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Sample records for boron americas ix

  1. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Feakes, Debra A.

    2006-08-09

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  2. Boron

    MedlinePlus

    Boron is a mineral that is found in food and the environment. People take boron supplements as medicine. Boron is used for building ... to affect the way the body handles other minerals such as magnesium and phosphorus. It also seems ...

  3. Boron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  4. Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Cozen, L.F. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that borate minerals and refined borates are used extensively for the manufacture of vitreous materials such as insulation and textile fiberglasses, borosilicate glass, and porcelain enamels and frits. In North America, these applications are estimated to account for over 54% of the borate consumption. Other substantial uses are in soaps and detergents, metallurgy, fire retardants, industrial biocides, agriculture, and various miscellaneous applications. Reported domestic borate consumption in 1990 was estimated by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to be 320 000 metric tons B{sub 2}O{sub 3} versus 354 000 metric tons B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in 1989. Consumption is projected to remain essentially static in 1991. Imports were estimated by the Bureau to be 50 000 metric tons B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in 1990. Exports of boric acid and refined borates were approximately 650 000 metric tons of product, a 15 000 metric ton increase from the 1989 level. This increase partially offsets the drop in the 1990 consumption level.

  5. Title IX Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities in federally funded schools at all levels. If any part of a school district or college receives any Federal funds for any purpose, all of the operations of the district or college are covered by Title IX. The essence…

  6. Title IX Lawsuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tungate, David E.; Orie, Daniel P.

    1998-01-01

    Since Brown University lost its four-year court battle over athletic program equality issues, most colleges and secondary schools have learned to settle when sued under Title IX. Virginia Tech, University of Kansas, and Howard University are illustrative cases. Since nearly all high schools and colleges are vulnerable, it is wise to prepare for…

  7. Title IX: Boom or Bust?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Marilyn J.

    2003-01-01

    Athletics has been significantly impacted by Title IX through an increase the number of female athletes, the number of teams available, and indirectly, the development of women's professional leagues. However, women in leadership positions in athletics have declined significantly since Title IX was signed into law. A concern about the…

  8. Boron reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-07-01

    A process to recover high purity /sup 10/B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  10. Reconsidering the Status of Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the controversy over Title IX and women's participation in college athletics. Critics say the mandate shortchanges men's teams, while proponents say that women's sports programs remain underfunded in spite of Title IX. Describes some proposed modifications to Title IX and their potential effects. (SLD)

  11. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S.; Ghosh, C.; Ravindran, T.R.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E.

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ∼ 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  12. More than Title IX: How Equity in Education Has Shaped the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Katherine; Guilfoy, Vivian; Pillai, Sarita

    2009-01-01

    Women in America have come a long way in the last hundred years, from lacking the right to vote to holding some of the highest profile positions in the country. But this change has not come without struggle. "More Than Title IX" highlights the impact of one of the most powerful instruments of change--education. The book takes readers behind the…

  13. Technical Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S.R.; Robinson, K.F.; Flynn, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I-X will be NASA's first test flight for a new human-rated launch vehicle since 1981, and the team is well on its way toward completing the vehicle's design and hardware fabrication for an April 2009 launch. This uncrewed suborbital development test flight gives NASA its first opportunities to: gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the stage separation environments during future flight; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) incorporates a mix of flight and mockup hardware. It is powered by a four-segment solid rocket booster, and will be modified to include a fifth, spacer segment; the upper stage, Orion crew exploration vehicle, and launch abort system are simulator hardware to make the FTV aerodynamically similar to the same size, shape, and weight of Ares I. The Ares IX first stage includes an existing Shuttle solid rocket motor and thrust vector control system controlled by an Ascent Thrust Vector Controller (ATVC) designed and built by Honeywell International. The avionics system will be tested in a dedicated System Integration Laboratory located at Lockheed Martin Space Systems (LMSS) in Denver, Colorado. The Upper Stage Simulator (USS) is made up of cylindrical segments that will be stacked and integrated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for launch. Glenn Research Center is already building these segments, along with their internal access structures. The active Roll Control System (RoCS) includes two thruster units harvested from Peacekeeper missiles. Duty cycle testing for RoCS was conducted, and fuel tanking and detanking tests will occur at KSC in early 2008. This important flight will provide valuable experience for the ground operations team in integrating, stacking, and launching Ares I. Data from Ares I-X will ensure the safety and reliability of America's newest launch vehicle.

  14. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2002-07-01 2002-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Regulations of the Offices of the Department.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  15. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1996-10-01 1996-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX... Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1...

  16. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  17. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  18. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  19. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  20. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  1. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  2. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  3. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2003-07-01 2003-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  4. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  5. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2003-10-01 2003-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  6. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2008-07-01 2008-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  7. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  8. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2005-10-01 2005-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  9. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1999-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1999-10-01 1999-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  10. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1998-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1998-10-01 1998-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  11. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2015-07-01 2015-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...] Procedures. Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph...

  12. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2004-07-01 2004-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  13. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2001-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2001-10-01 2001-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  14. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  15. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  16. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2005-07-01 2005-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  17. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  18. Title IX: A Brief History. 25 Years of Title IX. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentin, Iram

    This brief history of Title IX points out that the role of women and girls in education and the work force began to change significantly with the passage of Title IX as part of the Education Amendments to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title IX ensures legal protection against discrimination for students and employees. This article discusses the…

  19. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  20. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  1. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  2. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  3. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  4. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

    1994-12-13

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

  5. Statistical Evidence and Compliance with Title IX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheslock, John J.; Eckes, Suzanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of Title IX clearly includes all aspects of education, but the legislation's application to college athletics receives the most attention. Athletics programs, unlike most academic activities, are sex segregated, so the proper interpretation of the intercollegiate athletics provisions of Title IX is less clear-cut. This article examines…

  6. Title IX and Sex Discrimination. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  7. Polymorphism of normal factor IX detected by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Wallmark, A; Ljung, R; Nilsson, I M; Holmberg, L; Hedner, U; Lindvall, M; Sjögren, H O

    1985-01-01

    Hemophilia B is an X-chromosomal recessive disease due to deficiency of coagulation factor IX. Three monoclonal antibodies against factor IX were prepared and used to develop immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) of factor IX antigen (IX-Ag). IX-Ag was measured in 65 normal individuals with one IRMA based on polyclonal anti-IX antibodies and two IRMAs based on three monoclonal anti-IX antibodies. One of the monoclonal antibodies differed in specificity since it neutralized less than 50% of the clotting activity of factor IX (IX-C), whereas the other two monoclonal antibodies neutralized 80-95%. When the former antibody was used as the solid phase in IRMA, two groups of normal individuals were distinguished: group A with measurable IX-Ag, and group B without demonstrable IX-Ag. There were no differences between the groups either in IX-C or in IX-Ag measured with polyclonal antibodies. A subgroup comprising only women could be distinguished in group A, in whom intermediate IX-Ag concentrations were found. Family studies showed the group B variant of normal factor IX to be transmitted according to the pattern of X-linked recessive inheritance. The allelic frequency of group A was 0.66, and that of group B was 0.34. PMID:3873655

  8. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  9. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  10. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  11. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  12. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  13. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  14. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  15. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  16. Methods of forming boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  17. Quantum supersymmetric Bianchi IX cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Spindel, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a supersymmetric squashed three-sphere by dimensionally reducing (to one timelike dimension) the action of D =4 simple supergravity for a S U (2 ) -homogeneous (Bianchi IX) cosmological model. The quantization of the homogeneous gravitino field leads to a 64-dimensional fermionic Hilbert space. After imposition of the diffeomorphism constraints, the wave function of the Universe becomes a 64-component spinor of spin(8,4) depending on the three squashing parameters, which satisfies Dirac-like, and Klein-Gordon-like, wave equations describing the propagation of a "quantum spinning particle" reflecting off spin-dependent potential walls. The algebra of the supersymmetry constraints and of the Hamiltonian one is found to close. One finds that the quantum Hamiltonian is built from operators that generate a 64-dimensional representation of the (infinite-dimensional) maximally compact subalgebra of the rank-3 hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra A E3 . The (quartic-in-fermions) squared-mass term μ^ 2 entering the Klein-Gordon-like equation has several remarkable properties: (i) it commutes with all the other (Kac-Moody-related) building blocks of the Hamiltonian; (ii) it is a quadratic function of the fermion number NF; and (iii) it is negative in most of the Hilbert space. The latter property leads to a possible quantum avoidance of the singularity ("cosmological bounce"), and suggests imposing the boundary condition that the wave function of the Universe vanish when the volume of space tends to zero (a type of boundary condition which looks like a final-state condition when considering the big crunch inside a black hole). The space of solutions is a mixture of "discrete-spectrum states" (parametrized by a few constant parameters, and known in explicit form) and of continuous-spectrum states (parametrized by arbitrary functions entering some initial-value problem). The predominantly negative values of the squared-mass term lead to a "bottle

  18. Title IX: With New Opportunities, Girls' Interest Rises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toporek, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    On June 23, 1972, President Richard M. Nixon signed into law Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits gender discrimination in any federally financed education program or activity. Title IX is far-reaching, but the law is most often associated with school and college athletics. Title IX allows schools to prove their athletic…

  19. The Restoration of Title IX: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Bernice R.

    This booklet helps institutions understand the restoration of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and changes resulting from the Civil Rights Restoration Act. Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in federally assisted education programs. A 1984 ruling held that Title IX covers only programs or activities funded with federal money. In…

  20. Ares I-X Vibroacoustic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Schuster, David M.; Kaufman, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team recommendations and observations following participation with the Ares I-X Vibroacoustic (VA) Environments Panel in meetings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in March and April 2008, respectively.

  1. Open to All: Title IX at 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    This document is a report to the secretary of education on the findings of the Secretary's Commission on Opportunities in Athletics. The Commission was charged with examining Title IX. Starting in June 2002, the 15-member commission collected information, analyzed issues, and obtained broad public input directed at improving the application of…

  2. Calculation of Electronic Transitions in S IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, P.; Karpuškienė, R.; Rudzikas, Z.

    Wavelengths and oscillator strengths of electric dipole transitions from the 2p33l configurations of S IX are calculated. Relativistic and correlation effects are accounted for in Hartree-Fock-Pauli approximation and in the basis of transformed radial orbitals. Fairly high accuracy of results is achieved.

  3. Title IX Enforcement Called 'Deeply Troubling'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara; Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    The government agency responsible for enforcing gender equity in college sports is falling down on the job, according to a report released by the National Women's Law Center. Over the past five years, the U.S. Education Department's Office for Civil Rights -- the administrative guardian of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, the law that…

  4. Feminizing Science: The Alchemy of Title IX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The author scrutinizes the National Academy of Sciences report "Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering" and its dangerous call to place the sciences under the sledgehammer of Title IX. Her findings: A one-sided, inaccurate, and internally contradictory report prepared by a committee lacking…

  5. Title IX Indian Education Toolkit. A Step-by-Step Guide to the Title IX Indian Education Formula Grant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Floyd

    Title IX is a federal Indian Education Formula Grant Program approved in 1972 and reauthorized five times, most recently in 1994. Title IX formula grants assist groups in providing sound educational programs and opportunities for American Indian and Alaska Native students. A 1997-98 survey of Title IX grantees revealed their need for help in…

  6. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    DOEpatents

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  7. Isolation and characterization of indigenous Streptomyces and Lentzea strains from soils containing boron compounds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Norma Beatriz; Poma, Hugo Ramiro; Amoroso, María Julia; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2014-06-01

    The Salta Province - in the northwest of Argentina - is the main worldwide producer of hydroboracite and leads in exports of boron mineral and its derivatives in Latin America. In addition to the natural presence of boron compounds in the soils, there are others contaminated due to the boron mining industry. Although some bacteria are known to require boron for their growth or to be capable of storing boron, no studies have been published about Streptomyces or Lentzea genera's capacity to tolerate high boron concentrations, or about their metabolic capacities in boron contaminated environments. The results of this research show the isolation and molecular characterization of eight strains belonging to the actinobacteria phylum collected from different soils contaminated with high boron concentration in Salta state. The boron tolerance assays, which show that three of the strains were able to tolerate up 60-80 mM boron, demonstrate the potential capability of this group of bacteria to grow and maybe to remove boron from the environment. They appear to be promising, considering that these microorganisms are infrequent pathogens, are metabolically versatile and many Streptomyces can synthesize boron containing metabolites. PMID:23686918

  8. Electron Impact Collision Strength in Si IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noman, Hala; Gokce, Y.; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2016-05-01

    Results from work in progress under Iron Project on the electron impact excitation collision strengths and rate coefficients for transitions between the fine-structure levels of the 2s2 2p2 , 2 s 2p3 , 2p4 , 2s2 2 p 3 s , 2s2 2 p 3 p , and 2s2 2 p 3 d configurations in Si IX will be presented. The fine structure collision strength has been calculated at very fine energy mesh using relativistic effects in Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. Maxwellian averaged collision strengths have been tabulated for all possible transitions among all 46 enrgy levels. We made comparisions of our results with the previously reported results in the literature and found significant differences in low the temperature range (Te < 106 K) for few of the transitions. The correction to the previous reported values results due to more extensive expansion for Si IX target states.

  9. Identification of the endothelial cell binding site for factor IX.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, W F; van den Born, J; Kühn, K; Kjellén, L; Hudson, B G; Stafford, D W

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the primary region of factor IX and IXa responsible for saturable specific binding to bovine aortic endothelial cells resides in residues 3-11 at the amino terminus of factor IX. We also demonstrated that mutations of lysine to alanine at residue 5, factor IX K5A, or valine to lysine at residue 10, factor IX V10K, resulted in a molecule unable to bind to endothelial cells. Moreover, a mutation with lysine to arginine at residue 5, factor IX K5R, resulted in a factor IX molecule with increased affinity for the endothelial cell binding site. In this paper we report that collagen IV is a strong candidate for the factor IX binding site on endothelial cells. Factor IX and factor IX K5R compete with 125I-labeled factor IX for binding to tetrameric collagen IV immobilized on microtiter plates, while factor X, factor VII, and factor IX K5A or V10K fail to compete. The Kd for wild-type factor IX binding to collagen IV in the presence of heparin was 6.8 +/- 2 nM, and the Kd for factor IX K5R was 1.1 +/- 0.2 nM, which agrees well with our previously published Kd values of 7.4 and 2.4 nM for binding of the same proteins to endothelial cells. Our working assumption is that we have identified the endothelial cell binding site and that it is collagen IV. Its physiological relevance remains to be determined. PMID:8855310

  10. Disorders of Cranial Nerves IX and X

    PubMed Central

    Erman, Audrey B.; Kejner, Alexandra E.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves mediate the complex interplay between the many functions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Defects may occur anywhere from the brainstem to the peripheral nerve and can result in significant impairment in speech, swallowing, and breathing. Multiple etiologies can produce symptoms. This review will broadly examine the normal functions, clinical examination, and various pathologies of cranial nerves IX and X. PMID:19214937

  11. Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, S.; Schnell, M.; Brandau, C.; Kieslich, S.; Müller, A.; Wolf, A.

    2004-07-01

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Δ N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Δ N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging.

  12. Ares I-X 30 Day Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Bob; Smith, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation represents the 30 day report on the Ares I-X test flight. Included in the review is information on the following areas: (1) Ground Systems, (2) Guidance, Navigation and Control, (3) Roll Response, (4) Vehicle Response, (5) Control System Performance, (6) Structural Damping, (7) Thrust Oscillation, (8) Stage Separation, (9) Connector Assessment, (10) USS Splashdown, (11) Data Recorder and (12) FS Hardware Assessment.

  13. [Ultrasmall nanoparticles for radiotherapy: AGuIX].

    PubMed

    Lux, F; Detappe, A; Dufort, S; Sancey, L; Louis, C; Carme, S; Tillement, O

    2015-10-01

    Since twenty years, many nanoparticles based on high atomic number elements have been developed as radiosensitizers. The design of these nanoparticles is limited by the classical rules associated with the development of nanoparticles for oncology and by the specific ones associated to radiosensitizers, which aim to increase the effect of the dose in the tumor area and to spare the health tissues. For this application, systemic administration of nanodrugs is possible. This paper will discuss the development of AGuIX nanoparticles and will emphasize on this example the critical points for the development of a nanodrug for this application. AGuIX nanoparticles display hydrodynamic diameters of a few nanometers and are composed of polysiloxane and gadolinium chelates. This particle has been used in many preclinical studies and is evaluated for a further phase I clinical trial. Finally, in addition to its high radiosensitizing potential, AGuIX display MRI functionality and can be used as theranostic nanodrug for personalized medicine. PMID:26343033

  14. Fabrication of boron articles

    DOEpatents

    Benton, Samuel T.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to the fabrication of boron articles by a powder metallurgical method wherein the articles are of a density close to the theoretical density of boron and are essentially crackfree. The method comprises the steps of admixing 1 to 10 weight percent carbon powder with amorphous boron powder, cold pressing the mixture and then hot pressing the cold pressed compact into the desired article. The addition of the carbon to the mixture provides a pressing aid for inhibiting the cracking of the hot pressed article and is of a concentration less than that which would cause the articles to possess significant concentrations of boron carbide.

  15. The structure of boron in boron fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, J.; Krawitz, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of noncrystalline, chemically vapour-deposited boron fibres was investigated by computer modelling the experimentally obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. The diffraction patterns from the models were computed using the Debye scattering equation. The modelling was done utilizing the minimum nearest-neighbour distance, the density of the model, and the broadening and relative intensity of the various peaks as boundary conditions. The results suggest that the fibres consist of a continuous network of randomly oriented regions of local atomic order, about 2 nm in diameter, containing boron atoms arranged in icosahedra. Approximately half of these regions have a tetragonal structure and the remaining half a distorted rhombohedral structure. The model also indicates the presence of many partial icosahedra and loose atoms not associated with any icosahedra. The partial icosahedra and loose atoms indicated in the present model are in agreement with the relaxing sub-units which have been suggested to explain the anelastic behavior of fibre boron and the loosely bound boron atoms which have been postulated to explain the strengthening mechanism in boron fibres during thermal treatment.

  16. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  17. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  18. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  19. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  20. A Model Community College Grievance Procedure for Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    Through a review of the literature, analysis of eleven Title IX grievance plans, and interviews with four compliance officers, twelve criteria essential to an effective grievance procedure for use by students were identified and incorporated into a model Title IX grievance procedure for Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois). The twelve…

  1. Rape on College Campuses: Reform through Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Terry Nicole

    1991-01-01

    This article first, analyzes the growing problem of campus rape; second, evaluates some college rape reduction programs; third, uses case law to demonstrate that rape should be considered sex discrimination under Title IX; and, fourth, suggests an amendment to Title IX, defining rape as sex discrimination. Appropriate implementation measures by…

  2. Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavora, Jessica

    This book suggests that Title IX of the Education Amendments is not creating more female athletes but instead eliminating some of the most prestigious men's sports programs in the name of gender equity. It shows how Title IX has affected every aspect of education, from kindergarten through graduate school, making profound changes in areas as…

  3. School Environment and Academic Achievement of Standard IX Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students was probed to find the relationship between School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students. Data for the study were collected using self-made School Environment Scale (SES). The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for…

  4. ARES I-X USS Fracture Analysis Loads Spectra Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis; Mackey, Alden

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a set of bounding load spectra for the ARES I-X launch vehicle. These load spectra are used in the determination of the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) of the welds in the ARES I-X upper stage simulator (USS).

  5. A License for Bias: Sex Discrimination, Schools, and Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Susan Ed.

    This report discusses non-sports-related Title IX complaints filed with the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) from 1993-1997. Its purpose is to dispel the popular belief that Title IX is a sports-equity law and to determine the effectiveness of the legislation. The document examines the kinds of complaints filed, the status…

  6. 77 FR 64401 - Order of Succession for HUD Region IX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region IX AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Assistant Deputy Secretary... Succession for the San Francisco Regional Office and its Field Offices (Region IX). This Order of...

  7. "North Haven" and "Dougherty": Narrowing the Scope of Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Rosemary C.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the recent opinions of the Second and Fifth Circuit Courts concerning the legislative intent of Title IX with earlier opinions of the First, Sixth, and Eighth Circuits, which declared the Title IX employment regulations invalid. A middle approach to interpretation of the law is proposed. (Author/MLF)

  8. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  9. Enhancing protoporphyrin IX-induced PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curnow, Alison; Pye, Andrew; Campbell, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using porphyrin precursors is commonly used in dermatology. Evidence indicates that good clinical outcomes (associated with excellent cosmesis) can be achieved in superficial precancers and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), however, efficacy appears less favorable for thicker nodular BCC (nBCC) unless multiple PDT treatment cycles are performed. Enhancement is therefore required if nBCC lesions are to be treated effectively with a single PDT treatment. The most common technique currently being routinely employed clinically is the use of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) esters (usually methyl (MAL) or hexyl (HAL)). Standard dermatological PDT employing these porphyrin precursors already manipulates the normal heme biosynthesis pathway resulting in a temporary accumulation of the natural photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Further manipulation using iron chelating agents is possible however. In normal and malignant human cells in vitro, the novel iron chelating agent CP94 produced greater PPIX fluorescence when administered with ALA or MAL than either congener produced alone. CP94 was also significantly more effective than the clinically established iron chelating agent desferrioxamine (DFO). Topical application of ALA+CP94 to clinical nBCC lesions was a simple and safe treatment modification which produced a significant increase in clinical clearance when CP94 was included in the cream.

  10. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX–XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry. PMID:20532157

  11. Ares I-X Ascent Base Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, B. L.; Bender, R. L.; Canabal, F.; Smith, Sheldon D.

    2011-01-01

    Plume induced base heating environments were measured during the flight of the NASA Constellation Ares I-X developmental launch vehicle, successfully flown on October 28, 2009. The Ares IX first stage is a four segment Space Shuttle derived booster with base consisting of a flared aft skirt, deceleration and tumble motors, and a thermal curtain surrounding the first stage 7.2 area ratio nozzle. Developmental Flight Instrumentation (DFI) consisted of radiometers, calorimeters, pressure transducers and gas temperature probes installed on the aft skirt and nozzle to measure the base environments. In addition, thermocouples were also installed between the layers of the flexible thermal curtain to provide insight into the curtain response to the base environments and to assist in understanding curtain failure during reentry. Plume radiation environment predictions were generated by the Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) code and the convective base heating predictions utilized heritage MSFC empirical methods. These predictions were compared to the DFI data and results from the flight videography. Radiation predictions agreed with the flight measured data early in flight but gauge failures prevented high altitude comparisons. The convective environment comparisons demonstrated the need to improve the prediction methodology; particularly for low altitude, local plume recirculation. The convective comparisons showed relatively good agreement at altitudes greater than 50,000 feet.

  12. Electron Impact Exciation of Fe IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayal, Swaraj; Zatsarinny, Oleg

    2015-05-01

    Transition probabilities and electron impact excitation collision strengths and rates for astrophysically important extreme ultraviolet lines of Fe IX are calculated. The 322 fine-structure levels of the 3s2 3p6 , 3s2 3p5 3 d , 3 s 3p6 3 d , 3s2 3p5 4 s , and 3s2 3p4 3d2 configurations are included in our calculations. The collision strengths have been calculated using the B-spline Breit-Pauli R-matrix method for all fine-structure transitions among the 322 levels. The mass, Darwin, and spin-orbit relativistic effects are included in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian in the scattering calculation. The one-body and two-body relativistic operators are included in the multi-configuration Hartree-Fock calculations of transition probabilities. Several sets of non-orthogonal spectroscopic and correlation radial orbitals are used to obtain accurate description of Fe IX levels and to represent the scattering functions. The calculated excitation energies are in very good agreement with experiment and represents an improvement over the previous calculations. The present collision strengths show reasonable agreement with the previously available R-matrix and distorted-wave calculations. This research is supported by NASA grant from the Solar and Heliophysics Program.

  13. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Martin, Rodney; Waterman, Robert; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Ossenfort, John; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Automating prelaunch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits. First, it potentially improves safety by detecting faults that might otherwise have been missed so that they can be corrected before launch. Second, it potentially reduces launch delays by more quickly diagnosing the cause of anomalies that occur during prelaunch processing. Reducing launch delays will be critical to the success of NASA's planned future missions that require in-orbit rendezvous. Third, it potentially reduces costs by reducing both launch delays and the number of people needed to monitor the prelaunch process. NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle to bring the Orion capsule and its crew of four astronauts to low-earth orbit on their way to the moon. Ares I-X will be the first unmanned test flight of Ares I. It is scheduled to launch on October 27, 2009. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype is a prototype ground diagnostic system that will provide anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage thrust vector control (TVC) and for the associated ground hydraulics while it is in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and on the launch pad. It will serve as a prototype for a future operational ground diagnostic system for Ares I. The prototype combines three existing diagnostic tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool that is commercially produced by Qualtech Systems, Inc. It uses a qualitative model of failure propagation to perform fault isolation and diagnostics. We adapted an existing TEAMS model of the TVC to use for diagnostics and developed a TEAMS model of the ground hydraulics. The second tool, Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE), is a rule-based expert system developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification. The prototype

  14. Labeled factor IX kinetics in patients with hemophilia-B

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.J.; Thompson, A.R.

    1981-09-01

    Labeled factor IX was infused five time into four patients with hemophilia-B. Ten-minute plasma recovery average 35% (SD +/- 2) and the mean T 1/2 beta-phase elimination was 23 hr (+/- 5). No alteration in the postinfusion 125I-factor-IX could be detected by radioautography of plasma samples run on polyacrylamide gels or on crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Label was excreted into the urine as free 125I-iodide. Kinetics were similar when the labeled preparation was infused alone or with a commercial concentrate containing unlabeled factor IX. Infusion of factor IX in man is best described by a two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model where factor IX is distributed in a space larger than the plasma volume.

  15. Innovative method for boron extraction from iron ore containing boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang; Wang, Jing-song; Yu, Xin-yun; Shen, Ying-feng; Zuo, Hai-bin; Xue, Qing-guo

    2016-03-01

    A novel process for boron enrichment and extraction from ludwigite based on iron nugget technology was proposed. The key steps of this novel process, which include boron and iron separation, crystallization of boron-rich slag, and elucidation of the boron extraction behavior of boron-rich slag by acid leaching, were performed at the laboratory. The results indicated that 95.7% of the total boron could be enriched into the slag phase, thereby forming a boron-rich slag during the iron and slag melting separation process. Suanite and kotoite were observed to be the boron-containing crystalline phases, and the boron extraction properties of the boron-rich slag depended on the amounts and grain sizes of these minerals. When the boron-rich slag was slowly cooled to 1100°C, the slag crystallized well and the efficiency of extraction of boron (EEB) of the slag was the highest observed in the present study. The boron extraction property of the slow-cooled boron-rich slag obtained in this study was much better than that of szaibelyite ore under the conditions of 80% of theoretical sulfuric acid amount, leaching time of 30 min, leaching temperature of 40°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 8 mL/g.

  16. Boron in sillimanite.

    PubMed

    Grew, E S; Hinthorne, J R

    1983-08-01

    Sillimanite in six granulite-facies, kornerupine-bearing rocks contains 0.035 to 0.43 percent B(2)O(3) and 0.02 to 0.23 percent MgO (by weight). Substitution of boron for silicon and magnesium for aluminum is coupled such that the ratio of magnesium to boron is about 0.5. Sillimanite incorporates more than 0.1 percent B(2)O(3) only at high temperatures in a boron-rich environment at very low partial pressures of water. In the amphibolite facies, the sillimanite boron contents are too low to appreciably affect the stability relations of sillimanite with kyanite and andalusite. PMID:17830955

  17. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/coron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R.; Manos, Dennis; Nartowitz, Ed

    1994-01-01

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

  18. Boron-Based Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Ban, Hyun Seung; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The use of the element boron, which is not generally observed in a living body, possesses a high potential for the discovery of new biological activity in pharmaceutical drug design. In this account, we describe our recent developments in boron-based drug design, including boronic acid containing protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, and tubulin polymerization inhibitors, and ortho-carborane-containing proteasome activators, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 inhibitors, and topoisomerase inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied a closo-dodecaborate as a water-soluble moiety as well as a boron-10 source for the design of boron carriers in boron neutron capture therapy, such as boronated porphyrins and boron lipids for a liposomal boron delivery system. PMID:25800654

  19. Boron nitride composites

    DOEpatents

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2016-02-16

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and a plurality of cubic boron nitride (cBN) particles, wherein the plurality of cBN particles are dispersed in a matrix of the hBN. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes a plurality of cBN particles, and one or more borate-containing binders.

  20. Quantitative determination of Zn protoporphyrin IX, heme and protoporphyrin IX in Parma ham by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Odagiri, Hiroko; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2009-05-01

    We measured the contents of Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZPP), heme and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in Parma ham by simultaneous analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extraction with ethyl acetate-acetic acid (4:1) was suitable for the quantitative analysis of ZPP. The contents of heme, ZPP and PPIX in Parma ham were 15.0-29.9, 27.7-47.0 and 0.4-1.1μg/g, respectively, and total content of porphyrin was 43.7-76.6μg/g. The amount of ZPP in Parma ham was larger than that of heme, and ZPP accounted for 60-70% of all porphyrins. PMID:20416611

  1. Nitric oxide inhibits the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX and protoporphyrin IX.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which curing agents, especially nitrite, inhibit the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in dry-cured hams such as Parma ham. The oxidation-reduction potential of model solutions was increased by the addition of nitrite, but it was not clear whether the formation of ZPP is inhibited by the oxidizing property of nitrite. The effect of nitric oxide (NO) produced from nitrite on the formation of ZPP was examined. The amount of ZPP formed was decreased by the addition of NO donors. The amount of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), which is the precursor of ZPP, was also decreased by the addition of NO donors. It is concluded that NO produced from nitrite inhibited the formation of PPIX and ZPP was therefore not formed in cured meat products with the addition of nitrite or nitrate. PMID:20374763

  2. Ares I-X USS Material Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, David S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). Material characterization tests were conducted to quantify the material behavior for use in the CIFS analyses. Fatigue crack growth rate, Charpy impact, and fracture tests were conducted on the parent and welded A516 Grade 70 steel. The crack growth rate tests confirmed that the material behaved in agreement with literature data and that a salt water environment would not significantly degrade the fatigue resistance. The Charpy impact tests confirmed that the fracture resistance of the material did not have a significant reduction for the expected operational temperatures of the vehicle.

  3. ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in epileptogenic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Valdes, Pablo A.; Harris, Brent T.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-03-01

    Astrogliotic tissue displays markedly increased levels of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence, making it useful for fluorescence-guided resection in glioma surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and corresponding animal models, there are areas of astrogliosis that often co-localize with the epileptic focus, which can be resected to eliminate seizures in the majority of treated patients. If this epileptogenic tissue can exhibit PpIX fluorescence that is sufficiently localized, it could potentially help identify margins in epilepsy surgery. We tested the hypothesis that ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence could visually accentuate epileptogenic tissue, using an established animal model of chronic TLE. An acute dose of pilocarpine was used to induce chronic seizure activity in a rat. This rat and a normal control were given ALA, euthanized, and brains examined post-mortem for PpIX fluorescence and neuropathology. Preliminary evidence indicates increased PpIX fluorescence in areas associated with chronic epileptic changes and seizure generation in TLE, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal areas. In addition, strong PpIX fluorescence was clearly observed in layer II of the piriform cortex, a region known for epileptic reorganization and involvement in the generation of seizures in animal studies. We are further investigating whether ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence can consistently identify epileptogenic zones, which could warrant the extension of this technique to clinical studies for use as an adjuvant guidance technology in the resection of epileptic tissue.

  4. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  5. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) as an endogenous marker of chronic hypoxia in live human tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Kaffer, Anja; Riedl, Susanne; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: Published clinical studies provide conflicting data regarding the prognostic significance of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) overexpression as an endogenous marker of tumor hypoxia and its comparability with other methods of hypoxia detection. We performed a systematic analysis of CA IX protein levels under various in vitro conditions of tumor hypoxia in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma and FaDu human pharyngeal carcinoma cells. Because sorting of live CA IX positive cells from tumors provides a tool to study the radiosensitivity of chronically hypoxic cells, we modified and tested a CA IX flow cytometry protocol on mixed hypoxic/aerobic suspensions of HT 1080 and FaDu cells. Methods and materials: HT 1080 and FaDu cells were treated with up to 24 h of in vitro hypoxia and up to 96 h of reoxygenation. To test the effect of nonhypoxic stimuli, glucose and serum availability, pH and cell density were modified. CA IX protein was quantified in Western blots of whole-cell lysates. Mixed suspensions with known percentages of hypoxic cells were prepared for CA IX flow cytometry. The same mixtures were assayed for clonogenic survival after 10 Gy. Results: Hypoxia-induced CA IX protein expression was seen after >6 h at {<=}5% O{sub 2}, and protein was stable over 96 h of reoxygenation in both cell lines. Glucose deprivation abolished the hypoxic CA IX response, and high cell density caused CA IX induction under aerobic conditions. Measured percentages of CA IX-positive cells in mixtures closely reflected known percentages of hypoxic cells in HT 1080 and were associated with radioresistance of mixtures after 10 Gy. Conclusion: CA IX is a stable marker of current or previous chronic hypoxia but influenced by nonhypoxic stimuli. Except the time course of accumulation, all properties of this marker resembled our previous findings for hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. A modified flow cytometry protocol provided good separability of CA IX-negative and -positive cells in vitro

  6. Ionicities of Boron-Boron Bonds in B12 Icosahedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Julong; Wu, Erdong; Wang, Huitian; Liu, Riping; Tian, Yongjun

    2005-01-01

    First-principles calculations are used to investigate ionicities of boron-boron bonds in B12 icosahedra. It is observed that the geometrical symmetry breaking of B12 icosahedra results in the spatial asymmetry of charge density on each boron-boron bond, and further in the ionicity of B12 icosahedra. The results calculated by a new ionicity scale, a population ionicity scale, indicate that the maximum ionicity among those boron-boron bonds is larger than that of boron-nitrogen bonds in the III-V compound cubic BN. It is of great importance that such an ionicity concept can be extended to boron-rich solids and identical atom clusters.

  7. Title IX and Intercollegiate Athletics in the Federal Appellate Courts: Myth vs. Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieronek, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the enforcement of the nondiscrimination provisions of Title IX in higher education, and shows how the courts have wrestled with the application of Title IX to college athletic programs over the past decade. Provides a history of Title IX enforcement and describes current approaches to evaluating Title IX compliance. (SLD)

  8. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  9. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-02-06

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  10. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  11. Boron nitride housing cools transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Boron nitride ceramic heat sink cools transistors in r-f transmitter and receiver circuits. Heat dissipated by the transistor is conducted by the boron nitride housing to the metal chassis on which it is mounted.

  12. Boron incorporation into mullite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesser, K. J.; Beran, A.; Voll, D.; Schneider, H.

    2008-03-01

    Boron-doped mullites were synthesized using aluminium nitrate-nonahydrate, tetraethoxysilane and boric acid in a sol gel process with subsequent annealing at 950 and 1300 °C for five hours. Two different bulk compositions with constant Al2O3 contents (60 and 70 mol%, respectively) and varying SiO2 plus B2O3 contents were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction analyses yielded a linear decrease of the lattice parameters with increasing bulk B2O3 content, which was interpreted as to be due to boron incorporation. Related to the increasing boron content, corresponding infrared spectra revealed a slight and continuous shift for most of the absorption bands. These data show that mullite is able to incorporate large amounts of boron into its structure (up to about 20 mol% B2O3 depending on the bulk composition of the starting materials). Infrared analyses suggest that boron is incorporated into the mullite structure in form of planar three-fold coordinated BO3 groups.

  13. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F.

    1995-11-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

  14. 26. Photocopy of August 1918 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of August 1918 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  15. 29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN AND NEW PALM HOUSE (DEMOLISHED), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  16. Method for separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  17. Mineral of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  18. Anisotropic Bianchi types VIII and IX locally rotationally symmetric cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Assad, M.J.D.; Soares, I.D.

    1983-10-15

    We present a class of exact cosmological solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations, which are anisotropic and spatially homogeneous of Bianchi types VIII and IX, and class IIIb in the Stewart-Ellis classification of locally rotationally symmetric models. If we take the electromagnetic field equal to zero, a class of Bianchi types VIII/IX spatially homogeneous anisotropic cosmological solutions with perfect fluid is obtained.

  19. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  20. The effects of CA IX catalysis products within tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Paoli, Paolo; Corti, Denise; Camici, Guido; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Serni, Sergio; Chiarugi, Paola; Cirri, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Solid tumors are composed of both cancer cells and various types of accessory cells, mainly fibroblasts, that collectively compose the so called tumor-microenvironment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts have been described to actively participate in cancer progression by establishing a cytokine-mediated as well as metabolic crosstalk with cancer cells. In the present paper we show that activated human fibroblasts are able to boost tumor cells proliferation and that this effect is greatly dependent on stromal carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) activity. In fact fibroblasts show a strong upregulation of CA IX expression upon activation by cancer cells, while CA IX products, protons and bicarbonate, exert differential effects on cancer cells proliferation. While acidification of extracellular pH, a typical condition of rapidly growing solid tumors, is detrimental for tumor cells proliferation, bicarbonate, through its organication, supplies cancer cells with intermediates useful to sustain their high proliferation rate. Here we propose a new kind of fibroblasts/tumor cells crosstalk within tumor microenvironment, mediated by stromal CA IX products, aimed to favor cancer cells growth, opening new perspectives on CA IX role in tumor microenvironment. PMID:24168032

  1. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase IX as a novel anticancer mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the interconversion bewteen carbon dioxide and bicarbonate with generation of protons. The carbonic anhydrase isozyme IX (CA IX) is highly overexpresed in hypoxic tumors and shows very restricted expression in normal tissues. CA IX is a dimeric protein possessing very high catalytic activity for the hydration of carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate. Its quaternary structure is unique among members of this family of enzymes, allowing for structure-based drug design campaigns of selective inhibitors. Inhibition of CA IX with sulfonamide and/or coumarin inhibitors was recently shown to lead to a potent retardation for the growth of both primary tumors and metastases. Some fluorescent sulfonamides were shown to accumulate only in hypoxic tumor cells overexpressing CA IX, and might be used as diagnostic tools for imaging of hypoxic cancers. Sulfonamide inhibitors were also more effective in inhibiting the growth of the primary tumors when associated with irrdiation. CA IX is thus both a diagnostic and therapeutic validated target for the management of hypoxic tumors normally non-responsive to classical chemio- and radiotherapy. PMID:22787577

  2. In Vivo Boron Uptake Determination for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Binello, Emanuela; Shortkroff, Sonya; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    1999-06-06

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) has been proposed as a new application of the boron neutron capture reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In BNCS, a boron compound is injected into the joint space, where it is taken up by the synovium. The joint is then irradiated with neutrons of a desired energy range, inducing the boron neutron capture reaction in boron-loaded cells. Boron uptake by the synovium is an important parameter in the assessment of the potential of BNCS and in the determination of whether to proceed to animal irradiations for the testing of therapeutic efficacy. We present results from an investigation of boron uptake in vivo by the synovium.

  3. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  4. Functions of AAV-CMV-F.IX And AAV-EF1alpha-F.IX in gene therapy for hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-02-01

    There has been substantial progress in using gene therapy to treat animals with hemophilia. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer of coagulation factor IX to skeletal muscle and liver of murine and canine models of hemophilia has resulted in sustained systemic expression and, in several studies, in complete cure of the bleeding disorder. Two AAV vectors widely used at present are AAV-CMV-F.IX and AAV-EF1alpha-F.IX. This work compares the predicted molecular functions of AAV-CMV-F.IX and AAV-EF1alpha -F.IX by sequence docking and gene ontology. It is shown that both AAV-CMV-F.IX and AAV-EF1alpha -F.IX induce coagulation factor IXa activity; however, AAV-CMV-F.IX administration also yields coagulation factor XIa activity and AAV-EF1alpha -F.IX treatment results in coagulation factor Xa activity. Therefore, AAV-CMV-F.IX might be useful for factor XI deficiency. AAV-CMV-F.IX has several additional molecular functions and processes compared with AAV-CMV-F.IX. PMID:17266422

  5. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Bystroff, Roman I.; Miller, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  6. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  7. Discovering novel carbonic anhydrase type IX (CA IX) inhibitors from seven million compounds using virtual screening and in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Senturk, Murat; Yurtsever, Mine; Durdagi, Serdar

    2016-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase type IX (CA IX) enzyme is mostly over expressed in different cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. Potent CA IX inhibitors can be effective for adjusting the pH imbalance in tumor cells. In the present work, we represented the successful application of high throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of large dataset from ZINC database included of ∼7 million compounds to discover novel inhibitors of CA IX. HTVS and molecular docking were performed using consequence Glide/standard precision (SP), extra precision (XP) and induced fit docking (IFD) molecular docking protocols. For each compound, docking code calculates a set of low-energy poses and then exhaustively scans the binding pocket of the target with small compounds. Novel CA IX inhibitor candidates were suggested based on molecular modeling studies and a few of them were tested using in vitro analysis. These compounds were determined as good inhibitors against human CA IX target with Ki in the range of 0.85-1.58 μM. In order to predict the pharmaceutical properties of the selected compounds, ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) analysis was also carried out. PMID:25950196

  8. Oxygen Availability for Porphyrin Biosynthesis Enzymes Determines the Production of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shimpei; Matsumoto, Kentaro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the excretion of porphyrin precursor coproporphyrinogen III (CPgenIII), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of PpIX. However, the mechanism of CPgenIII excretion during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the importance of mitochondrial respiration for the production of PpIX during hypoxia. Porphyrin concentrations were estimated in human gastric cancer cell lines by HPLC. Expression levels of porphyrin biosynthesis genes were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Blockage of porphyrin biosynthesis was an oxygen-dependent phenomenon resulting from decreased PpIX production in mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. PpIX production was increased by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration complexes, which indicates that the enzymes of porphyrin biosynthesis compete with respiration complexes for molecular oxygen. Our results indicate that targeting the respiration complexes is a rationale for enhancing the effect of ALA-mediated treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26717566

  9. Oxygen Availability for Porphyrin Biosynthesis Enzymes Determines the Production of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Shimpei; Matsumoto, Kentaro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the excretion of porphyrin precursor coproporphyrinogen III (CPgenIII), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of PpIX. However, the mechanism of CPgenIII excretion during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the importance of mitochondrial respiration for the production of PpIX during hypoxia. Porphyrin concentrations were estimated in human gastric cancer cell lines by HPLC. Expression levels of porphyrin biosynthesis genes were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Blockage of porphyrin biosynthesis was an oxygen-dependent phenomenon resulting from decreased PpIX production in mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. PpIX production was increased by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration complexes, which indicates that the enzymes of porphyrin biosynthesis compete with respiration complexes for molecular oxygen. Our results indicate that targeting the respiration complexes is a rationale for enhancing the effect of ALA-mediated treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26717566

  10. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1995-02-28

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil. 7 figs.

  11. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil.

  12. Is Boron Nutritionally Relevant?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from numerous laboratories using a variety of experimental models, including humans, shows that boron is a bioactive beneficial element. Much evidence has come from studies that did not require nutritional or environmental stressors or fastidious methods in diet preparation or environmental...

  13. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Boron and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 42 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  14. Zn protoporphyrin IX is formed not from heme but from protoporphyrin IX.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Okui, Jun; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2007-12-01

    We examined the effects of exogenous myoglobin, a bivalent chelator, and nitrite on Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) formation by using model systems. ZPP was formed in a model solution without addition of exogenous myoglobin. After incubation, the amount of ZPP in a model solution was increased but that of heme was not decreased compared with the amounts before incubation. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) instead of ZPP also accumulated in a model solution with addition of EDTA, but the amount of heme was not reduced. These results suggested that ZPP was not formed by the Fe-Zn substitution in heme but was formed by the insertion of Zn into PPIX, which was formed independently. The fact that the effects of various factors in model systems with/without addition of a bivalent chelator were similar suggested that ZPP formation was strongly affected by PPIX formation. Inhibition of PPIX formation by nitrite might be the reason for the low levels of ZPP in cured meats. PMID:22061944

  15. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  16. Determination of phase stability of elemental boron.

    PubMed

    White, Mary Anne; Cerqueira, Anthony B; Whitman, Catherine A; Johnson, Michel B; Ogitsu, Tadashi

    2015-03-16

    Boron is an important element, used in applications from superhard materials to superconductors. Boron exists in several forms (allotropes) and, surprisingly, it was not known which form (α or β) is stable at ambient conditions. Through experiment, we quantify the relative stability of α-boron and β-boron as a function of temperature. The ground-state energies of α-boron and β-boron are nearly identical. For all temperatures up to 2000 K, the complicated β-boron structure is more stable than the simpler α-boron structure at ambient pressure. Below 1000 K, β-boron is entropically stabilized with respect to α-boron owing to its partially occupied sites, whereas at higher temperatures β-boron is enthalpically stabilized with respect to α-boron. We show that α-boron only becomes stable on application of pressure. PMID:25619645

  17. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  18. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  19. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  20. Triangulated loop quantum cosmology: Bianchi IX universe and inhomogeneous perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Battisti, Marco Valerio; Marciano, Antonino; Rovelli, Carlo

    2010-03-15

    We develop the triangulated version of loop quantum cosmology, recently introduced in the literature. We focus on the dipole cosmology, where space is a three-sphere and the triangulation is formed by two tetrahedra. We show that the discrete fiducial connection has a simple and appealing geometrical interpretation and we correct the ansatz on the relation between the model variables and the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker scale factor. The modified ansatz leads to the convergence of the Hamiltonian constraint to the continuum one. We then ask which degrees of freedom are captured by this model. We show that the model is rich enough to describe the (anisotropic) Bianchi IX universe, and give the explicit relation between the Bianchi IX variables and the variables of the model. We discuss the possibility of using this path in order to define the quantization of the Bianchi IX universe. The model contains more degrees of freedom than Bianchi IX, and therefore captures some inhomogeneous degrees of freedom as well. Inhomogeneous degrees of freedom can be expanded in representations of the SU(2) Bianchi IX isometry group, and the dipole model captures the lowest integer representation of these, connected to hyperspherical harmonic of angular momentum j=1.

  1. Ares I-X Flight Test - The Future Begins Here

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for an April 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission. Like the Apollo program, the Ares launch vehicles will rely upon extensive ground, flight, and orbital testing before sending the Orion crew exploration vehicle into space with humans on board. The first flight of Ares I, designated Ares I-X, will be a suborbital development flight test. Ares I-X gives NASA its first opportunity to gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future operational flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will begin modifying the launch infrastructure and fine-tuning ground and mission operations, as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Ares/Orion system.

  2. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Takao; Nomura, Masao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the 11B /10B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher 11B /10B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing 11B /10B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite ( Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with higher BO 3/BO 4 ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO 3 triangle units to the number of the BO 4 tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher 11B /10B ratios.

  3. Apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages induced by protoporphyrin IX-mediated sonodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuyuan; Sun, Xin; Cheng, Jiali; Xu, Haobo; Dan, Juhua; Shen, Jing; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Yun; Meng, Lingli; Cao, Wenwu; Tian, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) was developed as a localized ultrasound-activated cytotoxic therapy for cancer. The ability of SDT to destroy target tissues selectively is especially appealing for atherosclerotic plaque, in which selective accumulation of the sonosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), had been demonstrated. Here we investigate the effects of PpIX-mediated SDT on macrophages, which are the main culprit in progression of atherosclerosis. Methods and results Cultured THP-1 derived macrophages were incubated with PpIX. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the intracellular PpIX concentration increased with the concentration of PpIX in the incubation medium. MTT assay demonstrated that SDT with PpIX significantly decreased cell viability, and this effect increased with duration of ultrasound exposure and PpIX concentration. PpIX-mediated SDT induced both apoptosis and necrosis, and the maximum apoptosis to necrosis ratio was obtained after SDT with 20 μg/mL PpIX and five minutes of sonication. Production of intracellular singlet oxygen and secondary disruption of the cytoskeleton were also observed after SDT with PpIX. Conclusion PpIX-mediated SDT had apoptotic effects on THP-1 macrophages via generation of intracellular singlet oxygen and disruption of the cytoskeleton. PpIX-mediated SDT may be a potential treatment to attenuate progression of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:23818780

  4. Ares I-X: First Flight of a New Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephen R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, NASA s Constellation Program has been designing, building, and testing the next generation of launch and space vehicles to carry humans beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The Ares Projects at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. On October 28, 2009, the first development flight test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, Ares I-X, lifted off from a launch pad at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on successful suborbital flight. Basing exploration launch vehicle designs on Ares I-X information puts NASA one step closer to full-up "test as you fly," a best practice in vehicle design. Although the final Constellation Program architecture is under review, the Ares I-X data and experience in vehicle design and operations can be applied to any launch vehicle. This paper presents the mission background as well as results and lessons learned from the flight.

  5. 75 FR 18245 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of...

  6. Ares I-X: First Flight of a New Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X suborbital development flight test demonstrated NASA s ability to design, develop, launch and control a new human-rated launch vehicle (Figure 14). This hands-on missions experience will provide the agency with necessary skills and insights regardless of the future direction of space exploration. The Ares I-X team, having executed a successful launch, will now focus on analyzing the flight data and extracting lessons learned that will be used to support the development of future vehicles.

  7. Star Formation Rate in Holmberg IX Dwarf Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andjelic, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009) to calculate star formation rate (SFR) in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3.4×10-4M_{⊙} yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  8. Structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of α-boron and α∗-boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chaoyu; Zhong, J. X.

    2013-04-01

    The structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of α-boron and a promising metastable boron phase (α*-boron) have been studied by first-principles calculations. α-boron and α*-boron consist of equivalent icosahedra B12 clusters in different connecting configurations of "3S-6D-3S" and "2S-6D-4S", respectively. The total energy calculations show that α*-boron is less stable than α-boron but more favorable than the well-known β-boron and γ-boron at zero pressure. Both α-boron and α*-boron are confirmed dynamically and mechanically stable. The mechanical and electronic properties of α-boron and α*-boron indicate that they are potential superhard semiconducting phases of element boron.

  9. Solar America Initiative (Across America Map)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    This factsheet gives an overview of the Solar America Initiative (SAI) using a map to show locations of the Solar America Cities, Solar America Showcases and other market transformation and research and development projects.

  10. Textbook America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  11. Illiterate America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  12. Colonial America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents resources for grades K-8, on the subject of Colonial America. Describes Web sites; CD-ROMs and software; videos; books; audios; magazines; and professional resources. Includes two articles, "Native Americans in the Colonies," and "The Golden Age of Pirates," which also highlight resources. Presents a Web activity focusing on daily life in…

  13. America 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Danis P.

    1991-01-01

    America 2000 is the first serious policy initiative in U.S. history to consider enlargement of the federal education role. The program is vigorous, upbeat, and demands hard work, private initiative, self-reliance, and freedom from bureaucratic intrusion. The U.S. public supports underlying concepts: choice, higher standards, radical reform, and…

  14. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

  15. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of... Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.5 Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The obligations imposed by this part are independent of obligations imposed by or pursuant to title IX of...

  16. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of... Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.5 Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The obligations imposed by this part are independent of obligations imposed by or pursuant to title IX of...

  17. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of... Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.5 Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The obligations imposed by this part are independent of obligations imposed by or pursuant to title IX of...

  18. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Oi, Takao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Kakihana, Hidetake ); Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto )

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite (Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with high BO{sub 3}/BO{sub 4} ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO{sub 3} triangle units to the number of the BO{sub 4} tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios.

  19. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1999-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition.

  20. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1999-04-27

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition. 3 figs.

  1. Leadership in Honor Societies: The Effect of Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earwood-Smith, Glenda

    1985-01-01

    Single-sex honor societies changed membership requirements to admit members of both sexes in response to Title IX of the 1972 Education amendments. A 1982 study examining the effect of this transition on the sex make-up of members, officers, and faculty advisers revealed that women students were competing equally with men students for leadership…

  2. Title IX and Educational Equity: What Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombisky, Kim

    Title IX, the 1972 United States federal law forbidding sex discrimination in education, has a rarely-talked-about but surprisingly tenuous history which illustrates how discourses of equality come to mean political powerlessness for diverse girls and women in school. Unfortunately, "sexual" debates such as women's sports and sexual harassment…

  3. Title IX and Sexual Harassment of Student Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolohan, John T.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…

  4. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The first test flight of NASA's Ares I crew launch vehicle, called Ares I-X, was launched on October 28, 2009. Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Flight test data will provide important information on ascent loads, vehicle control, separation, and first stage reentry dynamics. As part of hardware verification, a series of modal tests were designed to verify the dynamic finite element model (FEM) used in loads assessments and flight control evaluations. Based on flight control system studies, the critical modes were the first three free-free bending mode pairs. Since a test of the free-free vehicle was not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations during vehicle stacking were defined to calibrate the FEM. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test execution and results for the Ares I-X flight test vehicle modal test on the Mobile Launcher Platform. Initial comparisons between pre-test predictions and test data are also presented.

  5. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  6. Gender Equity in Intercollegiate Athletics: Determinants of Title IX Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah J.; Cheslock, John Jesse; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2006-01-01

    Using new data on intercollegiate athletes, this article shows that recent improvement in Title IX compliance among NCAA Division I institutions was previously overestimated, and provides the first estimates of compliance in Divisions II and III. In addition, regression analyses investigate how institutional characteristics relate to the extent of…

  7. A Guide for Title IX Self-Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesdorfer, Kent; And Others

    This document is a set of guidelines on how to conduct the self-evaluation required by Title IX, the amendment prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex. Its purpose is to help school districts comply with the necessity to evaluate policies and practices by providing a data base for decision-making. The paper is divided into these sections:…

  8. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Region IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report represents a detailed summation of existing workforce levels, training programs, career potential, and staffing level projections through 1981 for EPA Region IX. This region serves the states of Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada. The specific pollution programs considered include air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation…

  9. Ares I-X Malfunction Turn Range Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares I rocket which was developed by NASA (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) component of the Constellation Program). The Ares I-X flight test vehicle achieved a successful flight test on October 28, 2009, from Pad LC-39B at Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC). As part of the flight plan approval for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could have caused the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path. The effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version II (POST2) simulation tool. The Ares I-X simulation analysis provided output files containing vehicle trajectory state information. These were used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at KSC, and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer in the event of a flight test anomaly of the vehicle. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study.

  10. Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Modal Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The first test flight of NASA's Ares I crew launch vehicle, called Ares I-X, is scheduled for launch in 2009. Ares IX will use a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Flight test data will provide important information on ascent loads, vehicle control, separation, and first stage reentry dynamics. As part of hardware verification, a series of modal tests were designed to verify the dynamic finite element model (FEM) used in loads assessments and flight control evaluations. Based on flight control system studies, the critical modes were the first three free-free bending mode pairs. Since a test of the free-free vehicle is not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations in the nominal integration flow were defined to calibrate the FEM. A traceability study by Aerospace Corporation was used to identify the critical modes for the tested configurations. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X launch vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This paper provides an overview for companion papers in the Ares I-X Modal Test Session. The requirements flow down, pre-test analysis, constraints and overall test planning are described.

  11. Boron Clusters Come of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Russell N.

    2004-01-01

    Boron is the only element other than carbon that can build molecules of unlimited size by covalently boding to itself, a property known as catenation. In contrast to the chains and rings favored by carbon, boron arguably adopts a cluster motif that is reflected in the various forms of the pure element and in the huge area of polyhedral borane…

  12. Boron carbide-aluminum cermets

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, D.C.

    1986-09-03

    We have developed boron carbide-aluminum cermets by means of thermodynamic, kinetic, and processing studies. Our research indicates that boron carbide-aluminum cermets offer ''tailorable'' microstructures with designable properties through process control. This new class of cermets has the potential to become a very important material with wide industrial applications.

  13. Enantioselective oxidative boron Heck reactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, A-L

    2016-06-28

    This review highlights the use of the oxidative boron Heck reaction in enantioselective Heck-type couplings. The enantioselective oxidative boron Heck reaction overcomes several limitations of the traditional Pd(0)-catalysed Heck coupling and has subsequently allowed for intermolecular couplings of challenging systems such as cyclic enones, acyclic alkenes, and even site selectively on remote alkenes. PMID:26529247

  14. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  15. Bolivia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural information on Bolivia. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or English--in which the topics are written. The quarterly provides an…

  16. Ares I-X Flight Data Evaluation: Executive Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Waits, David A.; Lewis, Donny L.; Richards, James S.; Coates, R. H., Jr.; Cruit, Wendy D.; Bolte, Elizabeth J.; Bangham, Michal E.; Askins, Bruce R.; Trausch, Ann N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) successfully launched the Ares I-X flight test vehicle on October 28, 2009. The Ares I-X flight was a developmental flight test to demonstrate that this very large, long, and slender vehicle could be controlled successfully. The flight offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to influence the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office (APO) established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate flight results with prospective design assumptions and models. The flight evaluation tasks used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with preflight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and processes being applied to design and develop Ares I. The benefits of early development flight testing were made evident by results from these flight evaluation tasks. This overview provides summary information from assessment of the Ares I-X flight test data and represents a small subset of the detailed technical results. The Ares Projects Office published a 1,600-plus-page detailed technical report that documents the full set of results. This detailed report is subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and is available in the Ares Projects Office archives files.

  17. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  18. Boron containing multilayer coatings and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1997-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from multilayer boron/boron carbide, boron carbide/cubic boron nitride, and boron/boron nitride/boron carbide, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron and boron carbide used in forming the multilayers are formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/boron carbide, and boron carbide/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron, cubic boron nitride or boron carbide, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be of a discrete or a blended or graded composition.

  19. Transforming the treatment for hemophilia B patients: update on the clinical development of recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant coagulation factor IX with recombinant albumin (rIX-FP).

    PubMed

    Santagostino, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant coagulation factor IX with recombinant albumin (rIX-FP; Idelvion®(†)) is an innovative new treatment designed to extend the half-life of factor IX (FIX) and ease the burden of care for hemophilia B patients. The rIX-FP clinical development program - PROLONG-9FP - is in its advanced phases, with pivotal studies in previously treated adults, adolescents, and pediatrics now completed. Across all age groups studied, rIX-FP has demonstrated a markedly improved pharmacokinetic profile compared with plasma-derived and recombinant FIX treatments, with a 30-40% higher incremental recovery, an approximately 5-fold longer half-life, a lower clearance, and a greater area under the curve. rIX-FP has been very well tolerated with an excellent safety profile. In the pivotal studies, there have been no reports of FIX inhibitors or antidrug antibodies, and few treatment-related adverse events have been observed. Prophylactic regimens of rIX-FP administered once weekly to once every 14 days have been highly effective. When used for surgical prophylaxis, a single infusion of rIX-FP has been sufficient to maintain hemostasis, even during major orthopedic surgery. An ongoing study is now enrolling previously untreated patients and evaluating the possibility of extending the dosing interval to every 21 days. There is little doubt that rIX-FP will transform the treatment of hemophilia B. PMID:27288064

  20. Structural Insights into Carbonic Anhydrase IX Isoform Specificity of Carbohydrate-Based Sulfamates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an extracellular transmembrane homodimeric zinc metalloenzyme that has been validated as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for several types of aggressive cancers. CA IX shares a close homology with other CA isoforms, making the design of CA IX isoform selective inhibitors challenging. In this paper, we describe the development of a new class of CA IX inhibitors that comprise a sulfamate as the zinc binding group, a variable linker, and a carbohydrate “tail” moiety. Seven compounds inhibited CA IX with low nM Ki values of 1–2 nM and also exhibited permeability profiles to preferentially target the binding of extracellular CA IX over cytosolic CAs. The crystal structures of two of these compounds in complex with a CA IX-mimic (a variant of CA II, with active site residues that mimic CA IX) and one compound in complex with CA II have been determined to 1.7 Å resolution or better and demonstrate a selective mechanism of binding between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic pockets of CA IX versus CA II. These compounds present promising candidates for anti-CA IX drugs and the treatment for several aggressive cancer types. PMID:25254302

  1. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  3. METHOD OF COATING SURFACES WITH BORON

    DOEpatents

    Martin, G.R.

    1949-10-11

    A method of forming a thin coating of boron on metallic, glass, or other surfaces is described. The method comprises heating the article to be coated to a temperature of about 550 d C in an evacuated chamber and passing trimethyl boron, triethyl boron, or tripropyl boron in the vapor phase and under reduced pressure into contact with the heated surface causing boron to be deposited in a thin film.

  4. In-vivo fluorescence dosimetry of aminolevulinate-based protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation in human nonmelanoma skin cancers and precancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Christine B.; Lohser, Sara; Chang, Sung; Bailin, Philip A.; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-06-01

    PDT is clinically useful for precancers (actinic keratoses; AK) of the skin, but the optimal duration for 5-ALA application is still controversial. For basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cure rates remain inferior to surgical excision. Lack of knowledge about regional levels of PpIX levels within target tissues clearly contribute to these suboptimal results. To investigate PpIX levels achievable in human skin neoplasias in-vivo, a clinical study to monitor PpIX accumulation in vivo was performed. PpIX-fluorescence in patients undergoing ALA-PDT for facial AK was monitored via real-time in-vivo fluorescence dosimetry, with measurements q20 min following application of 5-ALA (Levulan Kerastick). PpIX accumulation followed linear kinetics in nearly all cases. The slopes varied widely, and did not correlate with clinical outcome in all patients. Some patients with a low accumulation of PpIX fluorescence had a good response to therapy, whereas others with high PpIX accumulation required repeat treatment (although not necessarily of the same lesion). PpIX accumulation rates did correlate to a certain degree with the overall amount of erythema. We conclude that unknown factors besides PpIX levels must be critical for the response to treatment. To assess the relationship between PpIX levels in various skin cancers, patients undergoing routine Mohs surgery for BCC or SCC were measured by in-vivo dosimetry at 2 h after 5-ALA application. Overall, a progressive increase in PpIX signal during malignant progression was observed, in the following rank order: Normal skin < AK < SCC ~ BCC.

  5. The Development of the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was created as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight vehicle is an early operational model of Ares, with specific emphasis on Ares I and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. Ares I-X will encompass the design and construction of an entire system that includes the Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) and associated operations. The FTV will be a test model based on the Ares I design. Select design features will be incorporated in the FTV design to emulate the operation of the CLV in order to meet the flight test objectives. The operations infrastructure and processes will be customized for Ares I-X, while still providing data to inform the developers of the launch processing system for Ares/Orion. The FTV is comprised of multiple elements and components that will be developed at different locations. The components will be delivered to the launch/assembly site, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), for assembly of the elements and components into an integrated, flight-ready, launch vehicle. The FTV will fly a prescribed trajectory in order to obtain the necessary data to meet the objectives. Ares I-X will not be commanded or controlled from the ground during flight, but the FTV will be equipped with telemetry systems, a data recording capability and a flight termination system (FTS). The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation representative of the CLV. The in-flight test also includes separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage and recovery of the First Stage. The data retrieved from the flight test will be analyzed

  6. Boron nanowires for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jifa; Cai, Jinming; Hui, Chao; Zhang, Chendong; Bao, Lihong; Gao, Min; Shen, Chengmin; Gao, Hongjun

    2008-09-01

    Flexible boron nanowires have been synthesized via thermoreduction in boron-oxygen compounds with magnesium. These as-prepared nanowires, which are structurally uniform and single crystalline, represent good semiconductor at high temperature. Tensile stress measurements demonstrate excellent mechanical property of boron nanowires as well as resistance to mechanical fracture even under a strain of 3%. Importantly, simultaneous electrical measurement reveals that the corresponding electrical conductance is very robust and remains constant under mechanical strain. Our results can be briefly explained by Mott's variable range hopping model.

  7. North America

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Christopher B.; Mortsch, Linda D.; Brklacich, Michael; Forbes, Donald L.; Kovacs, Paul; Patz, Jonathan A.; Running, Steven W.; Scott, Michael J.

    2007-08-06

    The United States (U.S.) and Canada will experience climate changes through direct effects of local changes (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events), as well as through indirect effects, transmitted among regions by interconnected economies and migrations of humans and other species. Variations in wealth and geography, however, lead to an uneven distribution of likely impacts, vulnerabilities, and capacities to adapt. This chapter reviews and synthesizes the state of knowledge on both direct and indirect impacts, vulnerability and adaptations for North America 9 (comprising Canada and the U.S).

  8. Nothing Boring About Boron

    PubMed Central

    Pizzorno, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body’s use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents. In none of the numerous studies conducted to date, however, do boron’s beneficial effects appear at intakes > 3 mg/d. No estimated average requirements (EARs) or dietary reference intakes (DRIs) have been set for boron—only an upper intake level (UL) of 20 mg/d for individuals aged ≥ 18 y. The absence of studies showing harm in conjunction with the substantial number of articles showing benefits support the consideration of boron supplementation of 3 mg/d for any individual who is consuming a diet lacking in fruits and vegetables or who is at risk for or has osteopenia; osteoporosis

  9. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater.

    PubMed

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül

    2016-01-01

    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents. PMID:26877036

  10. A NEW CALCULATION OF Ne IX LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Randall K.; Chen Guoxin; Kirby, Kate; Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    2009-07-20

    We describe the effect that new atomic calculations, including fully relativistic R-matrix calculations of collisional excitation rates and level-specific dielectronic and radiative recombination rates, have on line ratios from the astrophysically significant ion Ne IX. The new excitation rates systematically change some predicted Ne IX line ratios by 25% at temperatures at or below the temperature of maximum emissivity (4 x 10{sup 6} K), while the new recombination rates lead to systematic changes at higher temperatures. The new line ratios are shown to agree with observations of Capella and {sigma}{sup 2} CrB significantly better than older line ratios, showing that 25%-30% accuracy in atomic rates is inadequate for high-resolution X-ray observations from existing spectrometers.

  11. Hantavirus Prevalence in the IX Region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo C.; Castillo, Constanza H.; Godoy, Paula M.; Hjelle, Brian; Ferrés, Marcela G.

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was conducted (n=830) to assess proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with different disease incidences and a high proportion of aboriginals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against Sin Nombre virus N antigen by strip immunoblot assay against Sin Nombre, Puumala, Río Mamoré, and Seoul N antigens. Samples from six patients were positive for IgG antibodies reactive with Andes virus; all patients lived in the Andes Mountains. Foresting was also associated with seropositivity; but not sex, age, race, rodent exposure, or farming activities. Exposure to hantavirus varies in different communities of IX Region. Absence of history of pneumonia or hospital admission in persons with specific IgG antibodies suggests that infection is clinically inapparent. PMID:12890323

  12. Ares I-X Thermal Model Correlation and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X vehicle launched and flew successfully on October 28, 2009. This paper will describe the correlation of the vehicle thermal model to both ground testing and flight data. A main purpose of the vehicle model and ground testing was to ensure that the avionics within the vehicle were held within their thermal limits prior to launch and during flight. The correlation of the avionics box temperatures will be shown. Also, the lessons learned in the thermal discipline during the modeling, test, correlation to test, and flight of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle will be described. Lessons learned will cover thermal modeling, as well as management of the thermal discipline, thermal team, and thermal-related actions in design, testing, and flight.

  13. Ares I-X Best Estimated Trajectory Analysis and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Beck, Roger E.; Starr, Brett R.; Derry, Stephen D.; Brandon, Jay; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X trajectory reconstruction produced best estimated trajectories of the flight test vehicle ascent through stage separation, and of the first and upper stage entries after separation. The trajectory reconstruction process combines on-board, ground-based, and atmospheric measurements to produce the trajectory estimates. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air-data, and weather balloons. However, due to problems with calibrations and/or data, not all of the sensor data were used. The trajectory estimate was generated using an Iterative Extended Kalman Filter algorithm, which is an industry standard processing algorithm for filtering and estimation applications. This paper describes the methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction process, including flight data preprocessing and input uncertainties, trajectory estimation algorithms, output transformations, and comparisons with preflight predictions.

  14. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on kinetics of protoporphyrin IX production in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Wołuń-Cholewa, M; Warchoł, W

    2004-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is utilized in a photodynamic therapy as a compound capable of augmenting intracellular pool of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which exhibits properties of a photosensitizer. The studies were aimed at monitoring accumulation of endogenous protoporphyrin IX in CHO cells under effect of various concentrations of ALA in culture medium and following removal of the compound from the culture medium. Cell content of PpIX was determined following incubation of the cells for 72 h in a culture medium containing different concentration of ALA. Moreover, the cells were preincubated for 2 h in ALA at various concentrations and separated from the compound by medium change and their PpIX content was monitored following incubation. PpIX content was defined by a fluorescent technique under the confocal microscope. In the course of continuous incubation of cells with ALA, biphasic alterations were noted in cellular PpIX concentration. Removal of ALA from the incubation medium resulted at first in a decrease in PpIX content in cells, which was followed by an evidently augmented accumulation of the compound in the cells. The results suggested that in the case of CHO cells, exogenous ALA was not an exclusive source of PpIX synthesis and that alterations in enzyme activities were responsible for production of PpIX. PMID:15253138

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to coagulation factor IX define a high-frequency polymorphism by immunoassays.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, K J

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been used to demonstrate a polymorphism of human plasma coagulation factor IX antigen in double antibody solid-phase immunoradiometric assays. This polymorphism is detected in an assay where a monoclonal antibody (A-1) adsorbed to microtiter wells is used to bind factor IX from diluted plasma samples. Plasma samples with the factor IX polymorphism have less than 0.2 U/ml of apparent antigen when tested with the A-1 antibody, while assays with other monoclonal antibodies and assays with goat antisera to factor IX show normal amounts of factor IX antigen. Factor IX coagulant activity was normal in samples from donors with the polymorphism. The thin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing pattern of factor IX purified from a donor with the factor IX polymorphism (IXp) was identical to that obtained with factor IX prepared from a donor who did not have the polymorphism (IXn). Purified radiolabeled factor IX prepared from a donor with the polymorphism showed a Ka for the A-1 antibody that was threefold less than that measured for IXn. The gene frequency of IXp in male blood donors is 0.25. This polymorphism may be useful as a marker for the X chromosome in genetic studies on plasma samples. Further studies are necessary to determine the explanation for decreased reaction of IXp with the A-1 monoclonal antibody. Images Fig. 1 PMID:9556657

  16. Efficient Expression and Crystallization System of Cancer-Associated Carbonic Anhydrase Isoform IX.

    PubMed

    Leitans, Janis; Kazaks, Andris; Balode, Agnese; Ivanova, Jekaterina; Zalubovskis, Raivis; Supuran, Claudiu T; Tars, Kaspars

    2015-11-25

    Human carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is overexpressed in a number of solid tumors and is considered to be a marker for cellular hypoxia that it is not produced in most normal tissues. CA IX contributes to the acidification of the extracellular matrix, which, in turn, favors tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, CA IX is considered to be a promising anti-cancer drug target. However, the ability to specifically target CA IX is challenging due to the fact that the human genome encodes 15 different carbonic anhydrase isoforms that have a high degree of homology. Furthermore, structure-based drug design of CA IX inhibitors so far has been largely unsuccessful due to technical difficulties regarding the expression and crystallization of the enzyme. Currently, only one baculovirus-produced CA IX structure in complex with a nonspecific CA inhibitor, acetazolamide, is available in Protein Data Bank. We have developed an efficient system for the production of the catalytic domain of CA IX in methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The produced protein can be easily crystallized in the presence of inhibitors, as we have demonstrated for several 2-thiophene-sulfonamide compounds. We have also observed significant differences in the binding mode of chemically identical compounds to CA IX and CA II, which can be further exploited in the design of CA IX-specific inhibitors. PMID:26522624

  17. Phosphorylation of carbonic anhydrase IX controls its ability to mediate extracellular acidification in hypoxic tumors.

    PubMed

    Ditte, Peter; Dequiedt, Franck; Svastova, Eliska; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Kopacek, Juraj; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2011-12-15

    In the hypoxic regions of a tumor, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an important transmembrane component of the pH regulatory machinery that participates in bicarbonate transport. Because tumor pH has implications for growth, invasion, and therapy, determining the basis for the contributions of CA IX to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment could lead to new fundamental and practical insights. Here, we report that Thr443 phosphorylation at the intracellular domain of CA IX by protein kinase A (PKA) is critical for its activation in hypoxic cells, with the fullest activity of CA IX also requiring dephosphorylation of Ser448. PKA is activated by cAMP, which is elevated by hypoxia, and we found that attenuating PKA in cells disrupted CA IX-mediated extracellular acidification. Moreover, following hypoxia induction, CA IX colocalized with the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and other PKA substrates in the leading edge membranes of migrating tumor cells, in support of the concept that bicarbonate metabolism is spatially regulated at cell surface sites with high local ion transport and pH control. Using chimeric CA IX proteins containing heterologous catalytic domains derived from related CA enzymes, we showed that CA IX activity was modulated chiefly by the intracellular domain where Thr443 is located. Our findings indicate that CA IX is a pivotal mediator of the hypoxia-cAMP-PKA axis, which regulates pH in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. PMID:22037869

  18. Phytoestrogen Suppresses Efflux of the Diagnostic Marker Protoporphyrin IX in Lung Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hirofumi; Nagakawa, Keisuke; Kobuchi, Hirotsugu; Ogino, Tetsuya; Kondo, Yoichi; Inoue, Keiji; Shuin, Taro; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Utsumi, Kozo; Sasaki, Junzo; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2016-04-01

    One promising method to visualize cancer cells is based on the detection of the fluorescent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesized from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), but this method cannot be used in cancers that exhibit poor PpIX accumulation. PpIX appears to be pumped out of cancer cells by the ABC transporter G2 (ABCG2), which is associated with multidrug resistance. Genistein is a phytoestrogen that appears to competitively inhibit ABCG2 activity. Therefore, we investigated whether genistein can promote PpIX accumulation in human lung carcinoma cells. Here we report that treatment of A549 lung carcinoma cells with genistein or a specific ABCG2 inhibitor promoted ALA-mediated accumulation of PpIX by approximately 2-fold. ABCG2 depletion and overexpression studies further revealed that genistein promoted PpIX accumulation via functional repression of ABCG2. After an extended period of genistein treatment, a significant increase in PpIX accumulation was observed in A549 cells (3.7-fold) and in other cell lines. Systemic preconditioning with genistein in a mouse xenograft model of lung carcinoma resulted in a 1.8-fold increase in accumulated PpIX. Long-term genistein treatment stimulated the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in PpIX synthesis, such as porphobilinogen deaminase, uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, and protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Accordingly, the rate of PpIX synthesis was also accelerated by genistein pretreatment. Thus, our results suggest that genistein treatment effectively enhances ALA-induced PpIX accumulation by preventing the ABCG2-mediated efflux of PpIX from lung cancer cells and may represent a promising strategy to improve ALA-based diagnostic approaches in a broader set of malignancies. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1837-46. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26837765

  19. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type IX models

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2010-08-15

    The loop quantum cosmology 'improved dynamics' of the Bianchi type IX model are studied. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is obtained via techniques developed for the Bianchi type I and type II models, no new input is required. It is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved by quantum gravity effects. We also present effective equations which provide quantum geometry corrections to the classical equations of motion.

  20. Ares I-X: On the Threshold of Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Ares I-X, the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, is less than a year from launch. Ares I-X will test the flight characteristics of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation and recovery. The flight also will demonstrate the computer hardware and software (avionics) needed to control the vehicle; deploy the parachutes that allow the first stage booster to land in the ocean safely; measure and control how much the rocket rolls during flight; test and measure the effects of first stage separation; and develop and try out new ground handling and rocket stacking procedures in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) and first stage recovery procedures at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. All Ares I-X major elements have completed their critical design reviews, and are nearing final fabrication. The first stage--four-segment solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle inventory--incorporates new simulated forward structures to match the Ares I five-segment booster. The upper stage, Orion crew module, and launch abort system will comprise simulator hardware that incorporates developmental flight instrumentation for essential data collection during the mission. The upper stage simulator consists of smaller cylindrical segments, which were transported to KSC in fall 2008. The crew module and launch abort system simulator were shipped in December 2008. The first stage hardware, active roll control system (RoCS), and avionics components will be delivered to KSC in 2009. This paper will provide detailed statuses of the Ares I-X hardware elements as NASA's Constellation Program prepares for this first flight of a new exploration era in the summer of 2009.

  1. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V.; Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for S IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Landi, E.

    2003-09-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for the O-like ion S IX. The configurations used are 2s 22p 4, 2s2p 5, 2p 6, 2s 22p 33s, 2s 22p 33p, and 2s 22p 33d giving rise to 86 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at several electron temperatures in the 5.6 ⩽log Te (K)⩽6.2 range, where S IX is formed. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10 8-10 14 cm -3. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates among the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted S IX line intensities are compared with SUMER (SOHO) observations of the quiet Sun.

  3. Bladder tissue diagnostics utilizing Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert G.; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Beyer, Wolfgang; Knuechel, Ruth; Rick, Kai; Steinbach, Pia; Kriegmair, M.

    1995-01-01

    Instillation of a solution of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) into the urinary bladder leads to a tumorselective accumulation of fluorescing Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) within hours. Upon fluorescence excitation using a Kr+- laser, cystoscopy provides high contrast images even of early stage tumors, that are invisible or hardly detectable by routine white light cystoscopy. Fluorescence can simply be judged by naked eyes or recorded with a target integrating camera in real color. Histological and fluorescence data of 91 patients were evaluated statistically, showing a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 68% for the detection of dysplastic lesions or malignant tumors. The detectability of a sufficient fluorescence contrast of suspicious versus normal tissue is not affected significantly by either short incubation times of less than 1 hour or prolonged retention times without 5-ALA in the instillation liquid of up to about 6 hours. The fluorescence intensity detected from the tissue surface is not only dependent on PpIX concentration. The additional influence of optical parameters of tissue and fluorochrome distribution on the fluorescence signal was determined using Monte Carlo computer simulations. Results show that 5-ALA induced fluorochrome detection is superior to the detection of fluorochromes that do not exclusively stain the epithelium. Using the ratio of fluorescence intensity to backscattered excitation light corrects for geometrical and absorption effects but would introduce a dependence on the scattering coefficient.

  4. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-10-01

    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w 1( t) , w 2( t) , w 3( t) , and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a 0 ,a 2 ,a 4 of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki's noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  5. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  6. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  7. Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

  8. Cyclic four-coordinate boron compounds from 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole and aromatic nitriles

    SciTech Connect

    Dorokhov, V.A.; Amamchyan, A.R.; Bochkareva, M.N.; Teslya, I.A.; Starikova, Z.A.

    1987-07-20

    A new series of cyclic compounds of four coordinate boron- the dialkylboryl-((1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)amidinates) (IX)- has been synthesized from 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole, aromatic nitriles, and trialkylboranes. In the crystalline, dimeric dialkylboryl derivatives of 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole the Alk/sub 2/B groups are bonded to the ring N atoms. The crystalline and molecular structure of dipropylboryl((1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)benzamidinate) (IXa) have been determined by X-ray crystallography.

  9. Characterization of electrodeposited elemental boron

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S. Ananthasivan, K.; Ranganathan, R.; Mittal, Vinit; Narasimhan, S.V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2008-07-15

    Elemental boron was produced through electrowinning from potassium fluoroborate dissolved in a mixture of molten potassium fluoride and potassium chloride. The characteristics of the electrodeposited boron (raw boron) as well as the water and acid-leached product (processed boron) were studied. The chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size of the boron powders were investigated. The morphology of the deposits was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical state of the matrix, as well as the impurity phases present in them, was established using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to interpret and understand the results obtained, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out. The gas-phase corrosion in the head space as well as the chemistry behind the leaching process were interpreted using this analysis. The ease of oxidation of these powders in air was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with thermogravimetry (TG). From the results obtained in this study it was established that elemental boron powder with a purity of 95-99% could be produced using a high temperature molten salt electrowinning process. The major impurities were found to be oxygen, carbon, iron and nickel.

  10. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section... AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The... in this part. Table 57.02-1(a)—Limitations and Modifications to the Adoption of section IX of...

  11. The endothelial cell binding determinant of human factor IX resides in the. gamma. -carboxyglutamic acid domain

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, J.R.; Roberts, H.R.; Stafford, D.W. ); Smith, K.J. United Blood Services, Albuquerque, NM )

    1992-02-18

    The blood coagulation factor IX(a) binds specifically to a site on endothelial cells with a K{sub d} of 2.0-3.0 nM. A number of previous studies have attempted to define the region(s) of factor IX(a) that mediate this interaction. These studies suggested that there are two regions of factor IX(a), the {gamma}-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain and the epidermal growth factor like (EGF-like) domains, that mediate high-affinity binding to endothelial cells. Recently, however, the participation of the EGF1 domain has been excluded from the interaction. This indicated that if there was an EGF component of factor IX contributing to the binding affinity, then it must be in the second EGF-like domain. In order to further evaluate this relationship, the authors performed competitive binding experiments between {sup 125}I plasma factor IX and a set of six chimeric proteins composed of portions of factor VII and factor IX. The data suggest that the high-affinity interaction between factor IX and the endothelial cell binding site is mediated by the factor IX Gla domain and that the factor IX EGF domains are not involved in binding specificity.

  12. DeltaPhage--a novel helper phage for high-valence pIX phagemid display.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Nicolay R; Frigstad, Terje; Pollmann, Sylvie; Roos, Norbert; Bogen, Bjarne; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å

    2012-09-01

    Phage display has been instrumental in discovery of novel binding peptides and folded domains for the past two decades. We recently reported a novel pIX phagemid display system that is characterized by a strong preference for phagemid packaging combined with low display levels, two key features that support highly efficient affinity selection. However, high diversity in selected repertoires are intimately coupled to high display levels during initial selection rounds. To incorporate this additional feature into the pIX display system, we have developed a novel helper phage termed DeltaPhage that allows for high-valence display on pIX. This was obtained by inserting two amber mutations close to the pIX start codon, but after the pVII translational stop, conditionally inactivating the helper phage encoded pIX. Until now, the general notion has been that display on pIX is dependent on wild-type complementation, making high-valence display unachievable. However, we found that DeltaPhage does facilitate high-valence pIX display when used with a non-suppressor host. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison with pIII display, and we find that this novel helper phage complements existing pIX phagemid display systems to allow both low and high-valence display, making pIX display a complete and efficient alternative to existing pIII phagemid display systems. PMID:22539265

  13. Evaluation of PpIX formation in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia I (CIN) using widefield fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Vollet Filho, José D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Optical techniques has been described as auxiliary technology for screening of neoplasia because shows the potential for tissues differentiation in real-time and it is a noninvasive detection and safe. However, only endogenous fluorophores presents the lesion may be insufficient and needed of the administration of the fluorophores synthesized, such as, precursor molecule of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5- aminolevulinic acid and your derivatives. Topical application of methylaminolevulinate (MAL), induces formation of the endogenous photosensitizer, PpIX in tissues where carcinogenesis has begun. The PpIX tend to accumulate in premalignant and malignant tissues and the illumination with light with appropriate wavelength beginning to excitation of PpIX fluorescence, which helps to localize PpIX-rich areas and identify potentially malignant tissues. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of PpIX in the cervix with CIN I through of the fluorescence images captured after 1 hour of cream application. It was possible to visualize PpIX fluorescence in cervix and it was possible to observe the selectivity in fluorescence in squamous-columnar junction, which a pre-cancerous condition (CIN) and usually is localized. Through the image processing it was possible to quantify the increase of red fluorescence. For the CIN I the increase of red fluorescence was approximately of 4 times indicating a good PpIX formation.

  14. Cell cycle dependence of protophorphyrin IX generation in 9L rat gliosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shiming; Da, Xing; Chen, Qun

    2006-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy that utilizes optical energy to activate a photosensitizer drug in a target tissue. Always, the curative effect is dependent on the light fluence, the concentration of the photosensitizer and the concentration of the oxygen. To date, Protophorphyrin IX (PpIX) as the only one endogenous photosensitizer is widely used in PDT of brain tumors. Since PpIX is synthesized in intracellular structure, and is likely dependent on the phase of the cell cycle. The cell cycle dependence of PpIX production is thus investigated in the current work in 9L gliosarcoma cells.

  15. Saccharin: a Lead Compound for Structure-Based Drug Design of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Brian P.; Hendon, Alex M.; Driscoll, Jenna M.; Rankin, Gregory M.; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a key modulator of aggressive tumor behavior and a prognostic marker and target for several cancers. Saccharin (SAC) based compounds may provide an avenue to overcome CA isoform specificity, as they display both nanomolar affinity and preferential binding, for CA IX compared to CA II (>50-fold for SAC and >1000-fold when SAC is conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety). The X-ray crystal structures of SAC and a SAC-carbohydrate conjugate bound to a CA IX-mimic are presented and compared to CA II. The structures provide substantial new insight into the mechanism of SAC selective CA isoform inhibition. PMID:25614109

  16. The Structure of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Is Adapted for Low-pH Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Brian P; Bhatt, Avni; Socorro, Lilien; Driscoll, Jenna M; Okoh, Cynthia; Lomelino, Carrie L; Mboge, Mam Y; Kurian, Justin J; Tu, Chingkuang; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Frost, Susan C; McKenna, Robert

    2016-08-23

    Human carbonic anhydrase IX (hCA IX) expression in many cancers is associated with hypoxic tumors and poor patient outcome. Inhibitors of hCA IX have been used as anticancer agents with some entering Phase I clinical trials. hCA IX is transmembrane protein whose catalytic domain faces the extracellular tumor milieu, which is typically associated with an acidic microenvironment. Here, we show that the catalytic domain of hCA IX (hCA IX-c) exhibits the necessary biochemical and biophysical properties that allow for low pH stability and activity. Furthermore, the unfolding process of hCA IX-c appears to be reversible, and its catalytic efficiency is thought to be correlated directly with its stability between pH 3.0 and 8.0 but not above pH 8.0. To rationalize this, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of hCA IX-c to 1.6 Å resolution. Insights from this study suggest an understanding of hCA IX-c stability and activity in low-pH tumor microenvironments and may be applicable to determining pH-related effects on enzymes. PMID:27439028

  17. New Eclipidrilus species (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae) from southeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, Steven V.; Lenat, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae from southeastern North America are attributed to Eclipidrilus Eisen. All are small worms (diameter 0.2–0.5 mm), having semi-prosoporous male ducts with the atria in X, and spermathecae in IX. Eclipidrilus breviatriatus n. sp. and E. microthecus n. sp. have crosshatched atrial musculature, similar to some E. (Eclipidrilus) species, but they differ from congeners in having small, compact spermathecal ampullae. Eclipidrilus macphersonae n. sp. has a single, median atrium and spermatheca. The new species have been collected only in Sandhills and Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain streams of North Carolina.

  18. Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Shelnutt, John A.; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy.

  19. Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. 3 figs.

  20. Synthesis and Utility of Dihydropyridine Boronic Esters.

    PubMed

    Panda, Santanu; Coffin, Aaron; Nguyen, Q Nhu; Tantillo, Dean J; Ready, Joseph M

    2016-02-01

    When activated by an acylating agent, pyridine boronic esters react with organometallic reagents to form a dihydropyridine boronic ester. This intermediate allows access to a number of valuable substituted pyridine, dihydropyridine, and piperidine products. PMID:26694785

  1. Comparison in different species of biliary bilirubin-IX alpha conjugates with the activities of hepatic and renal bilirubin-IX alpha-uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Fevery, J; Van de Vijver, M; Michiels, R; Heirwegh, K P

    1977-01-01

    The bilrubin-IXalpha conjugates in bile and the activities of bilirubin-IX alpha--UDP-glycosyltransferases in liver and kidney were determined for ten species of mammals and for the chicken. 1. In the mammalian species, bilirubin-IX alpha glucuronide was the predominant bile pigment. Excretion of neutral glycosides was unimportant, except in the cat, the mouse, the rabbit and the dog, where glucose and xylose represented 12--41% of total conjugating groups bound to bilirubin-IX alpha. In chicken bile, glucoside and glucuronide conjugates were of equal importance. They probably represent only a small fraction of the total bile pigment. 2. The transferase activities in liver showed pronounced species variation. This was also apparent with regard to activation by digitonin, pH optimum and relative activities of transferases acting on either UDP-glucuronic acid or neutral UDP-sugars. 3. Man, the dog, the cat and the rat excrete bilirubin-IX alpha largely as diconjugated derivatives. In general, diconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha could also be synthesized in vitro with liver homogenate, bilirubin-IX alpha and UDP-sugar. In contrast, for the other species examined, bilirubin pigments consisted predominantly of monoconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha. Synthesis in vitro with UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-glucose or UDP-xylose as the sugar donor led exclusively to the formation of monoconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha. 4. The transferase activities in the kidney were restricted to the cortex and were important only for the rat and the dog. No activity at all could be detected for several species, including man. 5. Comparison of the transferase activities in liver with reported values of the maximal rate of excretion in bile suggests a close linkage between conjugation and biliary secretion of bilirubin-IX alpha. PMID:407905

  2. The Transmembrane Domains of β and IX Subunits Mediate the Localization of the Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX Complex to the Glycosphingolipid-enriched Membrane Domain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guofeng; Shang, Dan; Zhang, Zuping; Shaw, Tanner S; Ran, Yali; López, José A; Peng, Yuandong

    2015-09-01

    We have previously reported that the structural elements of the GP Ib-IX complex required for its localization to glycosphingolipid-enriched membranes (GEMs) reside in the Ibβ and IX subunits. To identify them, we generated a series of cell lines expressing mutant GP Ibβ and GP IX where 1) the cytoplasmic tails (CTs) of either or both GP Ibβ and IX are truncated, and 2) the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of GP Ibβ and GP IX were swapped with the TMD of a non-GEMs associating molecule, human transferrin receptor. Sucrose density fractionation analysis showed that the removal of either or both of the CTs from GP Ibβ and GP IX does not alter GP Ibα-GEMs association when compared with the wild type. In contrast, swapping of the TMDs of either GP Ibβ or GP IX with that of transferrin receptor results in a significant loss (∼ 50%) of GP Ibα from the low density GEMs fractions, with the largest effect seen in the dual TMD-replaced cells (> 80% loss) when compared with the wild type cells (100% of GP Ibα present in the GEMs fractions). Under high shear flow, the TMD-swapped cells adhere poorly to a von Willebrand factor-immobilized surface to a much lesser extent than the previously reported disulfide linkage dysfunctional GP Ibα-expressing cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that the bundle of GP Ibβ and GP IX TMDs instead of their individual CTs is the structural element that mediates the β/IX complex localization to the membrane GEMs, which through the α/β disulfide linkage brings GP Ibα into the GEMs. PMID:26203189

  3. Diffusion of boron in alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Zhang, S; He, X.

    1995-04-01

    By means of particle tracking autoradiography (PTA), the diffusion coefficients of boron between 900 and 1,200 C were measured in 04MnNbB steel, 25MnTiB steel, Ni-B, Fe-30%Ni-B and Fe-3%Si-B alloys, and the frequency factor D{sub 0} and activation energy Q were obtained respectively. The experiment results indicated that there was an obvious difference between the present result and the result obtained by Busby (in 1953). It was found that the boron diffusivity in {gamma}-Fe increased as Ni was added. The diffusivity of boron in Fe-3%Si-B alloy with b.c.c. structure was much slower than one obtained by Busby in {alpha}-Fe (1954), which, however, was much faster than the results obtained in {gamma}-Fe (with f.c.c. structure). Based on the present data of boron diffusion coefficients, the mechanism of segregation of boron to grain boundaries is discussed.

  4. The boron trifluoride nitromethane adduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ownby, P. Darrell

    2004-02-01

    The separation of the boron isotopes using boron trifluoride·organic-donor, Lewis acid·base adducts is an essential first step in preparing 10B enriched and depleted crystalline solids so vital to nuclear studies and reactor applications such as enriched MgB 2, boron carbide, ZrB 2, HfB 2, aluminum boron alloys, and depleted silicon circuits for radiation hardening and neutron diffraction crystal structure studies. The appearance of this new adduct with such superior properties demands attention in the continuing search for more effective and efficient means of separation. An evaluation of the boron trifluoride nitromethane adduct, its thermodynamic and physical properties related to large-scale isotopic separation is presented. Its remarkably high separation factor was confirmed to be higher than the expected theoretical value. However, the reportedly high acid/donor ratio was proven to be an order of magnitude lower. On-going research is determining the crystal structure of deuterated and 11B enriched 11BF 3·CD 3NO 2 by X-ray and neutron diffraction.

  5. Methods for boron delivery to mammalian tissue

    DOEpatents

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Feaks, Debra A.; Shelly, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy can be used to destroy tumors. This treatment modality is enhanced by delivering compounds to the tumor site where the compounds have high concentrations of boron, the boron compounds being encapsulated in the bilayer of a liposome or in the bilayer as well as the internal space of the liposomes. Preferred compounds, include carborane units with multiple boron atoms within the carborane cage structure. Liposomes with increased tumor specificity may also be used.

  6. Constellation's First Flight Test: Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    On October 28, 2009, NASA launched Ares I-X, the first flight test of the Constellation Program that will send human beings to the Moon and beyond. This successful test is the culmination of a three-and-a-half-year, multi-center effort to design, build, and fly the first demonstration vehicle of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, the successor vehicle to the Space Shuttle. The suborbital mission was designed to evaluate the atmospheric flight characteristics of a vehicle dynamically similar to Ares I; perform a first stage separation and evaluate its effects; characterize and control roll torque; stack, fly, and recover a solid-motor first stage testing the Ares I parachutes; characterize ground, flight, and reentry environments; and develop and execute new ground hardware and procedures. Built from existing flight and new simulator hardware, Ares I-X integrated a Shuttle-heritage four-segment solid rocket booster for first stage propulsion, a spacer segment to simulate a five-segment booster, Peacekeeper axial engines for roll control, and Atlas V avionics, as well as simulators for the upper stage, crew module, and launch abort system. The mission leveraged existing logistical and ground support equipment while also developing new ones to accommodate the first in-line rocket for flying astronauts since the Saturn IB last flew from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1975. This paper will describe the development and integration of the various vehicle and ground elements, from conception to stacking in KSC s Vehicle Assembly Building; hardware performance prior to, during, and after the launch; and preliminary lessons and data gathered from the flight. While the Constellation Program is currently under review, Ares I-X has and will continue to provide vital lessons for NASA personnel in taking a vehicle concept from design to flight.

  7. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  8. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  9. Carbonic anhydrase IX is a clinically significant tissue and serum biomarker associated with renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    TAKACOVA, MARTINA; BARTOSOVA, MARIA; SKVARKOVA, LUCIA; ZATOVICOVA, MIRIAM; VIDLICKOVA, IVANA; CSADEROVA, LUCIA; BARATHOVA, MONIKA; BREZA, JAN; BUJDAK, PETER; PASTOREK, JAROMIR; BREZA, JAN; PASTOREKOVA, SILVIA

    2013-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is regarded as one of the most prominent markers of tumor hypoxia with potential to serve as a diagnostic biomarker, prognostic indicator as well as tumor therapeutic target. The aim of the present study was to perform an in-depth analysis of CA IX expression in blood and tissue samples and to evaluate the significance of CA IX status for different renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). The expression of CA IX was determined in blood and tissue samples from 74 kidney cancer patients using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The CA IX status was correlated with RCC type and tumor stage. IHC and WB provided evidence for a significantly higher expression of CA IX in clear cell RCC (CCRCC) specimens compared to other RCCs. RT-PCR assay revealed that 32.42% of all RCC patients possess CA9-positive cells in peripheral blood and three-quarters of CA9-positive patients were diagnosed with CCRCC. When the patients were subdivided according to tumor stage, decreased positivity was observed with higher tumor stage (50% in T1 vs. 17% in T3). Serum CA IX levels determined by ELISA were significantly higher in CCRCC patients than in non-CCRCC. A significant association between s-CA IX and CCRCC tumor stage was also determined (T1-87.51 vs. T3-341.98 pg/ml, p=0.046). We demonstrated that the CA IX expression profiles in blood and tissue samples from 74 kidney cancer patients are closely correlated with their histological subtypes. This is the first study reporting CA IX expression in blood and tissue samples from kidney cancer patients determined by four different methods. PMID:23255918

  10. Oscillator strengths for Ar VII, Ca IX and Fe XV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tayal, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    The excitation energies and oscillator strengths are calculated for electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions between 3s2 1S, 3s3p(1,3)P0, 3p2 3P, 1D, 1S and 3s3d(1,3)D states in Ar VII, Ca IX, and Fe XV ions of the magnesium sequence. These states are represented by the fairly large configuration-interaction expansions. The calculations have been carried out in both LS and intermediate coupling schemes. The relativistic corrections have been included through the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The results are compared with previous theoretical calculations and with measurements.

  11. Ares I-X Test Flight Reference Trajectory Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Gumbert, Clyde R.; Tartabini, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I crew launch vehicle. Ares I is a two stage to orbit launch vehicle that provides crew access to low Earth orbit for NASA's future manned exploration missions. The Ares I first stage consists of a Shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) modified to include an additional propellant segment and a liquid propellant upper stage with an Apollo J2X engine modified to increase its thrust capability. The modified propulsion systems were not available for the first test flight, thus the test had to be conducted with an existing Shuttle 4 segment reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM) and an inert Upper Stage. The test flight's primary objective was to demonstrate controllability of an Ares I vehicle during first stage boost and the ability to perform a successful separation. In order to demonstrate controllability, the Ares I-X ascent control algorithms had to maintain stable flight throughout a flight environment equivalent to Ares I. The goal of the test flight reference trajectory development was to design a boost trajectory using the existing RSRM that results in a flight environment equivalent to Ares I. A trajectory similarity metric was defined as the integrated difference between the Ares I and Ares I-X Mach versus dynamic pressure relationships. Optimization analyses were performed that minimized the metric by adjusting the inert upper stage weight and the ascent steering profile. The sensitivity of the optimal upper stage weight and steering profile to launch month was also investigated. A response surface approach was used to verify the optimization results. The analyses successfully defined monthly ascent trajectories that matched the Ares I reference trajectory dynamic pressure versus Mach number relationship to within 10% through Mach 3.5. The upper stage weight required to achieve the match was found to be feasible and varied less than 5% throughout the year. The paper will discuss the flight

  12. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

    1998-06-09

    A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

  13. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don; Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott; Brown, Louanne Kay

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  14. Thermal conductivity of boron carbides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbide is necessary to evaluate its potential for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. Measurements have been conducted of the thermal diffusivity of hot-pressed boron carbide BxC samples as a function of composition (x in the range from 4 to 9), temperature (300-1700 K), and temperature cycling. These data, in concert with density and specific-heat data, yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results are discussed in terms of a structural model that has been previously advanced to explain the electronic transport data. Some novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are briefly discussed.

  15. Metal interactions with boron clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the structural and bonding features of metallaboranes and metallacarboranes; transition-metal derivatives of nido-boranes and some related species; interactions of metal groups with the octahydrotriborate (1-) anion, B/sub 3/H/sub 8/; metallaboron cage compounds of the main group metals; closo-carborane-metal complexes containing metal-carbon and metal-boron omega-bonds; electrochemistry of metallaboron cage compounds; and boron clusters with transition metal-hydrogen bonds.

  16. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Burlon, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Levinas, P.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Valda, A. A.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.; Gonzalez, S. R.; Capoulat, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.

    2010-08-01

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  17. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiner, A. J.; Minsky, D. M.; Bergueiro, J.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.

    2010-08-04

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  18. 32 CFR 2003.9 - Reports to the President (Article IX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reports to the President (Article IX). 2003.9... PANEL (ISCAP) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.9 Reports to the President (Article IX... President of the United States. The Panel also includes such information in any reports it may make to...

  19. Not Second-Class: Title IX, Equity, and Girls' High School Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.; Surface, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Title IX is designed to protect students from discrimination based on sex in any educational institution that receives financial assistance. This article focuses on Title IX as it applies to high school athletic programs by considering the trial of a high school district in California. A federal court found considerable inequalities between boys…

  20. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited,...

  1. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited,...

  2. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited,...

  3. Sex Discrimination Against Students: Implications of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Margaret C.; Sandler, Bernice

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 mandates that sex discrimination be eliminated in federally assisted education programs. Title IX has significant implications for a variety of issues including recruiting, admissions, financial aid, student rules and regulations, housing rules, health care and insurance benefits, student employment,…

  4. Almost As Fairly: The First Year of Title IX Implementation in Six Southern States. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Columbia, SC. Southeastern Public Education Program.

    Volunteers from community organizations in six southern states monitored 21 school districts to find their districts' initial answer to Title IX, federal legislation barring sex discrimination. The actual monitoring of the 21 districts was completed in the late spring of 1976, with data covering the first year of Title IX implementation. The…

  5. "What Do I Think about Title IX?" Voices from a University Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paule-Koba, Amanda L.; Harris, Othello; Freysinger, Valeria J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of Title IX, the implementation of the law remains controversial, and there are divergent beliefs regarding its impact on collegiate sport. The purpose of this study was to examine how members of a university community, whose intercollegiate sport programs have changed, perceive and make sense of Title IX and the…

  6. The Impact of Implementing Title IX in a Predominantly Black Public University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Gertrude L.

    Information on the impact of implementing Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments at Florida A and M University, a predominantly Black public university, is presented. Title IX assures everyone regardless of sex an equal opportunity to learn a skill, choose a course of study, advance in status, participate in a sport, receive a scholarship, or…

  7. Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    This CRitical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet cites resources that give an overview of Title IX legislation and offer information about compliance, litigation, and related issues. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects individuals from gender-based discrimination in education programs or activities that receive federal financial…

  8. A Place on the Team: The Triumph and Tragedy of Title IX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2006-01-01

    "A Place on the Team" is the inside story of how Title IX revolutionized American sports. The federal law guaranteeing women's rights in education, Title IX opened gymnasiums and playing fields to millions of young women previously locked out. Journalist Welch Suggs chronicles both the law's successes and failures-the exciting opportunities for…

  9. Derivation of a triple mosaic adenovirus based on modification of the minor capsid protein IX

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Yizhe; Le, Long P.; Matthews, Qiana L.; Han Tie; Wu Hongju; Curiel, David T.

    2008-08-01

    Adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX) has been shown to be a potential locale to insert targeting, imaging-related and therapeutic modalities by genetic modification. Recent evidences suggested that capsid protein mosaicism could be a promising strategy for improving the utility of Ad vector. In this study, we explored a method to genetically generate triple pIX mosaic Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) displaying three types of pIX on a single virion. pIXs were modified at their carboxy termini with a Flag sequence, a hexahistidine sequence (His{sub 6}) or a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1), respectively. Western blotting analysis and fluorescence microscopy of the purified recombinant viruses indicated that all three modified pIXs were incorporated into the viral particles. Immuno-gold electron microscopy (EM) further confirmed that three types of pIX indeed co-existed on an individual virion. These results firstly validated a triple mosaic capsid configuration on pIX, and demonstrated the possibility of further radical design.

  10. Ongoing advances in quantitative PpIX fluorescence guided intracranial tumor resection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Jonathan D.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Bravo, Jaime J.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-03-01

    Aminolevulinc-acid induced protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX) is being investigated as a biomarker to guide neurosurgical resection of brain tumors. ALA-PpIX fluorescence can be observed visually in the surgical field; however, raw fluorescence emissions can be distorted by factors other than the fluorophore concentration. Specifically, fluorescence emissions are mixed with autofluorescence and attenuated by background absorption and scattering properties of the tissue. Recent work at Dartmouth has developed advanced fluorescence detection approaches that return quantitative assessments of PpIX concentration, which are independent of background optical properties. The quantitative fluorescence imaging (qFI) approach has increased sensitivity to residual disease within the resection cavity at the end of surgery that was not visible to the naked eye through the operating microscope. This presentation outlines clinical observations made during an ongoing investigation of ALA-PpIX based guidance of tumor resection. PpIX fluorescence measurements made in a wide-field hyperspectral imaging approach are co-registered with point-assessment using a fiber optic probe. Data show variations in the measured PpIX accumulation among different clinical tumor grades (i.e. high grade glioma, low grade glioma), types (i.e. primary tumors. metastases) and normal structures of interest (e.g. normal cortex, hippocampus). These results highlight the contrast enhancement and underscore the potential clinical benefit offered from quantitative measurements of PpIX concentration during resection of intracranial tumors.

  11. Plasma protoporphyrin IX following administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid as a potential tumor marker

    PubMed Central

    OTA, URARA; FUKUHARA, HIDEO; ISHIZUKA, MASAHIRO; ABE, FUMINORI; KAWADA, CHIAKI; TAMURA, KENJI; TANAKA, TOHRU; INOUE, KEIJI; OGURA, SHUN-ICHIRO; SHUIN, TARO

    2015-01-01

    Exogenously administered 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which specifically accumulates in cancer cells and emits red fluorescence by blue light irradiation. These phenomena are applied for the intraoperative diagnosis of cancer. Based on the fact that accumulated PpIX in cancer cells is exported extracellularly via the ATP-binding cassette transporter G2, we hypothesized that the measurement of plasma PpIX concentrations could be applied as a tumor marker for cancer screening. In the present study, the use of plasma samples from bladder cancer patients were evaluated as a tumor marker. ALA, 1.0 g, was orally administered to bladder cancer patients and healthy adults. The plasma concentration of PpIX was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography system. The plasma PpIX concentration following ALA administration was significantly higher in bladder cancer patients than that in the healthy adults, suggesting the effectiveness of plasma PpIX analysis following ALA administration for cancer screening. Additionally, 4 h after ALA administration, plasma PpIX showed high sensitivity (94.4%) and high specificity (80.0%). PMID:26171183

  12. Perceptions of Women's Teams Coaches Regarding Gender Equity and Title IX Compliance in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX was enacted over 40 years ago, and although there have been marked increases in the number of girls and women participating in athletics at every level, gender equity in athletics continues to be a concern. This is especially evident at the community college level. Title IX requires equity in the areas of opportunities for participation,…

  13. Discovery and characterization of novel selective inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Dudutienė, Virginija; Matulienė, Jurgita; Smirnov, Alexey; Timm, David D; Zubrienė, Asta; Baranauskienė, Lina; Morkūnaite, Vaida; Smirnovienė, Joana; Michailovienė, Vilma; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Mickevičiūtė, Aurelija; Kazokaitė, Justina; Bakšytė, Sandra; Kasiliauskaitė, Aistė; Jachno, Jelena; Revuckienė, Jurgita; Kišonaitė, Miglė; Pilipuitytė, Vilma; Ivanauskaitė, Eglė; Milinavičiūtė, Goda; Smirnovas, Vytautas; Petrikaitė, Vilma; Kairys, Visvaldas; Petrauskas, Vytautas; Norvaišas, Povilas; Lingė, Darius; Gibieža, Paulius; Capkauskaitė, Edita; Zakšauskas, Audrius; Kazlauskas, Egidijus; Manakova, Elena; Gražulis, Saulius; Ladbury, John E; Matulis, Daumantas

    2014-11-26

    Human carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is highly expressed in tumor tissues, and its selective inhibition provides a potential target for the treatment of numerous cancers. Development of potent, highly selective inhibitors against this target remains an unmet need in anticancer therapeutics. A series of fluorinated benzenesulfonamides with substituents on the benzene ring was designed and synthesized. Several of these exhibited a highly potent and selective inhibition profile against CA IX. Three fluorine atoms significantly increased the affinity by withdrawing electrons and lowering the pKa of the benzenesulfonamide group. The bulky ortho substituents, such as cyclooctyl or even cyclododecyl groups, fit into the hydrophobic pocket in the active site of CA IX but not CA II, as shown by the compound's co-crystal structure with chimeric CA IX. The strongest inhibitor of recombinant human CA IX's catalytic domain in human cells achieved an affinity of 50 pM. However, the high affinity diminished the selectivity. The most selective compound for CA IX exhibited 10 nM affinity. The compound that showed the best balance between affinity and selectivity bound with 1 nM affinity. The inhibitors described in this work provide the basis for novel anticancer therapeutics targeting CA IX. PMID:25358084

  14. Title IX Compliance at Two-Year Colleges: An Analysis of Perceived Barriers and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causby, Cory Scott

    2010-01-01

    Although Title IX legislation has been in effect since 1972 and has created unprecedented positive change on intercollegiate athletics, educational institutions have still had difficulty meeting the basic requirements set forth by Title IX and ensuring gender equity in their athletic programs. Additionally, specific research has been largely…

  15. Title IX and Employment Discrimination: A Wrong in Search of a Remedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Rosemary C.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the litigation challenging the authority of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to promulgate regulations governing employment discrimination pursuant to Title IX. Despite compelling challenges, interest in Title IX continues because its penalties are more extensive than those available under Title VII. (IRT)

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 266 - Methods Manual for Compliance With the BIF Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 266—Methods Manual... Protection Agency regulations for boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) burning hazardous waste (see 40...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 266 - Methods Manual for Compliance With the BIF Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 266—Methods Manual... Protection Agency regulations for boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) burning hazardous waste (see 40...

  18. Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools and Its Impact on Title IX Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargyas, Ellen J.

    1993-01-01

    A court decision allowing monetary damages for intentional violations of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 is seen as dramatically changing enforcement of the principal federal law against sex discrimination. Its treatment of sexual harassment is also considered. Implications for Title IX enforcement in colleges and universities are…

  19. Sexual Harassment and Student Rights: The Supreme Court Expands Title IX Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Ruling in "Franklin," the Supreme Court found in favor of a high school student who alleged that she had been subjected to sexual harassment in violation of Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972. Inquires about the nature and scope of damages available under Title IX. Concludes with policy considerations for administrators. (MLF)

  20. Chemoselective Boronic Ester Synthesis by Controlled Speciation**

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, James W B; Seath, Ciaran P; Watson, Allan J B

    2014-01-01

    Control of boronic acid solution speciation is presented as a new strategy for the chemoselective synthesis of boronic esters. Manipulation of the solution equilibria within a cross-coupling milieu enables the formal homologation of aryl and alkenyl boronic acid pinacol esters. The generation of a new, reactive boronic ester in the presence of an active palladium catalyst also facilitates streamlined iterative catalytic C=C bond formation and provides a method for the controlled oligomerization of sp2-hybridized boronic esters. PMID:25267096

  1. Boron analysis and boron imaging in biological materials for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT).

    PubMed

    Wittig, Andrea; Michel, Jean; Moss, Raymond L; Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F; Bendel, Peter; Mauri, Pier Luigi; Altieri, Saverio; Hilger, Ralf; Salvadori, Piero A; Menichetti, Luca; Zamenhof, Robert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang A G

    2008-10-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on the ability of the stable isotope 10B to capture neutrons, which leads to a nuclear reaction producing an alpha- and a 7Li-particle, both having a high biological effectiveness and a very short range in tissue, being limited to approximately one cell diameter. This opens the possibility for a highly selective cancer therapy. BNCT strongly depends on the selective uptake of 10B in tumor cells and on its distribution inside the cells. The chemical properties of boron and the need to discriminate different isotopes make the investigation of the concentration and distribution of 10B a challenging task. The most advanced techniques to measure and image boron are described, both invasive and non-invasive. The most promising approach for further investigation will be the complementary use of the different techniques to obtain the information that is mandatory for the future of this innovative treatment modality. PMID:18439836

  2. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ca IX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landi, E.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ca IX. We include in the calculations the 33 lowest configurations in the n = 3, 4, 5 complexes, corresponding to 283 fine structure levels in the 3l3l ', 3l4l'' and 3l4l''' configurations, where l,l' = s, p, d, l '' = s, p, d, f and l''' = s, p, d, f, g. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 5.8, 13.6, 24.2, 38.6 and 57.9 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.0055 Ry and 0.23 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates calculated in the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14)/cubic cm range and at an electron temperature of log T(sub e)(K)=5.8, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ca IX. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed.

  3. Ares I-X Separation and Reentry Trajectory Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Starr, Brett R.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle was launched on October 28, 2009 and was the first and only test flight of NASA s two-stage Ares I launch vehicle design. The launch was successful and the flight test met all of its primary and secondary objectives. This paper discusses the stage separation and reentry trajectory analysis that was performed in support of the Ares I-X test flight. Pre-flight analyses were conducted to assess the risk of stage recontact during separation, to evaluate the first stage flight dynamics during reentry, and to define the range safety impact ellipses of both stages. The results of these pre-flight analyses were compared with available flight data. On-board video taken during flight showed that the flight test vehicle successfully separated without any recontact. Reconstructed trajectory data also showed that first stage flight dynamics were well characterized by pre-flight Monte Carlo results. In addition, comparisons with flight data indicated that the complex interference aerodynamic models employed in the reentry simulation were effective in capturing the flight dynamics during separation. Finally, the splash-down locations of both stages were well within predicted impact ellipses.

  4. Anisotropic cosmology and inflation from a tilted Bianchi IX model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, P.; Koivisto, T.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of the tilted axisymmetric Bianchi IX cosmological models are explored allowing energy flux in the source fluid. The Einstein equations and the continuity equation are presented treating the equation of state w and the tilt angle of the fluid λ as time-dependent functions, but when analyzing the phase space w and λ are considered free parameters and the shear, the vorticity and the curvature of the spacetime span a three-dimensional phase space that contains seven fixed points. One of them is an attractor that inflates the universe anisotropically, thus providing a counterexample to the cosmic no-hair conjecture. Also, examples of realistic though fine-tuned cosmologies are presented wherein the rotation can become significant towards the present epoch but the shear stays within the observational bounds. The examples suggest that the model used here can explain the parity-violating anomalies of the cosmic microwave background. The result significantly differs from an earlier study, where a nonaxisymmetric Bianchi IX type model with a tilted perfect dust source was found to induce too much shear for observationally significant vorticity.

  5. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

  6. Process for recovering boron trifluoride from an impure gaseous boron trifluoride residue

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, F.E.; Schroeder, K.H.; Wagner, W.J.

    1990-07-24

    This patent describes a method for removing sulfur dioxide from a boron trifluoride stream. It comprises: condensing a gaseous boron trifluoride stream; distilling the condensed boron trifluoride stream to yield pure boron trifluoride and a liquid boron trifluoride residue wherein the liquid boron trifluoride residue comprises by weight: about 40 to about 95% boron trifluoride, about 5 to about 30% sulfur dioxide, about 0 to 19% sulfur trioxide, about 0 to about 0.2% silicon fluoride, about 0 to about 1.0% arsenic fluoride, and about 0 to about 0.1% antimony fluoride; vaporizing the liquid boron trifluoride residue; feeding the gaseous boron trifluoride residue into a mixture of boric and sulfuric acids; and removing the unabsorbed sulfur dioxide from the acid mixture.

  7. Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-09-01

    An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.

  8. "What do I think about Title IX?" Voices from a university community.

    PubMed

    Paule-Koba, Amanda L; Harris, Othello; Freysinger, Valeria J

    2013-03-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of Title IX, the implementation of the law remains controversial, and there are divergent beliefs regarding its impact on collegiate sport. The purpose of this study was to examine how members of a university community, whose intercollegiate sport programs have changed, perceive and make sense of Title IX and the changes it incurred. Using a gendered lens (Birrell, 2000) and qualitative interviews with 13 individuals connected to the university community, insight was gained into their perceptions of Title IX and women's and men's athletic opportunities. The theme of opportunity gained and lost was central to how these individuals perceive Title IX and resonates with the liberal (feminist) concerns out of which Title IX was born. PMID:23611015

  9. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle: Stack 5 Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Danel R.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first flight test vehicle used in the development of NASA's Ares I crew launch vehicle. The Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Three modal tests were defined to verify the dynamic finite element model of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report focuses on the first modal test that was performed on the top section of the vehicle referred to as Stack 5, which consisted of the spacecraft adapter, service module, crew module and launch abort system simulators. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test operations and data analysis for the Ares I-X Stack 5 modal test.

  10. Evidence for a prevalent dimorphism in the activation peptide of human coagulation factor IX.

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, R A; Davis, L M; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H R; Graham, J B; Stafford, D W

    1985-01-01

    We have independently isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic clones for the human coagulation factor IX. Sequence analysis in both cases indicates that threonine is encoded by the triplet ACT as the third residue of the activation peptide. This is in agreement with some earlier reports but in disagreement with others that show the alanine triplet GCT at this position. The discrepancy can thus be accounted for by natural variation of a single nucleotide in the normal population. Amino acid sequence analyses of activated factor IX from plasma samples of four individuals yielded two cases of alanine and two cases of threonine at the third position of the activation peptide. In factor IX from pooled plasma and in factor IX from a heterozygous individual, however, both alanine and threonine were found. Taken together, the findings show that a prevalent nondeleterious dimorphism exists in the activation peptide of human coagulation factor IX. PMID:3857619

  11. Collagen type IX from human cartilage: a structural profile of intermolecular cross-linking sites.

    PubMed Central

    Diab, M; Wu, J J; Eyre, D R

    1996-01-01

    Type IX collagen, a quantitatively minor collagenous component of cartilage, is known to be associated with and covalently cross-linked to type II collagen fibrils in chick and bovine cartilage. Type IX collagen molecules have also been shown to form covalent cross-links with each other in bovine cartilage. In the present study we demonstrate by structural analysis and location of cross-linking sites that, in human cartilage, type IX collagen is covalently cross-linked to type II collagen and to other molecules of type IX collagen. We also present evidence that, if the proteoglycan form of type IX collagen is present in human cartilage, it can only be a minor component of the matrix, similar to findings with bovine cartilage. PMID:8660302

  12. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle:Stack 1 Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first flight test vehicle used in the development of NASA s Ares I crew launch vehicle. The Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Three modal tests were defined to verify the dynamic finite element model of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report focuses on the second modal test that was performed on the middle section of the vehicle referred to as Stack 1, which consisted of the subassembly from the 5th segment simulator through the interstage. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test operations and data analysis for the Ares I-X Stack 1 modal test.

  13. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Protoporphyrin IX Fluorescence in Meningioma: Qualitative and Quantitative Measurements In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Pablo A.; Bekelis, Kimon; Harris, Brent T.; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frederic; Kim, Anthony; Simmons, Nathan E.; Erkmen, Kadir; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence has shown promise as a surgical adjunct for maximizing the extent of surgical resection in gliomas. To date, the clinical utility of 5-ALA in meningiomas is not fully understood, with most descriptive studies using qualitative approaches to 5-ALA-PpIX. OBJECTIVE To assess the diagnostic performance of 5-ALA-PpIX fluorescence during surgical resection of meningioma. METHODS ALA was administered to 15 patients with meningioma undergoing PpIX fluorescence-guided surgery at our institution. At various points during the procedure, the surgeon performed qualitative, visual assessments of fluorescence by using the surgical microscope, followed by a quantitative fluorescence measurement by using an intra-operative probe. Specimens were collected at each point for subsequent neuropathological analysis. Clustered data analysis of variance was used to ascertain a difference between groups, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to assess diagnostic capabilities. RESULTS Red-pink fluorescence was observed in 80% (12/15) of patients, with visible fluorescence generally demonstrating a strong, homogenous character. Quantitative fluorescence measured diagnostically significant PpIX concentrations (CPpIx) in both visibly and nonvisibly fluorescent tissues, with significantly higher CPpIx in both visibly fluorescent (P < .001) and tumor tissue (P = .002). Receiver operating characteristic analyses also showed diagnostic accuracies up to 90% for differentiating tumor from normal dura. CONCLUSION ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence guidance is a potential and promising adjunct in accurately detecting neoplastic tissue during meningioma resective surgery. These results suggest a broader reach for PpIX as a biomarker for meningiomas than was previously noted in the literature. PMID:23887194

  14. Supreme Court Says Title IX Covers Employment but Raises a Serious Question about the Future Impact of the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    The Supreme Court recently decided that Title IX covers employment practices in schools and colleges; however, portions of the Court's decision (whether Title IX provides "institutionwide" or "program-specific" coverage) raise serious questions about the future of Title IX as a force for sex equity in education. (Author/MLF)

  15. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  16. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  17. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  18. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  19. Method of separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.J.; Thorne, J.M.; Cluff, C.L.

    1981-01-23

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)-dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily by achieved with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl/sub 3/.

  20. Method of separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Reed J.; Thorne, James M.; Cluff, Coran L.; Hayes, John K.

    1984-01-01

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  1. Boron trifluoride coatings for plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubacki, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Tough, durable coatings of boron triflouride can be deposited on plastic optical components to protect them from destructive effects of abrasion, scratching, and environment. Coating material can be applied simultaneously with organic polymers, using plasma glow-discharge methods, or it can be used as base material for other coatings to increase adhesion.

  2. Structure of boron nitride nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Buranova, Yu. S. Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Blank, V. D.

    2015-01-15

    The crystallographic structure of boron nitride nanotubes has been investigated. Various defects that may arise during nanotube synthesis are revealed by electron microscopy. Nanotubes with different numbers of walls and different diameters are modeled by molecular dynamics methods. Structural features of single-wall nanotubes are demonstrated. The causes of certain defects in multiwall nanotubes are indicated.

  3. America's challenge.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, G N

    1968-01-01

    As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than

  4. Chronic boron exposure and human semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Wendie A; Xun, Lin; Jia, Juan; Kennedy, Nola; Elashoff, David A; Ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary food/fluids, blood, semen, and urine from boron workers and two comparison worker groups (n=192) over three months and determined correlations between boron and semen parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA breakage, apoptosis and aneuploidy). Blood boron averaged 499.2 ppb for boron workers, 96.1 and 47.9 ppb for workers from high and low environmental boron areas (p<0.0001). Boron concentrated in seminal fluid. No significant correlations were found between blood or urine boron and adverse semen parameters. Exposures did not reach those causing adverse effects published in animal toxicology work but exceeded those previously published for boron occupational groups. PMID:19962437

  5. America's Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... About the Forum | Publications | Data Sources | Help Search America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well- ... Obesity Asthma List of Tables List of Figures America's Children at a Glance Forum Agencies Data Source ...

  6. Spondylitis Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications Ankylosing Spondylitis About the Spondylitis Association of America Join Today Renew Your Membership Contact Us News ... Twitter Pinterest YouTube Copyright 2016 Spondylitis Association of America | Privacy Statement | Terms Of Use

  7. Ferromagnetism and semiconducting of boron nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    More recently, motivated by extensively technical applications of carbon nanostructures, there is a growing interest in exploring novel non-carbon nanostructures. As the nearest neighbor of carbon in the periodic table, boron has exceptional properties of low volatility and high melting point and is stronger than steel, harder than corundum, and lighter than aluminum. Boron nanostructures thus are expected to have broad applications in various circumstances. In this contribution, we have performed a systematical study of the stability and electronic and magnetic properties of boron nanowires using the spin-polarized density functional calculations. Our calculations have revealed that there are six stable configurations of boron nanowires obtained by growing along different base vectors from the unit cell of the bulk α-rhombohedral boron (α-B) and β-rhombohedral boron (β-B). Well known, the boron bulk is usually metallic without magnetism. However, theoretical results about the magnetic and electronic properties showed that, whether for the α-B-based or the β-B-based nanowires, their magnetism is dependent on the growing direction. When the boron nanowires grow along the base vector [001], they exhibit ferromagnetism and have the magnetic moments of 1.98 and 2.62 μB, respectively, for the α-c [001] and β-c [001] directions. Electronically, when the boron nanowire grows along the α-c [001] direction, it shows semiconducting and has the direct bandgap of 0.19 eV. These results showed that boron nanowires possess the unique direction dependence of the magnetic and semiconducting behaviors, which are distinctly different from that of the bulk boron. Therefore, these theoretical findings would bring boron nanowires to have many promising applications that are novel for the boron bulk. PMID:23244063

  8. Long-acting recombinant coagulation factor IX albumin fusion protein (rIX-FP) in hemophilia B: results of a phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Martinowitz, Uri; Lissitchkov, Toshko; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Hanabusa, Hideji; Oldenburg, Johannes; Boggio, Lisa; Negrier, Claude; Pabinger, Ingrid; von Depka Prondzinski, Mario; Altisent, Carmen; Castaman, Giancarlo; Yamamoto, Koji; Álvarez-Roman, Maria-Teresa; Voigt, Christine; Blackman, Nicole; Jacobs, Iris

    2016-01-01

    A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 63 previously treated male patients (12-61 years) with severe hemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2%). The study included 2 groups: group 1 patients received routine prophylaxis once every 7 days for 26 weeks, followed by either 7-, 10-, or 14-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 50, 38, or 51 weeks, respectively; group 2 patients received on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes for 26 weeks and then switched to a 7-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 45 weeks. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 102 hours, 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment. Patients maintained a mean trough of 20 and 12 IU/dL FIX activity on prophylaxis with rIX-FP 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks, respectively. There was 100% reduction in median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR) and 100% resolution of target joints when subjects switched from on-demand to prophylaxis treatment with rIX-FP (P < .0001). The median AsBR was 0.00 for all prophylaxis regimens. Overall, 98.6% of bleeding episodes were treated successfully, including 93.6% that were treated with a single injection. No patient developed an inhibitor, and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia B at dosing regimens of 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT0101496274. PMID:26755710

  9. Long-acting recombinant coagulation factor IX albumin fusion protein (rIX-FP) in hemophilia B: results of a phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Santagostino, Elena; Martinowitz, Uri; Lissitchkov, Toshko; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Hanabusa, Hideji; Oldenburg, Johannes; Boggio, Lisa; Negrier, Claude; Pabinger, Ingrid; von Depka Prondzinski, Mario; Altisent, Carmen; Castaman, Giancarlo; Yamamoto, Koji; Álvarez-Roman, Maria-Teresa; Voigt, Christine; Blackman, Nicole; Jacobs, Iris

    2016-04-01

    A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 63 previously treated male patients (12-61 years) with severe hemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2%). The study included 2 groups: group 1 patients received routine prophylaxis once every 7 days for 26 weeks, followed by either 7-, 10-, or 14-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 50, 38, or 51 weeks, respectively; group 2 patients received on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes for 26 weeks and then switched to a 7-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 45 weeks. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 102 hours, 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment. Patients maintained a mean trough of 20 and 12 IU/dL FIX activity on prophylaxis with rIX-FP 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks, respectively. There was 100% reduction in median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR) and 100% resolution of target joints when subjects switched from on-demand to prophylaxis treatment with rIX-FP (P< .0001). The median AsBR was 0.00 for all prophylaxis regimens. Overall, 98.6% of bleeding episodes were treated successfully, including 93.6% that were treated with a single injection. No patient developed an inhibitor, and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia B at dosing regimens of 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks. This trial was registered atwww.clinicaltrials.govas #NCT0101496274. PMID:26755710

  10. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes by boron ink annealing.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu Hua; Chen, Ying; Glushenkov, Alexey M

    2010-03-12

    Ball-milling and annealing is one effective method for the mass production of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). We report that the method has been modified to a boron (B) ink annealing method. In this new process, the nanosize ball-milled B particles are mixed with metal nitrate in ethanol to form an ink-like solution, and then the ink is annealed in nitrogen-containing gas to form nanotubes. The new method greatly enhances the yield of BNNTs, giving a higher density of nanotubes. These improvements are caused by the addition of metal nitrate and ethanol, both of which can strongly boost the nitriding reaction, as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis. The size and structure of BNNTs can be controlled by varying the annealing conditions. This high-yield production of BNNTs in large quantities enables the large-scale application of BNNTs. PMID:20154372

  11. Recent Developments in Targeting Carbonic Anhydrase IX for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul C.; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T.; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2012-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia-inducible enzyme that is overexpressed by cancer cells from many tumor types, and is a component of the pH regulatory system invoked by these cells to combat the deleterious effects of a high rate of glycolytic metabolism. CAIX functions to help produce and maintain an intracellular pH (pHi) favorable for tumor cell growth and survival, while at the same time participating in the generation of an increasingly acidic extracellular space, facilitating tumor cell invasiveness. Pharmacologic interference of CAIX catalytic activity using monoclonal antibodies or CAIX-specific small molecule inhibitors, consequently disrupting pH regulation by cancer cells, has been shown recently to impair primary tumor growth and metastasis. Many of these agents are in preclinical or clinical development and constitute a novel, targeted strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:22289741

  12. Photodynamic action of protoporphyrin IX derivatives on Trichophyton rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rogério Rodrigo; Kozusny-Andreani, Dora Inês; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchôa; Baptista, Mauricio da Silva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. OBJECTIVE Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. METHOD Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. RESULT Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. CONCLUSION Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring. PMID:27192510

  13. Quantum Bianchi Type IX Cosmology in K-Essence Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-García, Abraham; Socorro, J.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2014-09-01

    We use one of the simplest forms of the K-essence theory and apply it to the anisotropic Bianchi type IX cosmological model, with a barotropic perfect fluid modeling the usual matter content. We show that the most important contribution of the scalar field occurs during a stiff matter phase. Also, we present a canonical quantization procedure of the theory which can be simplified by reinterpreting the scalar field as an exotic part of the total matter content. The solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation were found using the Bohmian formulation Bohm (Phys. Rev. 85(2):166, 1952) of quantum mechanics, employing the amplitude-real-phase approach Moncrief and Ryan (Phys. Rev. D 44:2375, 1991), where the ansatz for the wave function is of the form Ψ( ℓ μ )= χ( ϕ) W( ℓ μ ), where S is the superpotential function, which plays an important role in solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

  14. Latex carrier for improving protoporphyrin IX for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bui, Brian; Liu, Li; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Attachment of Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) to poly (styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine) (PS4VP) nanobeads was carried out to improve its properties in aqueous solutions. After using an oil-in-water heated emulsion polymerization technique to synthesize PS4VP, PPIX was bonded to the particles via the carboxylic acid of PPIX hydrogen-bonding to the nitrogen at the surface of PS4VP, thereby preventing self-reactions between the carboxyl groups and the porphyrin core. Refraining the two parts from interacting while attached to the nanobeads prevented PPIX from aggregating, which then increased water solubility, enhanced luminescence and singlet oxygen production. Attachment also improved cell uptake and cell destruction by photodynamic activity. This shows that PS4VP-PPIX may help improve aspects of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:27020668

  15. Protoporphyrin IX: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.

    PubMed

    Sachar, Madhav; Anderson, Karl E; Ma, Xiaochao

    2016-02-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is ubiquitously present in all living cells in small amounts as a precursor of heme. PPIX has some biologic functions of its own, and PPIX-based strategies have been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment (the good). PPIX serves as the substrate for ferrochelatase, the final enzyme in heme biosynthesis, and its homeostasis is tightly regulated during heme synthesis. Accumulation of PPIX in human porphyrias can cause skin photosensitivity, biliary stones, hepatobiliary damage, and even liver failure (the bad and the ugly). In this work, we review the mechanisms that are associated with the broad aspects of PPIX. Because PPIX is a hydrophobic molecule, its disposition is by hepatic rather than renal excretion. Large amounts of PPIX are toxic to the liver and can cause cholestatic liver injury. Application of PPIX in cancer diagnosis and treatment is based on its photodynamic effects. PMID:26588930

  16. Reconstitution of Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX Complex in Phospholipid Bilayer Nanodiscs†

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rong; Mo, Xi; Paredes, Angel M.; Dai, Kesheng; Lanza, Francois; Cruz, Miguel A.; Li, Renhao

    2012-01-01

    Glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX complex expressed on platelet plasma membrane is involved in thrombosis and hemostasis by initiating platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor (VWF) exposed at the injured vessel wall. While most of the knowledge for GPIb-IX is obtained from studies on platelets and transfected mammalian cells expressing GPIb-IX, there is not an in vitro membrane system that allows systematic analysis of this receptor. The phospholipid bilayer Nanodisc composed of a patch of phospholipid surrounded by membrane scaffold protein is an attractive tool for membrane protein study. We show here that GPIb-IX purified from human platelets has been reconstituted into the Nanodisc. Nanodisc-reconstituted GPIb-IX was able to bind various conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, it bound to VWF in the presence of botrocetin with an apparent Kd of 0.73 ± 0.07 nM. The binding to VWF was inhibited by anti-GPIbα antibodies with epitopes overlapping with the VWF-binding site, but not by anti-GPIbβ monoclonal antibody RAM.1. Finally, Nanodisc-reconstituted GPIb-IX exhibited similar ligand-binding activity as the isolated extracellular domain of GPIbα. In conclusion, GPIb-IX in Nanodiscs adopts native-like conformation and possesses the ability to bind its natural ligands, thus making Nanodisc a suitable in vitro platform for further investigation on this hemostatically important receptor complex. PMID:22080766

  17. Sonodynamic therapy induces apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells in the presence of protoporphyrin IX.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Shuang; Liu, Quanhong; Leung, Albert W; Xu, Chuanshan; Wang, Pan

    2016-04-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is expected to be a novel therapeutic strategy for tumor. The protoporphyrin IX disodium salt (PpIX), a photosensitizer, can be activated by ultrasound. The present study aims to investigate apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by PpIX-mediated SDT. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was adopted to examine cell toxicity. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) double staining. Detection of apoptotic bodies was examined by Hoechst33342 (HO) staining. Western blotting was used to analyze the protein of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by a flow cytometer after exposures. Compared with PpIX alone and ultrasound alone groups, the synergistic cytotoxicity of PpIX plus ultrasound were significantly boosted. In addition, as determined by Annexin V-PE/7-AAD staining, SDT significantly induced HL-60 cell apoptosis, the obvious nuclear condensation was also found with HO staining at 4 hours post-SDT treatment. Furthermore, Western blotting showed visible enhancement of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage in this process. Besides, intracellular ROS production was significantly enhanced after SDT. Our findings demonstrate that PpIX-mediated SDT could induce apoptosis on HL-60 cells, suggesting that apoptosis is an important mechanism of cell death induced by PpIX-mediated SDT. PMID:26891272

  18. Catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase isoform IX is displayed both extra- and intracellularly.

    PubMed

    Klier, Michael; Jamali, Somayeh; Ames, Samantha; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-01-01

    Most carbonic anhydrases catalyse the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate, either as soluble cytosolic enzymes, in or at intracellular organelles, or at the extracellular face of the cell membrane as membrane-anchored proteins. Carbonic anhydrase isoform IX (CA IX), a membrane-bound enzyme with catalytic activity at the extracellular membrane surface, has come to prominence in recent years because of its association with hypoxic tissue, particularly tumours, often indicating poor prognosis. We have evaluated the catalytic activity of CA IX heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by measuring the amplitude and rate of cytosolic pH changes as well as pH changes at the outer membrane surface (pHs ) during addition and removal of 5% CO2 /25 mm HCO3-, and by mass spectrometry. Our results indicate both extracellular and intracellular catalytic activity of CA IX. Reduced rates of CO2 -dependent intracellular pH changes after knockdown of CA IX confirmed these findings in two breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our results demonstrate a new function of CA IX that may be important in the search for therapeutic cancer drugs targeting CA IX. PMID:26470855

  19. Characterization and standardization of tissue-simulating protoporphyrin IX optical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marois, Mikael; Bravo, Jaime; Davis, Scott C.; Kanick, Stephen Chad

    2016-03-01

    Optical devices for measuring protoporphryin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in tissue are routinely validated by measurements in optical phantoms. Yet there exists limited data to form a consensus on the recipe for phantoms that both mimic the optical properties found in tissue and yield a reliable and stable relationship between PpIX concentration and the fluorescence remission intensity. This study characterizes the influence of multiple phantom components on PpIX fluorescence emission intensity, using Intralipid as the scattering source, bovine whole blood as the background absorber, and Tween as a surfactant to prevent PpIX aggregation. Optical measurements showed a linear proportionality (r>0.99) between fluorescence intensity and PpIX concentration (0.1 to 10 μg/mL) over a range of Intralipid (1 to 2%) and whole blood (0.5 to 3%) for phantoms containing low surfactant (≤0.1%), with fluorescence intensities and scattering and absorption properties stable for 5 h after mixing. The role of surfactant in PpIX phantoms was found to be complex, as aggregation was evident in aqueous nonturbid phantoms with no surfactant (0% Tween), and avoided in phantoms containing Intralipid as the scattering source with no additional or low amounts of added surfactant (≤0.1% Tween). Conversely, phantoms containing higher surfactant content (>0.1% Tween) and whole blood showed interactions that distorted the fluorescence emissions.

  20. Togetherness in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jan Knippers

    1984-01-01

    There is a growing unacknowledged reality to the oneness of America. Latin America is increasingly sharing not only the blessings of U.S.-style modernization, but its demons as well. Also, many problems that have long plagued Latin America, e.g., indebtedness and militarism, are becoming more apparent in the United States. (RM)

  1. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ca IX

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Bhatia, A.K.

    2014-11-15

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ca IX. We include in the calculations the 33 lowest configurations in the n=3,4, and 5 complexes, corresponding to 283 fine-structure levels in the 3l3l{sup ′}, 3l4l{sup ″}, and 3l5l{sup ‴} configurations, where l,l{sup ′}=s,p,d, l{sup ″}=s,p,d,f and l{sup ‴}=s,p,d,f,g. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 5.8, 13.6, 24.2, 38.6, and 57.9 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.0055 Ry and 0.23 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates calculated in the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10{sup 8}–10{sup 14}  cm{sup −3} and at an electron temperature of logT{sub e}(K)=5.8, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ca IX. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed.

  2. Ares I-X Range Safety Flight Envelope Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Olds, Aaron D.; Craig, Anthony S.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle designed to provide manned access to low Earth orbit. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710, Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions (including flight software failures), characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints. These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight. A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

  3. Ares I-X Range Safety Analyses Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Thompson, Brian G.; Tarpley, Ashley W.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle designed to provide manned access to low Earth orbit. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710, Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions (including flight software failures), characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints. These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight. A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

  4. Lessons Learned in Launching Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test, scheduled for 2009, is the first opportunity for the Constellation Program and Ares Projects to obtain important data on the in-flight loads, first stage recovery, and ground-handling characteristics of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. The flight test vehicle will incorporate a mix of flight and mockup hardware, reflecting an acceptable representation of the mass and outer mold line characteristics of the operational Ares I vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment solid rocket motor from the Space Shuttle inventory and will include a fifth, inert spacer segment and new forward structures to make it the same shape as the Ares I first stage. The vehicle also includes mass simulators for the upper stage, Orion crew module, and launch abort system to match the outer mold line of Ares I; an active roll control system; and avionics derived from Shuttle and Atlas hardware. This suborbital mission will take the flight test vehicle from stacking in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) through liftoff, maximum dynamic pressure, first stage separation, and recovery. Ares I-X presented NASA with unique project management challenges. This presentation will address those unique challenges, including managing a virtual nationwide team under a constrained timeline; designing and building the launch vehicle and ground systems; working concurrently with Space Shuttle activities; and integrating technical and management functions. It also will identify key data collected and lessons learned from the flight that will be applied to future exploration missions.

  5. Synthesis of vinyl boronates from aldehydes by a practical boron-Wittig reaction.

    PubMed

    Coombs, John R; Zhang, Liang; Morken, James P

    2015-04-01

    A highly stereoselective boron-Wittig reaction between stable and readily accessible 1,1-bis(pinacolboronates) and aldehydes furnishes a variety of synthetically useful di- and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters. PMID:25799147

  6. Daily boron intake from the American diet.

    PubMed

    Rainey, C J; Nyquist, L A; Christensen, R E; Strong, P L; Culver, B D; Coughlin, J R

    1999-03-01

    Interest in boron as a naturally occurring trace element nutrient from the food supply is increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that boron is essential to human beings. This study explores the major food and beverage contributors of boron and estimates of daily boron intake from the American diet. Previous estimates in the literature of dietary boron consumption are based on limited foods and population segments. In this study we provide a more comprehensive assessment of boron consumption by the US population. A boron nutrient database of 1,944 individual foods was developed. These foods represent 95.3% by weight of all foods consumed in the US Department of Agriculture 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1989-1991 CSFII). The Boron Nutrient Database (version 1.0) was then linked to the 3-day food records of 11,009 respondents to the 1989-1991 CSFII to generate the average daily boron intake for each person. The weighted 5th percentile, median, mean, and 95th percentile boron intakes, respectively, are 0.43, 1.02, 1.17 and 2.42 mg/day for men; 0.33, 0.83, 0.96 and 1.94 mg/day for women; and 0.40, 0.86, 1.01 and 2.18 mg/day for pregnant women. For vegetarian adults, these intakes are 0.46, 1.30, 1.47 and 2.74 mg/day for men and 0.33, 1.00, 1.29 and 4.18 mg/day for women. The top 2 boron contributors, coffee and milk, are low in boron, yet they make up 12% of the total boron intake by virtue of the volume consumed. Among the top 50 boron contributors, peanut butter, wine, raisins, peanuts, and other nuts are high in boron. As more data become available on daily boron requirements, the results of this study may be used to assess whether Americans' daily intake of boron is adequate. PMID:10076586

  7. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. Ares I-X is scheduled for a 2009 flight date, early enough in the Ares I design and development process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Decisions on Ares I-X scope, flight test objectives, and FTV fidelity were made prior to the Ares I systems requirements being baselined. This was necessary in order to achieve a development flight test to impact the Ares I design. Differences between the Ares I-X and the Ares I configurations are artifacts of formulating this experimental project at an early stage and the natural maturation of the Ares I design process. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I - as well as what the test will not provide - is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

  8. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2009-12-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. Ares I-X is scheduled for a 2009 flight date, early enough in the Ares I design and development process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Decisions on Ares I-X scope, flight test objectives, and FTV fidelity were made prior to the Ares I systems requirements being baselined. This was necessary in order to achieve a development flight test to impact the Ares I design. Differences between the Ares I-X and the Ares I configurations are artifacts of formulating this experimental project at an early stage and the natural maturation of the Ares I design process. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I—as well as what the test will not provide—is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

  9. Evaluation of ALA-induced PpIX as a photosensitizer for PDT in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Peavy, George M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.

    1998-07-01

    Given exogenously, ALA defeats intrinsic regulatory feedback mechanisms allowing intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a highly efficient photosensitizer. In vivo, PpIX synthesis in neoplastic mammary tissues averages 20-fold higher than in normal mammary tissues. PpIX is retained intracellularly, unlike perivascular localization of other photosensitizers, and it is then cleared quickly from the body. In vitro, ALA induced PpIX production in our laboratory in 6 cell lines tested, including an established feline kidney cell line and dermal fibroblasts from primary skin biopsy explant, resulting in photosensitization. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed PpIX production in skin adnexae following ALA administration in a normal cat. To evaluate toxicity, three cats were treated with a single i.v. dose of ALA (either 100, 200, of 400 mg/kg) and followed for 7 days. Cats receiving 100 or 200 mg/kg ALA i.v. had elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin within 24 hours. Histopathology revealed hydropic changes in the liver and renal fibrosis. The cat receiving 400 mg/kg ALA intravenously had cutaneous flush, bradycardia and apnea associated with ALA administration; within 24 hours the cat was lethargic, anorectic and icteric. ALT, AST and bilirubin concentrations had increased significantly. At necropsy the liver had a prominent lobular pattern; histopathology revealed severe periportal hepatitis and splenic necrosis. Systemically administered ALA induces PpIX production, but toxicity may preclude its clinical application in the cat. PpIX levels seem to be more time dependent than those dependent at these three ALA doses and they are well beyond the saturation point for adequate PpIX conversion. The literature is scant regarding toxicity associated with parenteral administration of ALA.

  10. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  11. Method for preparing boron-carbide articles

    DOEpatents

    Benton, S.T.; Masters, D.R.

    1975-10-21

    The invention is directed to the preparation of boron carbide articles of various configurations. A stoichiometric mixture of particulate boron and carbon is confined in a suitable mold, heated to a temperature in the range of about 1250 to 1500$sup 0$C for effecting a solid state diffusion reaction between the boron and carbon for forming the boron carbide (B$sub 4$C), and thereafter the resulting boron-carbide particles are hot-pressed at a temperature in the range of about 1800 to 2200$sup 0$C and a pressure in the range of about 1000 to 4000 psi for densifying and sintering the boron carbide into the desired article.

  12. Jaguar Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, L. I.; Baker, E. L.; Capellos, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Jaguar product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products by analysis of Available Hugoniot and static volumetric data to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationships for the components. Experimental melting points were also utilized to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX—boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using Jaguar are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that the boron does not react near the detonation front or that boron mixtures exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior (as shown by some aluminized explosives), with higher detonation velocities at the initial points. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX—boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the detonation properties of the formulation.

  13. Hardware and Programmatic Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will execute the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle; which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle (Figure 1), will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and, in some cases, already fabricating vehicle hardware in preparation for an April 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission.

  14. Fixing human factor IX (fIX): correction of a cryptic RNA splice enables the production of biologically active fIX in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yull, F; Harold, G; Wallace, R; Cowper, A; Percy, J; Cottingham, I; Clark, A J

    1995-01-01

    Transgenic mice and sheep secrete only low levels of human factor IX in their milk because of an aberrant splicing of the transgene RNA in the mammary gland. Removal of the cryptic 3' splice site prevents this splicing and leads to the production of relatively high levels of factor IX. The purified protein is fully active showing that the mammary gland is capable of the efficient post-translational modification of this protein and that transgenic animals are a suitable means of its production. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7479906

  15. Boron Carboxylate Catalysis of Homoallylboration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Boron tris(trifluoroacetate) is identified as the first effective catalyst for the homoallyl- and homocrotylboration of aldehydes by cyclopropylcarbinylboronates. NMR spectroscopic studies and theoretical calculations of key intermediates and transition states both suggest that a ligand-exchange mechanism, akin to our previously reported PhBCl2-promoted homoallylations, is operative. Our experimental and theoretical results also suggest that the catalytic activity of boron tris(trifluoroacetate) might originate from more facile catalytic turnover of the trifluoroacetate ligands (in agreement with DFT calculations) or from a lower propensity for formation of off-pathway reservoir intermediates (as observed by 1H NMR). This work shows that carboxylates are viable catalytic ligands for homoallyl- and homocrotylations of carbonyl compounds and opens the door to the development of catalytic asymmetric versions of this transformation. PMID:24754566

  16. Boron clusters in luminescent materials.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjoy; Thilagar, Pakkirisamy

    2016-01-21

    In recent times, luminescent materials with tunable emission properties have found applications in almost all aspects of modern material sciences. Any discussion on the recent developments in luminescent materials would be incomplete if one does not account for the versatile photophysical features of boron containing compounds. Apart from triarylboranes and tetra-coordinate borate dyes, luminescent materials consisting of boron clusters have also found immense interest in recent times. Recent studies have unveiled the opportunities hidden within boranes, carboranes and metalloboranes, etc. as active constituents of luminescent materials. From simple illustrations of luminescence, to advanced applications in LASERs, OLEDs and bioimaging, etc., the unique features of such compounds and their promising versatility have already been established. In this review, recent revelations about the excellent photophysical properties of such materials are discussed. PMID:26574714

  17. Boron-10 ABUNCL Active Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-07-09

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from testing of the active mode of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory using sources and fuel pins.

  18. CVD-produced boron filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wawner, F. E.; Debolt, H. E.; Suplinskas, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for producing boron filaments with an average tensile strength of 6.89 GPa has been developed which involves longitudinal splitting of the filament and core (substrate) removal by etching. Splitting is accomplished by a pinch wheel device which continuously splits filaments in lengths of 3.0 m by applying a force to the side of the filament to create a crack which is then propagated along the axis by a gentle sliding action. To facilitate the splitting, a single 10 mil tungsten substrate is used instead of the usual 0.5 mil substrate. A solution of hot 30% hydrogen peroxide is used to remove the core without attacking the boron. An alternative technique is to alter the residual stress by heavily etching the filament. Average strengths in the 4.83-5.52 GPa range have been obtained by etching an 8 mil filament to 4 mil.

  19. Toxic effects of boron on mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.J.; Anders, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    Boron, a naturally occurring trace element generally considered environmentally innocuous, was documented to severely impair mallard reproduction. Boron is leached from irrigated agricultural soils and transported in drainage water that contaminates wetlands. Until now, only the selenium accumulated in aquatic food chains has been documented to pose a toxic hazard to wildlife in drainage water wetlands. Management of drainage water-contaminated environments must now also consider the adverse effects of boron, as well as the possible interactions of drainage water contaminants.

  20. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Of Boron Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes synthesis, properties, and applications of boron nitride. Especially in thin-film form. Boron nitride films useful as masks in x-ray lithography; as layers for passivation of high-speed microelectronic circuits; insulating films; hard, wear-resistant, protective films for optical components; lubricants; and radiation detectors. Present status of single-crystal growth of boron nitride indicates promising candidate for use in high-temperature semiconductor electronics.

  1. Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation of solid boronized probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Khandagle, M. . Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; England, A.; Isler, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; von Goeler, S.; Post-Zwicker, A.P. ); Jones, S. )

    1993-05-01

    The initial boronization of PBX-M was performed using the sequential ablation of two types of solid target probes. Probe-1 in a mushroom shape consisted of a 10.7% boronized 2-D C-C composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B[sub 4]C binder. Probe-2 in a rectangular shape consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40 [mu] boron particles. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage during 1 MW neutral beam heated plasmas decreased 27% and volt-sec consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of about 5. The central oxygen density decreased 15--20%. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization exhibited improved operating conditions similar to Probe-1, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred due to the residual boron from the previous boronization using Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front face temperatures at or slightly above the boron melting point. These results confirm the effectiveness of the solid target boronization (STB) technique as a real-time impurity control method for replenishing boron depositions without the use of hazardous borane compounds.

  2. Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation of solid boronized probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Khandagle, M.; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; England, A.; Isler, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; von Goeler, S.; Post-Zwicker, A.P.; Jones, S.

    1993-05-01

    The initial boronization of PBX-M was performed using the sequential ablation of two types of solid target probes. Probe-1 in a mushroom shape consisted of a 10.7% boronized 2-D C-C composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B{sub 4}C binder. Probe-2 in a rectangular shape consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40 {mu} boron particles. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage during 1 MW neutral beam heated plasmas decreased 27% and volt-sec consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of about 5. The central oxygen density decreased 15--20%. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization exhibited improved operating conditions similar to Probe-1, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred due to the residual boron from the previous boronization using Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front face temperatures at or slightly above the boron melting point. These results confirm the effectiveness of the solid target boronization (STB) technique as a real-time impurity control method for replenishing boron depositions without the use of hazardous borane compounds.

  3. Making Microscopic Cubes Of Boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Production of finely divided cubes of boron involves vacuum-deposition technology and requires making of template. Template supports pattern of checkered squares 25 micrometers on side, which are etched 25 micrometers into template material. Template coasted uniformly with paralyene or some similar vacuum coating with low coefficient of adhesion. Intended application to solid rocket fuels, explosives, and pyrotechnics; process used for other applications, from manufacture of pharmaceuticals to processing of nuclear materials.

  4. Boronization in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.L.; Burrell, K.H.; DeBoo, J.C.; Greenfield, C.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Hodapp, T.; Kellman, A.G.; Lee, R.; Lippman, S.I.; Phillips, J.; Taylor, T.S.; West, W.P.; Winter, J.; Moyer, R.; Watkins, J.

    1992-05-01

    A thin boron film has been applied to the DIII-D tokamak plasma facing surfaces to reduce impurity influx, particularly oxygen and carbon. A direct result of this surface modification was the observation of a regime of very high energy confinement, VH-mode, with confinement times from 1.5 to 2 times greater than predicted by H-mode scaling relation for the same set of parameters. VH-mode discharges are characterized by low ohmic target densities, low edge neutral pressure, and reduced cycling. These conditions have reduced the collisionality, {nu}*, in the edge region producing a higher edge pressure gradient and a significant bootstrap current, up to 30% of the total current. We will describe the edge plasma properties after boronization including reductions in recycling inferred from measurements of {tau}{sup p}*. In particular we will discuss the edge plasma conditions necessary for access to VH-mode including the boronization process and properties of the deposited film.

  5. Magnetoresistance in Boron Carbide junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Ellen; Sokolov, A.; Baruth, A.; Robertson, B. W.; Adenwalla, S.

    2007-03-01

    The properties of thin insulator layers are crucial to the performance of magnetic tunnel junctions. Commercial requirements are a device with a high tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) with low cost and high stability. At present the vast majority of barriers are made from amorphous Al2O3 and crystalline MgO. The TMR value depends not only on the spin-dependent electronic structure of the electrodes, but on the metal-insulator interface. Oxide-type barriers may suffer from local vacancies and other type of defects, resulting in oxygen diffusion, making the TMR value unstable with time. We present TMR results obtained on a non-oxide barrier, boron carbide (B10C2) for applications in magnetic tunnel junctions. This low Z inorganic material can be grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) without pinholes in the ultra thin film regime. PECVD grown boron carbide is an excellent dielectric with resistivities in the range of 10^7 ohm-cm, with a band gap that can be adjusted from 0.7 eV to 1.9 eV by altering the boron to carbon ratio and to band gap values well above 2.7 eV by adding phosphorus. This creates a unique opportunity for experimental study of a broad spectrum of phenomena, related to the dielectric properties of the barrier.

  6. METHOD OF PREPARING POLONIUM-BORON SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.

    1959-08-01

    An improved technique is described for preparation of a polonium-boron neutron source. A selected amount of Po-210 is vaporized into a thin walled nickel container, then the desired amcunt of boron powder is added. After sealing the container, it is heated quickly by induction heating to vaporize the Po-210 and deposit it in the still cool boron powder. The unit is then quickly cooled to prevent revaporization of the Po-210 from the boron. The build-up of neutron emission may be followed by means of a neutron counter in order to terminate the heating at the optimum level of neutron yield.

  7. Producing carbon stripper foils containing boron

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, J. O. Jr.

    2012-12-19

    Parameters being actively tested by the accelerator community for the purpose of extending carbon stripper foil lifetimes in fast ion beams include methods of deposition, parting agents, mounting techniques, support (fork) materials, and inclusion of alloying elements, particularly boron. Specialized production apparatus is required for either sequential deposition or co-deposition of boron in carbon foils. A dual-use vacuum evaporator for arc evaporation of carbon and electron-beam evaporation of boron and other materials has been built for such development. Production of both carbon and boron foils has begun and improvements are in progress.

  8. Boron deposition from fused salts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.L.

    1980-08-01

    A partial evaluation of the feasibility of a process to electrodeposit pure coherent coatings of elemental boron from molten fluorides has been performed. The deposit produced was powdery and acicular, unless the fluoride melt was purified to have very low oxygen concentration. When the oxygen activity was reduced in the melt by addition of crystalline elemental boron, dense, amorphous boron deposit was produced. The boron deposits produced had cracks but were otherwise pure and dense and ranged up to 0.35 mm thick. Information derived during this project suggests that similar deposits might be obtained crack-free up to 1.00 mm thick by process modifications and improvements.

  9. Boron containing multilayer coatings and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1997-09-23

    Hard coatings are fabricated from multilayer boron/boron carbide, boron carbide/cubic boron nitride, and boron/boron nitride/boron carbide, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron and boron carbide used in forming the multilayers are formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/boron carbide, and boron carbide/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron, cubic boron nitride or boron carbide, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be of a discrete or a blended or graded composition. 6 figs.

  10. Boron coating on boron nitride coated nuclear fuels by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmazuçar, Hasan H.; Gündüz, Güngör

    2000-12-01

    Uranium dioxide-only and uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide (5% and 10%) ceramic nuclear fuel pellets which were already coated with boron nitride were coated with thin boron layer by chemical vapor deposition to increase the burn-up efficiency of the fuel during reactor operation. Coating was accomplished from the reaction of boron trichloride with hydrogen at 1250 K in a tube furnace, and then sintering at 1400 and 1525 K. The deposited boron was identified by infrared spectrum. The morphology of the coating was studied by using scanning electron microscope. The plate, grainy and string (fiber)-like boron structures were observed.

  11. Analysis of cell line variation in biochemical production of protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; Chen, Bin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2006-02-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced via the heme synthesis pathway by the cell following administration of aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA synthase, the enzyme that produces ALA in the cell from glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A, is inhibited in a feedback mechanism by heme and thus is the rate limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway. Since ALA is administered systemically, the rate limiting step that naturally exists in the cells is bypassed, however it is currently unclear why cells have different rate limiting steps in the ALA-PpIX synthesis pathway, and more specifically which types of cancer cells are most productive. It has been determined that when the same amount of ALA is administered to a wide panel of cancer cells in vitro that vastly differing amounts of PpIX are produced. The steps for the ALA-PpIX pathway occur in and around the mitochondria of the cell, but interestingly no correlation is seen between PpIX production and mitochondrial content of the cell, following ALA administration. However, total cell area shows positive correlation with PpIX production. Administration of the iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (L1) in combination with ALA allows the final step in the heme synthesis pathway, conversion of PpIX to heme, to be delayed and thus increases the detectable amount of PpIX in each cell line. The cell lines that have the lowest PpIX production following administration of ALA alone show the largest increase in production following the combined administration of ALA and L1. PpIX fluorescence is thought to be a measure of cellular activity and the goal of the current study was to determine which cell lines would be the most promising targets for fluorescence detection or monitoring response to therapy. The results indicate that the cells with larger size and larger numbers of mitochondria may be good potential targets for this therapy. While this conclusion may appear obvious, it is not universally true, and cellular specific

  12. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The qualifications for all types of welders and brazers,...

  13. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R., Jr.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. The test flight is scheduled for April 2009, relatively early in the Ares I design process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Because of the short time frame (relative to new launch vehicle development) before the Ares I-X flight, decisions about the flight test vehicle design had to be made in order to complete analysis and testing in time to manufacture the Ares I-X vehicle hardware elements. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I as well as what the test will not provide is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

  14. Signaling-mediated cooperativity between glycoprotein Ib-IX and protease-activated receptors in thrombin-induced platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Brian; Kim, Kyungho; Delaney, M Keegan; Stojanovic-Terpo, Aleksandra; Shen, Bo; Ruan, Changgeng; Cho, Jaehyung; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Du, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Thrombin-induced cellular response in platelets not only requires protease-activated receptors (PARs), but also involves another thrombin receptor, the glycoprotein Ib-IX complex (GPIb-IX). It remains controversial how thrombin binding to GPIb-IX stimulates platelet responses. It was proposed that GPIb-IX serves as a dock that facilitates thrombin cleavage of protease-activated receptors, but there are also reports suggesting that thrombin binding to GPIb-IX induces platelet activation independent of PARs. Here we show that GPIb is neither a passive thrombin dock nor a PAR-independent signaling receptor. We demonstrate a novel signaling-mediated cooperativity between PARs and GPIb-IX. Low-dose thrombin-induced PAR-dependent cell responses require the cooperativity of GPIb-IX signaling, and conversely, thrombin-induced GPIb-IX signaling requires cooperativity of PARs. This mutually dependent cooperativity requires a GPIb-IX-specific 14-3-3-Rac1-LIMK1 signaling pathway, and activation of this pathway also requires PAR signaling. The cooperativity between GPIb-IX signaling and PAR signaling thus drives platelet activation at low concentrations of thrombin, which are important for in vivo thrombosis. PMID:26585954

  15. Comparative effectiveness of clinically used light sources for cutaneous protoporphyrin IX-based photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Robert M; Dowdy, John C; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-04-01

    This report documents the optical characteristics of a number of photodynamic therapy (PDT) light sources of varied types, measured and indexed relative to estimated effectiveness for activation of the PDT chromaphore protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PDT sources in use at several clinics, including intense pulsed light (IPL) sources, lasers, and continuous wave (CW) light sources, were spectroradiometrically measured and indexed relative to their overlap to an absorption spectrum of PpIX. The sources were highly disparate, varying in power from irradiance in the mW/cm(2) range for the CW sources up to ∼30 J/cm(2) per flash for the IPL sources. Our PpIX Index ranged by a factor of nearly 100 (0.008-0.630) in estimated PpIX PDT effectiveness following the distinct spectral characteristics of the light sources surveyed. Application of this PpIX Index, tempered with an understanding of the biology of the lesion being treated and effective spectrum of the light source reaching the lesion requiring therapy, provides a rational algorithm to approximate equivalent light doses prior to clinical protocols to establish equivalent patient outcomes employing alternative PDT light sources. PMID:21401379

  16. New selective carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of diarylpyrazole-benzenesulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Rogez-Florent, Tiphaine; Meignan, Samuel; Foulon, Catherine; Six, Perrine; Gros, Abigaëlle; Bal-Mahieu, Christine; Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea; Frédérick, Raphaël; Masereel, Bernard; Depreux, Patrick; Lansiaux, Amélie; Goossens, Jean-François; Gluszok, Sébastien; Goossens, Laurence

    2013-03-15

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression is increased upon hypoxia and has been proposed as a therapeutic target since it has been associated with poor prognosis, tumor progression and pH regulation. We report the synthesis and the pharmacological evaluation of a new class of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) inhibitors, 4-(5-aryl-2-hydroxymethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-benzenesulfonamides. A molecular modeling study was conducted in order to simulate the binding mode of this new family of enzyme inhibitors within the active site of hCA IX. Pharmacological studies revealed high hCA IX inhibitory potency in the parameters nanomolar range. This study showed that the position of sulfonamide group in meta of the 1-phenylpyrazole increase a selectivity hCA IX versus hCA II of our compounds. An in vitro antiproliferative screening has been performed on the breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell using doxorubicin as cytotoxic agent and in presence of selected CA IX inhibitor. The results shown that the cytotoxic efficiency of doxorubicin in an hypoxic environment, expressed in IC50 value, is restored at 20% level with 1μM CA IX inhibitor. PMID:23168081

  17. A Perspective on Development Flight Instrumentation and Flight Test Analysis Plans for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Brunty, Joseph A.; Smith, R. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R.

    2009-01-01

    NASA. s Constellation Program will take a significant step toward completion of the Ares I crew launch vehicle with the flight test of Ares I-X and completion of the Ares I-X post-flight evaluation. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, Ares I has been the major driver in the definition of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI). This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design. Efforts for determining the DFI for Ares I-X began in the fall of 2005, and significant effort to refine and implement the Ares I-X DFI has been expended since that time. This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.

  18. Identification of a juxtamembrane mechanosensitive domain in the platelet mechanosensor glycoprotein Ib-IX complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Liang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Wenjun; Liang, Xin; Wang, Yizhen; Kulman, John D; Zhang, X Frank; Li, Renhao

    2015-01-15

    How glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX complex on the platelet surface senses the blood flow through its binding to the plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) and transmits a signal into the platelet remains unclear. Here we show that optical tweezer-controlled pulling of the A1 domain of VWF (VWF-A1) on GPIb-IX captured by its cytoplasmic domain induced unfolding of a hitherto unidentified structural domain before the dissociation of VWF-A1 from GPIb-IX. Additional studies using recombinant proteins and mutant complexes confirmed its existence in GPIb-IX and enabled localization of this quasi-stable mechanosensitive domain of ∼60 residues between the macroglycopeptide region and the transmembrane helix of the GPIbα subunit. These results suggest that VWF-mediated pulling under fluid shear induces unfolding of the mechanosensitive domain in GPIb-IX, which may possibly contribute to platelet mechanosensing and/or shear resistance of VWF-platelet interaction. The identification of the mechanosensitive domain in GPIb-IX has significant implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of related blood diseases. PMID:25359992

  19. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Boron Carbides As Thermo-electric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews recent theoretical and experimental research on thermoelectric materials. Recent work with narrow-band semiconductors demonstrated possibility of relatively high thermoelectric energy-conversion efficiencies in materials withstanding high temperatures needed to attain such efficiencies. Among promising semiconductors are boron-rich borides, especially boron carbides.

  1. Porphyrins for boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Gabel, Detlef

    1990-01-01

    Novel compounds for treatment of brain tumors in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy are disclosed. A method for preparing the compounds as well as pharmaceutical compositions containing said compounds are also disclosed. The compounds are water soluble, non-toxic and non-labile boronated porphyrins which show significant uptake and retention in tumors.

  2. Boron chemicals in diagnosis and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bhaskar C; Thapa, Pritam; Karki, Radha; Schinke, Caroline; Das, Sasmita; Kambhampati, Suman; Banerjee, Sushanta K; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Verma, Amit; Weiss, Louis M; Evans, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the field of boron chemistry have expanded the application of boron from material use to medicine. Boron-based drugs represent a new class of molecules that possess several biomedical applications including use as imaging agents for both optical and nuclear imaging as well as therapeutic agents with anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and other disease-specific activities. For example, bortezomib (Velcade®), the only drug in clinical use with boron as an active element, was approved in 2003 as a proteasome inhibitor for the treatment of multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Several other boron-based compounds are in various phases of clinical trials, which illustrates the promise of this approach for medicinal chemists working in the area of boron chemistry. It is expected that in the near future, several boron-containing drugs should become available in the market with better efficacy and potency than existing drugs. This article discusses the current status of the development of boron-based compounds as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in humans. PMID:23617429

  3. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  4. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  5. A study of reported factor IX use around the world.

    PubMed

    Stonebraker, J S; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Brooker, M; Farrugia, A; Srivastava, A

    2011-05-01

    Replacement therapy has significantly improved the life expectancy and lifestyle of people with haemophilia. The objectives of this article were to study the reported factor IX (FIX) use on a country-by-country basis and address the following question: Does the reported FIX use vary by national economies? We obtained data on the reported number of international units (IUs) of FIX used for 90 countries from the Marketing Research Bureau and the World Federation of Hemophilia. Results show that the reported FIX use varies considerably across national economies, even among the wealthiest of countries.Trends suggest that the reported FIX usage increases with increasing economic capacity and has been increasing over time. Trends also suggest that consumption of FIX has been increasing at a greater rate in high income countries. Given these trends, there will likely be an overall increase in the amount of FIX concentrates used in the treatment of haemophilia B. We also found that FIX use both in terms of IUs per capita and IUs per person provide a complete picture of the level of haemophilia care within a country. Such information is critical for planning efforts of national healthcare agencies to determine realistic budget priorities and pharmaceutical manufacturers to determine adequate production levels of FIX concentrates. By improving the data collection and surveillance of FIX use for the treatment of people with haemophilia B, we can identify trends and needs of patients and highlight best treatment practices among countries. PMID:21299742

  6. Finite Element Model Calibration Approach for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Lazor, Daniel R.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russel A.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X is a pathfinder vehicle concept under development by NASA to demonstrate a new class of launch vehicles. Although this vehicle is essentially a shell of what the Ares I vehicle will be, efforts are underway to model and calibrate the analytical models before its maiden flight. Work reported in this document will summarize the model calibration approach used including uncertainty quantification of vehicle responses and the use of nonconventional boundary conditions during component testing. Since finite element modeling is the primary modeling tool, the calibration process uses these models, often developed by different groups, to assess model deficiencies and to update parameters to reconcile test with predictions. Data for two major component tests and the flight vehicle are presented along with the calibration results. For calibration, sensitivity analysis is conducted using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). To reduce the computational burden associated with ANOVA calculations, response surface models are used in lieu of computationally intensive finite element solutions. From the sensitivity studies, parameter importance is assessed as a function of frequency. In addition, the work presents an approach to evaluate the probability that a parameter set exists to reconcile test with analysis. Comparisons of pre-test predictions of frequency response uncertainty bounds with measured data, results from the variance-based sensitivity analysis, and results from component test models with calibrated boundary stiffness models are all presented.

  7. Finite Element Model Calibration Approach for Area I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Gaspar, James L.; Lazor, Daniel R.; Parks, Russell A.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X is a pathfinder vehicle concept under development by NASA to demonstrate a new class of launch vehicles. Although this vehicle is essentially a shell of what the Ares I vehicle will be, efforts are underway to model and calibrate the analytical models before its maiden flight. Work reported in this document will summarize the model calibration approach used including uncertainty quantification of vehicle responses and the use of non-conventional boundary conditions during component testing. Since finite element modeling is the primary modeling tool, the calibration process uses these models, often developed by different groups, to assess model deficiencies and to update parameters to reconcile test with predictions. Data for two major component tests and the flight vehicle are presented along with the calibration results. For calibration, sensitivity analysis is conducted using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). To reduce the computational burden associated with ANOVA calculations, response surface models are used in lieu of computationally intensive finite element solutions. From the sensitivity studies, parameter importance is assessed as a function of frequency. In addition, the work presents an approach to evaluate the probability that a parameter set exists to reconcile test with analysis. Comparisons of pretest predictions of frequency response uncertainty bounds with measured data, results from the variance-based sensitivity analysis, and results from component test models with calibrated boundary stiffness models are all presented.

  8. Circulating Carbonic Anhydrase IX and Antiangiogenic Therapy in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Glaberman, Ursa; Marron, Marilyn; Chalasani, Pavani; Livingston, Robert; Iannone, Maria; Specht, Jennifer; Stopeck, Alison T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia regulated metalloenzyme integral to maintaining cellular pH. Increased CAIX expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. To explore CAIX as a biomarker for breast cancer therapies, we measured plasma CAIX levels in healthy control subjects and in breast cancer patients. Methods. In control subjects we evaluated plasma CAIX stability via commercially available ELISA. We then similarly quantified plasma CAIX levels in (1) locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients treated with neoadjuvant paclitaxel + sunitinib (T + S) followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC); (2) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients treated with systemic chemotherapy. Results. Plasma CAIX levels were stable at room temperature for at least 48 hours in control subjects. Mean baseline plasma CAIX levels were lower in controls compared to patients with LABC or MBC. In LABC, CAIX levels rose significantly in response to administration of antiangiogenic therapy (T + S) (p = 0.02) but not AC (p = 0.37). In patients with MBC treated without an antiangiogenic agent CAIX levels did not change with therapy. Conclusions. Our results suggest that CAIX may be an easily obtained, stable measure of tumor associated hypoxia as well as a useful pharmacodynamic biomarker for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26941473

  9. Thermal Model Development for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; DelCorso, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Thermal analysis for the Ares I-X vehicle has involved extensive thermal model integration, since thermal models of vehicle elements came from several different NASA and industry organizations. Many valuable lessons were learned in terms of model integration and validation. Modeling practices such as submodel, analysis group and symbol naming were standardized to facilitate the later model integration. Upfront coordination of coordinate systems, timelines, units, symbols and case scenarios was very helpful in minimizing integration rework. A process for model integration was developed that included pre-integration runs and basic checks of both models, and a step-by-step process to efficiently integrate one model into another. Extensive use of model logic was used to create scenarios and timelines for avionics and air flow activation. Efficient methods of model restart between case scenarios were developed. Standardization of software version and even compiler version between organizations was found to be essential. An automated method for applying aeroheating to the full integrated vehicle model, including submodels developed by other organizations, was developed.

  10. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk. PMID:24955355

  11. Ares I-X In-Flight Modal Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkowicz, Theodore J.; James, George H., III

    2011-01-01

    Operational modal analysis is a procedure that allows the extraction of modal parameters of a structure in its operating environment. It is based on the idealized premise that input to the structure is white noise. In some cases, when free decay responses are corrupted by unmeasured random disturbances, the response data can be processed into cross-correlation functions that approximate free decay responses. Modal parameters can be computed from these functions by time domain identification methods such as the Eigenvalue Realization Algorithm (ERA). The extracted modal parameters have the same characteristics as impulse response functions of the original system. Operational modal analysis is performed on Ares I-X in-flight data. Since the dynamic system is not stationary due to propellant mass loss, modal identification is only possible by analyzing the system as a series of linearized models over short periods of time via a sliding time-window of short time intervals. A time-domain zooming technique was also employed to enhance the modal parameter extraction. Results of this study demonstrate that free-decay time domain modal identification methods can be successfully employed for in-flight launch vehicle modal extraction.

  12. Stabilization of boron carbide via silicon doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, J. E.; Bhakhri, V.; Hao, R.; Prior, T. J.; Scheler, T.; Gregoryanz, E.; Chhowalla, M.; Giulani, F.

    2015-01-01

    Boron carbide is one of the lightest and hardest ceramics, but its applications are limited by its poor stability against a partial phase separation into separate boron and carbon. Phase separation is observed under high non-hydrostatic stress (both static and dynamic), resulting in amorphization. The phase separation is thought to occur in just one of the many naturally occurring polytypes in the material, and this raises the possibility of doping the boron carbide to eliminate this polytype. In this work, we have synthesized boron carbide doped with silicon. We have conducted a series of characterizations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction) on pure and silicon-doped boron carbide following static compression to 50 GPa non-hydrostatic pressure. We find that the level of amorphization under static non-hydrostatic pressure is drastically reduced by the silicon doping.

  13. Boron-isotope geochemistry. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Spivack, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the major aspects of the boron-isotope geochemical cycle was carried out. Particular emphasis was directed at developing a reproducible, high-precision method for the determination of boron isotope ratios in geologic materials and determining the processes that influence the boron-isotope composition of seawater. A method for the determination of the isotopic composition of boron by thermal ionization mass spectrometry of Cs/sub 2/B/sub 4/O/sub 7/ is described. Samples analyzed for boron content and isotopic composition included: seawater, unaltered mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), altered MORB (dredge and core samples), serpentinized periodotites, marine sediments, marine sedimentary pore waters, hydrothermally altered sediments, oceanic hydrothermal solutions, rainwater, river water and suspended sediments, island arc volcanics and a soil profile.

  14. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  15. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  16. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  17. Subsurface PpIX imaging in vivo with ultrasound-guided tomographic spectroscopy: reconstruction vs. born-normalized data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; D'Souza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Topically applied ALA promotes PpIX production preferentially in tumors, and many strategies have been developed to increase PpIX distribution and PDT treatment efficacy at depths > 1mm is not fully understood. While surface imaging techniques provide useful diagnosis, dosimetry, and efficacy information for superficial tumors, these methods cannot interrogate deeper tumors to provide in situ insight into spatial PpIX distributions. We have developed an ultrasound-guided, white-light-informed, tomographics spectroscopy system for the spatial measurement of subsurface PpIX. Detailed imaging system specifications, methodology, and optical-phantom-based characterization will be presented separately. Here we evaluate preliminary in vivo results using both full tomographic reconstruction and by plotting individual tomographic source-detector pair data against US images.

  18. Boron-containing compositions, and lubricants and fuels containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, F.W.; Pialet, J.W.; Barrer, D.E.; Schroech, C.W.

    1988-05-03

    A method of preparing boron-containing compositions is described which comprises reacting at least one hydroxy-substituted ester, amide or imide with a boron compound. Such boron-containing compositions are useful in lubricating oils and provide the lubricating oils with anti-wear and/or friction-reducing properties. The boron-containing compositions also are useful in fuel compositions.

  19. Title IX and Pregnancy Discrimination in Higher Education: The New Frontier.

    PubMed

    Mason, Mary Ann; Younger, Jaclyn

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy discrimination is a little known area covered by Title IX. According to the Title IX regulations, areas of prohibited discrimination include: admissions; hiring; coursework accommodations and completion; pregnancy leave policies and status protection upon return from leave; and health insurance coverage. These regulations will soon get more attention as the Obama Administration insists on Title IX dissemination and compliance in an effort to stop the leaky pipeline for women in the STEM fields. Research shows that pregnancy and childbirth are the major reasons why women drop out of research science in much greater numbers than men; this dropout is most likely to occur among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are in their peak childbearing years. A similar pattern of dropout can be seen in all fields, including related professional schools. Research also reveals that there are currently few established policies in higher education which adequately address pregnancy and childbirth in formal policies for students. This article will address new efforts by the United States Department of Education and the federal agencies to begin to seek compliance relating to Title IX and pregnancy discrimination in educational institutions. It will discuss the recent successful efforts of the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights in investigating and settling pregnancy discrimination claims as well as the lessons learned in private action lawsuits under Title IX. Title IX private action suits have transformed athletics for women, and more recently Title IX has been applied in sexual harassment cases. Pregnancy discrimination is now the new frontier. PMID:26793820

  20. Ares I-X Flight Test - On the Fast Track to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will send humans to the Moon and beyond. Personnel from the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for an April 2009 launch. Ares I-X will be a suborbital development flight test that will gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will modify the launch infrastructure and ground and mission operations. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) will incorporate flight and mockup hardware similar in mass and weight to the operational vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will include a fifth spacer segment and new forward structures to make the booster approximately the same size and weight as the five-segment SRB. The Ares I-X flight profile will closely approximate the flight conditions that the Ares I will experience through Mach 4.5, up to approximately130,OOO feet and through maximum dynamic pressure ("Max Q") of approximately 800 pounds per square foot. Data from the Ares I-X flight will support the Ares I Critical Design Review (CDR), scheduled for 2010. Work continues on Ares I-X design and hardware fabrication. All of the individual elements are undergoing CDRs, followed by an integrated vehicle CDR in March 2008. The various hardware elements are on schedule to begin deliveries to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in early September 2008.

  1. Autoionizing states of atomic boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, Luca; Moccia, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    We present a B -spline K -matrix method for three-active-electron atoms in the presence of a polarizable core, with which it is possible to compute multichannel single-ionization scattering states with good accuracy. We illustrate the capabilities of the method by computing the parameters of several autoionizing states of the boron atom, with S2e, 2,o2P and D2e symmetry, up to at least the 2 p2(1S) excitation threshold of the B ii parent ion, as well as selected portions of the photoionization cross section from the ground state. Our results exhibit remarkable gauge consistency, they significantly extend the existing sparse record of data for the boron atom, and they are in good agreement with the few experimental and theoretical data available in the literature. These results open the way to extend to three-active-electron systems the spectral analysis of correlated wave packets in terms of accurate scattering states that has already been demonstrated for two-electron atoms in Argenti and Lindroth [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053002 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.053002].

  2. Africans in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ayanna; Spangler, Earl

    This book introduces African-American history and culture to children. The first Africans in America came from many different regions and cultures, but became united in this country by being black, African, and slaves. Once in America, Africans began a long struggle for freedom which still continues. Slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and the…

  3. The novel CA IX inhibition antibody chKM4927 shows anti-tumor efficacy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayami; Usami, Katsuaki; Shimabe, Munetake; Hasegawa, Kazumasa; Asada, Masao; Motoki, Kazuhiro; Tahara, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an attractive target for cancer therapy. Many anti-CA IX antibodies have been reported but few have been shown to possess inhibition activity. Furthermore, effective use of CA IX-inhibition antibodies for cancer immunotherapy has not been well-validated since data are mainly limited to in vitro assays. In this study, we established that chKM4927, an anti-CA IX chimeric antibody, recognizes CA IX and has CA IX-specific inhibition activity. ChKM4927 also retains antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity against CA IX-expressing cancer cells. Compared to controls, chKM4927 treatment (10 mg/kg) showed anti-tumor activity in the VMRC-RCW xenograft model in vivo. ChKM4927-attenuated ADCC activity showed equally effective anti-tumor activity. These results suggest that the CA IX-inhibition antibody chKM4927 has an anti-tumor effect in the VMRC-RCW xenograft model via an ADCC-independent mechanism. PMID:25862852

  4. Carnosine inhibits carbonic anhydrase IX-mediated extracellular acidosis and suppresses growth of HeLa tumor xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a transmembrane enzyme that is present in many types of solid tumors. Expression of CA IX is driven predominantly by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and helps to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis under hypoxic conditions, resulting in acidification of the tumor microenvironment. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an anti-tumorigenic agent that inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the role of CA IX in carnosine-mediated antitumor activity and whether the underlying mechanism involves transcriptional and translational modulation of HIF-1α and CA IX and/or altered CA IX function. Methods The effect of carnosine was studied using two-dimensional cell monolayers of several cell lines with endogenous CA IX expression as well as Madin Darby canine kidney transfectants, three-dimensional HeLa spheroids, and an in vivo model of HeLa xenografts in nude mice. mRNA and protein expression and protein localization were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Cell viability was measured by a flow cytometric assay. Expression of HIF-1α and CA IX in tumors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Real-time measurement of pH was performed using a sensor dish reader. Binding of CA IX to specific antibodies and metabolon partners was investigated by competitive ELISA and proximity ligation assays, respectively. Results Carnosine increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and HIF targets and increased the extracellular pH, suggesting an inhibitory effect on CA IX-mediated acidosis. Moreover, carnosine significantly inhibited the growth of three-dimensional spheroids and tumor xenografts compared with untreated controls. Competitive ELISA showed that carnosine disrupted binding between CA IX and antibodies specific for its catalytic domain. This finding was supported by reduced formation of the functional metabolon of CA IX

  5. Properties of vacuum-evaporated boron films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feakes, F.

    1973-01-01

    The work on the properties of thin boron films made by vacuum evaporation of elemental boron using an electron beam as the energy source is reported. The program aimed at characterizing the properties of vacuum evaporated films. The work was directed toward those variables considered to be important in affecting the tensile strength of the boron films. In general, the thickness of the films was less than 0.002 in. The temperature of the substrate on which the boron was condensed was found to be most important. Three distinctly different forms of boron deposit were produced. Although the transition temperature was not sharply defined, at substrate temperatures of less than approximately 600 deg C the boron deposits were amorphous to X-ray. If the substrate were highly polished, the deposits were black and mirror-like. For substrates with coefficients of thermal expansion close to that of boron, the deposits were then continuous and uncracked. The studies suggest that the potential continues to exist for film-type composites to have both high strength and high modulus.

  6. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  7. Combustion synthesis of novel boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harini, R. Saai; Manikandan, E.; Anthonysamy, S.; Chandramouli, V.; Eswaramoorthy, D.

    2013-02-01

    The solid-state boron carbide is one of the hardest materials known, ranking third behind diamond and cubic boron nitride. Boron carbide (BxCx) enriched in the 10B isotope is used as a control rod material in the nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption cross section and other favorable physico-chemical properties. Conventional methods of preparation of boron carbide are energy intensive processes accompanied by huge loss of boron. Attempts were made at IGCAR Kalpakkam to develop energy efficient and cost effective methods to prepare boron carbide. The products of the gel combustion and microwave synthesis experiments were characterized for phase purity by XRD. The carbide formation was ascertained using finger-print spectroscopy of FTIR. Samples of pyrolized/microwave heated powder were characterized for surface morphology using SEM. The present work shows the recent advances in understanding of structural and chemical variations in boron carbide and their influence on morphology, optical and vibrational property results discussed in details.

  8. Density separation of boron particles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-04-01

    A density distribution much broader than expected was observed in lots of natural boron powder supplied by two different sources. The material in both lots was found to have a rhombohedral crystal structure, and the only other parameters which seemed to account for such a distribution were impurities within the crystal structure and varying isotopic ratios. A separation technique was established to isolate boron particles in narrow densty ranges. The isolated fractions were subsequently analyzed for B/sup 10/ and total boron content in an effort to determine whether selective isotopic enrichment and nonhomogeneous impurity distribution were the causes for the broad density distribution of the boron powders. It was found that although the B/sup 10/ content remained nearly constant around 18%, the total boron content varied from 37.5 to 98.7%. One of the lots also was found to contain an apparently high level of alpha rhombohedral boron which broadened the density distribution considerably. During this work, a capability for removing boron particles containing gross amounts of impurities and, thereby, improving the overall purity of the remaining material was developed. In addition, the separation technique used in this study apparently isolated particles with alpha and beta rhombohedral crystal structures, although the only supporting evidence is density data.

  9. Method of synthesizing cubic system boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Yuzu, S.; Sumiya, H.; Degawa, J.

    1987-10-13

    A method is described for synthetically growing cubic system boron nitride crystals by using boron nitride sources, solvents for dissolving the boron nitride sources, and seed crystals under conditions of ultra-high pressure and high temperature for maintaining the cubic system boron nitride stable. The method comprises the following steps: preparing a synthesizing vessel having at least two chambers, arrayed in order in the synthesizing vessel so as to be heated according to a temperature gradient; placing the solvents having different eutectic temperatures in each chamber with respect to the boron nitride sources according to the temperature gradient; placing the boron nitride source in contact with a portion of each of the solvents heated at a relatively higher temperature and placing at least a seed crystal in a portion of each of the solvents heated at a relatively lower temperature; and growing at least one cubic system boron nitride crystal in each of the solvents in the chambers by heating the synthesizing vessel for establishing the temperature gradient while maintaining conditions of ultra-high pressure and high temperature.

  10. Ares I-X Roll Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, Ronald J.; Massey, Edmund C.

    2009-01-01

    Project Managers often face challenging technical, schedule and budget issues. This presentation will explore how the Ares I-X Roll Control System Integrated Product Team (IPT) mitigated challenges such as concurrent engineering requirements and environments and evolving program processes, while successfully managing an aggressive project schedule and tight budget. IPT challenges also included communications and negotiations among inter- and intra-government agencies, including the US Air Force, NASA/MSFC Propulsion Engineering, LaRC, GRC, KSC, WSTF, and the Constellation Program. In order to successfully meet these challenges it was essential that the IPT define those items that most affected the schedule critical path, define early mitigation strategies to reduce technical, schedule, and budget risks, and maintain the end-product focus of an "unmanned test flight" context for the flight hardware. The makeup of the IPT and how it would function were also important considerations. The IPT consisted of NASA/MSFC (project management, engineering, and safety/quality) and contractors (Teledyne Brown Engineering and Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, who supplied heritage hardware experience). The early decision to have a small focused IPT working "badgelessly" across functional lines to eliminate functional stove-piping allowed for many more tasks to be done by fewer people. It also enhanced a sense of ownership of the products, while still being able to revert back to traditional roles in order to provide the required technical independence in design reviews and verification closures. This presentation will highlight several prominent issues and discuss how they were mitigated and the resulting Lessons Learned that might benefit other projects.

  11. Serotype IX, a Proposed New Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian; Kong, Fanrong; Lambertsen, Lotte; Sauer, Susanne; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2007-09-01

    We identified three isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), of human origin, which failed to react with antisera against any of the nine known GBS serotypes. Polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against these isolates and standard GBS typing sera were used in capillary precipitation and Ouchterlony tests to compare the strains with known GBS serotype reference strains. All three previously nontypeable isolates reacted with all three new antisera, producing lines of identity in the Ouchterlony test. Weak cross-reactions with antisera against several GBS serotypes were observed but were removed by absorption with corresponding antigens. The new antisera were used to test 227 GBS isolates that had been nontypeable or difficult to type using standard antisera. Of these, five reacted with the new antisera. These results suggested that all eight isolates belong to the previously unrecognized GBS serotype. They were tested by Western blotting for the Calpha and Cbeta proteins and by PCR to identify molecular serotypes and surface protein antigen genes. Two segments of the cps gene cluster (3' end of cpsE-cpsF and 5' end of cpsG, approximately 700 bp; 3' end of cpsH and 5' end of cpsM, approximately 560 bp) were sequenced. All eight isolates expressed Calpha, and seven expressing the Cbeta protein and the corresponding genes, bca and bac, respectively, were identified. They all share the same, unique partial cps sequence. These results indicate that these eight isolates represent a new S. agalactiae serotype, which we propose should be designated serotype IX. PMID:17634306

  12. Protoporphyrin IX Content Correlates with Activity of Photobleaching Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Jose M.; Duke, Stephen O.

    1989-01-01

    Several laboratories have demonstrated recently that photobleaching herbicides such as acifluorfen and oxadiazon cause accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), a photodynamic pigment capable of herbicidal activity. We investigated, in acifluorfen-treated tissues, the in vivo stability of PPIX, the kinetics of accumulation, and the correlation between concentration of PPIX and herbicidal damage. During a 20 hour dark period, PPIX levels rose from barely detectable concentrations to 1 to 2 nanomoles per 50 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledon discs treated with 10 micromolar acifluorfen. When placed in 500 micromoles per square meter per second PAR, PPIX levels decayed logarithmically, with an initial half-life of about 2.5 hours. PPIX levels at each time after exposure to light correlated positively with the cellular damage that occurred during the following 1 hour in both green and yellow (tentoxin-treated) cucumber cotyledon tissues. PPIX levels in discs incubated for 20 hours in darkness correlated positively with the acifluorfen concentration in which they were incubated. In cucumber, the level of herbicidal damage caused by several p-nitrodiphenyl other herbicides, a p-chlorodiphenylether herbicide, and oxadiazon correlated positively with the amount of PPIX induced to accumulate by each of the herbicide treatments. Similar results were obtained with acifluorfen-treated pigweed and velvetleaf primary leaf tissues. In cucumber, PPIX levels increased within 15 and 30 minutes after exposure of discs to 10 micromolar acifluorfen in the dark and light, respectively. These data strengthen the view that PPIX is responsible for all or a major part of the photobleaching activity of acifluorfen and related herbicides. PMID:16666869

  13. America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…

  14. X-ray diffraction study of boron produced by pyrolysis of boron tribromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, David

    The goal of this research was to determine the composition of boron deposits produced by pyrolysis of boron tribromide, and to use the results to (a) determine the experimental conditions (reaction temperature, etc.) necessary to produce alpha-rhombohedral boron and (b) guide the development/refinement of the pyrolysis experiments such that large, high purity crystals of alpha-rhombohedral boron can be produced with consistency. Developing a method for producing large, high purity alpha-rhombohedral boron crystals is of interest because such crystals could potentially be used to achieve an alpha-rhombohedral boron based neutron detector design (a solid-state detector) that could serve as an alternative to existing neutron detector technologies. The supply of neutron detectors in the United States has been hampered for a number of years due to the current shortage of helium-3 (a gas used in many existing neutron detector technologies); the development of alternative neutron detector technology such as an alpha-rhombohedral boron based detector would help provide a more sustainable supply of neutron detectors in this country. In addition, the prospect/concept of an alpha-rhombohedral boron based neutron detector is attractive because it offers the possibility of achieving a design that is smaller, longer life, less power consuming, and potentially more sensitive than existing neutron detectors. The main difficulty associated with creating an alpha-rhombohedral boron based neutron detector is that producing large, high purity crystals of alpha-rhombohedral boron is extremely challenging. Past researchers have successfully made alpha-rhombohedral boron via a number of methods, but no one has developed a method for consistently producing large, high purity crystals. Alpha-rhombohedral boron is difficult to make because it is only stable at temperatures below around 1100-1200 °C, its formation is very sensitive to impurities, and the conditions necessary for its

  15. JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos

    2009-06-01

    The JAGUAR product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products. Relationships of the Murnaghan form for molar volumes and derived properties were implemented in JAGUAR. Available Hugoniot and static volumertic data were analyzed to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationship for solid boron, boron oxide, boron nitride, boron carbide, and boric acid. Experimental melting points were also utilized with optimization procedures to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX - boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using JAGUAR are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that boron mixtures may exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior, as observed by aluminized combined effects explosives, with higher detonation velocities than would be achieved by a classical Chapman-Jouguet detonation. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX - boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the energy output obtained from the detonation of the formulation.

  16. Characterization of the clotting activities of structurally different forms of activated factor IX. Enzymatic properties of normal human factor IXa alpha, factor IXa beta, and activated factor IX Chapel Hill.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, M J; Breitkreutz, L; Trapp, H; Briet, E; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H R

    1985-01-01

    Two structurally different forms of activated human Factor IX (Factor IXa alpha and IXa beta) have been previously reported to have essentially identical clotting activity in vitro. Although it has been shown that activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, an abnormal Factor IX isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B, and normal Factor IXa alpha are structurally very similar, the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is much lower (approximately fivefold) than that of normal Factor IXa beta. In the present study we have prepared activated Factor IX by incubating human Factor IX with calcium and Russell's viper venom covalently bound to agarose. Fractionation of the activated Factor IX by high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of both Factors IXa alpha and IXa beta. On the basis of active site concentration, determined by titration with antithrombin III, the clotting activities of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill and IXa alpha were similar, but both activities were less than 20% of the clotting activity of Factor IXa beta. Activated Factor IX activity was also measured in the absence of calcium, phospholipid, and Factor VIII, by determination of the rate of Factor X activation in the presence of polylysine. In the presence of polylysine, the rates of Factor X activation by activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, Factor IXa alpha, and Factor IXa beta were essentially identical. We conclude that the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is reduced when compared with that of Factor IXa beta but essentially normal when compared with that of Factor IXa alpha. PMID:3871202

  17. Superconductivity in two-dimensional boron allotropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinchang; Zeng, Shuming; Ni, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We use ab initio evolutionary algorithm and first-principles calculations to investigate structural, electronic, vibrational, and superconducting properties of two-dimensional (2 D ) boron allotropes. Remarkably, we show that conventional BCS superconductivity in the stable 2 D boron structures is ubiquitous with the critical temperature Tc above the liquid hydrogen temperature for certain configurations. Due to the electronic states of the Fermi surface originating from both σ and π electrons, the superconductivity of the 2 D structures arises from multiple phonon modes. Our results support that 2 D boron structure may be a pure single-element material with the highest Tc on conditions without high pressure and external strain.

  18. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  19. Crystallization of Beryllium-Boron Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Wall, M A; Nieh, T G

    2002-02-14

    Prior studies of evaporation and sputter deposition show that the grain size of pure beryllium can be dramatically refined through the incorporation of metal impurities. Recently, the addition of boron at a concentration greater than 11% is shown to serve as a glassy phase former in sputter deposited beryllium. Presently, thermally induced crystallization of the beryllium-boron metallic glass is reported. The samples are characterized during an in-situ anneal treatment with bright field imaging and electron diffraction using transmission electron microscopy. A nanocrystalline structure evolves from the annealed amorphous phase and the crystallization temperature is affected by the boron concentration.

  20. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.

  1. Boron Nitride Nanoribbons: Synthesis and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Ashley; Erikson, Kris; Sinitskii, Alex; Rousseas, Michael; Alem, Nasim; Tour, James; Zettl, Alex

    2012-02-01

    Boron Nitride Nanoribbons (BNNR) have been theorized to have many interesting electrical and magnetic properties and edge states, but these characteristics have not been experimentally verified due to challenges in synthesis and purification. We have produced BNNRs by longitudinally splitting boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) using potassium vapor as an intercalant. Due to the strong interactions between boron nitride sheets, separation of nanoribbons from their parent tubes is challenging. We have used various solvent systems to assist with separation of the ribbons with the goal of probing their properties.

  2. Techniques for fluorescence detection of protoporphyrin IX in skin cancers associated with photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rollakanti, Kishore R.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that uses a specific photosensitizing agent, molecular oxygen, and light of a particular wavelength to kill cells targeted by the therapy. Topically administered aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used to effectively treat cancerous and precancerous skin lesions, resulting in targeted tissue damage and little to no scarring. The targeting aspect of the treatment arises from the fact that ALA is preferentially converted into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in neoplastic cells. To monitor the amount of PpIX in tissues, techniques have been developed to measure PpIX-specific fluorescence, which provides information useful for monitoring the abundance and location of the photosensitizer before and during the illumination phase of PDT. This review summarizes the current state of these fluorescence detection techniques. Non-invasive devices are available for point measurements, or for wide-field optical imaging, to enable monitoring of PpIX in superficial tissues. To gain access to information at greater tissue depths, multi-modal techniques are being developed which combine fluorescent measurements with ultrasound or optical coherence tomography, or with microscopic techniques such as confocal or multiphoton approaches. The tools available at present, and newer devices under development, offer the promise of better enabling clinicians to inform and guide PDT treatment planning, thereby optimizing therapeutic outcomes for patients. PMID:25599015

  3. Enhanced cellular uptake of protoporphyrine IX/linolenic acid-conjugated spherical nanohybrids for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-In; Kim, Young-Jin

    2016-06-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has wide applications in photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in many human diseases. However, poor water solubility and cancer cell localization limit its direct application for PDT. We improved the water-solubility and cellular internalization of PpIX to enhance PDT efficacy by developing biocompatible PpIX/linolenic acid-conjugated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PPLA) nanohybrids. The resulting PPLA nanohybrids exhibited a quasi-spherical shape with a size of <200nm. (1)H NMR analysis confirmed the synthesis of PPLA. The singlet oxygen formation of PPLA nanohybrids on laser irradiation was detected by photoluminescence emission. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis displayed higher cellular internalization of PPLA compared with free PpIX. In addition, PPLA nanohybrids exhibited significantly reduced dark-toxicity and a high phototoxicity mostly because of apoptotic cell death against human gastric cancer cells. These results imply that the PPLA nanohybrid system may be applicable in PDT. PMID:26954084

  4. The Conundrum of "Warfarin Hypersensitivity": Prolonged Partial Thromboplastin Time From Factor IX Propeptide Mutation.

    PubMed

    Sekhri, Arunabh; Lisinschi, Adriana; Furqan, Muhammad; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Mukhi, Nikhil; Gupta, Ridhi; Nelson, John C

    2016-01-01

    Carboxylation of glutamic acid residues of vitamin K dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX, and X) is essential to their biological functioning. Binding of these factors to γ-glutamyl carboxylase enzyme for carboxylation reaction is mediated by wild-type propeptide, a small sequence of amino acids that precede the actual polypeptide. Missense mutations at certain residue severely decrease the affinity of mutated propeptide for the enzyme. Such mutations are reported to occur at codon-10 of factor IX propeptide, a clinically silent metabolic event in normal conditions. However in the presence of warfarin, such mutations and resultant decrease affinity of factor IX propeptide for the enzyme that causes severe selective decrease in factor IX activity. This can potentially leads to life-threatening bleeding complications and known as one of the causes of warfarin hypersensitivity. It is imperative to recognize such cases early on to avoid additional warfarin therapy. Recurrent bleeding episodes, subtherapeutic to therapeutic range international normalized ratio values with relatively prolong partial thromboplastin time should raise the suspicion of underlying factor IX propeptide mutations. PMID:24832385

  5. White light-informed optical properties improve ultrasound-guided fluorescence tomography of photoactive protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; DSouza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-04-01

    Subsurface fluorescence imaging is desirable for medical applications, including protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX)-based skin tumor diagnosis, surgical guidance, and dosimetry in photodynamic therapy. While tissue optical properties and heterogeneities make true subsurface fluorescence mapping an ill-posed problem, ultrasound-guided fluorescence-tomography (USFT) provides regional fluorescence mapping. Here USFT is implemented with spectroscopic decoupling of fluorescence signals (auto-fluorescence, PpIX, photoproducts), and white light spectroscopy-determined bulk optical properties. Segmented US images provide a priori spatial information for fluorescence reconstruction using region-based, diffuse FT. The method was tested in simulations, tissue homogeneous and inclusion phantoms, and an injected-inclusion animal model. Reconstructed fluorescence yield was linear with PpIX concentration, including the lowest concentration used, 0.025 μg/ml. White light spectroscopy informed optical properties, which improved fluorescence reconstruction accuracy compared to the use of fixed, literature-based optical properties, reduced reconstruction error and reconstructed fluorescence standard deviation by factors of 8.9 and 2.0, respectively. Recovered contrast-to-background error was 25% and 74% for inclusion phantoms without and with a 2-mm skin-like layer, respectively. Preliminary mouse-model imaging demonstrated system feasibility for subsurface fluorescence measurement in vivo. These data suggest that this implementation of USFT is capable of regional PpIX mapping in human skin tumors during photodynamic therapy, to be used in dosimetric evaluations.

  6. Imaging of boron in tissue at the cellular level for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Arlinghaus, H F; Spaar, M T; Switzer, R C; Kabalka, G W

    1997-08-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme, and other tumors involving the brain, are undergoing experimental treatment with a promising new technique: boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT relies on the capture of thermal neutrons by boron deposited biochemically in the tumor and the subsequent fission of the boron into energetic lithium ions and alpha particles. An important requirement for improved BNCT is the development of more selective boron delivery mechanisms. The ability to image the boron concentration in tissue sections and even inside individual cells would be an important aid in the development of these delivery mechanisms. We have compared both sputter-initiated resonance ionization microprobe (SIRIMP), which combines resonance ionization with a high-energy pulsed focused sputter ion beam and mass spectrometric detection of ions, with laser atomization resonance ionization microprobe (LARIMP), which uses a laser pulse instead of an ion pulse for the atomization process, to determine their characteristics in locating and quantifying boron concentrations as a function of position in tissues obtained from a rat which had been infused with a BNCT drug. The data show that the SIRIMP/LARIMP techniques are well suited for quantitative and ultrasensitive imaging of boron trace element concentrations in biological tissue sections. The LARIMP mode could be used to quickly determine the spatial boron concentration with intercellular resolution over large areas down to the low nanograms-per-gram level, while the SIRIMP mode could be used to determine the spatial boron concentration and its variability in intracellular areas. PMID:9271061

  7. Boronated dipeptide borotrimethylglycylphenylalanine as a potential boron carrier in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Takagaki, M; Powell, W; Sood, A; Spielvogel, B F; Hosmane, N S; Kirihata, M; Ono, K; Masunaga, S I; Kinashi, Y; Miyatake, S I; Hashimoto, N

    2001-07-01

    Takagaki, M., Ono, K., Masunaga, S-I., Kinashi, Y., Oda, Y., Miyatake, S-I., Hashimoto, N., Powell, W., Sood, A. and Spielvogel, B. F. Boronated Dipeptide Borotrimethylglycylphenylalanine as a Potential Boron Carrier in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors. Radiat. Res. 156, 118-122 (2001).A boronated dipeptide, borotrimethylglycylphenylalanine (BGPA), was synthesized as a possible boron carrier for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant brain tumors. In vitro, at equal concentrations of (10)B in the extracellular medium, BGPA had the same effect in BNCT as p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Boron analysis was carried out using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry and track-etch autoradiography. The tumor:blood and tumor:normal brain (10)B concentration ratios were 8.9 +/- 2.1 and 3.0 +/- 1.2, respectively, in rats bearing intracranial C6 gliosarcomas using alpha-particle track autoradiography. The IC(50), i.e. the dose capable of inhibiting the growth of C6 gliosarcoma cells by 50% after 3 days of incubation, was 5.9 x 10(-3) M BGPA, which is similar to that of 6.4 x 10(-3) M for BPA. The amide bond of BGPA is free from enzymatic attack, since it is protected from hydrolysis by the presence of a boron atom at the alpha-carbon position of glycine. These results suggest promise for the use of this agent for BNCT of malignant brain tumors. Further preclinical studies of BGPA are warranted, since BGPA has advantages over both BPA and BSH. PMID:11418080

  8. Clearance of protoporphyrin IX induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid from WiDr human colon carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Kaliszewski, Miron; Bugaj, Andrzej; Moan, Johan

    2009-06-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is the most widely practiced form of PDT in dermatology. One of the advantages of ALA-PDT is that undesirable photosensitization lasts only for 24-48 h. In order to optimize ALA-PDT it is necessary to understand the mechanisms controlling intracellular PpIX clearance (efflux and transformation into heme) in order to decrease protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) clearance rates in the early stages of its production. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors controlling the clearance of intracellular PpIX. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study PpIX kinetics in WiDr cells initially treated with ALA. The clearance rate of PpIX in WiDr cells was faster after application of a low concentration of ALA (0.1 mM) than after application of high concentration of ALA (1 mM). PpIX was cleared faster from cells which initially were seeded at low densities than cells seeded at higher densities. The presence of the iron chelator deferoxamine reduced the clearance rate of PpIX, while the presence of ferrous sulfate acted oppositely. The decay rate of PpIX in WiDr cells was faster at higher temperature than at lower. The ferrochelatase activity at pH 7.2 was significantly greater than that at pH 6.7. ALA concentration, application time, cell density, temperature, pH, intracellular iron content, intracellular amount and localization of PpIX are factors controlling PpIX clearance.

  9. Boron

    MedlinePlus

    ... as an aid for building muscles and increasing testosterone levels, and for improving thinking skills and muscle ... seem to improve body mass, muscle mass, or testosterone levels in male bodybuilders.Improving thinking and coordination ...

  10. Boron-neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, A. M.; Moschini, G.; Valkovic, Vlado; Zafiropoulos, D.

    1995-03-01

    The final goal of any radiotherapy project is to expose the tumor as the target to a lethal dose of ionizing radiation, sparing thereby the surrounding healthy tissues to a maximum extent. Precise treatment is nevertheless essential for cure, since the danger exists that the tumor might re-establish itself if every cancer cell is not destroyed. The conventional therapy treatments existing to date, e.g., surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, have been successful in curing some kinds of cancers, but still there are many exceptions. In the following, the progress of a promising therapy tool, called the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), which has made its dynamic evolution in recent years, is briefly described. The approach towards clinical trials with BNCT is described in detail.

  11. Boron strengthening in FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C.; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured FeAl is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % Al), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in FeAl. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.

  12. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  13. Ni doping of semiconducting boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Nina; Liu Jing; Adenwalla, S.; Langell, M. A.; Kizilkaya, Orhan

    2010-01-15

    The wide band gap, temperature stability, high resistivity, and robustness of semiconducting boron carbide make it an attractive material for device applications. Undoped boron carbide is p type; Ni acts as a n-type dopant. Here we present the results of controlled doping of boron carbide with Ni on thin film samples grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The change in the dopant concentration within the thin film as a function of the dopant flow rate in the precursor gas mixture was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements; with increasing dopant concentration, current-voltage (I-V) curves clearly establish the trend from p-type to n-type boron carbide.

  14. Bipolaron Hopping Conduction in Boron Carbides

    SciTech Connect

    ASELAGE, TERRENCE L.; EMIN, D.; MCCREADY, STEVEN S.

    1999-09-20

    The electrical conductivities of boron carbides, B{sub 12+x}C{sub 3{minus}x} with 0.1 < x < 1.7, between 300 and 1200K suggest the hopping of a nearly temperature-independent density of small (bi)polarons. The activation energies of the nobilities are low, {approx} 0.16 eV, and are nearly independent of the composition. At lower temperatures, conductivities have non-Arrhenius temperature dependencies and strong sensitivity to carbon concentration. Percolative aspects of low-temperature hopping are evident in this sensitivity to composition. Boron carbides' Seebeck coefficients are anomalous in that (1) they are much larger than expected from boron carbides' large carrier densities and (2) they depend only weakly on the carrier density. Carrier-induced softening of local vibrations gives contributions to the Seebeck coefficient that mirror the magnitudes and temperature dependencies found in boron carbides.

  15. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-07-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs.

  16. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajen B; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  17. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Inclusion of inverse triad corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Karami, Asieh

    2016-06-01

    We consider the loop quantization of the (diagonal) Bianchi type IX cosmological model. We explore different quantization prescriptions that extend the work of Wilson-Ewing and Singh. In particular, we study two different ways of implementing the so-called inverse triad corrections. We construct the corresponding Hamiltonian constraint operators and show that the singularity is formally resolved. We find the effective equations associated with the different quantization prescriptions, and study the relation with the isotropic k = 1 model that, classically, is contained within the Bianchi IX model. Somewhat surprisingly, we find the most natural quantization does not reduce to the k = 1 model. We use geometrically defined scalar observables to explore the physical implications of each of these theories. This is the first part in a series of papers analyzing different aspects of the Bianchi IX model, with inverse corrections, within loop quantum cosmology (LQC).

  18. Materials for Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) Separations of Pertechnetate Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Stender, Matthias; Hubler, Timothy L.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Smyrl, William H.

    2004-03-29

    Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions (e.g. chromate, pertechnetate and nitrate). The objective of this study is to develop Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) materials. Such materials can be used to separate pertechnetate ion from radioactive wastes located at DOE sites while limiting the amount of secondary wastes generated. We have developed a synthetic strategy to prepare vinyl-bipyridyl and -terpyridyl ligands which allow incorporation of ion-selective architectures with a polymerizable handle. Fe complexes formed with these ligands provide the working core of the electroactive polymers. The polymers can be directly used as materials for EaIX or they can be incorporated into porous composite materials that are then used for EaIX.

  19. The role of polymorphisms of genes encoding collagen IX and XI in lumbar disc disease.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Łukasz; Janeczko, Magdalena; Chrzanowski, Robert; Zieliński, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The intervertebral disc disease (IDD) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders. A number of environment and anthropometric risk factors may contribute to it. The recent reports have suggested the importance of genetic factors, especially these which encode collagen types IX and XI. The allelic variants in the collagen IX genes - COL9A2 (Trp2) and COL9A3 (Trp3) have been identified as genetic risk factors for IDD, because they interfere the cross-linking between collagen types II, IX and XI and result in decreased stability of intervertebral discs. Type XI collagen is a minor component of cartilage collagen fibrils, but it is present in the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs. Some studies have shown the association between gene COL11A1 polymorphism c.4603C>T and IDD. The frequency of 4603T allele was significantly higher in the patients with IDD than in the healthy controls. PMID:24636772

  20. Interactions between collagen IX and biglycan measured by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.-H.; Yeh, M.-L.; Geyer, Mark; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Huang, M.-H.; Heggeness, Michael H.; Hoeoek, Magnus; Luo, Z.-P. . E-mail: luo@bcm.tmc.edu

    2006-01-06

    The stability of the lattice-like type II collagen architecture of articular cartilage is paramount to its optimal function. Such stability not only depends on the rigidity of collagen fibrils themselves, but more importantly, on their interconnections. One known interconnection is through type IX and biglycan molecules. However, the mechanical properties of this interaction and its role in the overall stability remain unrevealed. Using atomic force microscopy, this study directly measured the mechanical strength (or the rupture force) of a single bond between collagen IX and biglycan. The results demonstrated that the rupture force of this single bond was 15 pN, which was significantly smaller than those of other known molecule interactions to date. This result suggested that type IX collagen and biglycan interaction may be the weak link in the cartilage collagen architecture, vulnerable to abnormal joint force and associated with disorders such as osteoarthritis.

  1. Separation of type IX collagen from other cartilage collagens by hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Macek, J; Lichý, A; Tesarová, E; Adam, M

    1988-12-30

    Collagen type IX was separated from other cartilage collagens (types II and XI) by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a 25 cm X 8 mm I.D. stainless-steel column packed with Separon HEMA 1000 Bio. The mobile phase was 0.84 M ammonium sulphate with 0.1 M potassium dihydrogenphosphate (pH 6.5). Under these conditions only collagen type IX was eluted from the column; it could be monitored with UV detection (218 nm) or selectively with fluorescence detection (excitation 330 nm, emission filter 389 nm). The method can be used for the isolation and quantitation of collagen type IX. The assay was linear in the range 0-10 micrograms, the correlation coefficient was 0.99, precision 5.5% and accuracy 13%. The detection limit was about 0.6 microgram. PMID:3246532

  2. A neutron diffraction study of amorphous boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaplane, R. G.; Lundström, T.; Dahlborg, U.; Howells, W. S.

    1991-07-01

    The structure of amorphous boron has been studied with pulsed neutron diffraction techniques using the ISIS facilities at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The experimental static structure factor S(Q) and radial distribution function support a structural model based on units of B12 icosahedra resembling those found in crystalline β-rhombohedral boron, but with a certain degree of disorder occurring in the linking between these subunits.

  3. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  4. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  5. PREFACE: The IX Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; Bashir, Adnan; Mondragón, Myriam; Raya, Alfredo

    2006-05-01

    The IX Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields was held in the beautiful city of Colima, in the South-West of Mexico, from 17-22 November 2003. The proceedings of the Workshop were delayed due to problems with a previous publisher, we are very grateful that Journal of Physics: Conference Series kindly agreed to publish the proceedings rapidly at this late stage. The Workshop aimed to cover, through invited lectures delivered by internationally known experts, the most recent developments in the field. There was also a series of short seminars as well as a poster session, which allowed the whole community to participate with their most recent research results. A special session was dedicated to awarding the Division Medal to Professor Benjamin Grinstein, from The University of California, San Diego, for his outstanding contributions to the field. This volume contains the written version of the material presented at the Workshop. The Workshop was attended by more than 100 participants, including faculty members, postdocs and graduate students. It was organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society, and generously sponsored by several institutions: Universidad de Colima, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt). The Local Organizing Committee was integrated by Paolo Amore, Alfredo Aranda, Carlos Moisés Hernóndez Suórez (Director of the Physics Faculty), Arturo Gonzólez Larios, Enrique Farías Martínez, and Myriam Cruz Calvario, all from the University of Colima. The members of the National Organizing Committee were Adnan Bashir (IFM-UMSHN), Jens Erler (IF-UNAM), Heriberto Castilla Valdés (CINVESTAV-U.Zacatenco), Gabriel López Castro (CINVESTAV-U.Zacatenco), Myriam Mondragón (IF-UNAM) and Luis Villaseñ or (IFM-UMSHN). We gratefully acknowledge the help given by

  6. Boron dose determination for BNCT using Fricke and EPR dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Ciesielski, B.

    1995-02-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) the dominant dose delivered to the tumor is due to {alpha} and {sup 7}Li charged particles resulting from a neutron capture by {sup 10}B and is referred to herein as the boron dose. Boron dose is directly attributable to the following two independent factors, one boron concentration and the neutron capture energy dependent cross section of boron, and two the energy spectrum of the neutrons that interact with boron. The neutron energy distribution at a given point is dictated by the incident neutron energy distribution, the depth in tissue, geometrical factors such as beam size and patient`s dimensions. To account for these factors can be accommodated by using Monte Carlo theoretical simulations. However, in conventional experimental BNCT dosimetry, e.g., using TLDs or ionization chambers, it is only possible to estimate the boron dose. To overcome some of the limitations in the conventional dosimetry, modifications in ferrous sulfate dosimetry (Fricke) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry in alanine, enable to measure specifically boron dose in a mixed gamma neutron radiation fields. The boron dose, in either of the dosimeters, is obtained as a difference between measurements with boronated and unboronated dosimeters. Since boron participates directly in the measurements, the boron dosimetry reflects the true contribution, integral of the neutron energy spectrum with boron cross section, of the boron dose to the total dose. Both methods are well established and used extensively in dosimetry, they are presented briefly here.

  7. Characterization of Boron Contamination in Fluorine Implantation using Boron Trifluoride as a Source Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeide, Matthias; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    Fluorine implantation process purity was considered on different types of high current implanters. It was found that implanters equipped with an indirectly heated cathode ion source show an enhanced deep boron contamination compared to a high current implanter using a cold RF-driven multicusp ion source when boron trifluoride is used for fluorine implantations. This contamination is directly related to the source technology and thus, should be considered potentially for any implanter design using hot cathode/hot filament ion source, independently of the manufacturer. The boron contamination results from the generation of double charged boron ions in the arc chamber and the subsequent charge exchange reaction to single charged boron ions taking place between the arc chamber and the extraction electrode. The generation of the double charged boron ions depends mostly on the source parameters, whereas the pressure in the region between the arc chamber and the extraction electrode is mostly responsible for the charge exchange from double charged to single charged ions. The apparent mass covers a wide range, starting at mass 11. A portion of boron ions with energies of (19/11) times higher than fluorine energy has the same magnetic rigidity as fluorine beam and cannot be separated by the analyzer magnet. The earlier described charge exchange effects between the extraction electrode and the entrance to the analyzer magnet, however, generates boron beam with a higher magnetic rigidity compared to fluorine beam and cannot cause boron contamination after mass-separation. The energetic boron contamination was studied as a function of the ion source parameters, such as gas flow, arc voltage, and source magnet settings, as well as analyzing magnet aperture resolution. This allows process optimization reducing boron contamination to the level acceptable for device performance.

  8. An intraoperative spectroscopic imaging system for quantification of Protoporphyrin IX during glioma surgery (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Rodríguez, Leticia M.; Laurence, Audrey; Jermyn, Michael; Sheehy, Guillaume; Sibai, Mira; Petrecca, Kevin; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Cancer tissue often remains after brain tumor resection due to the inability to detect the full extent of cancer during surgery, particularly near tumor boundaries. Commercial systems are available for intra-operative real-time aminolevulenic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence imaging. These are standard white-light neurosurgical microscopes adapted with optical components for fluorescence excitation and detection. However, these instruments lack sensitivity and specificity, which limits the ability to detect low levels of PpIX and distinguish it from tissue auto-fluorescence. Current systems also cannot provide repeatable and un-biased quantitative fluorophore concentration values because of the unknown and highly variable light attenuation by tissue. We present a highly sensitive spectroscopic fluorescence imaging system that is seamlessly integrated onto a neurosurgical microscope. Hardware and software were developed to achieve through-microscope spatially-modulated illumination for 3D profilometry and to use this information to extract tissue optical properties to correct for the effects of tissue light attenuation. This gives pixel-by-pixel quantified fluorescence values and improves detection of low PpIX concentrations. This is achieved using a high-sensitivity Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (LCTF) whereby spectral bands are acquired sequentially; and a snapshot camera system with simultaneous acquisition of all bands is used for profilometry and optical property recovery. Sensitivity and specificity to PpIX is demonstrated using brain tissue phantoms and intraoperative human data acquired in an on-going clinical study using PpIX fluorescence to guide glioma resection.

  9. Glycoprotein Ib-IX-V Complex Transmits Cytoskeletal Forces That Enhance Platelet Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Feghhi, Shirin; Munday, Adam D; Tooley, Wes W; Rajsekar, Shreya; Fura, Adriane M; Kulman, John D; López, Jose A; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-08-01

    Platelets bind to exposed vascular matrix at a wound site through a highly specialized surface receptor, glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex, which recognizes von Willebrand factor (VWF) in the matrix. GPIb-IX-V is a catch bond for it becomes more stable as force is applied to it. After attaching to the wound site, platelets generate cytoskeletal forces to compact and reinforce the hemostatic plug. Here, we evaluated the role of the GPIb-IX-V complex in the transmission of cytoskeletal forces. We used arrays of flexible, silicone nanoposts to measure the contractility of individual platelets on VWF. We found that a significant proportion of cytoskeletal forces were transmitted to VWF through GPIb-IX-V, an unexpected finding given the widely held notion that platelet forces are transmitted exclusively through its integrins. In particular, we found that the interaction between GPIbα and the A1 domain of VWF mediates this force transmission. We also demonstrate that the binding interaction between GPIbα and filamin A is involved in force transmission. Furthermore, our studies suggest that cytoskeletal forces acting through GPIbα are involved in maintaining platelet adhesion when external forces are absent. Thus, the GPIb-IX-V/VWF bond is able to transmit force, and uses this force to strengthen the bond through a catch-bond mechanism. This finding expands our understanding of how platelets attach to sites of vascular injury, describing a new, to the best of our knowledge, mechanism in which the catch bonds of GPIb-IX-V/VWF can be supported by internal forces produced by cytoskeletal tension. PMID:27508443

  10. Initial Assessment of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Upper Stage to Vibroacoustic Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

  11. Improved Induction of Immune Tolerance to Factor IX by Hepatic AAV-8 Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Mario; Nayak, Sushrusha; Hoffman, Brad E.; Terhorst, Cox; Cao, Ou

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Gene therapy for hemophilia B has been shown to result in long-term expression and immune tolerance to factor IX (F.IX) after in vivo transduction of hepatocytes with adeno-associated viral (AAV-2) vectors in experimental animals. An optimized protocol was effective in several strains of mice with a factor 9 gene deletion (F9−/−). However, immune responses against F.IX were repeatedly observed in C3H/HeJ F9−/− mice. We sought to establish a gene transfer protocol that results in sustained expression without a requirement for additional manipulation of the immune system. Compared with AAV-2, AAV-8 was more efficient in transgene expression and induction of tolerance to F.IX in three different strains of wild-type mice. At equal vector doses, AAV-8 induced transgene product-specific regulatory CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells at significantly higher frequency. Moreover, sustained correction of hemophilia B in C3H/HeJ F9−/− mice without antibody formation was documented in all animals treated with ≥4 × 1011 vector genomes (VG)/kg and in 80% of mice treated with 8 × 1010 VG/kg. Therefore, it is possible to develop a gene transfer protocol that reliably induces tolerance to F.IX largely independent of genetic factors. A comparison with other studies suggests that additional parameters besides plateau levels of F.IX expression contributed to the improved success rate of tolerance induction. PMID:19309290

  12. Boronization on NSTX using Deuterated Trimethylboron

    SciTech Connect

    W.R. Blanchard; R.C. Gernhardt; H.W. Kugel; P.H. LaMarche

    2002-01-28

    Boronization on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has proved to be quite beneficial with increases in confinement and density, and decreases in impurities observed in the plasma. The boron has been applied to the interior surfaces of NSTX, about every 2 to 3 weeks of plasma operation, by producing a glow discharge in the vacuum vessel using deuterated trimethylboron (TMB) in a 10% mixture with helium. Special NSTX requirements restricted the selection of the candidate boronization method to the use of deuterated boron compounds. Deuterated TMB met these requirements, but is a hazardous gas and special care in the execution of the boronization process is required. This paper describes the existing GDC, Gas Injection, and Torus Vacuum Pumping System hardware used for this process, the glow discharge process, and the automated control system that allows for remote operation to maximize both the safety and efficacy of applying the boron coating. The administrative requirements and the detailed procedure for the setup, operation and shutdown of the process are also described.

  13. Fluorescent sensors based on boronic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Christopher R.; James, Tony D.

    1999-05-01

    Sensor systems have long been needed for detecting the presence in solution of certain chemically or biologically important species. Sensors are used in a wide range of applications from simple litmus paper that shows a single color change in acidic or basic environments to complex biological assays that use enzymes, antibodies and antigens to display binding events. With this work the use of boronic acids in the design and synthesis of sensors for saccharides (diols) will be presented. The fluorescent sensory systems rely on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) to modulate the observed fluorescence. When saccharides form cyclic boronate esters with boronic acids, the Lewis acidity of the boronic acid is enhanced and therefore the Lewis acid-base interaction between the boronic acid and a neighboring amine is strengthened. The strength of this acid-base interaction modulates the PET from the amine (acting as a quencher) to anthracene (acting as a fluorophore). These compounds show increased fluorescence at neutral pH through suppression of the PET from nitrogen to anthracene on saccharide binding. The general strategy for the development of saccharide selective systems will be discussed. The potential of the boronic acid based systems will be illustrated using the development of glucose and glucosamine selective fluorescent sensors as examples.

  14. Amorphous boron nitride at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durandurdu, Murat

    2016-06-01

    The pressure-induced phase transformation in hexagonal boron nitrite and amorphous boron nitrite is studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The hexagonal-to-wurtzite phase transformation is successfully reproduced in the simulation with a transformation mechanism similar to one suggested in experiment. Amorphous boron nitrite, on the other hand, gradually transforms to a high-density amorphous phase with the application of pressure. This phase transformation is irreversible because a densified amorphous state having both sp3 and sp2 bonds is recovered upon pressure release. The high-density amorphous state mainly consists of sp3 bonds and its local structure is quite similar to recently proposed intermediate boron nitrite phases, in particular tetragonal structure (P42/mnm), rather than the known the wurtzite or cubic boron nitrite due to the existence of four membered rings and edge sharing connectivity. On the basis of this finding we propose that amorphous boron nitrite might be best candidate as a starting structure to synthesize the intermediate phase(s) at high pressure and temperature (probably below 800 °C) conditions.

  15. CVD boron on calcium chromate powder

    SciTech Connect

    Coonen, R.M.

    1984-09-01

    This study was an experimental effort to improve the compositional homogeneity of a pyrotechnic mixture of boron and calcium chromate (CaCrO/sub 4/). Boron was deposited onto calcium chromate powders at 350/sup 0/C from a diborane and hydrogen gas mixture at a pressure of 40 torr by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The B:CaCrO/sub 4/ ratio of the coated powders was analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy and the distribution of the two phases was observed by electron microprobe analysis. The pyrotechnic activity was determined by differential thermal analysis. In addition to varying the composition of the mixture, an attempt was made to vary the boron distribution by coating both sized and unsized CaCrO/sub 4/ powders. Boron was deposited for 2 h onto sized CaCrO/sub 4/ powder, which resulted in a higher weight percentage of boron in comparison to the unsized powder. CVD coated CaCrO/sub 4/ powders began their pyrotechnic activity at an auto ignition temperature that was lower than the auto ignition temperature observed for mechanically blended mixtures. The coating of sized CaCrO/sub 4/ powder improved the uniformity of boron deposition of CaCrO/sub 4/, but it also decreased the pyrotechnic activity.

  16. Donate Life America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us News You Have the Power to Donate Life. Register as an Organ, Eye and Tissue Donor ... reach 30K milestone, thanks to increased donations Donate Life America Announces 2015 James S. Wolf, M.D., Courage ...

  17. North America Mosaic

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Natural Color Mosaic of North America     View Larger ... at lower right. In addition to the contiguous United States, the scene spans from British Columbia in the northwest to Newfoundland ...

  18. Paralyzed Veterans of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... veterans of the armed forces who have experienced spinal cord injury or disease. Paralyzed Veterans of America will use ... care for our members, - Research and education addressing spinal cord injury and disease, - VA benefits available as a result ...

  19. Clearance of protoporphyrin IX from mouse skin after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzenas, Petras; Sorensen, Roar; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan

    1999-02-01

    The clearance of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from the skin of hairless BALB/c mice after topical application of 5- aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its methyl ester (ALA-Me) was investigated. Creams containing 2 or 20% of ALA or ALA-Me were topically applied on spots of approximately 1 cm2 for 12 hours. The PpIX fluorescence was detected by the means of a Perkin Elmer LS50B luminescence spectrometer equipped with a fiber-optic probe. The emission spectrum was identical with that of cell-bound PpIX. After 12 hours application of ALA and ALA-Me similar amounts of PpIX were found. After creme removal the ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence decayed with a half-life of about 20 hours (20% ALA cream). The ALA-Me-induced PpIX was faster cleared from the skin than ALA-induced PpIX, and had a half-life of about 7 hours (20% ALA-Me cream).

  20. 77 FR 34033 - American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...--Hydroelectric Water Power Project (Peoria Dam Project or project) to be located at the U.S. Army Corps of... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power IX, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  1. 78 FR 79498 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open-IX Association

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Open-IX... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Open-IX... performance and common and uniform specifications for incoming and outgoing data, as well as...

  2. Human monoclonal antibodies targeting carbonic anhydrase IX for the molecular imaging of hypoxic regions in solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ahlskog, J K J; Schliemann, C; Mårlind, J; Qureshi, U; Ammar, A; Pedley, R B; Neri, D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hypoxia, which is commonly observed in areas of primary tumours and of metastases, influences response to treatment. However, its characterisation has so far mainly been restricted to the ex vivo analysis of tumour sections using monoclonal antibodies specific to carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) or by pimonidazole staining, after the intravenous administration of this 2-nitroimidazole compound in experimental animal models. Methods: In this study, we describe the generation of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies (A3 and CC7) specific to human CA IX, using phage technology. Results: These antibodies were able to stain CA IX ex vivo and to target the cognate antigen in vivo. In one of the two animal models of colorectal cancer studied (LS174T), CA IX imaging closely matched pimonidazole staining, with a preferential staining of tumour areas characterised by little vascularity and low perfusion. In contrast, in a second animal model (SW1222), distinct staining patterns were observed for pimonidazole and CA IX targeting. We observed a complementary pattern of tumour regions targeted in vivo by the clinical-stage vascular-targeting antibody L19 and the anti-CA IX antibody A3, indicating that a homogenous pattern of in vivo tumour targeting could be achieved by a combination of the two antibodies. Conclusion: The new human anti-CA IX antibodies are expected to be non-immunogenic in patients with cancer and may serve as broadly applicable reagents for the non-invasive imaging of hypoxia and for pharmacodelivery applications. PMID:19623173

  3. Achieving Gender Equity: A Basic Guide to Title IX and Gender Equity in Athletics for Colleges and Universities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association, Overland Park, KS.

    This guide is designed to help college athletic administrators obtain a basic and working knowledge of the Title IX Education Amendments of 1972 in order to ensure that athletics programs are in compliance with the law. Separate sections of the report cover: (1) Title IX basics, outlining the components of the amendment and offering examples of…

  4. Title IX Program Evaluation: Corresponding with FY 98 Application for Grants. Albuquerque Public Schools, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mearns, Curt

    Title IX and Johnson O'Malley services were provided to 1,495 Native American students at 10 Albuquerque (New Mexico) elementary, middle, and high schools and the Homework Center during the 1997-98 school year. The five goals of the Title IX program were to provide: (1) intervention assistance for students, in which students, parents, and staff…

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural... Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural... Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11...

  7. Somatic mosaicism and female-to-female transmission in a kindred with hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.A.M.; Deugau, K.V.; Lillicrap, D.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Studies have shown that hemophilia B (Christmas disease; factor IX deficiency) results from many different mutations in the factor IX gene, of which {gt}95% are single nulceotide substitutions. This study has identified a previously unreported form of hemophilia B in a patient who was a somatic mosaic for a guanine-to-cytosine transversion at nucleotide 31,170 in the factor IX gene. This point mutation changes the codon for residue 350 in the catalytic domain of factor IX from a cysteine to a serine. The authors used differential termination of primer extension to confirm and measure the degree of mosaicism. The study shows that a varying proportion of cells from hepatic, renal, smooth muscle, and hematopoietic populations possessed normal as well as mutant factor IX sequences. These results indicate that the mutation in this patient occurred either as an uncorrected half-chromatid mutation in the female gamete or as a replication or postreplication error in the initial mitotic divisions of the zygote preceding implantation. In addition, this kindred also contains two females in successive generations who have moderately severe factor IX deficiency. The molecular pathogenesis of this latter phenomenon has been studied and seems to relate to the unaccompanied expression of the mutant factor IX gene consequent upon a second, as yet undefined, genetic event that has prevented inactivation of sequences including the mutant factor IX gene on the X chromosome inherited from the affected male.

  8. In-flight motor torque estimates for the second-stage Strypi IX launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunds, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper documents the results of a study to determine the character of body fixed torques generated by the Anteres IIA motor, during second-stage burn of the Strypi IX launch vehicle. The Strypi IX is a two-stage spin-stabilized solid-propellant launch vehicle designed to boost a variety of payloads to reentry environment conditions. The torque estimates were determined from postflight analysis of Euler angle telemetry data. Principal axis misalignments, and thrust misalignments were also estimated. Data was analyzed from two separate launches; a Precursor and a Prime flight. 21 figs.

  9. Concurrent acquired inhibitors to factor VIII and IX, a laboratory artifact: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Doma, Saša Anžej; Hillarp, Andreas; Pajič, Tadej; Andoljšek, Dušan; Černelč, Peter; Preldžnik Zupan, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Acquired inhibitors to coagulation factors other than factor VIII are extremely rare. We describe a case of a 59-year-old woman with abnormal bleeding, diagnosed with concurrent inhibitor antibodies to factor VIII and IX by Bethesda testing. We demonstrate that anti-FVIII antibodies of a very high titre are capable of disturbing the aPTT-based Bethesda assay, resulting in falsely-positive antibodies to factor IX. The case also illustrates the usefulness of the immunological assay (ELISA) in complementing the inhibitor diagnosis. PMID:27346976

  10. Ares I-X Flight Test--The Future Begins Here

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2008-01-01

    In less than one year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will send humans to the Moon and beyond. Personnel from the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for a 2009 launch. Ares I-X will be a suborbital development flight test that will gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will modify the launch infrastructure and ground and mission operations. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) will incorporate flight and mockup hardware similar in mass and weight to the operational vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will include a fifth spacer segment and new forward structures to make the booster approximately the same size and weight as the five-segment SRB. The Ares I-X flight profile will closely approximate the flight conditions that the Ares I will experience through Mach 4.5, up to approximately 130,000 feet (39,600 meters (m)) and through maximum dynamic pressure ('Max Q') of approximately 800 pounds per square foot (38.3 kilopascals (kPa)). Data from the Ares I-X flight will support the Ares I Critical Design Review (CDR), scheduled for 2010. Work continues on Ares I-X design and hardware fabrication. All of the individual elements are undergoing CDRs, followed by a two-part integrated vehicle CDR in March and July 2008. The various hardware elements are on schedule to begin deliveries to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in early September 2008. Ares I-X is the first step in

  11. Manic depressive illness not linked to factor IX region in an independent series of pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Gejman, P V; Detera-Wadleigh, S; Martinez, M M; Berrettini, W H; Goldin, L R; Gelernter, J; Hsieh, W T; Gershon, E S

    1990-12-01

    We studied seven informative kindreds segregating for manic depressive illness (MDI), consistent with X-chromosome transmission of the trait (families do not show affective disease in both a father and a son), using markers mapped to the region of Xq27-Xq28. The lod scores were consistently below -2 in the region extending from about 10 cM centromeric from the Factor IX locus (F9) to the colorblindness region. This study does not replicate previous reports of linkage of MDI to Factor IX (Xq27) and colorblindness region (Xq28) chromosomal markers in other kindreds. PMID:1980485

  12. Boron site preference in ternary Ta and Nb boron silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Atta U.; Nunes, Carlos A.; Coelho, Gilberto C.; Suzuki, Paulo A.; Grytsiv, Andriy; Bourree, Francoise; Rogl, Peter F.

    2012-06-15

    X-ray single crystal (XSC) and neutron powder diffraction data (NPD) were used to elucidate boron site preference for five ternary phases. Ta{sub 3}Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x} (x=0.112(4)) crystallizes with the Ti{sub 3}P-type (space group P4{sub 2}/n) with B-atoms sharing the 8g site with Si atoms. Ta{sub 5}Si{sub 3-x} (x=0.03(1); Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}- type) crystallizes with space group I4/mcm, exhibiting a small amount of vacancies on the 4a site. Both, Ta{sub 5}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}){sub 3}, x=0.568(3), and Nb{sub 5}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}){sub 3}, x=0.59(2), are part of solid solutions of M{sub 5}Si{sub 3} with Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type into the ternary M-Si-B systems (M=Nb or Ta) with B replacing Si on the 8h site. The D8{sub 8}-phase in the Nb-Si-B system crystallizes with the Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type revealing the formula Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub 1-x} (x=0.292(3)) with B partially filling the voids in the 2b site of the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} parent type. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of a series of compounds have been solved from X-ray single crystal diffractometry revealing details on the boron incorporation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of a series of compounds have been solved by X-ray single crystal diffractometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ta{sub 3}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}) (x=0.112) crystallizes with the Ti{sub 3}P-type, B and Si atoms randomly share the 8g site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub 1-x} (x=0.292; Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type) was solved from NPD.

  13. A direct and simultaneous detection of zinc protoporphyrin IX, free protoporphyrin IX, and fluorescent heme degradation product in red blood cell hemolysates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuying; Hirsch, Rhoda Elison

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescence emission of free protoporphyrin IX (PPIX, em. approximately 626 nm), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP, em. approximately 594 nm) and fluorescent heme degradation product (FHDP, em. approximately 466 nm) are identified and simultaneously detected in mouse and human red cell hemolysates, when excited at 365 nm. A novel method is established for comparing relative FHDP, PPIX and ZPP levels in hemolysates without performing red cell porphyrin extractions. The ZPP fluorescence directly measured in hemolysates (F(365/594)) correlates with the ZPP fluorescence obtained from acetone/water extraction (R(2) = 0.9515, P < 0.0001). The relative total porphyrin (ZPP and PPIX) fluorescence obtained from direct hemolysate fluorescence measurements also correlates with red blood cell total porphyrins determined by ethyl acetate extraction (Piomelli extraction, R(2) = 0.88, P < 0.0001). These fluorescent species serves as biomarkers for alterations in Hb synthesis and Hb stability. PMID:16484045

  14. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa{trademark} MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  15. Boron Stress and Boron Tissue Distribution in Arbidopsis thaliana and Pelargonium X Hortorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The micronutrient boron is essential for plant growth and development. Deficient or excessive levels of this micronutrient result in the formation of growth defects that reduce yield in crop plants and result in discarding of horticultural plants. To study the responses of plants to altered boron ...

  16. The effect of boron deficiency on gene expression and boron compartmentalization in sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NIP5, BOR1, NIP6, and WRKY6 genes were investigated for their role in boron deficiency in sugar beet, each with a proposed role in boron use in model plant species. All genes showed evidence of polymorphism in fragment size and gene expression in the target genomic DNA and cDNA libraries, with no co...

  17. Improved muscle-derived expression of human coagulation factor IX from a skeletal actin/CMV hybrid enhancer/promoter.

    PubMed

    Hagstrom, J N; Couto, L B; Scallan, C; Burton, M; McCleland, M L; Fields, P A; Arruda, V R; Herzog, R W; High, K A

    2000-04-15

    Hemophilia B is caused by the absence of functional coagulation factor IX (F.IX) and represents an important model for treatment of genetic diseases by gene therapy. Recent studies have shown that intramuscular injection of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector into mice and hemophilia B dogs results in vector dose-dependent, long-term expression of biologically active F.IX at therapeutic levels. In this study, we demonstrate that levels of expression of approximately 300 ng/mL (6% of normal human F.IX levels) can be reached by intramuscular injection of mice using a 2- to 4-fold lower vector dose (1 x 10(11) vector genomes/mouse, injected into 4 intramuscular sites) than previously described. This was accomplished through the use of an improved expression cassette that uses the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early enhancer/promoter in combination with a 1.2-kilobase portion of human skeletal actin promoter. These results correlated with enhanced levels of F.IX transcript and secreted F.IX protein in transduced murine C2C12 myotubes. Systemic F.IX expression from constructs containing the CMV enhancer/promoter alone was 120 to 200 ng/mL in mice injected with 1 x 10(11) vector genomes. Muscle-specific promoters performed poorly for F.IX transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. However, the incorporation of a sequence from the alpha-skeletal actin promoter containing at least 1 muscle-specific enhancer and 1 enhancer-like element further improved muscle-derived expression of F.IX from a CMV enhancer/promoter-driven expression cassette over previously published results. These findings will allow the design of a clinical protocol for therapeutic levels of F.IX expression with lower vector doses, thus enhancing efficacy and safety of the protocol. (Blood. 2000;95:2536-2542) PMID:10753832

  18. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jung D.; Seo, Kwang W.; Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N.; Cho, Hong R.; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  19. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively. PMID:17524554

  20. Ceramic silicon-boron-carbon fibers from organic silicon-boron-polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Novel high strength ceramic fibers derived from boron, silicon, and carbon organic precursor polymers are discussed. The ceramic fibers are thermally stable up to and beyond 1200 C in air. The method of preparation of the boron-silicon-carbon fibers from a low oxygen content organosilicon boron precursor polymer of the general formula Si(R2)BR(sup 1) includes melt-spinning, crosslinking, and pyrolysis. Specifically, the crosslinked (or cured) precursor organic polymer fibers do not melt or deform during pyrolysis to form the silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fiber. These novel silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fibers are useful in high temperature applications because they retain tensile and other properties up to 1200 C, from 1200 to 1300 C, and in some cases higher than 1300 C.

  1. Redistribution of boron in leaves reduces boron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert J; Fitzpatrick, Kate L

    2009-11-01

    High soil boron (B) concentrations lead to the accumulation of B in leaves, causing the development of necrotic regions in leaf tips and margins, gradually extending back along the leaf. Plants vary considerably in their tolerance to B toxicity, and it was recently discovered that one of the tolerance mechanisms involved extrusion of B from the root. Expression of a gene encoding a root B efflux transporter was shown to be much higher in tolerant cultivars. In our current research we have shown that the same gene is also upregulated in leaves. However, unlike in the root, the increased activity of the B efflux transporter in the leaves cannot reduce the tissue B concentration. Instead, we have shown that in tolerant cultivars, these transporters redistribute B from the intracellular phase where it is toxic, into the apoplast which is much less sensitive to B. These results provide an explanation of why different cultivars with the same leaf B concentrations can show markedly different toxicity symptoms. We have also shown that rain can remove a large proportion of leaf B, leading to significant improvements of growth of both leaves and roots. PMID:20009556

  2. Athletics and Equality: How to Comply with Title IX Without Tearing Down the Stadium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Noue, George R.

    1976-01-01

    A major source of the controversy over Title IX and athletics is the meaning of equality, which may be measured in terms of opportunities, procedures, or results. Problems with coed teams, spending, intramural sports, spectator-oriented sports, quotas, scholarship policy, and recruiting are discussed. (LBH)

  3. Decision Making in Intercollegiate Athletics: One Institution's Journey to Maintain Title IX Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The allocation of resources and participation opportunities in intercollegiate athletics has been a debate among researchers for nearly 40 years. Title IX and traditionally male-dominated budgeting practices continue to be opposing forces that shape the financial and gender makeup of university athletic departments. In fact, the need to be Title…

  4. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. 83.5 Section 83.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION REGULATION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Purposes; Definitions; Coverage §...

  5. Secondary Athletic Administrators' Perceptions of Title IX Policy Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Gabriel Grawe

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate North Dakota's Normal Competitive Region (NDNCR) high school athletic administrators' perceptions of 2010 Title IX policy changes respective to their athletic programs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to investigate the perceptions. Quantitatively, perception data were…

  6. Einstein-Weyl field equations in a Bianchi type-IX space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Kolassis, C.A.; Le Denmat, G.

    1984-07-15

    It is proved that there exists no solution of the combined gravitational-neutrino field equations in general relativity if the space-time metric admits a group of isometries of Bianchi type IX and the neutrino field has geodesic and shearfree rays.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN USEPA REGION IX R-EMAP STUDY AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury distribution within U .S. EP A Region IX Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) study units is associated with geology and land-use practices. Stream water and sediment data indicate mercury is mobilized from weathering of ore bearing rock, and ...

  8. Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Modal Test Measurements and Data Quality Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, Justin D.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X modal test program consisted of three modal tests conducted at the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. The first test was performed on the 71-foot 53,000-pound top segment of the Ares I-X launch vehicle known as Super Stack 5 and the second test was performed on the 66-foot 146,000- pound middle segment known as Super Stack 1. For these tests, two 250 lb-peak electro-dynamic shakers were used to excite bending and shell modes with the test articles resting on the floor. The third modal test was performed on the 327-foot 1,800,000-pound Ares I-X launch vehicle mounted to the Mobile Launcher Platform. The excitation for this test consisted of four 1000+ lb-peak hydraulic shakers arranged to excite the vehicle s cantilevered bending modes. Because the frequencies of interest for these modal tests ranged from 0.02 to 30 Hz, high sensitivity capacitive accelerometers were used. Excitation techniques included impact, burst random, pure random, and force controlled sine sweep. This paper provides the test details for the companion papers covering the Ares I-X finite element model calibration process. Topics to be discussed include test setups, procedures, measurements, data quality assessments, and consistency of modal parameter estimates.

  9. Title IX and Retaliation: The Impact of "Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education" on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melear, Kerry Brian

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the United States Supreme Court rendered a closely divided opinion that extends the protections against discrimination provided by Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 to include a private cause of action for retaliation in "Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education." Therefore, "whistleblowers," or employees who report allegedly…

  10. Flavobacterium columnare type IX secretion system mutations result in defects in gliding motility and virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The gliding bacterium Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. The related bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae uses a type IX secretion system (T9SS) to secrete enzy...

  11. Isatin-pyrazole benzenesulfonamide hybrids potently inhibit tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany S; Abou-Seri, Sahar M; Tanc, Muhammet; Elaasser, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-10-20

    New series of benzenesulfonamide derivatives incorporating pyrazole and isatin moieties were prepared using celecoxib as lead molecule. Biological evaluation of the target compounds was performed against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) and more precisely against the human isoforms hCA I, II (cytosolic), IX and XII (transmembrane, tumor-associated enzymes). Most of the tested compounds efficiently inhibited hCA I, II and IX, with KIs of 2.5-102 nM, being more effective than the reference drug acetazolamide. Compounds 11e, 11f, 16e and 16f were found to inhibit hCA XII with Ki of 3.7, 6.5, 5.4 and 7.2 nM, respectively. Compounds 11e and 16e, with 5-NO2 substitution on the isatin ring, were found to be selective inhibitors of hCA IX and hCA XII. Docking studies revealed that the NO2 group of both compounds participate in interactions with Asp132 within the hCA IX active site, and with residues Lys67 and Asp130 in hCA XII, respectively. PMID:26408817

  12. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  13. The Promise of Title IX: Longitudinal Study of Gender in Urban School Administration, 1972 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma T.

    2006-01-01

    Using statistical data collected during a 30-year period, the article reports on the significant movement of females into all of the line administrative positions in the largest school districts in the country (by student population) since the passage of Title IX with one notable exception, that of superintendent. The position of superintendent…

  14. Title IX Athletics Policies: Issues and Data for Education Decision Makers. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Education established the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics to collect information, analyze issues, and obtain public input related to improving the application of current standards for measuring equal opportunity for boys and girls to participate in athletics under Title IX. The National Coalition of Woman and…

  15. Teachers May Sue for Retaliation when They Challenge Title IX Sex Discrimination Practices in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2005-01-01

    In a stunning 5-4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court has held that teachers and coaches who suffer reprisals for raising complaints regarding illegal sex discrimination against their students can sue their school districts for damages. This ruling is unprecedented with respect to Title IX enforcement and will likely alter how school officials handle…

  16. OATYC Journal, Vol. IX, Nos. 1-2, Autumn 1983-Spring 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    "OATYC Journal," which is published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, is designed as a forum for the exchange of concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the two-year college classroom. Along with commentaries and letters of reaction from the readership, the two issues of volume IX present the following major articles: (1) "Focus:…

  17. Syntheses of protoporphyrin-IX derivatives bearing extended propionate side-chains.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Robert T; Lu, Jianming; Mwakwari, Celinah; Smith, Kevin M

    2009-05-29

    In order to investigate the relationship between depth within membranes of singlet oxygen generation and effectiveness of photodynamic therapy of tumors, analogs of protoporphyrin-IX 1 bearing five 4 and seven 5 carbon atoms (in place of the 3-carbon atom chain in 1) were synthesized from monopyrrole precursors. PMID:20161404

  18. User's Guide to Developing Student Interest Surveys Under Title IX. NCES 2005-173

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a guide for conducting a survey of student interest in order to satisfy Part 3 the Three-Part Test established in the 1979 Policy Interpretation of the intercollegiate athletic provisions of Title IX of the Higher Education Act of 1972. To lay the foundation for the guide, NISS conducted an historical…

  19. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. 83.5 Section 83.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION REGULATION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Purposes; Definitions; Coverage §...

  20. Ares I-X Flight Evaluation Tasks in Support of Ares I Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Coates, Ralph H., III; Cruit, Wendy D.; Ramsey, Matthew N.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program successfully launched the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle on October 28, 2009. The Ares I-X flight was a development flight test that offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to impact the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate fight results with prospective design assumptions and models. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with pre-flight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and modeling techniques being applied to design and develop Ares I. A discussion of the similarities and differences in those comparisons and the need for discipline-level model updates based upon those comparisons form the substance of this paper. The benefits of development flight testing were made evident by implementing these tasks that used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles. The areas in which partial validation from the flight test was most significant included flight control system algorithms to predict liftoff clearance, ascent, and stage separation; structural models from rollout to separation; thermal models that have been updated based on these data; pyroshock attenuation; and the ability to predict complex flow fields during time-varying conditions including plume interactions.

  1. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  2. Flourescence analysis of ALA-induced Protoporphyrin IX in psoriatic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, Mark R.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Collins, P.

    1996-01-01

    The success reported for the treatment of superficial skin carcinomas by photodynamic therapy (PDT), following topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), has therapeutic implications for the treatment of other skin disorders. This presentation describes the accumulation of the photosensitizing agent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in areas of psoriatic plaque, by monitoring the fluorescence emission induced by low-intensity laser excitation at 488 nm. We present the results from 15 patients, with a total of 42 plaques. These results show that PpIX fluorescence increases in intensity within the 6 hour period following application of ALA, which implies there is a potential for PDT. The emission is localized to the area of ALA application and the effect of occlusion appears insignificant. Also, the rate of increase, and maximum intensity of fluorescence emission, is not directly related to the applied quantity of ALA. The variability of the fluorescence intensity is as great between plaques at different sites on the same patient as between different patients. We also present measurements of the depletion in intensity of fluorescence emission during PDT treatment, using white light, at an irradiance of 25 mW cm-2, that is a consequence of the molecular photo-oxidation of PpIX. The use of fluorescence measurements in predicting the therapeutic effect of treating plaque psoriasis by ALA-PDT is discussed.

  3. Boron nitride nanotubes and nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio; Huang, Yang; Terao, Takeshi; Mitome, Masanori; Tang, Chengchun; Zhi, Chunyi

    2010-06-22

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a layered material with a graphite-like structure in which planar networks of BN hexagons are regularly stacked. As the structural analogue of a carbon nanotube (CNT), a BN nanotube (BNNT) was first predicted in 1994; since then, it has become one of the most intriguing non-carbon nanotubes. Compared with metallic or semiconducting CNTs, a BNNT is an electrical insulator with a band gap of ca. 5 eV, basically independent of tube geometry. In addition, BNNTs possess a high chemical stability, excellent mechanical properties, and high thermal conductivity. The same advantages are likely applicable to a graphene analogue-a monatomic layer of a hexagonal BN. Such unique properties make BN nanotubes and nanosheets a promising nanomaterial in a variety of potential fields such as optoelectronic nanodevices, functional composites, hydrogen accumulators, electrically insulating substrates perfectly matching the CNT, and graphene lattices. This review gives an introduction to the rich BN nanotube/nanosheet field, including the latest achievements in the synthesis, structural analyses, and property evaluations, and presents the purpose and significance of this direction in the light of the general nanotube/nanosheet developments. PMID:20462272

  4. Epoxy resin composition containing metal tetrafluoroborate and boron ester

    SciTech Connect

    Morehead, G.T.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a curable composition. It comprises: a polyepoxide; a metal tetrafluoroborate; and at least one boron ester selected from the group consisting of triesters of boric acid and diesters of boronic acid.

  5. Method of manufacture of atomically thin boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-08-06

    The present invention provides a method of fabricating at least one single layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) suspending at least one multilayer boron nitride across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure. The present invention also provides a method of fabricating single layer hexagonal boron nitride. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) providing multilayer boron nitride suspended across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure.

  6. IX Ophiuchi: A High-Velocity Star Near a Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, G. H.

    2005-08-01

    The molecular cloud Barnard 59 is probably an outlier of the Upper Sco/ρ Oph complex. B59 contains several T Tauri stars (TTSs), but outside its northwestern edge are three other Hα-emission objects whose nature has been unclear: IX, KK, and V359 Oph. This paper is a discussion of all three and of a nearby Be star (HD 154851), based largely on Keck HIRES spectrograms obtained in 2004. KK Oph is a close (1.6") double. The brighter component is an HAeBe star, and the fainter is a K-type TTS. The complex BVR variations of the unresolved pair require both components to be variable. V359 Oph is a conventional TTS. Thus, these pre-main-sequence stars continue to be recognizable as such well outside the boundary of their parent cloud. IX Oph is quite different. Its absorption spectrum is about type G, with many peculiarities: all lines are narrow but abnormally weak, with structures that depend on ion and excitation level and that vary in detail from month to month. It could be a spectroscopic binary of small amplitude. Hα and Hβ are the only prominent emission lines. They are broad, with variable central reversals. However, the most unusual characteristic of IX Oph is the very high (heliocentric) radial velocity: about -310 km s-1, common to all spectrograms, and very different from the radial velocity of B59, about -7 km s-1. There is no detectable Li I λ6707 line. There is reason to believe that IX Oph is actually a background object, only aligned with B59. Several conceivable interpretations are discussed: (1) It is unlikely that it is a high-velocity ejectee from the Upper Sco or Upper Cen-Lup associations (the lack of detectable λ6707 shows that it is not the product of a very recent event, and the proper motion points in the wrong direction) or that it was born in or ejected from one of the distant high-velocity CO clouds at this longitude (l=357deg). (2) A stronger possibility is that it is simply a metal-poor high-velocity G- or K-type giant (but such stars

  7. Polyethylene/Boron Composites for Radiation Shielding Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Courtney; Grulke, Eric; Burgett, Eric; Hertel, Nolan

    2008-01-21

    Multifunctional composites made with boron are absorbers of low energy nuetrons, and could be used for structural shielding materials. Polyethylene/boron carbide composites were fabricated using conventional polymer processing techniques, and were evaluated for mechanical and radiation shielding properties. Addition of neat boron carbide (powder and nanoparticles) to an injection molding grade HPDE showed superior mechanical properties compared to neat HDPE. Radiation shielding measurements of a 2 wt% boron carbide composite were improved over those of the neat polyethylene.

  8. Characterization of boron carbide with an electron microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteudi, G.; Ruste, J.

    1983-01-01

    Within the framework of a study of heterogeneous materials (Matteudi et al., 1971: Matteudi and Verchery, 1972) thin deposits of boron carbide were characterized. Experiments using an electronic probe microanalyzer to analyze solid boron carbide or boron carbide in the form of thick deposits are described. Quantitative results on boron and carbon are very close to those obtained when applying the Monte Carlo-type correction calculations.

  9. Boron toxicity in the rare serpentine plant, Streptanthus morrisonii.

    PubMed

    Sage, R F; Ustin, S L; Manning, S J

    1989-01-01

    The release of boron-laden mist from the cooling towers of some geothermal power stations in northern California potentially threatens nearby populations of the rare serpentine plant, Streptanthus morrisonii F. W. Hoffm. To assess the tolerance of S. morrisonii to high levels of boron, the effect of boron on leaf condition, life history, germination rate, growth rate, allocation and photosynthesis was measured on plants grown in a greenhouse. Relative to other species, S. morrisonii was tolerant of excess boron. On serpentine soil, mild to moderate toxicity symptoms (older leaves exhibiting chlorosis and necrosis, but few leaves killed) were apparent when the boron concentration in applied nutrient solutions was 240-650 microm. Severe toxicity symptoms (significant leaf loss, young leaves with toxicity symptoms) were apparent when the applied solution was over 1000 microm boron. Above 1000 microm boron, S. morrisonii appeared unable to complete its life cycle. On a tissue basis, boron toxicity was first observed when leaf boron content was 40-90 micromol g(-1) dry weight. In leaves with severe boron toxicity (> 35% injury), the boron content was generally above 130 micromol g(-1) dry weight. These levels were an order of magnitude above the tissue boron content of plants in the field. Prior to the onset of pronounced boron toxicity symptoms, growth rate, allocation patterns, and photosynthesis were unaffected by high boron. These results indicate that inhibition of growth and photosynthesis occurred because of a loss of viable tissue due to boron injury, rather than a progressive decline as leaf boron levels increased. PMID:15092365

  10. Hierarchical coassembly of DNA–triptycene hybrid molecular building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Rina; Singh, Sumit; Monisha, Mohan; Bhowmick, Sourav; Roy, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Summary Herein, we describe the successful construction of composite DNA nanostructures by the self-assembly of complementary symmetrical 2,6,14-triptycenetripropiolic acid (TPA)–DNA building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn PpIX). DNA–organic molecule scaffolds for the composite DNA nanostructure were constructed through covalent conjugation of TPA with 5′-C12-amine-terminated modified single strand DNA (ssDNA) and its complementary strand. The repeated covalent conjugation of TPA with DNA was confirmed by using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). The biologically relevant photosensitizer Zn PpIX was used to direct the hybridization-mediated self-assembly of DNA–TPA molecular building blocks as well as a model guest molecule within the DNA–TPA supramolecular self-assembly. The formation of fiber-like composite DNA nanostructures was observed. Native PAGE, circular dichroism (CD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been utilized for analyzing the formation of DNA nanofibers after the coassembly. Computational methods were applied to discern the theoretical dimension of the DNA–TPA molecular building block of the nanofibers. A notable change in photocatalytic efficiency of Zn PpIX was observed when it was inside the TPA–DNA scaffold. The significant increase in ROS generation by Zn PpIX when trapped in this biocompatible DNA–TPA hybrid nanofiber may be an effective tool to explore photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications as well as photocatalytic reactions. PMID:27335759

  11. Ares I-X Flight Test Development Challenges and Success Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce; Davis, Steve; Olsen, Ronald; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program's Ares I-X rocket launched successfully on October 28, 2009 collecting valuable data and providing risk reduction for the Ares I project. The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005. The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper. For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components. The vehicle was 327 feet tall and weighed approximately 1,800,000 pounds. During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4.8 and an altitude of 150,000 feet. The vehicle demonstrated staging at 130,000 feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately 900 sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges. Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware. These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team. Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board. Ares I-X was a technically complex test that

  12. CLVTOPS Liftoff and Separation Analysis Validation Using Ares I-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Ben; Schwarz, Kristina; Kim, Young

    2011-01-01

    CLVTOPS is a multi-body time domain flight dynamics simulation tool developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for a space launch vehicle and is based on the TREETOPS simulation tool. CLVTOPS is currently used to simulate the flight dynamics and separation/jettison events of the Ares I launch vehicle including liftoff and staging separation. In order for CLVTOPS to become an accredited tool, validation against other independent simulations and real world data is needed. The launch of the Ares I-X vehicle (first Ares I test flight) on October 28, 2009 presented a great opportunity to provide validation evidence for CLVTOPS. In order to simulate the Ares I-X flight, specific models were implemented into CLVTOPS. These models include the flight day environment, reconstructed thrust, reconstructed mass properties, aerodynamics, and the Ares I-X guidance, navigation and control models. The resulting simulation output was compared to Ares I-X flight data. During the liftoff region of flight, trajectory states from the simulation and flight data were compared. The CLVTOPS results were used to make a semi-transparent animation of the vehicle that was overlaid directly on top of the flight video to provide a qualitative measure of the agreement between the simulation and the actual flight. During ascent, the trajectory states of the vehicle were compared with flight data. For the stage separation event, the trajectory states of the two stages were compared to available flight data. Since no quantitative rotational state data for the upper stage was available, the CLVTOPS results were used to make an animation of the two stages to show a side-by-side comparison with flight video. All of the comparisons between CLVTOPS and the flight data show good agreement. This paper documents comparisons between CLVTOPS and Ares I-X flight data which serve as validation evidence for the eventual accreditation of CLVTOPS.

  13. Time Domain Tool Validation Using ARES I-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, Steven; Compton, James; Hannan, Mike; Brandon, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The ARES I-X vehicle was launched from NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on October 28, 2009 at approximately 11:30 EDT. ARES I-X was the first test flight for NASA s ARES I launch vehicle, and it was the first non-Shuttle launch vehicle designed and flown by NASA since Saturn. The ARES I-X had a 4-segment solid rocket booster (SRB) first stage and a dummy upper stage (US) to emulate the properties of the ARES I US. During ARES I-X pre-flight modeling and analysis, six (6) independent time domain simulation tools were developed and cross validated. Each tool represents an independent implementation of a common set of models and parameters in a different simulation framework and architecture. Post flight data and reconstructed models provide the means to validate a subset of the simulations against actual flight data and to assess the accuracy of pre-flight dispersion analysis. Post flight data consists of telemetered Operational Flight Instrumentation (OFI) data primarily focused on flight computer outputs and sensor measurements as well as Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) data that estimates vehicle state information from all available measurement sources. While pre-flight models were found to provide a reasonable prediction of the vehicle flight, reconstructed models were generated to better represent and simulate the ARES I-X flight. Post flight reconstructed models include: SRB propulsion model, thrust vector bias models, mass properties, base aerodynamics, and Meteorological Estimated Trajectory (wind and atmospheric data). The result of the effort is a set of independently developed, high fidelity, time-domain simulation tools that have been cross validated and validated against flight data. This paper presents the process and results of high fidelity aerospace modeling, simulation, analysis and tool validation in the time domain.

  14. Measurement and modelling of protoporphyrin IX photo-oxidation during superficial PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Dominic J.; Stringer, Mark R.; Crum, William R.; Collins, P.

    1996-12-01

    The oxidation of photosensitizers during photodynamic therapy (PDT) has important implications for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. The reduction in sensitizer concentration during illumination progressively reduces the effectiveness of therapy and, ultimately, limits the destruction of the host tissue. In the course of our studies of the effects of PDT upon superficial skin disorders, following topical application of 5- aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), we routinely record the surface fluorescence emission of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) before, during, and after therapy, in order to monitor the sensitizer photo-oxidation. It is important, therefore, to establish that measurements made in this way are representative of the variation in sensitizer concentration throughout the illuminated volume. We have developed a time- dependent Monte-Carlo model to simulate PpIX photo-oxidation during either low intensity laser (488 nm) or white light irradiation of plaque psoriasis. We have assessed the effect of differences in the optical properties of tissue at sites on different patients prior to treatment, and the effect of these variations on the surface fluorescence signal detected during treatment, at sites within the same plaque. The results show that the PpIX fluorescence intensity recorded from plaque psoriasis is an accurate indicator of the relative concentration of the sensitizer and can be used as a direct comparison between different sites and different patients. Also, the reduction in fluorescence emission during PDT is an effective measure of the depletion in sensitizer concentration throughout the illuminated volume. These results illustrate that the light dose required to achieve significant PpIX photo-oxidation is significantly lower than that often adopted for the treatment of superficial skin conditions.

  15. Zinc protoporphyrin IX enhances chemotherapeutic response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang-Sui; Li, Huan-Song; Qi, Dun-Feng; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Xin-Chun; Shi, Kui; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xin-Hui

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of zinc protoporphyrin IX on the response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin and the possible mechanism involved. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was determined by a flow cytometric assay. Western blotting was used to measure protein expression. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 activity was measured by determining the level of bilirubin generated in isolated microsomes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was measured with a colorimetric assay kit. Mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 tumor cells subcutaneously into the right flanks. All mice were sacrificed 6 wk after the first treatment and tumors were weighed and measured. RESULTS: Overexpression of HO-1 in HepG2 cell line was associated with increased chemoresistance to cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin; CDDP) compared to other cell lines in vitro. Inhibition of HO-1 expression or activity by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX) markedly augmented CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity towards all liver cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, induction of HO-1 with hemin increased resistance of tumor cells to CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, cells treated with ZnPP IX plus CDDP exhibited marked production of intracellular ROS and caspase-3 activity, which paralleled the incidence of cell apoptosis, whereas hemin decreased cellular ROS and caspase-3 activity induced by CDDP. CONCLUSION: ZnPP IX increases cellular sensitivity and susceptibility of liver cancer cell lines to CDDP and this may represent a mechanism of increasing ROS. PMID:25024611

  16. Resolving North America`s environmental disputes

    SciTech Connect

    Mauseth, M.

    1998-12-31

    Seventeen years ago John E. Carroll and Newell B. Mack analyzed the then-current status of environmental protection mechanisms used between Canada and the United States. They criticized the ad hoc nature of North America`s history of environmental dispute resolution, which they dubbed ``ad hockery,`` and believed the present ambiguity hurt business, diplomatic relations, and the citizenry`s environment. Since that publication, increasing efforts to incorporate environmental concerns into Conventions have resulted in several multilateral agreements focusing on environmental protection and dispute resolution. Part 2 of this paper introduces a few of these recent agreements and the mechanisms they have established to monitor environmental damage and to enforce the goals of the agreements. The agreements discussed include: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer; Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal; Canada-United States: Agreement on Air Quality; Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; Framework Convention on Climate Change; Convention on Biological Diversity; and the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. Part 3 discusses the general concern related to economic development (with the need to maintain ``sustainable development``), the possible environmental impact of NAFTA, and the Supplemental Agreement`s strengths and weaknesses.

  17. Expression of human factor IX in rat capillary endothelial cells: Toward somatic gene therapy for hemophilia B

    SciTech Connect

    Shounan Yao; Wilson, J.M.; Nabel, E.G.; Kurachi, Sumiko; Hachiya, H.L.; Kurachi, Kotoku )

    1991-09-15

    In aiming to develop a gene therapy approach for hemophilia B, the authors expressed and characterized human factor IX in rat capillary endothelial cells (CECs). Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived retrovirus vectors that contain human factor IX cDNA linked to heterologous promoters and the neomycin-resistant gene were constructed and employed to prepare recombinant retroviruses. Rat CECs and NIH 3T3 cells infected with these viruses were selected with the neomycin analogue, G418 sulfate, and tested for expression of factor IX. A construct with the factor IX cDNA under direct control by long terminal repeat gave the highest level of expression as quantitated by immunoassays as well as clotting activity assays. A single RNA transcript of 4.4 kilobases predicted by the construct and a recombinant factor IX were found. The recombinant human factor IX produced showed full clotting activity, demonstrating that CECs have an efficient mechanism for posttranslational modifications, including {gamma}-carboxylation, essential for its biological activity. These results, in addition to other properties of the endothelium, including large number of cells, accessibility, and direct contact with the circulating blood, suggest that CECs can serve as an efficient drug delivery vehicle producing factor IX in a somatic gene therapy for hemophilia B.

  18. Use of Cre/loxP recombination to swap cell binding motifs on the adenoviral capsid protein IX

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Kathy L.; Tong, Grace; Vorobyova, Olga; Pool, Madeline; Kothary, Rashmi; Parks, Robin J.

    2011-11-25

    We used Cre/loxP recombination to swap targeting ligands present on the adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX). A loxP-flanked sequence encoding poly-lysine (pK-binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans) was engineered onto the 3'-terminus of pIX, and the resulting fusion protein allowed for routine virus propagation. Growth of this virus on Cre-expressing cells removed the pK coding sequence, generating virus that could only infect through alternative ligands, such as a tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA)-binding motif engineered into the capsid fibre protein for enhanced infection of neuronal cells. We used a similar approach to swap the pK motif on pIX for a sequence encoding a single-domain antibody directed towards CD66c for targeted infection of cancer cells; Cre-mediated removal of the pK-coding sequence simultaneously placed the single-domain antibody coding sequence in frame with pIX. Thus, we have developed a simple method to propagate virus lacking native viral tropism but containing cell-specific binding ligands. - Highlights: > We describe a method to grow virus lacking native tropism but containing novel cell-binding ligands. > Cre/loxP recombination was used to modify the adenovirus genome. > A targeting ligand present on capsid protein IX was removed or replaced using recombination. > Cre-loxP was also used to 'swap' the identity of the targeting ligand present on pIX.

  19. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase IX expression and extracellular pH in B-cell lymphoma cell line models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liu Qi; Howison, Christine M; Spier, Catherine; Stopeck, Alison T; Malm, Scott W; Pagel, Mark D; Baker, Amanda F

    2015-05-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) and its relationship to acidosis in lymphomas has not been widely studied. We investigated the protein expression of CA IX in a human B-cell lymphoma tissue microarray, and in Raji, Ramos and Granta 519 lymphoma cell lines and tumor models, while also investigating the relationship with hypoxia. An imaging method, acidoCEST magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was used to estimate lymphoma xenograft extracellular pH (pHe). Our results showed that clinical lymphoma tissues and cell line models in vitro and in vivo had moderate CA IX expression. Although in vitro studies showed that CA IX expression was induced by hypoxia, in vivo studies did not show this correlation. Untreated lymphoma xenograft tumor pHe had acidic fractions, and an acidity score was qualitatively correlated with CA IX expression. Therefore, CA IX is expressed in B-cell lymphomas and is qualitatively correlated with extracellular acidosis in xenograft tumor models. PMID:25130478

  20. Changes in boron concentration during development and ageing of Drosophila and effect of dietary boron on life span.

    PubMed

    Massie, H R; Whitney, S J; Aiello, V R; Sternick, S M

    1990-03-31

    Total boron concentrations in Drosophila changed during development and ageing. The highest concentration of boron was found during the egg stage followed by a decline during the larval stages. Newly emerged flies contained 35.5 ppm boron. During the adult stage the boron concentration increased by 52% by 9 weeks of age. Adding excess dietary boron during the adult stage decreased the median life span by 69% at 0.01 M sodium borate and by 21% at 0.001 M sodium borate. Lower concentrations gave small but significant increases in life span. Supplementing a very low boron diet with 0.00025 M sodium borate improved life span by 9.5%. The boron contents of young and old mouse tissues were similar to those of Drosophila and human samples. We conclude that moderate levels of dietary boron may have a general protective effect in biological systems. The mechanism of this effect at present remains unknown. PMID:2325439

  1. Effect of magnesium on the burning characteristics of boron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-zhong; Xi, Jian-fei; Yang, Wei-juan; Hu, You-rui; Zhang, Yan-wei; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Jun-hu

    2014-03-01

    Boron is an attractive fuel for propellants and explosives because of its high energy density. However, boron particles are difficult to combust because of inhibiting oxide layers that cover the particles. The use of magnesium as additives has been shown to promote boron oxidation. In this study, laser ignition facility and thermobalance were used to investigate the effect of magnesium on the burning characteristics of boron particles. The influences of magnesium addition on sample combustion flame, boron ignition delay time, boron combustion efficiency and initial temperature of boron oxidation. Results show that all Mg/B samples exhibit the same type of flame structure, i.e., a bright plume surrounded by green radiation which is interpreted as BO2 emission. The combustion flame intensity of a sample increases with the increasing magnesium content of boron particles. An increase in magnesium content results in a decrease and a subsequent increase in boron ignition delay time. (Mg/B)0.2 has a minimum ignition delay time of ~48 ms. Boron combustion efficiency increases with increasing magnesium addition. (Mg/B)0.5 shows a maximum boron combustion efficiency of ~64.2%. Magnesium addition decreases the initial temperature of boron oxidation.

  2. Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Boron Efficiency in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of Bangladeshi wheat genotypes (varieties and advanced lines) have been tested for boron efficiency through sand culture experiments over two years (2007-08 & 2008-09) against two Thai check varieties ‘Fang 60’ (boron efficient) and ‘SW41’ (boron inefficient). Performances of the genotypes ...

  3. Dietary boron: possible roles in human and animal physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is a bioactive element of low molecular weight. Since discovery of the first boron biomolecule, boromycin, in 1967, several other similar biomolecules are now well-characterized. Most recently described was a bacterial cell-to-cell communication signal that requires boron, autoinducer-II. Boro...

  4. X-ray diffraction investigation of ultrafine boron nitride powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gurov, S.V.; Chukalin, V.I.; Rezchikova, T.V.; Torbov, V.J.; Troitskii, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an x-ray diffraction analysis of ultrafine boron nitride powders of different mean particle sizes. Diffraction spectra of the ultrafine boron nitride powders were obtained using a DRON-1 apparatus. The experimental facts are indicative of a turbostratic character of deformation of the hexagonal lattice of ultrafinely divided boron nitride.

  5. Development of improved analytical procedures for boron purification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.D.; Fossey, J.L.; Hinds, S.C.; Lantz, L.L.; Smith, R.E.

    1988-06-01

    Three new analytical methods for boron powder certification were developed and evaluated during this project. First, the boric acid content of the powder was determined by an acid-base titration method. Second, the moisture content of boron samples was measured with a moisture evolution analyzer. Third, boron powder samples were acid digested in a microwave oven. 11 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  6. Boron-containing amino carboxylic acid compounds and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Kabalka, George W.; Srivastava, Rajiv R.

    2000-03-14

    Novel compounds which are useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are disclosed. The compounds comprise a stable boron-containing group and an aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid group or a boronated acyclic hydrocarbon-linked amino carboxylic acid. Methods for synthesis of the compounds and for use of the compounds in BNCT are disclosed.

  7. LEECHES OF NORTH AMERICA,CENTRAL AMERICA, AND CARIBBEAN SEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current(1999)alphabetical listing of the hierarchy, the taxonomy of freshwater leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) of North America, Central America, islands in the Caribbean Sea, and selected references. The list contains 10 Families, 52 Genera, and 148 Species of leeches.

  8. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Characterization of boron tolerant bacteria isolated from a fly ash dumping site for bacterial boron remediation.

    PubMed

    Edward Raja, Chellaiah; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to living organisms. A major environmental concern is the removal of boron from contaminated water and fly ash. For this purpose, the samples were collected from a fly ash dumping site, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. The chemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration of the samples were performed by X-ray fluorescent analysis and leaching test. For bacterial analysis, samples were collected in sterile plastic sheets and isolation was carried out by serial dilution method. The boron tolerant isolates that showed values of maximum inhibitory concentration toward boron ranging from 100 to 260 mM level were screened. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were most closely related to the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium and Ralstonia. The boron tolerance of these strains was also associated with resistant to several heavy metals, such as As (III), Cr (VI), Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se (III) and Zn. Indeed, these strains were arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by silver nitrate test. These strains exhibited their salt resistances ranging from 4 to 15 % were determined in Trypticase soy agar medium. The boron tolerant strains were capable of removing 0.1-2.0 and 2.7-3.7 mg l(-1) boron from the medium and fly ash at 168 h. Thus, we have successfully identified the boron tolerant and removal bacteria from a fly ash dumping site for boron remediation. PMID:23212536

  10. Enhancement and optimization of PpIX-based photodynamic therapy of skin cancer: translational studies from bench to clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Baran, Christine; Honari, Golara; Lohser, Sara; Kyei, Angela; Bailin, Philip; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-02-01

    Nonmelanoma skin carcinomas are the most common of all human cancers. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been used to treat these tumors, but has shown variable results. We are pursuing a multifaceted approach toward optimizing tumor responsiveness. First, a new paradigm is being developed in which tumors are pretreated with differentiation-inducing agents, e.g. methotrexate or Vitamin D, to enhance synthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and improve tumor cell killing upon exposure to 635 nm light. This principle was first elucidated in cell culture studies, and has now been shown to hold true for murine skin tumors, and for a human subcutaneous tumor model (A431 cells injected in nude mice). Clinical trials to test methotrexate and Vitamin D as augmenting agents for ALA-PDT of nonmelanoma skin cancer are being designed. Second, better methods to measure PpIX in patients' skin tumors in real time are being developed. In a clinical study to measure PpIX in patients with dysplastic skin lesions, in vivo fluorescence dosimetry was used to measure the accumulation of PpIX over time, and revealed that intralesional PpIX may reach clinically-useful levels earlier than previously thought for the treatment of actinic keratoses. In a second clinical study to examine depth of PpIX production in nonmelanoma skin cancer, the depth of PpIX within BCC tumors was found at relatively deep levels (>1 mm) in some tumor nests, but not in others. Production of PpIX in deep squamous cell carcinoma was very low. In summary, molecular approaches such as differentiation therapy to enhance ALA-PDT for individual patients may ultimately be needed to help to improve skin cancer responses to this modality.

  11. Anomalous electronic transport in boron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emin, D.; Samara, G. A.; Wood, C.

    The boron carbides are composed of icosahedral units, B12 and B11C1, linked together by strong intericosahedral bonds. With such distributions of icosahedral and intericosahedral compositions, boron carbides, B/sub 1-x/C/sub x/, are single phase over 0.1 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.2. The electronic transport properties of the boron carbides were examined within this single-phase region. Results are inconsistent with conventional analyses of both itinerant and hopping transport. Most striking are Seebeck coefficients which are both large and rapidly increasing functions of temperature despite thermally activated dc conductivities. These results manifest the hopping of small bipolaronic holes between carbon-containing icosahedral that are inequivalent in energy and electron-lattice coupling strength. Under hydrostatic pressures up to approx. 25 kbar, the dc conductivities increase with pressure. This anomalous behavior for hopping conduction reflects the distinctive structure and bonding of these materials.

  12. Accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgecock, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary treatment for certain types of cancer. It works by loading the cancerous cells with a boron-10 carrying compound. This isotope has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the reaction producing a lithium nucleus and alpha particle that kill the cell in which they are produced. Recent studies of the boron carrier compound indicate that the uptake process works best in particularly aggressive cancers. Most studied is glioblastoma multiforme and a trial using a combination of BNCT and X-ray radiotherapy has shown an increase of nearly a factor of two in mean survival over the state of the art. However, the main technical problem with BNCT remains producing a sufficient flux of neutrons for a reasonable treatment duration in a hospital environment. This paper discusses this issue.

  13. On the Mechanism of Boron Ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, D. G.; Dreizin, E. L.; Felder, W.; Vicenzi, E. P.

    1997-01-01

    Boron filaments were electrically heated in air and argon/oxygen mixtures while their resistance, temperature, and radiation at the wavelengths of BO and BO2 bands were monitored. The filaments 'burned' in two distinct stages. Samples of the filaments were quenched at different times before and during the burning and analyzed using electron microscopy. The beginning of the first stage combustion characterized by a local resistance minimum, a sharp spike in boron oxide radiation emission, and a rapid rise in temperature, occurred at 1500 +/- 70 deg. C, independent of pre-heating history and oxygen content (540%) in the gas environment. The data suggest that a phase transition occurs in the filaments at this temperature that triggers stage one combustion. Significant amounts of oxygen were found inside quenched filaments. Large spherical voids formed in the boron filaments during their second stage combustion which is interpreted to indicate a crucial role for the gas dissolution processes in the combustion scenario.

  14. Wear resistance of boron nitride coated metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andoh, Yasunori; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Sakai, Shigeki; Ogata, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Fuminori

    1993-06-01

    The wear resistance of boron nitride films was studied. The films of 1 μm thickness were prepared on the surface of a cutting tool by simultaneous nitrogen ion irradiation and vapor depositon of boron; the Vickers hardness of the films was between 3000 and 5000 kg/mm 2. The test was performed by the cutting of steel. On the tool deposited directly, the wear of the surface is large and this could not be improved greatly. However, the tools prepared after nitridation of the surface layer by ion implantation and the one with another nitride layer in the interface showed decreasing wear, and the wear of the tool with an interlayer of silicon nitride could be decreased to about 15%. As a result, it became clear that boron nitride could be effectively used as a highly hard film by the optimization of the interface between the film and the matrix.

  15. Development of an advanced boron injection tank

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Kaori; Yuasa, Tetsushi; Makihara, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Kazuharu; Ichioka, Takehiko

    1996-12-31

    Mitsubishi has developed a hybrid safety system. This is an optimum combination of active and passive safety systems that provides improved safety, higher reliability, and better economy. As one option of the passive safety systems, Mitsubishi is studying a passive boron injection system that uses an advanced boron injection tank (BIT). The boron injection system to be developed in this study is passive and does not use nitrogen gas as a driving force. These features realize the higher reliability and eliminate a bad influence of the nitrogen gas during natural circulation cooling in the reactor coolant system (RCS). The driving force of the boric acid water injection in our advanced BIT is the boiling and steam expansion due to the depressurization inside the tank. Mitsubishi carried out tests to verify that the injection mechanism of the advanced BIT is basically feasible.

  16. A small, insertable oven for boronization

    SciTech Connect

    Brouchous, D.A.; Diebold, D.A.; Doczy, M.L.

    1996-04-01

    A small insertable oven for benchmarking the boronizing characteristics of solid compounds, such as decaborane and carborane, has been developed for the Phaedrus-T tokamak. Assembly and installation of the oven are relatively easy as the oven design utilizes a Langmuir probe drive assembly, which is standard equipment on most tokamaks and allows the oven to be inserted into the tokamak without requiring a vent. Films deposited by heating carborane into the vapor state with the oven are found to be spatially nonuniform in both thickness and in the ratio of boron to carbon as compared to films deposited with trimethylboron, a gaseous compound. Overall plasma performance is not found to be greatly affected by whether decaborane, carborane or trimethylboron is used for boronization in Phaedrus-T. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.} {lt}ii;010512{gt}

  17. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-06-30

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project “Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology” at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube-based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report discusses the validation studies performed to establish the degree of accuracy of the computer modeling methods current used to simulate the response of boron-lined tubes. This is the precursor to developing models for the uranium neutron coincidence collar under Task 2 of this project.

  18. Fundamental Study of Boron Carbide Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Sudarshan; Yeoun, Dae; Janjua, Saad; Driver, Marcus; Caruso, Anthony

    2009-03-01

    Boron-rich carbides belong to a special class of solids whose main structural unit is the twelve atom icosahedra. When depositing thin films of boron carbide (nominally B4C) by RF or pulsed DC magnetron sputtering, the individual sputtered or ablated cluster size and the temperature of the substrate to which the clusters adsorb to form the film, greatly affects the bulk film physical and electronic structure. This talk will present mass spectrometry data of the target clusters as a function of RF power, DC bias and chamber pressure toward the goal of modeling and understanding how the icosahedral based boron-rich materials sputter and the resultant control over the final film properties. Argon trapped into the film during the deposition as determined by X-Ray photoemission will also be discussed.

  19. Metallicity of boron carbides at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekura, Haruhiko; Shirai, Koun; Yanase, Akira

    2010-03-01

    Electronic structure of semiconducting boron carbide at high pressure has been theoretically investigated, because of interests in the positive pressure dependence of resistivity, in the gap closure, and in the phase transition. The most simplest form B12(CCC) is assumed. Under assumptions of hydrostatic pressure and neglecting finite-temperature effects, boron carbide is quite stable at high pressure. The crystal of boron carbide is stable at least until a pressure higher than previous experiments showed. The gap closure occurs only after p=600 GPa on the assumption of the original crystal symmetry. In the low pressure regime, the pressure dependence of the energy gap almost diminishes, which is an exceptional case for semiconductors, which could be one of reasons for the positive pressure dependence of resistivity. A monotonous increase in the apex angle of rhombohedron suggests that the covalent bond continues to increase. The C chain inserted in the main diagonal of rhombohedral structure is the chief reason of this stability.

  20. Longitudinal residual stresses in boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of measuring the longitudinal residual stress distribution in boron fibers is presented. The residual stresses in commercial CVD boron on tungsten fibers of 102, 142, and 203 microns (4, 5.6, and 8 mil) diameters were determined. Results for the three sizes show a compressive stress at the surface 800 to -1400 MN/sq m 120 to -200 ksi), changing monotonically to a region of tensile stress within the boron. At approximately 25 percent of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile 600 to 1000 MN/sq m(90 to 150 ksi) and then decreases to compressive near the tungsten boride core. The core itself is under a compressive stress of approximately -1300 MN/sq m (-190 ksi). The effects of surface removal on core residual stress and core-initiated fracture are discussed.