free Diet

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleoni, Stefano; Luchino, Massimo; Adriani, Alessandro; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Stradella, Davide; Ribaldone, Davide Giuseppe; Sapone, Nicoletta; Isaia, Gian Carlo; Di Stefano, Marco; Astegiano, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Atypical or silent celiac disease may go undiagnosed for many years and can frequently lead to loss of bone mineral density, with evolution to osteopenia or osteoporosis. The prevalence of the latter conditions, in case of new diagnosis of celiac disease, has been evaluated in many studies but, due to the variability of epidemiologic data and patient features, the results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 175 consecutive celiac patients at time of diagnosis (169 per-protocol, 23 males, 146 females; average age 38.9 years). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was repeated after 1 year of gluten-free diet in those with T-score value <−1 at diagnosis. Stratification of patients according to sex and age showed a higher prevalence of low bone mineral density in men older than 30 years and in women of all ages. A 1-year gluten-free diet led to a significant improvement in lumbar spine and femoral neck mean T-score value. We propose that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry should be performed at diagnosis of celiac disease in all women and in male aged >30 years, taking into account each risk factor in single patients. PMID:25379519

  7. Differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types in a temperate forest ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    You, Ye-Ming; Wang, Juan; Sun, Xiao-Lu; Tang, Zuo-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the controls on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for modeling responses of ecosystem carbon balance to global change, yet few studies provide explicit knowledge on the direct and indirect effects of forest stands on soil carbon via microbial processes. We investigated tree species, soil, and site factors in relation to soil carbon density and mineralization in a temperate forest of central China. We found that soil microbial biomass and community structure, extracellular enzyme activities, and most of the site factors studied varied significantly across contrasting forest types, and that the associations between activities of soil extracellular enzymes and microbial community structure appeared to be weak and inconsistent across forest types, implicating complex mechanisms in the microbial regulation of soil carbon metabolism in relation to tree species. Overall, variations in soil carbon density and mineralization are predominantly accounted for by shared effects of tree species, soil, microclimate, and microbial traits rather than the individual effects of the four categories of factors. Our findings point to differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types and highlight the challenge to incorporate microbial processes for constraining soil carbon dynamics in global carbon cycle models. PMID:26925871

  8. Bone mineral density at diagnosis of celiac disease and after 1 year of gluten-free diet.

    PubMed

    Pantaleoni, Stefano; Luchino, Massimo; Adriani, Alessandro; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Stradella, Davide; Ribaldone, Davide Giuseppe; Sapone, Nicoletta; Isaia, Gian Carlo; Di Stefano, Marco; Astegiano, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Atypical or silent celiac disease may go undiagnosed for many years and can frequently lead to loss of bone mineral density, with evolution to osteopenia or osteoporosis. The prevalence of the latter conditions, in case of new diagnosis of celiac disease, has been evaluated in many studies but, due to the variability of epidemiologic data and patient features, the results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 175 consecutive celiac patients at time of diagnosis (169 per-protocol, 23 males, 146 females; average age 38.9 years). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was repeated after 1 year of gluten-free diet in those with T-score value <-1 at diagnosis. Stratification of patients according to sex and age showed a higher prevalence of low bone mineral density in men older than 30 years and in women of all ages. A 1-year gluten-free diet led to a significant improvement in lumbar spine and femoral neck mean T-score value. We propose that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry should be performed at diagnosis of celiac disease in all women and in male aged >30 years, taking into account each risk factor in single patients. PMID:25379519

  9. Differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types in a temperate forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Ye-Ming; Wang, Juan; Sun, Xiao-Lu; Tang, Zuo-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the controls on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for modeling responses of ecosystem carbon balance to global change, yet few studies provide explicit knowledge on the direct and indirect effects of forest stands on soil carbon via microbial processes. We investigated tree species, soil, and site factors in relation to soil carbon density and mineralization in a temperate forest of central China. We found that soil microbial biomass and community structure, extracellular enzyme activities, and most of the site factors studied varied significantly across contrasting forest types, and that the associations between activities of soil extracellular enzymes and microbial community structure appeared to be weak and inconsistent across forest types, implicating complex mechanisms in the microbial regulation of soil carbon metabolism in relation to tree species. Overall, variations in soil carbon density and mineralization are predominantly accounted for by shared effects of tree species, soil, microclimate, and microbial traits rather than the individual effects of the four categories of factors. Our findings point to differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types and highlight the challenge to incorporate microbial processes for constraining soil carbon dynamics in global carbon cycle models.

  10. Low vitamin D, and bone mineral density with depressive symptoms burden in menopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Saleh, Najah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The reported association between vitamin D level and loss of Bone mineral densitometry measurements (BMD) has been controversial. Objective: The objectıve of the current study was to determine whether low vitamin D level and BMD are associated with depresive symptoms as burden in Arab women during the menopausal and postmenopausal period. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used at the Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers in Qatar. Subjects: A multi-stage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1436 women aged 45-65 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013 and 1106 women agreed to participate (77.2%) and responded to the study. Materials and Methods: BMD (g/m2) was assessed at the BMD unit using a Lunar Prodigy DXA system (Lunar Corp., Madison, WI). The antero-posterior lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the mean of the proximal right and left femur were be measured by two technician and then reviewed by one radiologist. Data on body mass index (BMI), clinical biochemistry variables including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were collected. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered for depression purposes. Results: Of the 1436 women living in urban and rural areas, 1106 women agreed to participate (77.0%) and responded to the study. The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 53.8 ± 3.2. The median age of natural menopausal in the present study was 49 years (mean and standard deviation 49.5 ± 3.1 and postmenopausal was 58.1 ± 3.3). There were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to ethnicity, education level, systolic and dialostic blood pressure, parity, sheesha smoking and depressive symptoms. Overall 30.4% of women were affected with osteopenia/osteoporosis in premenopausal and postmenopausal (24.4% vs 35.7%; P = 0.0442). Osteopenia in premenopausal and postmenopausal (18.7% vs 29.3%; P = 0.030) and Osteoporosis (9.9% vs 15.9%; P = 0.049) were

  11. Energetic efficiency, menstrual irregularity, and bone mineral density in elite professional female ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Doyle-Lucas, Ashley F; Akers, Jeremy D; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-01-01

    Sports that emphasize low body weight for optimal performance, such as ballet, are associated with an increased prevalence of the female athlete triad (FT). Previous research in this area that involves dancers has been limited; the majority of studies have been performed on adolescents training in classical ballet, and not professional adult dancers. The purpose of this study is to compare the physical and behavioral characteristics of female elite ballet dancers to sedentary, recreationally active non-dancing controls, with regard to characteristics of the FT and energetic efficiency. Women aged 18 to 35 years were recruited as participants. The dancers (N = 15) and non-dancing controls (N = 15) were pair-matched via age (dancers: 24.3 ± 1.3 years; controls: 23.7 ± 0.9 years), body mass index (dancers: 18.9 ± 0.2; controls: 19.4 ± 0.2 kg/m 2 ), and fat-free mass (dancers: 44.3 ± 0.8; controls: 44.1 ± 0.9 kg). Assessments included habitual dietary intake using 4-day food records, self-reported physical activity, psychometric measures of eating behaviors, health and menstrual history, body composition and bone density (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessed by indirect calorimetry. Characteristics of the FT, specifically menstrual irregularities (6 of 15 dancers reported irregular or no menses; 1 of 15 controls reported irregular menses) and low energy availability, were more prevalent in dancers than in pair-matched controls. Despite having a similar fat-free mass (FFM), dancers had a significantly lower absolute RMR (dancers: 1367 ± 27; controls: 1454 ± 34 kcal/d; p ≤ 0.05) and significantly lower RMR relative to FFM (dancers: 30.9 ± 0.6; controls: 33.1 ± 0.8 kcal/kg fat-free mass/d; p ≤ 0.05). Energy intake between dancers (1577 ± 89 kcal/d) and pair-matched controls (2075 ± 163 kcal/d) also differed significantly (p ≤ 0.01). Six of the 15 dancers met the criteria for the FT (including low bone mineral

  12. [The relationship between the parameters of mineral density of bone tissue and somatotype in women residing in the Republic of Karelia].

    PubMed

    Pashkova, I G; Gaivoronskiy, I V; Aleksina, L A; Kornev, M A

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive anthropometric and densitometric study using the dual x-ray absorptiometry was conducted to determine the relationship between the mineral density of bone tissue and somatotype in 360 women aged 20 to 87 years, permanently residing in the Republic of Karelia. Significant direct correlation was detected between the somatotype and the amount of mineral substances in the vertebrae, bone mineral density and the area of the lumbar vertebrae. Bone mineral density level of the lumbar vertebrae was higher in women with europlastic and athletic somatotypes, which were characterized by high values of body mass and length, body muscle and fat mass. Low values of bone mineral density of vertebrae were identified in women belonging to subathletic, mesoplastic and stenoplastic somatotypes. The risk of developing osteopenia and osteoporosis is increased in women with low body muscle mass. PMID:25823293

  13. The effect of strain rate on the failure stress and toughness of bone of different mineral densities.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R J; Pankaj, P; Simpson, A H R W

    2013-09-01

    The risk of low energy fracture of the bone increases with age and osteoporosis. This paper investigates the effect of strain rate and mineral level on the peak stress and toughness of whole ovine bones. 40 fresh ovine femurs were subjected to 3-point bending at high (17.14s(-1)) and low (8.56 × 10(-3)s(-1)) strain rates with or without a controlled amount of demineralisation. Mineral removal was achieved by ultrasonically assisted exposure in Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The ultimate stress for whole bones of normal mineral content was 200 MPa at the high rate of strain and 149 MPa at the low rate of strain. With changes in bone mineral levels such as may occur in osteomalacia and osteoporosis, the change in toughness varied at different strain rates; a mean value of 3.7 ± 1.4 MJ/m(3) was obtained for the toughness of normal quality whole bone tested at slow loading rate and a reduction of approximately 25% was observed in the demineralised whole bone specimens at the slow loading rate (mean 2.8 ± 0.9 MJ/m(3)). When tested at the high loading rate there was a negligible difference in the toughness between the two (2.0 ± 0.6 MJ/m(3)) mineral levels. This indicated that there was a strain rate dependant effect for the mineral density, and that the removal of mineral alone did not explain all of the reduction in mechanical properties that occur with age or disease. Thus, the reduction in mechanical properties at high strain rates was likely to be due to other phenomena such as increased porosity or reduced collagen quality, rather than loss of mineral. With decreasing mineral levels, as measured by DEXA in clinical practice, the increased fracture risk is dependent on the velocity of the impact. Thus the estimates of increased fracture risk given clinically for a lower DEXA value should be different for high and low energy injuries. PMID:23870507

  14. Study of Different Involutive Changes in Bone Mineral Density Measured in Ward's Triangle and Trabecular Volume Measured in Iliac Crest in Relation to Age

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, RF; Gallegos, RF

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The ageing process causes changes in the bone structure, in bone mineral density, and musculoskeletal disorders. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare involutive changes in bone structure that occur in relation to age in men and women through the study of bone mineral density at the Ward's triangle and trabecular volume. Subjects and Methods: In this study, we analysed bone mineral density at Ward's triangle in 70 people (38 men and 32 women) and did a histomorphometric study of trabecular volume at the right iliac crest in 66 samples (42 males and 24 females) obtained from autopsies of court cases, aged between 13 and 83 years. Results: The results show significant correlations between measurements of bone mineral density, trabecular volume values and anthropometric measures of age, gender and body mass index. Conclusions: This study shows involutional changes that occur in the bone mineral density and Ward's triangle in the bone structure during the process of ageing. In addition, both weight and height have a great influence on bone mineral density and changes in bone that occur; and body mass index is a very important determinant of bone mineral density. PMID:26360671

  15. Dietary Strontium Increases Bone Mineral Density in Intact Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model System for Bone Research

    PubMed Central

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased zebrafish whole-body and spinal column bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  16. Dietary strontium increases bone mineral density in intact zebrafish (Danio rerio): a potential model system for bone research.

    PubMed

    Siccardi, Anthony J; Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W; Nagy, Tim R; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2010-09-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased zebrafish whole-body and spinal column bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  17. Bone Fragility Beyond Strength and Mineral Density: Raman Spectroscopy Predicts Femoral Fracture Toughness in a Murine Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, Jason A.; Maher, Jason R.; Takahata, Masahiko; Schwarz, Edward M.; Berger, Andrew J.; Awad, Hani A.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical prediction of bone fracture risk primarily relies on measures of bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is strongly correlated with bone strength, but strength is independent of fracture toughness, which refers to the bone’s resistance to crack initiation and propagation. In that sense, fracture toughness is more relevant to assessing fragility-related fracture risk, independent of trauma. We hypothesized that bone biochemistry, determined by Raman spectroscopy, predicts bone fracture toughness better than BMD. This hypothesis was tested in tumor necrosis factor-transgenic mice (TNF-tg), which develop inflammatory-erosive arthritis and osteoporosis. The left femurs of TNF-tg and wild type (WT) littermates were measured with Raman spectroscopy and micro-computed tomography. Fracture toughness was assessed by cutting a sharp notch into the anterior surface of the femoral mid-diaphysis and propagating the crack under 3 point bending. Femoral fracture toughness of TNF-tg mice was significantly reduced compared to WT controls (p=0.04). A Raman spectrum-based prediction model of fracture toughness was generated by partial least squares regression (PLSR). Raman spectrum PLSR analysis produced strong predictions of fracture toughness, while BMD was not significantly correlated and produced very weak predictions. Raman spectral components associated with mineralization quality and bone collagen were strongly leveraged in predicting fracture toughness, reiterating the limitations of mineralization density alone. PMID:23261243

  18. Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Malpeli, Agustina; Apezteguia, María; Mansur, José L; Armanini, Alicia; Macías Couret, Melisa; Villalobos, Rosa; Kuzminczuk, Marta; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (< or = 19 years old; n = 37) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n = 19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n = 18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes. PMID:23477205

  19. Bone mineral density and circulating biomarkers in the BIG 1-98 trial comparing adjuvant letrozole, tamoxifen and their sequences

    PubMed Central

    DeCensi, Andrea; Sun, Zhuoxin; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Thürlimann, Beat; McIntosh, Christina; Tondini, Carlo; Monnier, Alain; Campone, Mario; Debled, Marc; Schönenberger, Astrid; Zaman, Khalil; Johansson, Harriet; Price, Karen N.; Gelber, Richard D.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Coates, Alan S.; Aebi, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of the BIG 1-98 treatments on bone mineral density. BIG 1-98 compared 5-year adjuvant hormone therapy in postmenopausal women allocated to four groups: tamoxifen (T); letrozole (L); 2-years T, 3-years L (TL); 2-years L, 3-years T (LT). Methods Bone mineral density T-score was measured prospectively annually by dual energy X-ray absorption in 424 patients enrolled in a sub-study after three (n=150), four (n=200), and five years (n=74) from randomization, and one year after treatment cessation. Prevalence of osteoporosis and the association of C-telopeptide, osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase with T-scores were assessed. Results At 3 years, T had the highest and TL the lowest T-score. All arms except for LT showed a decline up to 5 years, with TL exhibiting the greatest. At 5 years, there were significant differences on lumbar T-score only between T and TL, whereas for femur T-score differences were significant for T vs. L or TL, and L vs. LT. The 5-year prevalence of spine and femur osteoporosis was highest on TL (14.5%, 7.1%) then L (4.3%, 5.1%), LT (4.2%, 1.4%) and T (4%, 0). C-telopeptide and osteocalcin were significantly associated with T-scores. Conclusions While adjuvant L increases bone mineral density loss compared with T, the sequence LT has an acceptable bone safety profile. C-telopeptide and osteocalcin are useful markers of bone density that may be used to monitor bone health during treatment. The sequence LT may be a valid treatment option in patients with low and intermediate risk of recurrence. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00369850 PMID:24487691

  20. Use of digital panoramic radiography as an auxiliary means of low bone mineral density detection in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, C S; Trindade, A M; Mazzieiro, Ê T; Amaral, T P; Manzi, F R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To correlate the radiomorphometric indices obtained using digital panoramic radiography (DPR) with bone mineral densities, evaluated by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test, in a population of post-menopausal females to identify patients with asymptomatic low bone mineral densities. Methods: The morphology of the mandibular cortex was evaluated using the mandibular cortical index (MCI) and the inferior mandibular cortex width was evaluated using the mental index (MI) in 64 female patients who had undergone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment. Of these patients, 21 were diagnosed with osteopaenia and 20 with osteoporosis, and 23 were normal. Three new indices for evaluating the inferior mandibular cortex width were designed: the mental posterior index 1 (MPI1), MPI2 and MPI3. Statistical analyses were performed using the χ2 and Kruskal–Wallis tests and the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: There were significant differences between the normal and lower bone mineral density groups (osteopaenia and osteoporosis) for MCI (p < 0.01). In the osteoporosis group, the MI, MPI1, MPI2 and MPI3 were significantly different from the normal and osteopaenia groups (p < 0.05). The MI, MPI1, MPI2 and MPI3 showed that there is an area in the mandibular cortex, located between the mental foramen and the antegonial region, which is valid for identifying females at high risk for osteoporosis. Conclusions: The MCI, MI, MPI1, MPI2, and MPI3 radiomorphometric indices evaluated using DPR can be used to identify post-menopausal females with low bone densities and to provide adequate medical treatment for them. PMID:24005062

  1. Direct visualization of regions with lowered bone mineral density in dual-energy CT images of vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Erdt, Marius; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M. Fawad

    2011-03-01

    Dual-energy CT allows for a better material differentiation than conventional CT. For the purpose of osteoporosis diagnosis, a detection of regions with lowered bone mineral density (BMD) is of high clinical interest. Based on an existing biophysical model of the trabecular bone in vertebrae a new method for directly highlighting those low density regions in the image data has been developed. For this, we combine image data acquired at 80 kV and 140 kV with information about the BMD range in different vertebrae and derive a method for computing a color enhanced image which clearly indicates low density regions. An evaluation of our method which compares it with a quantitative method for BMD assessment shows a very good correspondence between both methods. The strength of our method lies in its simplicity and speed.

  2. Upper limit on the central density of dark matter in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailov, Ramil; Potapov, Alexander A.; Filippov, Alexander I.; Ghosh, Mithun; Nandi, Kamal K.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the stability of circular material orbits in the analytic galactic metric recently derived by Harko et al., Mod. Phys. Lett. A29, 1450049 (2014). It turns out that stability depends more strongly on the dark matter central density ρ0 than on other parameters of the solution. This property then yields an upper limit on ρ0 for each individual galaxy, which we call here ρ 0 upper, such that stable circular orbits are possible only when the constraint ρ 0<= ρ 0 upper is satisfied. This is our new result. To approximately quantify the upper limit, we consider as a familiar example our Milky Way galaxy that has a projected dark matter radius RDM 180 kpc and find that ρ 0 upper ˜ 2.37× 1011 M⊙ kpc-3. This limit turns out to be about four orders of magnitude larger than the latest data on central density ρ0 arising from the fit to the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and Burkert density profiles. Such consistency indicates that the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) solution could qualify as yet another viable alternative model for dark matter.

  3. Local variations in bone mineral density: a comparison of OCT versus x-ray micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Stevens-Smith, Jenna; Scutt, Andrew; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2008-02-01

    We describe variations in the degree of mineralisation within the subchondral bone plate of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint. A comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography, Micro CT, and SEM techniques was performed. These data are compared between sites on a healthy sample and at points on an osteoarthritically degenerated sample. No significant correlation was found between the optical scattering coefficient and the micro-CT derived BMD for comparisons between different sites on the bone surface. Also OCT demonstrated a larger regional variation in scattering coefficient than did micro CT for bone mineral density. This suggests that the optical scattering coefficient of bone is not related solely to the volume-density of calcium-phosphate. Patches of lower optical scattering coefficient were found in the bone structure that was related to the osteoarthritic lesion area on the overlying cartilage. Areas of microcracking, as revealed by both SEM and micro CT produced distinctive granularity in the OCT images. In further experiments, OCT was compared with micro CT and mechanical strength testing (3-point bending) in a small animal model of cardiovascular disease (cholesterol overload in mice). In the cardiovascular diseased mice, micro-CT of the trabecular bone did not demonstrate a significant change in trabecular bone mineral density before and after administration of the high cholesterol diet. However mechanical testing demonstrated a decrease in mechanical strength and OCT demonstrated a corresponding statistically significant decrease in optical scattering of the bone.

  4. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    MOVASEGHI, Farzaneh; SADEGHI, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years, first year without any exercise training and three succeeding years with exercise intervention. After three years of exercise training, bone mineral density and bone mineral content were improved in both regions, despite the increase in age and decrease in weight. This case highlights the importance of exercise training in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the spine and hip in post-menopausal women. Considering its positive effects, regular and lifelong exercise training must be incorporated into peoples’ life due to the chronic nature of bone loss in aging process. PMID:26284213

  5. Relationship between exercise and bone mineral density among over 5,000 women aged 40 years and above.

    PubMed

    Kano, K

    1998-03-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted to clarify the relationship between bone mineral density(BMD) and exercise at 14 health centers in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan from September 1994 through March 1995. More than 5,000 women participated in this survey. Second metacarpal BMD was measured by CXD(Computed X-ray Densitometry) method. Information about past history of exercise was obtained by questionnaire. sigma GS/D < 2.3(sigma GS/D: a parameter of BMD) was used to estimate the suspicion of osteoporosis. Data on 5,124 women aged 40 years and above were analyzed. Subjects were categorized into two groups according to the presence(n = 1,687) or absence(n = 3,437) of past history of regular exercise. sigma GS/D values were significantly (p < or = 0.05) higher in women who have had regular exercise in the past than those of the non-exercise group except those aged over 70 years. Ball game, foot sports and gymnastics were the main exercises. When osteoporosis was suspected based on the measurements of bone mineral density, the odds ratio (exercise present/absent) was 0.27 (95% confidence limits: 0.08-0.94), 0.82 (0.65-1.04), 0.78 (0.61-0.99), and 1.25 (0.67-2.35) at 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and over 70 years, respectively. The results of the present study suggest the beneficial influence of exercise on bone mineral density and its utility for preventing osteoporosis. PMID:9575692

  6. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 ± 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p<0.001). In particular, those with lower BV/TV (<50th percentile) had significantly lower Cn.CaMean (p=0.037) and higher Cn.CaLow (p=0.020) compared with those with higher (>50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone

  7. Adolescent Diet and Subsequent Serum Hormones, Breast Density and Bone Mineral Density in Young Women: Results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, Joanne F.; Liu, Lea; Klifa, Catherine; Hylton, Nola; Shepherd, John A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Van Horn, Linda; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Lasser, Norman L.; Himes, John H.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Kriska, Andrea; Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Barton, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent diet is hypothesized to influence breast cancer risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of an intervention to lower fat intake among adolescent girls on biomarkers that are related to breast cancer risk in adults. Methods A follow-up study was conducted of 230 girls who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC), in which healthy, prepubertal 8-10 year olds were randomly assigned to usual care or to a behavioral intervention that promoted a reduced fat diet. Participants were 25-29 years old at follow-up visits. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results In analyses that did not take account of diet at the time of the follow-up visit, the only statistically significant treatment group difference was higher bone mineral content (BMC) in intervention group participants compared to usual care group participants; their mean BMCs were 2,444g and 2,377g, respectively. After adjustment for current diet, the intervention group also had statistically significantly higher bone mineral density and luteal phase serum estradiol concentrations. Serum progesterone concentrations and breast density did not differ by treatment group in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusion Results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of a lower fat diet during adolescence reduces breast cancer risk via effects on subsequent serum estradiol and progesterone levels, breast density or BMD. Impact Additional research is needed to clarify the association of adolescent diet with breast cancer risk and to determine if the results reported here are specific to the DISC intervention or more broadly applicable. PMID:20501774

  8. Bone Mineral 31P and Matrix-Bound Water Densities Measured by Solid-State 1H and 31P MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Bashoor- Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Wright, Alexander C.; Zemel, Babette S.; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging due to extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors’ age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, ages 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31P and 1H MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-CT, and apparent mineral density by pQCT. MRI-derived densities were compared to x-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral 31P density was 6.74±1.22 mol/L (corresponding to 1129±204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water 1H density was 31.3±4.2 mol/L (corresponding to 28.3±3.7 %v/v). Both 31P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity (31P: R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R2 = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age (31P: R2 = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density (31P: R2 = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of 31P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age, or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware. PMID:24846186

  9. Blood-Borne Lipopolysaccharide Is Rapidly Eliminated by Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells via High-Density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhili; Mates, Jessica M; Cheplowitz, Alana M; Hammer, Lindsay P; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Phillips, Gary S; Wewers, Mark D; Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Robinson, John M; Anderson, Clark L; Ganesan, Latha P

    2016-09-15

    During Gram-negative bacterial infections, excessive LPS induces inflammation and sepsis via action on immune cells. However, the bulk of LPS can be cleared from circulation by the liver. Liver clearance is thought to be a slow process mediated exclusively by phagocytic resident macrophages, Kupffer cells (KC). However, we discovered that LPS disappears rapidly from the circulation, with a half-life of 2-4 min in mice, and liver eliminates about three quarters of LPS from blood circulation. Using microscopic techniques, we found that ∼75% of fluor-tagged LPS in liver became associated with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and only ∼25% with KC. Notably, the ratio of LSEC-KC-associated LPS remained unchanged 45 min after infusion, indicating that LSEC independently processes the LPS. Most interestingly, results of kinetic analysis of LPS bioactivity, using modified limulus amebocyte lysate assay, suggest that recombinant factor C, an LPS binding protein, competitively inhibits high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated LPS association with LSEC early in the process. Supporting the previous notion, 3 min postinfusion, 75% of infused fluorescently tagged LPS-HDL complex associates with LSEC, suggesting that HDL facilitates LPS clearance. These results lead us to propose a new paradigm of LSEC and HDL in clearing LPS with a potential to avoid inflammation during sepsis. PMID:27534554

  10. The role of orthodontic tooth movement in bone and root mineral density: A study of patients submitted and not submitted to orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Campos, Marcio José; de Albuquerque, Elisa Gomes; Pinto, Bernardo Caixeiro Hauck; Hungaro, Hélio Moreira; Gravina, Marco Abdo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Orthodontic force application to the teeth is responsible for a series of biological responses in the bone and dentin, which lead to some alterations of the mineral density of the tissues. Our objective was determine, through cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the mineral density of the apical third of the roots of the upper central incisors and of the periapical bone portion surrounding these teeth, in patients submitted to orthodontic treated and untreated individuals. Material/Methods 30 untreated individuals and 15 treated ones (treatment cessation at least 1 year before the study) underwent CBCT. Mineral density was assessed in the apical third of the root of the upper central incisors and in the alveolar bone in the periapical region of these teeth. In order to reduce CBCT-related mineral density variability, we standardized the cone-beam tomography device, the image-acquisition settings and the field of view positioning and size. Student’s t test was used for the analyses. Results bone mineral density (BMD) and root mineral density (RMD), in Hounsfield Units, were 674.84 and 1282.26 for the untreated group and 630.28 and 1370.29 for the treated group, respectively. The differences between the group means were statistically significant for RMD (p<0.05). Conclusions untreated individuals had a significant lower mean RMD in comparison with those submitted to orthodontic treatment. PMID:23197239

  11. Dietary intake of vitamin K in relation to bone mineral density in Korea adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin K nutritional status has been associated with increased risk of fracture, however inconsistent results exist to support the role of vitamin K on bone mineral density depending on ethnic difference and gender. Our objective was to determine vitamin K intake in Korean adults, examine correlation between vitamin K intake and bone mineral density. This study analyzed raw data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults (2,785 men, 4,307 women) aged over 19 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed only positive association between vitamin K intake and femur bone mineral density in men after adjusting bone-related factors. However, women in high tertiles of vitamin K intake had a significantly higher bone mineral density both in femur and lumber as compared to women in lowest tertiles (p<0.05). The risk for osteoporosis was decreased as vitamin K intake increased in women, but this effect was not persisted after adjusting factors. The findings of this study indicate that low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low bone mineral density in subjects. From these results we may suggest an increase in dietary vitamin K intakes for maintaining bone mineral density. (2010-02CON-21-C, 2011-02CON-06-C) PMID:26566308

  12. Effect of two microbial phytases on mineral availability and retention and bone mineral density in low-phosphorus diets for broilers.

    PubMed

    Chung, T K; Rutherfurd, S M; Thomas, D V; Moughan, P J

    2013-06-01

    1. The efficacy of supplementation of a low-phosphorus (low-P) maize-soyabean meal diet for broiler chickens with two different microbial (fungal and bacterial) phytases was examined. 2. Broiler chickens received a low-P maize-soyabean meal diet containing either no phytase or one of the two phytases included at one and two times the manufacturer's recommended inclusion level for 21 d. 3. Titanium dioxide was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. Excreta were collected quantitatively from d 18 to 21, and at the end of the study the birds were killed and ileal digesta and leg bone samples collected. 4. No differences were observed for body weight gain and feed intake or apparent metabolisable energy (AME) among all dietary treatment groups. 5. Dietary phytase supplementation improved the apparent retention of Ca, Na and Cu and ileal phytate P absorption from 32% to 44% across inclusion levels. 6. Bone mineral density (BMD) was improved for both phytases across inclusion levels by, on average, 9% for the tibia and 13% for the femur. 7. Dietary phytase supplementation of the low-P diet improved apparent ileal digestibility of serine, glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, histidine, lysine and arginine. 8. When the results from the present study were combined with the results from other similar published studies and analysed statistically, factors such as dietary P and Ca concentration, as well as bird breed and age, rather than the type or activity of microbial phytase, had the greatest impact on the extent to which dietary supplementation improved P and Ca retention. 9. More work is required to explain the interrelationships between the multiple factors influencing the efficacy of phytase on the availability of dietary minerals. PMID:23662985

  13. Stress during pregnancy alters dendritic spine density and gene expression in the brain of new-born lambs.

    PubMed

    Petit, Bérengère; Boissy, Alain; Zanella, Adroaldo; Chaillou, Elodie; Andanson, Stéphane; Bes, Sébastien; Lévy, Frédéric; Coulon, Marjorie

    2015-09-15

    Rodent studies show how prenatal stress (PS) can alter morphology in the cortico-limbic structures that support emotional and cognitive functions. PS-induced alteration is less well described in species with a gyrencephalic brain and complex earlier fetal development, and never in sheep at birth to rule out postnatal environment effects or influences of maternal behavior. This study aimed to assess the consequences of a mild chronic stress in pregnant ewes on the neurobiological development of their lambs at birth. During the last third of gestation, 7 ewes were exposed daily to various unpredictable and negative routine management-based challenges (stressed group), while 7 other ewes were housed without any additional perturbation (control group). For each group, a newborn from each litter was sacrificed at birth to collect its brain and analyze its expression levels of genes involved in neuronal dendritic morphology (Dlg4, Rac1, RhoA, Doc2b), synaptic transmission (Nr1, Grin2A, Grin2B) and glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3C1) in hippocampus (HPC), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala (AMYG). Results revealed that lambs from stressed dam (PS lambs) showed under-expression of Rac1 and Nr1 in PFC and overexpression of Dlg4 in AMYG compared to controls. To assess the morphological consequences of gene dysregulations, the dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons was explored by Golgi-Cox staining in HPC and PFC. PS lambs had higher dendritic spine density in both structures and more stubby-type spines in the CA1 area of HPC than controls. This is the first demonstration in sheep that PS alters fetal brain, possibly reflecting functional changes in synaptic transmission to cope with adversity experienced in fetal life. PMID:26005125

  14. Effect of Dietary Nutrient Density on Small Intestinal Phosphate Transport and Bone Mineralization of Broilers during the Growing Period.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Jianmin; Miao, Zhiqiang; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Yu; Tian, Wenxia; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary nutrient density on growth performance, small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression, and bone mineralization of broiler chicks fed with diets with different nutrient densities and nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) levels. The broilers were fed with the same starter diets from 0 to 21 days of age. In the grower phase (day 22 to 42), the broilers were randomly divided into eight groups according to body weight. Relatively high dietary nutrient density (HDND) and low dietary nutrient density (LDND) diets were assigned metabolic energy (ME) values of 3,150 and 2,950 kcal/kg, respectively. Crude protein and essential amino acid levels were maintained in the same proportion as ME to prepare the two diet types. NPP levels were 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, and 0.40% of the diets. Results showed that a HDND diet significantly increased the body weight gain (BWG) of broilers and significantly decreased the feed conversion ratio and NPP consumed per BWG. HDND significantly decreased tibial P content of the broilers. Conversely, mRNA expression of NaPi-IIb and protein expression of calbindin were significantly increased in the intestine of broilers fed a HDND diet. HDND also increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, especially at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%). The mRNA expression of NaPi-IIa in the kidneys was significantly increased at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%) to maintain P balance. Tibial P, calcium, and ash content were significantly decreased, as were calbindin and VDR expression levels in the intestine at a low NPP level. Therefore, HDND improved the growth rate of broilers and increased the expression of phosphate and calcium transporter in the small intestine, but adversely affected bone mineralization. PMID:27100791

  15. Effect of Dietary Nutrient Density on Small Intestinal Phosphate Transport and Bone Mineralization of Broilers during the Growing Period

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhiqiang; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Yu; Tian, Wenxia; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary nutrient density on growth performance, small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression, and bone mineralization of broiler chicks fed with diets with different nutrient densities and nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) levels. The broilers were fed with the same starter diets from 0 to 21 days of age. In the grower phase (day 22 to 42), the broilers were randomly divided into eight groups according to body weight. Relatively high dietary nutrient density (HDND) and low dietary nutrient density (LDND) diets were assigned metabolic energy (ME) values of 3,150 and 2,950 kcal/kg, respectively. Crude protein and essential amino acid levels were maintained in the same proportion as ME to prepare the two diet types. NPP levels were 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, and 0.40% of the diets. Results showed that a HDND diet significantly increased the body weight gain (BWG) of broilers and significantly decreased the feed conversion ratio and NPP consumed per BWG. HDND significantly decreased tibial P content of the broilers. Conversely, mRNA expression of NaPi-IIb and protein expression of calbindin were significantly increased in the intestine of broilers fed a HDND diet. HDND also increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, especially at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%). The mRNA expression of NaPi-IIa in the kidneys was significantly increased at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%) to maintain P balance. Tibial P, calcium, and ash content were significantly decreased, as were calbindin and VDR expression levels in the intestine at a low NPP level. Therefore, HDND improved the growth rate of broilers and increased the expression of phosphate and calcium transporter in the small intestine, but adversely affected bone mineralization. PMID:27100791

  16. Polymorphisms in CYP17, COMT, and ESR1 genes in women after menopause and association with bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, C G; Almeida, B C; Camargo-Kosugi, C M; Costa, A M M; Silva, I D C G; Haidar, M A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated genetic factors related to the mineral density during post-menopause. We evaluated 110 women in the first 5 years post-menopause, without previous hormone replacement therapy. Cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) (rs743572), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) (rs4680), and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) (rs9322331) were examined for the presence of polymorphisms. Clinical data were collected by anamnesis; all patients had the osseous densitometry examined using a lunar instrument to determine mineral osseous densitometry in the lumbar column (L2-L4). CYP17, COMT, and ESR1 genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction with DNA collected from buccal swabs. The average age was 51.96 years. The average weights of the patients in control and osteopenia groups were 70.25 ± 12.00 and 62.45 ± 11.64, respectively (P = 0.001) and body mass index (P = 0.006; control: 29.43 ± 5.25; osteopenia: 26.72 ± 4.57). Related to CYP17 polymorphisms, 28.18% of women were TT (wild-type homozygous), 60% were TC (heterozygous), and 11.82% were CC (mutated homozygous). Related to COMT polymorphisms, 53.64% of women were GG (wild-type homozygous), 37.27% were GA (heterozygous), and 9.09% were AA (mutated homozygous). Related to ESR1, 53.64% of women were CC (wild-type homozygous), 40.91% were CT (heterozygous), and 5.45% were TT (mutated homozygous). The ESR1 variant allele was significantly higher in the osteopenia group when compared with women in the normal group (P = 0.02). ESR1 may be associated with low mineral osseous densitometry, while CYP17 and COMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with mineral osseous densitometry. PMID:26634548

  17. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract increases bone mineral density and improves bone properties in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ying; Feng, Xin; Zhao, Pengling; Wu, Zhenghao; Xu, Hao; Fang, Yuehui; Hou, Yangfeng; Denney, Liya; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. It is generally accepted that acquisition of a high peak bone mass (PBM) early in life can reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract on bone mineral density and its mechanical properties in growing female rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The rats were given different doses of FLL extract mixed with AIN-93G formula (0.40, 0.65 and 0.90 %), and a group given AIN-93G diet treatment only was used as control. The intervention lasted for 16 weeks until the animals were about 5 months old, the time when the animals almost reach their PBM. Our results showed that FLL treatment increased bone mineral density and improved bone mechanical properties in the growing female rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, FLL treatment significantly decreased the serum bone-resorbing marker, CTX-I, while significantly increasing serum 25(OH)D3 and thereby increasing Ca absorption and Ca retention. Intriguingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that FLL treatment could reduce the RANKL/OPG ratio. In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract exerted beneficial effects on peak bone mass acquisition and the improvement of bone mechanical properties by favoring Ca metabolism and decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio. PMID:24362453

  18. The relationship between the calcaneal bone mineral density and the mental index in post-menopausal females

    PubMed Central

    Jagelaviciene, E; Krasauskiene, A; Zalinkevicius, R; Kubilius, R; Vaitkeviciene, I

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the bone mineral density in the calcaneus and the mental index (MI) of the mandible in post-menopausal females, and to evaluate the diagnostic threshold of the index. Methods: The post-menopausal females aged 50 years and older were examined using panoramic radiography of the mandible for mandibular cortical width measurements at the mental foramen (mental index, MI) determination and DXL Calscan P/N 031000 (Demetech AB, Solna, Sweden) for the examination of calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD). The statistical analysis was performed to determine the tendencies between the data. Results: According to the T-score values of calcaneal BMD, the subjects were distributed into T1, T2 and T3 groups. BMD differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The panoramic radiographic examination of the mandible was performed, MI (mm) was determined and the mean values in the groups were calculated. The differences of MI mean values between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). In the general group, a statistically significant relationship was found between calcaneal BMD, T-score and MI (p < 0.001). In the logistic analysis, the diagnostic threshold of MI was 3 mm (sensitivity 73.5%; specificity 72.6%). Conclusions: A diagnostic threshold for MI of 3 mm or less is suggested as the appropriate threshold for referral of calcaneal BMD reduction. PMID:23420860

  19. Effects of Whole Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density and Anthropometry in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two exercise programs, whole body vibration and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometry in obese postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Eighty Egyptian obese postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study; their age ranged from 50 to 68 years. Their body mass index ranged (30–36 kg/m2). The exercise prescription consisted of whole body vibration (WBV) and resistance training. Bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometrical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Changes from baseline to eight months in BMD and anthropometric parameters were investigated. Results. BMD at the greater trochanter, at ward's triangle, and at lumbar spine were significantly higher after physical training, using both WBV and resistive training. Moreover, both exercise programs were effective in BMI and waist to the hip ratio. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity duration and BMD at all sites. The highest values of R2 were found for the models incorporating WBV plus BMI. Conclusion. The study suggests that both types of exercise modalities had a similar positive effect on BMD at all sites in obese postmenopausal women. Significant association was noted between physical activity and anthropometric variables and BMD measures at all sites. PMID:25136473

  20. Disordered-Eating Attitudes in Relation to Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover in Overweight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schvey, Natasha A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanoff, Lisa B.; Checchi, Jenna M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Brady, Sheila; Savastano, David M.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationships between cognitive eating restraint and both bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover in overweight adolescents. Methods 137 overweight (BMI 39.1±6.8 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian adolescent (age=14.4 ± 1.4y) girls (66.4%) and boys were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview and Eating Inventory (EI) questionnaire and underwent dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure total lumbar spine BMD. Markers of bone formation (serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), bone resorption (24-hour urine N-telopeptides), and stress (urine free cortisol) were measured. Results After accounting for the contribution of demographics, height, weight, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and depressive symptoms, adolescents’ weight concern, as assessed by interview, was a significant contributor to a model of urine free cortisol (β =.30, p <.05). Shape concern, as also assessed by interview, was significantly associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (β =.−.15, p < 05). Dietary restraint was not a significant predictor in any of these models. Conclusions These findings suggest that among severely overweight adolescents, dissatisfaction with shape and weight may be salient stressors. Future research is required to illuminate the relationship between bone health and disordered-eating attitudes in overweight adolescents. PMID:19541247

  1. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. PMID:25418909

  2. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace element contents of elderly males in Beijing urban area

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Yu, Haotian; Yang, Guohua; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Wenjiao; Su, Tianjiao; Ma, Weifeng; Yang, Fan; Chen, Liying; He, Li; Ma, Yuanzheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Trace element levels are associated with the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, but related mechanisms remain unknown. Trace elements may interfere with growth, development and maintenance of bones. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma trace element levels are associated with bone mineral density in elderly males in Beijing. After epidemiologically investigating 91 elderly males with age ranging from 50 years to 80 years, we obtained a total of 30 healthy (group 1), 31 osteopoenic (group 2) and 30 osteoporotic (group 3) subjects. Blood was collected, and serum concentrations of trace elements were detected. Elderly males in the three groups were carefully matched in terms of body mass index. Iron, manganese, zinc, copper, selenium, cadmium and lead were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by QDR-2000 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation between BMD and serum element contents was analysed using SPSS16.0. The plasma levels of manganese, zinc, copper, selenium and lead were similar in all of the groups (P>0.05). Cadmium was significantly and negatively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae (P<0.05). Moreover, cadmium and iron contents significantly differed in osteoporotic and healthy groups. These elements may directly and correlatively affect BMD in elderly males. Many trace elements may directly and correlatively influence BMD. Future studies should be conducted to evaluate serum and bone levels of these trace elements to determine the relationship of these trace elements with osteoporosis. PMID:26770561

  3. Assessment of Bone Mineral Density in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by DXA and Quantitative Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fountoulis, George; Kerenidi, Theodora; Kokkinis, Constantinos; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Thriskos, Paschal; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Vassiou, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of osteoporosis in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and to compare the diagnostic abilities of the above methods. Thirty-seven male patients with established COPD were examined with DXA and standard QCT in lumbar spine, including L1, L2, and L3 vertebrae. T-scores and bone mineral density values were calculated by DXA and QCT method, respectively. Comparative assessment of the findings was performed and statistical analysis was applied. QCT measurements found more COPD patients with impaired bone mineral density compared to DXA, namely, 13 (35.1%) versus 12 (32.4%) patients with osteopenia and 16 (43.2%) versus 9 (16.2%) patients with osteoporosis (p = 0.04). More vertebrae were found with osteoporosis by QCT compared to DXA (p = 0.03). The prevalence of osteoporosis among male patients with COPD is increased and DXA may underestimate this risk. QCT measurements have an improved discriminating ability to identify low BMD compared to DXA measurements because QCT is able to overcome diagnostic pitfalls including aortic calcifications and degenerative spinal osteophytes. PMID:27087809

  4. Assessment of Bone Mineral Density in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by DXA and Quantitative Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Fountoulis, George; Kerenidi, Theodora; Kokkinis, Constantinos; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Thriskos, Paschal; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Vassiou, Katerina; Vlychou, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of osteoporosis in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and to compare the diagnostic abilities of the above methods. Thirty-seven male patients with established COPD were examined with DXA and standard QCT in lumbar spine, including L1, L2, and L3 vertebrae. T-scores and bone mineral density values were calculated by DXA and QCT method, respectively. Comparative assessment of the findings was performed and statistical analysis was applied. QCT measurements found more COPD patients with impaired bone mineral density compared to DXA, namely, 13 (35.1%) versus 12 (32.4%) patients with osteopenia and 16 (43.2%) versus 9 (16.2%) patients with osteoporosis (p = 0.04). More vertebrae were found with osteoporosis by QCT compared to DXA (p = 0.03). The prevalence of osteoporosis among male patients with COPD is increased and DXA may underestimate this risk. QCT measurements have an improved discriminating ability to identify low BMD compared to DXA measurements because QCT is able to overcome diagnostic pitfalls including aortic calcifications and degenerative spinal osteophytes. PMID:27087809

  5. Balloon-Borne Submillimeter Polarimetry of the Vela C Molecular Cloud: Systematic Dependence of Polarization Fraction on Column Density and Local Polarization-Angle Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissel, Laura M.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Diego Soler, Juan; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2016-06-01

    We present results for Vela C obtained during the 2012 flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry. We mapped polarized intensity across almost the entire extent of this giant molecular cloud, in bands centered at 250, 350, and 500 μm. In this initial paper, we show our 500 μm data smoothed to a resolution of 2.‧5 (approximately 0.5 pc). We show that the mean level of the fractional polarization p and most of its spatial variations can be accounted for using an empirical three-parameter power-law fit, p \\propto {{\\boldsymbol{N}}}-0.45 {{\\boldsymbol{S}}}-0.60, where N is the hydrogen column density and S is the polarization-angle dispersion on 0.5 pc scales. The decrease of p with increasing S is expected because changes in the magnetic field direction within the cloud volume sampled by each measurement will lead to cancellation of polarization signals. The decrease of p with increasing N might be caused by the same effect, if magnetic field disorder increases for high column density sightlines. Alternatively, the intrinsic polarization efficiency of the dust grain population might be lower for material along higher density sightlines. We find no significant correlation between N and S. Comparison of observed submillimeter polarization maps with synthetic polarization maps derived from numerical simulations provides a promising method for testing star formation theories. Realistic simulations should allow for the possibility of variable intrinsic polarization efficiency. The measured levels of correlation among p, N, and S provide points of comparison between observations and simulations.

  6. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: Beyond Bone Mineral Density Determination

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Significant improvements in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) concerning quality, image resolution and image acquisition time have allowed the development of various functions. DXA can evaluate bone quality by indirect analysis of micro- and macro-architecture of the bone, which and improve the prediction of fracture risk. DXA can also detect existing fractures, such as vertebral fractures or atypical femur fractures, without additional radiologic imaging and radiation exposure. Moreover, it can assess the metabolic status by the measurement of body composition parameters like muscle mass and visceral fat. Although more studies are required to validate and clinically use these parameters, it is clear that DXA is not just for bone mineral densitometry. PMID:26996419

  7. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: Beyond Bone Mineral Density Determination.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Jun

    2016-03-01

    Significant improvements in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) concerning quality, image resolution and image acquisition time have allowed the development of various functions. DXA can evaluate bone quality by indirect analysis of micro- and macro-architecture of the bone, which and improve the prediction of fracture risk. DXA can also detect existing fractures, such as vertebral fractures or atypical femur fractures, without additional radiologic imaging and radiation exposure. Moreover, it can assess the metabolic status by the measurement of body composition parameters like muscle mass and visceral fat. Although more studies are required to validate and clinically use these parameters, it is clear that DXA is not just for bone mineral densitometry. PMID:26996419

  8. Differential Effects of Teriparatide and Zoledronic Acid on Bone Mineralization Density Distribution at 6 and 24 Months in the SHOTZ Study.

    PubMed

    Dempster, David W; Roschger, Paul; Misof, Barbara M; Zhou, Hua; Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Alam, Jahangir; Ruff, Valerie A; Klaushofer, Klaus; Taylor, Kathleen A

    2016-08-01

    The Skeletal Histomorphometry in Patients on Teriparatide or Zoledronic Acid Therapy (SHOTZ) study assessed the progressive effects of teriparatide (TPTD) and zoledronic acid (ZOL) on bone remodeling and material properties in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Previously, we reported that biochemical and histomorphometric bone formation indices were significantly higher in patients receiving TPTD versus ZOL. Here we report bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) results based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI). The 12-month primary study was randomized and double blind until the month 6 biopsy, then open label. Patients (TPTD, n = 28; ZOL, n = 31) were then eligible to enter a 12-month open-label extension with their original treatment: TPTD 20 μg/d (subcutaneous injection) or ZOL 5 mg/yr (intravenous infusion). A second biopsy was collected from the contralateral side at month 24 (TPTD, n = 10; ZOL, n = 10). In cancellous bone, ZOL treatment was associated at 6 and 24 months with significantly higher average degree of mineralization (CaMEAN, +2.2%, p = 0.018; +3.9%, p = 0.009, respectively) and with lower percentage of low mineralized areas (CaLOW , -34.6%, p = 0.029; -33.7%, p = 0.025, respectively) and heterogeneity of mineralization CaWIDTH (-12.3%, p = 0.003; -9.9%, p = 0.012, respectively), indicating higher mineralization density and more homogeneous mineral content versus TPTD. Within the ZOL group, significant changes were found in all parameters from month 6 to 24, indicating a progressive increase in mineralization density. In sharp contrast, mineralization density did not increase over time with TPTD, reflecting ongoing deposition of new bone. Similar results were observed in cortical bone. In this study, TPTD stimulated new bone formation, producing a mineralized bone matrix that remained relatively heterogeneous with a stable mean mineral content. ZOL slowed bone turnover

  9. The impact of clothing style on bone mineral density among post menopausal women in Morocco: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Allali, Fadoua; Aichaoui, Siham El; Saoud, Bouchra; Maaroufi, Houda; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni1, Najia

    2006-01-01

    Background The clothing style is an important factor that influences vitamin D production and thus bone mineral density. We performed a case-control study in order to evaluate the effect of veil wearing (concealing clothing) on bone mineral density in Moroccan post menopausal women. Methods The cases were osteoporotic women whose disease was assessed by bone mineral density measurement. Each patient was matched with a non osteoporotic woman for age, and body mass index. All our patients were without secondary causes or medications that might affect bone density. The veil was defined as a concealing clothing which covered most of the body including the arms, the legs and the head. This definition is this of the usual Moroccan traditional clothing style. Results 178 post menopausal osteoporotic patients and 178 controls were studied. The mean age of the cases and the controls was 63.2 years (SD 7) and the mean body mass index was 32.1 (SD 8). The results of crude Odds Ratios analyses indicated that wearing a veil was associated with a high risk of osteoporosis: OR 2.29 (95% CI, 1.38–3.82). Multiparity or a history of familial peripheral osteoporotic fractures had also a significant effect on increasing the osteoporosis risk (ORs: 1.87 (95% CI, 1.05–3.49) and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.20–3.38)). After a multiple regression analysis, wearing the veil and a history of familial osteoporotic fractures remained the both independent factors that increased the osteoporosis risk (ORs: 2.20 (95% CI, 1.22–3.9) and 2.19 (95% CI, 1.12–4.29) respectively). Conclusion our study suggested that in Moroccan post menopausal women, wearing a traditional concealing clothing covering arms, legs and head increased the risk of osteoporosis. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical impact of the above findings and to clarify the status of vitamin D among veiled women in Morocco. PMID:16712731

  10. Comparison of radiograph-based texture analysis and bone mineral density with three-dimensional microarchitecture of trabecular bone

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjanomennahary, P.; Ghalila, S. Sevestre; Malouche, D; Marchadier, A.; Rachidi, M.; Benhamou, Cl.; Chappard, C.

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Hip fracture is a serious health problem and textural methods are being developed to assess bone quality. The authors aimed to perform textural analysis at femur on high-resolution digital radiographs compared to three-dimensional (3D) microarchitecture comparatively to bone mineral density. Methods: Sixteen cadaveric femurs were imaged with an x-ray device using a C-MOS sensor. One 17 mm square region of interest (ROI) was selected in the femoral head (FH) and one in the great trochanter (GT). Two-dimensional (2D) textural features from the co-occurrence matrices were extracted. Site-matched measurements of bone mineral density were performed. Inside each ROI, a 16 mm diameter core was extracted. Apparent density (D{sub app}) and bone volume proportion (BV/TV{sub Arch}) were measured from a defatted bone core using Archimedes' principle. Microcomputed tomography images of the entire length of the core were obtained (Skyscan 1072) at 19.8 {mu}m of resolution and usual 3D morphometric parameters were computed on the binary volume after calibration from BV/TV{sub Arch}. Then, bone surface/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, and trabecular number were obtained by direct methods without model assumption and the structure model index was calculated. Results: In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients between 2D textural features and 3D morphological parameters reached 0.83 at the FH and 0.79 at the GT. In multivariate canonical correlation analysis, coefficients of the first component reached 0.95 at the FH and 0.88 at the GT. Conclusions: Digital radiographs, widely available and economically viable, are an alternative method for evaluating bone microarchitectural structure.

  11. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied. PMID:25961322

  12. Bones of contention: bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Grace-Farfaglia, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic bone disease is a frequent co-morbidity in newly diagnosed adults with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten. This systematic review of studies looked at the efficacy of the gluten-free diet, physical activity, nutrient supplementation, and bisphosphonates for low bone density treatment. Case control and cohort designs were identified from PubMed and other academic databases (from 1996 to 2015) that observed newly diagnosed adults with CD for at least one year after diet treatment using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Only 20 out of 207 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement checklist. Gluten-free diet adherence resulted in partial recovery of bone density by one year in all studies, and full recovery by the fifth year. No treatment differences were observed between the gluten-free diet alone and diet plus bisphosphonates in one study. For malnourished patients, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium resulted in significant improvement. Evidence for the impact of physical activity on bone density was limited. Therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying lifestyle factors throughout the lifespan should be studied. PMID:25961322

  13. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  14. Association of Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Bone Mineral Density, and Osteoporosis in the U.S. Population in NHANES 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Naila; Chen, Aimin; Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Ebert, James R.; DeWitt, Jamie C.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), are detectable in the serum of 95% of the U.S. population. Objective Considering the role of PFASs as endocrine disruptors, we examined their relationships with bone health. Methods The association between serum PFAS concentration and bone mineral density at total femur (TFBMD), femoral neck (FNBMD), lumbar spine (LSBMD), and physician-diagnosed osteoporosis was assessed in 1,914 participants using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2009–2010. Results The mean age of the participants was 43 years. Men had higher serum PFAS concentrations than women (p < 0.001) except for PFNA. In both sexes, serum PFOS concentrations were inversely associated with FNBMD (p < 0.05). In women, significant negative associations were observed for natural log (ln)–transformed PFOS exposure with TFBMD and FNBMD, and for ln-transformed PFOA exposure with TFBMD (p < 0.05). In postmenopausal women, serum PFOS was negatively associated with TFBMD and FNBMD, and PFNA was negatively associated with TFBMD, FNBMD, and LSBMD (all p < 0.05). With one log unit increase in serum PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA, osteoporosis prevalence in women increased as follows: [adjusted odds ratios (aORs)] 1.84 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.905), 1.64 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.38), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.05), respectively. In women, the prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA, with aORs of 2.59 (95% CI: 1.01, 6.67), 13.20 (95% CI: 2.72, 64.15), and 3.23 (95% CI: 1.44, 7.21), respectively, based on 77 cases in the study sample. Conclusion In a representative sample of the U.S. adult population, serum PFAS concentrations were associated with lower bone mineral density, which varied according to the specific PFAS and bone site assessed

  15. Aging bone in men and women: beyond changes in bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Russo, C R; Lauretani, F; Bandinelli, S; Bartali, B; Di Iorio, A; Volpato, S; Guralnik, J M; Harris, T; Ferrucci, L

    2003-07-01

    Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) we assessed trabecular and cortical bone density, mass and geometric distribution at the tibia level in 512 men and 693 women, age range 20-102 years, randomly selected from the population living in the Chianti area, Tuscany, Italy. Total, trabecular and cortical bone density decreased linearly with age ( p<0.0001 in both sexes), and the slope of age-associated decline was steeper in women than in men. In men, the cortical bone area was similar in different age groups, while in women older than 60 years it was significantly smaller by approximately 1% per year. The total cross-sectional area of the bone became progressively wider with age, but the magnitude of the age-associated increment was significantly higher in men than in women ( p<0.001). The minimum moment of inertia, an index of mechanical resistance to bending, remained stable with age in men, while it was significantly lower in older compared with younger women (0.5% per year). The increase in bone cross-sectional area in aging men may contribute to the maintenance of adequate bone mechanical competence in the face of declining bone density. In women this compensatory mechanism appears to be less efficient and, accordingly, the bone mechanical competence declines with age. The geometric adaptation of increasing cross-sectional bone size is an important component in the assessment of bone mechanical resistance which is completely overlooked, and potentially misinterpreted, by traditional planar densitometry. PMID:12827220

  16. The Bindex(®) ultrasound device: reliability of cortical bone thickness measures and their relationship to regional bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Pollex, Johannes; Skripitz, Ralf; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Fischer, Dagmar-C; Bruhn, Sven; Schober, Hans-Christof; Zschorlich, Volker; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The Bindex(®) quantitative ultrasound (QUS) device is currently available and this study analyzed (I) its relative and absolute intra- and inter-session reliability and (II) the relationship between the data provided by Bindex(®)-QUS and the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at corresponding skeletal sites in young and healthy subjects (age: 25.0  ±  3.6 years). Bindex(®)-QUS calculates a density index on the basis of the thickness of cortical bone measured at the distal radius and the distal plus proximal tibia. The data show a very good relative and absolute intra- (ICC  =  0.977, CV  =  1.5%) and inter-session reliability (ICC  =  0.978, CV  =  1.4%) for the density index. The highest positive correlations were found between cortical thickness and BMD for the distal radius and distal tibia (r  ⩾  0.71, p  <  0.001). The data indicate that the Bindex(®)-QUS parameters are repeatable within and between measurement sessions. Furthermore, the measurements reflect the BMD at specific skeletal sites. Bindex(®)-QUS might be a useful tool for the measurement of skeletal adaptations. PMID:27511629

  17. Dust mobilization due to density currents in the Atlas region: Observations from the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment 2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, P.; Deutscher, C.; Kandler, K.; Müller, T.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, L.

    2007-11-01

    Evaporation of precipitation is a ubiquitous feature of dry and hot desert environments. The resulting cooling often generates density currents with strong turbulent winds along their leading edges, which can mobilize large amounts of dust. Mountains support this process by triggering convection, by downslope acceleration of the cool air, and by fostering the accumulation of fine-grained sediments along their foothills through the action of water. For the Sahara, the world's largest dust source, this mechanism has been little studied because of the lack of sufficiently high resolution observational data. The present study demonstrates the frequent occurrence of density currents along the Sahara side of the Atlas Mountain chain in southern Morocco using the unique data set collected during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) field campaign in May/June 2006. The density currents are related to convection over the mountains in the afternoon hours and have lifetimes on the order of 10 h. The passage of the sharp leading edge that sometimes reaches several hundred kilometers in length is usually associated with a marked increase in dew point and wind speed, a change in wind direction, and a decrease in temperature and visibility due to suspended dust. It is conceivable that this mechanism is relevant for other mountainous regions in northern Africa during the warm season. This would imply that simulations of the dust cycle with numerical models need a reliable representation of moist convective processes in order to generate realistic dust emissions from the Sahara.

  18. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Addolorata; Colia, Ripalta; Mele, Angiola; Di Bello, Valeria; Trotta, Antonello; Neve, Anna; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    A reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc); nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content. PMID:26375284

  19. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, Addolorata; Colia, Ripalta; Mele, Angiola; Di Bello, Valeria; Trotta, Antonello; Neve, Anna; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    A reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc); nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content. PMID:26375284

  20. A Case of Low Bone Mineral Density with Vitamin D Deficiency Due to Prolonged Lactation and Severe Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Min Young; Kang, Yea Eun; Kong, Si Eun; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Back, Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition associated vitamin D deficiency contributes to the calcium loss from bone and results in osteoporosis and osteomalacia at final stage. Osteomalacia is characterized with softening of bone secondary to defective bone mineralization. Here, we report a case of possible osteomalacia caused by prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition in 35-year-old female. She was a housewife and her body mass index was 11.8 kg/m2. She was diagnosed with severe osteoporosis in regular health check-up 2 years ago, but did not take any medication. Nine months ago, she had been treated with anti-tuberculosis medications for 6 month due to active pulmonary tuberculosis. After complete remission of pulmonary tuberculosis, she had lost her appetite severely. Furthermore, she felt gait difficulty and suffered from generalized bone pain. On serologic examination, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, high alkaline phosphatase, low vitamin D3 and high parathyroid hormone level were seen. In the bone mineral density, Z-score from her lumbar spine was -6.5. She was treated with oral calcium and vitamin D3 intramuscularly. After 1 year treatment, she felt significant improvement in bone pain and could walk alone. Also her serum calcium, phosphate and vitamin D3 level are all normalized. PMID:25774364

  1. Comparison of mechanical stress and change in bone mineral density between two types of femoral implant using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yasuhide; Inaba, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Naomi; Ike, Hiroyuki; Fujimaki, Hiroshi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2013-12-01

    Stress shielding after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains an unsolved issue. Various patterns of mechanical stress appear according to the type of femoral stem used. To compare differences in mechanical stress conditions between Zweymuller type and fit-and-fill type stems, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed. Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) changes in the femur were also compared. Maximum stress was confirmed in Gruen zone 4, whereas zone 1 had the minimum amount of stress with both types of implant. The Zweymuller stem group had less mechanical stress and lower BMD in zone 7 than the fit-and-fill stem group. In conclusion, differences in mechanical stress may be related to changes in BMD after THA. PMID:23683518

  2. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C.; O’Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16–45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm2. Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  3. Bone mineral density reduction in adolescents with systemic erythematosus lupus: association with lack of vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caetano, M; Terreri, M T; Ortiz, T; Pinheiro, M; Souza, F; Sarni, R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate body composition and the bone mineral density in female adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. Body composition (BC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in an observational cohort study with 35 postmenarcheal adolescent females. The variables studied were as follows: current and cumulative corticosteroid dose, intake of supplements containing calcium and vitamin D, 24-h proteinuria, body mass index (BMI), and height for age (Z-score). BC was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at two time points (median interval of 1.2 years). The fat mass index (FMI = fat mass in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) and lean mass index (LMI = lean mass in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared) were calculated based on the DXA results. BMD was classified according to the International Society of Clinical Densitometry (low BMD for chronological age < -2.0 standard deviations). .The mean age of the subjects was 15.4 ± 1.8 years. Of patients, 54.3 % were normal weight, 22.8 % were overweight, 22.8 % were obese, and 8.6 % had short stature. Low BMD for chronological age was observed in 42.8 % of patients, and 60 % were not taking vitamin D. There was no significant difference between the two time points with respect to FMI, LMI, or body mass index Z-score (ZBMI); however, BMD has decreased significantly (p = 0.011). There was an association between not taking a vitamin D supplement and decreased BMD (p = 0.027). Almost half of the patients had altered nutritional status. The BMD decrease in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) was associated with the lack of vitamin D supplementation, highlighting the importance of well-defined vitamin D supplementation protocols. PMID:26227163

  4. Relationship between intima-media thickness and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Afshin; Shateri, Kamran; Behzadi, Farhad; Maleki-Miandoab, Tooraj; Lesha, Emal; Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad; Rosta, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are two conditions that confer the major cause of mortality and morbidity in postmenopausal women. Several studies have suggested that these two conditions are negatively correlated by a common pathway. The aim of our study was to show a relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as two factors that are directly related to osteoporosis and atherosclerosis respectively. Methods: The study group consisted of 136 postmenopausal women that presented at the Radiology Clinic of our hospital for BMD measurements. The CIMT was measured using High Resolution B mode Ultrasonography; BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck using Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Results: The mean IMT value in osteoporotic women (0.7±0.1 mm) was significantly higher compared to non-osteoporotic women (0.6±0.1 mm, P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between CIMT and the T score of lumbar spine (r=-0.35; P < 0.001) and femoral neck (r=-0.23, P < 0.001), as well as Z score of the lumbar spine (r=-0.27, P=0.004). No significant correlation was found between CIMT and Z score of the femoral neck. Conclusion: Our study shows that bone mineral density and carotid intima media thickness are negatively correlated, thus showing a possible relationship between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. However, more research is necessary to determine the pathway that connects these two conditions. PMID:25664067

  5. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women.

    PubMed

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R; Beck, Kathryn L; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C; O'Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm²), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16-45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm². Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  6. Association between estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density in Polish female patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda; Dytfeld, Joanna; Gowin, Ewelina; Słomski, Ryszard; Stajgis, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Graves' (GD) hyperthyroidism leads to reduced bone mineral density (BMD) accompanied by accelerated bone turnover. Ample studies have identified association between estrogen receptor (ESR1) gene polymorphism and decreased BMD and osteoporosis. In contrast, number of publications that link ESR1, BMD and Graves' disease is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between ESR1 polymorphisms and BMD in premenopausal women with GD and to determine whether ESR1 polymorphic variants can predispose to GD. The study included 75 women aged 23-46 years with GD and 163 healthy controls. BMD was measured at lumbar spine and femoral neck. We investigated two SNPs in the ESR1 gene and analyzed genetic variants in the form of haplotypes reconstructed by statistical method. Three out of four possible haplotypes of the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment length polymorphisms were found in GD patients: px (55.3 %), PX (33.3 %) and Px (11.4 %). Women homozygous for xx of XbaI and for pp of PvuII had the lowest BMD at lumbar spine. Moreover, the px haplotype predisposed to reduced lumbar BMD. No associations were observed for femoral neck BMD. No statistically significant relationship were found between ESR1 polymorphisms or their haplotypes and GD. These results indicate that the PvuII and the XbaI polymorphisms of ESR1 gene are associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women with GD and may help to estimate the risk of bone loss particularly at lumbar spine. However, none of the ESR1 gene alleles predict the risk of GD in Polish female patients. PMID:21423915

  7. Correlates of Bone Mineral Density among Postmenopausal Women of African Caribbean Ancestry: Tobago Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Deanna D.; Cauley, Jane A.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Baker, Carol E.; Patrick, Alan L.; Beckles, Gloria L. A.; Wheeler, Victor W.; Zmuda, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    Population dynamics predict a drastic growth in the number of older minority women, and resultant increases in the number of fractures. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is an important risk factor for fracture. Many studies have identified the lifestyle and health related factors that correlate with BMD in Whites. Few studies have focused on non-Whites. The objective of the current analyses is to examine the lifestyle, anthropometric and health related factors that are correlated with BMD in a population based cohort of Caribbean women of West African ancestry. We enrolled 340 postmenopausal women residing on the Caribbean Island of Tobago. Participants completed a questionnaire and had anthropometric measures taken. Hip BMD was measured by DXA. We estimated volumetric BMD by calculating bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). BMD was 10% and 20% higher across all age groups in Tobagonian women compared to US non-Hispanic Black and White women, respectively. In multiple linear regression models, 35–36% of the variability in femoral neck and total hip BMD respectively was predicted. Each 16 kilogram (one standard deviation (SD)) increase in weight was associated with 7% higher BMD; and weight explained over 10% of the variability of BMD. Each eight year (1 SD) increase in age was associated with 6% lower BMD. Current use of both thiazide diuretics and oral hypoglycemic medication were associated with 4–5% higher BMD. For femoral neck BMAD, 26% of the variability was explained by a multiple linear regression model. Current statin use was associated with 5% higher BMAD and a history of breast feeding or coronary heart disease were associated with 1–1.5% of higher BMAD. In conclusion, African Caribbean women have the highest BMD on a population level reported to date for women. This may reflect low European admixture. Correlates of BMD among Caribbean women of West African ancestry were similar to those reported for U.S. Black and White women. PMID:18448413

  8. Correlates of Initiation of Antifracture Therapy in Older Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends treating certain postmenopausal women with low bone density (BMD). Do physicians and patients adopt these recommendations? We used the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, in which older women, and their doctors, received a copy of their dual x-ray absorptiometry scan. After 2 years, only 30% of those at risk started antifracture therapy; use was far less in black women, even after adjustment for BMD. This may reflect physicians' or patients' uncertainties about the value of treating low BMD, and the lack of data supporting antifracture medicine use in nonwhites. Improving osteoporosis treatment may require patient-specific and provider-targeted interventions in the clinic setting.

  9. The effect of 5alpha-reductase inhibition with finasteride and dutasteride on bone mineral density in older men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mačukat, Indira Radin; Spanjol, Josip; Orlič, Zeljka Crncevič; Butorac, Marta Zuvič; Marinovič, Marin; Ćupič, Dora Fučkar

    2014-09-01

    Testosterone is converted to dihyrotestosterone by two isoenzymes of 5alpha-reductase. Finasteride and dutasteride are 5alpha-reductase inhibitors commonly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We compared indices of bone mineral density in 50 men treated with finasteride, 50 men treated with dutasteride and 50 men as control. Bone mineral density of spine and hip were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring serum osteocalcin and bone resorptionby measuring serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 1. In addition serum total testosteron and estradiol were determined. The dutasteride group had significantly higher mean bone min- eral density, mean bone mineral content, mean T score, mean Z score at femoral neck and mean total hip Z score than control. Mean total testosterone and estradiol levels were higher in the dutasteride group. There were no significant dif- ferences between the groups in lumbar spine bone density parameters or bone turnover markers. Our results provide evidence that long-term 5alpha-reductase suppression does not adversely affect bone mineral density. Dutasteride therapy could have beneficial effect on bone density. PMID:25507347

  10. The effect of 5alpha-reductase inhibition with finasteride and dutasteride on bone mineral density in older men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mačukat, Indira Radin; Spanjol, Josip; Orlič, Zeljka Crncevič; Butorac, Marta Zuvič; Marinovič, Marin; Ćupič, Dora Fučkar

    2014-09-01

    Testosterone is converted to dihyrotestosterone by two isoenzymes of 5alpha-reductase. Finasteride and dutasteride are 5alpha-reductase inhibitors commonly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We compared indices of bone mineral density in 50 men treated with finasteride, 50 men treated with dutasteride and 50 men as control. Bone mineral density of spine and hip were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring serum osteocalcin and bone resorptionby measuring serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 1. In addition serum total testosteron and estradiol were determined. The dutasteride group had significantly higher mean bone min- eral density, mean bone mineral content, mean T score, mean Z score at femoral neck and mean total hip Z score than control. Mean total testosterone and estradiol levels were higher in the dutasteride group. There were no significant dif- ferences between the groups in lumbar spine bone density parameters or bone turnover markers. Our results provide evidence that long-term 5alpha-reductase suppression does not adversely affect bone mineral density. Dutasteride therapy could have beneficial effect on bone density. PMID:25420363

  11. Effects of cadmium, calcium, age and parity on bone mineral, density and strength in female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Weanling female rats were fed diets containing one of three levels of Ca (0.3, 0.6, or 0.9%) and one of four levels of Cd (0, 1, 5, or 10 ppm) in the drinking water. One half of each group was fed first as adolescents (55 days) and the other half as mature (110 days) females. Approximately 10 animals from each group were sacrificed after the first pregnancy and the remaining animals after the fourth pregnancy. Reproductive performance, plasma and bone Ca and P and bone density and strength were measured. After the first pregnancy, offspring of dams treated with 5 or 10 ppm Cd were smaller at birth than offspring of dams treated with 0 or 1 ppm Cd. After the fourth pregnancy, the decreased birth weight was evident only in offspring of dams treated with 10 ppm Cd. Offspring of dams fed 5 or 10 ppm Cd or the 0.3% Ca diet had decreased weaning weight regardless of parity. A 0.3% Ca diet superimposed upon a 5 or 10 ppm Cd intake decreased weaning weight of the male offspring after the first, but not the fourth, pregnancy with the offspring of adolescent dams affected more than those of mature dams. Offspring of dams fed the 0.9% Ca diet did not differ in weaning weight from the offspring of dams fed the 0.6% Ca diet. The 0.3% Ca diet depressed the plasma Ca and the 0.9% Ca diet elevated the plasma Ca and depressed the plasma P when compared to the 0.6% diet.

  12. Short-Term Effects of TNF Inhibitors on Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Orsolini, Giovanni; Adami, Giovanni; Adami, Silvano; Viapiana, Ombretta; Idolazzi, Luca; Gatti, Davide; Rossini, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    TNFα inhibitors (TNFαI) exert positive effects on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Bone involvement is a major determinant of functional impairment in this disease. Here we investigated the short-term effects of TNFαI therapy on bone metabolism and density. We studied 54 patients with RA starting a TNFαI biologic drug, in whom any factor known to interfere with bone metabolism was excluded or rigorously accounted for. We measured at baseline and after 6-month therapy bone turnover markers: N-propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP), and bone alkaline phosphates for bone formation and serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) for bone resorption. We also evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) at hip and lumbar by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All bone markers rose significantly and these changes were not dependent on steroid dosage. A significant decrease in femoral neck BMD was also observed. These results indicate that TNFαI therapy in RA over 6 months is associated with an early increase in bone turnover and a decline in hip BMD. PMID:26887973

  13. The negative correlation between thyrotropin receptor-stimulating antibodies and bone mineral density in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Amashukeli, Medea; Korinteli, Maka; Zerekidze, Tamar; Jikurauli, Nino; Shanava, Shorena; Tsagareli, Marina; Giorgadze, Elen

    2013-06-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder with various clinical manifestations. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs), the circulating autoantibodies specific to Graves' disease, are the cause for hyperthyroidism, the most prevalent abnormality. Hyperthyroidism leads to increased bone turnover and a negative bone balance. The aims of the present study were to determine the relationship between TRAbs and bone mineral density (BMD), to assess the extent of BMD change in patients with Graves' disease, and to determine the impact of conservative and surgical therapy on BMD. Fifty female postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease were chosen for this study. Twenty women had a recent diagnosis of Graves' disease, 30 women presented with a compensated disease state after either conservative or surgical treatment, and 30 healthy postmenopausal women served as controls. Thyroid parameters were measured, and BMD values were obtained by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan.Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and T-scores were significantly lower in newly diagnosed patients compared with the control group, but a difference was not observed between the treated and control groups. Statistical analysis revealed a strong and significant negative correlation between femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and TRAb values.Both surgical and conservative therapies are effective for restoring BMD in postmenopausal patients with Graves' disease, and the increased level of TRAb can be a useful marker of bone density impairment. PMID:23612147

  14. Changes in bone mineral density 10 years after marked reduction of cadmium exposure in a Chinese population

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiao; Zhu, Guoying; Jin, Taiyi; Akesson, Agneta; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Lei, Lijian; Weng, Shifang; Liang, Yihuai

    2009-10-15

    The main focus of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of Cd on forearm bone mineral density after the cessation of the ingestion of Cd-polluted rice. A total of 458 persons (294 women, 164 men) from three Cd exposure areas (low, moderately, and heavy) participated in this study. Those living in the moderate and heavy exposure areas ceased ingesting Cd-polluted rice (0.51 and 3.7 mg/kg, respectively) in 1996 (10 years prior to present analysis). The participants completed a questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. The changes and change percentage in forearm bone density and the prevalence of osteoporosis between 1998 and 2006 were used as markers of bone recovery. The Cd concentrations in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) in 1998 were used as Cd exposure markers. The values of the BMD change and change percentage of groups in which UCd was above 5 {mu}g/g creatinine ({mu}g/g crea) and BCd was above 10 {mu}g/L were significantly higher than those of the low-exposure groups (in women, p<0.001; in men, p>0.05). The BMD change and change percentage correlated positively with the UCd and BCd (in women, p<0.01; in men, p>0.05). Analysis of the Z-score revealed that the prevalence of osteoporosis in 2006 was higher than that in 1998 and increased along with the level of UCd and BCd in both women and men, especially for those subjects with the higher BCd [BCd>5 {mu}g/L, OR=3.45 (0.95-13.6); BCd>10 {mu}g/L, OR=4.51(1.57-13.54)] and UCd [UCd>10 {mu}g/g crea, OR=4.74 (1.82-12.81)] in women. It is concluded that decreasing dietary cadmium exposure at the population level is not associated with bone recovery at the individual level, and the adverse bone effects of Cd exposure persisted after the main source of Cd exposure had been blocked, especially in women.

  15. Minodronic acid ameliorates vertebral bone strength by increasing bone mineral density in 9-month treatment of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Kazuhito; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-07-01

    The effect of treatment for 9months with minodronic acid, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, on vertebral mechanical strength was examined in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. Forty skeletally mature female monkeys were randomized into four OVX groups and one sham group (n=8) based on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD). OVX animals were treated orally with 15 and 150μg/kg QD of minodronic acid or 500μg/kg QD alendronate as a reference drug. Measurements of bone turnover markers and lumbar BMD were conducted at 0, 4 and 8months. Measurements of bone mechanical strength and minodronic acid concentration in vertebral bodies were also performed. OVX resulted in a decrease in lumbar BMD and an increase in bone turnover markers at 4 and 8months, compared to the sham group, and the ultimate load on the lumbar vertebra was decreased in OVX animals. Minodronic acid and alendronate prevented the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover markers and decrease in lumbar BMD. Minodronic acid at 150μg/kg increased the ultimate load on lumbar vertebra compared to untreated OVX animals. Regression analysis revealed that the ultimate load was correlated with lumbar BMD and bone mineral content (BMC), and most strongly with the increase in lumbar BMD and BMC over 8months. In a separate analysis within the sham-OVX controls and minodronic acid and alendronate treatment groups, the ultimate loads were also correlated with BMD and BMC. The load-BMD (BMC) correlation in the minodronic acid group showed a trend for a shift to a higher load from the basal relationship in the sham-OVX controls. These results indicate that treatment with minodronic acid for 9months increases vertebral mechanical strength in OVX monkeys, mainly by increasing BMD and BMC. PMID:27155564

  16. LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF A WEIGHT-BEARING BONE AMONG ADULT WOMEN IN A HIGH FERTILITY POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret A.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging posit that greater reproductive effort causes somatic decline given a fundamental trade-off between investing energy in reproduction and repair. Few studies in high fertility human populations support this hypothesis, and problems of phenotypic correlation can obscure the expected trade-off between reproduction and somatic condition. This cross-sectional study investigates whether greater reproductive effort is associated with reduced calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) among female Tsimane forager-farmers of lowland Bolivia. We also investigate whether female Tsimane BMD values are lower than sex- and age-matched US reference values, despite the fact that Tsimane engage in higher physical activity levels that can increase mechanical loading. To measure calcaneal BMD, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on 130 women (mean ± SD age = 36.6 ± 15.7, range = 15 – 75) that were recruited regardless of past or current reproductive status. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during routine medical exams. As predicted, higher parity, short inter-birth interval, and earlier age at first birth are associated with reduced BMD among Tsimane women after adjusting for potential confounders. Population-level differences are apparent prior to the onset of reproduction, and age-related decline in BMD is greater among Tsimane compared to American women. Greater cumulative reproductive burden may lower calcaneal BMD individually and jointly with other lifestyle and heritable factors. Fitness impacts of kin transfers in adulthood may determine the value of investments in bone remodeling, and thus affect selection on age-profiles of bone mineral loss. PMID:25488367

  17. Assessment of bone mineral density by DXA and the trabecular microarchitecture of the calcaneum by texture analysis in pre- and postmenopausal women in the evaluation of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Karunanithi, R; Ganesan, S; Panicker, T M R; Korath, M Paul; Jagadeesan, K

    2007-10-01

    The in vivo evaluation of trabecular bone structure could be useful in the diagnosis of osteoporosis for the characterization of therapeutic response and understanding the role of parameters other than bone mineral density (BMD) in defining skeletal status. This study was made to evaluate changes taking place in the trabecular architecture of bone with age and menopausal status in women. The findings are compared with the femoral neck bone as well as the trochantar bone mineral density determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is a standard reference test for evaluation of osteoporosis. Seventy females were recruited for the study, 25 premenopausal (mean age ± SD: 39.4 ± 3.8) and 45 postmenopausal (mean age ± SD: 57.9 ± 7.9) women. The right femoral neck bone mineral density was measured for them by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For the same individuals, lateral view radiographs of the right calcaneum were taken as well. The radiographs were digitized and the region of interest (ROI) of 256 × 256 pixels was selected, the run length matrix was computed for calculating seven parameters [Table 1] and the two dimensional fast Fourier transform of the image was calculated. Using the FFT, the power spectral density (PSD) was derived and the root mean square (RMS) value was determined. Our results confirm that age has a significant influence on the texture of the trabecular bone and bone mineral density. PMID:21224926

  18. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Smietana, Michael J.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V.; Larkin, Lisa M.

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These

  19. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace elements in response to supervised aerobic training in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Muaz H

    2016-01-01

    Background Life style and physical activity play a pivotal role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism for better bone metabolism and improvement of physical disorders is not clear yet. Trace minerals such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn are essential precursors for most vital biological process, especially those of bone health. Objective The main target of this study was evaluating the effective role of supervised aerobic exercise for 1 hour/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks in the functions of trace elements in bone health through measuring bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis (T-score), bone markers, and trace element concentrations in healthy subjects aged 30–60 years with age average of 41.2±4.9. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (47 males, 53 females; age range 30–60 years) were recruited for this study. Based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan analysis, the participants were classified into three groups: normal (n=30), osteopenic (n=40), and osteoporotic (n=30). Following, 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), BMD, T-score, and trace elements such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results Significant improvement in serum BAP level, T-score, and BMD were observed in all participants following 12 weeks of moderate exercise. Participants with osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in serum Ca and Mn, along with decrease in serum Cu and Zn levels following 12 weeks of aerobic training. In control group, the improvements in serum trace elements and body mass index were significantly linked with the enhancement in the levels of BAP, BMD hip, and BMD spine. These results supported the preventive effects of moderate exercise in healthy subjects against osteoporosis. In both sexes, the changes in serum trace elements significantly correlated (P<0.05) with the improvement in BAP, BMD hip, BMD spine, and body mass index in all groups

  20. Effect of Tai-chi exercise on lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Xu, Rong-Mei; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Shen, Guo-Qing; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: To study the effect of Tai-chi exercise on lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of elderly female, 105 urban elderly women, who do insufficient exercise in daily life, are selected as the subject and randomly divided into an observation group (Tai Chi Group), a control group I (Dance Group) and a control group II (Walking Group). Each group is consists of 35 women. Among them, the women in the observation group do Tai-chi exercise once a day, while the women in the control group I dance once a day and in the control group II stick to brisk walking once a day. All women in the three groups do the above said exercises for 40 minutes and the exercise intensity is controlled to be medium. At the time of selection and after 4, 8 and 12 months upon their exercises, respectively detect and compare the lower limb skeletal muscle mass, lower limb muscle strength, bone mineral density and balance function of the subject. Results: At the time of selection, the general information of the subjects in the three groups show no significant difference (P > 0.05); however, after 4 months’ exercise, most of the study indexes in the control group I and group II are improved significantly (P < 0.05), while most of the study indexes in the observation group show no significant difference (P > 0.05) in comparison with those at the time of selection and their general improvement effect is slightly lower than that in the control group; after 8 months, relevant study indexes of the subjects in the three groups are significantly improved (P < 0.05) in comparison with those at the time of selection, especially, the effect in the observation group is more obvious and is better than that of the control group II (P < 0.05). 12 months later, the effect of the observation group is improved significantly from day to day when comparing to theose in the control group I and group II (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Conclusion: Compared with the senile dance and

  1. Comparison of bone tissue trace-element concentrations and mineral density in osteoporotic femoral neck fractures and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Karaaslan, Fatih; Mutlu, Mahmut; Mermerkaya, Musa Uğur; Karaoğlu, Sinan; Saçmaci, Şerife; Kartal, Şenol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the role of trace elements in osteoporosis by comparing the trace-element concentrations in bone and the radiographic bone density and bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with osteoporotic femur fractures and osteoarthritis. Patients and methods The study enrolled 30 patients operated on for proximal femoral fractures after falls, and another 30 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty at the same center for hip osteoarthritis. Bone samples were obtained during the surgical procedures. The density of the bone samples was assessed using computed tomography and the Hounsfield scale. The levels of Ca(II), Mg(II), and other trace elements in the bone samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, BMD, Z-scores, and T-scores were measured in the unaffected hips of all patients using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Magnesium (1,908±507 versus 2,540±435, P<0.05), calcium (10.4±3.5 versus 13.9±3.7, P<0.05), and zinc (2,342±1,252 versus 3,145±1,604, P<0.05) μg g−1, levels were significantly lower in the bone samples in the fracture group. The groups did not differ in the other biochemical parameters. All dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry findings were significantly worse in the fracture group than in the osteoarthritis group. However, the groups did not differ in femoral neck density assessed radiologically using the Hounsfield scale. The following parameters were negatively correlated with age: magnesium, r=−0.436, P<0.001; calcium, r=−0.331, P=0.01; T-score, r=−0.381, P=0.003; Z-score, r=−0.267, P=0.043; and BMD, r=−0.365, P=0.004. Conclusion Ca(II), Mg(II), and Zn(II) appear to play important roles in bone breakdown/synthesis. Further studies of the roles of trace elements in the etiology and treatment of osteoporosis are warranted. We found decreased bone levels of Ca, Mg, and Zn in patients with osteoporotic fractures compared to

  2. Effect of age on bone mineral density and micro architecture in the radius and tibia of horses: An Xtreme computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, A; Meier, D; Michel, S; Schmidlin, A; Held, L; Laib, A

    2008-01-01

    Background The effect of age on the bone mineral density and microarchitecture of the equine radius and tibia was investigated. Fifty-six bones from 15 horses aged four to 21 years were used. There were nine geldings and six mares, and none of the horses had any disease influencing bone properties. Xtreme computed tomography was used to evaluate a 9-mm segment of the diaphysis and metaphysis of each bone. The following variables were determined: length of the bone, circumference and diameter in the frontal and sagittal planes in the middle of the bone. Diaphysis: total volume, bone volume, bone volume ratio, slice area, bone area, marrow area, cortical and marrow thickness, bone mineral density, polar moment of inertia of the cortex. Metaphysis: total area, bone area, cortical bone area, cortical thickness, bone mineral density, bone mineral density in the cortex, bone mineral density in the trabecular region, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, polar moment of inertia of the metaphysis, polar moment of inertia of the cortex of the metaphysis. Results Bone density and microarchitecture were not affected by breed or gender. However, the microarchitecture varied with the age of the horse; the number of trabeculae decreased significantly and the distance between trabeculae increased significantly with increasing age. There were no significant differences between bones of the left and right limbs or between the radius and tibia. Conclusion The variables investigated did not differ between geldings and mares. However, there were age-related changes in the microstructure of the bones. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine whether these changes reduce bone strength. Age-related changes in the bones were seen and may explain the higher incidence of fractures and fissures in older horses. PMID:18221526

  3. Comparisons of bone mineral density and bone quality in adult rock climbers, resistance-trained men, and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2010-09-01

    The nature of muscular contractions and episodes of impact loading during technical rock climbing are often varied and complex, and the resulting effects on bone health are unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and tibia and forearm bone quality in male rock climbers (RC) (n = 15), resistance trained men (RT) (n = 16), and untrained male controls (CTR) (n = 16). Total body, anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm aBMD and body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy, v. 10.50.086; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.A.). Volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone content, bone area, and muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) of the tibia and forearm were measured using pQCT (peripheral quantitative computed tomography; Stratec XCT 3000, Pforzheim, Germany). No significant group differences were seen in bone-free lean body mass. CTR had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body fat % than RC and RT and significantly (p < 0.05) greater fat mass than RC. Lumbar spine and femoral neck aBMD were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in RT compared to both RC and CTR. RC had significantly (p < 0.05) lower aBMD at the 33% radius site than CTR. Forearm MCSA was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in CTR than in the other groups. No significant differences were seen between groups for vBMD or bone area of the tibia and forearm. In conclusion, resistance-trained men had higher bone density at the central skeletal sites than rock climbers; however, bone quality variables of the peripheral limbs were similar in rock climber and resistance-trained groups. PMID:20093970

  4. Weight in infancy and adult calcium absorption as determinants of bone mineral density in adult men: the Hertfordshire cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patel, M B R; Makepeace, A E; Jameson, K A; Masterson, L M; Holt, R I G; Swaminathan, R; Javaid, M K; Cooper, C; Arden, N K

    2012-12-01

    Adult bone mass is modified by early life environmental influences, but the mechanism of this association is uncertain. Data support an inverse relationship between intestinal calcium absorption (αCa) and birth weight in women. However, little is known regarding determinants in men. This study examines the association between weight in infancy and adult αCa in healthy men and whether this could be a mechanism by which the early life environment may influence bone mass. Men were recruited from the MRC Hertfordshire Cohort Study, for whom detailed early life records were available. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured using a Hologic QDR 4500 at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine. We randomly selected 123 men stratified by birth weight and assessed αCa using the stable strontium absorption test. The mean age was 63.6 (SD 2.5) years. αCa was not associated with birth weight or weight at 1 year. FN aBMD was associated with both weight at 1 year (r = 0.20, p = 0.03) and αCa (r = 0.20, p = 0.03). Both of these associations remained statistically significant in a mutually adjusted, multivariable model but would account for only ~4 % variance in BMD. We demonstrated a positive association between weight at 1 year and aBMD and between αCa and FN BMD, but no association was found between birth weight and αCa. This suggests that in men, although αCa is a contributing factor in FN bone density, it is not the main mechanism whereby the early environment modifies adult BMD. PMID:23010962

  5. Cervical Vertebral Trabecular Bone Mineral Density in Great Danes With and Without Osseous-Associated Cervical Spondylomyelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J.; da Costa, R.C.; Martin-Vaquero, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Great Danes (GDs) with osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) have osteoarthritis (OA) of the cervical vertebrae. OA is often associated with increases in bone mineral density (BMD) in people and dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives To compare the trabecular BMD of the cervical vertebrae between clinically normal (control) GDs and GDs with osseous-associated CSM by using computed tomography (CT). We hypothesized that the vertebral trabecular BMD of CSM-affected GDs would be higher than that of control GDs. Animals Client-owned GDs: 12 controls, 10 CSM affected. Methods Prospective study. CT of the cervical vertebral column was obtained alongside a calibration phantom. By placing a circular region of interest at the articular process joints, vertebral body, pedicles, and within each rod of the calibration phantom, trabecular BMD was measured in Hounsfield units, which were converted to diphosphate equivalent densities. Trabecular BMD measurements were compared between CSM-affected and control dogs, and between males and females within the control group. Results Differences between CSM-affected and control dogs were not significant for the articular processes (mean = −39; P = .37; 95% CI: −102 to 24), vertebral bodies (mean = −62; P = .08; 95% CI: −129 to 6), or pedicles (mean = −36; P = .51; 95% CI: −105 to 33). Differences between female and male were not significant. Conclusions and Clinical Importance This study revealed no difference in BMD between control and CSM-affected GDs. Based on our findings no association was detected between cervical OA and BMD in GDs with CSM. PMID:25312453

  6. Predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens with bone mineral density features and support vector regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Markus B.; Yang, Chien-Chun; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Wismüller, Axel

    2012-03-01

    To improve the clinical assessment of osteoporotic hip fracture risk, recent computer-aided diagnosis systems explore new approaches to estimate the local trabecular bone quality beyond bone density alone to predict femoral bone strength. In this context, statistical bone mineral density (BMD) features extracted from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of proximal femur specimens and different function approximations methods were compared in their ability to predict the biomechanical strength. MDCT scans were acquired in 146 proximal femur specimens harvested from human cadavers. The femurs' failure load (FL) was determined through biomechanical testing. An automated volume of interest (VOI)-fitting algorithm was used to define a consistent volume in the femoral head of each specimen. In these VOIs, the trabecular bone was represented by statistical moments of the BMD distribution and by pairwise spatial occurrence of BMD values using the gray-level co-occurrence (GLCM) approach. A linear multi-regression analysis (MultiReg) and a support vector regression algorithm with a linear kernel (SVRlin) were used to predict the FL from the image feature sets. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each image feature on independent test sets; in addition the coefficient of determination R2 was calculated. The best prediction result was obtained with a GLCM feature set using SVRlin, which had the lowest prediction error (RSME = 1.040+/-0.143, R2 = 0.544) and which was significantly lower that the standard approach of using BMD.mean and MultiReg (RSME = 1.093+/-0.133, R2 = 0.490, p<0.0001). The combined sets including BMD.mean and GLCM features had a similar or slightly lower performance than using only GLCM features. The results indicate that the performance of high-dimensional BMD features extracted from MDCT images in predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens can be significantly improved by

  7. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on bone mineral density, thyroid, and oxidative stress index in electrical workers

    PubMed Central

    Kunt, Halil; Şentürk, İhsan; Gönül, Yücel; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Ahsen, Ahmet; Hazman, Ömer; Bal, Ahmet; Genç, Abdurrahman; Songur, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Background In the literature, some articles report that the incidence of numerous diseases increases among the individuals who live around high-voltage electric transmission lines (HVETL) or are exposed vocationally. However, it was not investigated whether HVETL affect bone metabolism, oxidative stress, and the prevalence of thyroid nodule. Methods Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) bone density measurements, serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), RANK, RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), phosphor, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were analyzed to investigate this effect. Results Bone mineral density levels of L1–L4 vertebrae and femur were observed significantly lower in the electrical workers. ALP, phosphor, RANK, RANKL, TOS, OSI, and anteroposterior diameter of the left thyroid lobe levels were significantly higher, and OPG, TAS, and FT4 levels were detected significantly lower in the study group when compared with the control group. Conclusion Consequently, it was observed that the balance between construction and destruction in the bone metabolism of the electrical workers who were employed in HVETL replaced toward destruction and led to a decrease in OPG levels and an increase in RANK and RANKL levels. In line with the previous studies, long-term exposure to an electromagnetic field causes disorders in many organs and systems. Thus, it is considered that long-term exposure to an electromagnetic field affects bone and thyroid metabolism and also increases OSI by increasing the TOS and decreasing the antioxidant status. PMID:26929645

  8. Determination of the composition of the organic matter chemically stabilized by agricultural soil clay minerals: Spectroscopy and Density Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oufqir, Sofia; Bloom, Paul; Toner, Brandy; Hatcher, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between soil organic matter and clay minerals are considered important processes because of their ability to sequester C in soil for long periods of time, and hence control C in the global C cycle when present. However, differing results have been reported regarding the composition of the soil organic matter - aromatic fractions versus aliphatic fractions - associated with clay minerals. To clarify this critical issue and better understand the C sequestration process in soils, we aimed to determine the nature of the chemically bound natural organic matter on clay surfaces, and to probe the speciation and spatial distribution of C in the soil clay nanoparticles using direct spectroscopic measurements namely solid-state CP-MAS and DP-MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). We tested the hypotheses that peptides and polysaccharides are stabilized by the smectite-illite clay while the lipids and black carbon are a separate phase; and that they are evenly distributed on clay surfaces. A soil clay fraction (5.5% organic C) was isolated from the surface of a prairie soil (Mollisol) in southwestern Minnesota, characterized by a pH 6.0, 32.5% clay content, and 3.7% organic carbon, using a sonication-sedimentation-siphoning process in distilled water. Then was subjected to density separation combined with low energy ultrasonic dispersion to separate the free organic and black C (light fraction) from the chemically bound C (heavy fraction). The XRD results indicated a dominance of interstratified smectite-illite clays in soil. The 13C-NMR spectra of the soil clay fraction suggested that polysaccharides and polypeptides are the prevailing components of the organic matter associated with the mineral clay, with only a minor component of aromatic C. The light fraction has strong alkyl C-H bands characteristic of fatty acids plus strong C-O bands characteristic of polysaccharides, including

  9. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  10. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  11. INTERLEUKIN 6-174C>G POLYMORPHISM IS ASSOCIATED WITH LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN OLDER SUBJECTS CONSUMING LOW CALCIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic proinflammtory cytokine that influences bone turnover. A common genetic variant at IL6 locus (-174C>G) has been inconsistently associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). The interaction between this polymorphism and calcium intake may account for the equivoc...

  12. Inverse association of carotenoid intakes with 4-year change in bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that carotenoids may inhibit bone resorption and stimulate proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Few studies have examined the association between carotenoid intake (other than beta-carotene) and bone mineral density (BMD). We evaluated associations b...

  13. Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in Older Chinese Population Based on Bone Mineral Density at Multiple Skeletal Sites.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Chien; Lin, Ying Chin; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chieng, Poon-Ung; Chan, Wing P

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, which is site dependent and commonly discordant between measurement sites. We aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis diagnosed based on BMD T-scores measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at different sites: the lumbar spine (LS) alone, femoral neck (FN) alone, or both. A total of 1712 women and 2028 men with LS and FN BMD measurements were enrolled. Over 50% discordance was found between osteoporosis classifications based on T-scores measured at the LS and FN. Use of the lowest T-scores measured at both the LS and right and left FN (rather than one site) significantly increased the prevalence of osteoporosis from 4.03 to 10.75% in postmenopausal women and 1.82 to 4.29% in men aged ≧50 years (p < 0.001). The trends of overall and age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis were similar in women and men. Osteoporosis was diagnosed at a higher rate if the USA reference rather than the Asia reference was used to calculate the T-score (26.64% vs. 10.75%). In conclusion, diagnosis based on the lowest T-score from multiple site BMD measurement can increase the prevalence of osteoporosis, demonstrating the higher sensitivity of the multiple site measurement strategy. PMID:27143609

  14. Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor/osteoprotegerin ameliorates the decrease in both bone mineral density and bone strength in immobilized rats.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shin-ichi; Fujise, Nobuaki; Higashio, Kanji; Tsuda, Eisuke

    2002-01-01

    Rat models of immobilization-induced osteopenia are characterized by uncoupling of bone metabolism, i.e., increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation in trabecular bone. Using such a rat model, the efficacy of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF)/osteoprotegerin, a novel secreted protein that inhibits osteoclastogenesis, in reducing bone loss was investigated. Male Fischer rats were neurectomized and injected intramuscularly with either OCIF (0.2, 1.0, or 5.0 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle once daily for 7 days. On the eighth day after sciatic neurectomy, significant bone loss was observed in the vehicle-injected rats. OCIF ameliorated the decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of both the proximal and distal femur in a dose-dependent manner. OCIF also ameliorated the decrease in bone strength of the femoral neck at the highest dose. A high correlation (r = 0.805) was detected between the BMD of the distal femur and the bone strength of the femoral neck. When OCIF was administered intermittently to the immobilized rats twice weekly (on days 1 and 4) after immobilization, it also ameliorated the decrease in BMD of the distal femur. These results suggest that OCIF has therapeutic potential for the treatment of immobilization-induced osteopenia. PMID:11810411

  15. Calcium and Dairy Products Consumption and Association with Total Hip Bone Mineral Density in Women from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Bahtiri, Elton; Islami, Hilmi; Hoxha, Rexhep; Bytyqi, Hasime Qorraj-; Sermaxhaj, Faton; Halimi, Enis

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: There is paucity of evidence in southeastern Europe and Kosovo regarding dairy products consumption and association with bone mineral density (BMD). Therefore, the objective of present study was to assess calcium intake and dairy products consumption and to investigate relationship with total hip BMD in a Kosovo women sample. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a sample of 185 women divided into respective groups according to total hip BMD. All the study participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to estimate BMD. Nonparametric tests were performed to compare characteristics of the groups. Results: The average dietary calcium intake was 818.41 mg/day. Only 16.75% of the subjects met calcium recommended dietary reference intakes (DRIs). There were no significant differences between low BMD group and normal BMD group regarding average dietary calcium intake, but it was significantly higher in BMDT3 subgroup than in BMDT2 and BMDT1 subgroups. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate significant relationship of daily dietary calcium intake with upper BMD tertile. Further initiatives are warranted from this study to highlight the importance of nutrition education. PMID:25568548

  16. Association of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Women and Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Results: Total hip BMD levels of obese menopausal and premenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared to overweight or normal weight subjects, while lumbar spine BMD levels of only menopausal women and men were higher among obese subjects. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that BMI is a significant independent associate of lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women and men. Conclusion: Despite positive association between BMI and lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women, presence of more obese and osteoporotic subjects among menopausal women represent a population at risk for fractures because of poor balance and frequent falls; therefore, both obesity and osteoporosis prevention efforts should begin early on in life. PMID:26543419

  17. Association analyses of FGFR2 gene polymorphisms with femoral neck bone mineral density in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan-Shan; Yang, Tie-Lin; Yan, Han; Rong, Zheng-Qin; Chen, Jia-Bin; Hao, Ruo-Han; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) is the most important risk phenotype for osteoporosis and has been used as a reference standard for describing osteoporosis. Identification of genetic variations associated with FN BMD may provide potential targets for therapeutic studies. Given the important biological role of FGFR2 gene involved in bone, we tested the associations between FGFR2 polymorphisms and FN BMD in 1,300 Chinese Han subjects. Of the 28 total SNPs, 2 SNPs, namely rs11200014 and rs1078806, were significantly associated with FN BMD under dominant model (P = 0.0014 and 0.0012, respectively) after conservative Bonferroni correction. The two SNPs were in complete linkage disequilibrium. In addition, haplotype-based association tests identified two haplotypes significantly associated with FN BMD, including one haplotype in block 4 where the two SNPs located. However, different from previous studies in white older men, we did not detect any significant association in sex-stratified analyses. In summary, our findings suggest that the FGFR2 gene may play an important role in variation in FN BMD in Chinese Han population, independent of gender effects. Further studies performed in multiple and large samples are needed to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism and pathophysiology of osteoporosis. PMID:25300516

  18. Effects of ultrasound on estradiol level, bone mineral density, bone biomechanics and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in ovariectomized rabbits

    PubMed Central

    XIA, LU; HE, HONGCHEN; GUO, HUA; QING, YUXI; HE, CHENG-QI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of ultrasound (US) on estradiol level, bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomechanics and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rabbits. A total of 28 virgin New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned into the following groups: Control (control group), ovariectomy (OVX group), ovariectomy with ultrasound therapy (US group) and ovariectomy with estrogen replacement therapy group (ERT group). At 8 weeks after ovariectomy, the US group received ultrasound treatment while the ERT group were orally treated with conjugated estrogens, and the control and OVX groups remained untreated. The estradiol level, BMD and bone biomechanics, cartilage histology and the MMP-13 expression were analyzed after the intervention. The results indicate that the US treatment increased estradiol level, BMD and bone biomechanical function. Furthermore, the US treatment appeared to improve the recovery of cartilage morphology and decreased the expression of MMP-13 in OVX models. Furthermore, the results suggest that 10 days of US therapy was sufficient to prevent the reduction of estradiol, BMD and bone biomechanical function, to protect osteoarthritis cartilage structure, and to reduce MMP-13 transcription and expression in OVX rabbits. Therefore, US treatment may be a potential treatment for postmenopausal osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. PMID:26622502

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study Using Extreme Truncate Selection Identifies Novel Genes Affecting Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Emma L.; Danoy, Patrick; Kemp, John P.; Leo, Paul J.; McCloskey, Eugene; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Eastell, Richard; Prince, Richard L.; Eisman, John A.; Jones, Graeme; Sambrook, Philip N.; Reid, Ian R.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Wark, John; Richards, J. Brent; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Spector, Tim D.; Esapa, Chris; Cox, Roger D.; Brown, Steve D. M.; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Addison, Kathryn A.; Bradbury, Linda A.; Center, Jacqueline R.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cremin, Catherine; Estrada, Karol; Felsenberg, Dieter; Glüer, Claus-C.; Hadler, Johanna; Henry, Margaret J.; Hofman, Albert; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Makovey, Joanna; Nguyen, Sing C.; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Pasco, Julie A.; Pryce, Karena; Reid, David M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Roux, Christian; Stefansson, Kari; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tichawangana, Rumbidzai; Evans, David M.; Brown, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporotic fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a major predisposing factor to fracture and is known to be highly heritable. Site-, gender-, and age-specific genetic effects on BMD are thought to be significant, but have largely not been considered in the design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of BMD to date. We report here a GWAS using a novel study design focusing on women of a specific age (postmenopausal women, age 55–85 years), with either extreme high or low hip BMD (age- and gender-adjusted BMD z-scores of +1.5 to +4.0, n = 1055, or −4.0 to −1.5, n = 900), with replication in cohorts of women drawn from the general population (n = 20,898). The study replicates 21 of 26 known BMD–associated genes. Additionally, we report suggestive association of a further six new genetic associations in or around the genes CLCN7, GALNT3, IBSP, LTBP3, RSPO3, and SOX4, with replication in two independent datasets. A novel mouse model with a loss-of-function mutation in GALNT3 is also reported, which has high bone mass, supporting the involvement of this gene in BMD determination. In addition to identifying further genes associated with BMD, this study confirms the efficiency of extreme-truncate selection designs for quantitative trait association studies. PMID:21533022

  20. Gene-dietary fat interaction, bone mineral density and bone speed of sound in Children: a twin study in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ji; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Scope Dietary fat correlates with bone mineral density (BMD). We tested the association between fat intake and BMD, and tested if fat intake modified the degree of genetic influence on BMD and bone speed of sound (SOS). Methods and results We included 622 twins aged 7–15 y from South China. Data on anthropometry, dietary intake, BMD, and SOS were collected. Quantitative genetic analyses of structural equation models were fit using the Mx statistical package. The within-pair intra-class correlations (ICC) for BMD in DZ twins were nearly half of that for MZ twins (ICC=0.39 vs 0.70). The heritability of BMD and SOS were 71% and 79%. Phenotypic correlation between fat intake and SOS was significant (r=−0.19, p=0.04). SOS was negatively correlated with fat intake in boys (r=−0.11, p=0.05), but not in girls. Full Cholesky decomposition models showed SOS has a strong genetic correlation with fat intake (rA =−0.88, 95% CI=−0.94, 0.01); the environmental correlation between fat intake and SOS was weak (rE =−0.04, 95% CI=−0.20, 0.13). Fat intake modified the additive genetic effects on BMD. Conclusion Genetic factors explained 71% and 79% of individual variance in BMD and SOS, respectively. Low fat intake counteracts genetic predisposition to low BMD. PMID:25546604

  1. Lack of association of vitamin D receptor BsmI gene polymorphism with bone mineral density in Spanish postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J.; Vera, Vicente; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M.; Fernandez, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenic disorder that is determined by the effects of several genes, each with relatively modest effects on bone mass. The aim of this study was to determine whether the vitamin D receptor single nucleotide polymorphism BsmI is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish postmenopausal women. A total of 210 unrelated healthy postmenopausal women aged 60 ± 8 years were genotyped using TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays. Lumbar and femoral BMD were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Daily calcium and vitamin D intake were determined by a food questionnaire. No differences were found in the femoral neck, trochanter, Ward’s Triangle, L2, L3, L4, L2-L4, or between the femoral neck and total hip BMD after further adjustment for potential confounding factors (P > 0.05) (age, BMI, years since menopause and daily calcium intake). The BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene was not associated with BMD in Spanish postmenopausal women. PMID:26157644

  2. Factors influencing the late phase of recovery after bone mineral density loss in allogeneic stem cell transplantation survivors.

    PubMed

    Anandi, P; Jain, N A; Tian, X; Wu, C O; Pophali, P A; Koklanaris, E; Ito, S; Savani, B N; Barrett, J; Battiwalla, M

    2016-08-01

    Accelerated bone mineral density loss (BMDL) occurs early after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and is related to factors such as steroids and chronic GvHD. In order to understand the natural history of BMDL of SCT in the longer term, we evaluated a longitudinal cohort of 148 survivors with a median follow-up of 12 years (range 3-22 years). All women received hormone replacement therapy, and routine calcium/vitamin D supplementation was recommended but ∼50% of patients still had suboptimal vitamin D levels and bisphosphonates were rarely utilized. BMD significantly improved from 5 to 20+ years but the femoral neck and forearm remained vulnerable sites. Younger age, higher pretransplant body mass index (BMI) and increment in BMI post transplant were significantly associated with increased BMD and protected against osteopenia/osteoporosis. These findings support consideration of BMD loss in SCT survivors in two phases, an early phase of BMD loss (3-5 years) followed by a later phase of BMD recovery, with different protective and aggravating factors. Treatment- and transplant-related factors (such as steroids, immunosuppressives, chronic GvHD, vitamin D) are known to impact the early phase of BMD loss but age and BMI are more influential in the late phase of BMD recovery. PMID:27042843

  3. Is bone mineral density measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry affected by gamma rays?

    PubMed

    Xie, Liang-Jun; Li, Jian-Fang; Zeng, Feng-Wei; Jiang, Hang; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Chen, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide effect bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Nine subjects (mean age: 56 ± 17.96 yr) scheduled for bone scanning underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic/Discovery A) before and 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP). Ten subjects (mean age: 41 ± 15.47 yr) scheduled for therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with iodine-131 underwent BMD measurement before and 2 h after therapeutic radionuclide administration. All patients were given whole body BMD measurement, including head, arm, ribs, lumbar spine, pelvis, and leg sites. Besides, patients who referred to radioiodine therapy were given total hip and femoral neck BMD measurement as well. No statistically significant changes in BMD values were detected after 99mTc-MDP and iodine-131 administration for all measurement sites (p > 0.05), and individual difference of BMD before and after radionuclide imaging or therapy was less than the least significant change in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. In conclusion, BMD measurements are not influenced by the gamma rays emitted from technetium-99m and iodine-131. DXA bone densitometry may be performed simultaneously with bone scanning and radioiodine therapy. PMID:23473956

  4. A review of the effect of swim training and nutrition on bone mineral density in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present paper reviews the physiological adaptation to swim training and dietary supplementation relating to bone mineral density (BMD) in female swimmers. Swim training still seems to have conflicting effects on bone health maintenance in athletes. [Methods] This review article focuses on swim training combined with dietary supplementation with respect to BMD in female athletes. [Results] Upon review of previous studies, it became obvious that the majority of studies did not collect physical activity data on the swimmers outside of their swimming activities. These activities may have some influence on the BMD of swimmers and therefore, future studies need to examine additional physical activity history data as well as swim training. This additional information may help to explain why swimmers' BMD tends to be lower than the BMD of control individuals in many studies. Moreover, dietary supplementation such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D also affect bone health in swimmers, and it is extremely important to evaluate BMD in the context of dietary supplementation. [Conclusion] A review of the literature suggests that exercise intervention studies, including longitudinal and randomized control trials, need to attempt to introduce various exercise programs to female swimmers in order to determine the optimal exercise prescription for bone health. PMID:27274459

  5. Lack of association of vitamin D receptor BsmI gene polymorphism with bone mineral density in Spanish postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jose M; Pedrera-Canal, Maria; Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J; Vera, Vicente; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Fernandez, Pilar; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenic disorder that is determined by the effects of several genes, each with relatively modest effects on bone mass. The aim of this study was to determine whether the vitamin D receptor single nucleotide polymorphism BsmI is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish postmenopausal women. A total of 210 unrelated healthy postmenopausal women aged 60 ± 8 years were genotyped using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping Assays. Lumbar and femoral BMD were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Daily calcium and vitamin D intake were determined by a food questionnaire. No differences were found in the femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's Triangle, L2, L3, L4, L2-L4, or between the femoral neck and total hip BMD after further adjustment for potential confounding factors (P > 0.05) (age, BMI, years since menopause and daily calcium intake). The BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene was not associated with BMD in Spanish postmenopausal women. PMID:26157644

  6. Poor agreement between self-reported diagnosis and bone mineral density results in the identification of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J; Brennan, Sharon L; Kotowicz, Mark A; Pasco, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health concern, estimated to affect millions worldwide. Bone mineral density (BMD) assessment is not practical for many large-scale epidemiological studies resulting in the reliance of self-report methods to ascertain diagnostic information. The aim of the study was to assess the validity of self-reported diagnosis of osteoporosis in a population-based study. This study examined data collected from 906 men and 843 women participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporosis was self-reported and compared against results of BMD scans of the hip and spine. Validity was examined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and kappa statistic. Osteoporosis was self-reported by 118 (6.7%) participants and identified using BMD results for 64 (3.7%) participants. Specificity and negative predictive value were good (95.1% and 96.0%, respectively), whereas sensitivity and positive predictive value were poor (35.9% and 31.4%, respectively). The overall level of agreement (kappa) was 0.29. The results changed only slightly when we included participants with osteopenia and adult fracture as osteoporotic. Reliance on self-report methods to ascertain osteoporosis status is not recommended. PMID:24912958

  7. Relationship of body composition, knee extensor strength, and standing balance to lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal females

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungsub; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate correlations between lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and general characteristics of postmenopausal females, including body composition, knee extensor strength, standing balance, and femur BMD. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 postmenopausal females (55.6 ± 4.6 years) who were caregivers or guardians of patients in the K hospital were included in the study. The weight, height, body composition, left and right knee extensor strength, standing balance, femur BMD, and lumbar BMD measurements of the subjects were obtained. [Results] The effect of measurement variables on lumbar BMD was examined. Increases in age and menopausal duration were observed to significantly increase lumbar BMD, whereas an increase in height was found to significantly decrease lumbar BMD. An increase in soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass, and femur BMD was also associated with significantly decreased lumbar BMD. [Conclusion] Age, menopausal duration, soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, and fat-free mass were factors that decreased lumbar BMD in menopausal females. This study is expected to provide basic knowledge for osteoporosis prevention and treatment programs for postmenopausal females. PMID:27512276

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Bone Mineral Density in Korean HIV-Infected Patients: Impact of Abacavir and Zidovudine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Sung; Chin, Bum Sik

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in HIV-infected patients. We aimed to describe the prevalence of low BMD and risk factors in Korean HIV-infected patients and to assess the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on BMD. We retrospectively evaluated 224 HIV infected-patients. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis were 41.5% and 12.9%. These were much higher in 53 patients aged 50 yr and older (52.8% and 34.0%). Older age, lower body mass index, and ART > 3 months were independent risk factors for low BMD. Osteoporosis was more prevalent in patients on the abacavir-based regimen for < 1 yr than ≥ 1 yr; however, it was more prevalent in patients on the zidovudine-based regimen for ≥ 1 yr than < 1 yr (P = 0.017). Osteoporosis in patients on the abacavir-based regimen was more common in the spine than in the femur (P = 0.01). Given such a high prevalence of low BMD, close monitoring of BMD for HIV-infected patients on ART is required. The different prevalence of osteoporosis over time and affected areas between two regimens suggest they may play roles in different mechanisms in bone loss. PMID:23772145

  9. Bone Mineral Density in Gravida: Effect of Pregnancies and Breast-Feeding in Women of Differing Ages and Parity

    PubMed Central

    Mishukov, Yuri; Babchenko, Liana; Samueloff, Arnon; Zimran, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20–46 years), parity (1–13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). PMID:25506038

  10. Bone mineral density in gravida: effect of pregnancies and breast-feeding in women of differing ages and parity.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Ehud; Mishukov, Yuri; Babchenko, Liana; Samueloff, Arnon; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20-46 years), parity (1-13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). PMID:25506038

  11. Effect of replacement of mandibular defects with a modular endoprosthesis on bone mineral density in a monkey model.

    PubMed

    Wong, R C W; Lee, S; Tideman, H; Merkx, M A W; Jansen, J; Liao, K

    2011-06-01

    The effect of mandibular modular endoprostheses on bone mineral density (BMD) in the stem regions was studied. Modular endoprostheses were inserted into standardized mandibular condyle or body defects in 16 Macaca fascicularis. Each group of eight monkeys was divided into two groups, one killed at 3 months, the other at 6 months post-surgery. The mandibles were harvested, sectioned and scanned with a micro-computed tomography scanner. The reconstructed slices, made at a right angles to the long axis of the prosthesis, were analysed using software to calculate BMD in regions of interest buccal, lingual and inferior to the stems of the endoprosthesis. Measurements of the contralateral sides of three monkeys that underwent a similar procedure were used as control/baseline BMD. BMD for the condyle replacement group did not differ significantly from the control group. At 6 months, BMD decreased slightly; significant only at the inferior region. BMD for the body replacement group was significantly lower in all regions compared with control and condyle replacement groups probably because of connection screw loosening and infection. Loss of BMD in the peri-implant region of a modular endoprosthesis for mandibular replacement is minimal up to 6 months postoperatively, provided the device remains stable and well-fixed. PMID:21216566

  12. Relationship of body composition, knee extensor strength, and standing balance to lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seungsub; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate correlations between lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and general characteristics of postmenopausal females, including body composition, knee extensor strength, standing balance, and femur BMD. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 postmenopausal females (55.6 ± 4.6 years) who were caregivers or guardians of patients in the K hospital were included in the study. The weight, height, body composition, left and right knee extensor strength, standing balance, femur BMD, and lumbar BMD measurements of the subjects were obtained. [Results] The effect of measurement variables on lumbar BMD was examined. Increases in age and menopausal duration were observed to significantly increase lumbar BMD, whereas an increase in height was found to significantly decrease lumbar BMD. An increase in soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass, and femur BMD was also associated with significantly decreased lumbar BMD. [Conclusion] Age, menopausal duration, soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, and fat-free mass were factors that decreased lumbar BMD in menopausal females. This study is expected to provide basic knowledge for osteoporosis prevention and treatment programs for postmenopausal females. PMID:27512276

  13. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  14. Effects of resistance and aerobic exercise on physical function, bone mineral density, OPG and RANKL in older women.

    PubMed

    Marques, Elisa A; Wanderley, Flávia; Machado, Leandro; Sousa, Filipa; Viana, João L; Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Moreira, Pedro; Mota, Jorge; Carvalho, Joana

    2011-07-01

    This study compared the effects of a resistance training protocol and a moderate-impact aerobic training protocol on bone mineral density (BMD), physical ability, serum osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) levels. Seventy-one older women were randomly assigned to resistance exercise (RE), aerobic exercise (AE) or a control group (CON). Both interventions were conducted 3 times per week for 8 months. Outcome measures included proximal femur BMD, muscle strength, balance, body composition, serum OPG, and RANKL levels. Potential confounding variables included dietary intake, accelerometer-based physical activity (PA), and molecularly defined lactase nonpersistence. After 8 months, only RE group exhibited increases in BMD at the trochanter (2.9%) and total hip (1.5%), and improved body composition. Both RE and AE groups improved balance. No significant changes were observed in OPG and RANKL levels, and OPG/RANKL ratio. Lactase nonpersistence was not associated with BMD changes. No group differences were observed in baseline values or change in dietary intakes and daily PA. Data suggest that 8 months of RE may be more effective than AE for inducing favourable changes in BMD and muscle strength, whilst both interventions demonstrate to protect against the functional balance control that is strongly related to fall risk. PMID:21316442

  15. Basketball Affects Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Boys More Than Swimming and Other Impact Sports: 9-mo Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Agostinete, Ricardo R; Lynch, Kyle R; Gobbo, Luís A; Lima, Manoel Carlos Spiguel; Ito, Igor H; Luiz-de-Marco, Rafael; Rodrigues-Junior, Mario A; Fernandes, Romulo A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of different sports on bone mineral density (BMD) accrual among male adolescents during a 9-mo follow-up. The sample was composed of 82 boys (control [n = 13], basketball [n = 14], karate [n = 9], soccer [n = 18], judo [n = 12], and swimming [n = 16]) who were followed up for 9 mo (from October 2013 to August 2014). BMD (gram per square centimeter) was assessed at baseline and follow-up using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner, whereas somatic maturation was estimated through the use of the peak height velocity. Vitamin D consumption was assessed by questionnaire. After 9 mo of follow-up, all groups (including the control group) presented significant BMD accrual (overall sample: 4.5% in the whole body). On the other hand, the basketball group presented higher BMD accrual in the upper limbs (17.6%) than the control group (7.2%). A similar difference was observed in whole-body BMD (control group: 4.1% vs basketball group: 7.1%). The basketball group had significantly higher BMD gains than the control group and other sports groups. PMID:27174316

  16. Differential influence of physical activity on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in the elderly population.

    PubMed

    Vuillemin, A; Guillemin, F; Jouanny, P; Denis, G; Jeandel, C

    2001-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between lifetime physical activity and bone mineral density (BMD) at various sites in 129 healthy men and women aged 72.1 +/- 6.5 years. BMD was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and physical activity was assessed by using the QUANTAP system (Quantification de l'Activité Physique), a standardized and structured computer-assisted interview tool designed to assess lifetime physical activity. Linear regression models controlling for age, gender, height, body mass, lean mass, and smoking habits were performed. Higher levels of sporting activity during youth were associated with greater lumbar spine BMD ( p < .001). Similarly, femoral neck BMD was greatest in subjects who reported regularly taking part in sports over the previous 20 years ( p <. 05) and during their whole lifetime ( p < 0.05). Sporting activity at the time of bone mass development increases subsequent lumbar spine BMD, and more recent sporting activity contributes to the preservation of femoral neck BMD. These results suggest that physical activity has a differential influence on BMD at different sites and at different ages, possibly related to the processes of bone construction and bone aging taking place at the time. PMID:11382786

  17. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6–8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  18. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  19. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47-78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  20. Bone mineral density in children treated with daily or periodical inhaled budesonide: the Helsinki Early Intervention Childhood Asthma study.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Markku; Pelkonen, Anna S; Nikander, Kurt; Sorva, Ritva; Selroos, Olof; Juntunen-Backman, Kaisu; Haahtela, Tari

    2010-08-01

    In a double-blind, randomized study, 136 children, 5-10-y-old, with newly detected persistent asthma received budesonide (BUD) 400 microg twice daily for 1 mo and thereafter 200 microg twice daily for 5 mo. Thereafter, 50 children were treated with BUD 100 microg twice daily, whereas 44 children used BUD as needed for 1 y; an additional 42 children received disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Asthma exacerbations were treated with BUD for 2 wk in a dose of 400 microg twice daily in all groups. In this secondary analysis, bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae was measured before and after the 18-mo treatment. Compared with DSCG, regular BUD treatment resulted in a significantly smaller increase in BMD (0.023 versus 0.034 g/cm; p = 0.023) and height (7.75 versus 8.80 cm; p = 0.001). Periodic treatment did not affect BMD. No intergroup differences were observed when BMD data were adjusted for changes in height. Daily BUD treatment in prepubertal children may slow down the increment in BMD and standing height. This was not observed in children receiving BUD periodically after the initial regular BUD treatment. The correlation between height and BMD suggests that following children's height might afford an estimation of inhaled corticosteroid effects on bone. PMID:20485203

  1. Analysis of the relationships between edentulism, periodontal health, body composition, and bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Ignasiak, Zofia; Radwan-Oczko, Malgorzata; Rozek-Piechura, Krystyna; Cholewa, Marta; Skrzek, Anna; Ignasiak, Tomasz; Slawinska, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and tooth loss in conjunction with periodontal disease is not clear. The suggested effects include alteration in bone remodeling rates as well as the multifaceted etiology of edentulism. There is also a question if other body-related variables besides BMD, such as body composition, may be associated with tooth number and general periodontal health. The aim of this study was to evaluate if tooth number and marginal periodontal status are associated with body composition and BMD in a sample of elderly women. Materials and methods The study involved 91 postmenopausal women. Data included basic anthropometric characteristics, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and BMD analysis at the distal end of the radial bone of the nondominant arm via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A dental examination was performed to assess tooth number, periodontal pocket depth (PD), and gingival bleeding. Results In nonosteoporotic women, a significant positive correlation was found between BMD and lean body mass, total body water, and muscle mass. The indicators of bone metabolism correlated negatively with PD. Such relationships did not appear in osteoporotic women. In both groups, basic anthropometric characteristics and body composition were significantly and positively correlated with PD and bleeding on probing. Conclusion The results suggest that body composition and BMD are not significantly correlated with tooth number and gingival bleeding. PMID:27042033

  2. Association of APOE Genotype with Bone Mineral Density in Men and Women: The Dong-gu and Namwon Studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun A; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Song, Hye-Rim; Oh, Su-Hyun; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated relationships between APOE genotype and bone mineral density (BMD). However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent. Few studies have been carried out in Asian populations. We studied the relationship of the APOE gene polymorphism and BMD in two large population-based studies. The datasets included the Dong-gu Study (3575 men and 5335 women) and the Namwon Study (2310 men, 3512 women). Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. APOE genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The APOE genotypes were classified into APOE E2 (E2/E2 and E2/E3), APOE E3 (E3/E3), and APOE E4 (E3/E4 and E4/E4). The genotype distribution of the study population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were no significant differences among APOE genotype groups in lumbar and femoral neck BMD in either cohort. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the APOE genotype is associated with BMD. PMID:26866001

  3. Periarticular Osteoporosis Is a Prominent Feature in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Estimation Using Shaft to Periarticular Bone Mineral Density Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Su-Jin; Ahn, Inhye E.; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Park, Kyung-Su; Min, Jun-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to quantify periarticular osteoporosis and investigate its significance in 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 106 controls. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine the ratio of shaft to periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) as an index of periarticular demineralization. Periarticular osteoporosis was measured by conventional radiography. The BMDs of shaft and periarticular regions in eight designated areas on proximal phalanges were quantified. Clinical variables were examined to identify risk factors for periarticular osteoporosis. The assessment of periarticular osteoporosis on X-ray images reached a moderate degree of interobserver agreement among four physicians (ĸ = 0.47). For BMD quantification, we designed three types of mathematical formulae: the ratio of shaft to periarticular BMD, the mean of the ratios, and the ratio of the sums. These ratios were significantly higher in the patients with early RA (disease duration ≤ 3 yr) than in controls (P < 0.01). The findings were not as distinctive in patients with established RA. Body mass index, cumulative dose of corticosteroid, and C-terminal telopeptide were correlated with BMD ratios. Conclusively, DXA-assisted localized quantification and BMD ratio calculations are feasible for assessing periarticular demineralization. Periarticular osteoporosis is a relatively distinctive feature of early RA. PMID:23399828

  4. Periarticular osteoporosis is a prominent feature in early rheumatoid arthritis: estimation using shaft to periarticular bone mineral density ratio.

    PubMed

    Moon, Su-Jin; Ahn, Inhye E; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Park, Kyung-Su; Min, Jun-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to quantify periarticular osteoporosis and investigate its significance in 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 106 controls. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine the ratio of shaft to periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) as an index of periarticular demineralization. Periarticular osteoporosis was measured by conventional radiography. The BMDs of shaft and periarticular regions in eight designated areas on proximal phalanges were quantified. Clinical variables were examined to identify risk factors for periarticular osteoporosis. The assessment of periarticular osteoporosis on X-ray images reached a moderate degree of interobserver agreement among four physicians (ĸ = 0.47). For BMD quantification, we designed three types of mathematical formulae: the ratio of shaft to periarticular BMD, the mean of the ratios, and the ratio of the sums. These ratios were significantly higher in the patients with early RA (disease duration ≤ 3 yr) than in controls (P < 0.01). The findings were not as distinctive in patients with established RA. Body mass index, cumulative dose of corticosteroid, and C-terminal telopeptide were correlated with BMD ratios. Conclusively, DXA-assisted localized quantification and BMD ratio calculations are feasible for assessing periarticular demineralization. Periarticular osteoporosis is a relatively distinctive feature of early RA. PMID:23399828

  5. Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in Older Chinese Population Based on Bone Mineral Density at Multiple Skeletal Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Chien; Lin, Ying Chin; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chieng, Poon-Ung; Chan, Wing P.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, which is site dependent and commonly discordant between measurement sites. We aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis diagnosed based on BMD T-scores measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at different sites: the lumbar spine (LS) alone, femoral neck (FN) alone, or both. A total of 1712 women and 2028 men with LS and FN BMD measurements were enrolled. Over 50% discordance was found between osteoporosis classifications based on T-scores measured at the LS and FN. Use of the lowest T-scores measured at both the LS and right and left FN (rather than one site) significantly increased the prevalence of osteoporosis from 4.03 to 10.75% in postmenopausal women and 1.82 to 4.29% in men aged ≧50 years (p < 0.001). The trends of overall and age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis were similar in women and men. Osteoporosis was diagnosed at a higher rate if the USA reference rather than the Asia reference was used to calculate the T-score (26.64% vs. 10.75%). In conclusion, diagnosis based on the lowest T-score from multiple site BMD measurement can increase the prevalence of osteoporosis, demonstrating the higher sensitivity of the multiple site measurement strategy. PMID:27143609

  6. Bone mineral density and fracture risk with long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Yoon K; Gilbert, Daniel; Thavarajah, Menaka; Blanco, Patricia; Wilson, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the association between long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and bone adverse effects in patients with asthma. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of fracture risk and changes in bone mineral density with long-term ICS use in asthma. Methods We initially searched MEDLINE and EMBASE in July 2013, and performed an updated PubMed search in December 2014. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled observational studies of any ICS (duration at least 12 months) compared to non-ICS use in patients with asthma. We conducted meta-analysis of ORs for fractures, and mean differences in bone mineral density. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. Results We included 18 studies (7 RCTs and 11 observational studies) in the systematic review. Meta-analysis of observational studies did not demonstrate any significant association between ICS and fractures in children (pooled OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.10, two studies), or adults (pooled OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.45 to 2.62, four studies). Three RCTs and three observational studies in children reported on bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, and our meta-analysis did not show significant reductions with ICS use. Three RCTs and four observational studies in adults reported on ICS use and bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femur, with no significant reductions found in the meta-analysis compared to control. Conclusions ICS use for ≥12 months in adults or children with asthma was not significantly associated with harmful effects on fractures or bone mineral density. PMID:26603243

  7. Nature of organo-mineral particles across density fractions in a volcanic-ash soil: air-drying and sonication effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagai, R.; Kajiura, M.; Shirato, Y.; Uchida, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions of plant- and microbially-derived organic matter with mineral phases exert significant controls on the stabilization of organic matter (OM) as well as other biogeochemical processes in soil. Density fractionation techniques have been successful in distinguishing soil organo-mineral particles of different degrees of microbial alteration, turnover rate of C, mineral associations. A major methodological difference among the density fractionation studies is the choice of sample pre-treatment. Presence or absence of sonication to disrupt and disperse soil particles and aggregates is a particularly important choice which could significantly alter the nature and distribution of organo-mineral particle and thus the resultant elemental concentration in each density fraction. Soil moisture condition (air-dry vs. field-moist) may also have strong impact especially for soils rich in Fe oxides/hydroxides and/or poorly-crystalline minerals that are prone for (possibly irreversible) aggregation. We thus tested these two effects on the concentration and distribution of C, N, and extractable phases of Fe and Al (by pyrophosphate and acid oxalate) across six density fractions (from <1.6 to >2.5 g/cm^3) using a surface-horizon of volcanic-ash soil which contained large amounts of poorly-crystalline minerals and organo-metal complexes. Compared to field-moist sample, air-drying had little effects on the elemental concentration or distribution across the fractions. In contrast, sonication on air-dried sample at each density cutoff during fractionation process caused significant changes. In addition to well-known increase in low-density material due to the liberation of plant detritus upon aggregate disruption, we found clear increase in C, N, and metals in 2.0-2.3 g/cm^3 fraction, which was largely compensated by the reduction in 1.8-2.0 g/cm^3 and, to a less extent, 2.3-2.5 g/cm^3 particles. Overall, sonication led to the redistribution of C and N by 15-20% and that of

  8. Physical sense of massive development of low density minerals on the highly standing southern hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    of chlorides - they can indicate at widespread NaCl depositions (Mars Odyssey orbiter, M. Osterloo team of the Univ. of Hawaii, 2008). Zeolites replacing feldspathoids were predicted [4] and were reported among other not dense hydrated minerals [5] So, massive development of low density materials on the highlands serves as an effective tool for diminishing the angular momentum of the highly standing continental segment. References: [1] Kochemasov G. G. (2004) Mars and Earth: two dichotomies - one cause // In Workshop on "Hemispheres apart: the origin and modification of the martian crustal dichotomy", LPI Contribution # 1203, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, p. 37. [2] Kochemasov G.G. (1995) Possibility of highly contrasting rock types at martian highland/lowland contact // Golombek M.P., Edgett K.S., Rice J.W.Jr. (eds) Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field Trips to the Channeled Scabland, Washington. LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-01. Pt. 1. Lunar and Planetary Inst., Houston, 1995. (63 p.), P. 18-19; [3] Kochemasov G.G. (2001) The composition of the martian highlands as a factor of their effective uplifting, destruction and production of voluminous debris // In: Field Trip and Workshop on the Martian Highlands and Mojave Desert Analogs, LPI contrib. #1101, Lunar & Planetary Inst., Houston, 35-36. [4] Kochemasov G.G.(2006)(abs.), posted Feb. 2006 in a Workshop on Martian Water: Surface and Subsurface, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., Febr. 23-24, 2006 at http://es.ucsc.edu/~fnimmo/website/mars2006.html. . [5] Ehlmann B.L., Mustard J.F., Murchie S.L. (2009) Extensive aqueous alternation of Mars' earliest crust: recent results from NASA's CRISM hyperspectral imager & implications for planetary habitability // Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium 50, Mosow, Russia, Oct. 12-14, 2009, abstract m50_11.

  9. Bone mineral density, bone mineral content, gingival crevicular fluid (matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsin K, osteocalcin), and salivary and serum osteocalcin levels in human mandible and alveolar bone under conditions of simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    2010-09-01

    In astronauts and cosmonauts, exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes, including an osteoporosis like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in space flights. There has been no study of the effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sexes under conditions of simulated microgravity. This study was designed to investigate bone mineral density; bone mineral content; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, cathepsin K, and osteocalcin levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF); and salivary and serum osteocalcin levels in normal healthy men and women under conditions of simulated microgravity, namely, -6° head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers who were exposed to 3 weeks of -6° HDT bed rest. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone density and bone mineral content in alveolar bone from the mandibular canine to the third molar, as well as in the mandibular ramus, before, during, and after exposure to conditions of simulated microgravity. GCF (ie, MMP-8, MMP-9, cathepsin K, and osteocalcin) and salivary and serum osteocalcin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were significantly lower under conditions of simulated microgravity in both sexes. The decreases were greater in women than in men, but the differences between sexes were not significant. Cathepsin, osteocalcin, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels were significantly higher under conditions of simulated microgravity than under normal conditions; the increases were greater in women than in men, but the differences were not significant. Additional, more comprehensive, studies with larger sample sizes are now necessary for the investigation of simulated microgravity and microgravity. PMID:20881330

  10. Random field assessment of inhomogeneous bone mineral density from DXA scans can enhance the differentiation between postmenopausal women with and without hip fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Lowe, Timothy; Cussen, Patricia; Ballard, Joyce E.; Paolo, David Di; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements from Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) alone cannot account for all factors associated with the risk of hip fractures. For example, the inhomogeneity of bone mineral density in the hip region also contributes to bone strength. In the stochastic assessment of bone inhomogeneity, the BMD map in the hip region is considered as a random field and stochastic predictors can be calculated by fitting a theoretical model onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of bone mineral density and stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density in predicting hip fractures for postmenopausal women. DXA scans in the hip region were obtained from postmenopausal women with hip fractures (N=47, Age: 71.3±11.4 years) and without hip fractures (N=45, Age: 66.7±11.4 years). Comparison of BMD measurements and stochastic predictors in assessing bone fragility was based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) from logistic regression analyses. Although stochastic predictors offered higher accuracy (AUC=0.675) in predicting the risk of hip fractures than BMD measurements (AUC=0.625), such difference was not statistically significant (p=0.548). Nevertheless, the combination of stochastic predictors and BMD measurements had significantly (p=0.039) higher prediction accuracy (AUC=0.748) than BMD measurements alone. This study demonstrates that stochastic assessment of bone mineral distribution from DXA scans can serve as a valuable tool in enhancing the prediction of hip fractures for postmenopausal women in addition to BMD measurements. PMID:25683520

  11. Random field assessment of inhomogeneous bone mineral density from DXA scans can enhance the differentiation between postmenopausal women with and without hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Lowe, Timothy; Cussen, Patricia; Ballard, Joyce E; Di Paolo, David; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-04-13

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements from Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) alone cannot account for all factors associated with the risk of hip fractures. For example, the inhomogeneity of bone mineral density in the hip region also contributes to bone strength. In the stochastic assessment of bone inhomogeneity, the BMD map in the hip region is considered as a random field and stochastic predictors can be calculated by fitting a theoretical model onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of bone mineral density and stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density in predicting hip fractures for postmenopausal women. DXA scans in the hip region were obtained from postmenopausal women with hip fractures (N=47, Age: 71.3±11.4 years) and without hip fractures (N=45, Age: 66.7±11.4 years). Comparison of BMD measurements and stochastic predictors in assessing bone fragility was based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) from logistic regression analyses. Although stochastic predictors offered higher accuracy (AUC=0.675) in predicting the risk of hip fractures than BMD measurements (AUC=0.625), this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.548). Nevertheless, the combination of stochastic predictors and BMD measurements had significantly (p=0.039) higher prediction accuracy (AUC=0.748) than BMD measurements alone. This study demonstrates that stochastic assessment of bone mineral distribution from DXA scans can serve as a valuable tool in enhancing the prediction of hip fractures for postmenopausal women in addition to BMD measurements. PMID:25683520

  12. The effect of fat on the measurement of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR-BMD).

    PubMed

    Colt, Edward; Kälvesten, Johan; Cook, Kenneth; Khramov, Nata; Javed, Fahad

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that surrounding fat causes an increase of up to 21% in bone mineral density (BMD) measured by Lunar 'Intelligent DXA' (iDXA), one of the latest generation dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners [1]. The purpose of our study was to see if it was possible to avoid this artifact when measuring the BMD of metacarpals II, III, and IV by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR). METHODS: We took X-rays of the bones of a cadaveric left hand which were immobilized in a wooden cradle to preserve an approximate in vivo configuration. The X-rays were digitized into Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files which were analyzed using dxr-online (dxr-online, Sectra, Sweden) which uses the same DXR-BMD algorithm previously used by Pronosco X-posure v2 and Sectra Osteoporosis package. The X-rays were repeated four times. We then surrounded the bones with a layer of lard, and again X-rayed four times. This process was repeated with the bones were covered by two layers, and then three layers of lard. RESULTS: The measured DXR-BMD increased by a maximum of 0.44% when the metacarpals were covered by either two or three layers of lard compared with when the metacarpals were not covered by lard. CONCLUSION: The measurement of metacarpal BMD measured by DXR is minimally affected by surrounding lard. The measurement of metacarpal BMD by DXR seems to be a way of avoiding the artifactual change in BMD caused by fat, when it is measured by DXA. PMID:21403849

  13. Decreased Bone Mineral Density Is an Independent Predictor for the Development of Atherosclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chenyi; Xu, Mingyuan; Wang, Shengdong; Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Xiaoyu; He, Rongxin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and atherosclerosis. To this end, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association. Methods To identify relevant studies, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched up to November 2015. All observational and comparative studies directly investigating the relationship between decreased BMD and clinical consequences of atherosclerotic vascular abnormalities, including carotid artery calcification (CAC), cardiovascular disease (CAD), and coronary artery disease (CAD) were obtained, without limitation of language or publication year. Results A total of 25 studies involving 10,299 patients were included. The incidence of atherosclerotic vascular abnormalities was significantly increased in low BMD patients, compared to patients with normal BMD (OR, 1.81, 95% CI [1.01, 2.19], p<0.00001)). Similar results were also observed for postmenopausal women (OR, 2.23, 95% CI [1.72, 2.89], p<0.00001). Subgroup analyses of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and normal BMD also revealed that the combined ORs for the incidence of atherosclerotic vascular abnormalities increased as BMD decreased. Of note, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and other vascular risk factors, decreased BMD remained significantly associated with the incidence of atherosclerotic vascular abnormalities (OR, 2.96, 95% CI [2.25, 3.88], p < 0.00001). Conclusions Based on the results of this study, decreased BMD is an independent predictor for the development of atherosclerosis in elderly individuals. Moreover, the risk of atherosclerotic vascular abnormalities increased as BMD decreased. Future studies focusing on individuals with different severities of atherosclerosis and comorbidities are of interest. PMID:27149062

  14. Effect of chronic activity-based therapy on bone mineral density and bone turnover in persons with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Harness, Eric T.; Witzke, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Osteoporosis is a severe complication of spinal cord injury (SCI). Many exercise modalities are used to slow bone loss, yet their efficacy is equivocal. This study examined the effect of activity-based therapy (ABT) targeting the lower extremities on bone health in individuals with SCI. Methods Thirteen men and women with SCI (age and injury duration = 29.7 ± 7.8 and 1.9 ± 2.7 years) underwent 6 months of ABT. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of training, blood samples were obtained to assess bone formation (serum procollagen type 1 N propeptide (PINP) and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to obtain total body and regional estimates of bone mineral density (BMD). Results Results demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in spine BMD (+4.8 %; 1.27 ± 0.22–1.33 ± 0.24 g/cm2) and decreases (p < 0.01) in total hip BMD (−6.1 %; 0.98 ± 0.18–0.91 ± 0.16 g/cm2) from 0 to 6 months of training. BMD at the bilateral distal femur (−7.5 to −11.0 %) and proximal tibia (− 8.0 to −11.2 %) declined but was not different (p > 0.05) versus baseline. Neither PINP nor CTX was altered (p> 0.05) with training. Conclusions Chronic activity-based therapy did not reverse bone loss typically observed soon after injury, yet reductions in BMD were less than the expected magnitude of decline in lower extremity BMD in persons with recent SCI. PMID:24097172

  15. The Relationship Between Dietary Intakes of Amino Acids and Bone Mineral Density Among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Hadis; Nazari, Maryam; Latifi, Sahar; Soltani, Zahra; Shakeri, Hania; Larijani, Bagher; Ghodsi, Seyed-Mohammad; Razavi, Seyed-Hassan Emami

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The effect of dietary protein intake on bone mineral density (BMD) has not been explained in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we looked at the relationship between BMD and higher protein intake in patients with SCI while controlling for possible confounders. Methods Patients with SCI, who were referred to the Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center between November 2010 and April 2012, were included in the study. In total, the dietary intakes of 103 patients were assessed by 24–hour dietary recall interviews. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure BMD in the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, hip, and lumbar vertebras. Results Eighty-six men and 17 women participated in this study. Protein intake was negatively associated with the BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.001, r = –0.37 for T-score and p = 0.030, r = –0.24 for Z-score). The BMD of lumbar vertebrae were negatively associated with intake of tryptophan, isoleucine, lysine, cysteine, and tyrosine (p = 0.007, 0.005, 0.009, 0.008, and 0.008 for T-score, respectively). Higher intakes of threonine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine were related to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae (p = 0.006, 0.010, 0.009, 0.010, 0.009, and 0.008 respectively for T-scores). Conclusions We found that high protein intake led to a lower BMD of lumbar vertebrae in patients with SCI after controlling for confounders including demographic and injury-related characteristics and calcium intake. No relationship between higher amino acids intake and BMD of the femur and hip was detected. Intake of alanine, arginine, and aspartic acid were not related to BMD. PMID:26816565

  16. Association of urinary sodium/creatinine ratio with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Lee, Won-Kee; Hwang, In-Ryang; Kim, Jung-Guk; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that high sodium chloride intake increases urinary calcium excretion and may be a risk factor for osteoporosis. However, the effect of oral sodium chloride intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and risk of osteoporosis has been inadequately researched. The aim of the present study was to determine whether urinary sodium excretion (reflecting oral sodium chloride intake) associates with BMD and prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study involved a nationally representative sample consisting of 2,779 postmenopausal women who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys in 2008-2011. The association of urinary sodium/creatinine ratio with BMD and other osteoporosis risk factors was assessed. In addition, the prevalence of osteoporosis was assessed in four groups with different urinary sodium/creatinine ratios. Participants with osteoporosis had significantly higher urinary sodium/creatinine ratios than the participants without osteoporosis. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, urinary sodium/creatinine ratio correlated inversely with lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.001). Similarly, when participants were divided into quartile groups according to urinary sodium/creatinine ratio, the average BMD dropped as the urinary sodium/creatinine ratio increased. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to quartile 1, quartile 4 had a significantly increased prevalence of lumbar spine osteoporosis (odds ratios 1.346, P for trend = 0.044). High urinary sodium excretion was significantly associated with low BMD and high prevalence of osteoporosis in lumbar spine. These results suggest that high sodium chloride intake decreases lumbar spine BMD and increases the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:25614039

  17. Effect of zoledronic acid on bone mineral density in patients of celiac disease: A prospective, randomized, pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukul; Rastogi, Ashu; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Bhansali, Anil; Vaiphei, Kim; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: The symptoms of celiac disease (CD) are varied and metabolic bone disease (MBD) is less recognized amongst all manifestations in CD patients. Bone disease in CD is attributed to secondary hyperparathyroidism, which in turn is associated with increased bone remodelling. Improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) with gluten free diet (GFD) is known, but the data on efficacy of bisphosphonates in CD patients are limited. Bisphosphonates being a potent inhibitor of bone resorption may be useful in patients with CD having low BMD. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of zoledronic acid on BMD in CD patients. Methods: A total of 28 CD patients were randomized to receive GFD, calcium and cholecalciferol (group A), and zoledronic acid (group B). Baseline biochemical tests and T-score by dual energy x-ray absorptiometer were done and repeated after 12 months. Results: The T-score showed improvement in the control arm (group A) from -3.31 ± 1.46 to -2.12 ± 1.44, a gain of 35.9 per cent (P<0.05) and in drug arm (group B) -2.82 ± 1.27 to -1.06 ± 1.84, registering a gain of 62.4 per cent (P<0.001). However, there was no difference in improvement of T-score in zoledronic acid group as compared to the control group. Interpretation & conclusions: Administration of zoledronic acid was not found to be better than GFD alone in increasing BMD in CD patients with low BMD in this pilot study. PMID:24521630

  18. Modeling effects of dexamethasone on disease progression of bone mineral density in collagen-induced arthritic rats

    PubMed Central

    Lon, Hoi-Kei; DuBois, Debra C; Earp, Justin C; Almon, Richard R; Jusko, William J

    2015-01-01

    A mechanism-based model was developed to characterize the crosstalk between proinflammatory cytokines, bone remodeling biomarkers, and bone mineral density (BMD) in collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) rats. Male Lewis rats were divided into five groups: healthy control, CIA control, CIA receiving single 0.225 mg kg−1 subcutaneous (SC) dexamethasone (DEX), CIA receiving single 2.25 mg kg−1 SC DEX, and CIA receiving chronic 0.225 mg kg−1 SC DEX. The CIA rats underwent collagen induction at day 0 and DEX was injected at day 21 post-induction. Disease activity was monitored throughout the study and rats were sacrificed at different time points for blood and paw collection. Protein concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b) in paws were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Disease progression and DEX pharmacodynamic profiles of IL-1β, IL-6, RANKL, and OPG were fitted simultaneously and parameters were sequentially applied to fit the TRACP-5b and BMD data. The model was built according to the mechanisms reported in the literature and modeling was performed using ADAPT 5 software with naïve pooling. Time profiles of IL-1β and IL-6 protein concentrations correlated with their mRNAs. The RANKL and OPG profiles matched previous findings in CIA rats. DEX inhibited the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and RANKL, but did not alter OPG. TRACP-5b was also inhibited by DEX. Model predictions suggested that anti-IL-1β therapy and anti-RANKL therapy would result in similar efficacy for prevention of bone loss among the cytokine antagonists. PMID:26516581

  19. Effects of long-term administration of omeprazole on bone mineral density and the mechanical properties of the bone☆

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Gabriela Rezende; de Paiva, Aline Goulart; Neto, Maurílio Pacheco; Torres, Larissa Helena; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Annoni, Raquel; de Oliveira Penoni, Álvaro César

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between long-term use of proton pump inhibitors and bone metabolism. However, this relationship has not yet become established. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) of rats that were subjected to long-term omeprazole use. Methods Fifty Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 240 g were divided equally into five groups: OMP300 (omeprazole intake at a dose of 300 μmoL/kg/day); OMP200 (200 μmoL/kg/day); OMP40 (40 μmoL/kg/day); OMP10 (10 μmoL/kg/day); and Cont (control group; intake of dilution vehicle). The solutions were administered for 90 consecutive days. After the rats had been sacrificed, their BMD, the mechanical properties of the dissected femurs and their serum Ca++ levels were analyzed. Results The BMD of the OMP300 group was lower than that of the controls (p = 0.006). There was no difference on comparing the OMP200, OMP40 and OMP10 groups with the controls. The maximum strength and rigidity of the femur did not differ in the experimental groups in comparison with the controls. The OMP300 group had a statistically lower serum Ca++ concentration than that of the controls (p = 0.049), but the other groups did not show any difference in relation to the controls. Conclusion Daily intake of 300 μmoL/kg/day of omeprazole decreased the BMD of the femur, but without changes to the rigidity and strength of the femur in adult rats. PMID:26229922

  20. Relationship between CATSPERB, NR5A2 gene polymorphisms and Peak Bone Mineral Density in College Students in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Wenya; HUA, Ma; Shi, Raoni; Wang, Haitao; Yang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Peak bone mineral density (PBMD) is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, genes explains most of variation. As the novel candidate genes CATSPERB and NR5A2 may have been associated with spinal PBMD in adult. This study was to investigate the relationship among these two genes^ PBMD and the life style factors in young female. Methods The rs1298989 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the CATSPERB gene and the rs3762397 SNP of the NR5A2 gene were genotyped using SNaPshot® in 359 students from Xinjiang. The prospective study included 203 Han and 156 Uyghur subjects. PBMD was measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were measured by ELISA method. Physical activity, dietary calcium and life styles were assessed by questionnaire. Results Both SNPs showed differences in genotype and allele frequencies (P < 0.05) between the Han and Uyghur subjects. Total calcium intake, energy intake, tea and milk intake were also significantly different between two groups (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed an association between PBMD and vitamin D intake (P = 0.000), milk (P = 0.000), exercise (P = 0.029), rs1298989 (P = 0.028), energy intake (P = 0.043). Conclusion This study demonstrated the polymorphisms of the rs1298989 and rs3762397 are associated with PBMD both in Han and Uyghur subjects. PBMD, in Xinjiang, appears to be associated with several known factors that are well described in the literature. While the genotypes of rs1298989 and rs3762397 do not appear have a strong effect on the PBMD. PMID:25927035

  1. Effect of Denosumab on Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Salerni, H.; González, D.; Bagur, A.; Oliveri, B.; Farías, V.; Maffei, L.; Mansur, J. L.; Larroudé, M. S.; Pavlove, M. M.; Karlsbrum, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of denosumab (Dmab) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of Dmab in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve) compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior) was analyzed. This retrospective study included 425 postmenopausal women treated with Dmab for 1 year in clinical practice conditions in specialized centers from Argentina. Participants were also divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment into BP-naïve and BP-prior. A control group of patients treated with BP not switched to Dmab matched by sex, age, and body mass index was used. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with Dmab the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly decreased (23.36% and 43.97%, resp.), as was the bone resorption marker s-CTX (69.61%). Significant increases in BMD were observed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip without differences between BP-naïve and BP-prior. A better BMD response was found in BP-prior group compared with BP treated patients not switched to Dmab. Conclusion. Dmab treatment increased BMD and decreased bone turnover markers in the whole group, with similar response in BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. A better BMD response in BP-prior patients versus BP treated patients not switched to Dmab was observed. PMID:27579211

  2. Effect of Denosumab on Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Brun, L R; Salerni, H; Costanzo, P R; González, D; Bagur, A; Oliveri, B; Zanchetta, M B; Farías, V; Maffei, L; Premrou, V; Mansur, J L; Larroudé, M S; Sarli, M A; Rey, P; Ulla, M R; Pavlove, M M; Karlsbrum, S; Brance, M L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of denosumab (Dmab) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of Dmab in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve) compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior) was analyzed. This retrospective study included 425 postmenopausal women treated with Dmab for 1 year in clinical practice conditions in specialized centers from Argentina. Participants were also divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment into BP-naïve and BP-prior. A control group of patients treated with BP not switched to Dmab matched by sex, age, and body mass index was used. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with Dmab the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly decreased (23.36% and 43.97%, resp.), as was the bone resorption marker s-CTX (69.61%). Significant increases in BMD were observed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip without differences between BP-naïve and BP-prior. A better BMD response was found in BP-prior group compared with BP treated patients not switched to Dmab. Conclusion. Dmab treatment increased BMD and decreased bone turnover markers in the whole group, with similar response in BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. A better BMD response in BP-prior patients versus BP treated patients not switched to Dmab was observed. PMID:27579211

  3. The relation between bone mineral density in the heel and pixel intensity in the mandibular jaw bone among elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Hedström, L; Baigi, A; Bergh, H

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between pixel intensity (PI) in digital radiographs of the lower jaw and bone mineral density (BMD) in the heels of post-menopausal women (as measured with DXL, a combination of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and lasers). Methods Two intraoral periapical digital radiographs were taken in the right and left mandible premolar region, and the digital images were analysed by a computer program (Dimaxis) regarding PI. As the radiographs were taken, the BMD of the patient's left heel was measured via a portable Calscan device. The patient answered a questionnaire concerning risk factors. The correlation between variables was analysed using statistical tests. Results A significant correlation was found between the PI in the left (P = 0.001) and right (P = 0.004) mandible and the BMD of the left heel for the whole group. A pronounced correlation was found to exist for women > 70 years old. Based on a cut-off value of the PI, to differentiate between healthy individuals and those who required further analysis for osteoporosis, the following values were obtained: sensitivity 0.74, specificity 0.50, positive predictive value 0.77 and negative predictive value 0.46. Conclusion A positive correlation was found between PI in digital radiographs of the mandible and the BMD of the heel. The low predictive value does not allow any definite conclusions to be drawn from the present study. A reasonable recommendation could be for future studies to employ a larger study population to explore the effect on this value. PMID:20841458

  4. Increased migration of uncemented acetabular cups in female total hip arthroplasty patients with low systemic bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Finnilä, Sami; Moritz, Niko; SvedströM, Erkki; Alm, Jessica J; Aro, Hannu T

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Low bone mineral density (BMD) may jeopardize the initial component stability and delay osseointegration of uncemented acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We measured the migration of uncemented cups in women with low or normal BMD. Patients and methods We used radiostereometric analysis (RSA) to measure the migration of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium alloy cups with alumina-on-alumina bearings in THA of 34 female patients with a median age of 64 (41–78) years. 10 patients had normal BMD and 24 patients had low systemic BMD (T-score ≤ −1) based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Cup migration was followed with RSA for 2 years. Radiographic follow-up was done at a median of 8 (2–10) years. Results Patients with normal BMD did not show a statistically significant cup migration after the settling period of 3 months, while patients with low BMD had a continuous proximal migration between 3 and 12 months (p = 0.03). These differences in cup migration persisted at 24 months. Based on the perceived risk of cup revision, 14 of the 24 cases were “at risk” (proximal translation of 0.2 to 1.0 mm) in the low-BMD group and 2 of the10 cases were “at risk” in the normal-BMD group (odds ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI: 1.3–48). The radiographic follow-up showed no radiolucent lines or osteolysis. 2 cups have been revised for fractures of the ceramic bearings, but none for loosening. Interpretation Low BMD contributed to cup migration beyond the settling period of 3 months, but the migrating cups appeared to osseointegrate eventually. PMID:26569616

  5. Bone mineral density, microarchitectural and mechanical alterations of osteoporotic rat bone under long-term whole-body vibration therapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pengfei; Tang, Zhurong; Qing, Fangzhu; Chen, Xuening; Zhu, Xiangdong; Fan, Yujiang; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xingdong

    2016-01-01

    Low-magnitude, high-frequency whole body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as a non-pharmacological anti-osteoporosis approach. However, the long-term effect of WBV therapy is seldom studied. In this study, the efficacy of 16-week WBV (0.3g, 30 Hz) on bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitectural parameters and mechanical properties of ovariectomized rat femur were examined by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), ex vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and fracture test. To the best of our knowledge, 16 weeks of WBV administration (20 min/day) is currently the longest duration on rodent. The longitudinal BMD change showed that positive effect of WBV on ovariectomized rat femoral neck diminished with prolonged administration duration. In addition, 16-week of WBV treatment was found to cause significantly reduction in the mean BMD, trabecular BMD (Tb.BMD), trabecular bone volume ration (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and maximum load in femoral neck of ovariectomized rat. Metaphyseal Tb.BMD and BV/TV were also significantly decreased in WBV treated ovariectomized group than non-treated controls. Whole-femur DMA was demonstrated as a sensitive tool in distinguishing osteoporotic femur from healthy aged-matched controls, in terms of decreased storage modulus (E') and loss factor (tan δ). However, E' and tan δ are not enhanced by 16-week WBV treatment. Together, these findings indicate that administration duration played an important role in the effect of WBV. 16-week WBV may exacerbate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rat femur, especially in trabecular-rich femoral neck region. An optimal WBV protocol including administration duration should be established prior to long-term clinical practice. PMID:26398779

  6. Difference in Bone Mineral Density Change at the Lateral Femoral Cortices according to Administration of Different Bisphosphonate Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungjun; Bang, Hyun Hee; Yoo, Hanna; Lim, Hyunsun; Jung, Woo Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background To retrospectively assess whether the response of subtrochanteric lateral cortex (STLC) is different according to the bisphosphonate agents in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) change. Methods A total of 149 subjects, who had 2- to 4-year interval follow-up of BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), were included in this retrospective study divided into following 3 groups: control group (no consumption of any anti-osteoporotic drugs, n=38), alendronate group (naïve alendronate users, n=48), risedronate group (naïve risedronate users, n=63). BMD was measured at the STLC and subtrochanteric medial cortex (STMC) in each patient by drawing rectangular ROIs at the bone cortices. The percent change of BMD at the STLC were compared between the aforementioned 3 groups by using analysis of covariance model to control five independent variables of age, body mass index, percent change of STMC, hip axis length, time interval between DXA examinations. Results The least square mean values±standard deviation of the percent change of BMD in the control, alendronate, and risedronate groups were 1.46±1.50, 2.23±1.26, and 6.96±1.11, respectively. The risedronate group showed significantly higher change of BMD percentage compared with the control (adjusted P=0.012) or alendronate (adjusted P=0.016) groups. Conclusions The percent change of BMD at the STLC in the risedronate user group was greater than the alendronate and control groups. The implication of these changes needs to be further verified. PMID:27294080

  7. BMP7 gene polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density or osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li-hong; Li, Shan-shan; Shao, Chong; Fu, Wen-zhen; Liu, Yu-juan; He, Jin-wei; Zhang, Zhen-lin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A previous study shows that bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) gene polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in 920 European Americans. To determine the association of BMP7 polymorphisms and BMD and osteoporotic fracture susceptibility, we performed a case-control association study in postmenopausal Chinese women with or without osteoporotic fracture. Methods: A total of 3815 unrelated postmenopausal Chinese women (1238 with osteoporotic fracture and 2577 healthy controls) were recruited. BMDs of the lumbar spine 1–4 (L1–4) and proximal femur (including total hip and femoral neck) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BMP7 gene, including rs11086598, rs4811822, rs12481628, rs6025447, rs230205, rs17404303, rs162316 and rs6127980, were genotyped. Results: Among the 8 SNPs, rs6025447 and rs230205 were associated with total hip BMD (P=0.013 and 0.045, respectively). However, the associations became statistically insignificant after adjusting for age, height and weight. The TGTG haplotype of BMP7 gene was associated with total hip BMD (P=0.032), even after adjusting for age, height and weight (P=0.048); but the association was insignificant after performing the Bonferroni multiple-significance-test correction. Moreover, the 8 SNPs and 9 haplotypes of BMP7 gene were not associated with L1–4 or femoral neck BMD or osteoporotic fracture. Conclusion: This large-sample case-control association study suggests that the common genetic polymorphisms of BMP7 gene are not major contributors to variations in BMD or osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal Chinese women. PMID:27264311

  8. Bone texture analysis on direct digital radiographic images: precision study and relationship with bone mineral density at the os calcis.

    PubMed

    Lespessailles, E; Gadois, C; Lemineur, G; Do-Huu, J P; Benhamou, L

    2007-02-01

    Assessment of bone microarchitecture in complement to bone mineral density (BMD) exam could improve prediction of osteoporotic fractures. A high-resolution X-ray prototype was developed to assess microarchitecture quality. Images were obtained on os calcis; then, three texture parameters were calculated on the same region of interest (ROI): a fractal parameter, a run-length parameter, and a co-occurrence parameter. This work describes the reproducibility of this method. We also examine the relationship between texture parameters and BMD at a site-matched ROI. Measurements on the left heel were performed on 30 healthy women, on the same day, with repositioning for short-term precision error. An additional measurement was done at 1 week to evaluate mid-term precision error on 14 subjects. Os calcis images from 10 healthy women were used to evaluate both intra- and interobserver reproducibility. Thirty other healthy pa