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Sample records for borna disease virus

  1. Borna disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hatalski, C. G.; Lewis, A. J.; Lipkin, W. I.

    1997-01-01

    Borna disease virus, a newly classified nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with international distribution, infects a broad range of warm-blooded animals from birds to primates. Infection causes movement and behavioral disturbances reminiscent of some neuropsychiatric syndromes. The virus has not been clearly linked to any human disease; however, an association between infection with the virus and selected neuropsychiatric disorders has been suggested. We reviewed recent advances in Borna disease virus research, focusing on evidence of infection in humans. PMID:9204293

  2. Novel Borna Virus in Psittacine Birds with Proventricular Dilatation Disease

    PubMed Central

    Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Shivaprasad, H.L.; Williams, Brent L.; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Hornig, Mady; Street, Craig; Palacios, Gustavo; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Franca, Monique; Egholm, Michael; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2008-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds. PMID:19046511

  3. Neutralizing antibodies in Borna disease virus-infected rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hatalski, C G; Kliche, S; Stitz, L; Lipkin, W I

    1995-01-01

    Borna disease is a neurologic syndrome caused by infection with a nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus, Borna disease virus. Infected animals have antibodies to two soluble viral proteins, p40 and p23, and a membrane-associated viral glycoprotein, gp18. We examined the time course for the development of neutralization activity and the expression of antibodies to individual viral proteins in sera of infected rats. The appearance of neutralizing activity correlated with the development of immunoreactivity to gp18, but not p40 or p23. Monospecific and monoclonal antibodies to native gp18 and recombinant nonglycosylated gp18 were also found to have neutralizing activity and to immunoprecipitate viral particles or subparticles. These findings suggest that gp18 is likely to be present on the surface of the viral particles and is likely to contain epitopes important for virus neutralization. PMID:7815538

  4. Animal Models of CNS Viral Disease: Examples from Borna Disease Virus Models

    PubMed Central

    Solbrig, Marylou V.

    2010-01-01

    Borna disease (BD), caused by the neurotropic RNA virus, Borna Disease virus, is an affliction ranging from asymptomatic to fatal meningoencephalitis across naturally and experimentally infected warmblooded (mammalian and bird) species. More than 100 years after the first clinical descriptions of Borna disease in horses and studies beginning in the 1980's linking Borna disease virus to human neuropsychiatric diseases, experimentally infected rodents have been used as models for examining behavioral, neuropharmacological, and neurochemical responses to viral challenge at different stages of life. These studies have contributed to understanding the role of CNS viral injury in vulnerability to behavioral, developmental, epileptic, and neurodegenerative diseases and aided evaluation of the proposed and still controversial links to human disease. PMID:20204069

  5. Borna disease virus infection in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Richt, J. A.; Pfeuffer, I.; Christ, M.; Frese, K.; Bechter, K.; Herzog, S.

    1997-01-01

    The geographic distribution and host range of Borna disease (BD), a fatal neurologic disease of horses and sheep, are larger than previously thought. The etiologic agent, Borna disease virus (BDV), has been identified as an enveloped nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with unique properties of replication. Data indicate a high degree of genetic stability of BDV in its natural host, the horse. Studies in the Lewis rat have shown that BDV replication does not directly influence vital functions; rather, the disease is caused by a virus-induced T-cell mediated immune reaction. Because antibodies reactive with BDV have been found in the sera of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, this review examines the possible link between BDV and such disorders. Seroepidemiologic and cerebrospinal fluid investigations of psychiatric patients suggest a causal role of BDV infection in human psychiatric disorders. In diagnostically unselected psychiatric patients, the distribution of psychiatric disorders was found to be similar in BDV seropositive and seronegative patients. In addition, BDV-seropositive neurologic patients became ill with lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. In contrast to others, we found no evidence is reported for BDV RNA, BDV antigens, or infectious B DV in peripheral blood cells of psychiatric patients. PMID:9284379

  6. Detection of Serum Antibodies to Borna Disease Virus in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rott, R.; Herzog, S.; Fleischer, B.; Winokur, A.; Amsterdam, J.; Dyson, W.; Koprowski, H.

    1985-05-01

    Borna disease virus causes a rare meningoencephalitis in horses and sheep and has been shown to produce behavioral effects in some species. The possibility that the Borna virus is associated with mental disorders in humans was evaluated by examining serum samples from 979 psychiatric patients and 200 normal volunteers for the presence of Borna virus-specific antibodies. Antibodies were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence focus assay. Antibodies to the virus were demonstrated in 16 of the patients but none of the normal volunteers. The patients with the positive serum samples were characterized by having histories of affective disorders, particularly of a cyclic nature. Further studies are needed to define the possible involvement of Borna virus in human psychiatric disturbances.

  7. A Study on Borna Disease Virus Infection in Domestic Cats in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SOMEYA, Azusa; FUKUSHIMA, Ryoko; YOSHIDA, Michiko; TANAHASHI, Yasuyuki; PRAPEUK, Tangmunkhong; IIZUKA, Reiko; HIRAMI, Hiroshi; MATSUDA, Atsushi; TAKAHASHI, Shunichi; KURITA, Goro; KIMURA, Takashi; SEO, Misuzu; FUNABA, Masayuki; NISHINO, Yoshii

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Borna disease virus (BDV) infection causes neurological disease in cats. Here, we report BDV infection in 199 hospitalized domestic cats in the Tokyo area. BDV infection was evaluated by detection of plasma antibodies against BDV-p24 or -p40. BDV-specific antibodies were detected in 54 cats (27.1%). Interestingly, the percentage of seropositive cats was not significantly different among the three clinical groups, i.e., healthy (29.8%), neurologically asymptomatic disease (22.2%) and neurological disease (33.3%). The specific antibodies were present even in cats aged below one year. The seropositive ratio was constant, irrespective of age and sampling season. The present study suggests that additional factors are required for onset of Borna disease in naturally infected cats and that BDV is transmitted through vertical routes in cats. PMID:24805904

  8. Borna disease virus: new aspects on infection, disease, diagnosis and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, H; Bode, L

    2000-04-01

    A 'disease of the head' affecting horses, as described in the 17th Century is now known as Borna disease. Research over the past 100 years has established that the aetiological agent, Borna disease virus (BDV), is an unsegmented, single- and negative-stranded, enveloped ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus which represents the family Bornaviridae in the order Mononegavirales. The virus exists world-wide in horses, sheep, cattle, cats, dogs and ostriches. The infection can be fatal, but the majority of carriers are persistently infected without showing symptoms. The association with psychiatric diseases in humans led to an international explosion of research on BDV, with centres established in Germany, the United States of America and Japan. Experimental infections of tree shrews and rats served to examine the effects of persistent and overt disease, most excitingly, virus-induced behavioural changes, and emotional and learning deficits. This 'emerging' virus infection shows complex pathogenetic mechanisms in the nervous system, but also spreads through myelo-monocytic cells. Diagnosis can be made serologically, but detection of antigen markers in peripheral white blood cells, combined with nucleic acid amplification is more profitable. Comparative RNA studies reveal an unusually high genetic homology of viruses. Isolates recovered from humans and equines suggest species-specificity. Vaccination is not an advisable strategy, but antiviral therapy, especially with amantadine sulphate, promises efficacy in human mood disorders, and is effective in vitro. Infections with BDV follow a vulnerability principle to cause disease. Although cross-species transmission of this commensal virus has not been proven, zoonotic aspects of BDV should be carefully considered. PMID:11189720

  9. BORNA DISEASE IN EQUINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Borna disease (BD) is a naturally occuring, infectious, usually fatal, progressive meningopolioencephalitis, predominantly affecting horses and sheep, more rarely other Equidae, cattle, goats, rabbits and exceptionally a variety of other animal species and possibly man. Synonyms used in the past suc...

  10. Atypical dissemination of the highly neurotropic Borna disease virus during persistent infection in cyclosporine A-treated, immunosuppressed rats.

    PubMed Central

    Stitz, L; Schilken, D; Frese, K

    1991-01-01

    In adult rats infected with Borna disease virus, the virus was found exclusively in the brain, whereas in cyclosporine A-treated rats, infectious virus was also detected in peripheral nerve fibers and, unexpectedly, in adjacent organ-specific cells. In contrast to untreated virus-infected rats, no major histocompatibility complex class II expression was found in the brain of cyclosporine A-treated animals. Images PMID:1985209

  11. Characterization of a Borna disease virus field isolate which shows efficient viral propagation and transmissibility.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Okamoto, Minoru; Kamitani, Wataru; Yanai, Hideyuki; Ohtaki, Naohiro; Hayashi, Yohei; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the biological characteristics of field isolates of Borna disease virus (BDV), as well as to understand BDV infections outside endemic countries, we isolated the virus from brain samples of a heifer with Borna disease in Japan. We demonstrate that the brain lysate contained replication products of BDV and induced viral propagation in rat glioma cells, suggesting that a replication-competent BDV existed in the bovine brain. This field strain of BDV, named Bo/04w, showed efficient viral release and transmissibility and also displayed a distinct pattern of expression of viral phosphoprotein (P) during infection, as compared with laboratory-adapted BDV strains. Interestingly, we found the level of P to be significantly low in cells infected with Bo/04w, and the transcription of this isolate to be more efficient than that of laboratory strain of BDV. These results indicated that the field isolate may regulate the expression of P at an optimal level in infected cells. We also confirmed that Bo/04w maintains biological significance in neonatal gerbil brain. Sequencing revealed that despite the biological differences, the field isolate is closely related genetically to the laboratory strains of BDV. We discuss here the sequence similarities between BDV isolates from endemic and nonendemic countries. PMID:17306587

  12. Infection of the enteric nervous system by Borna Disease Virus (BDV) upregulates expression of Calbindin D-28k

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic agent infecting distinct neuronal subpopulations in the central nervous system of various mammalian species likely including humans. Horses, a major natural host for BDV, show dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract beside characteristic neurological sym...

  13. Role of Borna disease virus in neuropsychiatric illnesses: are we inching closer?

    PubMed

    Thakur, R; Sarma, S; Sharma, B

    2009-01-01

    The biological cause of psychiatric illnesses continues to be under intense scrutiny. Among the various neurotropic viruses, Borna disease virus (BDV) is another virus that preferentially targets the neurons of the limbic system and has been shown to be associated with behavioural abnormalities. Presence of various BDV markers, including viral RNA, in patients with affective and mood disorders have triggered ongoing debate worldwide regarding its aetiopathogenic relationship. This article analyses its current state of knowledge and recent advances in diagnosis in order to prove or refute the association of BDV in causation of human neuropsychiatric disorders. This emerging viral causative association of behavioural disorders, which seems to be inching closer, has implication not only for a paradigm shift in the treatment and management of neuropsychiatric illnesses but also has an important impact on the public health systems. PMID:19584498

  14. High prevalence of Borna disease virus infection in healthy sheep in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, K; Kawamoto, S; Takahashi, H; Nakamura, Y; Nakaya, T; Hiramune, T; Ishihara, C; Ikuta, K

    1997-01-01

    Previous seroepidemiological and molecular epidemiological studies of Borna disease virus (BDV) showed considerably high rates of infection in horses, cattle, cats, and humans in Hokkaido, Japan. Here, we further demonstrate high rates of specific antibodies to BDV and BDV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy sheep bred on the same island. The BDV prevalences by immunoblotting and/or reverse transcriptase PCR were 0% (0 of 19) in newborns (<1 month old), 51.7% (15 of 29) in lambs (1 to 6 months old), and 36.7% (11 of 30) in adults (>2 years old). Among animals positive for BDV, 60% of lambs and 45.5% of adults contained BDV RNA in PBMCs while 46.7% of lambs and 90.9% of adults contained specific antibodies to BDV. Thus, it is suggested that virus replication in the blood, as observed in lambs, is usually reduced in adulthood by raising immune responses to BDV. PMID:9144374

  15. Borna Disease Virus Phosphoprotein Modulates Epigenetic Signaling in Neurons To Control Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Emilie M.; Szelechowski, Marion; Bétourné, Alexandre; Foret, Charlotte; Thouard, Anne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the modalities of interaction of neurotropic viruses with their target cells represents a major challenge that may improve our knowledge of many human neurological disorders for which viral origin is suspected. Borna disease virus (BDV) represents an ideal model to analyze the molecular mechanisms of viral persistence in neurons and its consequences for neuronal homeostasis. It is now established that BDV ensures its long-term maintenance in infected cells through a stable interaction of viral components with the host cell chromatin, in particular, with core histones. This has led to our hypothesis that such an interaction may trigger epigenetic changes in the host cell. Here, we focused on histone acetylation, which plays key roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, notably for neurons. We performed a comparative analysis of histone acetylation patterns of neurons infected or not infected by BDV, which revealed that infection decreases histone acetylation on selected lysine residues. We showed that the BDV phosphoprotein (P) is responsible for these perturbations, even when it is expressed alone independently of the viral context, and that this action depends on its phosphorylation by protein kinase C. We also demonstrated that BDV P inhibits cellular histone acetyltransferase activities. Finally, by pharmacologically manipulating cellular acetylation levels, we observed that inhibiting cellular acetyl transferases reduces viral replication in cell culture. Our findings reveal that manipulation of cellular epigenetics by BDV could be a means to modulate viral replication and thus illustrate a fascinating example of virus-host cell interaction. IMPORTANCE Persistent DNA viruses often subvert the mechanisms that regulate cellular chromatin dynamics, thereby benefitting from the resulting epigenetic changes to create a favorable milieu for their latent and persistent states. Here, we reasoned that Borna disease virus (BDV), the only

  16. Shedding of Infectious Borna Disease Virus-1 in Living Bicolored White-Toothed Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Nobach, Daniel; Bourg, Manon; Herzog, Sibylle; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Encarnação, Jorge A.; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Background Many RNA viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. The bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon) has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). Principal Findings Six out of eleven wild living bicoloured white-toothed shrews were trapped and revealed to be naturally infected with BoDV-1. All shrews were monitored in captivity in a long-term study over a time period up to 600 days that differed between the individual shrews. Interestingly, all six animals showed an asymptomatic course of infection despite virus shedding via various routes indicating a highly adapted host-pathogen interaction. Infectious virus and viral RNA were demonstrated in saliva, urine, skin swabs, lacrimal fluid and faeces, both during the first 8 weeks of the investigation period and for long time shedding after more than 250 days in captivity. Conclusions The various ways of shedding ensure successful virus maintenance in the reservoir population but also transmission to accidental hosts such as horses and sheep. Naturally BoDV-1-infected living shrews serve as excellent tool to unravel host and pathogen factors responsible for persistent viral co-existence in reservoir species while maintaining their physiological integrity despite high viral load in many organ systems. PMID:26313904

  17. Visualizing Viral Dissemination in the Mouse Nervous System, Using a Green Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Borna Disease Virus Vector▿

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Andreas; Guelzow, Timo; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs; Heimrich, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) frequently persists in the brain of infected animals. To analyze viral dissemination in the mouse nervous system, we generated a mouse-adapted virus that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP). This viral vector supported GFP expression for up to 150 days and possessed an extraordinary staining capacity, visualizing complete dendritic arbors as well as individual axonal fibers of infected neurons. GFP-positive cells were first detected in cortical areas from where the virus disseminated through the entire central nervous system (CNS). Late in infection, GFP expression was found in the sciatic nerve, demonstrating viral spread from the central to the peripheral nervous system. PMID:20219925

  18. Experimental infection of mice with Borna disease virus (BDV): replication and distribution of the virus after intracerebral infection.

    PubMed

    Enbergs, H K; Vahlenkamp, T W; Kipar, A; Müller, H

    2001-06-01

    To develop an animal model resembling natural asymptomatic Borna disease virus (BDV) infections, BDV He/80 rat brain homogenate was passaged four times in adult SJL/J mice. Within 12 months of observation, mice did not develop overt signs of disease. Nucleotide sequencing of the rat isolate and the mouse isolates at the fourth passage revealed no difference in the deduced amino acids. Viral RNA was found in brain, heart, kidney, lung, liver, and urinary bladder. Infectious virus was isolated from brain, but also from heart and lung tissue. Immunohistochemically, BDV was demonstrated in nerves in the abdominal cavity, ganglion coeliacum, and adrenal glands, but not in organ parenchyma. Occasionally, viral RNA was detected in mononuclear blood cells. PMID:11517401

  19. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wuqi; Kao, Wenping; Zhai, Aixia; Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun; Zhang, Qingmeng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fengmin

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-α/β expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-β. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.

  20. Borna disease virus P protein inhibits nitric oxide synthase gene expression in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Guiqing; Zhang Fengmin; Zhang Qi; Wu Kailang; Zhu Fan; Wu Jianguo

    2007-09-30

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the potential infectious agents involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Neurons and astrocytes are the main targets of BDV infection, but little is known about the roles of BDV infection in the biological effects of astrocytes. Here we reported that BDV inhibits the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in murine astrocytes induced by bacterial LPS and PMA. To determine which protein of BDV is responsible for the regulation of iNOS expression, we co-transfected murine astrocytes with reporter plasmid iNOS-luciferase and plasmid expressing individual BDV proteins. Results from analyses of reporter activities revealed that only the phosphoprotein (P) of BDV had an inhibitory effect on the activation of iNOS. In addition, P protein inhibits nitric oxide production through regulating iNOS expression. We also reported that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) binding element, AP-1 recognition site, and interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) on the iNOS promoter were involved in the repression of iNOS gene expression regulated by the P protein. Functional analysis indicated that sequences from amino acids 134 to 174 of the P protein are necessary for the regulation of iNOS. These data suggested that BDV may suppress signal transduction pathways, which resulted in the inhibition of iNOS activation in astrocytes.

  1. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang; and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  2. The diagnosis of proventricular dilatation disease: use of a Western blot assay to detect antibodies against avian Borna virus.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Itamar; Gray, Patricia; Mirhosseini, Negin; Payne, Susan; Hoppes, Sharman; Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Briese, Thomas; Turner, Debra; Tizard, Ian

    2010-07-14

    Avian Borna virus (ABV) has recently been shown to be the causal agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) a lethal neurologic disease of captive psittacines and other birds. An immunoblot assay was used to detect the presence of antibodies against avian Borna virus in the serum of affected birds. A lysate from ABV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts served as a source of antigen. The assay was used to test for the presence of antibodies to ABV in 117 birds. Thirty of these birds had biopsy or necropsy-confirmed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), while the remaining 87 birds were apparently healthy or were suffering from diseases other than PDD. Sera from 27 of the 30 PDD cases (90%) contained antibodies to ABV. Seventy-three (84%) of the apparently "healthy" birds were seronegative. Additionally, sera from seven macaws and one parrot trapped in the Peruvian Amazon were seronegative. Positive sera recognized the bornaviral nucleoprotein (N-protein). While the presence of antibodies to ABV largely corresponded with the development of clinical PDD, 14 apparently healthy normal birds possessed detectable antibodies to ABV. The existence of a carrier state was confirmed when 13 of 15 apparently healthy cockatiels were shown by PCR to have detectable ABV RNA in their feces. Western blot assays may be of significant assistance in diagnosing proventricular dilatation disease. Many apparently healthy birds may however be seronegative while, at the same time, shedding ABV in their feces. PMID:20036080

  3. Borna disease virus possesses an NF-ĸB inhibitory sequence in the nucleoprotein gene

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Akiko; Fujino, Kan; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) has a non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA genome and causes persistent infection in many animal species. Previous study has shown that the activation of the IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB pathway is reduced by BDV infection even in cells expressing constitutively active mutant IKK. This result suggests that BDV directly interferes with the IKK/NF-κB pathway. To elucidate the mechanism for the inhibition of NF-κB activation by BDV infection, we evaluated the cross-talk between BDV infection and the NF-κB pathway. Using Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation analysis, we found that the nucleoproteins of BDV (BDV-N) and NF-κB1 share a common ankyrin-like motif. When THP1-CD14 cells were pre-treated with the identified peptide, NF-κB activation by Toll-like receptor ligands was suppressed. The 20S proteasome assay showed that BDV-N and BDV-N-derived peptide inhibited the processing of NF-κB1 p105 into p50. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assays showed that BDV-N interacted with NF-κB1 but not with NF-κB2, which shares no common motif with BDV-N. These results suggest BDV-N inhibits NF-κB1 processing by the 20S proteasome through its ankyrin-like peptide sequence, resulting in the suppression of IKK/NF-κB pathway activation. This inhibitory effect of BDV on the induction of the host innate immunity might provide benefits against persistent BDV infection. PMID:25733193

  4. Borna disease virus possesses an NF-ĸB inhibitory sequence in the nucleoprotein gene.

    PubMed

    Makino, Akiko; Fujino, Kan; Parrish, Nicholas F; Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) has a non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA genome and causes persistent infection in many animal species. Previous study has shown that the activation of the IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB pathway is reduced by BDV infection even in cells expressing constitutively active mutant IKK. This result suggests that BDV directly interferes with the IKK/NF-κB pathway. To elucidate the mechanism for the inhibition of NF-κB activation by BDV infection, we evaluated the cross-talk between BDV infection and the NF-κB pathway. Using Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation analysis, we found that the nucleoproteins of BDV (BDV-N) and NF-κB1 share a common ankyrin-like motif. When THP1-CD14 cells were pre-treated with the identified peptide, NF-κB activation by Toll-like receptor ligands was suppressed. The 20S proteasome assay showed that BDV-N and BDV-N-derived peptide inhibited the processing of NF-κB1 p105 into p50. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assays showed that BDV-N interacted with NF-κB1 but not with NF-κB2, which shares no common motif with BDV-N. These results suggest BDV-N inhibits NF-κB1 processing by the 20S proteasome through its ankyrin-like peptide sequence, resulting in the suppression of IKK/NF-κB pathway activation. This inhibitory effect of BDV on the induction of the host innate immunity might provide benefits against persistent BDV infection. PMID:25733193

  5. Morphometric analysis of the retina from horses infected with the Borna disease virus.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, J; Kuhrt, H; Stahl, T; Kacza, J; Seeger, J; Weber, M; Uhlig, A; Reichenbach, A; Grosche, A; Pannicke, T

    2007-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a fatal disorder of horses, often characterized by blindness. Although degeneration of retinal neurons has been demonstrated in a rat model, there are controversial data concerning whether a similar degeneration occurs in the retina of infected horses. To investigate whether BD may cause degeneration of photoreceptors and possibly of other neuronal cells at least at later stages of the disease, we performed a detailed quantitative morphologic study of retinal tissue from Borna-diseased horses. BD was diagnosed by detection of pathognomonic Joest-Degen inclusion bodies in the postmortem brains. Paraffin sections of paraformaldehyde-fixed retinae were used for histologic and immunohistochemical stainings. Numbers of neurons and Müller glial cells were counted, and neuron-to-Müller cell ratios were calculated. Among tissues from 9 horses with BD, we found retinae with strongly altered histologic appearance as well as retinae with only minor changes. The neuron-to-Müller cell ratio for the whole retina was significantly smaller in diseased animals (8.5 +/- 0.4; P < .01) as compared with controls (17.6 +/- 0.8). It can be concluded that BD in horses causes alterations of the retinal histology of a variable degree. The study provides new data about the pathogenesis of BD concerning the retina and demonstrates that a loss of photoreceptors may explain the observed blindness in infected horses. PMID:17197624

  6. The Bicolored White-Toothed Shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) Is an Indigenous Host of Mammalian Borna Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

  7. Genomic RNAs of Borna disease virus are elongated on internal template motifs after realignment of the 3′ termini

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Arnold; Hoefs, Nadja; Tadewaldt, Josefine; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs

    2011-01-01

    The terminal structures of the Borna disease virus (BDV) genome (vRNA) and antigenome (cRNA) differ from those of other negative strand RNA viruses, as both molecules possess four nucleotides at the 3′ terminus without an apparent template at the 5′ end of the opposite strand. Consequently, the v- and cRNA molecules are not perfect mirror images, a situation that is not compatible with conventional strategies to maintain genetic information. We show here that recombinant viruses recovered from cDNA lacking the nontemplated nucleotides efficiently reconstitute the 3′ overhangs. Analyses of recombinant viruses encoding genetic markers in potential alternative template sequences demonstrated that the BDV v- and cRNA molecules are extended by a realign-and-elongation process on internal template motifs located in close proximity to the 3′ ends of v- and cRNA, respectively. The data further suggest that cRNA elongation is restricted to a single template motif of the nascent strand, whereas elongation of vRNA might use multiple template motifs. We propose that the elongation of the 3′ termini supports the terminal integrity of the genomic RNA molecules during BDV persistence, and furthermore provides an elegant strategy to eliminate the triphosphate groups from the 5′ termini of the BDV v- and cRNA without compromising the genetic information of the virus. PMID:21482759

  8. Inhibition of Borna disease virus replication by an endogenous bornavirus-like element in the ground squirrel genome.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Kan; Horie, Masayuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Merriman, Dana K; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2014-09-01

    Animal genomes contain endogenous viral sequences, such as endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons. Recently, we and others discovered that nonretroviral viruses also have been endogenized in many vertebrate genomes. Bornaviruses belong to the Mononegavirales and have left endogenous fragments, called "endogenous bornavirus-like elements" (EBLs), in the genomes of many mammals. The striking features of EBLs are that they contain relatively long ORFs which have high sequence homology to the extant bornavirus proteins. Furthermore, some EBLs derived from bornavirus nucleoprotein (EBLNs) have been shown to be transcribed as mRNA and probably are translated into proteins. These features lead us to speculate that EBLs may function as cellular coopted genes. An EBLN element in the genome of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), itEBLN, encodes an ORF with 77% amino acid sequence identity to the current bornavirus nucleoprotein. In this study, we cloned itEBLN from the ground squirrel genome and investigated its involvement in Borna disease virus (BDV) replication. Interestingly, itEBLN, but not a human EBLN, colocalized with the viral factory in the nucleus and appeared to affect BDV polymerase activity by being incorporated into the viral ribonucleoprotein. Our data show that, as do certain endogenous retroviruses, itEBLN potentially may inhibit infection by related exogenous viruses in vivo. PMID:25157155

  9. Borna disease: a possible emerging zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Boucher, J M; Barbillon, E; Cliquet, F

    1999-01-01

    The Borna disease virus (BDV) causes a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in several vertebrate species. The progress made over the last 30 years in molecular biology has allowed us to identify the unique characteristics of the virus, such as its persistence in the CNS and the way it is expressed. This has allowed scientists to classify this pathogenic agent in a new family of RNA viruses. BDV affects a very large spectrum of hosts and is responsible for a disease characterised by behavioural anomalies. The large range of intra- or inter-specific symptoms of this disease (from persistence of the virus without clinical symptoms to CNS destruction) make epidemiological studies very difficult. Different diagnostic tools have allowed the detection of this infectious agent in different species around the world (central Europe, USA, UK, Japan, Iran, etc.). The disease can be fatal for sheep and horses (its primary natural hosts) and can infect other species such as rats, cattle, dogs, cats or pigeons. In human beings, BDV could be responsible for certain psychiatric disorders. In France, the limited number of epidemiological studies that have been conducted up until now (in veterinary and medical fields) does not allow scientists to ascertain whether the disease is present in France or not. Due to the suspected large geographical distribution of this infectious agent, however, we could expect the presence of BDV in France. PMID:10596403

  10. Intracerebral Borna Disease Virus Infection of Bank Voles Leading to Peripheral Spread and Reverse Transcription of Viral RNA

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Paula Maria; Inkeroinen, Hanna; Ilander, Mette; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Heikkilä, Henna Pauliina; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Palva, Airi; Vaheri, Antti; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Bornaviruses, which chronically infect many species, can cause severe neurological diseases in some animal species; their association with human neuropsychiatric disorders is, however, debatable. The epidemiology of Borna disease virus (BDV), as for other members of the family Bornaviridae, is largely unknown, although evidence exists for a reservoir in small mammals, for example bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In addition to the current exogenous infections and despite the fact that bornaviruses have an RNA genome, bornavirus sequences integrated into the genomes of several vertebrates millions of years ago. Our hypothesis is that the bank vole, a common wild rodent species in traditional BDV-endemic areas, can serve as a viral host; we therefore explored whether this species can be infected with BDV, and if so, how the virus spreads and whether viral RNA is transcribed into DNA in vivo. We infected neonate bank voles intracerebrally with BDV and euthanized them 2 to 8 weeks post-infection. Specific Ig antibodies were detectable in 41%. Histological evaluation revealed no significant pathological alterations, but BDV RNA and antigen were detectable in all infected brains. Immunohistology demonstrated centrifugal spread throughout the nervous tissue, because viral antigen was widespread in peripheral nerves and ganglia, including the mediastinum, esophagus, and urinary bladder. This was associated with viral shedding in feces, of which 54% were BDV RNA-positive, and urine at 17%. BDV nucleocapsid gene DNA occurred in 66% of the infected voles, and, surprisingly, occasionally also phosphoprotein DNA. Thus, intracerebral BDV infection of bank vole led to systemic infection of the nervous tissue and viral excretion, as well as frequent reverse transcription of the BDV genome, enabling genomic integration. This first experimental bornavirus infection in wild mammals confirms the recent findings regarding bornavirus DNA, and suggests that bank voles are capable of

  11. Intracerebral Borna disease virus infection of bank voles leading to peripheral spread and reverse transcription of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Paula Maria; Inkeroinen, Hanna; Ilander, Mette; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Heikkilä, Henna Pauliina; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Palva, Airi; Vaheri, Antti; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Bornaviruses, which chronically infect many species, can cause severe neurological diseases in some animal species; their association with human neuropsychiatric disorders is, however, debatable. The epidemiology of Borna disease virus (BDV), as for other members of the family Bornaviridae, is largely unknown, although evidence exists for a reservoir in small mammals, for example bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In addition to the current exogenous infections and despite the fact that bornaviruses have an RNA genome, bornavirus sequences integrated into the genomes of several vertebrates millions of years ago. Our hypothesis is that the bank vole, a common wild rodent species in traditional BDV-endemic areas, can serve as a viral host; we therefore explored whether this species can be infected with BDV, and if so, how the virus spreads and whether viral RNA is transcribed into DNA in vivo.We infected neonate bank voles intracerebrally with BDV and euthanized them 2 to 8 weeks post-infection. Specific Ig antibodies were detectable in 41%. Histological evaluation revealed no significant pathological alterations, but BDV RNA and antigen were detectable in all infected brains. Immunohistology demonstrated centrifugal spread throughout the nervous tissue, because viral antigen was widespread in peripheral nerves and ganglia, including the mediastinum, esophagus, and urinary bladder. This was associated with viral shedding in feces, of which 54% were BDV RNA-positive, and urine at 17%. BDV nucleocapsid gene DNA occurred in 66% of the infected voles, and, surprisingly, occasionally also phosphoprotein DNA. Thus, intracerebral BDV infection of bank vole led to systemic infection of the nervous tissue and viral excretion, as well as frequent reverse transcription of the BDV genome, enabling genomic integration. This first experimental bornavirus infection in wild mammals confirms the recent findings regarding bornavirus DNA, and suggests that bank voles are capable of

  12. Sequence variability of Borna disease virus open reading frame II found in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, M; Arimura, Y; Ikuta, K; Shoya, Y; Lai, P K; Kakinuma, M

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA fragment of the Borna disease virus (BDV) open reading frame II (ORF-II), which encodes a 24-kDa phosphoprotein (p24 [P protein]), was amplified from total RNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from three psychiatric inpatients. The amplified cDNA fragments were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. A total of 15 clones, 5 from each patient, were studied. Intrapatient divergencies of the BDV ORF-II nucleotide sequence were 4.2 to 7.3%, 4.8 to 7.3%, and 2.8 to 7.1% for the three patients, leading to differences of 7.7 to 14.5%, 10.3 to 17.1%, and 6.0 to 16.2%, respectively, in the deduced amino acid sequence for BDV p24. Interpatient divergencies among the 15 clones were 5.9 to 12.7% at the nucleotide level and 12.8 to 28.2% at the amino acid level. Thus, in p24, BDV in human PBMC of the patients undergoes mutation at high rates in vivo. Additionally, we found that the nucleotide sequence of the 15 human BDV ORF-II cDNA clones differed from those of the horse strains V and He/80-1 by 4.2 to 9.3%. However, comparison of the consensus amino acid sequence deduced from the 15 human clones with those of the horse strains revealed no human-specific amino acid residue, suggesting that the BDV infecting humans may be related to that infecting horses. PMID:8523585

  13. Manipulation of the N-terminal sequence of the Borna disease virus X protein improves its mitochondrial targeting and neuroprotective potential.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Cécile A; Davezac, Noélie; Thouard, Anne; Peyrin, Jean-Michel; Belenguer, Pascale; Miquel, Marie-Christine; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Szelechowski, Marion

    2016-04-01

    To favor their replication, viruses express proteins that target diverse mammalian cellular pathways. Due to the limited size of many viral genomes, such proteins are endowed with multiple functions, which require targeting to different subcellular compartments. One salient example is the X protein of Borna disease virus, which is expressed both at the mitochondria and in the nucleus. Moreover, we recently demonstrated that mitochondrial X protein is neuroprotective. In this study, we sought to examine the mechanisms whereby the X protein transits between subcellular compartments and to define its localization signals, to enhance its mitochondrial accumulation and thus, potentially, its neuroprotective activity. We transfected plasmids expressing fusion proteins bearing different domains of X fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and compared their subcellular localization to that of eGFP. We observed that the 5-16 domain of X was responsible for both nuclear export and mitochondrial targeting and identified critical residues for mitochondrial localization. We next took advantage of these findings and constructed mutant X proteins that were targeted only to the mitochondria. Such mutants exhibited enhanced neuroprotective properties in compartmented cultures of neurons grown in microfluidic chambers, thereby confirming the parallel between mitochondrial accumulation of the X protein and its neuroprotective potential.-Ferré C. A., Davezac, N., Thouard, A., Peyrin, J. M., Belenguer, P., Miquel, M.-C., Gonzalez-Dunia, D., Szelechowski, M. Manipulation of the N-terminal sequence of the Borna disease virus X protein improves its mitochondrial targeting and neuroprotective potential. PMID:26700735

  14. TNF-Overexpression in Borna Disease Virus-Infected Mouse Brains Triggers Inflammatory Reaction and Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Herzog, Sibylle; Richt, Jürgen A.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Herden, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Proinflammatory state of the brain increases the risk for seizure development. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV)-infection of mice with neuronal overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) was used to investigate the complex relationship between enhanced cytokine levels, neurotropic virus infection and reaction pattern of brain cells focusing on its role for seizure induction. Viral antigen and glial markers were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Different levels of TNF in the CNS were provided by the use of heterozygous and homozygous TNF overexpressing mice. Transgenic TNF, total TNF (native and transgenic), TNF-receptor (TNFR1, TNFR2), IL-1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) mRNA values were measured by real time RT-PCR. BDV-infection of TNF-transgenic mice resulted in non-purulent meningoencephalitis accompanied by epileptic seizures with a higher frequency in homozygous animals. This correlated with lower weight gain, stronger degree and progression of encephalitis and early, strong microglia activation in the TNF-transgenic mice, most obviously in homozygous animals. Activation of astroglia could be more intense and associated with an unusual hypertrophy in the transgenic mice. BDV-antigen distribution and infectivity in the CNS was comparable in TNF-transgenic and wild-type animals. Transgenic TNF mRNA-expression was restricted to forebrain regions as the transgene construct comprised the promoter of NMDA-receptor subunit2B and induced up-regulation of native TNF mRNA. Total TNF mRNA levels did not increase significantly after BDV-infection in the brain of transgenic mice but TNFR1, TNFR2 and IL-1 mRNA values, mainly in the TNF overexpressing brain areas. NR2B mRNA levels were not influenced by transgene expression or BDV-infection. Neuronal TNF-overexpression combined with BDV-infection leads to cytokine up-regulation, CNS inflammation and glial cell activation and confirmed the presensitizing effect of elevated cytokine

  15. Borna disease in a dog in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Kagawa, Y; Kamitani, W; Hagiwara, K; Kirisawa, R; Iwai, H; Ikuta, K; Taniyama, H

    2002-05-01

    Borna disease (BD) was diagnosed in a 3-year-old male Welsh corgi suffering from a severe and acute progressive disorder of the central nervous system. Histopathologically, neuronal lesions were characterized by a non-suppurative encephalomyelitis dominated by large perivascular cuffs consisting of lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells; also present were inflammatory cell infiltrates in the neural parenchyma, neuronophagia and focal gliosis. Strong immunolabelling with BD virus (BDV) p40 antibody was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of small and large neurons in areas of the brain with and without inflammatory changes, and also in the spinal cord. Positive hybridization signals with BDV p40 sense and antisense riboprobes were seen in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the neurons throughout the whole brain and spinal cord. BDV p24 RNA in formalin-fixed brain tissue was detected by reverse transcriptase (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). BDV p24 RNA-positive signals were detected in the temporal lobe. This is the first report of spontaneous canine BD in Japan. PMID:12056780

  16. Analysis of borna disease virus trafficking in live infected cells by using a virus encoding a tetracysteine-tagged p protein.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Caroline M; Wu, Yuan-Ju; Allart, Sophie; Malnou, Cécile E; Schwemmle, Martin; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA virus characterized by noncytolytic persistent infection and replication in the nuclei of infected cells. To gain further insight on the intracellular trafficking of BDV components during infection, we sought to generate recombinant BDV (rBDV) encoding fluorescent fusion viral proteins. We successfully rescued a virus bearing a tetracysteine tag fused to BDV-P protein, which allowed assessment of the intracellular distribution and dynamics of BDV using real-time live imaging. In persistently infected cells, viral nuclear inclusions, representing viral factories tethered to chromatin, appeared to be extremely static and stable, contrasting with a very rapid and active trafficking of BDV components in the cytoplasm. Photobleaching (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching [FRAP] and fluorescence loss in photobleaching [FLIP]) imaging approaches revealed that BDV components were permanently and actively exchanged between cellular compartments, including within viral inclusions, albeit with a fraction of BDV-P protein not mobile in these structures, presumably due to its association with viral and/or cellular proteins. We also obtained evidence for transfer of viral material between persistently infected cells, with routing of the transferred components toward the cell nucleus. Finally, coculture experiments with noninfected cells allowed visualization of cell-to-cell BDV transmission and movement of the incoming viral material toward the nucleus. Our data demonstrate the potential of tetracysteine-tagged recombinant BDV for virus tracking during infection, which may provide novel information on the BDV life cycle and on the modalities of its interaction with the nuclear environment during viral persistence. PMID:24027309

  17. Borna Disease Virus Matrix Protein Is an Integral Component of the Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complex That Does Not Interfere with Polymerase Activity▿

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Geoffrey; Mayer, Daniel; Hildebrand, Antonia; Frank, Ronald; Hayashi, Yohei; Tomonaga, Keizo; Schwemmle, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We have recently shown that the matrix protein M of Borna disease virus (BDV) copurifies with the affinity-purified nucleoprotein (N) from BDV-infected cells, suggesting that M is an integral component of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). However, further studies were hampered by the lack of appropriate tools. Here we generated an M-specific rabbit polyclonal antiserum to investigate the intracellular distribution of M as well as its colocalization with other viral proteins in BDV-infected cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that M is located both in the cytoplasm and in nuclear punctate structures typical for BDV infection. Colocalization studies indicated an association of M with nucleocapsid proteins in these nuclear punctate structures. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that M also colocalizes with the viral genome, implying that M associates directly with viral RNPs. Biochemical studies demonstrated that M binds specifically to the phosphoprotein P but not to N. Binding of M to P involves the N terminus of P and is independent of the ability of P to oligomerize. Surprisingly, despite P-M complex formation, BDV polymerase activity was not inhibited but rather slightly elevated by M, as revealed in a minireplicon assay. Thus, unlike M proteins of other negative-strand RNA viruses, BDV-M seems to be an integral component of the RNPs without interfering with the viral polymerase activity. We propose that this unique feature of BDV-M is a prerequisite for the establishment of BDV persistence. PMID:17079312

  18. Autogenous Translational Regulation of the Borna Disease Virus Negative Control Factor X from Polycistronic mRNA Using Host RNA Helicases

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yohei; Ohtaki, Naohiro; Hayashi, Yohei; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2009-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus that employs several unique strategies for gene expression. The shortest transcript of BDV, X/P mRNA, encodes at least three open reading frames (ORFs): upstream ORF (uORF), X, and P in the 5′ to 3′ direction. The X is a negative regulator of viral polymerase activity, while the P phosphoprotein is a necessary cofactor of the polymerase complex, suggesting that the translation of X is controlled rigorously, depending on viral replication. However, the translation mechanism used by the X/P polycistronic mRNA has not been determined in detail. Here we demonstrate that the X/P mRNA autogenously regulates the translation of X via interaction with host factors. Transient transfection of cDNA clones corresponding to the X/P mRNA revealed that the X ORF is translated predominantly by uORF-termination-coupled reinitiation, the efficiency of which is upregulated by expression of P. We found that P may enhance ribosomal reinitiation at the X ORF by inhibition of the interaction of the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX21 with the 5′ untranslated region of X/P mRNA, via interference with its phosphorylation. Our results not only demonstrate a unique translational control of viral regulatory protein, but also elucidate a previously unknown mechanism of regulation of polycistronic mRNA translation using RNA helicases. PMID:19893625

  19. GC–MS-Based Metabonomic Profiling Displayed Differing Effects of Borna Disease Virus Natural Strain Hu-H1 and Laboratory Strain V Infection in Rat Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siwen; Bode, Liv; Zhang, Lujun; He, Peng; Huang, Rongzhong; Sun, Lin; Chen, Shigang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Yujie; Zhou, Jingjing; Fu, Yuying; Zhu, Dan; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) persists in the central nervous systems of a wide variety of vertebrates and causes behavioral disorders. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with BDV infection. However, the pathophysiological effects of different viral strains remain largely unknown. Rat cortical neurons infected with human strain BDV Hu-H1, laboratory BDV Strain V, and non-infected control (CON) cells were cultured in vitro. At day 12 post-infection, a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 35 independent intracellular samples from Hu-H1-infected cells (n = 12), Strain V-infected cells (n = 12), and CON cells (n = 11). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to demonstrate discrimination between the three groups. Further statistical testing determined which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between groups. PLS-DA demonstrated that the whole metabolic pattern enabled statistical discrimination between groups. We identified 31 differential metabolites in the Hu-H1 and CON groups (21 decreased and 10 increased in Hu-H1 relative to CON), 35 differential metabolites in the Strain V and CON groups (30 decreased and 5 increased in Strain V relative to CON), and 21 differential metabolites in the Hu-H1 and Strain V groups (8 decreased and 13 increased in Hu-H1 relative to Strain V). Comparative metabonomic profiling revealed divergent perturbations in key energy and amino acid metabolites between natural strain Hu-H1 and laboratory Strain V of BDV. The two BDV strains differentially alter metabolic pathways of rat cortical neurons in vitro. Their systematic classification provides a valuable template for improved BDV strain definition in future studies. PMID:26287181

  20. GC-MS-Based Metabonomic Profiling Displayed Differing Effects of Borna Disease Virus Natural Strain Hu-H1 and Laboratory Strain V Infection in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siwen; Bode, Liv; Zhang, Lujun; He, Peng; Huang, Rongzhong; Sun, Lin; Chen, Shigang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Yujie; Zhou, Jingjing; Fu, Yuying; Zhu, Dan; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) persists in the central nervous systems of a wide variety of vertebrates and causes behavioral disorders. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with BDV infection. However, the pathophysiological effects of different viral strains remain largely unknown. Rat cortical neurons infected with human strain BDV Hu-H1, laboratory BDV Strain V, and non-infected control (CON) cells were cultured in vitro. At day 12 post-infection, a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 35 independent intracellular samples from Hu-H1-infected cells (n = 12), Strain V-infected cells (n = 12), and CON cells (n = 11). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to demonstrate discrimination between the three groups. Further statistical testing determined which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between groups. PLS-DA demonstrated that the whole metabolic pattern enabled statistical discrimination between groups. We identified 31 differential metabolites in the Hu-H1 and CON groups (21 decreased and 10 increased in Hu-H1 relative to CON), 35 differential metabolites in the Strain V and CON groups (30 decreased and 5 increased in Strain V relative to CON), and 21 differential metabolites in the Hu-H1 and Strain V groups (8 decreased and 13 increased in Hu-H1 relative to Strain V). Comparative metabonomic profiling revealed divergent perturbations in key energy and amino acid metabolites between natural strain Hu-H1 and laboratory Strain V of BDV. The two BDV strains differentially alter metabolic pathways of rat cortical neurons in vitro. Their systematic classification provides a valuable template for improved BDV strain definition in future studies. PMID:26287181

  1. Borna disease virus infection impacts microRNAs associated with nervous system development, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampi of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingjun; Sun, Lin; Chen, Shigang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Liang; He, Peng; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Lujun; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Deyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Xie, Peng

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by inhibiting transcription or translation and are involved in diverse biological processes, including development, cellular differentiation and tumor generation. miRNA microarray technology is a high‑throughput global analysis tool for miRNA expression profiling. Here, the hippocampi of four borna disease virus (BDV)‑infected and four non‑infected control neonatal rats were selected for miRNA microarray and bioinformatic analysis. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) analysis was subsequently performed to validate the dysregulated miRNAs. Seven miRNAs (miR‑145*, miR‑146a*, miR‑192*, miR‑200b, miR‑223*, miR‑449a and miR‑505), showed increased expression, whereas two miRNAs (miR‑126 and miR‑374) showed decreased expression in the BDV‑infected group. By RT‑qPCR validation, five miRNAs (miR‑126, miR‑200b, miR‑374, miR‑449a and miR‑505) showed significantly decreased expression (P<0.05) in response to BDV infection. Biocarta pathway analysis predicted target genes associated with 'RNA', 'IGF1mTOR', 'EIF2', 'VEGF', 'EIF', 'NTHI', 'extrinsic', 'RB', 'IL1R' and 'IGF1' pathways. Gene Ontology analysis predicted target genes associated with 'peripheral nervous system development', 'regulation of small GTPase-mediated signal transduction', 'regulation of Ras protein signal transduction', 'aerobic respiration', 'membrane fusion', 'positive regulation of cell cycle', 'cellular respiration', 'heterocycle metabolic process', 'protein tetramerization' and 'regulation of Rho protein signal transduction' processes. Among the five dysregulated miRNAs identified by RT‑qPCR, miR‑126, miR‑200b and miR‑449a showed a strong association with nervous system development, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. PMID:26004383

  2. Borna disease virus-induced neuronal degeneration dependent on host genetic background and prevented by soluble factors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuan-Ju; Schulz, Herbert; Lin, Chia-Ching; Saar, Kathrin; Patone, Giannino; Fischer, Heike; Hübner, Norbert; Heimrich, Bernd; Schwemmle, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Infection of newborn rats with Borne disease virus (BDV) results in selective degeneration of granule cell neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG). To study cellular countermechanisms that might prevent this pathology, we screened for rat strains resistant to this BDV-induced neuronal degeneration. To this end, we infected hippocampal slice cultures of different rat strains with BDV and analyzed for the preservation of the DG. Whereas infected cultures of five rat strains, including Lewis (LEW) rats, exhibited a disrupted DG cytoarchitecture, slices of three other rat strains, including Sprague–Dawley (SD), were unaffected. However, efficiency of viral replication was comparable in susceptible and resistant cultures. Moreover, these rat strain–dependent differences in vulnerability were replicated in vivo in neonatally infected LEW and SD rats. Intriguingly, conditioned media from uninfected cultures of both LEW and SD rats could prevent BDV-induced DG damage in infected LEW hippocampal cultures, whereas infection with BDV suppressed the availability of these factors from LEW but not in SD hippocampal cultures. To gain further insights into the genetic basis for this rat strain–dependent susceptibility, we analyzed DG granule cell survival in BDV-infected cultures of hippocampal neurons derived from the F1 and F2 offspring of the crossing of SD and LEW rats. Genome-wide association analysis revealed one resistance locus on chromosome (chr) 6q16 in SD rats and, surprisingly, a locus on chr3q21-23 that was associated with susceptibility. Thus, BDV-induced neuronal degeneration is dependent on the host genetic background and is prevented by soluble protective factors in the disease-resistant SD rat strain. PMID:23319640

  3. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  4. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Ebola virus disease Fact sheet Updated January 2016 Key ... for survivors of Ebola virus disease Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  5. Zika Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Slenczka, Werner

    2016-06-01

    The history of Zika virus disease serves as a paradigm of a typical emerging viral infection. Zika virus disease, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was first isolated in 1947 in the Zika forest of Uganda. The same virus was also isolated from jungle-dwelling mosquitoes (Aedes [Stegomyia] africanus). In many areas of Africa and South Asia human infections with Zika virus were detected by both serology and virus isolation. About 80% of infections are asymptomatic, and in 20% a mostly mild disease with fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis may occur. Fetal infections with malformations were not recorded in Africa or Asia. Zika virus was imported to northern Brazil possibly during the world soccer championship that was hosted by Brazil in June through July 2014. A cluster of severe fetal malformations with microcephaly and ocular defects was noted in 2015 in the northeast of Brazil, and intrauterine infections with Zika virus were confirmed. The dramatic change in Zika virus pathogenicity upon its introduction to Brazil has remained an enigma. PMID:27337468

  6. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  8. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  9. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  10. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  11. Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Avulavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family, has a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome that is negative sense, non-segmented, and single-stranded. The genome codes for six structural proteins: nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neu...

  12. [Ebola virus disease].

    PubMed

    Karwowska, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a zoonosis causing high mortality epidemics in both human and animal populations. The virus belongs to the Filoviride family. It is composed of a single-strand of RNA. Morbidity foci appear in sub-Saharan Africa. The most probable reservoir are fruit bats, which are local delicacy. The most common route of infection is via mucosa or damaged skin. The spread of disease is rapid due to dietary habits, funeral rites and the insufficient supply of disposable equipment in hospitals. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 2 to 21 days. The beginning is abrupt, dominated by influenza-like symptoms. The disease is staggering with the predominant multi-organ failure and shock. Present-day epidemic symptoms from digestive system in the form of vomiting and diarrhoea are dominant. Currently, the research on vaccine and experimental drug is in progress. The virus is damaged by standard disinfectants used in health care units. Epidemic, which broke out in February 2014, caused by the most dangerous type Zaire, is the greatest of the existing. Morbidity and mortality is underestimated due to numerous unreported cases. PMID:25763588

  13. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    PubMed

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26774254

  14. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  15. Marek's disease virus morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Denesvre, Caroline

    2013-06-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly contagious virus that induces T-lymphoma in chicken. This viral infection still circulates in poultry flocks despite the use of vaccines. With the emergence of new virulent strains in the field over time, MDV remains a serious threat to the poultry industry. More than 40 yr after MDV identification as a herpesvirus, the visualization and purification of fully enveloped infectious particles remain a challenge for biologists. The various strategies used to detect such hidden particles by electron microscopy are reviewed herein. It is now generally accepted that the production of cell-free virions only occurs in the feather follicle epithelium and is associated with viral, cellular, or both molecular determinants expressed in this tissue. This tissue is considered the only source of efficient virus shedding into the environment and therefore the origin of successful transmission in birds. In other avian tissues or permissive cell cultures, MDV replication only leads to a very low number of intracellular enveloped virions. In the absence of detectable extracellular enveloped virions in cell culture, the nature of the transmitted infectious material and its mechanisms of spread from cell to cell remain to be deciphered. An attempt is made to bring together the current knowledge on MDV morphogenesis and spread, and new approaches that could help understand MDV morphogenesis are discussed. PMID:23901745

  16. Ebola virus disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen. The virus can enter the body through a ... use condoms for 12 months or until their semen has twice tested negative. Long-term complications can ...

  17. Transolfactory neuroinvasion by viruses threatens the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mori, I

    2015-12-01

    Viral neuroinvasion via the olfactory system has been investigated in a variety of virus-animal models by scientists in many fields including virologists, pathologists, and neurologists. In humans, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), Borna disease virus, rabies virus, and influenza A virus have been shown to take the olfactory route for neuroinvasion based on forensic and post-mortem specimens. This article briefly summarizes the anatomy, physiology, and immunology of the olfactory system and presents a battery of neurovirulent viruses that may threaten the human brain by invading through this peripheral pathway, especially focusing on two of the most intensively studied viruses--HSV-1 and influenza A virus. Viruses may insidiously invade the olfactory neural network not only to precipitate encephalitis/encephalopathy but also to promote the development of neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders. Substantial information obtained by analyzing human specimens is required to argue for or against this hypothesis. PMID:26666182

  18. Marek's disease virus latency.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R W; Xie, Q; Cantello, J L; Miles, A M; Bernberg, E L; Kent, J; Anderson, A

    2001-01-01

    MDV latency is defined as the persistence of the viral genome in the absence of production of infectious virus except during reactivation. A number of systems for studying MDV latency exist, and most involve the use of lymphoblastoid cells or tumors. It has been difficult to divorce latency and transformation. Understanding the relationship between these two states remains a major challenge for the MDV system. Based on their patterns of expression, the MDV LATs are apt to be important in the balance between latent and lytic infections. The LATs are a complex group of transcripts. The profile of gene expression that characterizes latency differs among all herpesviruses, and MDV is no exception. MDV LATs bear little resemblance to LATs of other alphaherpesviruses or to the LATs of other lymphotropic herpesviruses. LAT splicing patterns are complex and the relationships among various spliced species or between these species and the large 10-kb transcript are unknown. In addition, the existence of any protein gene products of significance is unknown at this time. More work is needed to further investigate the significance and function of these RNAs. Better technology to construct mutants in the MDV system is badly needed, since the analysis of mutants in the chicken is a powerful and unique advantage of the MDV system. PMID:11217424

  19. A "virus" disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Epizootics among chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman National Fish Hatchery have occurred periodically since 1941. A virus or virus-like filterable agent has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of this disease.

  20. Control of virus diseases of berry crops.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2015-01-01

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top-tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all certified plants are produced, usually after multiple cycles of propagation. In certification schemes, efforts are made to produce plants free of the targeted pathogens to provide plants of high health status to berry growers. This is achieved using a systems approach to manage virus vectors. Once planted in fruit production fields, virus control shifts to disease control where efforts are focused on controlling viruses or virus complexes that result in disease. In fruiting fields, infection with a virus that does not cause disease is of little concern to growers. Virus control is based on the use of resistance and tolerance, vector management, and isolation. PMID:25591882

  1. Marek’s disease virus genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. It represents the first of three neoplastic diseases (including hepatocellular carcinoma: hepatitis B virus; and cervical carcinoma: human pap...

  2. Blackberry (Rubus spp.)-Virus Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many viruses have been found in blackberries in the Pacific Northwest. Blackberry calico virus (a carlavirus) is universally present in older commercial 'Thornless Loganberry' fields. Similar calico diseases occur in field-run 'Marion', 'Chehalem', 'Olallie', and 'Waldo' blackberries. Other virus di...

  3. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    PubMed

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease. PMID:27005530

  4. Control of virus diseases in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production. PMID:25410106

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive dataset of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionar...

  6. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava. PMID:25591878

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 West Africa Outbreak What's New Timeline Case Counts Previous Case ... U.S. Q&A: 2014 Ebola Outbreak 2014 West Africa Ebola Outbreak Communication Resources Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia ...

  8. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. PMID:25591876

  9. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  10. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  11. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  12. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  13. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  15. Generation of virus like particles for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Forzan, Mario; Maan, Sushila; Mazzei, Maurizio; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N; Bonuccelli, Lucia; Calamari, Monica; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Cappello, Valentina; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Mertens, Peter P C; Tolari, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a distinct species within the genus Orbivirus, within the family Reoviridae. The epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus genome comprises ten segments of linear, double stranded (ds) RNA, which are packaged within each virus particle. The EHDV virion has a three layered capsid-structure, generated by four major viral proteins: VP2 and VP5 (outer capsid layer); VP7 (intermediate, core-surface layer) and VP3 (innermost, sub-core layer). Although EHDV infects cattle sporadically, several outbreaks have recently occurred in this species in five Mediterranean countries, indicating a potential threat to the European cattle industry. EHDV is transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, which can travel long distances through wind-born movements (particularly over water), increasing the potential for viral spread in new areas/countries. Expression systems to generate self-assembled virus like particles (VLPs) by simultaneous expression of the major capsid-proteins, have been established for several viruses (including bluetongue virus). This study has developed expression systems for production of EHDV VLPs, for use as non-infectious antigens in both vaccinology and serology studies, avoiding the risk of genetic reassortment between vaccine and field strains and facilitating large scale antigen production. Genes encoding the four major-capsid proteins of a field strain of EHDV-6, were isolated and cloned into transfer vectors, to generate two recombinant baculoviruses. The expression of these viral genes was assessed in insect cells by monitoring the presence of specific viral mRNAs and by western blotting. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the formation and purification of assembled VLPs. PMID:27473984

  16. Recombinant infectious bursal disease virus carrying hepatitis C virus epitopes.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Chitra; Ammayappan, Arun; Patel, Deendayal; Kovesdi, Imre; Vakharia, Vikram N

    2011-02-01

    The delivery of foreign epitopes by a replicating nonpathogenic avian infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was explored. The aim of the study was to identify regions in the IBDV genome that are amenable to the introduction of a sequence encoding a foreign peptide. By using a cDNA-based reverse genetics system, insertions or substitutions of sequences encoding epitope tags (FLAG, c-Myc, or hepatitis C virus epitopes) were engineered in the open reading frames of a nonstructural protein (VP5) and the capsid protein (VP2). Attempts were also made to generate recombinant IBDV that displayed foreign epitopes in the exposed loops (P(BC) and P(HI)) of the VP2 trimer. We successfully recovered recombinant IBDVs expressing c-Myc and two different virus-neutralizing epitopes of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E in the VP5 region. Western blot analyses with anti-c-Myc and anti-HCV antibodies provided positive identification of both the c-Myc and HCV epitopes that were fused to the N terminus of VP5. Genetic analysis showed that the recombinants carrying the c-Myc/HCV epitopes maintained the foreign gene sequences and were stable after several passages in Vero and 293T cells. This is the first report describing efficient expression of foreign peptides from a replication-competent IBDV and demonstrates the potential of this virus as a vector. PMID:21106739

  17. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  18. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  19. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  20. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  1. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  2. Marek's disease virus and skin interactions.

    PubMed

    Couteaudier, Mathilde; Denesvre, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly contagious herpesvirus which induces T-cell lymphoma in the chicken. This virus is still spreading in flocks despite forty years of vaccination, with important economical losses worldwide. The feather follicles, which anchor feathers into the skin and allow their morphogenesis, are considered as the unique source of MDV excretion, causing environmental contamination and disease transmission. Epithelial cells from the feather follicles are the only known cells in which high levels of infectious mature virions have been observed by transmission electron microscopy and from which cell-free infectious virions have been purified. Finally, feathers harvested on animals and dust are today considered excellent materials to monitor vaccination, spread of pathogenic viruses, and environmental contamination. This article reviews the current knowledge on MDV-skin interactions and discusses new approaches that could solve important issues in the future. PMID:24694064

  3. Ebola virus disease in nonendemic countries.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 West African outbreak of Ebola virus disease was unprecedented in its scale and has resulted in transmissions outside endemic countries. Clinicians in nonendemic countries will most likely face the disease in returning travelers, either among healthcare workers, expatriates, or visiting friends and relatives. Clinical suspicion for the disease must be heightened for travelers or contacts presenting with compatible clinical syndromes, and strict infection control measures must be promptly implemented to minimize the risk of secondary transmission within healthcare settings or in the community. We present a concise review on human filoviral disease with an emphasis on issues that are pertinent to clinicians practicing in nonendemic countries. PMID:25882189

  4. Newcastle disease virus past, present and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are endemic in many countries around the world and have caused outbreaks in most countries since it was identified in 1926. Many countries vaccinate poultry to prevent economic losses from sickness and death. The majority of vaccines administered are formulated from N...

  5. Newcastle disease virus vaccine potency determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potency of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines is determined using vaccination and challenge. If the minimum killed viral antigen necessary for clinical protection can be determined, vaccines meeting or exceeding this dose might be considered of adequate potency. In these studies, c...

  6. Ebola Virus Disease: Focus on Children.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Athena P; Appelgren, Kristie; Chevalier, Michelle S; McElroy, Anita

    2015-08-01

    Ebola virus is one of the most deadly pathogens known to infect humans. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa is unprecedented in magnitude and duration and, as of November 30, 2014, shows no signs of abating. For the first time, cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in the US, originating from patients who traveled during the incubation period. The outbreak has generated worldwide concern. It is clear that U.S. physicians need to be aware of this disease, know when to consider Ebola and how to care for the patient as well as protect themselves. Children comprise a small percentage of all cases globally, likely because of their lower risk of exposure given social and cultural practices. Limited evidence is available on pediatric disease course and prognosis. In this article, we present an overview of the pathogen, its epidemiology and transmission, clinical and laboratory manifestations, treatment and infection control procedures, with an emphasis on what is known about Ebola virus disease in the pediatric population. PMID:25831417

  7. Ebola Virus Disease: A Review of Its Past and Present.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Ebola virus, the virus responsible for Ebola virus disease, has spawned several epidemics during the past 38 years. In 2014, an Ebola epidemic spread from Africa to other continents, becoming a pandemic. The virus's relatively unique structure, its infectivity and lethality, the difficulty in stopping its spread, and the lack of an effective treatment captured the world's attention. This article provides a brief review of the known history of Ebola virus disease, its etiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology and a review of the limited information on managing patients with Ebola virus disease. PMID:26287303

  8. A new permanent cell line derived from the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) as cell culture model for zoonotic viruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Approximately 60% of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, with three-fourths derived from wild animals. Many of these zoonotic diseases are transmitted by rodents with important information about their reservoir dynamics and pathogenesis missing. One main reason for the gap in our knowledge is the lack of adequate cell culture systems as models for the investigation of rodent-borne (robo) viruses in vitro. Therefore we established and characterized a new cell line, BVK168, using the kidney of a bank vole, Myodes glareolus, the most abundant member of the Arvicolinae trapped in Germany. Results BVK168 proved to be of epithelial morphology expressing tight junctions as well as adherence junction proteins. The BVK168 cells were analyzed for their infectability by several arbo- and robo-viruses: Vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, Sindbis virus, Pixuna virus, Usutu virus, Inkoo virus, Puumalavirus, and Borna disease virus (BDV). The cell line was susceptible for all tested viruses, and most interestingly also for the difficult to propagate BDV. Conclusion In conclusion, the newly established cell line from wildlife rodents seems to be an excellent tool for the isolation and characterization of new rodent-associated viruses and may be used as in vitro-model to study properties and pathogenesis of these agents. PMID:21729307

  9. Virus complexes: Unraveling the Mess and Implications in Disease Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work with virus diseases of strawberries, raspberries and blackberries have shown that, in most cases, diseased plants in the field are infected with more than one virus and that many 'severe' strains of viruses in these crops are actually due to mixed infections. In these complexes, there ar...

  10. Antibody therapeutics for Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Larry; Whaley, Kevin J; Olinger, Gene G; Jacobs, Michael; Gopal, Robin; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary P

    2016-04-01

    With the unprecedented scale of the 2014-2016 West Africa outbreak, the clinical and scientific community scrambled to identify potential therapeutics for Ebola virus disease (EVD). Passive administration of antibodies has a long successful history for prophylaxis and therapy of a variety of infectious diseases, but the importance of antibodies in EVD has been unclear and is the subject of some debate. Recent studies in non-human primates have renewed interest in the potential of antibodies to impact EVD. Currently ongoing clinical evaluation of polyclonal and monoclonal antibody therapy in EVD patients in West Africa may finally offer a definitive answer to this debate. PMID:26826442

  11. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  12. Lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys in southeast United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, retroviral neoplasms reported in wild upland game birds in the United States of America have typically been associated with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection. The information presented herein described the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in ...

  13. Dobrava-Belgrade virus: phylogeny, epidemiology, disease.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2012-08-01

    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is an Old World hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. With a case fatality rate up to 12%, DOBV infection is the most life-threatening hantavirus disease in Europe. The virus was initially identified in the Balkans, but the discovery of new endemic foci have expanded its recognized geographic range. The recent description of novel genetic variants with different degrees of pathogenicity have complicated its taxonomic analysis. The original rodent host of DOBV is Apodemus flavicollis, however additional Apodemus species, such Apodemus agrarius and Apodemus ponticus, have been found to serve as hosts of the various DOBV genotypes. The complex evolution and genetic diversity of the virus are still under investigation. The present review aims to provide an update on the phylogeny of DOBV and the epidemiology of infection in rodents and humans; to describe the clinical characteristics of the disease; to present current knowledge about laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention; discuss the current state of the art in antiviral drug and vaccine development. PMID:22659378

  14. Ebola virus disease outbreak: what's going on.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, G; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    The current West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in March, 2014, and after months of slow, fragmented responses, the EVD has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern. The early diagnosis of the disease is difficult without laboratory testing, because its symptoms can be seen in many other infections. In the wake of international agencies advices, the Italian Ministry of Health, on October 1, 2014, released to the Healthcare Professional Workers (HPWs) the Protocol about the management of cases and contacts within the national territory. Due to the increasing number of humanitarian groups and HPWs involved in the field, the probability to have new cases of contamination is higher than ever. Proven specific treatments against EVD are not yet available, however, a variety of compounds have been under testing. The most effective are select monoclonal antibodies that have a high neutralizing potential against epitopes of Ebola Virus. For facing the matter, it is important a comprehensive approach according to the recommendations proposed by the international agencies because no single institution or country has all the capacities to respond to a new and emerging infectious disease. PMID:25748509

  15. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  16. Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral-associated lymphoproliferative neoplasia in domestic poultry is caused by infection with a herpesvirus (Marek’s disease virus) or three species of retroviruses [Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), Avian leukosis/sarcoma virus, lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV)]. Previously, retroviral n...

  17. Ebola virus disease candidate vaccines under evaluation in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Martins, Karen A; Jahrling, Peter B; Bavari, Sina; Kuhn, Jens H

    2016-09-01

    Filoviruses are the etiological agents of two human illnesses: Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus disease. Until 2013, medical countermeasure development against these afflictions was limited to only a few research institutes worldwide as both infections were considered exotic due to very low case numbers. Together with the high case-fatality rate of both diseases, evaluation of any candidate countermeasure in properly controlled clinical trials seemed impossible. However, in 2013, Ebola virus was identified as the etiological agent of a large disease outbreak in Western Africa including almost 30,000 infections and more than 11,000 deaths, including case exportations to Europe and North America. These large case numbers resulted in medical countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public-health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate vaccines against Ebola virus disease, with a focus on those that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:27160784

  18. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-08-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  19. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer

    PubMed Central

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-01-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch’s postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  20. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  1. The effect of vaccination on Marek's disease virus shedding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current Marek’s Disease vaccines are efficient at preventing disease. However, vaccination can reduce but not completely eliminate virus shedding. Our hypothesis is that an efficient vaccine will result in fewer viruses being shed. To test this hypothesis, we developed a real-time PCR to measure Mar...

  2. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  3. A combination in-ovo vaccine for avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protection of poultry from H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be achieved through vaccination, as part of a broader disease control strategy. We have previously generated a recombinant influenza virus expressing; (i) an H5N1 hemagglutinin protei...

  4. Characterization of Aleutian disease virus as a parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1980-01-01

    We characterized a strain of Aleutian disease virus adapted to growth in Crandall feline kidney cells at 31.8 degrees C. When purified from infected cells, Aleutian disease virus had a density in CsCl of 1.42 to 1.44 g/ml and was 24 to 26 nm in diameter. [3H]thymidine could be incorporated into the viral genome, and the viral DNA was then studied. In alkaline sucrose gradients, Aleutian disease virus DNA was a single species that cosedimented at 15.5S with single-stranded DNA from adeno-associated virus. When the DNA was analyzed on neutral sucrose gradients, a single species was again observed, which sedimented at 21S and was clearly distinct from 16S duplex adeno-associated virus DNA. A similar result was obtained even after incubation under annealing conditions, implying that the bulk of Aleutian disease virus virions contained a single non-complementary strand with a molecular weight of about 1.4 X 10(6). In addition, two major virus-associated polypeptides with molecular weights of 89,100 and 77,600 were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of virus purified from infected cultures labeled with [35S]methionine. These data suggest that Aleutian disease virus is a nondefective parvovirus. Images PMID:6252342

  5. Marek's disease virus induced transient paralysis--a closer look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  6. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the poultry industry. The fear of MD is further enhanced by unpredictable vaccine breaks that result in ...

  7. Newcastle disease virus detection and differentiation from avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Torchetti, Mia Kim

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and often fatal disease that affects over 250 bird species worldwide, and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Infections of poultry with virulent strains of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Vaccination of poultry species is a key measure in the control of ND. Other APMV-1 viruses of low virulence, which are not used as vaccines, are also often isolated from wild bird species. The APMV-1 virus, like avian influenza virus (AIV), is a hemagglutinating virus (HA) and able to agglutinate chicken red blood cells (RBC). Because the clinical presentation of ND can be difficult to distinguish from disease caused by AIV, techniques for differential diagnosis are essential, as well as the ability to detect mixed infections. When an HA positive virus is detected from virus isolation, additional assays can be performed to determine which virus is present. Both antigenic and molecular methods are necessary as some virulent ND viruses from cormorants in the USA after 2002 have lost their ability to hemagglutinate chicken RBC and molecular methods are needed for identification. PMID:24899433

  8. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.

    PubMed

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-02-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

  9. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease

    PubMed Central

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne MS; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-01-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline. PMID:23949663

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Liver Disease Forum 2010: Conference Proceedings

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Kenneth E.; Thomas, David L.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease continues to represent a critical mediator of morbidity and mortality in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The frequent presence and overlap of concomitant injurious processes, including hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections, hepatoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapeutic agents, alcohol, and other toxins, in the setting of immunosuppression lead to rapid fibrotic progression and early development of end-stage liver disease. This conference summary describes the proceedings of a state-of-the-art gathering of international experts designed to highlight the status of current research in epidemiology, natural history, pathogenesis, and treatment of HIV and liver disease. PMID:21898501

  11. Newcastle Disease Strain F. Virus — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, J. E.

    1962-01-01

    Strain F Newcastle disease virus is a virus of low virulence originally reported by Asplin (1952) in England. Since that date, the use of this virus as an immunizing agent in the form of a live vaccine, has been studied. As a result, Strain F Newcastle disease vaccine has been used in national and experimental control programs in several countries in Europe, Africa and Asia. The published literature is reviewed under the following headings: properties, viability, clinical effects of vaccination, duration of immunity and a simultaneous Newcastle disease fowl pox vaccination. This review includes 24 reports published outside North America. PMID:17649410

  12. New Viruses Identified in Fig Trees Exhibiting Fig Mosaic Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fig mosaic disease has been known for decades, but the causal agent has been elusive. Here we present data on the incidence of at least four new viruses isolated from fig trees exhibiting mosaic symptoms. One of the viruses is closely related to the recently identified European mountain ash ringspo...

  13. Virus and viral diseases of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses pose serious threat to the health and well-being of honey bees, Apis mellifera, the most economically valuable pollinators of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Lately, honey bee viruses have gotten a lot of international attention due to the significant disease status that vir...

  14. Border disease in sheep caused by transmission of virus from cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, U

    1991-02-16

    Two outbreaks of border disease occurred on farms with sheep flocks and breeding cattle. The infection of the pregnant sheep was probably caused by transmission of virus from calves persistently infected with non-cytopathic bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) which were kept in close confinement with the ewes during mid-pregnancy. Border disease was also induced experimentally in eight lambs by exposing their dams at 38 to 78 days of gestation to a heifer persistently infected with BVDV. Both the natural and the experimental infections were characterised by typical signs such as 'hairy-shaker' lambs and high lamb mortality. The diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolations from live-born lambs, seroconversion and pathology. The study supports the assertion that cattle persistently infected with BVDV and in close contact with pregnant sheep, are an important source of strains of virus capable of causing border disease. PMID:1851350

  15. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed. PMID:25591879

  16. Herpes simplex virus duodenitis accompanying Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Hoo; Um, Wook Hyun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Wan Jung; Kim, Jin-Oh; Jin, So Young

    2013-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a recognized cause of gastrointestinal infection in immunodeficient patients. Although a few cases of HSV gastritis and colitis in immunocompromised patients have been reported, there are no reports of HSV duodenitis in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). A 74-year-old female was admitted with general weakness and refractory epigastric pain. She had been diagnosed with CD three years ago. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed diffuse edematous and whitish mucosa with multiple erosions in the duodenum. Considering the possibility of viral co-infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunohistochemical staining, PCR, and cultures of duodenal biopsies were performed, all of which were negative with the exception of the isolation of HSV in culture. After administration of intravenous acyclovir for 1 week, follow-up EGD showed almost complete resolution of the lesions and the patient's symptoms improved. In CD patients with refractory gastro-intestinal symptoms, HSV, as well as CMV, should be considered as a possible cause of infection, so that the diagnosis of viral infection is not delayed and the appropriate antiviral treatment can be initiated. PMID:24262595

  17. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Q&As on Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 West Africa Outbreak What's New Timeline Case Counts Previous Case ... U.S. Q&A: 2014 Ebola Outbreak 2014 West Africa Ebola Outbreak Communication Resources Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia ...

  18. Correlation between Marek’s disease virus pathotype and replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. Pathotyping has become an increasingly important assay for monitoring shifts in virulence of field strains, however, it is time-consuming and expensive and alternatives are...

  19. Chapter 11 Insect transmitted virus and mollicute disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect-transmitted diseases of maize are found throughout the maize growing regions of the world. These diseases are caused by viruses, phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas. The pathogens, vectors and plant hosts for the major insect-transmitted diseases of maize world-wide are reviewed. Factors leading to...

  20. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  1. Ebola virus disease and critical illness.

    PubMed

    Leligdowicz, Aleksandra; Fischer, William A; Uyeki, Timothy M; Fletcher, Thomas E; Adhikari, Neill K J; Portella, Gina; Lamontagne, Francois; Clement, Christophe; Jacob, Shevin T; Rubinson, Lewis; Vanderschuren, Abel; Hajek, Jan; Murthy, Srinivas; Ferri, Mauricio; Crozier, Ian; Ibrahima, Elhadj; Lamah, Marie-Claire; Schieffelin, John S; Brett-Major, David; Bausch, Daniel G; Shindo, Nikki; Chan, Adrienne K; O'Dempsey, Tim; Mishra, Sharmistha; Jacobs, Michael; Dickson, Stuart; Lyon, G Marshall; Fowler, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    As of 20 May 2016 there have been 28,646 cases and 11,323 deaths resulting from the West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak reported to the World Health Organization. There continue to be sporadic flare-ups of EVD cases in West Africa.EVD presentation is nonspecific and characterized initially by onset of fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias, headache, and fever; this is followed several days later by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Anorexia and gastrointestinal losses lead to dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and metabolic acidosis, and, in some patients, acute kidney injury. Hypoxia and ventilation failure occurs most often with severe illness and may be exacerbated by substantial fluid requirements for intravascular volume repletion and some degree of systemic capillary leak. Although minor bleeding manifestations are common, hypovolemic and septic shock complicated by multisystem organ dysfunction appear the most frequent causes of death.Males and females have been equally affected, with children (0-14 years of age) accounting for 19 %, young adults (15-44 years) 58 %, and older adults (≥45 years) 23 % of reported cases. While the current case fatality proportion in West Africa is approximately 40 %, it has varied substantially over time (highest near the outbreak onset) according to available resources (40-90 % mortality in West Africa compared to under 20 % in Western Europe and the USA), by age (near universal among neonates and high among older adults), and by Ebola viral load at admission.While there is no Ebola virus-specific therapy proven to be effective in clinical trials, mortality has been dramatically lower among EVD patients managed with supportive intensive care in highly resourced settings, allowing for the avoidance of hypovolemia, correction of electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities, and the provision of oxygen, ventilation, vasopressors, and dialysis when indicated. This experience emphasizes that

  2. Viruses and disease: emerging concepts for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Herrington, C S; Coates, P J; Duprex, W P

    2015-01-01

    Viruses cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from acute self-resolving conditions to acute fatal diseases. Effects that arise long after the primary infection can also increase the propensity for chronic conditions or lead to the development of cancer. Recent advances in the fields of virology and pathology have been fundamental in improving our understanding of viral pathogenesis, in providing improved vaccination strategies and in developing newer, more effective treatments for patients worldwide. The reviews assembled here focus on the interface between virology and pathology and encompass aspects of both the clinical pathology of viral disease and the underlying disease mechanisms. Articles on emerging diseases caused by Ebola virus, Marburg virus, coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS, Nipah virus and noroviruses are followed by reviews of enteroviruses, HIV infection, measles, mumps, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The issue concludes with a series of articles reviewing the relationship between viruses and cancer, including the role played by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of lymphoma and carcinoma; how human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the development of skin cancer; the involvement of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma; and the mechanisms by which Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) leads to Kaposi's sarcoma. We hope that this collection of articles will be of interest to a wide range of scientists and clinicians at a time when there is a renaissance in the appreciation of the power of pathology as virologists dissect the processes of disease. PMID:25366544

  3. A hematopoietic virus disease of rainbow trout and sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Yasutake, William T.; Mead, Robert W.

    1969-01-01

    A previously undescribed virus disease epizootic of hatchery rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in British Columbia, Canada is presented. In the same locality, a similar virus disease was experienced among hatchery sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Typical symptoms included flashing, fecal casts, hemorrhagic areas at the base of fins, and petechial hemorrhages on the visceral fat and membranes in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologic changes were typified by extensive degeneration and necrosis in the hematopoietic tissues of the kidney and spleen. A virus was isolated from both species of fish on tissue culture and the viruses showed cross-infectivity. Based upon the pathological changes in the hematopoietic tissue and the demonstration of a vital infection, a tentative descriptive name was designated Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis. The isolated viruses were distinctly different from the infectious pancreatic necrosis or viral hemorrhagic septicemia viruses of trout, but did show similarities to the Oregon sockeye and Sacramento River chinook viruses. Positive identification awaits further tests. The significance of these observations is the reporting of a new viral disease of rainbow trout and the extension of the geographic range of sockeye salmon viruses.

  4. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus. PMID:26403184

  5. Rescue of recombinant Newcastle disease virus from cDNA.

    PubMed

    Ayllon, Juan; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the prototype member of the Avulavirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae(1), is a non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus (Figure 1) with potential applications as a vector for vaccination and treatment of human diseases. In-depth exploration of these applications has only become possible after the establishment of reverse genetics techniques to rescue recombinant viruses from plasmids encoding their complete genomes as cDNA(2-5). Viral cDNA can be conveniently modified in vitro by using standard cloning procedures to alter the genotype of the virus and/or to include new transcriptional units. Rescue of such genetically modified viruses provides a valuable tool to understand factors affecting multiple stages of infection, as well as allows for the development and improvement of vectors for the expression and delivery of antigens for vaccination and therapy. Here we describe a protocol for the rescue of recombinant NDVs. PMID:24145366

  6. Rescue of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus from cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Ayllon, Juan; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the prototype member of the Avulavirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae1, is a non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus (Figure 1) with potential applications as a vector for vaccination and treatment of human diseases. In-depth exploration of these applications has only become possible after the establishment of reverse genetics techniques to rescue recombinant viruses from plasmids encoding their complete genomes as cDNA2-5. Viral cDNA can be conveniently modified in vitro by using standard cloning procedures to alter the genotype of the virus and/or to include new transcriptional units. Rescue of such genetically modified viruses provides a valuable tool to understand factors affecting multiple stages of infection, as well as allows for the development and improvement of vectors for the expression and delivery of antigens for vaccination and therapy. Here we describe a protocol for the rescue of recombinant NDVs. PMID:24145366

  7. Control of virus diseases of berry crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all...

  8. [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area. PMID:27295893

  9. Zika virus: A rapidly emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Roy A

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted to humans via the bite of infected mosquitoes. A recent outbreak in Brazil has spread to several surrounding countries, and the virus also has been reported in the United States. The virus is associated with microcephaly among newborns whose mothers were infected. Because no vaccine or treatment is available, efforts have focused on preventing mosquito bites and advising pregnant women and women trying to get pregnant to avoid active areas of Zika virus transmission. Clinicians should understand the infection, its diagnosis and testing, and monitor pregnant women for travel history to outbreak regions and for the presence of clinical symptoms. Patient education on preventive measures offers the best option to avoid Zika virus infection. PMID:26953673

  10. Statistical considerations for a trial of Ebola virus disease therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Proschan, Michael A; Dodd, Lori E; Price, Dionne

    2016-02-01

    The 2014 West African outbreak of Ebola virus ravaged Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, causing hemorrhagic fever and death. The need to identify effective therapeutics was acute. The usual drug development paradigm of phase I, followed by phase II, and then phase III trials would take too long. These and other factors led to the design of a clinical trial of Ebola virus disease therapeutics that differs from more conventional clinical trial designs. This article describes the Ebola virus disease medical countermeasures trial design and the thinking behind it. PMID:26768567

  11. Marek's Disease Virus As a Vectored Vaccine for Infectious Laryngotracheitis and Marek's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We replaced the MEQ gene from a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek’s disease virus with gJ and gB genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus. We will compare the efficacy of these vectored vaccines with commercial vaccines for Marek’s disease and infectious laryngotracheitis....

  12. Combination of Two Marek's Disease Virus Vectors Shows Effective Vaccination Against Marek's Disease, Infectious Bursal Disease, and Newcastle Disease.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yukari; Esaki, Motoyuki; Saitoh, Shuji; Yasuda, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) is a widely used vector for poultry vaccines. However, different HVTs expressing different foreign antigens cannot always be used simultaneously because of the risk of recombination and interference. In this study, we inoculated a mixture of an HVT-expressing the antigen of Newcastle disease virus (NDV; HVT/ND) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 1 Rispens virus expressing the antigen of infectious bursal disease virus (IBD; Ripens/IBD) into chickens. This mixture showed 94%, 100%, or 94% protection against MDV, IBDV, or NDV challenge, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of Rispens/IBD and HVT/ND is effective for vaccination against MDV, IBDV, and NDV without significant interference. PMID:27309290

  13. [Border disease: a persistent virus infection in sheep (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Terpstra, C

    1980-08-15

    Border disease (BD) is a congenital infection of sheep characterised by still-birth, abortion and the birth of weak lambs with nervous symptoms and sometimes an abnormally hairy birthcoat. The lambs are almost constantly trembling or shaking, they often have an erratic gait and in severe cases are unable to rise. The nervous signs are due to a defective myelinogensis of the central nervous system and tend to disappear at a later age. Many affected lambs die shortly after birth and those which survive usually show retarded growth. The disease is caused by a virus which is closely related to the virus of bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD). The virus may be isolated from every organ and is excreted with saliva, nasal discharge, urine and faeces. Clinically the diagnosis can be made with high probability when nervous signs and hairy birthcoat are both present. Laboratory diagnosis is based on the detection of antigen by immunofluorescence or virus isolation. In addition ewes of BD-affected lambs usually possess antibodies against BVD-virus. In some lambs, an immune response starts during prenatal life, others show a transient or lasting low level response at a later age, whereas still others remained serologically negative for at least 2 1/2 years. Asymptomatic virus carriers occur among lambs as well as among adult sheep. The persistently infected animals are continously shedding virus and thus maintain the infection in the flock. PMID:6252652

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease virus

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Patti J.; Kim, L. Mia; Ip, Hon S.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2009-08-15

    A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins revealed that the highest rate of change occurred at the fusion protein. All proteins were under strong purifying (negative) selection; the fusion protein displayed the highest number of amino acids under positive selection. Regardless of the phylogenetic grouping or the level of virulence, the cleavage site motif was highly conserved implying that mutations at this site that result in changes of virulence may not be favored. The coding sequence of the fusion gene and the genomes of viruses from wild birds displayed higher yearly rates of change in virulent viruses than in viruses of low virulence, suggesting that an increase in virulence may accelerate the rate of NDV evolution.

  15. Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... other in a remote area of Sudan. The origin of the virus is unknown, but current evidence ... Sitemap Home Health topics Data Media centre Publications Countries Programmes and projects Governance About WHO Help and ...

  16. Experimental co-infection studies with avian influenza viruses and Newcastle Disease viruses in chickens, turkeys and domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-infections of poultry with Newcastle Disease viruses (NDVs) and Avian Influenza viruses (AIVs) present a problem both from the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. Little has been done to understand the interactions between these two viruses when infecting poultry. Exposur...

  17. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  18. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families. PMID:27405928

  19. Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    PubMed

    Patton, Lauren L

    2013-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral disease among people living with HIV infection includes oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral warts, herpes simplex virus ulcers, major aphthous ulcers or ulcers not otherwise specified, HIV salivary gland disease, and atypical gingival and periodontal diseases. Diagnosis of some oral lesions is based on clinical appearance and behavior, whereas others require biopsy, culture, or imaging for definitive diagnosis. Management strategies including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are discussed in this article. Dentists also need to be cognizant of the potential oral side effects of HIV antiretroviral medications. PMID:24034072

  20. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765

  1. Marek’s disease virus evolution in specific MHC haplotypes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clinical nature of Marek’s disease has changed over the last five decades. The pathogenicity of the Marek’s disease virus (MDV) has evolved from the relatively mild strains (mMDV) observed in the 1960s to the more severe strains labeled very virulent plus (vv+MDV) currently observed in today’s o...

  2. Identifying the genetic basis of attenuation in Marek's disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus of chickens that induces lymphoid tumors in susceptible birds. This agronomically-important disease is controlled primarily through vaccines that prevent tumor formation but are non-sterilizing. Currently most efficacious vaccines consist ...

  3. Molecular basis for the thermostability of Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. However, the genetic basis underlying the NDV thermostability is poorly understood. In this stud...

  4. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  5. The influence of host genetics on Marek's disease virus evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the first report of a polyneuritis in chickens by Joseph Marek in 1907 (24), the clinical nature of the disease has changed. Over the last five decades, the pathogenicity of the Marek's disease virus (MDV) has continued to evolve from the relatively mild strains (mMDV) observed in the 1960s to...

  6. Immune responses of poultry to newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are cont...

  7. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs.

    PubMed

    Sá E Silva, Mariana; Susta, Leonardo; Moresco, Kira; Swayne, David E

    2016-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or two doses of inactivated LaSota vaccine, followed three weeks later by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge. Eggs were collected daily and shell, albumen and yolk were subjected to virus isolation, as were oral and cloacal swabs at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (dpc). A second experiment evaluated the distribution of the virus in the reproductive tract of non-vaccinates. All vaccinated chickens survived challenge, and the levels of virus shed from cloacal swabs were decreased significantly when compared to shams. In non-vaccinated hens, virus was detected in the ovary and all segments of the oviduct. Yolk, albumen and eggshell surface from eggs laid at day 4 and 5 post-infection by sham-vaccinated hens were positive for NDV, but eggs from LaSota vaccinated hens lacked virus in internal egg components (i.e. yolk and albumen) and had reduction in the number of positive eggshell surfaces. These results indicate virulent NDV can replicate in the reproductive tract of hens and contaminate internal components of eggs and eggshell surface, but vaccination was able to prevent internal egg contamination, reducing eggshell surface contamination, and reducing shedding from digestive and respiratory tracts in virulent NDV challenged hens. PMID:26503831

  8. Vaccination of hens decreases virus contamination in eggs after challenge with the virulent Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease is an important infectious disease of poultry causing economic losses worldwide. The control is routinely performed by vaccination, however vaccinated birds can shed virus, creating a barrier for trade exports. To determine if vaccination could mitigate these negative outcomes, h...

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus modulates cellular vimentin for virus survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. During infection with FMDV, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. The largest viral protein in the replication complex,...

  10. Bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer virus serotypes in northern Colombian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Homan, E. J.; Taylor, W. P.; de Ruiz, H. L.; Yuill, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    There is recent evidence of bluetongue (BT) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus infection of cattle in the American tropics, including BT group reactive antibody in Colombian cattle. These observations prompted a study to determine serologically the specific BT and EHD virus types present, and time of infection and to collect Culicoides spp. as potential vectors. A prospective study of BT and EHD virus infection was done on two farms in the Colombian department of Antioquia. Sequential sampling of young cattle indicated acquisition of neutralizing antibody to BT virus serotypes 12, 14 and 17, and EHD virus serotypes 1 and 2. Insect captures showed a high association of Culicoides insignis with infected cattle. PMID:2991365

  11. Pollen Transmitted Diseases, Raspberry bushy dwarf virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) occurs naturally worldwide in many Rubus species and cultivars. In North America, it naturally infects many red raspberry, black raspberry, blackberry and blackberry-raspberry hybrid cultivars. RBDV also occurs in wild R. idaeus L. var. strigosus, R. occidentali., ...

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, P.J.; Kim, L.M.; Ip, H.S.; Afonso, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins revealed that the highest rate of change occurred at the fusion protein. All proteins were under strong purifying (negative) selection; the fusion protein displayed the highest number of amino acids under positive selection. Regardless of the phylogenetic grouping or the level of virulence, the cleavage site motif was highly conserved implying that mutations at this site that result in changes of virulence may not be favored. The coding sequence of the fusion gene and the genomes of viruses from wild birds displayed higher yearly rates of change in virulent viruses than in viruses of low virulence, suggesting that an increase in virulence may accelerate the rate of NDV evolution. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Structural features of the ribonucleotide reductase of Aujeszky's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, A V; Boldogköi, Z; Fodor, I

    1994-01-01

    A gene construct of the Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) genome was prepared and the DNA fragment encoding the ribonucleotide reductase was structurally characterized. We determined the entire DNA sequence of two adjacent open reading frames of the ribonucleotide reductase genes with the intergenic sequence of nine base pairs. From the sequence analysis we predict that Aujeszky's disease virus encodes a ribonucleotide reductase which comprises two polypeptides--large and small subunits, with sizes of 835 and 303 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the large and small subunits of the Aujeszky's disease virus ribonucleotide reductase have been compared with that of other herpesviruses, and structural features of both proteins have been characterized. PMID:7810419

  14. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus–host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

  15. Histopathological observation of lymphocystis disease and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) detection in cultured diseased Sebastes schlegeli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin; Xu, Songjuan; Cheng, Shunfeng

    2007-10-01

    Lymphocystis nodules occurring in the cultured sting fish Sebastes schlegeli were observed under light and electron microscope. Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in the tissues of diseased fish was detected with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Results showed that lymphocystis cells had overly irregular nuclei, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies with virions budding from the surface, and hyaline capsules outside the cell membrane. Numerous virus particles about 200 nm in diameter scattered in the cytoplasm, electron-dense particles 70 80 nm in diameter filled in perinuclear cisterna, and membrane-enveloped particles with electron-dense core of 70 80 nm appeared around cellular nucleus. IFAT using monoclonal antibody against LCDV from Paralichthys olivaceus revealed that specific green fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells, epithelium of stomach, gill lamellae, and muscular fibers under epidermis of S. schlegeli, just as that in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells of P. olivaceus, suggesting the presence of LCDV in these tissues.

  16. Watermelon vine decline and other whitefly-transmitted virus diseases of cucurbits in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three whitefly-transmitted viruses of cucurbits are currently known in Florida - Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus. Present status of these three viruses, the diseases they cause and management options are presented....

  17. Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements evidence a novel type of antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate genomes contain many virus-related sequences derived from both retroviruses and non-retroviral RNA and DNA viruses. Such non-retroviral RNA sequences are possibly produced by reverse-transcription and integration of viral mRNAs of ancient RNA viruses using retrotransposon machineries. We refer to this process as transcript reversion. During an ancient bornavirus infection, transcript reversion may have left bornavirus-related sequences, known as endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoproteins (EBLNs), in the genome. We have recently demonstrated that all Homo sapiens EBLNs are expressed in at least one tissue. Because species with EBLNs appear relatively protected against infection by a current bornavirus, Borna disease virus, it is speculated that EBLNs play some roles in antiviral immunity, as seen with some endogenous retroviruses. EBLNs can function as dominant negative forms of viral proteins, small RNAs targeting viral sequences, or DNA or RNA elements modulating the gene expression. Growing evidence reveals that various RNA viruses are reverse-transcribed and integrated into the genome of infected cells, suggesting transcript reversion generally occurs during ongoing infection. Considering this, transcript reversion-mediated interference with related viruses may be a novel type of antiviral immunity in vertebrates. Understanding the biological significance of transcript reversion will provide novel insights into host defenses against viral infections. PMID:27510928

  18. Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements evidence a novel type of antiviral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vertebrate genomes contain many virus-related sequences derived from both retroviruses and non-retroviral RNA and DNA viruses. Such non-retroviral RNA sequences are possibly produced by reverse-transcription and integration of viral mRNAs of ancient RNA viruses using retrotransposon machineries. We refer to this process as transcript reversion. During an ancient bornavirus infection, transcript reversion may have left bornavirus-related sequences, known as endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoproteins (EBLNs), in the genome. We have recently demonstrated that all Homo sapiens EBLNs are expressed in at least one tissue. Because species with EBLNs appear relatively protected against infection by a current bornavirus, Borna disease virus, it is speculated that EBLNs play some roles in antiviral immunity, as seen with some endogenous retroviruses. EBLNs can function as dominant negative forms of viral proteins, small RNAs targeting viral sequences, or DNA or RNA elements modulating the gene expression. Growing evidence reveals that various RNA viruses are reverse-transcribed and integrated into the genome of infected cells, suggesting transcript reversion generally occurs during ongoing infection. Considering this, transcript reversion-mediated interference with related viruses may be a novel type of antiviral immunity in vertebrates. Understanding the biological significance of transcript reversion will provide novel insights into host defenses against viral infections. PMID:27510928

  19. Molecular basis for the thermostability of Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guoyuan; Hu, Xiao; Zhao, Kang; Wang, Hongling; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Tengfei; Yang, Jinlong; Luo, Qingping; Zhang, Rongrong; Pan, Zishu; Shao, Huabin; Yu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. However, the genetic basis underlying the NDV thermostability is poorly understood. In this study, we generated chimeric viruses by exchanging viral genes between the thermostable TS09-C strain and thermolabile LaSota strain using reverse genetics technology. Evaluations of these chimeric NDVs demonstrated that the thermostability of NDV was dependent on the origin of HN protein. Chimeras bearing the HN protein derived from thermostable virus exhibited a thermostable phenotype, and vice versa. Both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities of viruses bearing the TS09-C HN protein were more thermostable than those containing LaSota HN protein. Furthermore, the newly developed thermostable virus rLS-T-HN, encoding the TS09-C HN protein in LaSota backbone, induced significantly higher antibody response than the TS09-C virus, and conferred complete protection against virulent NDV challenge. Taken together, the data suggest that the HN protein of NDV is a crucial determinant of thermostability, and the HN gene from a thermostable NDV could be engineered into a thermolabile NDV vaccine strain for developing novel thermostable NDV vaccine. PMID:26935738

  20. Molecular basis for the thermostability of Newcastle disease virus

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Guoyuan; Hu, Xiao; Zhao, Kang; Wang, Hongling; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Tengfei; Yang, Jinlong; Luo, Qingping; Zhang, Rongrong; Pan, Zishu; Shao, Huabin; Yu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. However, the genetic basis underlying the NDV thermostability is poorly understood. In this study, we generated chimeric viruses by exchanging viral genes between the thermostable TS09-C strain and thermolabile LaSota strain using reverse genetics technology. Evaluations of these chimeric NDVs demonstrated that the thermostability of NDV was dependent on the origin of HN protein. Chimeras bearing the HN protein derived from thermostable virus exhibited a thermostable phenotype, and vice versa. Both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities of viruses bearing the TS09-C HN protein were more thermostable than those containing LaSota HN protein. Furthermore, the newly developed thermostable virus rLS-T-HN, encoding the TS09-C HN protein in LaSota backbone, induced significantly higher antibody response than the TS09-C virus, and conferred complete protection against virulent NDV challenge. Taken together, the data suggest that the HN protein of NDV is a crucial determinant of thermostability, and the HN gene from a thermostable NDV could be engineered into a thermolabile NDV vaccine strain for developing novel thermostable NDV vaccine. PMID:26935738

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...

  2. Structural and growth characteristics of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Nick, H; Cursiefen, D; Becht, H

    1976-01-01

    The infectious bursal disease virus is not enveloped and has a diameter of 60 nm and a density of about 1.32 g/ml. It contains two pieces of single-stranded RNA with molecular weights close to 2 X 10(6). The capsid is made up of four major polypeptides with molecular weights of 110,000, 50,000, 35,000, and 25,000. The virus replicates in chicken embryo fibroblasts rather than in epitheloid cells. After an eclipse period of 4 h, virus production reaches a maximum about 12 h later. The virus has no structural or biological similarities with defined avian reoviruses, and it cannot be classified in one of the established taxonomic groups. Images PMID:176463

  3. Evidence of intrauterine transmission of lumpy skin disease virus.

    PubMed

    Rouby, Sherin; Aboulsoud, Emad

    2016-03-01

    The current study describes the clinical, histopathological, molecular and serological diagnosis of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in a premature 1-day old calf that has been delivered from a cow that exhibited signs of LSD during the seventh month of pregnancy. The calf showed generalized skin lesions accompanied with signs of immaturity and died 36 h after birth. Postmortem and histopathological examinations revealed the involvement of multiple tissues. The presence of Neethling virus DNA in tissues was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. Results of ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT) confirmed that the calf had developed precolostral serum antibodies to LSD virus indicating in utero virus transmission. All tested sera collected from animals located in the same area were serologically positive, indicating exposure to LSD virus. PMID:26831170

  4. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Tulsiani, S M; Graham, G C; Moore, P R; Jansen, C C; Van Den Hurk, A F; Moore, F A J; Simmons, R J; Craig, S B

    2011-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have all been characterised by acute respiratory and neurological manifestations, with high levels of morbidity and mortality in the affected horses and humans. The modes of transmission of HeV remain largely unknown. Although fruit bats have been identified as natural hosts of the virus, direct bat-horse, bat-human or human-human transmission has not been reported. Human infection can occur via exposure to infectious urine, saliva or nasopharyngeal fluid from horses. The treatment options and efficacy are very limited and no vaccine exists. Reports on the outbreaks of HeV in Australia are collated in this review and the available data on the biology, transmission and detection of the pathogen are summarized and discussed. PMID:21294944

  5. Zika virus disease: a public health emergency of international concern.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Kelly

    The emergence of Zika virus disease (ZIKV) in the Americas, mainly Brazil, has required the World Health Organization to take action to halt the spread of the virus by implementing preventive measures. This has resulted in increased surveillance of the virus and its potential complications. In the UK, cases of ZIKV have been reported in returning travellers. With the importance of this disease increasing, it is vital that nurses and other health professionals take the time to learn about ZIKV in order to pass on this knowledge to patients, enabling them to make informed choices about travel to affected areas. This article will discuss the ZIKV, its complications and what to advise travellers, including pregnant women, to prevent transmission and spread. PMID:26911164

  6. Sequelae of Ebola virus disease: the emergency within the emergency.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Pauline; Kaiser, Laurent; Schibler, Manuel; Ciglenecki, Iza; Bausch, Daniel G

    2016-06-01

    As the massive outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in west Africa wanes, it has become increasingly clear that thousands of survivors have many sequelae, some of which might be very severe, such as arthritis and vision-threatening uveitis. The mental health effects of EVD on survivors and other family and community members is similarly profound. Furthermore, it is increasingly being recognised that Ebola virus might persist for weeks or months in selected body compartments of survivors, most notably in the semen of men, bringing risk of renewed transmission where it has previously been eliminated. These challenges to EVD survivors constitute a new emergency in terms of addressing individual patient need and to control the disease spread. In this Review, we assess what is known regarding the sequelae of EVD, including possible delayed virus clearance. We discuss some of the key challenges regarding the provision of care to survivors and implementation of necessary future research. PMID:27020309

  7. Marek’s disease virus and skin interactions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a highly contagious herpesvirus which induces T-cell lymphoma in the chicken. This virus is still spreading in flocks despite forty years of vaccination, with important economical losses worldwide. The feather follicles, which anchor feathers into the skin and allow their morphogenesis, are considered as the unique source of MDV excretion, causing environmental contamination and disease transmission. Epithelial cells from the feather follicles are the only known cells in which high levels of infectious mature virions have been observed by transmission electron microscopy and from which cell-free infectious virions have been purified. Finally, feathers harvested on animals and dust are today considered excellent materials to monitor vaccination, spread of pathogenic viruses, and environmental contamination. This article reviews the current knowledge on MDV-skin interactions and discusses new approaches that could solve important issues in the future. PMID:24694064

  8. GB Virus C/Hepatitis G Virus (GBV-C/HGV): still looking for a disease

    PubMed Central

    Sathar, M A; Soni, P N; York, D

    2000-01-01

    GB Virus C and Hepatitis G Virus (GBV-C/HGV) are positive, single-stranded flaviviruses. GBV-C and HGV are independent isolates of the same virus. Transmission via the blood-borne route is the commonest mode, although vertical and sexual transmission is well documented. GBV-C/HGV is distributed globally; its prevalence in the general population is 10 fold higher in African countries than in non-African countries. High prevalences of GBV-C/HGV have been found in subjects with frequent parenteral exposure and in groups at high risk of exposure to blood and blood products. The clinical significance of human infection with GBV-C/HGV is currently unclear. The virus can establish both acute and chronic infection and appears to be sensitive to interferon. Only some 12–15% of chronic Non-A, B, C hepatitis cases are infected with GBV-C/HGV. A direct association with liver pathology is still lacking and it is not yet clear as to whether GBV-C/HGV is indeed a hepatotropic virus. Current evidence suggests that the spectrum of association of GBV-C/HGV infection with extrahepatic diseases ranges from haematalogical diseases, aplastic anaemia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive idiopathic thrombocytopenia and thalassemia, through to common variable immune deficiency and cryoglobunemia. PMID:11168678

  9. A Virus-like disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.

  10. Expressing foreign genes by Newcastle disease virus for cancer therapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An interesting aspect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the ability to selectively replicate in tumor cells. Recently, using reverse genetics technology to enhance the oncolytic properties and therapeutic potential of NDV for tumor therapy has become popular in immunocompetent carcinoma tumor mod...

  11. Characterization and phylogenic analysis of Mexican Newcastle disease virus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated in Mexico for the first time in 1946 and the last report of a field outbreak caused by a highly virulent strain dates from year 2000, when 13.6 million birds were slaughtered and 93 farms quarantined. Mean Death Time test resulted in velogenic classificati...

  12. Experimental characterization of West African Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four West African strains and one South African strain of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were characterized through a two-phase experiment. Strains investigated were Burkina Faso/2415-580/2008, Nigeria/228-7/2006, Niger/1377/2006, and Goose/South Africa/08100426/2008. Phylogenetic analysis s...

  13. Pathogenesis of dengue virus diseases: missing pieces in the jigsaw.

    PubMed

    Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H

    1997-10-01

    The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome remain unresolved. Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection has long been thought to play a central role; however, this remains unverified. The alternative hypothesis that virus variation, virulence and dynamics may account for severe dengue disease, particularly in children, should be considered. PMID:9351178

  14. Mosaic Structure Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the results of a simple pairwise scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination events applied to genome data from 144 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) representing all seven serotypes. We identify large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments from a...

  15. Mosaic Structure of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the results of a simple pairwise scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination events applied to genome data from 144 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) representing all seven serotypes. We identify large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments from al...

  16. Not so fast on recombination analysis of Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regarding the letter published in the Journal of Virology Vol. 82 No. 13 p. 6782 indicating that “powerful evidence” of recombination is a call for caution in the use of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) based vaccines, I would like to suggest that evidence for recombination is still weak. The authors ...

  17. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  18. Genome Sequence of a Distinct Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Marandino, Ana; Hernández, Diego; Techera, Claudia; Grecco, Sofía; Panzera, Yanina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is a relevant avian pathogen that affects poultry production. Here, we report the full-length coding sequence of the Uruguayan strain dIBDV/UY/2014/2202, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. The strain belongs to the distinct IBDV lineage that is widely distributed in South America. PMID:26430025

  19. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    PubMed

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G; Souza, Flávia O; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  20. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J. Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G.; Souza, Flávia O.; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or “meleira”, is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  1. Virus Competition for Shedding and Tumor Formation Over Time in Marek's Disease Virus Dual-infected Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine what effect multiple virulent Marek’s disease viruses have on each other over time during dual-infection. Serotype 1 viruses able to be differentiated were administered either simultaneously or with a short (24 hours) or long (13 days) interval. Virus frequency ...

  2. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  3. Co-infection of mallards with low virulence Newcastle disease virus and low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl are considered the natural reservoirs of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) and low virulence Newcastle disease viruses (loNDV). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of co-infections with loNDV and LPAIV on the infectivity and excretion of these viruses in ...

  4. VIRUS VACCINE RESEARCH AT THE NATIONAL ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER: LESSONS FROM SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS AND BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuing emergence of novel subtypes and genetic variants of swine influenza viruses (SIV) causing swine flu challenges our ability to effectively manage this high morbidity disease among swine. New strategic approaches for vaccine development must be considered to keep up with the ever-evolv...

  5. Biology and disease associations of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D H

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus which infects almost all of the world's population subclinically during childhood and thereafter remains in the body for life. The virus colonizes antibody-producing (B) cells, which, as relatively long-lived resting cells, are an ideal site for long-term residence. Here EBV evades recognition and destruction by cytotoxic T cells. EBV is passed to naive hosts in saliva, but how the virus gains access to this route of transmission is not entirely clear. EBV carries a set of latent genes that, when expressed in resting B cells, induce cell proliferation and thereby increase the chances of successful virus colonization of the B-cell system during primary infection and the establishment of persistence. However, if this cell proliferation is not controlled, or if it is accompanied by additional genetic events within the infected cell, it can lead to malignancy. Thus EBV acts as a step in the evolution of an ever-increasing list of malignancies which are broadly of lymphoid or epithelial cell origin. In some of these, such as B-lymphoproliferative disease in the immunocompromised host, the role of the virus is central and well defined; in others, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, essential cofactors have been identified which act in concert with EBV in the evolution of the malignant clone. However, in several diseases in which the presence of EBV has more recently been discovered, the role of the virus is unclear. This review describes recent views on the EBV life cycle and its interlinks with normal B-cell biology, and discusses how this interrelationship may be upset and result in EBV-associated disease. PMID:11313005

  6. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas. PMID:26903031

  7. Recombinant Marek's disease virus lacking the oncogene Meq as a candidate for future control of Marek's disease in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has dramatically reduced the incidence of Marek’ disease, but more virulent viruses are emerging and developing new control strategies is needed. We have used Marek’s disease virus (rMd5) cosmid clones to generate recombinant viruses for gene function studies. The Meq gene is a unique ge...

  8. Nurses leading the fight against Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Priscilla L

    2015-05-01

    The current Ebola crisis has sparked worldwide reaction of panic and disbelief in its wake as it decimated communities in West Africa, particularly in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, including its health care workers. This article affirms the crucial role nurses play in maintaining health and preventing diseases, connects the devastating havoc of the Ebola virus disease to another issue of nursing shortage in underdeveloped countries, and asserts the key leadership nurses play in protecting the communities they serve while maintaining their safety and those of other health care workers. Nurses must actively seek a place at the table, as echoed by the American Academy of Nursing and American Nurses Association and the American Nurses Association, when decisions are being made regarding Ebola virus disease: at care settings, in the board room, and at federal, state, and local levels. PMID:25712149

  9. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for novel therapies and preventative strategies. Present animal models include several target species for hRSV, including chimpanzees, cattle, sheep, cotton rats, and mice, as well as alternative animal pneumovirus models, such as bovine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice. These diverse animal models reproduce different features of hRSV disease, and their utilization should therefore be based on the scientific hypothesis under investigation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the strengths and limitations of each of these animal models. Our intent is to provide a resource for investigators and an impetus for future research. PMID:21571908

  10. Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Komar, Nicholas; Nasci, Roger S.; Montgomery, Susan P.; O'Leary, Daniel R.; Campbell, Grant L.

    2005-01-01

    From 1937 until 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) garnered scant medical attention as the cause of febrile illness and sporadic encephalitis in parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe. After the surprising detection of WNV in New York City in 1999, the virus has spread dramatically westward across the United States, southward into Central America and the Caribbean, and northward into Canada, resulting in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV disease ever reported. From 1999 to 2004, >7,000 neuroinvasive WNV disease cases were reported in the United States. In 2002, WNV transmission through blood transfusion and organ transplantation was described for the first time, intrauterine transmission was first documented, and possible transmission through breastfeeding was reported. This review highlights new information regarding the epidemiology and dynamics of WNV transmission, providing a new platform for further research into preventing and controlling WNV disease. PMID:16102302

  11. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Exposure to lentogenic NDV, either from live vaccines or field strains, is nearly unavoidable for poultry, and co-infections with low pathogenic (LP) AIV are expected to ...

  12. Single-dose Live-attenuated Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-based Vaccine Protects African Green Monkeys from Nipah Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; DeBuysscher, Blair L.; Feldmann, Friederike; Gardner, Donald J.; Haddock, Elaine; Martellaro, Cynthia; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Nipah virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe respiratory and/or encephalitic disease in humans, often resulting in death. It is transmitted from pteropus fruit bats, which serve as the natural reservoir of the virus, and outbreaks occur on an almost annual basis in Bangladesh or India. Outbreaks are small and sporadic, and several cases of human-to-human transmission have been documented as an important feature of the epidemiology of Nipah virus disease. There are no approved countermeasures to combat infection and medical intervention is supportive. We recently generated a recombinant replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine that encodes a Nipah virus glycoprotein as an antigen and is highly efficacious in the hamster model of Nipah virus disease. Herein, we show that this vaccine protects African green monkeys, a well-characterized model of Nipah virus disease, from disease one month after a single intramuscular administration of the vaccine. Vaccination resulted in a rapid and strong virus-specific immune response which inhibited virus shedding and replication. This vaccine platform provides a rapid means to afford protection from Nipah virus in an outbreak situation. PMID:25865472

  13. Single-dose live-attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine protects African green monkeys from Nipah virus disease.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; DeBuysscher, Blair L; Feldmann, Friederike; Gardner, Donald J; Haddock, Elaine; Martellaro, Cynthia; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    Nipah virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe respiratory and/or encephalitic disease in humans, often resulting in death. It is transmitted from pteropus fruit bats, which serve as the natural reservoir of the virus, and outbreaks occur on an almost annual basis in Bangladesh or India. Outbreaks are small and sporadic, and several cases of human-to-human transmission have been documented as an important feature of the epidemiology of Nipah virus disease. There are no approved countermeasures to combat infection and medical intervention is supportive. We recently generated a recombinant replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine that encodes a Nipah virus glycoprotein as an antigen and is highly efficacious in the hamster model of Nipah virus disease. Herein, we show that this vaccine protects African green monkeys, a well-characterized model of Nipah virus disease, from disease one month after a single intramuscular administration of the vaccine. Vaccination resulted in a rapid and strong virus-specific immune response which inhibited virus shedding and replication. This vaccine platform provides a rapid means to afford protection from Nipah virus in an outbreak situation. PMID:25865472

  14. Kawasaki disease onset during concomitant infections with varicella zoster and Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Turkay, Sadi; Odemis, Ender; Karadag, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects preschool-aged children. It has a predilection to coronary arteries, and its precise etiology is still unknown. Many infectious agents, including viruses and bacteria, have been suggested as potential causes of the disease. Here, we report a patient who met the diagnostic criteria of Kawasaki disease during concomitant Epstein-Barr virus and varicella-zoster virus infections, and we discuss the possible roles of these viruses in etiology. PMID:16916136

  15. Emerging virus diseases: can we ever expect the unexpected?

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Colin R; Fletcher, Nicola F

    2012-01-01

    Emerging virus diseases are a major threat to human and veterinary public health. With new examples occurring approximately one each year, the majority are viruses originating from an animal host. Of the many factors responsible, changes to local ecosystems that perturb the balance between pathogen and principal host species is one of the major drivers, together with increasing urbanization of mankind and changes in human behavior. Many emerging viruses have RNA genomes and as such are capable of rapid mutation and selection of new variants in the face of environmental changes in host numbers and available target species. This review summarizes recent work on aspects of virus emergence and the current understanding of the molecular and immunological basis whereby viruses may cross between species and become established in new ecological niches. Emergence is hard to predict, although mathematical modeling and spatial epidemiology have done much to improve the prediction of where emergence may occur. However, much needs to be done to ensure adequate surveillance is maintained of animal species known to present the greatest risk thus increasing general alertness among physicians, veterinarians and those responsible for formulating public health policy. PMID:26038413

  16. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-05-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology. PMID:27147028

  17. Foot and mouth disease virus non structural protein 2C interacts with Beclin1 modulating virus replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. Replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. The largest viral protein in th...

  18. Experimental co-infection of chickens and turkeys with avian influenza and newcastle disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are the two most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. Co-infections of poultry with AIV and NDV are a problem from both the clinical point of view and the diagnosis of these viruses. The goal of this study was to examine the i...

  19. Genotypic and Pathotypic Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses from India

    PubMed Central

    Tirumurugaan, Krishnaswamy G.; Vijayarani, Kumanan; Kumanan, Kathaperumal; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2011-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian paramyxovirus that causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry in most parts of the world. The susceptibility of a wide variety of avian species coupled with synanthropic bird reservoirs has contributed to the vast genomic diversity of this virus as well as diagnostic failures. Since the first panzootic in 1926, Newcastle disease (ND) became enzootic in India with recurrent outbreaks in multiple avian species. The genetic characteristics of circulating strains in India, however, are largely unknown. To understand the nature of NDV genotypes in India, we characterized two representative strains isolated 13 years apart from a chicken and a pigeon by complete genome sequence analysis and pathotyping. The viruses were characterized as velogenic by pathogenicity indices devised to distinguish these strains. The genome length was 15,186 nucleotides (nt) and consisted of six non-overlapping genes, with conserved and complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer regions, conserved gene starts, gene stops, and intergenic sequences similar to those in avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) strains. Matrix gene sequence analysis grouped the pigeon isolate with APMV-1 strains. Phylogeny based on the fusion (F), and hemagglutinin (HN) genes and complete genome sequence grouped these viruses into genotype IV. Genotype IV strains are considered to have “died out” after the first panzootic (1926–1960) of ND. But, our results suggest that there is persistence of genotype IV strains in India. PMID:22174801

  20. [Neurologic characteristics of diseases caused by Inkoo and Tahyna viruses].

    PubMed

    Demikhov, V G; Chaĭtsev, V G

    1995-01-01

    Two principal forms of diseases caused by Inkoo and Tahyna viruses were observed, fever (25 pts, 61%) and neuroinfection (13 pts, 31.7%). In 3 (7.3%) subjects the infection was inapparent. Ten patients presented with mixed forms of infection (virus-virus or virus-bacterial). Clinical manifestations were characterized by marked polymorphism and low specificity. The onset was acute with expressed symptoms of infection and weak catarrhal manifestations. Of the patients with the neuroinfectious form of the disease 3 presented with aseptic meningitis, 2 with meningoencephalitis, and 5 with encephalitis. Aseptic meningitis was characterized by a combination of general infectious and moderately expressed meningeal syndromes with weak inflammatory changes in the spinal fluid. Encephalitides were associated with numerous neurological symptoms which manifested on days 3-7 of the illness. These symptoms were asymmetry of nasolabial folds, hemiparesis, dysarthria, dysphagia, generalized tremor, tongue deviation. No significant differences in the clinical manifestations of Inkoo and Tahyna infections were observed. PMID:7740783

  1. Ebola Virus Disease: essential public health principles for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L; Majestic, Cassondra; Burns, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. PMID:25493109

  2. Ebola Virus Disease: Essential Public Health Principles for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Kristi L.; Majestic, Cassondra; Burns, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. PMID:25493109

  3. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  4. Role of GB virus C in modulating HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Blackard, Jason T; Rockstroh, Juergen K

    2012-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and the most closely related human virus to HCV. However, GBV-C does not replicate in hepatocytes, but rather in lymphocytes. GBV-C has a worldwide distribution and is transmitted sexually, parenterally and through mother-to-child transmission. Thus, co-infection with HCV and HIV is common. Until now, no human disease has been associated with GBV-C infection. However, there are several reports of a beneficial effect of GBV-C on HIV disease progression in vivo. Different mechanisms to explain these observations have been proposed, including modification of antiviral cytokine production, HIV co-receptor expression, direct inhibition of HIV-1 entry, T-cell activation and Fas-mediated apoptosis. Further understanding of these mechanisms may open new strategies for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22702320

  5. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  6. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    PubMed

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy. PMID:26259280

  7. Clinical presentation and management of severe Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    West, T Eoin; von Saint André-von Arnim, Amélie

    2014-11-01

    Clinicians caring for patients infected with Ebola virus must be familiar not only with screening and infection control measures but also with management of severe disease. By integrating experience from several Ebola epidemics with best practices for managing critical illness, this report focuses on the clinical presentation and management of severely ill infants, children, and adults with Ebola virus disease. Fever, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia are the most common symptoms of the 2014 West African outbreak. Profound fluid losses from the gastrointestinal tract result in volume depletion, metabolic abnormalities (including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypocalcemia), shock, and organ failure. Overt hemorrhage occurs infrequently. The case fatality rate in West Africa is at least 70%, and individuals with respiratory, neurological, or hemorrhagic symptoms have a higher risk of death. There is no proven antiviral agent to treat Ebola virus disease, although several experimental treatments may be considered. Even in the absence of antiviral therapies, intensive supportive care has the potential to markedly blunt the high case fatality rate reported to date. Optimal treatment requires conscientious correction of fluid and electrolyte losses. Additional management considerations include searching for coinfection or superinfection; treatment of shock (with intravenous fluids and vasoactive agents), acute kidney injury (with renal replacement therapy), and respiratory failure (with invasive mechanical ventilation); provision of nutrition support, pain and anxiety control, and psychosocial support; and the use of strategies to reduce complications of critical illness. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be appropriate in certain circumstances, but extracorporeal life support is not advised. Among other ethical issues, patients' medical needs must be carefully weighed against healthcare worker safety and infection control concerns. However, meticulous attention

  8. Pathogenicity evaluation of different Newcastle disease virus chimeras in 4-week-old chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with a virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus is considered one of the most important threats to the poultry industry worldwide. The causative virus, Newcastle disease virus, belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family, genus Avulavirus, and its genome encodes for 6 structural proteins: nu...

  9. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection. PMID:26814608

  10. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J.; Prescott, Joseph B.; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L.; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G.; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E.; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Zoon, Kathryn C.; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T.; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection. PMID:26814608

  11. Rainbow Trout Sleeping Disease Virus Is an Atypical Alphavirus

    PubMed Central

    Villoing, Stéphane; Béarzotti, Monique; Chilmonczyk, Stefan; Castric, Jeannette; Brémont, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Sleeping disease (SD) is currently a matter of concern for salmonid fish farmers in most parts of the world. A viral etiology of SD has recently been suspected, since virus-like particles have been observed in infected rainbow trout cells. In salmonid-derived cell lines, the maximal rate of virus production was observed at 10°C, while little virus was produced at 14°C. Through biochemical, physicochemical, and morphological studies, SD virus (SDV) was shown to be an enveloped virus of roughly 60 nm in diameter. The genome consists of 12 kb of RNA, with the appearance of a 26S subgenomic RNA during the time course of SDV replication. The screening of a random-primed cDNA library constructed from the genomic RNA of semipurified virions facilitated the identification of a specific SDV cDNA clone having an open reading frame related to the alphavirus E2 glycoproteins. To extend the comparison between SDV structural proteins and the alphavirus protein counterparts, the nucleotide sequence of the total 4.1-kb subgenomic RNA has been determined. The 26S RNA encodes a 1,324-amino-acid polyprotein exhibiting typical alphavirus structural protein organization. SDV structural proteins showed several remarkable features compared to other alphaviruses: (i) unusually large individual proteins, (ii) very low homology (ranging from 30 to 34%) (iii) an unglycosylated E3 protein, and (iv) and E1 fusion domain sharing mutations implicated in the pH threshold. Although phylogenetically related to the Semliki Forest virus group of alphaviruses, SDV should be considered an atypical member, able to naturally replicate in lower vertebrates. PMID:10590104

  12. Complete genome and clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate from South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, negatively affecting trade and poultry production worldwide. The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Avulavirus, fam...

  13. A virus disease of sockeye salmon: Interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, S.W.; Guenther, R.W.; Rucker, R.R.

    1954-01-01

    Since 1951 a disease, usually occurring in late spring or early summer, has caused severe losses in 3- to 12-month-old fingerling sockeye salmon in hatcheries in the State of Washington. The disease is characterized by an explosive outbreak, mortality usually 80 percent or greater, and a residual spinal deformity in a small percentage of the surviving fish, and its specificity for the one species of salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. (The anadromous strain of this species is commonly known as sockeye, blueback, or red salmon, while the fresh-water strain is called kokanee or silver trout.) The etiological agent is believed to be a virus.

  14. Reduced Risk of Disease During Postsecondary Dengue Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Olkowski, Sandra; Forshey, Brett M.; Morrison, Amy C.; Rocha, Claudio; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Scott, Thomas W.; Stoddard, Steven T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Antibodies induced by infection with any 1 of 4 dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1–4) may influence the clinical outcome of subsequent heterologous infections. To quantify potential cross-protective effects, we estimated disease risk as a function of DENV infection, using data from longitudinal studies performed from September 2006 through February 2011 in Iquitos, Peru, during periods of DENV-3 and DENV-4 transmission. Methods. DENV infections before and during the study period were determined by analysis of serial serum samples with virus neutralization tests. Third and fourth infections were classified as postsecondary infections. Dengue fever cases were detected by door-to-door surveillance for acute febrile illness. Results. Among susceptible participants, 39% (420/1077) and 53% (1595/2997) seroconverted to DENV-3 and DENV-4, respectively. Disease was detected in 7% of DENV-3 infections and 10% of DENV-4 infections. Disease during postsecondary infections was reduced by 93% for DENV-3 and 64% for DENV-4, compared with primary and secondary infections. Despite lower disease rates, postsecondary infections constituted a significant proportion of apparent infections (14% [for DENV-3 infections], 45% [for DENV-4 infections]). Conclusions. Preexisting heterotypic antibodies markedly reduced but did not eliminate the risk of disease in this study population. These results improve understanding of how preinfection history can be associated with dengue outcomes and DENV transmission dynamics. PMID:23776195

  15. Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (<50 nm diameter) icosahedral VLPs were significantly more abundant in coral tissue taken from diseased colonies, and there was an apparent, but not statistically significant, increase in abundance of filamentous VLPs in Symbiodinium cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

  16. Advances in plant virus evolution: Translating evolutionary insights into better disease management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Revolutionary theoretical concepts derived from experimental evolution have reached the realm of plant viruses, and their empirical demonstration is opening new avenues for disease management. From a populational standpoint, plant viruses and viroids constitute dynamic spectra of variants. The frequ...

  17. Molecular evolution of American field strains of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent Orbivirus events in the Americas have been investigated using whole genome amplification and sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. These studies utilized an unbiased amplification protocol that allows the whole bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) geno...

  18. Electronic microarray assays for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lung, Oliver; Beeston, Anne; Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Pasick, John; Hodko, Dalibor; Hughes, Kimberley Burton; Furukawa-Stoffer, Tara; Fisher, Mathew; Deregt, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    Microarrays are suitable for multiplexed detection and typing of pathogens. Avian influenza virus (AIV) is currently classified into 16 H (hemagglutinin) and 9 N (neuraminidase) subtypes, whereas Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains differ in virulence and are broadly classified into high and low pathogenicity types. In this study, three assays for detection and typing of poultry viruses were developed on an automated microarray platform: a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of AIV and detection and pathotyping of NDV, and two separate assays for differentiating all AIV H and N subtypes. The AIV-NDV multiplex assay detected all strains in a 63 virus panel, and accurately typed all high pathogenicity NDV strains tested. A limit of detection of 10(1)-10(3) TCID(50)/mL and 200-400 EID(50)/mL was obtained for NDV and AIV, respectively. The AIV typing assays accurately typed all 41 AIV strains and a limit of detection of 4-200 EID(50)/mL was obtained. Assay validation showed that the microarray assays were generally comparable to real-time RT-PCR. However, the AIV typing microarray assays detected more positive clinical samples than the AIV matrix real-time RT-PCR, and also provided information regarding the subtype. The AIV-NDV multiplex and AIV H typing microarray assays detected mixed infections and could be useful for detection and typing of AIV and NDV. PMID:22796283

  19. Isolation and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses from raptors.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Primus, Alexander; Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect and characterize Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in raptors. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 60 casualty raptors during January to March 2009 in Minnesota. Inoculation of all these samples (n=120) in 9-day-old embryonated hens' eggs resulted in isolation of haemagglutinating viruses in three samples from two bald eagles and one great horned owl. These three haemagglutinating viruses were confirmed as NDV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using fusion gene-specific primers, and were negative for avian influenza virus by RT-PCR. Further characterization revealed that all three possessed (112)GKQGRL(117) at the fusion gene cleavage site, indicating that they were lentogenic strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all three isolates clustered with published class II genotype II NDVs. The nucleotide sequence homology of the three NDV isolates among themselves was 98.4 to 99.6% and the sequence homology with lentogenic strains from wild birds used for comparison varied between 94.5 and 100%. Detection of NDV strains from raptors merits further epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence of different NDV strains in raptors and their impact in relation to transmission to domestic poultry. PMID:21154052

  20. Chikungunya Virus Disease: An Emerging Challenge for the Rheumatologist.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vini; Sukumaran, Sukesh

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya is caused by an alphavirus that is transmitted to humans via the Aedes species mosquito. Chikungunya is endemic to tropical Africa and South and Southeast Asia, but over the past decade, the geographic distribution of the virus has been expanding rapidly. The disease is characterized by fever and severe polyarthritis, and although symptoms typically resolve within 7 to 10 days, some patients experience persistent arthritis and arthralgias for months to years.In December 2013, the first local transmission of chikungunya virus in the Americas was identified in the Caribbean Island of Saint Martin. Since then, the number of afflicted individuals has spread throughout the Caribbean and Central America, as well as into South America. The United States reported 2788 chikungunya virus disease cases among travelers returning from affected areas in 2014. In addition, 11 locally acquired cases were reported in Florida. Further spread and establishment of the disease in the Americas are likely considering the high levels of viremia in infected individuals, widespread distribution of effective vectors, lack of immunity among people living in the Americas, and the popularity of international travel.Considering the prominent rheumatic manifestations of chikungunya, rheumatologists are likely to encounter patients with the disease in their practice. We recommend that rheumatologists consider chikungunya in their differential diagnosis when evaluating patients presenting with fever and joint pain following travel to a chikungunya endemic area. Early diagnosis would ensure timely management and reduction of polypharmacy and its associated complications. In this article, we briefly describe the epidemiology of chikungunya, the clinical features, laboratory testing, prevention, and treatment of disease. PMID:27219309

  1. Avian Bornavirus Associated with Fatal Disease in Psittacine Birds▿

    PubMed Central

    Staeheli, Peter; Rinder, Monika; Kaspers, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to new technologies which enable rapid and unbiased screening for viral nucleic acids in clinical specimens, an impressive number of previously unknown viruses have recently been discovered. Two research groups independently identified a novel negative-strand RNA virus, now designated avian bornavirus (ABV), in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a severe lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis of the gastrointestinal tract of psittacine birds that is frequently accompanied by encephalomyelitis. Since its discovery, ABV has been detected worldwide in many captive parrots and in one canary with PDD. ABV induced a PDD-like disease in experimentally infected cockatiels, strongly suggesting that ABV is highly pathogenic in psittacine birds. Until the discovery of ABV, the Bornaviridae family consisted of a single species, classical Borna disease virus (BDV), which is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disorder that affects primarily horses, sheep, and some other farm animals in central Europe. Although ABV and BDV share many biological features, there exist several interesting differences, which are discussed in this review. PMID:20219910

  2. An evolutionary insight into Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Soñora, Martin; Moreno, Pilar; Echeverría, Natalia; Fischer, Sabrina; Comas, Victoria; Fajardo, Alvaro; Cristina, Juan

    2015-08-01

    The disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a severe threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, NDV has been isolated in the Antarctic region. Detailed studies on the mode of evolution of NDV strains isolated worldwide are relevant for our understanding of the evolutionary history of NDV. For this reason, we have performed Bayesian coalescent analysis of NDV strains isolated in Antarctica to study evolutionary rates, population dynamics, and patterns of evolution. Analysis of F protein cleavage-site sequences of NDV isolates from Antarctica suggested that these strains are lentogenic. Strains isolated in Antarctica and genotype I reference strain Ulster/67 diverged from ancestors that existed around 1958. The time of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) was established to be around 1883 for all class II viruses. A mean rate of evolution of 1.78 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (s/s/y) was obtained for the F gene sequences of NDV strains examined in this study. A Bayesian skyline plot indicated a decline in NDV population size in the last 25 years. The results are discussed in terms of the possible role of Antarctica in emerging or re-emerging viruses and the evolution of NDV populations worldwide. PMID:26014920

  3. Gold Nanoparticles Impair Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Solmaz; Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammad; Rastegarzadeh, Saadat

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), that causes a contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals. The anti-FMDV activity of AuNPs was assessed using plaque reduction assay. MTT assay was used for quantitatively measuring the cytopathic effect caused by the viral infection. The 50% cytotoxicity concentration of nanoparticles was measured and found to be 10.4 μg/ml. The virus yield reduction assay showed that AuNP have an approximately 4-fold virus titer reduction compared with controls. Plaque reduction assay showed that at non-cytotoxic concentrations, AuNPs do not show extracellular virucidal activity and inhibition of FMDV growth at the early stages of infection including attachment and penetration. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that AuNPs inhibited post-entry stages of viral replication concomitant with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis; however, the mechanism of AuNPs against FMDV was unclear. PMID:26685261

  4. Analysis of the dengue disease model with two virus strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi-Kusumo, F.; Aini, A. N.; Ridwan, M.

    2014-02-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are the disease caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted to the human by infected female mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in more than 100 countries over the world. Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes which are closely related to each other antigenically. A person who infected by the dengue virus will never be infected again by the same serotype, but he looses immunity from the three other serotypes. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protective immunity against to others. Here we assume that there are two serotypes exist in the population. Someone who has recovered from one serotype become susceptible to the other serotype and can be reinfected. In this paper we analyze the model of dengue fever with two infections from the different serotype by linear analysis. Then we study the effect of vaccination to the model. In numerical simulation, we use Runge-Kutta order 4 to integrate the solution of the system.

  5. Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, M Jana; Brooks, Tim J G; Pollock, Nira R

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care. The unprecedented scope of the 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic spurred tremendous innovation in this arena, and a variety of new diagnostic platforms that have the potential both to immediately improve ongoing surveillance efforts in West Africa and to transform future outbreak responses have reached the field. In this review, we describe the evolution of Ebola virus disease diagnostic testing and efforts to deploy field diagnostic laboratories in prior outbreaks. We then explore the diagnostic challenges pervading the 2014-2015 epidemic and provide a comprehensive examination of novel diagnostic tests that are likely to address some of these challenges moving forward. PMID:27413095

  6. Multiplex nested RT-PCR for detecting avian influenza virus, infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Hong, Seung-Min; Seong, Won-Jin; Jang, Jin-Wook; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2013-03-01

    In this study, multiplex nested RT-PCR (mnRT-PCR) was applied to simultaneous detect multiplex PCR with the higher sensitivity of nested PCR that is required for avian influenza, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease virus using two steps of amplification. For the first PCR, primers that were specific for each virus were newly designed from the nucleoprotein gene of AIV, the nucleocapsid protein gene of IBV and the fusion protein gene of NDV to amplify products of 665, 386 and 236 nucleotides, respectively. The multiplex PCR step provides mass amplification using common primers, which increased markedly the sensitivity of the test. Non-specific reactions were not observed when other viruses and bacteria were used for evaluating the mnRT-PCR. As a field application, 172 samples were tested by RT-PCR and mnRT-PCR. Among these samples, the concordance rates for mnRT-PCR and the single conventional RT-PCR showed 98.9% (kappa=0.98) and 98.8% (kappa=0.96) similarity for IBV and AIV, respectively. As a result, it is recommended the multiplex nested PCR as an effective tool for detecting and studying the molecular epidemiology of various mixed infections of one or more of these viruses in poultry. PMID:23261801

  7. Hepatitis C virus-related kidney disease: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kamar, N; Izopet, J; Alric, L; Guilbeaud-Frugier, C; Rostaing, L

    2008-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection leads to chronic liver disease, but also to extra-hepatic manifestations, including kidney disease. We provide an overview of HCV-related kidney diseases in non-transplanted and in kidney transplant patients, and their therapies. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, associated with Type 2 cryoglobulinemia, is the predominant Type of HCV-related glomerulonephritis. Membranous glomerulonephritis and focal segmental glomerular sclerosis are less commonly described. HCV infection seems to be linked to Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and might alter the progression of diabetic-related nephropathy. Patients infected by HCV should be annually screened for markers of kidney disease and, similarly, patients with membranoproliferative or membranous glomerulonephritis should be screened for HCV infection. After transplantation, cryoglobulinemia is frequent and is associated with HCV markers. HCV-related kidney disease requires specific treatment. In non-kidney-transplant patients, treatment relies on either only anti-HCV therapy in cases of moderate renal disease, or combined anti-viral and immunosuppressive therapies in cases of severe renal disease, i.e., nephrotic syndrome and/or progressive renal failure, and in diseases that are refractory to anti-HCV therapy. In kidney transplant patients, ribavirin monotherapy could be used cautiously, whereas rituximab might be a treatment of choice in the presence of cryoglobulinemia. In liver-transplant patients, in addition to anti-HCV therapy, rituximab might be also used. PMID:18397713

  8. Hot topics in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maximillian S; Patel, Sanjay; Openshaw, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The 7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium took place in Hotel Blijdorp, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The series has been running since 1996; this meeting took place after a 3-year gap, and was attended by approximately 200 clinicians, scientists and industry representatives from all over the world. The conference covered all aspects of respiratory syncytial virus disease, including virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, immunology, vaccines, antivirals and other therapeutic approaches. Reviews by invited keynote speakers were accompanied by oral and poster presentations, with ample opportunity for discussion of unpublished work. This article summarizes a small selection of hot topics from the meeting, focused on pathogenesis, therapeutics and vaccine development. PMID:21434796

  9. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976-2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past. PMID:25201877

  10. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus. PMID:22325049

  11. Detection and differentiation of Newcastle disease virus and influenza virus by using duplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Nidzworski, Dawid; Wasilewska, Edyta; Smietanka, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Bogusław; Minta, Zenon

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), member of the Paramyxoviridae family and avian influenza virus (AIV), member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, are two main avian pathogens causing serious economic problems in poultry health. Both are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and cause similar symptoms, ranging from sub-clinical infections to severe diseases, including decrease in egg production, acute respiratory syndrome, and high mortality. Similar symptoms hinder the differentiation of infection with the two viruses by standard veterinary procedures like clinical examination or necropsy. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new duplex real-time PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of these two viruses. Eighteen NDV strains, fourteen AIV strains, and twelve other (negative control) strains viruses were isolated from allantoic fluids of specific pathogen-free (SPF), embryonated eggs. Four-weeks-old SPF chickens were co-infected with both viruses (NDV - LaSota and AIV - H7N1). Swabs from cloaca and trachea were collected and examined. The results obtained in this study show that by using duplex real-time PCR, it was possible to detect and distinguish both viruses within less than three hours and with high sensitivity, even in case a bird was co-infected. Additionally, the results show the applicability of the real-time PCR assay in laboratory practice for the identification and differentiation of Newcastle disease and influenza A viruses in birds. PMID:24040628

  12. Coronary Artery Disease in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Population.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Michael G; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficient combined antiretroviral therapies has lengthened the mean life span of the population affected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transforming this terminal infection to a chronic yet manageable disease. Nonetheless, patients with HIV--treatment naive or not--exhibit larger risks for coronary artery disease than the noninfected population. Moreover, coronary atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis may be the most prevalent condition in the HIV-infected population that is being accentuated by the effects of viral agents and the antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors. Nonetheless, generalized metabolic dysfunctions and premature senescence are often attributed to the viremia caused by the HIV infection directly and primarily. Therefore, a multifactorial approach is to be considered when attempting to explain the strong correlation between HIV and coronary artery disease, including co-opportunistic viremias and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. PMID:23797758

  13. Markers predicting progression of human immunodeficiency virus-related disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tsoukas, C M; Bernard, N F

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interacts with the immune system throughout the course of infection. For most of the disease process, HIV activates the immune system, and the degree of activation can be assessed by measuring serum levels of molecules such as beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin, as well as other serum and cell surface phenotype markers. The levels of some of these markers correlate with clinical progression of HIV disease, and these markers may be useful as surrogate markers for development of clinical AIDS. Because the likelihood and timing of development of clinical AIDS following seroconversion, for any particular individual, are not readily predictable, the use of nonclinical disease markers has become critically important to patient management. Surrogate markers of HIV infection are, by definition, measurable traits that correlate with disease progression. An ideal marker should identify patients at highest risk of disease progression, provide information on how long an individual has been infected, help in staging HIV disease, predict development of opportunistic infections associated with AIDS, monitor the therapeutic efficacy of immunomodulating or antiviral treatments, and the easily quantifiable, reliable, clinically available, and affordable. This review examines the current state of knowledge and the role of surrogate markers in the natural history and treatment of HIV infection. The clinical usefulness of each marker is assessed with respect to the criteria outlined for the ideal surrogate marker for HIV disease progression. PMID:8118788

  14. Pathogenicity of a Molecular Clone of Marek's Disease Virus with an Insert of Long Terminal Repeat of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we have inserted reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences into strain Md5 of Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV) using rMd5 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The rMd5 BAC with REV LTR insert was passed in duck-embryo fibroblast for 40 passages. Chickens of A...

  15. Genetic analysis of resistance to six virus diseases in a multiple virus-resistant maize inbred line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus diseases in maize can cause severe yield reductions that threaten crop production and food supplies in some regions of the world. Genetic resistance to different viruses has been characterized in maize populations under diverse environments and screening techniques, and resistance loci have be...

  16. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis of evolutionary relation between bovine rhinitis A viruses and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  17. Optimal specimen collection and transport methods for the detection of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active and passive surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is widespread in commercial poultry worldwide, therefore optimization of sample collection and transport would be valuable to achieve the best sensitivity and specificity possible, and to develop the mo...

  18. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis of evolutionary relation between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1) isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  19. Marek's Disease Virus-Induced Immunosuppression: Array Analysis of Chicken Immune Response Gene Expression Profiling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens induced by a highly cell-associated oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latency infection within CD4+ T cells. Host-virus interaction, immune responses to...

  20. Preliminary development of a real-time PCR for all serotypes of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epizootic hemorrhagic diseases virus (EHDV) has been associated with bluetongue-like disease in cattle. Although US EHDV strains have not been experimentally proven to cause disease in cattle there is serologic evidence of infection in cattle. Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an estimated $125,000,000 ...

  1. Preliminary development of a real-time PCR for all serotypes of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epizootic hemorrhagic diseases virus (EHDV) has been associated with bluetongue-like disease in cattle. Although US EHDV strains have not been experimentally proven to cause disease in cattle there is serologic evidence of infection in cattle. Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an estimated $125,000,00...

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Liver Disease Forum 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Kenneth E.; Thomas, David; Chung, Raymond T.

    2013-01-01

    In the U.S. more than 1.1 million individuals are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These patients exhibit a high frequency of coinfections with other hepatotropic viruses and ongoing fibrosis leading to cirrhosis and liver-related mortality. The etiologies of liver disease include viral hepatitis coinfections, drug-related hepatotoxicity, fatty liver disease, and direct and indirect effects from HIV infection including increased bacterial translocation, immune activation, and presence of soluble proteins that modulate the hepatic cytokine environment. New treatments for HCV using direct acting agents appear viable, though issues related to intrinsic toxicities and drug:drug interactions remain. Recent research suggests that acute HCV infection, unrecognized hepatitis D infection, and hepatitis E may all represent emergent areas of concern. Antiretroviral agents, including those used in past years may represent risk factors for hepatic injury and portal hypertension. Key issues in the future include systematic implementation of liver disease management and new treatment in HIV-infected populations with concomitant injection drug use, alcohol use, and low socioeconomic status. PMID:23904401

  3. Brevipalpus-transmitted plant virus and virus-like diseases: cytopathology and some recent cases.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, E W; Chagas, C M; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of diseases transmitted by Brevipalpus mite species (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is being identified that affect economically important plants such as citrus, coffee, passion fruit, orchids, and several ornamentals. All of these diseases are characterized by localized lesions (chlorotic, green spots, or ringspots) on leaves, stems, and fruits. Virus or virus-like agents are considered to be the causal agents, possibly transmitted in a circulative-propagative manner by Brevipalpus mites. The virus or virus-like particles are short, rod-like, or bacilliform, that induce two characteristic types of cell alteration: (1) 'Nuclear type'--nuclei of parenchyma and epidermal cells in the lesions often contain a large electron lucent inclusion. Short, naked, rod-like (40-50 nm x 100-110 nm) particles may be seen in the viroplasm or nucleoplasm and in the cytoplasm. These particles are commonly arranged perpendicularly on the membranes of the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In a very few instances, they were found to be membrane-bound, within the ER cavities. (2) 'Cytoplasmic type'--short bacilliform particles (60-70 nm x 110-120 nm) are present within the cisternae of the ER and often have electron dense viroplasm of varied shapes present in the cytoplasm. Bacilliform particles may be seen budding into the ER lumen near the viroplasm. These particles resemble those of members of the Rhabdoviridae, but are shorter. The only sequenced virus of this group, orchid fleck virus (OFV), has a negative sense (bipartite) type ssRNA genome, but its organization is similar to known rhabdoviruses, which are monopartite. Both types of cytopathological effects have been found associated with citrus leprosis. In orchids, OFV has a 'nuclear type' of cytopathology, but in some species the 'cytoplasmic type' has been found associated with ringspot symptoms. In Hibiscus and Clerodendron, green spot symptoms have been associated with the cytoplasmic type of cell

  4. Ebola Virus Disease: A Perspective for the United States.

    PubMed

    Madariaga, Miguel G

    2015-07-01

    Ebola virus caused an epidemic of unprecedented extension in West Africa. There was concern that the outbreak would not be controlled for a prolonged period of time. Two cases of infected returning travelers have been reported in the US. One of the cases has been associated with secondary transmission and other infected subjects have been repatriated for treatment. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease with emphasis on the identification and management in the US. PMID:25731139

  5. Subcellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus proteins and alterations induced in infected cells: A comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Acebes, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Magaldi, Monica; Rosas, Maria F.; Borrego, Belen; Brocchi, Emiliana; Armas-Portela, Rosario; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-05-10

    The intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in IBRS-2 cells were analyzed. Fluorescence to new SVDV capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsRNA. As in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of SVDV capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2C, 2BC and 3A. These results suggest that assembly of capsid proteins is associated to the replication complex. Confocal microscopy showed a decreased fluorescence to ER markers (calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), and disorganization of cis-Golgi gp74 and trans-Golgi caveolin-1 markers in SVDV- and FMDV-, but not in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells. Electron microscopy of SVDV-infected cells at an early stage of infection revealed fragmented ER cisternae with expanded lumen and accumulation of large Golgi vesicles, suggesting alterations of vesicle traffic through Golgi compartments. At this early stage, FMDV induced different patterns of ER fragmentation and Golgi alterations. At later stages of SVDV cytopathology, cells showed a completely vacuolated cytoplasm containing vesicles of different sizes. Cell treatment with brefeldin A, which disrupts the Golgi complex, reduced SVDV ({approx} 5 log) and VSV ({approx} 4 log) titers, but did not affect FMDV growth. Thus, three viruses, which share target tissues and clinical signs in natural hosts, induce different intracellular effects in cultured cells.

  6. [Research Progress in Black Queen Cell Virus Causing Disease].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Song, Zhanyun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xianghui; Sui, Jiachen; Wang, Zhenguo; Mou, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In nature, honeybees are the most important pollinators. They play a vital role in both protecting the diversity of natural ecosystems, and maintaining the yield-improving effects of agroecosystems. But in recent years, epidemic disease in bees has caused huge losses. Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV) is a bee pathogen that was first reported in 1955. It mainly infects bee larvae and pupae, making their bodies turn dark and black, and causing a massive decrease in the bee population. More specifically, the virus makes the exterior of the cell walls in the larvae and pupae turn black. BQCV is a seasonal epidemic, spread by means horizontal and vertical transmission, and is often unapparent. BQCV not only infects a variety of bee species, but also spiders, centipedes and other arthropods. It can also be coinfected with other honeybee viruses. In recent years, research has shown that the Nosema intestinal parasite plays an important role in BQCV transmission and bees carrying Nosema that become infected with BQCV have increased mortality. Here we summarize current research on the incidence, prevalence, geographical distribution and transmission of BQCV. PMID:26470541

  7. Seminal transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in heifers.

    PubMed

    Annandale, C H; Holm, D E; Ebersohn, K; Venter, E H

    2014-10-01

    It is known that lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) can be shed in bull semen following infection and also that artificial insemination (AI) poses a biosecurity risk. However, it is not known whether the use of LSDV infected semen in AI poses a biosecurity risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LSDV, transmitted through semen, can infect cows and their embryos. Two controlled trials were performed simultaneously. Eleven young beef heifers, naïve to LSDV, were synchronized using an OvSynch protocol and inseminated on Day 0 with fresh semen spiked with a field strain of LSDV on day 0. Six of the heifers were superovulated on Day 1 using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, and embryos were flushed from these heifers on Day 6. Blood and serum samples were collected from Day 4 until Day 27 to determine the presence of LSDV by PCR and virus isolation, and the presence of antibodies against LSDV by SNT. The first clinical signs of LSD were noticed on Day 10, followed by severe generalized LSD in three heifers and mild LSD in two more heifers. Two heifers were humanely euthanized due to severe unresponsive stranguria. LSDV was detected by PCR, virus isolation or electron microscopy in blood, embryos and organs of experimentally infected animals; and eight heifers had seroconverted by Day 27. Two control animals were not affected. This is the first report of experimental seminal transmission of LSDV in cattle. PMID:23289592

  8. Epidemiological situation of Ebola virus disease in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Arima, Yuzo; Shimada, Tomoe

    2015-01-01

    After Guinea reported an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in March 2014, EVD spread to neighboring Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa. Since then, the EVD outbreak spread over a wide geographic area among these three countries, and became the largest EVD epidemic ever with unprecedented numbers of confirmed cases and fatalities. As of April 2015, one year past the start of the outbreak, transmission is still ongoing. And, while six other countries, including those outside of the African continent (the United Kingdom, Spain, and the United States), have reported EVD cases, the source of the infection all originated from Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. As for the pathogen, Ebola virus, the route of transmission and associated prevention measures are well known, and change in the virulence or transmissibility of the virus has not been confirmed. However, there are specific factors that likely contributed to the unprecedented magnitude of the current EVD outbreak. In addition to the limited and poor medical and public health infrastructure in the affected countries, implementing appropriate responses rapidly was challenging for these countries, whose medical community, the general public, and governments had never experienced EVD before. PMID:26923957

  9. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  10. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250