Science.gov

Sample records for boron concentration distribution

  1. Boron in the troposphere: Distribution and fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Thomas R.; Duce, Robert A.

    1985-04-01

    Gaseous and particulate concentrations of atmospheric boron have been measured simultaneously for the first time at several marine and continental areas using an impregnated filter sampling technique. Rainwater boron concentrations were also determined. The data indicate that most of the atmospheric boron is present in the gas phase. Gaseous boron concentrations are higher over the ocean than over the continents. Particulate boron may have the opposite distribution. Gaseous boron concentrations are elevated in some urban continental areas, probably as a result of volatilization of boron during coal combustion. The concentration of boron in rain and on aerosol particles is similar at all locations, suggesting that scavenging of aerosol particle boron may control boron in rain even though a significant gas phase exists. Total gaseous boron emissions from all sources are estimated as 250-4901010 g yr-1, and particulate boron emissions are estimated to be 32-881010 g yr-1. The major global sources of atmospheric boron appear to be volcanic emissions and sea salt aerosol production. The tropospheric residence time of gaseous and particulate boron is estimated to be 19-36 days and 2-6 days, respectively.

  2. Boron in the troposphere - Distribution and fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, T. R.; Duce, R. A.

    1985-04-01

    Gaseous and particulate concentrations of atmospheric boron have been measured simultaneously for the first time at several marine and continental areas using an impregnated filter sampling technique. Rainwater boron concentrations were also determined. The data indicate that most of the atmospheric boron is present in the gas phase. Gaseous boron concentrations are higher over the ocean than over the continents. Particulate boron may have the opposite distribution. Gaseous boron concentrations are elevated in some urban continental areas, probably as a result of volatilization of boron during coal combustion. The concentration of boron in rain and on aerosol particles is similar at all locations, suggesting that scavenging of aerosol particle boron may control boron in rain even though a significant gas phase exists. Total gaseous boron emissions from all sources are estimated as 250-490 x 10 to the 10th g/yr, and particulate boron emissions are estimated to be 32-88 x 10 to the 10th g/yr. The major global sources of atmospheric boron appear to be volcanic emissions and sea salt aerosol production. The tropospheric residence time of gaseous and particulate boron is estimated to be 19-36 days and 2-6 days, respectively.

  3. Neutron capture autoradiographic determination of 10B distributions and concentrations in biological samples for boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Ogura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Kobayashi, Hisao

    1999-11-01

    It is necessary for effective boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to accumulate 10B atoms in the tumor cells. We prepared a cationic liposome entrapped 10B compound for the delivery system and examined the delivery capacity of 10B atoms to pancreatic cancer cell, AsPC-1, in vivo. It is required to achieve an accurate measurement of 10B distributions and concentrations in biological samples with a sensitivity in the ppm range for BNCT. We applied CR-39 (polyallyldiglycol carbonate) plastic track detectors to ?-autoradiographic measurements of the 10B biodistribution in sliced whole-body samples of mice. To selectively desensitize undesirable proton tracks, we applied PEW (KOH+C 2H 5OH+H 2O) solution to the etching of CR-39 detector. The subsequent use of an alpha-track radiographic image analysis system enabled a discrimination between alpha tracks and recoiled proton tracks by the track size selection method. This enabled us to estimate quantitatively the distributions of 10B concentrations within the tissue sections by comparing with suitable standards.

  4. Inaccurate Use of Boron Concentration for Reactivity Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Aktas, Birol; Ergun, Sule

    2002-07-01

    A deficiency has been identified with the use of boron concentration for formulating reactivity feedback while the power of a PWR in response to boron injection in the aftermath of a scram failure was simulated. The US NRC Consolidated Code (TRAC-M) was used to simulate this transient, in which the boron injection was expected to shutdown the reactor. The results of this study, which employed the point-kinetics model of TRAC-M, reveal that the use of core-average boron concentration for formulating the reactivity feedback is inadequate for transients when there is substantial coolant void inside the core. It is recommended that the macroscopic boron density be used for more accurate predictions of the boron feedback as the use of solute concentration is only adequate when no voiding occurs in the core. (authors)

  5. Abundance and distribution of boron in the Hauzenberg (Bavaria) granite complex

    SciTech Connect

    Sauerer, A.; Troll, G. )

    1990-01-01

    Hercynian S-type granites from the Hauzenberg igneous complex show a range of boron concentration from 1 to 12 ppm. The whole-rock boron data are not significantly correlated with concentrations of other trace elements (Zr, Rb, Ba, Sr, Ni, V, Co, Cu, Zn, F); neither is boron correlated with the major elements (except with sodium) or with the differentiation index (DI). The boron budget in the rock-forming minerals (plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, biotite, muscovite) of the tourmaline-free granites reveals that the highest concentrations of boron occur in muscovite, whereas the greatest amount of boron is incorporated in plagioclase (57-69%) due to its high modal amount. Boron in plagioclase increases with the extent of of sericitization (obtained by X-ray diffractometry). Muscovite in a pegmatite contains more than 50% of the total boron. The areal distribution of boron within the complex is neither uniform nor random; an increase of boron concentrations from granodioritic to granitic rocks is indicated, whereas the late differentiates are depleted in boron.

  6. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141

  7. Changes in boron concentration during development and ageing of Drosophila and effect of dietary boron on life span.

    PubMed

    Massie, H R; Whitney, S J; Aiello, V R; Sternick, S M

    1990-03-31

    Total boron concentrations in Drosophila changed during development and ageing. The highest concentration of boron was found during the egg stage followed by a decline during the larval stages. Newly emerged flies contained 35.5 ppm boron. During the adult stage the boron concentration increased by 52% by 9 weeks of age. Adding excess dietary boron during the adult stage decreased the median life span by 69% at 0.01 M sodium borate and by 21% at 0.001 M sodium borate. Lower concentrations gave small but significant increases in life span. Supplementing a very low boron diet with 0.00025 M sodium borate improved life span by 9.5%. The boron contents of young and old mouse tissues were similar to those of Drosophila and human samples. We conclude that moderate levels of dietary boron may have a general protective effect in biological systems. The mechanism of this effect at present remains unknown. PMID:2325439

  8. Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Ficklin, W.H.; Thompson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.

  9. Spatial Burnout in Water Reactors with Nonuniform Startup Distributions of Uranium and Boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Thomas A.; Bogart, Donald

    1955-01-01

    Spatial burnout calculations have been made of two types of water moderated cylindrical reactor using boron as a burnable poison to increase reactor life. Specific reactors studied were a version of the Submarine Advanced Reactor (sAR) and a supercritical water reactor (SCW) . Burnout characteristics such as reactivity excursion, neutron-flux and heat-generation distributions, and uranium and boron distributions have been determined for core lives corresponding to a burnup of approximately 7 kilograms of fully enriched uranium. All reactivity calculations have been based on the actual nonuniform distribution of absorbers existing during intervals of core life. Spatial burnout of uranium and boron and spatial build-up of fission products and equilibrium xenon have been- considered. Calculations were performed on the NACA nuclear reactor simulator using two-group diff'usion theory. The following reactor burnout characteristics have been demonstrated: 1. A significantly lower excursion in reactivity during core life may be obtained by nonuniform rather than uniform startup distribution of uranium. Results for SCW with uranium distributed to provide constant radial heat generation and a core life corresponding to a uranium burnup of 7 kilograms indicated a maximum excursion in reactivity of 2.5 percent. This compared to a maximum excursion of 4.2 percent obtained for the same core life when w'anium was uniformly distributed at startup. Boron was incorporated uniformly in these cores at startup. 2. It is possible to approach constant radial heat generation during the life of a cylindrical core by means of startup nonuniform radial and axial distributions of uranium and boron. Results for SCW with nonuniform radial distribution of uranium to provide constant radial heat generation at startup and with boron for longevity indicate relatively small departures from the initially constant radial heat generation distribution during core life. Results for SAR with a sinusoidal distribution rather than uniform axial distributions of boron indicate significant improvements in axial heat generation distribution during the greater part of core life. 3. Uranium investments for cylindrical reactors with nonuniform radial uranium distributions which provide constant radial heat generation per unit core volume are somewhat higher than for reactors with uniform uranium concentration at startup. On the other hand, uranium investments for reactors with axial boron distributions which approach constant axial heat generation are somewhat smaller than for reactors with uniform boron distributions at startup.

  10. Implantation and Activation of High Concentrations of Boron in Germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Suh,Y.; Carroll, M.; Levy, R.; Sahiner, A.; King, C.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the development of Ge-based devices. Implantation and dopant activation are critical process steps for future Ge devices fabrication. Boron is a common p-type dopant, which remarkably is active immediately after implantation in Ge at low doses. This paper examines the effect of increasing dose (i.e., 5/spl times/10/sup 13/-5/spl times/10/sup 16/ cm/sup -2/) and subsequent annealing (400/spl deg/C-800/spl deg/C for 3 h in nitrogen) on activation and diffusion of boron in Ge. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), spreading resistance profiling (SRP), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) are used to characterize the implants before and after annealing. It is found that very high fractions of the boron dose (/spl sim/5%-55%) can be incorporated substitutionally immediately after implantation leading to very high hole concentrations, /spl ges/2/spl times/10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/, deduced from SRP. Small increases in activation after annealing are observed, however, 100% activation is not indicated by either SRP or NRA. Negligible diffusion after annealing at either 400/spl deg/C or 600/spl deg/C for 3 h was, furthermore, observed.

  11. Boron

    MedlinePLUS

    Boron is a mineral that is found in food and the environment. People take boron supplements as medicine. Boron is used for building ... to affect the way the body handles other minerals such as magnesium and phosphorus. It also seems ...

  12. Concentration of boron and other elements in human foods and personal-care products.

    PubMed

    Hunt, C D; Shuler, T R; Mullen, L M

    1991-05-01

    The element boron is ubiquitous in the environment. Comparatively low concentrations of dietary boron affect several aspects of mineral metabolism in animals and human beings. Therefore, it is appropriate to determine precisely the concentration of boron in human foodstuffs and absorbed, inhaled, or ingested nonfood substances. In this article, we report the analyzed concentrations of boron and other elements in selected foods (animal products, water, condiments, confections, fruits, tuberized roots, vegetables, cereal grains, and spices) and personal-care products (analgesics, antibiotics, decongestants, antihistamines, dental hygiene products, gastric antacids, and laxatives). We conclude that daily intake of boron usually differs considerably between any two individuals for three main reasons. First, concentration of boron in water varies considerably according to geographic source. At some locations, boron in drinking water and water-based beverages may account for most of the total dietary boron intake. Second, individual food preference greatly influences daily intake of boron. Fruits, vegetables, tubers, and legumes have relatively much higher concentrations of boron than do cereal grains or animal tissues and fluids. Third, boron was determined to be a notable contaminant or major ingredient of many personal-care products. PMID:2019698

  13. Mathematical modeling and experimental validation of the spatial distribution of boron in the root of Arabidopsis thaliana identify high boron accumulation in the tip and predict a distinct root tip uptake function.

    PubMed

    Shimotohno, Akie; Sotta, Naoyuki; Sato, Takafumi; De Ruvo, Micol; Mare, Athanasius F M; Grieneisen, Vernica A; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-04-01

    Boron, an essential micronutrient, is transported in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana mainly by two different types of transporters, BORs and NIPs (nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins). Both are plasma membrane localized, but have distinct transport properties and patterns of cell type-specific accumulation with different polar localizations, which are likely to affect boron distribution. Here, we used mathematical modeling and an experimental determination to address boron distributions in the root. A computational model of the root is created at the cellular level, describing the boron transporters as observed experimentally. Boron is allowed to diffuse into roots, in cells and cell walls, and to be transported over plasma membranes, reflecting the properties of the different transporters. The model predicts that a region around the quiescent center has a higher concentration of soluble boron than other portions. To evaluate this prediction experimentally, we determined the boron distribution in roots using laser ablation-inductivity coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The analysis indicated that the boron concentration is highest near the tip and is lower in the more proximal region of the meristem zone, similar to the pattern of soluble boron distribution predicted by the model. Our model also predicts that upward boron flux does not continuously increase from the root tip toward the mature region, indicating that boron taken up in the root tip is not efficiently transported to shoots. This suggests that root tip-absorbed boron is probably used for local root growth, and that instead it is the more mature root regions which have a greater role in transporting boron toward the shoots. PMID:25670713

  14. Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Validation of the Spatial Distribution of Boron in the Root of Arabidopsis thaliana Identify High Boron Accumulation in the Tip and Predict a Distinct Root Tip Uptake Function

    PubMed Central

    Shimotohno, Akie; Sotta, Naoyuki; Sato, Takafumi; De Ruvo, Micol; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Grieneisen, Verônica A.; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Boron, an essential micronutrient, is transported in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana mainly by two different types of transporters, BORs and NIPs (nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins). Both are plasma membrane localized, but have distinct transport properties and patterns of cell type-specific accumulation with different polar localizations, which are likely to affect boron distribution. Here, we used mathematical modeling and an experimental determination to address boron distributions in the root. A computational model of the root is created at the cellular level, describing the boron transporters as observed experimentally. Boron is allowed to diffuse into roots, in cells and cell walls, and to be transported over plasma membranes, reflecting the properties of the different transporters. The model predicts that a region around the quiescent center has a higher concentration of soluble boron than other portions. To evaluate this prediction experimentally, we determined the boron distribution in roots using laser ablation-inductivity coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The analysis indicated that the boron concentration is highest near the tip and is lower in the more proximal region of the meristem zone, similar to the pattern of soluble boron distribution predicted by the model. Our model also predicts that upward boron flux does not continuously increase from the root tip toward the mature region, indicating that boron taken up in the root tip is not efficiently transported to shoots. This suggests that root tip-absorbed boron is probably used for local root growth, and that instead it is the more mature root regions which have a greater role in transporting boron toward the shoots. PMID:25670713

  15. Boron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  16. Reprint of Inter-comparison of boron concentration measurements at INFN-University of Pavia (Italy) and CNEA (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Portu, Agustina; Postuma, Ian; Gadan, Mario Alberto; Saint Martin, Gisela; Olivera, Mara Silvina; Altieri, Saverio; Protti, Nicoletta; Bortolussi, Silva

    2015-12-01

    An inter-comparison of three boron determination techniques was carried out between laboratories from INFN-University of Pavia (Italy) and CNEA (Argentina): alpha spectrometry (alpha-spect), neutron capture radiography (NCR) and quantitative autoradiography (QTA). Samples of different nature were analysed: liquid standards, liver homogenates and tissue samples from different treatment protocols. The techniques showed a good agreement in a concentration range of interest in BNCT (1-100 ppm), thus demonstrating their applicability as precise methods to quantify boron and determine its distribution in tissues. PMID:26508276

  17. Inter-comparison of boron concentration measurements at INFN-University of Pavia (Italy) and CNEA (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Portu, Agustina; Postuma, Ian; Gadan, Mario Alberto; Saint Martin, Gisela; Olivera, Mara Silvina; Altieri, Saverio; Protti, Nicoletta; Bortolussi, Silva

    2015-11-01

    An inter-comparison of three boron determination techniques was carried out between laboratories from INFN-University of Pavia (Italy) and CNEA (Argentina): alpha spectrometry (alpha-spect), neutron capture radiography (NCR) and quantitative autoradiography (QTA). Samples of different nature were analysed: liquid standards, liver homogenates and tissue samples from different treatment protocols. The techniques showed a good agreement in a concentration range of interest in BNCT (1-100ppm), thus demonstrating their applicability as precise methods to quantify boron and determine its distribution in tissues. PMID:26454177

  18. Blood boron concentrations in pregnant rats fed boric acid throughout gestation.

    PubMed

    Price, C J; Strong, P L; Murray, F J; Goldberg, M M

    1997-01-01

    Timed-mated Sprague-Dawley rats (28 to 32/group) were exposed to boric acid (BA) in the diet from Gestational Day (GD) 0 to 20. Dietary concentrations of added BA (0%, 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.075%, 0.100%, or 0.200%) yielded average daily intakes equivalent to 0, 3, 6, 10, 13, or 25 mg boron/kg body weight/d. Dams and their fetuses were evaluated for evidence of maternal or developmental toxicity, as reported previously. At termination on GD 20, maternal whole blood was collected in heparinized Vacutainer tubes, stored frozen (-20 degrees C), and subsequently prepared by a high-temperature alkaline ashing procedure for analysis of boron by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Increasing dietary concentrations of BA were positively associated with whole blood boron concentrations in confirmed pregnant rats, specifically 0.229 +/- 0.143, 0.564 +/- 0.211, 0.975 +/- 0.261, 1.27 +/- 0.298, 1.53 +/- 0.546, or 2.82 +/- 0.987 micrograms boron/g whole blood (mean +/- SD) for the control through high-dose groups. Maternal blood boron concentrations were positively correlated with indices of maternal dietary intake of boron and with embryo/fetal toxicity observed at 0.100% and 0.200% BA in the diet reported previously. Thus, blood boron concentrations of 1.27 +/- 0.298 and 1.53 +/- 0.546 micrograms boron/g were associated with the no-observed-adverse-effect level (10 mg boron/kg/d) and lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (13 mg boron/kg/d) for developmental toxicity reported previously. PMID:9407594

  19. Distribution of boron in the Tip Top pegmatite, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.

    1986-02-01

    Experimental evidence has shown the importance of boron on the crystallization behavior of granitic systems; however, the intercrystalline and intracrystalline distribution of boron in mineral phases crystallizing from granitic systems is not well documented. The distribution of boron between coexisting phases in the Tip Top pegmatite, South Dakota, is as follows: beryl ca = quartz ca = triphylite ca = montebrasite ca = potassium feldspar < biotite < albite < muscovite < spodumene << tourmaline. The bulk boron content of the Tip Top pegmatite decreases significantly with the termination of tourmaline crystallization. The significant decrease in boron in the inner zones of the pegmatite is consistent with the depletion of boron in the granite melt by either the crystallization of tourmaline from the granitic melt or the partitioning of boron into an exsolved aqueous solutions. 35 references.

  20. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day. PMID:15759874

  1. CAN BROCCOLI TOLERATE HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS OF BORON UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reuse of saline drainage water is a management option that is necessary for reducing the volume of drainage water produced on the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). A potential limitation in implementing a drainage water reuse system is determining the extent by which boron, a natur...

  2. Boron Stress and Boron Tissue Distribution in Arbidopsis thaliana and Pelargonium X Hortorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The micronutrient boron is essential for plant growth and development. Deficient or excessive levels of this micronutrient result in the formation of growth defects that reduce yield in crop plants and result in discarding of horticultural plants. To study the responses of plants to altered boron ...

  3. Boron concentration measurements by alpha spectrometry and quantitative neutron autoradiography in cells and tissues treated with different boronated formulations and administration protocols.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, Silva; Ciani, Laura; Postuma, Ian; Protti, Nicoletta; Luca Reversi; Bruschi, Piero; Ferrari, Cinzia; Cansolino, Laura; Panza, Luigi; Ristori, Sandra; Altieri, Saverio

    2014-06-01

    The possibility to measure boron concentration with high precision in tissues that will be irradiated represents a fundamental step for a safe and effective BNCT treatment. In Pavia, two techniques have been used for this purpose, a quantitative method based on charged particles spectrometry and a boron biodistribution imaging based on neutron autoradiography. A quantitative method to determine boron concentration by neutron autoradiography has been recently set-up and calibrated for the measurement of biological samples, both solid and liquid, in the frame of the feasibility study of BNCT. This technique was calibrated and the obtained results were cross checked with those of ? spectrometry, in order to validate them. The comparisons were performed using tissues taken form animals treated with different boron administration protocols. Subsequently the quantitative neutron autoradiography was employed to measure osteosarcoma cell samples treated with BPA and with new boronated formulations. PMID:24387908

  4. Enhanced blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, M; Seppl, T; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S

    2004-11-01

    The blood boron concentration regulates directly the BNCT irradiation time in which the prescribed dose to the patient is delivered. Therefore a proper estimation of the blood boron concentration for the treatment field based on the measured blood samples before irradiation is required. The bi-exponential model fit using Levenberg-Marquardt method was implemented for this purpose to provide the blood boron concentration estimates directly to the treatment data flow during the BNCT procedure. The harmonic mean bi-exponential decay half-lives of the studied patient data (n=28) were 15+/-8 and 320+/-70 min for the faster and slower half-life. The model uncertainty (n=28) was reasonably low, 0.7+/-0.1 microg/g (about 5%). The implemented algorithm provides a robust method for temporal blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT. Utilization of the infusion data improves the reliability of the estimate. The overall data flow during the treatment fulfills the practical requirements concerning the BNCT procedure. PMID:15308151

  5. Peculiarities of boron distribution in as-grown boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, V. D.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Terentiev, S. A.; Nosukhin, S. A.; Kuznetsov, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) single crystals have been grown under conditions of high isostatic pressure by the temperature gradient method. Numerous equilateral triangles were found on the fluorescence images of {111}-diamond facets. Structural peculiarities of BDD were investigated by JEM-2010 transmission electron microscope with GIF Quantum attachment for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). High resolution image of diamond lattice revealed some distorted {111}-layers. EELS testifies the presence of boron in distorted regions of diamond lattice. The crystallographic features of BDD and their connection with the superconductivity are discussed.

  6. Influence of boron concentration on growth characteristic and electro-catalytic performance of boron-doped diamond electrodes prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yujie; Lv, Jiangwei; Liu, Junfeng; Gao, Na; Peng, Hongyan; Chen, Yuqiang

    2011-02-01

    A series of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition (DC-PCVD) with different compositions of CH4/H2/B(OCH3)3 gas mixture. A maximum growth rate of 0.65 mg cm-2 h-1 was obtained with CH4/H2/B(OCH3)3 radio of 4/190/10 and this growth condition was also a turning point for discharge plasma stability which arose from the addition of B(OCH3)3 that changed electron energy distribution and influenced the plasma reaction. The surface coating structure and electro-catalytic performance of the BDD electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Hall test, and electrochemical measurement and electro-catalytic oxidation in phenol solution. It is suggested that the boron doping level and the thermal stress in the films are the main factors affecting the electro-catalytic characteristics of the electrodes. Low boron doping level with CH4/H2/B(OCH3)3 ratio of 4/199/1 decreased the films electrical conductivity and its electro-catalytic activity. When the carrier concentration in the films reached around 1020 cm-3 with CH4/H2/B(OCH3)3 ratio over a range of 4/195/5-4/185/15, the thermal stress in the films was the key reason that influenced the electro-catalytic activity of the electrodes for its effect on diamond lattice expansion. Therefore, the BDD electrode with modest CH4/H2/B(OCH3)3 ratio of 4/190/10 possessed the best phenol removal efficiency.

  7. Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Chandra

    2008-05-30

    The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

  8. Boron distribution and the effect of lime on boron uptake by pansy, petunia, and gerbera plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of boron (B) deficiency have become more prevalent in pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana), petunia (Petunia ×hybrida), and gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) plug production. When symptoms are observed in production the presence and severity of symptoms have no pattern, symptomatic plants can be located a...

  9. Characteristics of gravity anomalies and prediction of volcanosedimentary boron deposit distribution in the Xiongba area, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-Rong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Li, Gui-Hua; Feng, Yang-Yang; He, Jun-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Volcanosedimentary boron deposits are present within Tertiary lacustrine sediments and volcanic rocks in Xiongba, Tibet. Boron deposits are characterized by low density relative to country rocks; thus, it is possible to locate them by gravity measurements. We conducted a 1:50000 high-precision gravity survey in the Xiongba area, Tibet, and obtained the Bouguer and residual gravity anomalies. We analyzed fault systems and the distribution of sedimentary and volcanic rocks and their relation to the volcanosedimentary boron deposits. The processing of the gravity data revealed local gravity variations and fault structures. We applied preferential downward continuation and wavelet transform to the gravity data, and in conjunction with geological data, we predicted the distribution of volcanosedimentary boron deposits.

  10. Distribution of boron atoms in ion-implanted-compound semiconductors. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.C.; Knudsen, J.F.; Downing, R.G.; Kremer, R.E.

    1988-11-22

    The nondestructive neutron depth profiling (NDP) technique was used to measure the boron (10B) distributions in GaAs, CdTe, Hg0.7Cd0.3Te, and Hg0.85Mn0.15Te after multiple energy ion implants. The NDP results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical ion ranges obtained from Monte Carlo computer simulations. Only minor changes in the boron profiles were seen for the chosen annealing conditions.

  11. Distribution and excretion of boron after intravenous administration of disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate to rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Nakajima, Y; Miyamoto, H; Mizobuchi, M; Kanazu, T; Kadono, K; Nakamoto, K; Ikeuchi, I

    1998-10-01

    Disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is an important compound for boron neutron capture therapy. The pharmacokinetics of boron by BSH were studied in normal rats after rapid intravenous injection at three doses (30, 100, 300 mg/kg) or continuous infusion (100 mg/kg/30 min). The boron concentration in biological samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The blood half-lives of boron in the elimination phase (t1/2 beta) after rapid injection of BSH at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg were 1.7, 17 and 19 hr, respectively. AUC (32, 219 and 4030 micrograms.hr/ml) increased with the dose, but there was no proportionality among the values. Total clearance decreased drastically from 233 ml/hr/kg (100 mg/kg) to 38 ml/hr/kg (300 mg/kg). As boron was excreted mainly into urine, these results suggest that renal function failure might occur with dosing of 300 mg/kg. In the case of continuous infusion of 100 mg/kg of BSH for 30 min, the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those of rapid injection of 100 mg/kg. The highest boron concentration was observed in the kidney and the lowest in the brain. After multiple dosing of BSH at 100 mg/kg/day x 14 days, the boron concentrations in blood, liver, lung and kidney at 24 hr after the last dosing were higher than those after single dosing and were similar to those of simulated values calculated from the single dosing parameters. These results clearly indicated that boron does not accumulate unexpectedly in any tissue with multiple dosing of 100 mg/kg of BSH for two weeks. PMID:9836183

  12. High-concentration boron doping of graphene nanoplatelets by simple thermal annealing and their supercapacitive properties.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Da-Young; Jeon, Woojin; Tu, Nguyen Dien Kha; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sung, Bong June; Chang, Hyejung; Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Heesuk

    2015-01-01

    For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000?C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04??1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448?F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment. PMID:25940534

  13. High-concentration boron doping of graphene nanoplatelets by simple thermal annealing and their supercapacitive properties

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Da-Young; Jeon, Woojin; Tu, Nguyen Dien Kha; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sung, Bong June; Chang, Hyejung; Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Heesuk

    2015-01-01

    For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000 °C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04 ± 1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448 F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment. PMID:25940534

  14. High-concentration boron doping of graphene nanoplatelets by simple thermal annealing and their supercapacitive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Da-Young; Jeon, Woojin; Tu, Nguyen Dien Kha; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sung, Bong June; Chang, Hyejung; Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Heesuk

    2015-05-01

    For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000?C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04??1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448?F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment.

  15. Effect of aluminum concentration and boron dopant on environmental embrittlement in FeAl aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; George, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    The room-temperature tensile properties of FeAl aluminides were determined as functions of aluminum concentration (35 to 43 at. % Al), test environment, and surface (oil) coating. The two lower aluminum alloys containing 35 and 36.5% Al are prone to severe environmental embrittlement, while the two higher aluminum alloys with 40 and 43% Al are much less sensitive to change in test environment and surface coating. The reason for the different behavior is that the grain boundaries are intrinsically weak in the higher aluminum alloys, and these weak boundaries dominate the low ductility and brittle fracture behavior of the 40 and 43% Al alloys. When boron is added to the 40% Al alloy as a grain-boundary strengthener, the environmental effect becomes prominent. In this case, the tensile ductility of the boron-doped alloy, just like that of the lower aluminum alloys, can be dramatically improved by control test environment (e.g. dry oxygen vs air). Strong segregation of boron to the grain boundaries, with a segregation factor of 43, was revealed by Auger analyses. 28 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Improvement of depth dose distribution using multiple-field irradiation in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, N; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Takata, T; Kondo, N; Narabayashi, M; Nakagawa, Y; Watanabe, T; Kinashi, Y; Masunaga, S; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K; Suzuki, M

    2015-12-01

    It is important that improvements are made to depth dose distribution in boron neutron capture therapy, because the neutrons do not reach the innermost regions of the human body. Here, we evaluated the dose distribution obtained using multiple-field irradiation in simulation. From a dose volume histogram analysis, it was found that the mean and minimum tumor doses were increased using two-field irradiation, because of improved dose distribution for deeper-sited tumors. PMID:26282566

  17. Effect of boron concentration on recombination at the p-SiAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Lachlan E. Allen, Thomas; Cuevas, Andres; McIntosh, Keith R.

    2014-03-07

    We examine the surface passivation properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited on boron-doped planar ?100? crystalline silicon surfaces as a function of the boron concentration. Both uniformly doped and diffused surfaces are studied, with surface boron concentrations ranging from 9.2??10{sup 15} to 5.2??10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3}. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and thermal atomic layer deposition are used to deposit the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. The surface recombination rate of each sample is determined from photoconductance measurements together with the measured dopant profiles via numerical simulation, using the latest physical models. These values are compared with calculations based on the interface properties determined from capacitancevoltage and conductance measurements. It is found that the fundamental surface recombination velocity of electrons, S{sub n0}, which describes the chemical passivation of the interface, is independent of the surface boron concentration N{sub s} for N{sub s}???3??10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3}, and in excellent agreement with values calculated from the interface state density D{sub it} and capture coefficients c{sub n} and c{sub p} measured on undiffused boron-doped surfaces. We conclude that the physical properties of the SiAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface are independent of the boron dopant concentration over this range.

  18. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S.; Ghosh, C.; Ravindran, T.R.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E.

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ∼ 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  19. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide includes heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  20. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide by heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  1. BORON CONCENTRATIONS IN MILK FROM MOTHERS OF EXCLUSIVELY BREAST-FED HEALTHY FULL-TERM INFANTS ARE STABLE DURING THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF LACTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because boron is a bioactive element that satisfies several of the criteria for essentiality in humans, the aim of the present work was to determine the profile of boron metabolism in human milk during the first 4 mo of lactation. The concentration of boron and other minerals was determined in arch...

  2. Ion energy distribution functions in inductively coupled RF discharges in mixtures of chlorine and boron trichloride

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.R.; Nichols, C.A.; Hamilton, T.W.

    1997-02-01

    Plasma discharges involving mixtures of chlorine and boron trichloride are widely used to etch metals in the production of very-large-scale-integrated circuits. Energetic ions play a critical role in this process, influencing the etch rates, etch profiles, and selectivity to different materials. The authors are using a gridded energy analyzer to measure positive ion energy distributions and fluxes at the grounded electrode of high-density inductively-coupled rf discharges. In this paper, they present details of ion energies and fluxes in discharges containing mixtures of chlorine and boron trichloride.

  3. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    PubMed Central

    Zio?a-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40?mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13?mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77?mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  4. III 1 BORON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron chemistry, analysis, environmental exposure, metabolism, anthropomorphic sources, beneficial physiological effects, and toxicity are reviewed. Boron is widely distributed in nature and always occurs bound to oxygen. Boron biochemistry is essentially that of boric acid, which forms ester comple...

  5. Relationships between Boron concentrations and trout in the firehole river, Wyoming: Historical information and preliminary results of a field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, J.S.; Boelter, A.M.; Woodward, D.F.; Goldstein, J.N.; Farag, A.M.; Hubert, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Firehole River (FHR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is a world- renowned recreational fishery that predominantly includes rainbow trout (RBT, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (BNT, Salmo trutta). The trout populations apparently are closed to immigration and have been self- sustaining since 1955. Inputs from hot springs and geysers increase the temperature and mineral content of the water, including elevating the boron (B) concentrations to a maximum of ~1 mg B/L. Both RBT and BNT reside in warm-water reaches, except when the water is extremely warm (???~25??C) during midsummer. They spawn in late fall and early winter, with documented spawning of BNT in the cold-water reach upstream from the Upper Geyser Basin and of RBT in the Lower Geyser Basin reach, where water temperatures presumably are the warmest; however, successful recruitment of RBT in waters containing ~1 mg B/L has not been demonstrated conclusively. Thus, we began investigating the relationships among temperature, B concentrations, other water-quality parameters, and the distribution and reproduction of trout in the FHR in spring 1997. However, atypical high water flows and concomitant lower than historical temperatures and B concentrations during summer 1997 preclude conclusions about avoidance of high B concentrations.

  6. Relationships between boron concentrations and trout in the Firehole River, Wyoming: historical information and preliminary results of a field study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J S; Boelter, A M; Woodward, D F; Goldstein, J N; Farag, A M; Hubert, W A

    1998-01-01

    The Firehole River (FHR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is a world-renowned recreational fishery that predominantly includes rainbow trout (RBT, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (BNT, Salmo trutta). The trout populations apparently are closed to immigration and have been self-sustaining since 1955. Inputs from hot springs and geysers increase the temperature and mineral content of the water, including elevating the boron (B) concentrations to a maximum of approximately 1 mg B/L. Both RBT and BNT reside in warm-water reaches, except when the water is extremely warm (> or = approximately 25 degrees C) during midsummer. They spawn in late fall and early winter, with documented spawning of BNT in the cold-water reach upstream from the Upper Geyser Basin and of RBT in the Lower Geyser Basin reach, where water temperatures presumably are the warmest; however, successful recruitment of RBT in waters containing approximately 1 mg B/L has not been demonstrated conclusively. Thus, we began investigating the relationships among temperature, B concentrations, other water-quality parameters, and the distribution and reproduction of trout in the FHR in spring 1997. However, atypical high water flows and concomitant lower than historical temperatures and B concentrations during summer 1997 preclude conclusions about avoidance of high B concentrations. PMID:10050918

  7. Boron distribution in silicon after multiple pulse excimer laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L.

    2005-08-22

    We have studied B redistribution in Si after excimer laser annealing (ELA) with multiple laser pulses. B was implanted with energies of 1 and 10 keV and doses of 1x10{sup 14} and 1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. ELA with the number of pulses from 1 to 100 was performed at room temperature and 450 deg. C in vacuum. Irrespective of the implantation parameters and the ELA conditions used, a pile-up in the B concentration is observed near the maximum melting depth after ten pulses of ELA. Moreover, a detailed study has revealed that B accumulates at the maximum melt depth gradually with the number of ELA pulses. Besides, an increase in the carrier concentration is observed at the maximum melt depth, suggesting electrical activity of the accumulated B. Formation of Si-B complexes and vacancy accumulation during multiple ELA are discussed as possible mechanisms for the B build-up.

  8. Boron dose determination for BNCT using Fricke and EPR dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Ciesielski, B.

    1995-02-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) the dominant dose delivered to the tumor is due to {alpha} and {sup 7}Li charged particles resulting from a neutron capture by {sup 10}B and is referred to herein as the boron dose. Boron dose is directly attributable to the following two independent factors, one boron concentration and the neutron capture energy dependent cross section of boron, and two the energy spectrum of the neutrons that interact with boron. The neutron energy distribution at a given point is dictated by the incident neutron energy distribution, the depth in tissue, geometrical factors such as beam size and patient`s dimensions. To account for these factors can be accommodated by using Monte Carlo theoretical simulations. However, in conventional experimental BNCT dosimetry, e.g., using TLDs or ionization chambers, it is only possible to estimate the boron dose. To overcome some of the limitations in the conventional dosimetry, modifications in ferrous sulfate dosimetry (Fricke) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry in alanine, enable to measure specifically boron dose in a mixed gamma neutron radiation fields. The boron dose, in either of the dosimeters, is obtained as a difference between measurements with boronated and unboronated dosimeters. Since boron participates directly in the measurements, the boron dosimetry reflects the true contribution, integral of the neutron energy spectrum with boron cross section, of the boron dose to the total dose. Both methods are well established and used extensively in dosimetry, they are presented briefly here.

  9. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial δ-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of specific conductance, boron, and phosphorus in a sewage-contaminated aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bussey, K.W.; Walter, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distributions of specific conductance, boron, and phosphorus were determined in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The source of contamination is secondarily treated sewage that has been discharged onto rapid- infiltration sand beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation since 1936. Contaminated ground water containing as much as 2 milligrams per liter of dissolved phosphorus is discharging into Ashumet Pond, and there is concern that the continued discharge of phosphorus into the pond will accelerate eutrophication of the pond. Water-quality data collected from observation wells and multilevel samplers from June through July 1995 were used to delineate the spatial distributions of specific conductance, boron, and phosphorus. Temporal distributions were determined using sample-interval-weighted average concen- trations calculated from data collected in 1993, 1994, and 1995. Specific conductances were greater than 400 microsiemens per centimeter at 25C as far as 1,200 feet downgradient from the infiltration beds. Boron concentrations were greater than 400 micrograms per liter as far as 1,800 feet down- gradient from the beds and phosphorus concen- trations were greater than 3.0 milligrams per liter as far as 1,200 feet from the beds. Variability in distributions of specific conductance and boron concentrations is attributed to the history and distribution of sewage disposal onto the infiltration beds. The distribution of phosphorus concentrations also is related to the history and distribution of sewage disposal onto the beds but additional variability is caused by chemical interactions with the aquifer materials. Temporal changes in specific conductance and boron from 1993 to 1995 were negligible, except in the lower part of the plume (below an altitude of about 5 feet above sea level), where changes in weighted-average specific conductance were greater than 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25C. Temporal changes in phosphorus generally were small except in the lower part of the plume, where weighted-average phosphorus concentrations decreased more than 1.3 milligrams per liter from 1993 to 1994. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in specific conductance. High concen- trations of phosphorus associated with low and moderate specific conductances possibly are the result of rapid phosphorus desorption in response to an influx of uncontaminated ground water. As a result of the cessation of sewage disposal in December 1995, clean, oxygenated water moving into contaminated parts of the aquifer may cause rapid desorption of sorbed phosphorus and temporarily result in high dissolved phosphorus concentrations in the aquifer.

  11. Self-compensation property of ?-rhombohedral boron doped with high Li concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, H.; Nezu, A.; Soga, K.; Kimura, K.

    2012-11-01

    A high concentration of Li (up to LiB5.8; 18 Li/cell) was doped into ?-rhombohedral boron (?-B), which has a crystalline structure built up from B12 icosahedral clusters, by sealing the raw materials in a stainless-steel tube. The relation between the structure and the electronic properties was clarified and a self-compensation property of Li- or Mg-doped ?-B was discussed. The Li concentration was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The changes in the structure and the electronic properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction using the Rietveld method and by electrical conductivity measurements, respectively. Li occupies the A1, D, E and F sites, and the occupancies of the B sites (B13, B16 and B4) decrease with increasing Li doping. In Li- or Mg-doped ?-B, electron doping is compensated by the removal of interstitial B atoms at the B16 site and by the generation of vacancies at the B13 and B4 sites. There have been no reports of self-compensation in other crystalline elemental semiconductors.

  12. Effect of carbon species on the reduction and melting behavior of boron-bearing iron concentrate/carbon composite pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang; Ding, Yin-gui; Wang, Jing-song; She, Xue-feng; Xue, Qing-guo

    2013-06-01

    Iron nugget and boron-rich slag can be obtained in a short time through high-temperature reduction of boronbearing iron concentrate by carbonaceous material, both of which are agglomerated together as a carbon composite pellet. This is a novel flow sheet for the comprehensive utilization of boron-bearing iron concentrate to produce a new kind of man-made boron ore. The effect of reducing agent species (i.e., carbon species) on the reduction and melting process of the composite pellet was investigated at a laboratory scale in the present work. The results show that, the reduction rate of the composite pellet increases from bituminite, anthracite, to coke at temperatures ranging from 950 to 1300C. Reduction temperature has an important effect on the microstructure of reduced pellets. Carbon species also affects the behavior of reduced metallic iron particles. The anthracite-bearing composite pellet melts faster than the bituminitebearing composite pellet, and the coke-bearing composite pellet cannot melt due to the high fusion point of coke ash. With anthracite as the reducing agent, the recovery rates of iron and boron are 96.5% and 95.7%, respectively. This work can help us get a further understanding of the new process mechanism.

  13. Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Greenberg, D. ); Packer, S. North Shore University Hospital Manhasset, NY )

    1990-01-01

    The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma.

  14. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for human drinking; the second zone is downflow and contains groundwater suitable for continuous irrigation but not drinkable due to high ammonium concentrations; and the third zone contains groundwater of elevated salinity (up to 5940 μS cm(-1)) and is not useable due to high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations. PMID:26437343

  15. Evolution of Diamond Crystal Shape with Boron Concentration during CVD Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, R.; Silva, F.; Tallaire, A.; Mille, V.; Achard, J.; Gicquel, A.

    2010-11-01

    Homoepitaxially grown boron-doped diamond films have been extensively studied for many years, in particular for the development of power-electronic devices. Coplanar structures have already been fabricated and characterized but, in such structures, the current is limited by a high series resistance. A vertical component could allow overcoming this issue but this requires that thick heavily boron-doped diamond crystals with a large usable top surface are grown. In this paper we used a 3D geometrical model in order to study the evolution of the crystal shape of thick diamond crystals as a function of boron doping. The growth parameters used in the model were determined by measuring the growth rate in different crystalline orientations. It was found that the addition of boron to the gas phase promotes the appearance of large {110} and {113} crystalline faces. {110} faces have a detrimental effect on the crystal since they can generate large stress and promote crystal break-up. The results predicted by the model are consistent with that obtained for a thick boron-doped diamond single crystal.

  16. Studies on distribution of element contents in transient layer at interface between boron-doped diamond film electrode and tantalum substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiachang; Gao, Chengyao; Zhang, Liping; Jiang, Lihui; Yang, Zhengquan; Wang, Zhiping; Ji, Chaohui; Le, Xiaoyun; Rong, Cuihua; Zhang, Jian

    2011-05-01

    The boron-doped diamond film (BDD) grown on tantalum (Ta) substrate as an electrode (BDD/Ta) was prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition method. The experimental results demonstrated that our BDD/Ta had high current efficiency, strong ability to degrade wastewater, good corrosion stability and long lifetime. These excellent characteristics of BDD/Ta have been explained in terms of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) experiments. RBS investigation revealed that the continuous transient layer at the interface between boron-doped diamond film and Ta-substrate was formed and the microstructure of the continuous transient layer given by the continuous distribution of all element contents at the interface was obtained. The thicknesses of boron-doped diamond film and the continuous transient layer were about equal to 8000 10 15 atoms/cm 2 and 5800 10 15 atoms/cm 2, respectively. The formation of the continuous transient layer at the interface can eliminate the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) at the interface and only lead to the slow change of TEC because of the continuous distribution of element contents of the film and substrate in the transient layer at the interface. Thus, there is no residual stress to concentrate on the interface and the stress-corrosion delamination of the film disappears. Therefore, the corrosion stability and lifetime of BDD/Ta increase and last well, that have been verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments.

  17. Removal of Boron from Silicon by Solvent Refining Using Ferrosilicon Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajavi, Leili Tafaghodi; Morita, Kazuki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Barati, Mansoor

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of boron between purified solid silicon and iron-silicon melt was evaluated to investigate the possibility of boron removal from silicon by solvent refining with iron-silicon alloys. The distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of the mole fraction of boron in solid to that of liquid, was found to be strongly dependent on boron concentration. Solvent refining at lower temperatures resulted in smaller distribution coefficient values. The boron removal percentages for the lowest boron concentration examined in this study were 70 pct [1583 K (1310 C)], 65 pct [1533 K (1260 C)], and 65 pct [1483 K (1210 C)]. The values obtained for interaction parameter of boron on iron in solid silicon are as follows: -813 53 [1583 K (1310 C)], -830 92 [1533 K (1260 C)], -863 91 [1483 K (1210 C)]. Lower temperature resulted in smaller distribution coefficient and higher silicon yield.

  18. Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast to concentrations over 5,000 ?g/L in the Congo Road area. Although concentrations of fluoride up to 4 mg/L were reported for a few well-water samples collected throughout the Newark Basin, about 90 percent of the samples had concentrations of 0.5 mg/L or less. The USGS sampled 58 wells primarily in 5 areas in the Newark Basin, southeastern Pennsylvania, from February 2004 through April 2005 to identify other possible areas of elevated arsenic, boron, and fluoride and to characterize the geochemical environment associated with elevated concentrations of these constituents. Sampled wells included 12 monitor wells at an industrial facility near Congo Road, 45 private-supply wells in Berks, Montgomery, and Bucks Counties, and 1 private-supply well near Dillsburg, York County, an area where elevated fluoride in ground water had been reported in the adjacent Gettysburg Basin. Wells were sampled in transects from the diabase through the adjacent hornfels and into the unaltered shales of the Brunswick Group. Field measurements were made of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and specific conductance. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for major ions, nutrients, total organic carbon, dissolved and total concentrations of selected trace elements, and boron isotopic composition. Generally, the ground water from the 46 private-supply wells had relatively neutral to alkaline pH (ranging from 6.1 to 9.1) and moderate concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Most water samples were of the calcium-bicarbonate type. Concentrations of arsenic up to 60 ?g/L, boron up to 3,950 ?g/L, and fluoride up to 0.70 mg/L were measured. Drinking-water standards or health advisories (for constituents that do not have standards established) were exceeded most frequently (about 20 percent of samples) for arsenic and boron and less frequently (6 percent or less of samples) for total iron, manganese, sulfate, nitrate, lead, molybdenum, and strontium. In water from 12 monitor

  19. A heterogeneous boron distribution in soil influences the poplar root system architecture development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, R.; Robinson, B. H.; Hartmann, S.; Lehmann, E.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Poplars are well suited for the phytomanagement of boron (B)-contaminated sites, due to their high transpiration rate and tolerance to elevated soil B concentrations. However, the uptake and the fate of B in poplar stands are not well understood. This information is crucial to improve the design of phytomanagement systems, where the primary role of poplars is to reduce B leaching by reducing the water flux through the contaminated material. Like other trace elements, B occurs heterogeneously in soils. Concentrations can differ up to an order of magnitude within centimetres. These gradients affect plant root growth and thus via preferential flow along the roots water and mass transport in soils to ground and surface waters. Generally there are three possible reactions of plant roots to patches with elevated trace element concentrations in soils: indifference, avoidance, or foraging. While avoidance or indifference might seem to be the most obvious strategies, foraging cannot be excluded a priori, because of the high demand of poplars for B compared to other tree species. We aimed to determine the rooting strategies of poplars in soils where B is either homo- or heterogeneously distributed. We planted 5 cm cuttings of Populus tremula var. Birmensdorf clones in aluminum (Al) containers with internal dimensions of 64 x 67 x 1.2 cm. The soil used was subsoil from northern Switzerland with a naturally low B and organic C concentration. We setup two treatments and a control with three replicates each. We spiked a bigger and a smaller portion of the soil with the same amount of B(OH)3-salt, in order to obtain soil concentrations of 7.5 mg B kg-1 and 20 mg B kg-1. We filled the containers with (a) un-spiked soil, (b) the 7.5 mg B kg-1 soil and (c) heterogeneously. The heterogeneous treatment consisted of one third 20 mg B kg-1 soil and two thirds control soil. We grew the poplars in a small greenhouse over 2 months and from then on in a climate chamber for another 3 months. We irrigated the poplars with modified Hoagland's solution that contained no B. We imaged the roots in the soil every 3rd week using neutron radiography (NR) at the Paul-Scherrer Institute. Living roots can be visualised in soil by NR because of their higher water content compared to the surrounding soil. At the end of the growing period, the Al containers were opened and the soil surface was scanned by a standard office scanner. The soil in the containers was divided into nine equal portions representing different depths and spiked or un-spiked regions in soil profile. We separated roots and soil as well as the aerial parts (stems and leaves). We obtained data on root morphological parameters like root length and root density by evaluating scans of the washed root samples with an image evaluation software. All soil and plant samples were dried, weighed and analyzed for B and mineral nutrients using ICP-OES. Plant vitality parameters like water use, growth and number of living leaves did not show any reaction to the treatments. The oldest poplar leaves from poplars in the B-spiked treatments showed signs of light to serious necrosis. From the neutron radiographs it was apparent that poplar roots reached the walls of the Al- containers during the experiment. Primary roots grew at first strongly in lengths in horizontal as well as in vertical direction and only after this lateral root growth was visible. Although the filling and packing of the containers was done with great care to establish an ideally homogeneous soil profile settlement occurred in some containers resulting in gaps in the profile. However, roots growth did not seem to be deranged since roots simply crossed these gaps and continued growth in the adjacent soil patch. The complete results will be available at the time of the conference.

  20. Salinity's influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: I. Impacts on yield, biomass distribution, and water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research addressing the interactive effects of the dual plant stress factors, excess boron and salinity, on crop productivity has expanded considerably over the past few years. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, saltcomposition and boron ...

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of depth dose distribution in several organic models for boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate depth-dose distributions for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ICRU computational model of ADAM & EVA was used as a phantom to simulate tumors at a depth of 5 cm in central regions of the lungs, liver and pancreas. Tumors of the prostate and osteosarcoma were also centered at the depth of 4.5 and 2.5 cm in the phantom models. The epithermal neutron beam from a research reactor was the primary neutron source for the MCNP calculation of the depth-dose distributions in those cancer models. For brain tumor irradiations, the whole-body dose was also evaluated. The MCNP simulations suggested that a lethal dose of 50 Gy to the tumors can be achieved without reaching the tolerance dose of 25 Gy to normal tissue. The whole-body phantom calculations also showed that the BNCT could be applied for brain tumors without significant damage to whole-body organs.

  2. Tourmaline in the 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt, West Greenland - A window to Boron Concentrations in the Eoarchean Eon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grew, E. S.; Dymek, R. F.; De Hoog, J. C.; Harley, S. L.; Hazen, R. M.; Yates, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    The distribution and mineralogical context of trace elements in Earth's oldest rocks provide insights on Earth's accretion, differentiation, and primordial evolution. One example is boron, which is highly concentrated in Earth's crust and oceans relative to primitive mantle, and, thus the amount of boron on Earth's surface should increase with increasing volume of crust. The earliest B mineral reported in the geological record is metamorphic tourmaline in the Isua Supracrustal Belt, where its abundance belies the notion of there being less boron in the Eoarchean than in more recent time. Chaussidon & Appel (1997, Chem. Geol., 136, 171-180) reported δ11B = --17.3 to --25.0‰ in tourmaline in Isua metachert ("conglomerate"), and δ11B = --12.6 to +5.8 ‰ on tourmaline in Isua metamorphosed mafic volcaniclastics. The large range in the latter rocks was attributed to fractionation during hydrothermal reworking, whereas the more negative values in the metacherts suggested metamorphic tourmaline formed from breakdown of clays with an average δ11B calculated to be about -8 × 7‰ deposited in an ocean having δ11B = +27×11‰, compared to +40 ‰ today, consistent with δ11B = +28‰ calculated from the Chaussidon & Albarède (1992, EPSL, 108, 229-241) model relating increase in sea-water δ11B to proportion of B extracted from Earth's mantle into the oceans and crust. This estimate of Eoarchean seawater δ11B is consistent with fractionation associated with illitization of smectite formed in a marine environment (estimated to be about --35‰) and with crystallization of metamorphic tourmaline from intergranular fluid having the same δ11B as the host metachert (another --2‰ at 500 °C based on tourmaline-water fractionation from Meyer et al. 2008, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 156, 259-267). However, this scenario does not adequately explain three rock types in the Isua supracrustals: (1) a tourmaline-quartz lens with ~50% modal tourmaline; (2) a dolomite-tourmaline lens with ~20% modal tourmaline containing accessory chromite, chalcopyrite and gersdorffite, (Ni,Co,Fe)AsS; (3) 'green-mica' schist containing Cr- and Ba-bearing muscovite and accessory tourmaline, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, pentlandite, arsenopyrite and gersdorffite. These sulfides suggest that hydrothermal fluid associated with volcanism introduced B, As and Pb into sedimentary rocks together with Cr, Co and Ni remobilized from associated ultramafic rocks. Crystallization of tourmaline in (1) with δ11B =--22‰ (Swihart & Moore, 1989, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 911-916) implies δ11B of --17 ‰ to--19 ‰ in the hydrothermal fluid from which it crystallized (assuming tourmaline-water fractionation at 200-350 °C based on Meyer et al. 2008). These fluid δ11B suggest a continental source of the boron, since δ11B of continental detritus averages -10 × 5‰, i.e., more negative (lighter) than oceanic crust (Leeman & Sisson, 1996, Rev. Mineral., 33, 645-707). As the tourmaline-bearing rocks are part of the younger (ca. 3700 Ma) of two terranes in the Isua supracrustal belt (Nutman & Friend, 2009, Precamb. Res., 172, 189-211), we suggest that boron isotopic composition and abundance resulted from recycling of boron in supracrustal rocks of the older (ca. 3800 Ma) terrane and its remobilization in a volcanic system prior to precipitation as tourmaline in rocks of the younger terrane.

  3. Possible roles of pH, temperature, and partial dissolution in determining boron concentration and isotopic composition in planktonic foraminifera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wara, M.W.; Delaney, M.L.; Bullen, T.D.; Ravelo, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first continuous records from 0 to 5 Ma (in 0.333 m.y. integrated time steps) of paired boron/calcium (B/Ca) ratios and boron isotopes (??11B) in the planktonic foraminifera Globogerinoides sacculifer (without sacc) from a site in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean (Ocean Drilling Program Site 806). These measurements, the first made in conjunction with calcification temperature (magnesium/calcium ratios) and average shell mass measurements, indicate that pH is not the sole environmental variable controlling B in planktonic foraminiferal calcite. Our data are consistent with calcification temperature exerting a primary control on B concentration and isotopic composition in planktonic foraminifera. If so, calcification temperature must be taken into account if pH for past oceans and atmospheric pCO2 are to be estimated from B isotope measurements in foraminiferal calcite. Doing so will substantially increase the uncertainty of PH estimates. Although this work was designed as a temporal study, its results define new aspects of calibrating the ??11B paleo-pH tracer. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Dietary boron decreases peak pancreatic in situ insulin release in chicks and plasma insulin concentrations in rats regardless of vitamin D or magnesium status.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Naomi A; Hunt, Curtiss D

    2003-11-01

    Because dietary boron deprivation induces hyperinsulinemia in vitamin D-deprived rats, the influence of dietary boron on insulin metabolism as modified by nutritional stressors was examined in two animal models. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to each of four (Experiment 1) or 8 (Experiment 2) dietary groups for 35 d: the basal diet (< 0.2 mg B; <1.0 mg Mg/kg) was supplemented with boron (as orthoboric acid) to contain <0.2 or 2.0 (a physiologic amount) mg B/kg; with magnesium (as magnesium acetate), at 100 (inadequate) or 360-400 (adequate) mg/kg; and with cholecalciferol [vitamin D-3; 25 microg/kg for study length (Experiment 2), or, depleted for 16-17 d then repleted until end of experiment (Experiments 1 and 2)]. In the rat model, boron reduced plasma insulin (Experiment 1, P < 0.002; Experiment 2, P < 0.03), but did not change glucose concentrations regardless of vitamin D-3 or magnesium status. Cockerels (1 d old) were fed a ground corn, high protein casein and corn oil-based basal diet (low boron; 0.3 mg B/kg) supplemented with boron as orthoboric acid to contain 0.3 or 1.65 mg/kg (a physiologic amount) and vitamin D-3 at 3.13 (inadequate) or 15.60 (adequate) microg/kg. In the chick model, boron decreased (P < 0.045) in situ peak pancreatic insulin release at 26-37 d of age regardless of vitamin D-3 nutriture. These results suggest that physiologic amounts of boron may help reduce the amount of insulin required to maintain plasma glucose. PMID:14608076

  5. Feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma from a viewpoint of dose distribution analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Minoru . E-mail: msuzuki@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Nagata, Kenji; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from a viewpoint of dose distribution analysis using Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA), a currently available BNCT treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: The BNCT treatment plans were constructed for 3 patients with MPM using the SERA system, with 2 opposed anterior-posterior beams. The {sup 1}B concentrations in the tumor and normal lung in this study were assumed to be 84 and 24 ppm, respectively, and were derived from data observed in clinical trials. The maximum, mean, and minimum doses to the tumors and the normal lung were assessed for each plan. The doses delivered to 5% and 95% of the tumor volume, D{sub 05} and D{sub 95}, were adopted as the representative dose for the maximum and minimum dose, respectively. Results: When the D{sub 05} to the normal ipsilateral lung was 5 Gy-Eq, the D{sub 95} and mean doses delivered to the normal lung were 2.2-3.6 and 3.5-4.2 Gy-Eq, respectively. The mean doses delivered to the tumors were 22.4-27.2 Gy-Eq. The D{sub 05} and D{sub 95} doses to the tumors were 9.6-15.0 and 31.5-39.5 Gy-Eq, respectively. Conclusions: From a viewpoint of the dose-distribution analysis, BNCT has the possibility to be a promising treatment for MPM patients who are inoperable because of age and other medical illnesses.

  6. Macroscopic geometric heterogeneity effects in radiation dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J.M.; Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Bauer, W.F. )

    1992-05-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This paper describes such a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for the tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for this model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous-tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10%--20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  7. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  8. Direct assessment of the mechanical modulus of graphene co-doped with low concentrations of boron-nitrogen by a non-contact approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shun-Hsien; Medina, Henry; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Chou, Li-Jen; Wang, Zhiming M.; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2014-07-01

    Boron and nitrogen co-doping has been shown to be an effective way to induce a band gap in graphene for electrical applications but only a few theoretical studies have been done to understand the elastic and mechanical properties of the modified graphene. Until now, no experimental assessment of the mechanical modulus of boron-nitrogen-doped graphene (BNG) has been reported in the literature. Here, we demonstrate a novel non-contact approach to determine the in-plane stiffness of BNG at low BN concentrations. The in-plane stiffness of BNG with 2 at% BN concentration was estimated to be about 309 N m-1, which is lower than that of pristine graphene, in good agreement with some theoretical studies. Moreover, we correlated the conductivity of BNG with induced strain and found the BNG to be more sensitive than pristine graphene in response to externally applied strain. This result indicates that BNG is a more suitable material than graphene for strain sensor applications.Boron and nitrogen co-doping has been shown to be an effective way to induce a band gap in graphene for electrical applications but only a few theoretical studies have been done to understand the elastic and mechanical properties of the modified graphene. Until now, no experimental assessment of the mechanical modulus of boron-nitrogen-doped graphene (BNG) has been reported in the literature. Here, we demonstrate a novel non-contact approach to determine the in-plane stiffness of BNG at low BN concentrations. The in-plane stiffness of BNG with 2 at% BN concentration was estimated to be about 309 N m-1, which is lower than that of pristine graphene, in good agreement with some theoretical studies. Moreover, we correlated the conductivity of BNG with induced strain and found the BNG to be more sensitive than pristine graphene in response to externally applied strain. This result indicates that BNG is a more suitable material than graphene for strain sensor applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Actual strain applied on pristine graphene and 2BNG; Raman spectra of CVD graphene and 2BNG transferred onto PDMS substrates; schematic of the atomic model; I2D/IG Raman ratio as a function of the PDMS strain for pristine graphene in the reversible deformation region; Raman information of the I2D/IG ratio for pristine graphene in the irreversible deformation region; Raman G band for graphene before and under applied strain; I2D/IG Raman ratio as a function of the PDMS strain for the 2BNG film in the reversible deformation region; Raman information of the I2D/IG ratio for 2BNG in the irreversible deformation region; Raman G band for 2BNG before and under applied strain; the schematic diagram of the deposition process for a strain sensor device; schematic diagram of the 2D stress applied to graphene and BNG films; actual strain on graphene and BNG measured by Raman versus PDMS strain; schematic diagrams of the strain distribution. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00495g

  9. Biokinetic analysis of tissue boron (¹⁰B) concentrations of glioma patients treated with BNCT in Finland.

    PubMed

    Koivunoro, H; Hippeläinen, E; Auterinen, I; Kankaanranta, L; Kulvik, M; Laakso, J; Seppälä, T; Savolainen, S; Joensuu, H

    2015-12-01

    A total of 98 patients with glioma were treated with BPA-F-mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland from 1999 to 2011. Thirty-nine (40%) had undergone surgery for newly diagnosed glioblastoma and 59 (60%) had malignant glioma recurrence after surgery. In this study we applied a closed 3-compartment model based on dynamic (18)F-BPA-PET studies to estimate the BPA-F concentrations in the tumor and the normal brain with time. Altogether 22 patients with recurrent glioma, treated within the context of a clinical trial, were evaluated using their individual measured whole blood (10)B concentrations as an input to the model. The delivered radiation doses to tumor and the normal brain were recalculated based on the modeled (10)B concentrations in the tissues during neutron irradiation. The model predicts from -7% to +29% (average, +11%) change in the average tumor doses as compared with the previously estimated doses, and from 17% to 61% (average, 36%) higher average normal brain doses than previously estimated due to the non-constant tumor-to-blood concentration ratios and considerably higher estimated (10)B concentrations in the brain at the time of neutron irradiation. PMID:26363564

  10. Size and dopant-concentration dependence of photoluminescence properties of ion-implanted phosphorus- and boron-codoped Si nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao; Fujii, Minoru; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Miura, Kenta; Yamamoto, Shunya

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the nanocrystallite-size and dopant-concentration dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) properties of heavily phosphorus- (P) and boron- (B) codoped Si nanocrystals (Si NCs), prepared using a combination of sputtering and ion implantation techniques. We find that the heavily doped Si NC exhibits three exotic luminescence bands, A, B, and C. The peak energy of band A redshifts with increasing dopant concentration. This band is due to the band-to-band transition at the reduced Si-NC band gap caused by the formation of impurity bands together with band-tailing effects. The PL redshift becomes large when the nanocrystallite size decreases, suggesting the occurrence of the quantum-confinement-induced carrier doping effect. The peak energies of bands B and C are independent of both the concentration and size, indicating that these bands are due to transitions between defect- and/or impurity-related localized states. Band A shows stronger thermal quenching than the PL band in pure (undoped) Si NCs, the magnitude of which depends on the dopant concentration. The stronger thermal quenching in band A is probably due to the thermally induced migration of electrons in the impurity band.

  11. PGNAA system preliminary design and measurement of In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator for boron concentration measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zizhu; Chong, Yizheng; Chen, Xinru; Jin, Congjun; Yang, Lijun; Liu, Tong

    2015-12-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system has been recently developed at the 30-kW research reactor In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator (IHNI) in Beijing. Neutrons from the specially designed thermal neutron beam were used. The thermal flux of this beam is 3.0810(6) cm(-2) s(-1) at a full reactor power of 30 kW. The PGNAA system consists of an n-type high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector of 40% efficiency, a digital spectrometer, and a shielding part. For both the detector shielding part and the neutron beam shielding part, the inner layer is composed of (6)Li2CO3 powder and the outer layer lead. The boron-10 sensitivity of the PGNAA system is approximately 2.5 cps/ppm. Two calibration curves were produced for the 1-10 ppm and 10-50 ppm samples. The measurement results of the control samples were in accordance with the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) results. PMID:26242556

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of tramadol in low-salinity reverse osmosis concentrates using boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Schulz, Manoj; Wagner, Manfred; Ternes, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical treatment of low-salinity reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates was investigated using tramadol (100 μM) as a model substance for persistent organic contaminants. Galvanostatic degradation experiments using boron-doped diamond electrodes at different applied currents were conducted in RO concentrates as well as in ultra-pure water containing either sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. Kinetic investigations revealed a significant influence of in-situ generated active chlorine besides direct anodic oxidation. Therefore, tramadol concentrations decreased more rapidly at elevated chloride content. Nevertheless, reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) was found to be comparatively low, demonstrating that transformation rather than mineralization was taking place. Early stage product formation could be attributed to both direct and indirect processes, including demethylation, hydroxylation, dehydration, oxidative aromatic ring cleavage and halogenation reactions. The latter led to various halogenated derivatives and resulted in AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) formation in the lower mg/L-range depending on the treatment conditions. Characterisation of transformation products (TPs) was achieved via MS(n) experiments and additional NMR measurements. Based on identification and quantification of the main TPs in different matrices and on additional potentiostatic electrolysis, a transformation pathway was proposed. PMID:25660808

  13. Ligands of boron in Pisum sativum nodules are involved in regulation of oxygen concentration and rhizobial infection.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Mara; Wimmer, Monika; Bustos, Pilar; Goldbach, Heiner E; Bolaos, Luis; Bonilla, Ildefonso

    2010-06-01

    Boron (B) is an essential nutrient for N(2)-fixing legume-rhizobia symbioses, and the capacity of borate ions to bind and stabilize biomolecules is the basis of any B function. We used a borate-binding-specific resin and immunostaining techniques to identify B ligands important for the development of Pisum sativum-Rhizobium leguminosarum 3841 symbiotic nodules. arabinogalactan-extensin (AGPE), recognized by MAC 265 antibody, appeared heavily bound to the resin in extracts derived from B-sufficient, but not from B-deficient nodules. MAC 265 stained the infection threads and the extracellular matrix of cortical cells involved in the oxygen diffusion barrier. In B-deprived nodules, immunolocalization of MAC 265 antigens was significantly reduced. Leghaemoglobin (Lb) concentration largely decreased in B-deficient nodules. The absence of MAC 203 antigens in B-deficient nodules suggests a high internal oxygen concentration, as this antibody detects an epitope on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of bacteroids typically expressed in micro-aerobically grown R. leguminosarum 3841. However, B-deprived nodules did not accumulate oxidized lipids and proteins, and revealed a decrease in the activity of the major antioxidant enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Therefore, B deficiency reduced the stability of nodule macromolecules important for rhizobial infection, and for regulation of oxygen concentration, resulting in non-functional nodules, but did not appear to induce oxidative damage in low-B nodules. PMID:20132519

  14. Target-atomic-number-dependent oscillations of equilibrium charge-state distributions of 50--500-keV/u hydrogen and boron emerging from solids

    SciTech Connect

    Ohdaira, T.; Matsushita, H.; Takashima, A.; Imanishi, N.; Fukuzawa, F. )

    1993-01-01

    The target dependence of equilibrium charge-state distributions was studied for medium-energy (50--500-keV/u) hydrogen and boron emerging from solids. Using a backscattering method, charge fractions were measured for various elemental solid substances with atomically clean surfaces in a pressure range of 10[sup [minus]8] Pa. The respective charge fractions of hydrogen and boron are found to oscillate with target atomic number [ital Z][sub [ital t

  15. Quantitative prediction of acceptor concentration reduction in boron doped silicon due to electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaert, J. L.; Verhaegen, F.; Van Meirhaeghe, R. L.; Uyttenhove, J.; Cardon, F.

    1996-10-01

    The reduction in acceptor concentration due to electron irradiation is determined from C-V characteristics of {TixSiy}/{p-Si} Schottky barrier diodes. By using the concept of displacement dose, a method for predicting the reduction in acceptor concentration is succesfully applied for an arbitrary primary electron energy ranging from 4 to 14 MeV.

  16. Effects of sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron applications on sunflower yield and plant nutrient concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, B.R.; Zubriski, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron application did not affect the seed yield or oil percentage of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on both dryland and irrigated soils in North Dakota in 1981. Field averages indicated significant Zn, Mn, and B uptake by sunflower at the 12-leaf stage as a result of fertilization with these elements. Increased Zn uptake was also observed in the uppermost mature leaf at anthesis from zinc fertilization. Although sunflower yield from boron fertilization was not significantly different from the check, a trend was observed in which boron fertilization seemed to decrease sunflower yield. Sunflower yields from the boron treatment were the lowest out of seven treatments in three out of four fields. Also, sunflower yield from the boron treatment was significantly lower than both iron and sulfur treatments when all fields were combined.

  17. Exact analytic flux distributions for two-dimensional solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Fraidenraich, Naum; Henrique de Oliveira Pedrosa Filho, Manoel; Vilela, Olga C; Gordon, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    A new approach for representing and evaluating the flux density distribution on the absorbers of two-dimensional imaging solar concentrators is presented. The formalism accommodates any realistic solar radiance and concentrator optical error distribution. The solutions obviate the need for raytracing, and are physically transparent. Examples illustrating the method's versatility are presented for parabolic trough mirrors with both planar and tubular absorbers, Fresnel reflectors with tubular absorbers, and V-trough mirrors with planar absorbers. PMID:23842256

  18. Grain Boundary Segregation Behavior of Boron in Low-Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigesato, Genichi; Fujishiro, Taishi; Hara, Takuya

    2014-04-01

    The boron concentration profiles around prior austenite grain boundaries in Fe-0.05C-0.5Mo-0.001B (mass pct) are examined using aberration-corrected STEM-EELS. In order to obtain the precise distribution of boron around the boundaries, tilt series measurements with thin specimens (<30 nm) are performed and the EEL spectra are analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR). The boron concentration profile changes with the cooling rate from the solid solution temperature. The concentration at grain boundaries is maximized at a medium rate (30 C/s), where the concentration reaches 8 at. pct, and it decreases at a larger (250 C/s) or smaller (5 C/s) rate. On the other hand, the boron distribution becomes wider as the cooling rate becomes smaller. The current results suggest that the boron segregation in the alloy is formed by the "non-equilibrium segregation mechanism."

  19. Monitoring the distribution of prompt gamma rays in boron neutron capture therapy using a multiple-scattering Compton camera: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taewoong; Lee, Hyounggun; Lee, Wonho

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the use of Compton imaging technology to monitor prompt gamma rays emitted by 10B in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applied to a computerized human phantom. The Monte Carlo method, including particle-tracking techniques, was used for simulation. The distribution of prompt gamma rays emitted by the phantom during irradiation with neutron beams is closely associated with the distribution of the boron in the phantom. Maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method was applied to the information obtained from the detected prompt gamma rays to reconstruct the distribution of the tumor including the boron uptake regions (BURs). The reconstructed Compton images of the prompt gamma rays were combined with the cross-sectional images of the human phantom. Quantitative analysis of the intensity curves showed that all combined images matched the predetermined conditions of the simulation. The tumors including the BURs were distinguishable if they were more than 2 cm apart.

  20. Distribution analysis of airborne nicotine concentrations in hospitality facilities.

    PubMed

    Schorp, Matthias K; Leyden, Donald E

    2002-02-01

    A number of publications report statistical summaries for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations. Despite compelling evidence for the data not being normally distributed, these publications typically report the arithmetic mean and standard deviation of the data, thereby losing important information related to the distribution of values contained in the original data. We were interested in the frequency distributions of reported nicotine concentrations in hospitality environments and subjected available data to distribution analyses. The distribution of experimental indoor airborne nicotine concentration data taken from hospitality facilities worldwide was fit to lognormal, Weibull, exponential, Pearson (Type V), logistic, and loglogistic distribution models. Comparison of goodness of fit (GOF) parameters and indications from the literature verified the selection of a lognormal distribution as the overall best model. When individual data were not reported in the literature, statistical summaries of results were used to model sets of lognormally distributed data that are intended to mimic the original data distribution. Grouping the data into various categories led to 31 frequency distributions that were further interpreted. The median values in nonsmoking environments are about half of the median values in smoking sections. When different continents are compared, Asian, European, and North American median values in restaurants are about a factor of three below levels encountered in other hospitality facilities. On a comparison of nicotine concentrations in North American smoking sections and nonsmoking sections, median values are about one-third of the European levels. The results obtained may be used to address issues related to exposure to ETS in the hospitality sector. PMID:11868665

  1. Pre-irradiation spatial distribution and stability of boride particles in rapidly solidified boron-doped stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kanani, N.; Arnberg, L.; Harling, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    The time temperature behavior of boride particles has been studied in rapidly solidified ultra low carbon and nitrogen modified 316 stainless steel with 0.088% boron and 0.45% zirconium. The results show that the as-splat-cooled specimens exhibit precipitates at the grain boundaries and triple junctions. For temperatures up to about 750/sup 0/C no significant microstructural changes occur for short heat treatment times. In the temperature range of 750 to 950/sup 0/C, however, particles typically 100 to 500 A in diameter containing Zr and B are formed within the grains. Higher temperatures enhance the formation of such particles and give rise to particle networks. The results show that a fine and uniform distribution of the boride particles almost exclusively within the grains can be achieved if proper annealing conditions are chosen. This type of distribution is an important requirement for the homogeneous production of helium during neutron irradiation in fast reactors.

  2. Turbulent Concentration of Chondrules: Size Distribution and Multifractal Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hogan, Robert C.; Paque, Julie M.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    Size-selective concentration of particles in 3D turbulence may be related to collection of chondrules and other constituents into primitive bodies in a weakly turbulent protoplanetary nebula. In the terrestrial planet region, both the characteristic size and narrow size distribution of chondrules are explained, whereas "fluffier" particles would be concentrated in lower density, or more intensely turbulent, regions of the nebula. The spatial distribution of concentrated particle density obeys multifractal scaling, suggesting a dose tie to the turbulent cascade process. This scaling behavior allows predictions of the concentration probabilities to be made in the protoplanetary nebula, which are so large (> 10(exp 3) - 10(exp 4)) that further studies must be made of the role of mass loading.

  3. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

    2010-06-22

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

  4. Impact of carbon co-implantation on boron distribution and activation in silicon studied by atom probe tomography and spreading resistance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yasuo; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Inoue, Koji; Yano, Fumiko; Kudo, Shuichi; Nishida, Akio; Toyama, Takeshi; Nagai, Yasuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    The impact of carbon (C) co-implantation on boron (B) activation in crystalline silicon was investigated. The detailed distribution of B and C atoms and B activation ratios dependent on the C ion-implantation energies were examined based on three-dimensional spatial mappings of B and C obtained by atom probe tomography and from depth profiles of their concentrations from secondary ion mass spectrometry and depth profiles of carrier concentrations with spreading resistance measurements. At all C implantation energies (8, 15, and 30 keV), B out-diffusion during activation annealing was reduced, so that more B atoms were observed in the C co-implanted samples. The carrier concentration was decreased throughout the entire implanted region for C implantation energies of 15 and 30 keV, although it was only increased at greater depths for C co-implantation at 8 keV. Two different effects of C co-implantation, (I) reduction of B out-diffusion and (II) influence of B activation, were confirmed.

  5. On spatial pattern of concentration distribution for Taylor dispersion process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2016-01-01

    Taylor dispersion is a key concept in many fields. In the present paper, we characterize the pattern of the complete spatial concentration distribution for laminar tube flow; the obtained simple description is shown to represent the nature of Taylor dispersion. Importantly, we find that during the approach to the longitudinal normality of the transverse mean concentration at the time scale of R(2)/D (R is the tube radius and D is the molecular diffusivity), the solute concentration becomes uniformly distributed across a family of invariant curved transverse surfaces instead of the flat cross-sections in the traditional view. The family of curved surfaces is analytically determined, and a transformation is devised for the previously obtained analytical solution to discuss the decay of the concentration difference across the curved surfaces. The approach to a uniform concentration across the flat cross-sections to the same degree (~3% by concentration difference percentage), achieved at a time-scale of 100 R(2)/D, is shown to be the natural consequence of the longitudinal separation of the concentration contours on the curved surfaces. PMID:26867803

  6. On spatial pattern of concentration distribution for Taylor dispersion process

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zi; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2016-01-01

    Taylor dispersion is a key concept in many fields. In the present paper, we characterize the pattern of the complete spatial concentration distribution for laminar tube flow; the obtained simple description is shown to represent the nature of Taylor dispersion. Importantly, we find that during the approach to the longitudinal normality of the transverse mean concentration at the time scale of R2/D (R is the tube radius and D is the molecular diffusivity), the solute concentration becomes uniformly distributed across a family of invariant curved transverse surfaces instead of the flat cross-sections in the traditional view. The family of curved surfaces is analytically determined, and a transformation is devised for the previously obtained analytical solution to discuss the decay of the concentration difference across the curved surfaces. The approach to a uniform concentration across the flat cross-sections to the same degree (~3% by concentration difference percentage), achieved at a time-scale of 100 R2/D, is shown to be the natural consequence of the longitudinal separation of the concentration contours on the curved surfaces. PMID:26867803

  7. On spatial pattern of concentration distribution for Taylor dispersion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zi; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2016-02-01

    Taylor dispersion is a key concept in many fields. In the present paper, we characterize the pattern of the complete spatial concentration distribution for laminar tube flow; the obtained simple description is shown to represent the nature of Taylor dispersion. Importantly, we find that during the approach to the longitudinal normality of the transverse mean concentration at the time scale of R2/D (R is the tube radius and D is the molecular diffusivity), the solute concentration becomes uniformly distributed across a family of invariant curved transverse surfaces instead of the flat cross-sections in the traditional view. The family of curved surfaces is analytically determined, and a transformation is devised for the previously obtained analytical solution to discuss the decay of the concentration difference across the curved surfaces. The approach to a uniform concentration across the flat cross-sections to the same degree (~3% by concentration difference percentage), achieved at a time-scale of 100 R2/D, is shown to be the natural consequence of the longitudinal separation of the concentration contours on the curved surfaces.

  8. Kinetics of the formation of Fe 2B layers in gray cast iron: Effects of boron concentration and boride incubation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Ortiz-Domínguez, M.; Keddam, M.; López-Perrusquia, N.; Carmona-Vargas, A.; Elías-Espinosa, M.

    2009-08-01

    The growth kinetics of Fe 2B layers formed at the surface of gray cast iron were evaluated in this study. The pack-boriding process was applied to produce the Fe 2B phase at the material surface, and the variables included three temperatures (1173, 1223 and 1273 K) and four exposure times (2, 4, 6 and 8 h). Taking into account the growth fronts obtained at the surface of the material and the mass balance equation at the Fe 2B/substrate interface, the boron diffusion coefficient on the borided phase was estimated for the range of treatment temperatures. Likewise the parabolic growth constant, the instantaneous velocity of the Fe 2B/substrate interface, and the weight gain in the borided samples were established as a function of the parameters τ( t) and α( C), which are related to the boride incubation time ( t0( T)) and boron concentration at the Fe 2B phase, respectively. Observation of the growth kinetics of the Fe 2B layers in gray cast irons suggest an optimum value of boron concentration that is in good agreement with the set of boriding experimental conditions used in this work.

  9. CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE NEAR-WAKE OF A BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of wind-tunnel data is presented which describes the concentration distributions resulting from diffusion of a passive tracer in the near-wake of a cubical building. ources were located near ground level both upstream and downstream of the building, and centered atop the bu...

  10. An introduction to boron: history, sources, uses, and chemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, W G

    1994-01-01

    Following a brief overview of the terrestrial distribution of boron in rocks, soil, and water, the history of the discovery, early utilization, and geologic origin of borate minerals is summarized. Modern uses of borate-mineral concentrates, borax, boric acid, and other refined products include glass, fiberglass, washing products, alloys and metals, fertilizers, wood treatments, insecticides, and microbiocides. The chemistry of boron is reviewed from the point of view of its possible health effects. It is concluded that boron probably is complexed with hydroxylated species in biologic systems, and that inhibition and stimulation of enzyme and coenzymes are pivotal in its mode of action. Images Figure 1. PMID:7889881

  11. [The concentration resolution of complex liquid spectrometry analysis and the effect of concentration distribution].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Hui-quan; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-Ju; Wu, Xiao-rong

    2012-04-01

    In order to ensure the feasibility of complex liquid spectroscopy analysis, to analyze the accuracy gain of modeling by multi-wavelength, and to determine the appropriate distribution of concentration to obtain the high quality and universal quantitative analysis model, the precision of the detection of composition concentration by spectral analysis is illustrated through a error analysis which takes into account the following three contributions: spectral instrument noise, multi-wavelength modeling and the distribution of composition concentration. By concentration resolution analysis, the concentration resolution can be achieved when the spectrometer noise is available, but also the theoretical basis is provided to select a suitable spectrometer to meet the resolution requirement of quantitative analysis. Over-sampling technique indicates that the precision improvement by modeling with multi-wavelength can obtain higher concentration detection sensitivity. The sparse-dense-ratio and Euclidean distance of both measured and non-measured components provide the theoretic guidance for choosing the suitable concentration distribution which improves the model's quality and reduces the prediction error of the sample set. PMID:22715788

  12. Ab initio study of boron in α-iron: Migration barriers and interaction with point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialon, A. F.; Hammerschmidt, T.; Drautz, R.

    2013-03-01

    Boron is a common alloying element in modern steels with a significant influence on the mechanical properties already at concentrations of only a few parts per million. The effect of boron depends on its distribution in the microstructure. Here, we characterize the elemental factors that determine the boron distribution in α-iron by density functional theory calculations. Boron as point defect has been considered in substitutional and interstitial sites. The calculated migration barriers for the substitutional and interstitial mechanisms show the first nearest-neighbor hops being preferred over second nearest-neighbor hops. A dissociative mechanism shows boron migrating via an interstitial mechanism to be likely trapped by vacancies. In order to characterize the interaction with other point defects, we determined the distance-dependent interaction energy of a boron defect with a vacancy, a second boron, and with hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur atoms. We find that substitutional boron binds strongly to interstitial point defects with dumbbell formation and weaker to substitutional point defects. Interstitial boron tends to repel substitutional and interstitial point defects. We find a similarity of substitutional boron and vacancies regarding their influence on elastic properties and their interaction with point defects in α-iron.

  13. In-phantom two-dimensional thermal neutron distribution for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Kumada, H.; Shibata, Y.; Nose, T.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in-phantom thermal neutron distribution derived from neutron beams for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). Gold activation wires arranged in a cylindrical water phantom with (void-in-phantom) or without (standard phantom) a cylinder styrene form placed inside were irradiated by using the epithermal beam (ENB) and the mixed thermal-epithermal beam (TNB-1) at the Japan Research Reactor No 4. With ENB, we observed a flattened distribution of thermal neutron flux and a significantly enhanced thermal flux delivery at a depth compared with the results of using TNB-1. The thermal neutron distribution derived from both the ENB and TNB-1 was significantly improved in the void-in-phantom, and a double high dose area was formed lateral to the void. The flattened distribution in the circumference of the void was observed with the combination of ENB and the void-in-phantom. The measurement data suggest that the ENB may provide a clinical advantage in the form of an enhanced and flattened dose delivery to the marginal tissue of a post-operative cavity in which a residual and/or microscopically infiltrating tumour often occurs. The combination of the epithermal neutron beam and IOBNCT will improve the clinical results of BNCT for brain tumours.

  14. Concentration distribution of contaminant transport in wetland flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zi; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2015-06-01

    Study on contaminant transport in wetland flows is of fundamental importance. Recent investigation on scalar transport in laminar tube flows (Wu and Chen, 2014. J. Fluid Mech., 740: 196-213.) indicates that the vertical concentration difference in wetland flows may be remarkable for a very long time, which cannot be captured by the extensively applied one-dimensional Taylor dispersion model. To understand detailed information for the vertical distribution of contaminant in wetland flows, for the first time, the present paper deduces an analytical solution for the multi-dimensional concentration distribution by the method of mean concentration expansion. The solution is verified by both our analytical and numerical results. Representing the effects of vegetation in wetlands, the unique dimensionless parameter α can cause the longitudinal contraction of the contaminant cloud and the change of the shape of the concentration contours. By these complicated effects, it is shown unexpectedly that the maximum vertical concentration difference remains nearly unaffected, although its longitudinal position may change. Thus the slow-decaying transient effect (Wu and Chen, 2014. J. Hydrol., 519: 1974-1984.) is shown also apply to the process of contaminant transport in wetland flows.

  15. Concentration distributions of arbitrary shaped particles in microfluidic channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibaba, Arvind; Shaqfeh, Eric; Darve, Eric

    2009-11-01

    We are interested in the study of the transient and steady state concentration distribution of orientable Brownian particles across channels at low Reynolds numbers. This is important in understanding margination of blood ``particles'' including platelets as well as new drug delivery and cancer nanotechnology particles which are involved in hemostasis as well as delivering drugs to the vascular endothelial cells. Although our formulation is general, the particles we consider are rigid Brownian ``surfboards'' which have been found to be effective in drug delivery since they are resistant to leukocyte attack [1]. The Stokes flow in the channel around the particles, driven by a mean pressure gradient, is computed using the Boundary Element method within the single layer formulation. The particle motion is calculated using rigid body dynamics with a contribution due to Brownian motion that satisfies the Fluctuation-Dissipation theorem. Finite concentrations are considered, and all hydrodynamic interactions are included. The concentration distribution is computed and interpreted as a balance between the concentration dependent variation in the non-equilibrium particle osmotic pressure and the cross stream particle normal stresses. [4pt] [1] J. A. Champion, S. Mitragotri, ``Role of target geometry in phagocytosis'', PNAS 103, 4930-4934, (2006)

  16. Spatial distribution of the daily precipitation concentration index in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucherf, D.; Benhamrouche, A.; Hamadache, R.; Bendahmane, L.; Martin-Vide, J.; Teixeira Nery, J.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the spatial and temporal distribution of the daily precipitation concentration index (CI) in Algeria (South Mediterranean Sea) has been assessed. Forty-two daily rainfall series based on high quality and fairly regular rainfall records for the period from 1970 to 2008 were used. The daily precipitation concentration index results allowed identifying three climatic zones: the northern country, characterized by coastal regions with CI values between 0.59 and 0.63, the highlands, with values between 0.57 and 0.62 (average of 0.61), except for the area of Biskra (CI = 0.70), and the southern region of the country, with high rainfall concentrations, with values between 0.62 and 0.69. CI is an index related to the rainfall intensity and erosive capacity; therefore, this index has great interest for studies on torrential rainfall and floods.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, B.S.; Larsson, B.; Roberto, A. )

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that some thioamides, e.g., thiouracil, are incorporated as false precursors into melanin during its synthesis. If boronated analogs of the thioamides share this property, the melanin of melanotic melanomas offers a possibility for specific tumoural uptake and retention of boron as a basis for neutron capture therapy. We report on the synthesis of boronated 1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (B-TZT), boronated 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil (B-CTU), and boronated 5-diethylaminomethyl-2-thiouracil (B-DEAMTU) and the localization of these substances in melanotic melanomas transplanted to mice. The distribution in the mice was studied by boron neutron capture radiography. B-TZT and B-CTU showed the highest tumour:normal tissue concentration ratios, with tumour:liver ratios of about 4 and tumour:muscle ratios of about 14; B-DEAMTU showed corresponding ratios of 1.4 and 5, respectively. The absolute concentration of boron in the tumours, however, was more than three times higher in the mice injected with B-TZT, compared with B-CTU. The results suggest that B-TZT may be the most promising compound of the three tested with regard to possible therapy of melanotic melanomas.

  18. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for atmospheric aerosols with a coarse mode diameter situated at about 3.5 μm. The experimental results reported in this study will be important in validating satellite based observations and simulation models of the African dust plume towards the Gulf of Guinea during winter.

  19. Two-dimensional finite elements model for boron management in agroforestry sites.

    PubMed

    Tayfur, Gokmen; Tanji, Kenneth K; Baba, Alper

    2010-01-01

    Agroforesty systems, which are recommended as a management option to lower the shallow groundwater level and to reuse saline subsurface drainage waters from the tile-drained croplands in the drainage-impacted areas of Jan Joaquin Valley of California, have resulted in excessive boron buildup in the soil root zone. To assess the efficacy of the long-term impacts of soil boron buildup in agroforesty systems, a mathematical model was developed to simulate non-conservative boron transport. The developed dynamic two-dimensional finite element model simulates water flow and boron transport in saturated-unsaturated soil system, including boron sorption and boron uptake by root-water extraction processes. The simulation of two different observed field data sets by the developed model is satisfactory, with mean absolute error of 1.5 mg/L and relative error of 6.5%. Application of the model to three different soils shows that boron adsorption is higher in silt loam soil than that in sandy loam and clay loam soils. This result agrees with the laboratory experimental observations. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that boron uptake by root-water extraction process influences the boron concentration distribution along the root zone. Also, absorption coefficient and maximum adsorptive capacity of a soil for boron are found to be sensitive parameters. PMID:19184495

  20. Distribution of indoor radon concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1990-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2013-01-01

    Results from 548,507 indoor radon tests from a database compiled by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, Radon Division, are evaluated in this report in an effort to determine areas where concentrations of radon are highest. Indoor radon concentrations were aggregated according to geologic unit and hydrogeologic setting for spatial analysis. Indoor radon concentrations greater than or equal to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were observed for 39 percent of the test results; the highest concentration was 1,866.4 pCi/L. When analyzed according to Pennsylvania’s geologic units, 93 of the 188 (49.5 percent) geologic units with indoor radon concentrations had median concentrations greater than the USEPA action level of 4 pCi/L; most of these geologic units are located in the eastern part of the State and include metamorphic rocks, limestones, sandstones, shales, and glacial deposits. When analyzed according to Pennsylvania’s hydrogeologic settings, 5 of the 20 (25 percent) settings had median indoor radon concentrations greater than the USEPA action level of 4 pCi/L; these settings are located mostly in the south-central part of the State. Median indoor radon concentrations aggregated according to geologic units and hydrogeologic settings are useful for drawing general conclusions about the occurrence of indoor radon in specific geologic units and hydrogeologic settings, but the associated data and maps have limitations. The aggregated indoor radon data have testing and spatial accuracy limitations due to lack of available information regarding testing conditions and the imprecision of geocoded test locations. In addition, the associated data describing geologic units and hydrogeologic settings have spatial and interpretation accuracy limitations, which are a result of using statewide data to define conditions at test locations and geologic data that represent a broad interpretation of geologic units across the State. As a result, indoor air radon concentration distributions are not proposed for use in predicting individual concentrations at specific sites nor for use as a decision-making tool for property owners to decide whether to test for indoor radon concentrations at specific property locations.

  1. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ertit Ta?tan, Burcu; akir, Dilara Nur; Dnmez, Gnl

    2016-01-01

    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents. PMID:26877036

  2. Spatial distribution of the daily precipitation concentration index in Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhamrouche, A.; Boucherf, D.; Hamadache, R.; Bendahmane, L.; Martin-Vide, J.; Teixeira Nery, J.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the spatial and temporal distribution of the daily precipitation concentration index (CI) in Algeria (south Mediterranean Sea) has been assessed. CI is an index related to the rainfall intensity and erosive capacity; therefore, this index is of great interest for studies on torrential rainfall and floods. Forty-two daily rainfall series based on high-quality and fairly regular rainfall records for the period from 1970 to 2008 were used. The daily precipitation CI results allowed the identification of three climate zones: the northern country, characterized by coastal regions with CI values between 0.59 and 0.63; the highlands, with values between 0.57 and 0.62, except for the region of Biskra (CI = 0.70); and the southern region of the country, with high rainfall concentrations with values between 0.62 and 0.69.

  3. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Liu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron toxicity could decrease [Ca2+]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca2+]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron toxicity. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with fourier-transform infrared analysis, suggested that boron toxicity influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins, and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca2+]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth. PMID:26955377

  4. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Liu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron toxicity could decrease [Ca(2+)]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca(2+)]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron toxicity. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with fourier-transform infrared analysis, suggested that boron toxicity influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins, and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca(2+)]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth. PMID:26955377

  5. Concentrations and size distributions on Antarctic stratospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, G.V.; Pueschel, R.F. ); Neish, E. ); Shultz, M. )

    1989-11-30

    Particle Measuring Systems laser particle spectrometer (ASAS-X and FSSP) probes were used to measure aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions during 11 out of 12 ER-2 flights between Punta Arenas (53{degree}S) and Antarctica (up to 72{degree}S) from August 17 to September 22, 1987. The time resolution was 10 s, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 2 km. The data were divided into two size classes (0.05-0.25 and 0.53-5.5 {mu}m radius) to separate the small particle from the coarse particle populations. Results show that the small particle concentrations are typical for a background aerosol during volcanic quiescence. This concentration is generally constant along a flight track; in only one instance did the authors measure a depletion of small particles during a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) encounter, suggesting a nucleation of type I PSC particles on background aerosols. Temporary increases of the coarse particle concentrations indicated the presence of tenuous polar stratospheric clouds that were encountered most frequently at the southernmost portion of a flight track and when the aircraft descended to lower altitudes. During particle events, particle modes were found at 0.6 {mu}m radius, corresponding to type I PSCs, and occasionally, a second mode at 2.0 {mu}m radius, corresponding to type II PSCs.

  6. Evaluation of nanoparticle-ligand distributions to determine nanoparticle concentration.

    PubMed

    Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Shergill, Ravi T; Krull, Ulrich J

    2015-01-20

    The concentration of nanoparticles in solution is an important, yet challenging, parameter to quantify. In this work, a facile strategy for the determination of nanoparticle concentration is presented. The method relies on the quantitative analysis of the inherent distribution of nanoparticle-ligand conjugates that are generated when nanoparticles are functionalized with ligands. Validation of the method was accomplished by applying it to gold nanoparticles and semiconductor nanoparticles (CdSe/ZnS; core/shell). Poly(ethylene glycol) based ligands, with functional groups that quantitatively react with the nanoparticles, were incubated with the nanoparticles at varying equivalences. Agarose gel electrophoresis was subsequently used to separate and quantify the nanoparticle-ligand conjugates of varying valences. The distribution in the nanoparticle-ligand conjugates agreed well with that predicted by the Poisson model. A protocol was then developed, where a series of only eight different ligand amounts could provide an estimate of the nanoparticle concentration that spans 3 orders of magnitude (1 ?M to 1 mM). For the gold nanoparticles and semiconductor nanoparticles, the measured concentrations were found to deviate by only 7% and 2%, respectively, from those determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The precision of the assay was evaluated, resulting in a coefficient of variation of 5-7%. Finally, the protocol was used to determine the extinction coefficient of alloyed semiconductor nanoparticles (CdSxSe1-x/ZnS), for which a reliable estimate is currently unavailable, of three different emission wavelengths (525, 575, and 630 nm). The extinction coefficient of the nanoparticles of all emission wavelengths was similar and was found to be 2.1 10(5) M(-1)cm(-1). PMID:25513886

  7. In vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the screening of boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Clackdoyle, R.; Shortkroff, S.; Yanch, J.

    2008-05-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is under development as a potential treatment modality for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is characterized by the inflammation of the synovium (the membrane lining articular joints), which leads to pain and a restricted range of motion. BNCS is a two-part procedure involving the injection of a boronated compound directly into the diseased joint followed by irradiation with a low-energy neutron beam. The neutron capture reactions taking place in the synovium deliver a local, high-linear energy transfer (LET) dose aimed at destroying the inflamed synovial membrane. For successful treatment via BNCS, a boron-labeled compound exhibiting both high synovial uptake and long retention time is necessary. Currently, the in vivo uptake behavior of potentially useful boronated compounds is evaluated in the knee joints of rabbits in which arthritis has been induced. This strategy involves the sacrifice and dissection of a large number of animals. An in vivo 10B screening approach is therefore under investigation with the goal of significantly reducing the number of animals needed for compound evaluation via dissection studies. The 'in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis' (IVPGNAA) approach uses a narrow neutron beam to irradiate the knee from several angular positions following the intra-articular injection of a boronated compound whose uptake characteristics are unknown. A high-purity germanium detector collects the 478 keV gamma photons produced by the 10B capture reactions. The 10B distribution in the knee is then reconstructed by solving a system of simultaneous equations using a weighted least squares algorithm. To study the practical feasibility of IVPGNAA, simulation data were generated with the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The boron-containing region of a rabbit knee was partitioned into 8 compartments, and the 10B prompt gamma signals were tallied from 16 angular positions. Results demonstrate that for this level of spatial resolution, an estimate of 10B distribution inside the joint can be obtained to within 10% uncertainty, under ideal conditions. Variations of the anatomic dimensions among individual rabbit knees and potential knee positioning errors will result in an uncertainty of over 20%. IVPGNAA thus provides sufficient resolution and quantification regarding the in vivo uptake characteristics of boronated pharmaceuticals to serve as a useful means of screening new compounds of potential use in BNCS.

  8. Intra-Fuel Cell Stack Measurements of Transient Concentration Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Green Jr, Johney Boyd; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  9. Vertical distribution of number concentration and size distribution of atmospheric aerosols over the central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young J.; Boatman, J. F.

    1990-09-01

    Aircraft measurements of trace gases and atmospheric aerosols were performed over the central United States during four research field periods in 1988 as a part of the Central U.S. RADM Test and Assessment Intensives (CURTAIN). Aerosol size distributions were measured at six altitudes between 700 and 3200 m above sea level over the size range 0.1-32 micrometers, using two Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) probes; an active scattering aerosol spectrometer probe (ASASP) and a forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP), mounted on the wings of the NOAA King Air research aircraft. The FSSP data were first corrected using a scheme which accounts for the effects of the probe's electronic response time and nonuniformity in the laser beam intensity profile on the measured aerosol size spectra. Vertical profiles of the average aerosol concentration show seasonal characteristics, with maximum concentrations during summer and minimum concentrations during winter. In summer, the aerosol number concentration in the fme. particle mode is rather constant about 2,000 cm-3 up to about 1900 m asl level. Number concentration of the soil. derived aerosols in the coarse-particle mode is maximized during spring. The measured aerosol number size distributions exhibit typically bimodal distributions for both boundary layer and free tropospheric aerosols. Each measured number size distribution is approximated with a sum of two lognormal distributions using a lognormal fitting routine. The aerosol size distribution data measured in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere are compared with the LOWTRAN 'Rural' aerosol model and Tropospheric aerosol model, respectively.

  10. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1997-03-18

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  11. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1997-08-05

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  12. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1995-10-03

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  13. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1997-03-18

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  14. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1995-10-03

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  15. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1997-08-05

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized. by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  16. Plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue biodistribution of boron following administration of a boronated porphyrin in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, J; Sambol, N C; Fike, J R; Bauer, W F; Kahl, S B

    2000-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue biodistribution of boron in dogs following the administration of a boronated porphyrin (BOPP) compound, a potential sensitizing agent for binary therapies of cancer. An intravenous dose of 35 mg/kg of BOPP was administered to a total of sixteen dogs and plasma samples obtained at multiple time points for up to 28 days after administration. Groups of four dogs each were studied for 25, 79, 240, and 672 h. At the end of each study period, subjects were sacrificed and tissue samples obtained. Boron concentrations were determined for all tissue and plasma samples, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using mixed effects modeling. Plasma boron levels displayed triexponential kinetics with a long terminal half-life and small volume of distribution. Liver, lymph node, adrenal, and kidney tissues accumulated the highest levels of boron, with very low levels associated with most tissues of the head. We conclude that BOPP has pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution properties that suggest that it may be a suitable compound for use as a sensitizing agent in binary therapy of cancer. PMID:10737908

  17. Study on urine boron reference values of Japanese men: use of confidence intervals as an indicator of exposure to boron compounds.

    PubMed

    Usuda, K; Kono, K; Dote, T; Miyata, K; Nishiura, H; Shimahara, M; Sugimoto, K

    1998-09-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of urine boron by inductively-coupled plasma argon emission spectrometry (ICPAES) has been developed to establish boron exposure guidelines. After 11-fold dilution in 18.25 M omega cm ultra-pure water and vigorous shaking, urine may be directly injected into the spectrometer, providing accurate and reproducible results. We report the results obtained with urine samples obtained from a group of male Japanese electronic workers (n = 102) who had not been exposed to boron; boron concentrations were corrected with use of a specific gravity of 1.024 g/ml. The frequency distribution resulted in a log-normal distribution diagram for anatomical spread. The geometric mean values for urine boron in the non-exposed workers was 798.0 micrograms/l, while the confidence interval (C.I.) was between 398.1 and 1599.6 micrograms/l. Taking into consideration the short biological half-life of boron and its major excretion route via urine, urine was considered to be a suitable means for monitoring of exposure to this element. We conclude that the guidelines established by determining boron reference values are useful for the protection of individuals exposed to boron in their working environments. PMID:9800385

  18. Spectrally-resolved measurement of concentrated light distributions for Fresnel lens concentrators.

    PubMed

    Besson, P; White, P McVey; Dominguez, C; Voarino, P; Garcia-Linares, P; Lemiti, M; Schriemer, H; Hinzer, K; Baudrit, M

    2016-01-25

    A test method that measures spectrally resolved irradiance distribution for a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) optical system is presented. In conjunction with electrical I-V curves, it is a means to visualize and characterize the effects of chromatic aberration and nonuniform flux profiles under controllable testing conditions. The indoor characterization test bench, METHOD (Measurement of Electrical, Thermal and Optical Devices), decouples the temperatures of the primary optical element (POE) and the cell allowing their respective effects on optical and electrical performance to be analysed. In varying the temperature of the POE, the effects on electrical efficiency, focal distance, spectral sensitivity, acceptance angle and multi-junction current matching profiles can be quantified. This work presents the calibration procedures to accurately image the spectral irradiance distribution of a CPV system and a study of system behavior over lens temperature. PMID:26832591

  19. Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-09-01

    An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.

  20. GROWTH RESPONSE AND SELENIUM AND BORON DISTRIBUTION IN BROCCOLI VARIETIES IRRIGATED WITH POOR QUALITY WATER.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many drainage waters can be used successfully to grow selected crops without long-term consequences to crops and soils. Certain ions in saline waters can be specifically toxic to plants, if they accumulate to toxic concentrations within the plants tissues. Of particular concern in the San Joaquin ...

  1. Range and damage distributions in ultra-low energy boron implantation into silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzopoulos, N.; Suder, S.; Berg, J.A. van den

    1996-12-31

    An ultra high vacuum, low energy ion implanter was used in conjunction with a range of analytical techniques to study the range and damage distributions of B{sup +} ions implanted at normal incidence into Si (100) samples held at room temperature. Samples were implanted over a dose range from 1E14 ions/cm{sup 2} with and without a surface oxide layer and those implanted at 1 keV and below were capped with a nominal 20 nm layer of {sup 28}Si by ion beam deposition in situ in order to produce an oxygen equilibration layer for subsequent secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The samples were analysed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, medium energy ion scattering, spectroscopic ellipsometry, spreading resistance profiling and high resolution, cross section transmission electron microscopy to obtain information on the range and damage distributions and junction depths. The general observations were that channelling occurs at all energies studied, and that the relationship between the damage and range distributions depends strongly on bombardment energy. Comparison of the range and damage profiles was carried out to ascertain the role of the surface in determining the behaviour of defects produced very close to it by the low energy implants required for the production of junctions at depths in the 20 to 50 nm range. The role of the surface or silicon/silicon dioxide interface as a defect sink significantly influences the B redistribution behaviour during rapid thermal annealing.

  2. Minimum inhibitory concentration distribution in environmental Legionella spp. isolates.

    PubMed

    Sandalakis, Vassilios; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Goniotakis, Ioannis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-12-01

    In Greece standard tests are performed in the watering and cooling systems of hotels' units either as part of the surveillance scheme or following human infection. The purpose of this study was to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of environmental Legionella isolates for six antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of Legionella infections, by MIC-test methodology. Water samples were collected from 2004 to 2011 from 124 hotels from the four prefectures of Crete (Greece). Sixty-eight (68) Legionella isolates, comprising L. pneumophila serogroups 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 15, L. anisa, L. rubrilucens, L. maceachernii, L. quinlivanii, L. oakridgensis, and L. taurinensis, were included in the study. MIC-tests were performed on buffered charcoal yeast extract with α-ketoglutarate, L-cysteine, and ferric pyrophosphate. The MICs were read after 2 days of incubation at 36 ± 1 °C at 2.5% CO2. A large distribution in MICs was recorded for each species and each antibiotic tested. Rifampicin proved to be the most potent antibiotic regardless of the Legionella spp.; tetracycline appeared to have the least activity on our environmental isolates. The MIC-test approach is an easy, although not so cost-effective, way to determine MICs in Legionella spp. These data should be kept in mind especially since these Legionella species may cause human disease. PMID:25473976

  3. Trace Elements concentration and distribution across the Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndunguru, G. G.; Goni, I. B.; Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Banks, M. L.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Lake Chad, which is the largest Lake in West Africa, is situated between the latitude 12 and 14 north and longitude 130 east of the Southern fringe of the Sahara Desert. About 25 % of the Lake Chad lies within Nigeria, while the Republic of Cameroon, Chad and Niger share the rest of it. Lake Chad is completely landlocked and has no outlets; therefore loss of water is mainly through high rates of evaporation unlike similar Lakes in other parts of the World. The Lake Chad waters are fresh and of good quality with very low salt content which makes it suitable for irrigated agriculture. This study was carried out from upper stream to lower stream leading from Kano to the Damaturu region which is one of several water bodies that supply Lake Chad. Soil samples were collected from over seventy five sites and analyzed for ten Trace Elements(Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn,Fe, Mo, Pb, Zn, and Cr) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)-OES. Assessment and Monitoring of Trace Elements concentrations are vital because they impact environment and can affect the human healthy. Since little is known about the Trace Elements status in Lake Chad Basin. The result in this study provides baseline information on the distribution and concentration of Trace Elements along the Lake Chad Basin.

  4. Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

  5. Effect of boron and gadolinium concentration on the calculated neutron multiplication factor of U(3)O/sub 2/ fuel pins in optimum geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.T.

    1984-10-01

    The KENO-Va improved Monte Carlo criticality program is used to calculate the neutron multiplication factor for TMI-U2 fuel compositions in a variety of configurations and to display parametric regions giving rise to maximum reactivity contributions. The lattice pitch of UO/sub 2/ fuel pins producing a maximum k/sub eff/ is determined as a function of boron concentrations in the coolant for infinite and finite systems. The characteristics of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-coolant mixtures of interest to modeling the rubble region of the core are presented. Several disrupted core configurations are calculated and comparisons made. The results should be useful to proposed defueling of the TMI-U2 reactor.

  6. Methods for boron delivery to mammalian tissue

    DOEpatents

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick (Encino, CA); Feaks, Debra A. (Los Angeles, CA); Shelly, Kenneth J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy can be used to destroy tumors. This treatment modality is enhanced by delivering compounds to the tumor site where the compounds have high concentrations of boron, the boron compounds being encapsulated in the bilayer of a liposome or in the bilayer as well as the internal space of the liposomes. Preferred compounds, include carborane units with multiple boron atoms within the carborane cage structure. Liposomes with increased tumor specificity may also be used.

  7. Silicon nanocrystals with high boron and phosphorus concentration hydrophilic shell—Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Minoru Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Masataka; Imakita, Kenji

    2014-02-28

    Boron (B) and phosphorus (P) codoped silicon (Si) nanocrystals, which exhibit very wide range tunable luminescence due to the donor to acceptor transitions and can be dispersed in polar liquids without organic ligands, are studied by Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Codoped Si nanocrystals exhibit a Raman spectrum significantly different from those of intrinsic ones. First, the Raman peak energy is almost insensitive to the size and is very close to that of bulk Si crystal in the diameter range of 2.7 to 14 nm. Second, the peak is much broader than that of intrinsic ones. Furthermore, an additional broad peak, the intensity of which is about 20% of the main peak, appears around 650 cm{sup −1}. The peak can be assigned to local vibrational modes of substitutional B and B-P pairs, B clusters, B-interstitial clusters, etc. in Si crystal. The Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that a crystalline shell heavily doped with these species is formed at the surface of a codoped Si nanocrystal and it induces the specific properties, i.e., hydrophilicity, high-stability in water, high resistance to hydrofluoric acid, etc.

  8. Significance of pollutant concentration distribution in the response of 'Red Kidney' beans to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Musselman, R.C.; Oshima, R.J.; Gallavan, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. red kidney) exposed to ozone with a simulated ambient concentration distribution showed significantly more injury, less growth, and lower yield than those exposed to an equivalent dose of ozone with a uniform concentration distribution. The concentration distribution did not alter the type of biological response of red kidney beans to ozone, an indication that uniform concentration distribution fumigations are appropriate for investigations of mode of action of pollutants on plants. However, this study suggests that research using a uniform concentration distribution of pollutants may underestimate the magnitude of growth and yield responses to ambient pollutants. 26 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  9. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients.

    PubMed

    García-Reiriz, Alejandro; Magallanes, Jorge; Zupan, Jure; Líberman, Sara

    2011-12-01

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. PMID:21592804

  10. Distribution and concentration of suspended matter in Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Philpot, W.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The problem of remote sensing of suspended matter in water was analyzed in terms of the single-scattering albedo, and a semiempirical relationship between satellite radiance measurements and the concentration of suspended matter in the water was developed. The relationship was tested using data from the 7 July 1973 LANDSAT overpass of Delaware Bay with good results. Suspended sediment concentration maps for the entire Delaware Bay were prepared using radiance values extracted from LANDSAT MSS imagery and correlating them with ground truth samples collected from boats and helicopter.

  11. Simultaneous determination of antimony and boron in beverage and dairy products by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after separation and pre-concentration by cloud-point extraction.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Nail; Grkan, Ramazan

    2016-02-01

    A new cloud-point extraction (CPE) method was developed for the pre-concentration and simultaneous determination of Sb(III) and B(III) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method was based on complexation of Sb(III) and B(III) with azomethine-H in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a signal-enhancing agent, and then extraction into the micellar phase of Triton X-114. Under optimised conditions, linear calibration was obtained for Sb(III) and B(III) in the concentration ranges of 0.5-180 and 2.5-600 ?gl(-1) with LODs of 0.15 and 0.75 ?gl(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) (25 and 100 ?gl(-1) of Sb(III) and B(III), n=6) were in a range of 2.1-3.8% and 1.9-2.3%, respectively. Recoveries of spiked samples of Sb(III) and B(III) were in the range of 98-103% and 99-102%, respectively. Measured values for Sb and B in three standard reference materials were within the 95% confidence limit of the certified values. Also, the method was used for the speciation of inorganic antimony. Sb(III), Sb(V) and total Sb were measured in the presence of excess boron before and after pre-reduction with an acidic mixture of KI-ascorbic acid. The method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of total Sb and B in selected beverage and dairy products. PMID:26667090

  12. Ground-state properties of boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Zarechnaya, E. Yu. Isaev, E. I. Simak, S. I.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.; Dubrovinskaia, N. A.; Abrikosov, I. A.

    2008-04-15

    Boron-doped diamond undergoes an insulator-metal or even a superconducting transition at some critical value of the dopant concentration. We study the equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk modulus of boron-doped diamond experimentally and in the framework of the density functional method for different levels of boron doping. We theoretically consider the possibility for the boron atoms to occupy both substitutional and interstitial positions and investigate their influence on the electronic structure of the material. The data suggest that boron softens the lattice, but softening due to substitutions of carbon with boron is much weaker than due to incorporation of boron into interstitial positions. Theoretical results obtained for substitution of carbon are in very good agreement with our experiment. We present a concentration dependence of the lattice parameter in boron-doped diamond, which can be used for to identify the levels of boron doping in future experiments.

  13. Arabidopsis boron transporter for xylem loading.

    PubMed

    Takano, Junpei; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Yasumori, Miho; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Gajdos, Zofia; Miwa, Kyoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Fujiwara, Toru

    2002-11-21

    Boron deficiency hampers the productivity of 132 crops in more than 80 countries. Boron is essential in higher plants primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and is also beneficial and might be essential in animals and in yeast. Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) of boron transport is crucial for alleviating boron deficiency. Here we describe the molecular identification of boron transporters in biological systems. The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant bor1-1 is sensitive to boron deficiency. Uptake studies indicated that xylem loading is the key step for boron accumulation in shoots with a low external boron supply and that the bor1-1 mutant is defective in this process. Positional cloning identified BOR1 as a membrane protein with homology to bicarbonate transporters in animals. Moreover, a fusion protein of BOR1 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized to the plasma membrane in transformed cells. The promoter of BOR1 drove GFP expression in root pericycle cells. When expressed in yeast, BOR1 decreased boron concentrations in cells. We show here that BOR1 is an efflux-type boron transporter for xylem loading and is essential for protecting shoots from boron deficiency. PMID:12447444

  14. Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

    1981-10-01

    High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10/sup 15/cm/sup -3/ has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium ..beta..-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H/sub 2/ with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sup -3/ and are estimated to contain 10/sup 8/ H atoms each.

  15. Measurement of valence band structure in boron-zinc-oxide films by making use of ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Kwon, Gi C.; Choi, Eun H.

    2011-12-26

    Measurement of valence band structure in the boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films was developed using the secondary electron emission due to the Auger neutralization of ions. The energy distribution profile of the electrons emitted from boron-zinc-oxide films was measured and rescaled so that Auger self-convolution arose; thus, revealing the detailed structure of the valence band and suggesting that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films may enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the band gap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals; thereby improving the conductivity of the film.

  16. Silica and boron-containing ultraphosphate laser glass with low concentration quenching and improved thermal shock resistance

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Lee M.; Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1987-04-28

    Neodymium-doped phosphate glasses having a refractive index, nd>1.520; an Abbe number, Vd, <60; a density <3.0 g/cm.sup.3, a thermal expansion coefficient, .alpha., .ltoreq.110.times.10.sup.-7 .degree.C..sup.-1 ; a Young's Modulus, E, <70.times.10.sup.3 N/mm.sup.2 ; a Poisson's Ratio, .nu., <0.28; a thermal conductivity, K, >0.5 W/m.multidot.K, a thermal FOM=(1-.nu.).multidot.K/.alpha.E>0.7, consisting essentially of, in mol. %: P.sub.2 O.sub.5 : 40-70% SiO.sub.2 : 0-20% B.sub.2 O.sub.3 : 5-20% Sum SiO.sub.2 +B.sub.2 O.sub.3 : 5-35% Sum Li.sub.2 O+Na.sub.2 O+K.sub.2 O: 5-20% Sum La.sub.2 O.sub.3 +Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 : 3-10% Sum MgO+CaO+SrO+BaO+ZnO: 0-10% and preferably containing an amount of Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 effective for laser activity having an emission cross-section, .sigma., >3.5.times.10.sup.-20 cm.sup.2 ; a fluorescence linewidth (.DELTA..lambda..sub.f1)<23.5 nm; a first e-folding time of the Nd.sup.3+ fluorescence at 0.5 wt. % Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 >375 .mu.sec, and a first e-folding time of the Nd.sup.3+ fluorescence at 10 wt. % >175 .mu.sec at 10 wt. %, have very low self-concentration quenching rates.

  17. Modeling of Boron and Phosphorus Implantation into (100) Germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Suh,Y.; Carroll, M.; Levy, R.; Sahiner, M.; Bisognin, G.; King, C.

    2005-01-01

    Boron and phosphorus implants into germanium and silicon with energies from 20 to 320 keV and ion doses from 5x10{sup 13} to 5x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} were characterized using secondary ion mass spectrometry. The first four moments of all implants were calculated from the experimental data. Both the phosphorus and boron implants were found to be shallower in the germanium than in the silicon for the same implant parameters and high hole concentrations, as high as 2x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, were detected by spreading resistance profiling immediately after boron implants without subsequent annealing. Channeling experiments using nuclear reaction analysis also indicated high substitutional fractions ({approx}19%) even in the highest dose case immediately after implant. A greater straggle (second moment) is, however, observed in the boron implants in the germanium than in the silicon despite having a shorter projected range in the germanium. Implant profiles predicted by Monte Carlo simulations and Lindhard-Scharff-Schiott theory were calculated to help clarify the implant behavior. Finally, the experimentally obtained moments were used to calculate Pearson distribution fits to the boron and phosphorus implants for rapid simulation of nonamorphizing doses over the entire energy range examined.

  18. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

    1994-12-13

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

  19. Reconstruction of atmospheric pollutant concentrations from remote sensing data - An application of distributed parameter observer theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koda, M.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The reconstruction of a concentration distribution from spatially averaged and noise-corrupted data is a central problem in processing atmospheric remote sensing data. Distributed parameter observer theory is used to develop reconstructibility conditions for distributed parameter systems having measurements typical of those in remote sensing. The relation of the reconstructibility condition to the stability of the distributed parameter observer is demonstrated. The theory is applied to a variety of remote sensing situations, and it is found that those in which concentrations are measured as a function of altitude satisfy the conditions of distributed state reconstructibility.

  20. Structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of ?-boron and ??-boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chaoyu; Zhong, J. X.

    2013-04-01

    The structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of ?-boron and a promising metastable boron phase (?*-boron) have been studied by first-principles calculations. ?-boron and ?*-boron consist of equivalent icosahedra B12 clusters in different connecting configurations of "3S-6D-3S" and "2S-6D-4S", respectively. The total energy calculations show that ?*-boron is less stable than ?-boron but more favorable than the well-known ?-boron and ?-boron at zero pressure. Both ?-boron and ?*-boron are confirmed dynamically and mechanically stable. The mechanical and electronic properties of ?-boron and ?*-boron indicate that they are potential superhard semiconducting phases of element boron.

  1. Concentration depth distribution of grain boundary segregation measured by wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wuqiang; Xu, Min; Bai, Huanhuan; Meng, Ye; Wang, Litao; Shi, Lifa; Pei, Yinghao; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei

    2015-12-01

    A method using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) is applied to the measurement of grain boundary segregation of Sn in silicon steel. The quantification of monolayer concentration of Sn is acquired, which demonstrates an obvious segregation of Sn at grain boundaries. In consideration of the fact that segregated impurities (Sn or other species) distribute in multilayer and not just monolayer segregation can be characterized by WDS, the Gaussian distribution is applied to formulate the multilayer concentration depth distribution according to the measured total concentration. A correction factor is then put forward to improve the quantification. Based on the measured segregation of Sn and the derived formula of multilayer concentration depth distribution, the grain boundary concentrations of Sn are calculated for different thicknesses of segregated layer. From the experimental measurement, theoretical analyses and calculated results, an effective approach for the research of grain boundary segregation is provided. PMID:25791794

  2. Boronated compounds for imaging guided BNCT applications.

    PubMed

    Geninatti-Crich, Simonetta; Deagostino, Annamaria; Toppino, Antonio; Alberti, Diego; Venturello, Paolo; Aime, Silvio

    2012-06-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the capture of thermal neutrons by boron 10 ((10)B) nuclei that have been selectively delivered to tumor cells. The amount of 10-30 ?g of boron for g of tumor mass is needed to attain an acceptable therapeutic advantage. Despite that the potentialities of BNCT have been demonstrated in several preclinical studies, this technique has not yet been fully accepted in the armory of tools for tumor treatment. This is partly due to the differences in the uptake and distribution of (10)B among patients and also to the uncertainty found in the determination of tumor-to-blood (10)B concentration ratio. Attention is now being payed to use the main imaging techniques to determine the in vivo biodistribution of BNCT agents. Most of the work has been devoted to the most promising BNCT agents, namely BPA, BSH and carborane derivatives. This review surveys studies carried out over the last decade, and outlines the role that NMR, PET and SPECT imaging may have to improve the efficacy of BNCT. PMID:22263798

  3. Boron deposition from fused salts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.L.

    1980-08-01

    A partial evaluation of the feasibility of a process to electrodeposit pure coherent coatings of elemental boron from molten fluorides has been performed. The deposit produced was powdery and acicular, unless the fluoride melt was purified to have very low oxygen concentration. When the oxygen activity was reduced in the melt by addition of crystalline elemental boron, dense, amorphous boron deposit was produced. The boron deposits produced had cracks but were otherwise pure and dense and ranged up to 0.35 mm thick. Information derived during this project suggests that similar deposits might be obtained crack-free up to 1.00 mm thick by process modifications and improvements.

  4. Microexplosions of boron and boron/carbon slurry droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Shwinchung Wong; Archeng Lin; Chunee Wu . Dept. of Power Mechanical Engineering Chung Cheng Inst. of Tech., Ta-Hsi . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    Microexplosions of suspended boron/JP-10 and boron/carbon/JP-10 slurry droplets were studied for various solids loadings in the postflame region of a flat-flame burner. While the small-particle amorphous boron slurry droplets of a low solids loading shrank considerably before microexplosion, the droplets of high loadings held a nearly constant diameter before considerable swelling and drastic disruption occurred. The transient internal temperature distributions of small-particle amorphous boron slurry droplet were measured up to microexplosion with fine thermocouples at 1,000 K. Measurements indicated that temperatures at the outer region of the droplets rose continuously beyond the boiling point of JP-10, resulting from evaporation suppression by the surface shell textures. The key event appeared to be the evaporation-suppressed heating process, similar to the microexplosion mechanism proposed by Wong and Lin for Al/C/JP-10 slurries. The semiempirical microexplosion model of Wong and Lin was applied to an amorphous boron slurry. The calculations agreed satisfactorily with the experimental data at various droplet diameters and ambient temperatures. The effects of carbon black on microexplosion were also examined. For small-particle amorphous B/C/JP-10 slurries, a proportion of 8--12 wt.% carbon in the solids resulted in stronger microexplosions. For large-particle crystalline B/C/JP-10 slurries (mean boron particle diameter of about 20 [mu]m), the addition of an appropriate amount of carbon black always appeared beneficial.

  5. Boron determinations in pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.M.; McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.; Farrar, H. IV

    1994-12-31

    Several studies have suggested that low-energy neutrons contribute to reactor pressure vessel (PV) embrittlement through interactions with boron impurities in the steel. Until now, the available information on boron contents in pressure vessel steels has been based on nominal concentrations or estimates provided by the materials manufacturers. To help resolve the question of boron contribution to PV steel embrittlement, samples of 38 different PV steels were analyzed by high-sensitivity gas mass spectrometry for their helium and boron contents. The boron contents were determined by measuring the increase in helium content in each material as a result of additional thermal neutron exposure. The results of these analyses showed natural boron contents that ranged from 0.23 to 5.11 wt. ppm in the various alloys.

  6. Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar; Yilmaz, M Tolga; Paluluoğlu, Cihan

    2008-05-01

    Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm(2), but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%. PMID:17904734

  7. Characterization of electrodeposited elemental boron

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S. Ananthasivan, K.; Ranganathan, R.; Mittal, Vinit; Narasimhan, S.V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2008-07-15

    Elemental boron was produced through electrowinning from potassium fluoroborate dissolved in a mixture of molten potassium fluoride and potassium chloride. The characteristics of the electrodeposited boron (raw boron) as well as the water and acid-leached product (processed boron) were studied. The chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size of the boron powders were investigated. The morphology of the deposits was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical state of the matrix, as well as the impurity phases present in them, was established using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to interpret and understand the results obtained, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out. The gas-phase corrosion in the head space as well as the chemistry behind the leaching process were interpreted using this analysis. The ease of oxidation of these powders in air was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with thermogravimetry (TG). From the results obtained in this study it was established that elemental boron powder with a purity of 95-99% could be produced using a high temperature molten salt electrowinning process. The major impurities were found to be oxygen, carbon, iron and nickel.

  8. [Effect of different distribution of components concentration on the accuracy of quantitative spectral analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Hui-Quan; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-Ju; Wu, Xiao-Rong

    2012-07-01

    In order to discuss the effect of different distribution of components concentration on the accuracy of quantitative spectral analysis, according to the Lambert-Beer law, ideal absorption spectra of samples with three components were established. Gaussian noise was added to the spectra. Correction and prediction models were built by partial least squares regression to reflect the unequal modeling and prediction results between different distributions of components. Results show that, in the case of pure linear absorption, the accuracy of model is related to the distribution of components concentration. Not only to the component we focus on, but also to the non-tested components, the larger covered and more uniform distribution is a significant point of calibration set samples to establish a universal model and provide a satisfactory accuracy. This research supplies a theoretic guidance for reasonable choice of samples with suitable concentration distribution, which enhances the quality of model and reduces the prediction error of the predict set. PMID:23016350

  9. Conductivity of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films: influence of specific boron defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcheulov, P.; ebera, J.; Kovalenko, A.; Petrk, V.; Fendrych, F.; Nesldek, M.; Taylor, A.; Vl?kov ivcov, Z.; Frank, O.; Kavan, L.; Dra?nsk, M.; Hubk, P.; Vack, J.; Kraus, I.; Kratochvlov, I.

    2013-10-01

    The resistivity of boron doped polycrystalline diamond films changes with boron content in a very complex way with many unclear factors. From the large number of parameters affecting boron doped polycrystalline diamond film's conductivity we focused on the role of boron atoms inside diamond grains in terms of boron contribution to the continuum of diamond electronic states. Using a combination of theoretical and experimental techniques (plane-wave Density Functional Theory, Neutron Depth Profiling, resistivity and Hall effect measurements, Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy) we studied a wide range of B defect parameters - the boron concentration, location, structure, free hole concentration and mobility. The main goal and novelty of our work was to find the influence of B defects (structure, interactions, charge localisation and spins) in highly B-doped diamonds - close or above the metal-insulator transition - on the complex material charge transport mechanisms.

  10. Development and Application of Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Estimating Atrazine Concentration Distributions in Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Regression models were developed for predicting atrazine concentration distributions in rivers and streams, using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology. Separate regression equations were derived for each of nine percentiles of the annual distribution of atrazine concentrations and for the annual time-weighted mean atrazine concentration. In addition, seasonal models were developed for two specific periods of the year--the high season, when the highest atrazine concentrations are expected in streams, and the low season, when concentrations are expected to be low or undetectable. Various nationally available watershed parameters were used as explanatory variables, including atrazine use intensity, soil characteristics, hydrologic parameters, climate and weather variables, land use, and agricultural management practices. Concentration data from 112 river and stream stations sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment and National Stream Quality Accounting Network Programs were used for computing the concentration percentiles and mean concentrations used as the response variables in regression models. Tobit regression methods, using maximum likelihood estimation, were used for developing the models because some of the concentration values used for the response variables were censored (reported as less than a detection threshold). Data from 26 stations not used for model development were used for model validation. The annual models accounted for 62 to 77 percent of the variability in concentrations among the 112 model development stations. Atrazine use intensity (the amount of atrazine used in the watershed divided by watershed area) was the most important explanatory variable in all models, but additional watershed parameters significantly increased the amount of variability explained by the models. Predicted concentrations from all 10 models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentrations at most model development and model validation stations. Results for the two sets of seasonal models were similar. Concentration distributions derived from the seasonal-model predictions provided additional information compared to distributions derived from the annual models.

  11. [Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

    2013-06-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality. PMID:24066568

  12. Boron neutron capture enhancement of 252Cf brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Beach, J L; Schroy, C B; Ashtari, M; Harris, M R; Maruyama, Y

    1990-06-01

    Dosimetric and radiobiological studies were undertaken to investigate the potential enhancement in dose, dose distribution and cell killing effectiveness of 252Cf brachytherapy achievable when boron-10 enriched compounds are incorporated into simulated 252Cf brain implants. Thermal neutron distributions in a human head phantom containing a 252Cf source were measured by gold foil activation and calculated using a 1-dimensional transport code. This information was then used to modify measured event size distributions for 252Cf neutrons to determine the corresponding increase in dose and dose equivalent throughout the phantom. The addition of subtoxic levels of boron-10 to a typical 252Cf implant was found to significantly enhance both the absorbed dose and the high LET event frequency at distances of 3 to 5 cm from individual sources. Some unexpected geometric considerations are discussed. Reduced survival of cultured Chinese hamster cells correlated with the predicted increase in absorbed dose from the capture events with a concentration of about 60 micrograms 10B per ml in the culture medium. It was found that boron increased alpha (the "single-hit" parameter of the linear quadratic survival model) by 32% and decreased beta (the "double-hit" parameter) by 8%. The alpha/beta ratio increased to 4.34 Gy in the presence of boron, from 3.03 Gy in its absence. This translated to an 8% reduction in californium dose needed to effect 10% cell survival. It is concluded that there is a sufficiently high thermal neutron fluence present during californium brachytherapy for boron neutron capture dose augmentation to be feasible. PMID:2370192

  13. Detection of boron removal capacities of different microorganisms in wastewater and effective removal process.

    PubMed

    Lain, Beng; Ertit Ta?tan, Burcu; Dnmez, Gnl

    2015-01-01

    In this study boron removal capacities of different microorganisms were tested. Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus versicolor were examined for their boron bioaccumulation capacities in simulated municipal wastewater. A. versicolor and B. cereus were found as the most boron-tolerant microorganisms in the experiments. Also boron bioaccumulation yield of A. versicolor was 49.25% at 15 mg/L boron concentration. On the other hand biosorption experiments revealed that A. versicolor was more capable of boron removal in inactive form at the highest boron concentrations. In this paper maximum boron bioaccumulation yield was detected as 39.08% at 24.17 mg/L and the maximum boron biosorption yield was detected as 41.36% at 24.01 mg/L boron concentrations. PMID:26540546

  14. Features of Distribution of Mercurian Concentric Basins on the Base of Messenger Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Zhanna; Blue, Jennifer

    MESSENGER images were investigated to expose the distribution of concentric basins on the surface of Mercury. We revealed 49 such objects with outer diameters from 64 km to 488 km, some of which have been formally named (e.g., Bach (214 km), Homer (319 km), Rachmaninov (306 km), Renoir (220 km), Chekhov (194 km), etc.). Fourteen concentric basins are unnamed. Concentric basins share the following common features: the diameter of the outer ridge is twice that of the inner ridge; the surface of the central depression is covered with a fewer number of craters than the surface between the inner and outer ridges; and chains of small craters and valleys usually surround such concentric basins. A histogram of the distribution of these basin dimensions shows that diameters from 160 km to 170 km and 190 km to 220 km are prevalent for concentric basins. About 70% of all concentric basins on Mercury are located in marginal zones between plains and highlands. We have compiled a map of the distribution of concentric basins on the Mercurian surface. It shows that the frequency of concentric basins in the western hemisphere is three times greater than the frequency in the eastern hemisphere. The comparison of concentric basins on Mercury, Moon and Mars is now complete.

  15. Density separation of boron particles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-04-01

    A density distribution much broader than expected was observed in lots of natural boron powder supplied by two different sources. The material in both lots was found to have a rhombohedral crystal structure, and the only other parameters which seemed to account for such a distribution were impurities within the crystal structure and varying isotopic ratios. A separation technique was established to isolate boron particles in narrow densty ranges. The isolated fractions were subsequently analyzed for B/sup 10/ and total boron content in an effort to determine whether selective isotopic enrichment and nonhomogeneous impurity distribution were the causes for the broad density distribution of the boron powders. It was found that although the B/sup 10/ content remained nearly constant around 18%, the total boron content varied from 37.5 to 98.7%. One of the lots also was found to contain an apparently high level of alpha rhombohedral boron which broadened the density distribution considerably. During this work, a capability for removing boron particles containing gross amounts of impurities and, thereby, improving the overall purity of the remaining material was developed. In addition, the separation technique used in this study apparently isolated particles with alpha and beta rhombohedral crystal structures, although the only supporting evidence is density data.

  16. Influence of drop size distribution function on simulated ground precipitation for different cloud droplet number concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević, Nemanja; Ćurić, Mladjen

    2015-05-01

    A cloud-resolving mesoscale model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme is used to perform cloud simulations for two different modes of the liquid water spectrum: a unified Khrgian-Mazin size distribution for the entire spectrum of drops and the monodisperse size distribution for cloud droplets with the exponential Marshall-Palmer distribution for raindrops. The cloud model calculates the mixing ratios and number concentrations of the six microphysical categories: raindrops, cloud ice, snow, graupel, frozen raindrops and hail. The cloud droplet number concentration was prescribed. The main purpose of this sensitivity study was to analyse the differences in simulated surface precipitation (rain and hail) for the two assumed approaches with different values of cloud droplet number concentration. The study showed that there are significant differences in the occurrence, amount and spatial distribution of accumulated precipitation at the surface. It can be noted that the unified Khrgian-Mazin size distribution is generally more sensitive to changes in the cloud droplet number concentration than an alternative approach. The rain showers and cloud splitting are well simulated with the unified Khrgian-Mazin size distribution, especially for smaller values of cloud droplet number concentration.

  17. Some aspects of statistical distribution of trace element concentrations in biomedical samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, U.; Braziewicz, J.; Bana? , D.; Kubala-Kuku? , A.; G? D? , S.; Pajek, M.; Zadrozsolarna, M.; Jaskla, M.; Czyzsolarewski, T.

    1999-04-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in biomedical samples were studied using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methods. Used analytical methods were compared in terms of their detection limits and applicability for studying the trace elements in large populations of biomedical samples. In a result, the XRF and TRXRF methods were selected to be used for the trace element concentration measurements in the urine and woman full-term placenta samples. The measured trace element concentration distributions were found to be strongly asymmetric and described by the logarithmic-normal distribution. Such a distribution is expected for the random sequential process, which realistically models a level of trace elements in studied biomedical samples. The importance and consequences of this finding are discussed, especially in the context of comparison of the concentration measurements in different populations of biomedical samples.

  18. Cross-sections of 10B(?, p) 13C nuclear reaction for boron analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Wang, X. M.; Shao, L.; Liu, J. R.; Yen, A. C.; Chu, Wei-kan

    2003-09-01

    The 10B(?, p) 13C nuclear reaction shows great potential in boron depth profiling due to its large cross-section and a narrow resonance in the MeV energy range. Unfortunately, the existing cross-section data on this reaction are too rough for depth profiling. We present an accurate measurement of the cross-section of the (?, p) reaction on 10B using a boron thin film on a Si substrate, high-resolution detection and careful analysis of the proton spectra. Angular distributions of the cross-section at the resonant energy Er=1512 keV are also presented. The sharp resonance at 1512 keV was used to measure the B depth distribution in a borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) thin film. The boron concentration profiles are compared with SIMS measurement and are found in good agreement.

  19. Boron-enhanced diffusion of boron from ultralow-energy boron implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Gossmann, H.J.; Pelaz, L.; Herner, S.B.; Jacobson, D.C.; Haynes, T.E.; Erokhin, Y.E.

    1998-05-03

    The authors have investigated the diffusion enhancement mechanism of BED (boron enhanced diffusion), wherein the boron diffusivity is enhanced three to four times over the equilibrium diffusivity at 1,050 C in the proximity of a silicon layer containing a high boron concentration. It is shown that BED is associated with the formation of a fine-grain polycrystalline silicon boride phase within an initially amorphous Si layer having a high B concentration. For 0.5 keV B{sup +}, the threshold implantation dose which leads to BED lies between 3 {times} 10{sup 14} and of 1 {times} 10{sup 15}/cm{sup {minus}2}. Formation of the shallowest possible junctions by 0.5 keV B{sup +} requires that the implant dose be kept lower than this threshold.

  20. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  1. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  2. [Boron content of Hungarian edible wild mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Vetter, Y

    1995-12-01

    The boron contents of 68 edible common macrofungi of Hungary were analysed. The average boron content of the examples was 11.74 mg/kg dry mass, this is higher than the average value of green plants of Hungary (7.4 mg/kg dry mass). Although the highest boron contents were found in the examples from woods near Budapest, the differences between the various sites are not significant. It seems that the site has not an important effect on the boron content of mushrooms. Some taxonomical groups are examples of higher, others are examples of lower boron content. The highest concentration of boron (54.3 mg/kg dry mass) was found in the species Marasmius wynnei which indicates a bioconcentration of four to five fold to the average boron level. Significant bioaccumulation of analysed edible species was not established, but the poisoning mushroom Mycena pura has a very great (401-607 mg/kg dry mass) boron concentration. This accumulation is observed to the first time. PMID:8585328

  3. Silicon and boron differ in their localization and loading in bone?

    PubMed Central

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Pedro, Liliana D.; Watson, Abigail; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon and boron share many similarities, both chemically and biochemically, including having similar effects on bone, although their mechanisms of action are not known. Here we compared the loading of silicon and boron into bone, their localization and how they are influenced by age (growth & development), to obtain further clues as to the biological effects of these elements and, especially, to see if they behave the same or not. Bone samples were obtained from two different studies where female Sprague Dawley rats had been maintained on a normal maintenance diet for up to 43weeks. Total bone elemental levels were determined by ICP-OES following microwave assisted acid digestion. Silicon and boron levels in the decalcified bones (i.e. the collagen fraction) were also investigated. Silicon and boron showed marked differences in loading and in their localization in bone. Highest silicon and lowest boron concentrations were found in the under-mineralized bone of younger rats and lowest silicon and highest boron concentrations were found in the fully mineralized bone of the adult rat. Overall, however total bone silicon content increased with age, as did boron content, the latter mirroring the increase in calcium (mineral) content of bone. However, whereas silicon showed equal distribution in the collagen and mineral fractions of bone, boron was exclusively localized in the mineral fraction. These findings confirm the reported association between silicon and collagen, especially at the early stages of bone mineralization, and show that boron is associated with the bone mineral but not connective tissues. These data suggest that silicon and boron have different biological roles and that one is unlikely, therefore, to substitute for the other, or at least boron would not substitute for Si in the connective tissues. Finally, we noted that silicon levels in the mineral fraction varied greatly between the two studies, suggesting that one or more nutritional factor(s) may influence the loading of Si into the mineral fraction of bone. This and the nature of the interaction between Si and collagen deserve further attention. PMID:26665155

  4. Serum and urinary boron levels in rats after single administration of sodium tetraborate.

    PubMed

    Usuda, K; Kono, K; Orita, Y; Dote, T; Iguchi, K; Nishiura, H; Tominaga, M; Tagawa, T; Goto, E; Shirai, Y

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of boron was studied in rats by administering a 1 ml oral dose of sodium tetraborate solution to several groups of rats (n=20) at eleven different dose levels ranging from 0 to 0.4 mg/100 g body weight as boron. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected after boron administration. After 24 h the average urinary recovery rate for this element was 99.6+/-7.9. The relationship between boron dose and excretion was linear (r=0.999) with a regression coefficient of 0.954. This result suggests that the oral bioavailability (F) of boron was complete. Another group of rats (n=10) was given a single oral injection of 2 ml of sodium tetraborate solution containing 0.4 mg of boron/100 g body wt. The serum decay of boron was followed and found to be monophasic. The data were interpreted according to a one-compartment open model. The appropriate pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated as follows: absorption half-life, t1/2a=0.608+/-0.432 h; elimination half-life, t1/2=4.64+/-1.19 h; volume of distribution, Vd = 142.0+/-30.2 ml/100 g body wt.; total clearance, Ctot=0.359+/-0.0285 ml/min per 100 g body wt. The maximum boron concentration in serum after administration (Cmax) was 2.13+/-0.270 mg/l, and the time needed to reach this maximum concentration (Tmax) was 1.76+/-0.887 h. Our results suggest that orally administered boric acid is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood stream. Boric acid in the intravascular space does not have a strong affinity to serum proteins, and rapidly diffuses to the extravascular space in proportion to blood flow without massive accumulation or binding in tissues. The main route of boron excretion from the body is via glomerular filtration. It may be inferred that there is partial tubular resorption at low plasma levels. The animal model is proposed as a useful tool to approach the problem of environmental or industrial exposure to boron or in cases of accidental acute boron intoxication. PMID:9765061

  5. Factors Controlling Droplet Concentration and Size Distribution in Clouds over Dominica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, R. D.; Storelvmo, T.; Smith, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    Since precipitation in convective, tropical clouds, and the impact of these clouds on Earth's radiation budget, are dependent on the concentration and size distribution of the water droplets that make up the clouds, we are interested in understanding the factors controlling the droplet concentration and size distribution in these clouds. Previous studies from field campaigns have led to contradictory conclusions, with some research pointing to updraft velocity as the most influential factor, and other studies pointing to aerosol concentration. The 2011 Dominica Experiment (DOMEX) field campaign provides a wealth of data with which to study this problem, and to test existing models of droplet activation and growth; these data include aerosol and cloud droplet concentrations and size distributions, and wind speed measurements, from research flights above and upwind of the island of Dominica, as well as precipitation data from rain gauges installed on the island. Over 17 DOMEX research flights, cloud droplet concentrations averaged over flight legs above the island were positively correlated with aerosol concentrations from legs flown upwind of the island at 305 m altitude, while cloud droplet mean diameters were negatively correlated with oversea aerosol concentrations, supporting the idea that higher aerosol concentrations (if they are water soluble aerosols, such as sea salt) result in more droplets becoming activated and not growing as large. Meanwhile, average horizontal wind speeds in the oversea legs were negatively correlated with droplet concentrations in clouds over the island, and positively correlated with the mean diameter, the opposite of what would be expected if stronger convection accompanied the higher horizontal wind speeds. The horizontal wind speeds were also negatively correlated with the aerosol concentrations, especially at very low wind speeds, suggesting that the negative impact of wind speed on droplet concentration may have been due to a different aerosol regime that accompanied the lower wind speeds.

  6. Controls on boron and germanium distribution in the low-sulfur Amos coal bed, Western Kentucky coalfield, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Williams, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Duckmantian-aged Amos coal bed is a thin (<51 cm) coal bed that occurs in lobate southwest-trending pods separated by thin sandstones in the Western Kentucky coalfield. The coal bed, which is comprised of up to two benches and a rider coal, is low in ash yield (<6%) and sulfur content (<1%). The coal tends to be thin (<40 cm), but it was heavily mined in the 1980s because it could be combusted as mined. Geochemical analysis of the Amos coal bed shows higher concentrations of B and Ge than other Western Kentucky coal beds. High total B concentrations as well as high B/Be, both considered to be indicators of marine environments, increase toward the top of the coal bed. Most of the B values for the Amos samples range from 66 to 103 ppm (whole coal basis) indicating deposition in a brackish environment. High Ge concentrations in coals have been considered to be a function of seam thickness and proximity to the top and bottom of the coal bed. Thin coals, such as the Amos, are dominated by the coal bed margins and, therefore, have a tendency to have relatively high Ge concentrations. In the case of the Amos coal bed, the lower bench has a higher Ge content, suggesting that the substrate was a more important source of Ge than the roof rock. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Baseline concentrations and spatial distribution of trace metals in surface soils of Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H H; Li, F B; Wu, Z F; Li, D Q; Xu, D R; Yuan, H X

    2008-01-01

    A total of 260 surface soil samples were collected to investigate the spatial distribution of trace metals in Guangdong province, one of the fast developing regions in China. The results show that the upper baseline concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Hg were 28.7, 57.6, 77.8, 0.13, 23.5, 87.0, and 0.15 mg kg(-1), respectively. Regional parent materials and pedogenesis are the primary factors influencing the concentrations of trace metals, and various anthropogenic activities are the second most important factors. The spatial distribution of trace metals is correlated to the geological characters with high concentrations of trace metals always located in regional fault areas, basins, and the Pearl River Delta alluvial plain and to the low concentrations associated with the other areas in Guangdong province. PMID:18689736

  8. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  9. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

    1998-06-09

    A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

  10. [Airborne Fungal Aerosol Concentration and Distribution Characteristics in Air- Conditioned Wards].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-ling; Feng, He-hua; Fang, Zi-liang; Wang, Ben-dong; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    The effects of airborne fungus on human health in the hospital environment are related to not only their genera and concentrations, but also their particle sizes and distribution characteristics. Moreover, the mechanisms of aerosols with different particle sizes on human health are different. Fungal samples were obtained in medicine wards of Chongqing using a six-stage sampler. The airborne fungal concentrations, genera and size distributions of all the sampling wards were investigated and identified in detail. Results showed that airborne fungal concentrations were not correlated to the diseases or personnel density, but were related to seasons, temperature, and relative humidity. The size distribution rule had roughly the same for testing wards in winter and summer. The size distributions were not related with diseases and seasons, the percentage of airborne fungal concentrations increased gradually from stage I to stage III, and then decreased dramatically from stage V to stage VI, in general, the size of airborne fungi was a normal distribution. There was no markedly difference for median diameter of airborne fungi which was less 3.19 μm in these wards. There were similar dominant genera in all wards. They were Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp and Alternaria spp. Therefore, attention should be paid to improve the filtration efficiency of particle size of 1.1-4.7 μm for air conditioning system of wards. It also should be targeted to choose appropriate antibacterial methods and equipment for daily hygiene and air conditioning system operation management. PMID:26164895

  11. Methods of forming boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  12. Boron toxicity in the rare serpentine plant, Streptanthus morrisonii.

    PubMed

    Sage, R F; Ustin, S L; Manning, S J

    1989-01-01

    The release of boron-laden mist from the cooling towers of some geothermal power stations in northern California potentially threatens nearby populations of the rare serpentine plant, Streptanthus morrisonii F. W. Hoffm. To assess the tolerance of S. morrisonii to high levels of boron, the effect of boron on leaf condition, life history, germination rate, growth rate, allocation and photosynthesis was measured on plants grown in a greenhouse. Relative to other species, S. morrisonii was tolerant of excess boron. On serpentine soil, mild to moderate toxicity symptoms (older leaves exhibiting chlorosis and necrosis, but few leaves killed) were apparent when the boron concentration in applied nutrient solutions was 240-650 microm. Severe toxicity symptoms (significant leaf loss, young leaves with toxicity symptoms) were apparent when the applied solution was over 1000 microm boron. Above 1000 microm boron, S. morrisonii appeared unable to complete its life cycle. On a tissue basis, boron toxicity was first observed when leaf boron content was 40-90 micromol g(-1) dry weight. In leaves with severe boron toxicity (> 35% injury), the boron content was generally above 130 micromol g(-1) dry weight. These levels were an order of magnitude above the tissue boron content of plants in the field. Prior to the onset of pronounced boron toxicity symptoms, growth rate, allocation patterns, and photosynthesis were unaffected by high boron. These results indicate that inhibition of growth and photosynthesis occurred because of a loss of viable tissue due to boron injury, rather than a progressive decline as leaf boron levels increased. PMID:15092365

  13. Electrochemical apparatus for automatic measurement of carrier-concentration distribution in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Belova, N.A.; Galchenkov, L.A.; Skvortsova, N.E.

    1986-06-01

    This paper describes apparatus for measuring the carrier-concentration depth (from 1 to 30-50 um) distribution of semiconductors in the concentration range of 10/sup 14/-10/sup 19/ cm/sup -3/. The measurement errors for concentration and depth are 10% and 5%. Measurements can be made in AgAs, InP, Si, and, with proper selection of the electrolyte, other semiconductors. Measurements are made automatically and the results are recorded with a plotter. Schematic diagrams are presented of the main units of the apparatus which include the capacitance meter, synchronous detector, potentiostat, automatic unit, and various circuits.

  14. The effect of concentrator field layout on the performance of point-focus distributed receiver systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pons, R. L.; Dugan, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of concentrator field layout on the technical-economic performance of a point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) solar thermal power plant is presented. The plant design is based on the small community prototype system currently under development for JPL/DOE; parabolic dish concentrators are employed, and small heat engines are used to generate electricity at each dish. The effect of field size, array proportions, dish-to-dish spacing and packing fraction (concentrator-land area ratio) are presented for typical PFDR layouts. Economic analyses are carried out to determine optimum packing fraction as a function of site cost.

  15. Effect of bevacizumab treatment on p-boronophenylalanine distribution in murine tumor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Chen, Yi-Wei; Kashino, Genro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kirihata, Mitsunori; Ono, Koji

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that angiogenesis inhibitors can enhance tumor inhibitory effects of chemo- and radiotherapy via their action on tumor vessels. Here, we studied the effect of the angiogenesis inhibitor, bevacizumab (Avastin), on boron distribution in a murine tumor model. The human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line was used for inoculation into mice. Boron-10 concentrations in tissues were measured by prompt ?-ray spectrometry (PGA). Hoechst 33342 perfusion and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) distribution were determined by immunofluorescence staining. Our results revealed enhanced tumor blood perfusion and BPA accumulation in tumors after Avastin treatment, suggesting that combination of angiogenesis inhibition with treatment with boron compound administration may improve the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by modifying tumor vessels. In addition, our results also demonstrated the usefulness of immunofluorescence staining for investigating boron compound distribution at the cellular level. PMID:23135099

  16. Female offspring of rat dams fed low boron diets during pregnancy and lactation exhibit signs of the metabolic syndrome during early adulthood: increased body weight, & serum triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To expand on reports from this laboratory that low dietary boron may affect energy substrate utilization, we determined whether low dietary boron during early development promotes manifestation of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed either a boron-low (BL; ~0.1 mg...

  17. Ecological risk assessment of a wetland exposed to boron

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Coyle, G.T.; Best, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    A wetland located in the southeastern portion of the United States was the site of an investigation to determine the potential ecological risk of elevated boron concentrations to the flora and fauna living in the wetland. The conceptual model identified the vegetation as the primary receptor of concern, and thus the vegetation is the focus of this article. Samples of surface water, sediments, and selected vegetation were collected from the study wetland and several nearby reference sites and were analyzed for boron. Concentrations of boron in all three media exceeded reference site concentrations. Boron concentrations were highest near the suspected source but decreased almost to reference-site concentrations near the outer perimeter of the wetland. Some plants appeared stressed with yellowing and necrotic leaves; however, a correlation between tissue boron concentrations and the plant`s visual appearance was not apparent for all species studied. Modeling of the fate of boron indicated that the wetland has likely been at a steady state for many years and that boron concentrations were not expected to increase. It was concluded that no observable adverse ecological impacts to the vegetation could be attributed to boron, nor is it likely that the boron poses an unacceptable risk to the surrounding areas.

  18. A Novel Method of Boron Delivery Using Sodium Iodide Symporter for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    PubMed Central

    KUMAR, Sanath; FREYTAG, Svend O.; BARTON, Kenneth N.; BURMEISTER, Jay; JOINER, Michael C.; SEDGHI, Bijan; MOVSAS, Benjamin; BINNS, Peter J.; KIM, Jae Ho; BROWN, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) effectiveness depends on the preferential sequestration of boron in cancer cells relative to normal tissue cells. We present a novel strategy for sequestering boron using an adenovirus expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Human glioma grown subcutaneously in athymic mice and orthotopic rat brain tumors were transfected with NIS using a direct tumor injection of adenovirus. Boron bound as sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF4) was administered systemically several days after transfection. Tumors were excised hours later and assessed for boron concentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. In the human glioma transfected with NIS, boron concentration was more than 10 fold higher with 100 mg/kg of NaBF4, compared to tumor not transfected. In the orthotopic tumor model, the presence of NIS conferred almost 4 times the boron concentration in rat tumors transfected with human virus compared with contralateral normal brain not transfected. We conclude that adenovirus expressing NIS has the potential to be used as a novel boron delivery agent and should be explored for future clinical applications. PMID:20921830

  19. Prediction of In-Phantom Dose Distribution Using In-Air Neutron Beam Characteristics for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.; Chen, Allen S.; Vujic, Jasmina L.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2000-08-15

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study was carried out to determine the optimal neutron energy range for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiation synovectomy. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in joints such as knees and fingers. This study focuses on human knee joints. Two figures of merit are used to measure the neutron beam quality, the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the skin-absorbed dose, and the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the bone-absorbed dose. It was found that (a) thermal neutron beams are optimal for treatment and that (b) similar absorbed dose rates and therapeutic ratios are obtained with monodirectional and isotropic neutron beams. Computation of the dose distribution in a human knee requires the simulation of particle transport from the neutron source to the knee phantom through the moderator. A method was developed to predict the dose distribution in a knee phantom from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method was revealed to be reasonably accurate and enabled one to reduce the particle transport simulation time by a factor of 10 by modeling the moderator only.

  20. ON THE PROPORTIONALITY OF FINE MASS CONCENTRATION AND EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT FOR BIMODAL SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For a bimodal size distribution of ambient aerosol, an upper limit in particle size can be chosen for the fine aerosol fraction so that the extinction coefficient for light scattering and absorption is directly proportional to the fine mass concentration, with no dependence on th...

  1. Occurrence and distribution of selected heavy metals and boron in groundwater of the Gulf of Khambhat region, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Devang; Survaiya, Mayur D; Basha, Shaik; Mandal, Subir K; Thorat, R B; Haldar, Soumya; Goel, Sangita; Dave, Himal; Baxi, Krushnakant; Trivedi, Rohit H; Mody, Kalpana H

    2014-03-01

    The concentration of selected heavy metals, like As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn as well as B, was measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in groundwater samples from various locations in the Gulf of Khambhat (GoK), an inlet of the Arabian Sea in the state of Gujarat, India, during post-monsoon, winter, and pre-monsoon seasons in a year. Most heavy elements are characterized by low mobility under slightly alkaline and reducing conditions; concentrations in confined aquifers are smaller than the maximum permissible values for drinking water. The temporal changes indicate that a majority of metals is entering the aquifer during monsoon. Principle component analysis of the heavy metal data suggests that Co, Cu, Cd, and Zn are interrelated with each other and derived significantly from anthropogenic route, while input of Pb and Cr may be due to atmospheric deposition in the study area. Both weathering of rocks and anthropogenic input were found to be main sources of elements in the groundwater. The heavy metal levels in groundwaters of the GoK region in comparison with some of the European and Asian sites were higher; however, these metal levels were found to be comparable with few urban sites in the world. PMID:24293301

  2. Particle Size Concentration Distribution and Influences on Exhaled Breath Particles in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Wang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chun-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Humans produce exhaled breath particles (EBPs) during various breath activities, such as normal breathing, coughing, talking, and sneezing. Airborne transmission risk exists when EBPs have attached pathogens. Until recently, few investigations had evaluated the size and concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients with different ventilation mode settings. This study thus broke new ground by not only evaluating the size concentration distributions of EBPs in mechanically ventilated patients, but also investigating the relationship between EBP level and positive expiratory end airway pressure (PEEP), tidal volume, and pneumonia. This investigation recruited mechanically ventilated patients, with and without pneumonia, aged 20 years old and above, from the respiratory intensive care unit of a medical center. Concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients were analyzed with an optical particle analyzer. This study finds that EBP concentrations from mechanically ventilated patients during normal breathing were in the range 0.47–2,554.04 particles/breath (0.001–4.644 particles/mL). EBP concentrations did not differ significantly between the volume control and pressure control modes of the ventilation settings in the mechanically ventilated patients. The patient EBPs were sized below 5 µm, and 80% of them ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 µm. The EBPs concentrations in patients with high PEEP (> 5 cmH2O) clearly exceeded those in patients with low PEEP (≤ 5 cmH2O). Additionally, a significant negative association existed between pneumonia duration and EBPs concentration. However, tidal volume was not related to EBPs concentration. PMID:24475230

  3. [Ultrafine particle number concentration and size distribution of vehicle exhaust ultrafine particles].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ye-qiang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Sun, Zai; Cai, Zhi-liang; Yang, Wen-jun

    2014-09-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations obtained from three different vehicles were measured using fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and automobile exhaust gas analyzer. UFP number concentration and size distribution were studied at different idle driving speeds. The results showed that at a low idle speed of 800 rmin-1 , the emission particle number concentration was the lowest and showed a increasing trend with the increase of idle speed. The majority of exhaust particles were in Nuclear mode and Aitken mode. The peak sizes were dominated by 10 nm and 50 nm. Particle number concentration showed a significantly sharp increase during the vehicle acceleration process, and was then kept stable when the speed was stable. In the range of 0. 4 m axial distance from the end of the exhaust pipe, the particle number concentration decayed rapidly after dilution, but it was not obvious in the range of 0. 4-1 m. The number concentration was larger than the background concentration. Concentration of exhaust emissions such as CO, HC and NO showed a reducing trend with the increase of idle speed,which was in contrast to the emission trend of particle number concentration. PMID:25518646

  4. Determination of selected heavy metal concentrations and distribution in a southwestern stream using macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Edward A; Shu-Nyamboli, Chemanji

    2011-09-01

    Since the reduction of the arsenic standard from 50 to 10 ?g L(-1) by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2006 many small town and rural water municipalities were left with the task of preventing or mitigating arsenic contamination of drinking water supplies. In this study macrophytes and sediments were used to determine the concentration and distribution of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) within the primary source of drinking water (Gallinas River watershed) to the residents of Las Vegas, New Mexico. Sampling was done in the spring and fall at four sites, two above the city and two below, and samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. Results showed significantly higher (p<.05) metal concentrations in plant roots than shoots for most metals. Spearman's correlation showed positive correlations (r>.3) between plant and sediment concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, As, and a negative correlation for Cu. The site above waste water treatment plant (AWWTP) had the highest plant tissue concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, and As. All of these concentrations attained critical toxicity levels exceeding sediment quality guidelines. High concentration factor values and levels of metals detected in macrophyte tissues indicate that heavy metals within sediments in the Gallinas River occur in bioavailable forms. Correlations between plant and sediment metal concentrations indicate that metal concentrations in macrophyte tissues are a good reflection of metal concentrations within the sediment in the Gallinas River. PMID:21621260

  5. Concentration and size distribution of total airborne microbes in hazy and foggy weather.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lijie; Qi, Jianhua; Shao, Congcong; Zhong, Xi; Gao, Dongmei; Cao, Wanwan; Gao, Jiawei; Bai, Ran; Long, Gaoyuan; Chu, Congcong

    2016-01-15

    Atmospheric bioaerosol particles were collected using a bioaerosol sampler from Oct. 2013 to Aug. 2014 in the coastal region of Qingdao. The total microbes were measured using an epifluorescence microscope after staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The concentration of total airborne microbes showed seasonal variation, with the highest value in winter and the lowest in summer. The mean concentration of total microbes was 6.55 × 10(5)Cells/m(3) on non-hazy days. The total microbe concentration increased to 7.09 × 10(5) and 9.00 × 10(5)Cells/m(3) on hazy and foggy days, respectively. The particle sizes of the total microbes presented a bimodal distribution on sunny days, with one peak at 1.1-2.1 μm and another at 4.7-7.0 μm. The size distribution of total microbes showed an increase in the fine fraction on hazy days and an increase in the coarse fraction on foggy days. However, the size distribution became unimodal during a heating period. Spearman correlation analysis showed that temperature and O3 had a significant negative correlation with the airborne microbe concentration, while PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO and the air quality index (AQI) had significant positive correlations with the airborne microbe concentration during hazy days. The increased number of airborne microbes will affect the air quality on hazy days. PMID:26473703

  6. Spatial concentration distribution model for short-range continuous gas leakage of small amount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meirong; Wang, Lingxue; Li, Jiakun; Long, Yunting; Gao, Yue

    2012-06-01

    Passive infrared gas imaging systems have been utilized in the equipment leak detection and repair in chemical manufacturers and petroleum refineries. The detection performance mainly relates to the sensitivity of infrared detector, optical depth of gas, atmospheric transmission, wind speed, and so on. Based on our knowledge, the spatial concentration distribution of continuously leaking gas plays an important part in leak detection. Several computational model of gas diffusion were proposed by researchers, such as Gaussian model, BM model, Sutton model and FEM3 model. But these models focus on calculating a large scale gas concentration distribution for a great amount of gas leaks above over 100- meter height, and not applicable to assess detection limit of a gas imaging system in short range. In this paper, a wind tunnel experiment is designed. Under different leaking rate and wind speed, concentration in different spatial positions is measured by portable gas detectors. Through analyzing the experimental data, the two parameters ?y(x) and ?z (x) that determine the plume dispersion in Gaussian model are adjusted to produce the best curve fit to the gas concentration data. Then a concentration distribution model for small mount gas leakage in short range is established. Various gases, ethylene and methane are used to testify this model.

  7. [Measurement of nonuniform temperature and concentration distribution by absorption spectroscopy based on least-square fitting].

    PubMed

    Song, Jun-Ling; Hong, Yan-Ji; Wang, Guang-Yu; Pan, Hu

    2013-08-01

    The measurement of nonuniform temperature and concentration distributions was investigated based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology. Through direct scanning multiple absorption lines of H2O, two zones for temperature and concentration distribution were achieved by solving nonlinear equations by least-square fitting from numerical and experimental studies. The numerical results show that the calculated temperature and concentration have relative errors of 8.3% and 7.6% compared to the model, respectively. The calculating accuracy can be improved by increasing the number of absorption lines and reduction in unknown numbers. Compared with the thermocouple readings, the high and low temperatures have relative errors of 13.8% and 3.5% respectively. The numerical results are in agreement with the experimental results. PMID:24159843

  8. The design and research of distributed cooling type high concentrated photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mingchong; Yao, Shun; Chen, Bingzhen; Yang, Guanghui; Guo, Limin; Peng, Na; Shen, Du; Bao, Wei; Yang, Cuibai; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    At present, the conversion efficiency of high concentrated photovoltaic modules is about 30%, most of the solar energy is converted into heat, which will result in solar cell temperature rise and subsequent module efficiency decrease. For existing module with large solar cell, the heat source is concentrated and additional cooling fins must be used, resulting in high system complexity and cost rise. In order to lower the cost of photovoltaic, we developed distributed cooling type module with simple structure. This paper depicts a distributed cooling design for high concentrated photovoltaic module, as well as the thermal simulation of this design with analysis software. Module prototype was also made to test the actual effect. The final outdoor results showed high consistency with the simulation results. The chip temperature can be lower than 45° and the module outdoor working efficiency is higher than 26% and lower temperature provide a guarantee of long-term reliability to module packaging material.

  9. Concentration and particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed by thermal cooking.

    PubMed

    Saito, E; Tanaka, N; Miyazaki, A; Tsuzaki, M

    2014-06-15

    The concentration and particle size distribution of 19 major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by thermal cooking were investigated. Corn, trout, beef, prawns, and pork were selected for grilling. The PAHs in the oil mist emitted when the food was grilled were collected according to particle size range and analysed by GC/MS. Much higher concentrations of PAHs were detected in the oil mist emitted by grilled pork, trout, and beef samples, which were rich in fat. The main components of the cooking exhaust were 3- and 4-ring PAHs, regardless of food type. The particle size distribution showed that almost all the PAHs were concentrated in particles with diameters of <0.43 ?m. For pork, the toxic equivalent of benzo[a]pyrene accounted for 50% of the PAHs in particles with diameters of <0.43 ?m. From these results, we estimated that >90% of the PAHs would reach the alveolar region of the lungs. PMID:24491732

  10. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be discussed together with meteorological parameters and trace gas measurements. Acknowledgement: PEGASOS project funded by the European Commission and the Framework Program 7 (FP7-ENV-2010-265148).

  11. Distribution of indoor radon concentrations and elements of a strategy for control

    SciTech Connect

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Indoor radon concentrations vary widely in the US housing stock, with normal concentrations estimated to cause a significant risk of lung cancer by comparison with environmental exposures normally considered, and high concentrations causing risks that exceed even those from cigarette smoking. The probability distribution, i.e., the number of houses at various concentrations, can be estimated from an analysis of the US indoor radon data accumulated to date. Such an analysis suggests that in about a million houses, occupants are receiving exposures greater than those experienced by uranium miners. The form of the frequency distribution, including not only the average concentration, but also the number of houses with high levels, has substantial influence on strategies for control of indoor radon. Such strategies require three major elements: formulation of control objectives in terms of guidelines for remedial action and for new houses; selection of means for identifying homes with high concentrations; and a framework for deciding what types of control measures are appropriate to particular circumstances and how rapidly they should be employed.

  12. Fluoride concentrations and distribution in premolars of children from low and optimal fluoride areas.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Nakagaki, H; Toyama, Y; Kimata, N; Ito, F; Robinson, C; Weatherell, J A; St-osser, L; Künzel, W

    1996-01-01

    We have compared the fluoride (F) concentrations from the enamel surface to the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ), and through dentine to the dentino-pulpal junction (DPJ) in premolars extracted from school children in Chemnitz (former Karl-Marx-Stadt), Germany (F: 1.0 ppm in the water supply), Erfurt, Germany (F: 0.2 ppm in the water supply) and Nagoya, Japan (F: 0.1 ppm in the water supply). In teeth from children in Cheminitz, Erfurt and Nagoya, the profiles of F distribution using an abrasive microsampling technique revealed high F concentrations in the enamel surface, with a substantial decrease towards a plateau in the interior. In dentine the F concentrations were higher than in enamel, and also decreased to a plateau from the DEJ, thereafter increasing considerably towards the DPJ. F concentrations at any depth in the enamel and dentine of teeth from Chemnitz were 2-3 times higher than those in Erfurt and Nagoya. There was no significant difference in F concentrations or distributions between Erfurt and Nagoya. Close to the DEJ in both enamel and dentine as well as the enamel surface and the DPJ side of dentine, higher F concentrations were observed in Chemnitz compared with Erfurt and Nagoya. PMID:8850587

  13. Cadmium distribution in sediment and the lugworm Arenicola marina in a low concentration exposure experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Everaarts, J.M.; SaralaDevi, K.

    1996-12-31

    In the central and southern North Sea, and in the Dutch coastal zone, total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in water are 0.02 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/L and 0.06 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g/L, respectively Cadmium in the estuarine waters of the Dutch Wadden Sea varied from 0.3 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/L in the western part to 0.08 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/L in the eastern part. In whole sediment, the Cd background concentration for the Wadden Sea is 0.5 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/g dry weight (dw), whereas the reference concentration is 0.08 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g/g dw. The concentrations of total-Cd in surface bulk sediments (0-2 cm) of the central North Sea (Oyster Grounds), and of intertidal mud-flats in the western Wadden Sea varied from 0.05 to 0.15 {mu}g/g dw and from 0.13 to 0.46 {mu}g dw, respectively (calculated from Kahn et al. 1992). These concentration ranges match the reference Cd concentration for Wadden Sea whole sediment (0.5 {+-} 0.01) {mu}g/g dw. Cadmium concentrations in surface sediments of the Dutch coastal zone and estuaries are only slightly elevated compared to the 0.2 {mu}g/g dw, considered as the background concentrations in pristine areas, but well below the level of 10 {mu}g/g dw at heavily contaminated sites. This laboratory study reports on the distribution of cadmium in the sediment column, and the uptake in the blood/coelomic fluid, intestine and body-wall of lugworms at low cadmium concentration exposure. The aim was to determine possible interaction between the vertical distribution of sediment-bound cadmium and the bioturbating activity of lugworms. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Distribution of exposure concentrations and doses for constituents of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    LaKind, J.S.; Ginevan, M.E.; Naiman, D.Q.; James, A.C.; Jenkins, R.A.; Dourson, M.L.; Felter, S.P.; Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G.

    1999-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, the authors describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions for the workplace exposure. Next, they present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, they derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).

  15. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  16. Wall Temperature Dependence of Boronization Using Decaborane and Diborane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamage, Masashi; Ejima, Takeshi; Saidoh, Masahiro; Ogiwara, Norio; Sugai, Hideo

    1993-09-01

    A new boronization technique based on pyrolysis of boron hydrides on hot walls was investigated in a laboratory experiment. The deposition rate of boron films through pyrolysis of decaborane was high enough to apply the pyrolysis to actual fusion devices bakable to 300C. The hydrogen concentration of boron films prepared by the pyrolysis or conventional plasma-assisted boronization at various temperatures was measured with 15N nuclear reaction and/or IR absorption methods. The hydrogen content markedly decreased with increasing wall temperature, where decaborane always gives higher H content than diborane. Oxygen gettering and hydrogen recycling in a boronized vessel were evaluated by pulsed glow discharge in O2/He and D2, respectively. The results were compared between the pyrolysis and the plasma-based boronizations in decaborane or diborane at various wall temperatures.

  17. Impurity behavior in boronized Heliotron E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, K.; Mizuuchi, T.; Sahara, A.; Sano, F.; Zushi, H.; Besshou, S.; Okada, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Kurimoto, Y.; Takada, H.; Nakayama, T.; Ogata, K.; Shirai, T.; Sugai, H.; Yamage, M.; Wakatani, M.; Obiki, T.

    1995-04-01

    Changes of impurity behavior and plasma performances by a boronization were investigated in Heliotron E. A 2.45 GHz ECH boronization with helium and decaborane at B=0.046 T was developed. The concentration of H/B atomic ratio in the deposited boron layer was much smaller than that of conventional dc glow discharges and the typical value was 0.1. The light impurity, oxygen and carbon, decreased drastically, but the reduction of the metallic impurity, iron and chromium, was not observed. A small H/B atomic ratio and low levels in the light impurity provided high ion temperature and low density plasma by neutral beam injectin heating.

  18. Effects of microgravity on growth hormone concentration and distribution in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Aga; Jensen, Philip; Desrosiers, Mark; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    On earth, gravity affects the distribution of the plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a manner such that the plant grows into a normal vertical orientation (shoots up, roots down). How the plant controls the amount and distribution of IAA is only partially understood and is currently under investigation in this laboratory. The question to be answered in the flight experiment concerns the effect of gravity on the concentration, turn over, and distribution of the growth hormone. The answer to this question will aid in understanding the mechanism by which plants control the amount and distribution of growth hormone. Such knowledge of a plant's hormonal metabolism may aid in the growth of plants in space and will lead to agronomic advances.

  19. Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-ji; Xing, Xiao-ru; Zhou, Qun-fang; Jiang, Gui-bin; Wei, Fu-sheng

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results showed that boron existed in public drinking water sources mainly in dissolved status with total concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.337 mg/L (mean = 0.046 mg/L). The mean boron concentrations in mineral and pure bottled water were 0.052 and 0.028 mg/L, respectively. The results obtained in this work showed that there was no health risk on view of boron in public drinking water sources and bottled water. In boron industrial area, boron concentrations in surface water and ground water were 1.28 mg/L (range = 0.007-3.8 mg/L) and 18.3 mg/L (range = 0.015-140 mg/L), respectively, which indicated that boron industry caused boron pollution in local water system. PMID:19444639

  20. Evaluation of regional background particulate matter concentration based on vertical distribution characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Zhang, X.; Tian, Y.; Wang, Y.; Ding, J.; Yan, W.; Bi, X.; Shi, G.; Cai, Z.; Yao, Q.; Huang, H.; Feng, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Heavy regional particulate matter (PM) pollution in China has resulted in an important and urgent need for joint control actions among cities. It is advisable to improve the understanding of the regional background concentration of PM for the development of efficient and effective joint control policies. With the increase of height the influence of source emission on local air quality decreases with altitude, but the characteristics of regional pollution gradually become obvious. A method to estimate regional background PM concentration is proposed in this paper, based on the vertical characteristics of periodic variation in the atmospheric boundary layer structure and particle mass concentration, as well as the vertical distribution of particle size, chemical composition and pollution source apportionment. According to the method, the averaged regional background PM2.5 concentration in July, August and September 2009, being extracted from the original time series in Tianjin, was 40 ± 20, 64 ± 17 and 53 ± 11 μg m-3, respectively.

  1. Particle number concentration, size distribution and chemical composition during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Tiantao; Zhang, Renyi; Wang, Xinming

    2014-09-01

    The aerosol number concentration and size distribution as well as size-resolved particle chemical composition were measured during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai in 2009. The number of haze days accounted for 43%, of which 30% was severe (visibility<2km) and moderate (2km≤visibility<3km) haze, mainly distributed in winter and spring. The mean particle number concentration was about 17,000/cm(3) in haze, more than 2 times that in clean days. The greatest increase of particle number concentration was in 0.5-1μm and 1-10μm size fractions during haze events, about 17.78 times and 8.78 times those of clean days. The largest increase of particle number concentration was within 50-100nm and 100-200nm fractions during photochemical smog episodes, about 5.89 times and 4.29 times those of clean days. The particle volume concentration and surface concentration in haze, photochemical smog and clean days were 102, 49, 15μm(3)/cm(3) and 949, 649, 206μm(2)/cm(3), respectively. As haze events got more severe, the number concentration of particles smaller than 50nm decreased, but the particles of 50-200nm and 0.5-1μm increased. The diurnal variation of particle number concentration showed a bimodal pattern in haze days. All soluble ions were increased during haze events, of which NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) increased greatly, followed by Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-). These ions were very different in size-resolved particles during haze and photochemical smog episodes. PMID:25193840

  2. Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala-Kuku?, A.; Bana?, D.; Braziewicz, J.; G?d?, S.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2007-07-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large ( 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods.

  3. Boron strengthening in FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C.; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured FeAl is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % Al), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in FeAl. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.

  4. Estimation of pore size distribution using concentric double pulsed-field gradient NMR.

    PubMed

    Benjamini, Dan; Nevo, Uri

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of pore size distribution of well calibrated phantoms using NMR is demonstrated here for the first time. Porous materials are a central constituent in fields as diverse as biology, geology, and oil drilling. Noninvasive characterization of monodisperse porous samples using conventional pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR is a well-established method. However, estimation of pore size distribution of heterogeneous polydisperse systems, which comprise most of the materials found in nature, remains extremely challenging. Concentric double pulsed-field gradient (CDPFG) is a 2-D technique where both q (the amplitude of the diffusion gradient) and φ (the relative angle between the gradient pairs) are varied. A recent prediction indicates this method should produce a more accurate and robust estimation of pore size distribution than its conventional 1-D versions. Five well defined size distribution phantoms, consisting of 1-5 different pore sizes in the range of 5-25 μm were used. The estimated pore size distributions were all in good agreement with the known theoretical size distributions, and were obtained without any a priori assumption on the size distribution model. These findings support that in addition to its theoretical benefits, the CDPFG method is experimentally reliable. Furthermore, by adding the angle parameter, sensitivity to small compartment sizes is increased without the use of strong gradients, thus making CDPFG safe for biological applications. PMID:23548563

  5. [Simulation and influencing factors of spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentrations in Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Liao, Xing; Peng, Jian; Huang, Xiu-Lan

    2015-03-01

    Land use regression model (LUR model) was used to simulate the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentrations in Chongqing with the software of ArcGIS. This research was conducted with a total of 17 PM2.5 concentrations of monitoring points from 17 air quality monitoring stations recorded in the official website of Chongqing Environmental Protection Bureau. Among them, 16 were chosen as the dependent variables, and the last one was chosen for land use regression model validation test. At each site location, we constructed circular buffers with ArcGIS and captured information on roads, population, land use and DEM. Based on the buffer information, 56 potential geographic predictors were built. Finally 3 variables: cropland area within 500 m of the air quality monitoring sites, the site locations' DEM and primary road length within 1 000 m of the 56 predictors were left for predicting 84% of the variation of PM2.5 concentrations and the Pearson coefficients between the 3 variables and PM2.5 concentrations were 0.695, - 0.599 and 0.394, respectively. The validation test result showed that the spatial distribution map of PM2.5 predicted extremely well with an error rate of only 0.027. And the return map results showed: (1 ) PM2.5 concentrations were high in the center of the main city; (2) PM2.5 concentrations were high along the road and (3) the distribution was closely correlated to the DEM of sampling locations. PMID:25929038

  6. Inducibility of human atrial fibrillation in an in silico model reflecting local acetylcholine distribution and concentration.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Minki; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Shim, Eun Bo

    2016-01-01

    Vagal nerve activity has been known to play a crucial role in the induction and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unclear how the distribution and concentration of local acetylcholine (ACh) promotes AF. In this study, we investigated the effect of the spatial distribution and concentration of ACh on fibrillation patterns in an in silico human atrial model. A human atrial action potential model with an ACh-dependent K(+) current (IKAch) was used to examine the effect of vagal activation. A simulation of cardiac wave dynamics was performed in a realistic 3D model of the atrium. A model of the ganglionated plexus (GP) and nerve was developed based on the "octopus hypothesis". The pattern of cardiac wave dynamics was examined by applying vagal activation to the GP areas or randomly. AF inducibility in the octopus hypothesis-based GP and nerve model was tested. The effect of the ACh concentration level was also examined. In the single cell simulation, an increase in the ACh concentration shortened APD90 and increased the maximal slope of the restitution curve. In the 3D simulation, a random distribution of vagal activation promoted wavebreaks while ACh secretion limited to the GP areas did not induce a noticeable change in wave dynamics. The octopus hypothesis-based model of the GP and nerve exhibited AF inducibility at higher ACh concentrations. In conclusion, a 3D in silico model of the GP and parasympathetic nerve based on the octopus model exhibited higher AF inducibility with higher ACh concentrations. PMID:26807030

  7. Inducibility of human atrial fibrillation in an in silico model reflecting local acetylcholine distribution and concentration

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Minki; Lee, Hyun-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Vagal nerve activity has been known to play a crucial role in the induction and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unclear how the distribution and concentration of local acetylcholine (ACh) promotes AF. In this study, we investigated the effect of the spatial distribution and concentration of ACh on fibrillation patterns in an in silico human atrial model. A human atrial action potential model with an ACh-dependent K+ current (IKAch) was used to examine the effect of vagal activation. A simulation of cardiac wave dynamics was performed in a realistic 3D model of the atrium. A model of the ganglionated plexus (GP) and nerve was developed based on the "octopus hypothesis". The pattern of cardiac wave dynamics was examined by applying vagal activation to the GP areas or randomly. AF inducibility in the octopus hypothesis-based GP and nerve model was tested. The effect of the ACh concentration level was also examined. In the single cell simulation, an increase in the ACh concentration shortened APD90 and increased the maximal slope of the restitution curve. In the 3D simulation, a random distribution of vagal activation promoted wavebreaks while ACh secretion limited to the GP areas did not induce a noticeable change in wave dynamics. The octopus hypothesis-based model of the GP and nerve exhibited AF inducibility at higher ACh concentrations. In conclusion, a 3D in silico model of the GP and parasympathetic nerve based on the octopus model exhibited higher AF inducibility with higher ACh concentrations. PMID:26807030

  8. The level and distribution of ?Rn concentration in soil-gas in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Peng, A; Xiao, L; Chu, X; Yin, Y; Qin, C; Zheng, L

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the level and distribution of (220)Rn concentrations in soil-gas in the high-radiation-background area, an (220)Rn survey was carried out for the first time using a RAD7 portable radon monitor at 67 locations covering a total area of 1800 km(2) in the South of China. (220)Rn concentrations were significantly different from that in the surface areas covered by the weathered granite of Yanshan Period or Quaternary sediments. The (220)Rn concentrations varied between 6.65 and 461 kBq m(-3) and the averages were 294.42 81.36 and 23.30 25.84 kBq m(-3) for weathered granite products and sediments, respectively. A high positive correlation between (220)Rn concentrations and (232)Th activity concentrations was found. (220)Rn concentrations had no statistically significant variations from depths of 20-140 cm with an interval of 20 cm. It is worth paying attention to the problem of such a high soil (220)Rn concentration in Zhuhai City and Zhongshan City. PMID:22923249

  9. Effect of pH and KCl concentration on the octanol-water distribution of methylanilines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.A.; Westall, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    The distributions of aniline, 4-methylaniline, 3,4-dimethylaniline, and 2,4,5-trimethylaniline between octanol and water were determined as a function of pH and KCl concentration in the aqueous phase. The data were interpreted in terms of a multicomponent equilibrium model with anilinium in the water-saturated octanol as free ions and ion pairs. The implications of these results to the use of the octanol-water reference system for organic bases and to the sorbent-water distribution of organic bases in the environment is discussed.

  10. Characterization of background concentrations of contaminants using a mixture of normal distributions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Song S; Lyons, Regan E

    2006-10-01

    We present a Bayesian approach for characterizing background contaminant concentration distributions using data from sites that may have been contaminated. Our method, focused on estimation, resolves several technical problems of the existing methods sanctioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (a hypothesis testing based method), resulting in a simple and quick procedure for estimating background contaminant concentrations. The proposed Bayesian method is applied to two data sets from a federal facility regulated under the Resource Conservation and Restoration Act. The results are compared to background distributions identified using existing methods recommended by the USEPA. The two data sets represent low and moderate levels of censorship in the data. Although an unbiased estimator is elusive, we show that the proposed Bayesian estimation method will have a smaller bias than the EPA recommended method. PMID:17051794

  11. Spatially Resolved Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Distributions in Supersonic Combustion Facilities by TDLAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busa, K. M.; McDaniel J. C.; Diskin, G. S.; DePiro, M. J.; Capriotti, D. P.; Gaffney, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the internal structure of high-enthalpy flows can provide valuable insight to the performance of scramjet combustors. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is often employed to measure temperature and species concentration. However, TDLAS is a path-integrated line-of-sight (LOS) measurement, and thus does not produce spatially resolved distributions. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography (TDLAT) is a non-intrusive measurement technique for determining two-dimensional spatially resolved distributions of temperature and species concentration in high enthalpy flows. TDLAT combines TDLAS with tomographic image reconstruction. More than 2500 separate line-of-sight TDLAS measurements are analyzed in order to produce highly resolved temperature and species concentration distributions. Measurements have been collected at the University of Virginia's Supersonic Combustion Facility (UVaSCF) as well as at the NASA Langley Direct-Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility (DCSCTF). Due to the UVaSCF s unique electrical heating and ability for vitiate addition, measurements collected at the UVaSCF are presented as a calibration of the technique. Measurements collected at the DCSCTF required significant modifications to system hardware and software designs due to its larger measurement area and shorter test duration. Tomographic temperature and water vapor concentration distributions are presented from experimentation on the UVaSCF operating at a high temperature non-reacting case for water vitiation level of 12%. Initial LOS measurements from the NASA Langley DCSCTF operating at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are also presented. Results show the capability of TDLAT to adapt to several experimental setups and test parameters.

  12. Effect of boron in Fe 70 Al 30 nanostructured alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, M. M.; Prez Alczar, G. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    The substitution of aluminum by boron in the Fe70Al30 system prepared by high energy ball milling is studied when the B content ranged from 0 up to 20 at. %, and the milling times were 24, 48 and 72 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Fe70Al30 showed a predominant bcc structural phase with a lattice parameter larger than that of ?-Fe. A second (tetragonal) phase arose with the addition of boron. It is associated to the existence of (Fe, Al)2B, although the values of the lattice parameters are slightly different from those found in the literature. This phase shows high stability; its lattice parameters and the Mssbauer parameters do not show notable variations, either with milling time or composition. It was also evidenced that an increase of boron content and of milling time produced a decrease of the lattice parameter of the Fe-Al bcc structure. This is in agreement with the small atomic radius of boron in comparison with that of aluminum. This also allows boron to occupy interstitial sites in the lattice, increasing the grain size and giving rise to the ductile character of the alloy. On the other hand, 300 K transmission Mssbauer spectra (TMS) were fitted, for low boron concentrations (<8 at.%), with a hyperfine field distribution (HFD) associated with the bcc phase. For high boron content (?8 at.%), a magnetic component related to the tetragonal phase is added and its broadened lines are attributed to the disordered character of Fe2B, probably induced by the milling process.

  13. Effect of boron in Fe 70 Al 30 nanostructured alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, M. M.; Prez Alczar, G. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The substitution of aluminum by boron in the Fe70Al30 system prepared by high energy ball milling is studied when the B content ranged from 0 up to 20 at. %, and the milling times were 24, 48 and 72 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Fe70Al30 showed a predominant bcc structural phase with a lattice parameter larger than that of ?-Fe. A second (tetragonal) phase arose with the addition of boron. It is associated to the existence of (Fe, Al)2B, although the values of the lattice parameters are slightly different from those found in the literature. This phase shows high stability; its lattice parameters and the Mssbauer parameters do not show notable variations, either with milling time or composition. It was also evidenced that an increase of boron content and of milling time produced a decrease of the lattice parameter of the Fe-Al bcc structure. This is in agreement with the small atomic radius of boron in comparison with that of aluminum. This also allows boron to occupy interstitial sites in the lattice, increasing the grain size and giving rise to the ductile character of the alloy. On the other hand, 300 K transmission Mssbauer spectra (TMS) were fitted, for low boron concentrations (<8 at.%), with a hyperfine field distribution (HFD) associated with the bcc phase. For high boron content (?8 at.%), a magnetic component related to the tetragonal phase is added and its broadened lines are attributed to the disordered character of Fe2B, probably induced by the milling process.

  14. Identification of a Novel System for Boron Transport: Atr1 Is a Main Boron Exporter in Yeast?

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Alaattin; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Boron is a micronutrient in plants and animals, but its specific roles in cellular processes are not known. To understand boron transport and functions, we screened a yeast genomic DNA library for genes that confer resistance to the element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thirty boron-resistant transformants were isolated, and they all contained the ATR1 (YML116w) gene. Atr1 is a multidrug resistance transport protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily. C-terminal green fluorescent protein-tagged Atr1 localized to the cell membrane and vacuole, and ATR1 gene expression was upregulated by boron and several stress conditions. We found that atr1? mutants were highly sensitive to boron treatment, whereas cells overexpressing ATR1 were boron resistant. In addition, atr1? cells accumulated boron, whereas ATR1-overexpressing cells had low intracellular levels of the element. Furthermore, atr1? cells showed stronger boron-dependent phenotypes than mutants deficient in genes previously reported to be implicated in boron metabolism. ATR1 is widely distributed in bacteria, archaea, and lower eukaryotes. Our data suggest that Atr1 functions as a boron efflux pump and is required for boron tolerance. PMID:19414602

  15. Identification of a novel system for boron transport: Atr1 is a main boron exporter in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Alaattin; Karakaya, Huseyin C; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Koc, Ahmet

    2009-07-01

    Boron is a micronutrient in plants and animals, but its specific roles in cellular processes are not known. To understand boron transport and functions, we screened a yeast genomic DNA library for genes that confer resistance to the element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thirty boron-resistant transformants were isolated, and they all contained the ATR1 (YML116w) gene. Atr1 is a multidrug resistance transport protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily. C-terminal green fluorescent protein-tagged Atr1 localized to the cell membrane and vacuole, and ATR1 gene expression was upregulated by boron and several stress conditions. We found that atr1Delta mutants were highly sensitive to boron treatment, whereas cells overexpressing ATR1 were boron resistant. In addition, atr1Delta cells accumulated boron, whereas ATR1-overexpressing cells had low intracellular levels of the element. Furthermore, atr1Delta cells showed stronger boron-dependent phenotypes than mutants deficient in genes previously reported to be implicated in boron metabolism. ATR1 is widely distributed in bacteria, archaea, and lower eukaryotes. Our data suggest that Atr1 functions as a boron efflux pump and is required for boron tolerance. PMID:19414602

  16. On the concentration of large deviations for fat tailed distributions, with application to financial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia

    2014-09-01

    Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.

  17. Selenium accumulation, distribution and speciation in spineless prickly pear cactus: a salt, boron, and drought tolerant, selenium-enriched nutraceutical fruit crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) may be an alternative crop to grow in drainage-impacted regions of the westside of California, where high levels of salinity, selenium (Se), and boron (B) are present. Preliminary trials have demonstrated that Opuntia can tolerate the adverse soil conditions, while accu...

  18. Simultaneous Observation of Cells and Nuclear Tracks from the Boron Neutron Capture Reaction by UV-C Sensitization of Polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Portu, Agustina; Rossini, Andrés Eugenio; Thorp, Silvia Inés; Curotto, Paula; Pozzi, Emiliano César Cayetano; Granell, Pablo; Golmar, Federico; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis; Martin, Gisela Saint

    2015-08-01

    The distribution of boron in tissue samples coming from boron neutron capture therapy protocols can be determined through the analysis of its autoradiography image on a nuclear track detector. A more precise knowledge of boron atom location on the microscopic scale can be attained by the observation of nuclear tracks superimposed on the sample image on the detector. A method to produce an "imprint" of cells cultivated on a polycarbonate detector was developed, based on the photodegradation properties of UV-C radiation on this material. Optimal conditions to generate an appropriate monolayer of Mel-J cells incubated with boronophenylalanine were found. The best images of both cells and nuclear tracks were obtained for a neutron fluence of 1013 cm-2, 6 h UV-C (254 nm) exposure, and 4 min etching time with a KOH solution. The imprint morphology was analyzed by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Similar samples, exposed to UV-A (360 nm) revealed no cellular imprinting. Etch pits were present only inside the cell imprints, indicating a preferential boron uptake (about threefold the incubation concentration). Comparative studies of boron absorption in different cell lines and in vitro evaluation of the effect of diverse boron compounds are feasible with this methodology. PMID:26155721

  19. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  20. The interaction of boron with goethite: experiments and CD-MUSIC modeling.

    PubMed

    Goli, Esmaiel; Rahnemaie, Rasoul; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Malakouti, Mohammad Jafar

    2011-03-01

    Boron (B) is an essential element for plants and animals growth that interacts with mineral surfaces regulating its bioavailability and mobility in soils, sediments, and natural ecosystems. The interaction with mineral surfaces is quite important because of a narrow range between boron deficiency and toxicity limits. In this study, the interaction of boric acid with goethite (?-FeOOH) was measured in NaNO(3) background solution as a function of pH, ionic strength, goethite and boron concentration representing as adsorption edges and isotherms. Boron adsorption edges showed a bell-shaped pattern with maximum adsorption around pH 8.50, whereas adsorption isotherms were rather linear. The adsorption data were successfully described with the CD-MUSIC model in combination with the Extended Stern (ES) model. The charge distribution (CD) of inner-sphere boron surface complexes was calculated from the geometry optimized with molecular orbital calculations applying density functional theory (MO/DFT). The CD modeling suggested dominant binding of boric acid as a trigonal inner-sphere complex with minor contributions of a tetrahedral inner-sphere complex (at high pH) and a trigonal outer-sphere complex (at low pH). The interpretation with the CD model is consistent with the spectroscopic observations. PMID:21185584

  1. Effect of dietary boron on the aging process.

    PubMed

    Massie, H R

    1994-11-01

    Total boron concentrations in Drosophila changed during development and aging. The highest concentration of boron was found during the egg stage, followed by a decline during the larval stages. Newly emerged flies contained 35.5 ppm boron. During the adult stage the boron concentration increased by 52% by 9 weeks of age. Adding excess dietary boron during the adult stage decreased the median life span by 69% at 0.01 M sodium borate and by 21% at 0.001 M sodium borate. Lower concentrations gave small but significant increases in life span. Supplementing a very low boron diet with 0.00025 M sodium borate improved life span by 9.5%. The boron contents of young and old mouse tissues were similar to those of Drosophila and human samples. Boron supplements of 4.3 and 21.6 ppm in the drinking water, however, did not significantly change the life span of old mice fed a diet containing 31.1 ppm boron. PMID:7889879

  2. A new algorithm and its application about distributed snowmelt concentration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Dai, Wei; Fang, Shifeng; Liu, Zhihui

    2009-10-01

    Based on "3S" (RS, GIS, GPS) technologies and completely distributed design ideas, a new algorithm of the Distributed Snowmelt Concentration Model is designed and built after study the Distributed Snowmelt Runoff Model. It has spatiotemporal features and takes the DEM data, which with high resolution, as a foundation and picks up the hydrological factors, such as slope, gradient, direction of flow, collecting time, drainage network etc., and the algorithm is simple to understand and to implement, requiring only a few tens of code lines and running faster. So the algorithm will be versatile. Meanwhile, a new conception "Period Unit of Time-step" is put forward in this paper, and the algorithm procedure is fully detailed too. After the model applied in the representative study area, Juntanghu Basin, which located in the North-Tianshan Mountains, China, and contrasted with the homologous observed data obtained in the same field, the simulation results show clearly that the Distributed Snowmelt Concentration Model and its algorithm is very good.

  3. Visualization of the concentration distribution of Asian dust in the Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Takashi; Kono, Takafumi; Okuda, Wataru; Nakano, Yu

    2010-11-01

    A method for identifying the released region of Asian dust using the wind velocity near the surface and the long-range inverse transport model that traces the wind field in the backward direction from positions where Asian dust was observed is described. The spatio-temporal concentration distribution of dust clouds over the East Asia was computed in the case that Asian dust clouds were observed in Japan from April 1 to April 2, 2007. In this case, the released mass flux of Asian dust in source regions was determined such that the simulated concentration of Asian dust almost corresponds to the concentration of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) measured at various places in Japan. In order to better understand through which paths sand dust particles are transported to Japan, the time variation of the concentration distribution of Asian dust clouds and the wind field at 950hPa from 22:00 on March 30 to 15:00 on April 4, 2007was animated every one hour in the Google Earth.

  4. [Concentration and size distribution of bioaerosols at non-haze and haze days in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Qiu, Tian-lei; Jia, Rui-zhi; Han, Mei-lin; Song, Yuan; Wang, Xu-ming

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, haze has been observed frequently in Beijing. Haze was one of the atmospheric phenomena caused by the accumulation of particulate matter. As an important fraction of particular matter, bioaerosol could potentially cause significantly negative health effects. In this study, we detected the concentration and size distribution of viable bioaerosol during non-haze and haze days, analyzed correlation of viable bioaerosol with the ambient temperature and relative humidity using Spearman's correlation coefficient and finally detected the changing of size distribution of viable bioaerosol in summer and winter. Results indicated that concentrations of viable bioaerosol exhibited a negative correlation with Air Quality Index (AQI) of PM2.5 and positive correlation with temperature. Relative humidity had a negative correlation with airborne bacteria while positive correlation with airborne fungi. The highest concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi were detected at size arrange of 4.5-7.0 ?m and 2. 1-3.3 ?m in the winter, respectively. In the summer, both the highest concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi were observed at size arrange of 3.3-4.5 ?m. The results of this study will provide the basis data for hazard evaluation of bioaerosol on human health at non-haze and haze days. PMID:25826908

  5. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014). PMID:25771157

  6. Distribution of sulfhydryl boranes in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Laster, B.H.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of boron in mice bearing transplanted Harding-Passey melanomas after rapid and slow administration of monomer were studied. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the corresponding infusion solution revealed a slow-moving principal band that was later shown to correspond to Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, the dimer of Na/sub 2/B/sub 12/H/sub 11/SH. It was found that while monomer and chemically synthesized dimer yielded similar boron concentrations when they were given rapidly intraperitoneally to mice, the dimer yielded higher boron concentrations in mouse melanoma and higher melanoma-blood boron concentration when each was infused slowly intraperitoneally for 8 to 9 days. Studies have been started on the uptake of dimer into an intracerebrally implanted rat glioma. Boron levels in the rat glioma and in the mouse melanoma from slow intraperitoneal infusion of proportionately comparable amounts of dimer, are similar. However, after these slow infusions boron levels in rat blood are about as high as boron levels in rat brain tumor. 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine.

    PubMed

    Alva, Orlando; Roa-Roco, Rosa Nair; Prez-Daz, Ricardo; Yez, Mnica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko; Ruiz-Lara, Simn; Gonzlez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy. PMID:26440413

  8. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy. PMID:26440413

  9. Ultralow Contact Resistivity for a Metal/p-Type Silicon Interface by High-Concentration Germanium and Boron Doping Combined with Low-Temperature Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakoshi, Atsushi; Iwase, Masao; Niiyama, Hiromi; Koike, Mitsuo; Suguro, Kyoichi

    2013-07-01

    A contact resistivity of 6.910-9 ?.cm2 has been obtained in an AlSi (1 wt %)-Cu (0.5 wt %) alloy/silicon system by using heavy-dose ion implantations of germanium and boron combined with low-temperature annealing. The analysis of the combined state showed that B12 cluster was incorporated and the supersaturation activation layer was formed into the region where germanium separated. Separated germanium is expected to have high interface state density. It is considered that this interface state density also has a Fermi level, and in order to reduce the difference from the Fermi level of the substrate, the charge moves to interface state density from the substrate. As a result, it is not based on a metallic material but a work function becomes small because pinning by which a Fermi level is fixed to interface state density occurs owing to the substrate/metal interface. It is considered to be attributable to the existence of a Ge-rich layer formed by low-temperature annealing, and a supersaturation activation layer that lowers contact resistance was formed.

  10. Effect of long-chain amines on the extraction of boron from CaCl{sub 2} brine with CTMP in petroleum benzine

    SciTech Connect

    Yurdakoc, M.; Karakaplan, M.; Hosgoeren, H.

    1999-09-01

    The effect of TOA (tri-n-octylamine), TOMA (tri-n-octylmethylammonium iodide), DEDA (N,N{prime}-didodecylethylenediamine), DEDMA (N,N{prime}-didodecyl-N,N{prime}-tetramethylethylene-diammonium diiodide), and NDM (N-dodecylmorpholine) upon the solvent extraction of boron from CaCl{sub 2} brine with CTMP [2-chloro-4(1,1,3,3,-tetramethylbutyl)-6-methylolphenol] in petroleum benzine has been studied. In order to extract boron effectively and reject other cations such as Ca{sup 2+}, the extraction of boron with CTMP was investigated in terms of extractant, the concentration of an amine, and solvent polarity. The results show that in the presence of long-chain amines, boron extraction, hence distribution, and an increase in selectivity are observed when CTMP is used together with long-chain amines and their ammonium salts in petroleum benzine.

  11. Diffusion-induced dislocations in highly boron-doped silicon layers used for bulk micromachining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiseanu, Florin; Esteve, Jaume; Kissinger, Gudrun; Kruger, D.

    1998-08-01

    Boron-doped silicon layers with sufficiently high doping levels become effective stop-layers during the chemical etching of silicon in alkaline type solutions (KOH, NaOH, LiOH) or in EDP (ethylene-diamine-pyrocatechol). An advantageous chemical solution consisting in tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) with isopropyl alcohol (IPA), showing similar etching properties was also proposed. The property as a stop layer of the boron-doped silicon is currently used as the most convenient etch-stop technique, because it is easy to define the thickness of the structure by the depth of boron diffusion in silicon. However, the boron diffusion profile in silicon is not a step-like distribution, but it presents a continuous decrease of the concentration from the silicon surface to the bulk, that depending on the diffusion conditions, i.e. diffusion time, temperature and doping technique. It is therefore expected that such a decrease will result to a continuous variation of the etching rate and a consequently variation of the etching time with the diffusion depth. In this paper we present firstly the doping properties of the silicon layers doped by the termo-chemical method using chemical sources. It is shown that the doping properties vary within the boron-doped layers. Boron diffusion profiles determined by SIMS method and electrical method are presented in order show the specific behavior of the concentration distribution in the silicon bulk. Misfit dislocations are induced by the boron diffusion in silicon at high concentrations. The conditions of the generation of the misfit dislocations in the boron-doped layers depends on the processing conditions, especially on the diffusion time and temperature. We show that the density distribution of the misfit dislocations in the silicon bulk is not uniform after the boron prediffusion and diffusion processes. From the point of view of the micromechanical applications, the inhomogeneity of the structural and doping properties of the silicon layer can influence the stress properties of such silicon-doped layers. Therefore, in order to reduce the stress gradient in the silicon membranes and micromechanical elements, it is necessary to obtain layers with uniform material properties. Both the doping and structural properties of the boron doped layers are to be therefore better knowledged and controlled. However, the doping properties obtained after the boron doping by termo-chemical method or by implantation doping technique cannot provide uniformly doped silicon layers. Therefore, a careful chemical etching during the self-limitation process of the boron-doped silicon layers offers such a possibility, as it will be presented in the paper. In order to eliminate from the silicon doped layers the regions were the properties of the silicon layers are not uniform, it is necessary to control the chemical etching process which is the next important step in the bulk micromachining technology useful to prepare the micromechanical elements. These key parameters of the chemical etching process are the chemical etching rate and the chemical etching time. It is shown that it is possible to calculate the chemical etching rate and the chemical etching time for some specified etching conditions. Such a possibility allows to control the thickness of the micromechanical elements and to eliminate the stress gradient induced by the non-uniform doping and by the misfit dislocations in the silicon micromechanical elements.

  12. Properties of boron/boron-nitride multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.; Wall, M.A.; Hayes, J.P.; Alexander, K.B.

    1996-06-01

    Boron-Nitride films are of interest for their high hardness and wear resistance. Large intrinsic stresses and poor adhesion which often accompany high hardness materials can be moderated through the use of a layered structure. Alternate layers of boron (B) and boron-nitride (BN) are formed by modulating the composition of the sputter gas during deposition from a pure B target. The thin films are characterized with TEM to evaluate the microstructure and with nanoindentation to determine hardness. Layer pair spacing and continuity effects on hardness are evaluated for the B/BN films.

  13. Surface-level fine particle mass concentrations: from hemispheric distributions to megacity sources.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M

    2009-07-01

    Since 1990, basic knowledge of the "chemical climate" of fine particles, has greatly improved from Junge's compilation from the 1960s. A worldwide baseline distribution of fine particle concentrations on a synoptic scale of approximately 1000 km can be estimated at least qualitatively from measurements. A geographical distribution of fine particle characteristics is deduced from a synthesis of a variety of disparate data collected at ground level on all continents, especially in the northern hemisphere. On the average, the regional mass concentrations range from 1 to 80 microg/m3, with the highest concentrations in regions of high population density and industrialization. Fine particles by mass on a continental and hemispheric spatial scale are generally dominated by non-sea salt sulfate (0.2 to approximately 20 microg/m3, or approximately 25%) and organic carbon (0.2-> 10 microg/m3, or approximately 25%), with lesser contributions of ammonium, nitrate, elemental carbon, and elements found in sea salt or soil dust. The crustal and trace metal elements contribute a varied amount to fine particle mass depending on location, with a larger contribution in marine conditions or during certain events such as dust storms or volcanic disturbances. The average distribution of mass concentration and major components depends on the proximity to areal aggregations of sources, most of which are continental in origin, with contributions from sea salt emissions in the marine environment. The highest concentrations generally are within or near very large population and industrial centers, especially in Asia, including parts of China and India, as well as North America and Europe. Natural sources of blowing dust, sea salt, and wildfires contribute to large, intermittent spatial-scale particle loadings beyond these ranges. A sampling of 10 megacities illustrates a range of characteristic particle composition, dependent on local and regional sources. Long-range transport of pollution from spatially aggregated sources over hundreds of kilometers creates persistent regional- and continental-scale gradients of mass concentration, sulfate, and carbon species especially in the northern hemisphere. Data are sparse in the southern hemisphere, especially beyond 45 degrees S, but are generally very low in mass concentrations. PMID:19645262

  14. Measurements of ultrafine particle concentrations and size distribution in an iron foundry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Chao, Yen-Chi; Wu, Cheng-Han; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Uang, Shi-Nian; Shih, Tung-Sheng

    2008-10-01

    The number and surface area concentration of ultrafine particles in an iron foundry is of interest as freshly generated ultrafine particles are produced by metal melting, pouring and molding processes. This study measured the number and surface area concentrations of ultrafine particles and their size distributions in an iron foundry using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The 10-100 nm ultrafine particle number concentrations (NC(0.01-0.1)) and surface area concentrations (SC(0.01-0.1)) measured at the iron foundry were 2.07 x 10(4) to 2.82 x 10(5)particles cm(-3) and 67.56 to 2.13 x 10(3)microm(2)cm(-3), respectively. The concentrations changed dramatically depending on on-site manufacturing conditions. The NC(0.01-0.1) levels in the iron foundry were approximately 4.5 times higher on average compared with those in the outdoor ambient environment. These measurement results indicate that the presence of extra particles in the workplace air is within the ultrafine range. Additionally, the analytical results suggest that the number mode diameter can be used to estimate the SC(0.01-0.1) levels using the NC(0.01-0.1) levels. Moreover, the ultrafine particle number mode diameter was found to be about 46.1 nm in the iron foundry. PMID:18313211

  15. Metal concentrations and distribution in paint waste generated during bridge rehabilitation in New York State.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhan; Axe, Lisa; Jahan, Kauser; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Kochersberger, Carl

    2015-09-01

    Between 1950 and 1980, lead and chromium along with other metals have been used in paint coatings to protect bridges from corrosion. In New York State with 4500 bridges in 11 Regions 2385 of the bridges have been rehabilitated and subsequently repainted after 1989 when commercial use of lead based paint was prohibited. The purpose of this research was to address the concentration and distribution of trace metals in the paint waste generated during bridge rehabilitation. Using hypothesis testing and stratified sampling theory, a representative sample size of 24 bridges from across the state was selected that resulted in 117 paint waste samples. Field portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) analysis revealed metal concentrations ranged from 5 to 168,090 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 49,367 to 799,210 mg kg(-1) for Fe, and 27 to 425,510 mg kg(-1) for Zn. Eighty percent of the samples exhibited lead concentrations greater than 5000 mg kg(-1). The elevated iron concentrations may be attributed to the application of steel grit as an abrasive blasting material routinely used by state Departments of Transportation in the paint removal process. Other metals including Ba and Cr were observed in the paint waste as well. As a result of the paint formulation, metals were found to be associated in the paint waste (Pb correlated with Cr (r=0.85)). The elevated metal concentrations observed raises concern over the potential impact of leaching from this waste stream. PMID:25955694

  16. Spatial distribution and interannual variation of surface PM10 concentrations over eighty-six Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W. J.; Arimoto, R.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhao, C. H.; Wang, Y. Q.; Sheng, L. F.; Fu, G.

    2010-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the aerosols over 86 Chinese cities was reconstructed from air pollution index (API) records for summer 2000 to winter 2006. PM10 (particulate matter ?10 ?m) mass concentrations were calculated for days when PM10 was the principal pollutant, these accounted for 91.6% of the total 150 428 recorded days. The 83 cities in mid-eastern China (100 E to 130 E) were separated into three latitudinal zones using natural landscape features as boundaries. Areas with high PM10 level in northern China (127 to 192 ?g m-3) included Urumchi, Lanzhou-Xining, Weinan-Xi'an, Taiyuan-Datong-Yangquan-Changzhi, Pingdingshan-Kaifeng, Beijing-Tianjin-Shijiazhuang, Jinan, and Shenyang-Anshan-Fushun; in the middle zone, high PM10 (119-147 ?g m-3) occurred at Chongqing-Chengdu-Luzhou, Changsha-Wuhan, and Nanjing-Hangzhou; in the southern zone, only four cities (Qujing, Guiyang, Guangzhou and Shaoguan) showed PM10 concentration >80 ?g m-3. The median PM10 concentration decreased from 108 ?g m-3 for the northern cities to 95 ?g m-3 and 55 ?g m-3 for the middle and southern zones, respectively. PM10 concentration and the APIs both exhibited wintertime maxima, summertime minima, and the second highest values in spring. PM10showed evidence for a decreasing trend for the northern cities while in the other zones urban PM10 levels fluctuated, but showed no obvious change over time. The spatial distribution of PM10 was compared with the emissions, and the relationship between the surface PM10 concentration and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) was also discussed.

  17. Ion implantation of boron in germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.S.; Haller, E.E.

    1987-04-01

    The activation of boron implanted at room temperature into germanium has been studied. In sharp contrast to all other group III elements boron forms a p-type layer before any postimplant annealing steps. Variable temperature Hall effect measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy experiments indicate that all of the boron ions are electrically active as shallow acceptor centers over the entire dose range (5 x 10/sup 11//cm/sup 2/ to 1 x 10/sup 14//cm/sup 2/) and energy range (25--100 keV) investigated, without any postimplant annealing. The concentration of damage related acceptor centers is only 10% of the boron related, shallow accepted centers concentration for low-energy implants (25 keV), but becomes dominant at high energies (100 keV) and low doses (<1 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 2/). Three damage related hole traps are produced by ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/. Two of these hole traps have also been observed in ..gamma..-irradiated Ge and may be oxygen-vacancy related defects, while the third trap may be divacancy related. All three traps anneal out at low temperatures (<300/sup 0/C). Room-temperature implantation of BF/sup +//sub 2/ into Ge, does not lead to substitutionally active boron without annealing. A thermal cycle of 350/sup 0/C for 30 min activates 100% of the boron.

  18. Testing an agent-based model of bacterial cell motility: How nutrient concentration affects speed distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V.; Birbaumer, M.; Schweitzer, F.

    2011-08-01

    We revisit a recently proposed agent-based model of active biological motion and compare its predictions with own experimental findings for the speed distribution of bacterial cells, Salmonella typhimurium. Agents move according to a stochastic dynamics and use energy stored in an internal depot for metabolism and active motion. We discuss different assumptions of how the conversion from internal to kinetic energy d( v) may depend on the actual speed, to conclude that d 2 v ξ with either ξ = 2 or 1 < ξ < 2 are promising hypotheses. To test these, we compare the model's prediction with the speed distribution of bacteria which were obtained in media of different nutrient concentration and at different times. We find that both hypotheses are in line with the experimental observations, with ξ between 1.67 and 2.0. Regarding the influence of a higher nutrient concentration, we conclude that the take-up of energy by bacterial cells is indeed increased. But this energy is not used to increase the speed, with 40 μm/s as the most probable value of the speed distribution, but is rather spend on metabolism and growth.

  19. Concentration and size distribution of viable bioaerosols during non-haze and haze days in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Qiu, Tianlei; Jia, Ruizhi; Han, Meilin; Song, Yuan; Wang, Xuming

    2015-03-01

    Accumulation of airborne particulate matter (PM) has profoundly affected the atmospheric environment of Beijing, China. Although studies on health risks have increased, characterization of specific factors that contribute to increased health risks remains an area of needed exploration. Chemical composition studies on PM can readily be found in the literature but researches on biological composition are still limited. In this study, the concentration and size distribution of viable airborne bacteria and fungi were determined in the atmosphere from May to July 2013 in Beijing, China. Samples were collected during non-haze days and haze days based on the value of air quality index (AQI) PM2.5. Multiple linear regression results indicated that concentrations of viable bioaerosol exhibited a negative correlation with PM2.5 (AQI) ranging from 14 to 452. There was a little difference in size distribution of bioaerosol between non-haze and haze days that all airborne bacteria showed skewed trends toward larger sizes and airborne fungi followed a Gaussian distribution. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that a fraction of bioaerosol with fine and coarse particles had negative and positive relations with PM2.5 (AQI), respectively. Moreover, the temporal variation of d g (aerodynamic diameter) of bioaerosol with PM2.5 (AQI) fluctuated from 9:00 to 21:00, which suggested that their deposition pattern would vary during a day. The primary research in this study implied that aerodynamic size variation should be considered in assessing the bioaerosol exposure during haze weather. PMID:25300183

  20. Temperature and emulsifier concentration effects on gallic acid distribution in a model food emulsion.

    PubMed

    Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Sánchez-Paz, Verónica; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Paiva-Martins, Fátima; Romsted, Laurence S

    2012-03-15

    We determined the effects of emulsifier concentration and temperature on the distribution of gallic acid (GA) in a food-grade emulsion composed of 1:9 vol:vol stripped corn oil, acidic water and Tween 20. The distribution of GA can be defined by the partition constant between the aqueous and the interfacial regions, P(W)(I), which was determined by using a kinetic method and the pseudophase kinetic model. Once P(W)(I) is known, determining the distribution of GA is straightforward. Our results show that at least 40% of the total GA is located in the interfacial region of the emulsion at 0.005 volume fraction of Tween 20, and this percentage increases to ca. 85% of the total GA at 0.04 volume fraction of Tween 20. The variation of P(W)(I) with the temperature was used to estimate the thermodynamic parameters for the GA transfer from the aqueous to the interfacial region of the emulsion and the activation parameters for the reaction between 16-ArN(2)(+) and GA in the interfacial region. The free energy of transfer from the aqueous to the interfacial region, ΔG(T)(0,W→I), is negative, the enthalpy of transfer is small and negative, but the entropy of transfer is large and positive. Our results demonstrate that the partitioning of GA in acidic emulsions between aqueous and interfacial regions depends primarily on droplet concentration and is only slightly dependent on temperature. PMID:22284574

  1. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in Korean soils determined by single and sequential extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Ahn, Byung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of thallium in soils collected near suspected areas such as cement plants, active and closed mines, and smelters and to examine the extraction of thallium in the soils using 19 single chemical and sequential chemical extraction procedures. Thallium concentrations in soils near cement plants were distributed between 1.20 and 12.91 mg kg(-1). However, soils near mines and smelters contained relatively low thallium concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1.09 mg kg(-1). Thallium extractability with 19 single chemical extractants from selected soils near cement plants ranged from 0.10% to 8.20% of the total thallium concentration. In particular, 1.0 M NH4Cl, 1.0 M (NH4)2SO4, and 1.0 M CH3COONH4 extracted more thallium than other extractants. Sequential fractionation results of thallium from different soils such as industrially and artificially contaminated soils varied with the soil properties, especially soil pH and the duration of thallium contamination. PMID:25836266

  2. Characterization of boron tolerant bacteria isolated from a fly ash dumping site for bacterial boron remediation.

    PubMed

    Edward Raja, Chellaiah; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to living organisms. A major environmental concern is the removal of boron from contaminated water and fly ash. For this purpose, the samples were collected from a fly ash dumping site, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. The chemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration of the samples were performed by X-ray fluorescent analysis and leaching test. For bacterial analysis, samples were collected in sterile plastic sheets and isolation was carried out by serial dilution method. The boron tolerant isolates that showed values of maximum inhibitory concentration toward boron ranging from 100 to 260 mM level were screened. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were most closely related to the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium and Ralstonia. The boron tolerance of these strains was also associated with resistant to several heavy metals, such as As (III), Cr (VI), Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se (III) and Zn. Indeed, these strains were arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by silver nitrate test. These strains exhibited their salt resistances ranging from 4 to 15 % were determined in Trypticase soy agar medium. The boron tolerant strains were capable of removing 0.1-2.0 and 2.7-3.7 mg l(-1) boron from the medium and fly ash at 168 h. Thus, we have successfully identified the boron tolerant and removal bacteria from a fly ash dumping site for boron remediation. PMID:23212536

  3. Influence of urban climate upon distribution of airborne Deuteromycete spore concentrations in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, C.; Lacey, J.; McCartney, A.; Rosas, I.

    The effect of an urban climate upon the spatial and temporal distribution of Deuteromycete spores was studied during 1991 using Burkard volumetric spore traps in two areas of Mexico City with different degrees of urbanization. Deuteromycete conidia formed the largest component of the total airborne fungal spore load in the atmosphere of Mexico City, contributing 52% of the spores trapped in an urban-residential area (southern area) and 65% of those in an urban-commercial area (central area). Among the most common spore types, Cladosporium and Alternaria showed a marked seasonal periodicity with significant differences in concentration (P<0.05) between the dry and wet seasons. Maximum conidial concentrations were found during the end of the wet season and the beginning of the cool, dry season (October-December). Daily mean concentrations of the predominant airborne spore types did not differ significantly between the southern and central areas. Daily mean spore concentrations were significantly correlated (P<0.05) in southern and central areas with maximum temperature (south, r = -0.35 central, r = -0.40) and relative humidity (south, r = 0.43; central, r = 0.29) from the previous day. Moreover, multiple regression analysis of spore concentrations with several meteorological factors showed significant interactions between fungal spores, relative humidity and maximum temperature in both areas. The diurnal periodicity of Cladosporium conidia characteristically showed two or three peaks in concentration during the day at 0200-0400, 1400 and 2000-2200 hours, while that of Alternaria showed only one peak (1200 to 2000 hours) in both areas. Maximum concentrations of these spores generally occurred 2-4 h earlier in the southern than in the central area. The lag in reaching maximum concentrations in the central area probably resulted from differences in the local conditions between the study areas, and from spores transported aerially into the city from distant sources. The analysis of maximum hourly concentrations of Cladosporium and Alternaria spores during 1 month of the dry season (February), and another month of the wet season (September) showed significant differences between the two study areas. Environmental factors and sources (green areas) affected diurnal changes in conidial concentration in the southern area (urbanization index, UI, 0.25), but not in the central area (UI 0.97). In general, spore concentrations were greatest in the southern area when relative humidities were low, and temperatures and wind velocities were high. It was difficult to establish effects of climatic factors on the spore concentration in the city centre. This probably results from the large amounts of air pollution, the heat island phenomenon, and from the distant origin of trapped conidia obviating aerial transport. Nevertheless, the seasonal and diurnal distributions of conidia found were similar to those reported for other tropical regions of the world.

  4. Concentrations, size distributions and temporal variations of fluorescent biological aerosol particles in southern tropical India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, Aswathy; Krishna R, Ravi; CV, Biju; Huffman, Alex; Poschl, Ulrich; Gunthe, Sachin

    2015-04-01

    Biological aerosols constitute a wide range of dead and alive biological materials and structures that are suspended in the atmosphere. They play an important role in the atmospheric physical, chemical and biological processes and health of living being by spread of diseases among humans, plants, and, animals. The atmospheric abundance, sources, physical properties of PBAPs as compared to non-biological aerosols, however, is poorly characterized. The Indian tropical region, where large fraction of the world's total population is residing, experiences a distinctive meteorological phenomenon by means of Indian Summer Monsoon (IMS). Thus, the properties and characteristics of biological aerosols are also expected to be very diverse over the Indian subcontinent depending upon the seasons. Here we characterize the number concentration and size distribution of Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles (FBAP) at a high altitude continental site, Munnar (10.09 N, 77.06 E; 1605 m asl) in South India during the South-West monsoon, which constitute around 80 percent of the annual rainfall in Munnar. Continuous three months measurements (from 01 June 2014 to 21 Aug 2104) FBAPs were carried out at Munnar using Ultra Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) during IMS. The mean number and mass concentration of coarse FBAP averaged over the entire campaign was 1.7 x 10-2 cm-3 and 0.24 µg m-3 respectively, which corresponds to 2 percent and 6 percent of total aerosol particle number and mass concentration. In agreement to other previous measurements the number size distribution of FBAP also peaks at 3.2 micron indicating the strong presence of fungal spores. This was also supported by the Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis of bioaerosols on filter paper. They also displayed a strong diurnal cycle with maximum concentration occurring at early morning hours. During periods of heavy and continuous rain where the wind is consistently blowing from South-West direction it was observed that the FBAP concentrations were very low. This may be due to the clean marine influx coming over the Indian Ocean and due to continuous wash out during the rain. While in case of sporadic rain events with fluctuating wind direction, high FBAP concentration was noticed. However such a similar trend was not observed for total aerosol particle concentration. The detailed results will be presented.

  5. Radial distribution of the flow velocity, efficiency and concentration in a wide HPLC column

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, T.; Sepaniak, M.J.; Guiochon, G.

    1997-08-01

    The use of optical fibers in a fluorescence-detection scheme permits the accurate determination of the radial distribution of the transit time, the column efficiency, and the analyte concentration at the exit of a chromatographic axial-compression column (50 mmID). The results obtained demonstrate that the column is not homogeneous, but suggest a nearly cylindrical distribution of the packing density. The average velocity close to the column wall is 7% lower than along its axis and the HETP 25% higher. The lack of homogeneity of the column packing is another source of band broadening not taken into account in chromatography so far. It causes the apparent HETP derived from the conventional elution chromatogram recorded on the bulk eluent to be larger than the local HETP and the band profile to be unsymmetrical with a slight tail reminiscent of kinetic tailing.

  6. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-03-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future.

  7. Modeling extreme PM10 concentration in Malaysia using generalized extreme value distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Husna; Mansor, Nadiah; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Extreme PM10 concentration from the Air Pollutant Index (API) at thirteen monitoring stations in Malaysia is modeled using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The data is blocked into monthly selection period. The Mann-Kendall (MK) test suggests a non-stationary model so two models are considered for the stations with trend. The likelihood ratio test is used to determine the best fitted model and the result shows that only two stations favor the non-stationary model (Model 2) while the other eleven stations favor stationary model (Model 1). The return level of PM10 concentration that is expected to exceed the maximum once within a selected period is obtained.

  8. Imaging the Proton Concentration and Mapping the Spatial Distribution of the Electric Field of Catalytic Micropumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farniya, A. Afshar; Esplandiu, M. J.; Reguera, D.; Bachtold, A.

    2013-10-01

    Catalytic engines can use hydrogen peroxide as a chemical fuel in order to drive motion at the microscale. The chemo-mechanical actuation is a complex mechanism based on the interrelation between catalytic reactions and electro-hydrodynamics phenomena. We studied catalytic micropumps using fluorescence confocal microscopy to image the concentration of protons in the liquid. In addition, we measured the motion of particles with different charges in order to map the spatial distributions of the electric field, the electrostatic potential and the fluid flow. The combination of these two techniques allows us to contrast the gradient of the concentration of protons against the spatial variation in the electric field. We present numerical simulations that reproduce the experimental results. Our work sheds light on the interrelation between the different processes at work in the chemomechanical actuation of catalytic pumps. Our experimental approach could be used to study other electrochemical systems with heterogeneous electrodes.

  9. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future. PMID:25754336

  10. Specificity Study on Concentration of Monoamine Transmitters at Acupoint and Effect of Acupuncture on Its Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of monoamine transmitters at acupoints and effect of acupuncture on it. Take this experiment by means of microdialysis. Twenty rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups (Group A: acupuncture Guanyuan (RN4), Group B: acupuncture nonacupoint which is besides Guanyuan (RN4) 1?cm). Before and after acupuncture was taken, tissue fluids both at Zhongwan (RN12) which is on the same meridian as Guanyuan and at a nonacupoint 1?cm away from Zhongwan were collected through microdialysis, respectively. The collected samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of monoamine transmitters. Epinephrine and 5-HT were detected. An unknown substance was found. Its concentration at acupoint was significantly higher than that at nonacupoint and decreased after acupuncture. Its significant specificity at acupoints suggests that it may play an important role in meridian's activity. PMID:25544852

  11. Concentration and distribution of heavy metals in urban airborne particulate matter in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

    PubMed

    Zereini, Fathi; Alt, Friedrich; Messerschmidt, Jürgen; Wiseman, Clare; Feldmann, Ingo; von Bohlen, Alex; Müller, Jürgen; Liebl, Karlheinz; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2005-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were measured in airborne dust collected at three sites with different traffic densities from August 2001 to July 2002 in the Frankfurt am Main area. Bulk samples of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of <22 microm were collected on cellulose nitrate filters using air filtration devices. Fractionated samples of PM with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of <10 microm were collected using an eight-stage Andersen impactor. Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, Zn, V, As, Sb, Cu, Cr, Co, and Ce were determined by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry, Pt and Rh were determined by adsorptive voltammetry, and Pd was determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results show that the highest airborne heavy metal concentrations occurred at the main street with a large volume of traffic. With the exception of Co, V, Ce, and Mn, the heavy metals had an elevated enrichment factor compared to their concentrations in the continental crust. The main street site was especially contaminated with Sb, Zn, Cu, V, and Ni. Motor vehicles are the likely source of emissions. With the exception of Cr, Cu, and Zn, most of the airborne heavy metal concentrations determined for impactor samples deviate slightly from the results for total airborne dust. Heavy metal particle size distributions can be divided into three groups. For metals such as As, Cd, Pb, and V, the main fraction can be found in fine particles with a diameter of <2.1 microm, whereas Ce, Cr, Co, and Ni occur mainly in coarse particles with a diameter of >2.1 microm. Cu, Mn, Sb, Zn, Pt, Pd, and Rh occur in high concentrations in the medium range of the impactor stages (particle diameters of 1.1-4.7 microm). Metal concentrations in fine dust particles are needed to assess the human health risks of their inhalation. PMID:15926542

  12. Miniaturized concentrator arrays as compact angle transformers for light collection and distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterli, Roland; Scharf, Toralf; Haug, Franz Josef

    2013-03-01

    Efficient light management is one of the key issues in modern energy conversion systems, might it be to collect optical power or to redistribute light generated by high power light emitting diodes. One problem remains: How can one realize small size elements with high quality of light management. We propose a novel scheme by using miniaturized angle transformers or concentrators that have size of several millimeters. none In this size range diffraction effects play rarely a role and the design can be based on classical ray tracing. Dimensions are chosen to allow effective solution for high power light emitting diodes as well as solar cells. In most solar cell designs, the photocurrent is extracted through a conducting window layer in combination with a silver grid at the front of the device. The trade-off between series resistance and shadowing requires either buried contacts or screen printing of narrow lines with high aspect ratio. We propose an alternate approach where an array of parabolic concentrators directs the incoming light into the cell. The front metallization can thus be extended over the area between the paraboloids without shadowing loss. High power light emitting diodes are source with certain far field distribution and composed often out of several chips. Applying the concentrator array technology not on the whole source but locally on each chip promises small and effective solutions. We demonstrate realization of linear and hexagonal arrays of micro-concentration systems, discuss details of application and results of simulation of their optical properties in applications.

  13. Protectiveness of species sensitivity distribution hazard concentrations for acute toxicity used in endangered species risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Delos, Charles; Barron, Mace G

    2008-12-01

    A primary objective of threatened and endangered species conservation is to ensure that chemical contaminants and other stressors do not adversely affect listed species. Assessments of the ecological risks of chemical exposures to listed species often rely on the use of surrogate species, safety factors, and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) of chemical toxicity; however, the protectiveness of these approaches can be uncertain. We comprehensively evaluated the protectiveness of SSD first and fifth percentile hazard concentrations (HC1, HC5) relative to the application of safety factors using 68 SSDs generated from 1,482 acute (lethal concentration of 50%, or LC50) toxicity records for 291 species, including 24 endangered species (20 fish, four mussels). The SSD HC5s and HCls were lower than 97 and 99.5% of all endangered species mean acute LC50s, respectively. The HC5s were significantly less than the concentrations derived from applying safety factors of 5 and 10 to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) toxicity data, and the HCls were generally lower than the concentrations derived from a safety factor of 100 applied to rainbow trout toxicity values. Comparison of relative sensitivity (SSD percentiles) of broad taxonomic groups showed that crustaceans were generally the most sensitive taxa and taxa sensitivity was related to chemical mechanism of action. Comparison of relative sensitivity of narrow fish taxonomic groups showed that standard test fish species were generally less sensitive than salmonids and listed fish. We recommend the use of SSDs as a distribution-based risk assessment approach that is generally protective of listed species. PMID:18699704

  14. Boron nitride: Composition, optical properties and mechanical behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at %. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at % range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  15. Boron Arsenide and Boron Phosphide for High Temperature and Luminescent Devices. [semiconductor devices - crystal growth/crystal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal growth of boron arsenide and boron phosphide in the form of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers on suitable substrates is discussed. The physical, chemical, and electrical properties of the crystals and epitaxial layers are examined. Bulk crystals of boron arsenide were prepared by the chemical transport technique, and their carrier concentration and Hall mobility were measured. The growth of boron arsenide crystals from high temperature solutions was attempted without success. Bulk crystals of boron phosphide were also prepared by chemical transport and solution growth techniques. Techniques required for the fabrication of boron phosphide devices such as junction shaping, diffusion, and contact formation were investigated. Alloying techniques were developed for the formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts to boron phosphide. Four types of boron phosphide devices were fabricated: (1) metal-insulator-boron phosphide structures, (2) Schottky barriers; (3) boron phosphide-silicon carbide heterojunctions; and (4) p-n homojunctions. Easily visible red electroluminescence was observed from both epitaxial and solution grown p-n junctions.

  16. Branched polymeric media: boron-chelating resins from hyperbranched polyethylenimine.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Himanshu; Yu, Changjun; Chen, Dennis P; Goddard, William A; Dalleska, Nathan F; Hoffmann, Michael R; Diallo, Mamadou S

    2012-08-21

    Extraction of boron from aqueous solutions using selective resins is important in a variety of applications including desalination, ultrapure water production, and nuclear power generation. Today's commercial boron-selective resins are exclusively prepared by functionalization of styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads with N-methylglucamine to produce resins with boron-chelating groups. However, such boron-selective resins have a limited binding capacity with a maximum free base content of 0.7 eq/L, which corresponds to a sorption capacity of 1.16 0.03 mMol/g in aqueous solutions with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM. In this article, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new resin that can selectively extract boron from aqueous solutions. We show that branched polyethylenimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension process can be reacted with glucono-1,5-D-lactone to afford a resin consisting of spherical beads with high density of boron-chelating groups. This resin has a sorption capacity of 1.93 0.04 mMol/g in aqueous solution with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM, which is 66% percent larger than that of standard commercial STY-DVB resins. Our new boron-selective resin also shows excellent regeneration efficiency using a standard acid wash with a 1.0 M HCl solution followed by neutralization with a 0.1 M NaOH solution. PMID:22827255

  17. Concentration and distribution of cobalt in higher plants: The use of micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkaus, E.; Gouget, B.; Gallien, J.-P.; Khodja, H.; Carrot, F.; Morel, J. L.; Collins, R.

    2005-04-01

    Cobalt is not classified as an essential element for plants, however, it is usually described as "beneficial". This trace element can be a contaminant in soils due to agricultural additives or metal refineries. Certain plants species have the ability to extract metals (such as Co) from soils, thus, cleaning the environment. Therefore, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms of metal absorption is required to improve these phytoremediation technologies. Patterns of cobalt accumulation and storage were determined in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) species. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions, with different Co treatments, using controlled environmental conditions. The spatial distributions of K, Ca, Fe and Co in whole plants, and in leaf and stem sections, were examined by micro-PIXE. In conjunction, total Co concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Micro-PIXE spectroscopy proved to be a convenient technique for indicating Co concentrations and distribution patterns in these plants. This knowledge aids in the identification of vegetal Co sequestration and, thus, helps to unravel how Co is transported in higher plants.

  18. Uranium concentration and distribution in six peridotite inclusions of probable mantle origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Zartman, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Fission-track activation was used to investigate uranium concentration and distribution in peridotite inclusions in alkali basalt from six localities. Whole-rock uranium concentrations range from 24 to 82 ng/g. Most of the uranium is uniformly distributed in the major silicate phases - olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene. Chromian spinels may be classified into two groups on the basis of their uranium content - those which have less than 10 ng/g and those which have 100 to 150 ng/g U. In one sample accessory hydrous phases, phlogopite and hornblende, contain 130 and 300 ng/g U, respectively. The contact between the inclusion and the host basalt is usually quite sharp. Glassy or microcrystalline veinlets found in some samples contain more than 1 microgram/g. Very little uranium is associated with microcrystals of apatite. These results agree with some earlier investigators, who have concluded that suboceanic peridotites contain too little uranium to account for normal oceanic heat flow by conduction alone.

  19. Uranium concentration and distribution in six peridotite inclusions of probable mantle origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, E.L.; Zartman, R.E.

    1973-01-01

    Fission-track activation was used to investigate uranium concentration and distribution in peridotite inclusions in alkali basalt from six localities. Whole-rock uranium concentrations range from 24 to 82 ng/g (1 ng = 10-9 g). Most of the uranium is uniformly distributed in the major silicate phases - olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene. Chromian spinels may be classified into two groups on the basis of their uranium content, having either less than 10 ng/g or 100-150 ng/g U. In one sample accessory hydrous phases, phlogopite and hornblende, contain 130 and 300 ng/g U, respectively. The contact between the inclusion and the host basalt is usually quite sharp. Glassy or microcrystalline veinlets found in some samples contain more than 1??g/g (1 ??g = 10-6 g). Very little uranium is associated with microcrystals of apatite. Our results agree with some earlier investigators, who have concluded that suboceanic peridotites contain too little uranium to account for normal oceanic heat flow by conduction alone. ?? 1973.

  20. Spatial and temporal distributions of aerosol concentrations and depositions in Asia during the year 2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Soon-Ung; Lee, In-Hye; Joo, Seung Jin

    2016-01-15

    Aerosol Modeling System (AMS) that is consisted of the Asian Dust Aerosol Model2 (ADAM2) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has been employed to document the spatial distributions of the monthly and the annual averaged concentration of both the Asian dust (AD) aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosol (AA), and their total depositions in the Asian region for the year 2010. It is found that the annual mean surface aerosol (PM10) concentrations in the Asian region affect in a wide region as a complex mixture of AA and AD aerosols; they are predominated by the AD aerosol in the AD source region of northern China and Mongolia with a maximum concentration exceeding 300 μg m(-3); AAs are predominated in the high pollutant emission regions of southern and eastern China and northern India with a maximum concentration exceeding 110 μg m(-3); while the mixture of AA and AD aerosols is dominated in the downwind regions extending from the Yellow Sea to the Northwest Pacific Ocean. It is also found that the annual total deposition of aerosols in the model domain is found to be 485 Tg (372 Tg by AD aerosol and 113 Tg by AA), of which 66% (319 Tg) is contributed by the dry deposition (305 Tg by AD aerosol and 14 Tg by AA) and 34% (166 Tg) by the wet deposition (66 Tg by AD aerosol and 100 Tg by AA), suggesting about 77% of the annual total deposition being contributed by the AD aerosol mainly through the dry deposition process and 24% of it by AA through the wet deposition process. The monthly mean aerosol concentration and the monthly total deposition show a significant seasonal variation with high in winter and spring, and low in summer. PMID:26520259

  1. Droplet Size Distributions as a function of rainy system type and Cloud Condensation Nuclei concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2014-06-01

    This work aims to study typical Droplet Size Distributions (DSDs) for different types of precipitation systems and Cloud Condensation Nuclei concentrations over the Vale do Paraíba region in southeastern Brazil. Numerous instruments were deployed during the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: a contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM) Project in Vale do Paraíba campaign, from November 22, 2011 through January 10, 2012. Measurements of CCN (Cloud Condensation Nuclei) and total particle concentrations, along with measurements of rain DSDs and standard atmospheric properties, including temperature, pressure and wind intensity and direction, were specifically made in this study. The measured DSDs were parameterized with a gamma function using the moment method. The three gamma parameters were disposed in a 3-dimensional space, and subclasses were classified using cluster analysis. Seven DSD categories were chosen to represent the different types of DSDs. The DSD classes were useful in characterizing precipitation events both individually and as a group of systems with similar properties. The rainfall regime classification system was employed to categorize rainy events as local convective rainfall, organized convection rainfall and stratiform rainfall. Furthermore, the frequencies of the seven DSD classes were associated to each type of rainy event. The rainfall categories were also employed to evaluate the impact of the CCN concentration on the DSDs. In the stratiform rain events, the polluted cases had a statistically significant increase in the total rain droplet concentrations (TDCs) compared to cleaner events. An average concentration increase from 668 cm- 3 to 2012 cm- 3 for CCN at 1% supersaturation was found to be associated with an increase of approximately 87 m- 3 in TDC for those events. For the local convection cases, polluted events presented a 10% higher mass weighted mean diameter (Dm) on average. For the organized convection events, no significant results were found.

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of pesticide air concentrations in Canadian agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Tuduri, Ludovic; Harner, Tom; Blanchard, Pierrette; Waite, Don; Poissant, Laurier; Murphy, Clair; Belzer, Wayne; Aulagnier, Fabien; Li, Yi-Fan; Sverko, Ed

    The Canadian Pesticide Air Sampling Campaign was initiated in 2003 to assess atmospheric levels of pesticides, especially currently used pesticides (CUPs) in agricultural regions across Canada. In the first campaign during the spring to summer of 2003, over 40 pesticides were detected. The spatial and temporal distribution of pesticides in the Canadian atmosphere was shown to reflect the pesticide usage in each region. Several herbicides including triallate, bromoxynil, MCPA, 2,4-D, dicamba, trifluralin and ethalfluralin were detected at highest levels at Bratt's Lake, SK in the prairie region. Strong relationships between air concentrations and dry depositions were observed at this site. Although no application occurred in the Canadian Prairies in 2003, high air concentrations of lindane ( γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) were still observed at Bratt's Lake and Hafford, SK. Two fungicides (chlorothalonil and metalaxyl) and two insecticides (endosulfan and carbofuran) were measured at highest levels at Kensington, PEI. Maximum concentrations of chlorpyrifos and metolachlor were found at St. Anicet, QC. The southern Ontario site, Egbert showed highest concentration of alachlor. Malathion was detected at the highest level at the west coast site, Abbotsford, BC. In case of legacy chlorinated insecticides, high concentrations of DDT, DDE and dieldrin were detected in British Columbia while α-HCH and HCB were found to be fairly uniform across the country. Chlordane was detected in Ontario, Québec and Prince Edward Island. This study demonstrates that the sources for the observed atmospheric occurrence of pesticides include local current pesticide application, volatilization of pesticide residues from soil and atmospheric transport. In many instances, these data represent the first measurements for certain pesticides in a given part of Canada.

  3. Lattice constants of boron carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Aselage, T.L.; Tissot, R.G. )

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, the lattice constants of boron carbides are determined by powder X-ray diffraction for samples with compositions between about 7.7 and 20.5 at.% carbon. The boundaries of the single-phase region are at about 9 at.% carbon and near, but likely somewhat less than 20 at.% carbon. The composition dependence of the lattice constants thus established provides a method of assessing the carbon concentration of unknown materials. In particular, assignment of the approximate composition of single crystals used in previous studies allows for a systematic examination of changes in interatomic separation as a function of composition. These changes are discussed in terms of a structural model of the boron carbide solid solution.

  4. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} ATR1 paralog YMR279c plays role in boron detoxification. {yields} YMR279c overexpression lowers cytoplasmic boron levels. {yields} ATR1 paralog YOR378w has no roles in boron stress response. -- Abstract: Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  5. Influence of soil solution salinity on boron adsorption by soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron adsorption on two arid-zone soils from the San Joaquin Valley of California was investigated as a function of equilibrium solution B concentration (0-250 mg L-1), solution pH (3-12), and electrical conductivity (EC = 0.3 or 7.8 dS m-1). Boron adsorption on both soils increased with increasing...

  6. [Concentration distribution of bioaerosol in summer and autumn in the Qingdao coastal region].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Bing; Qi, Jian-Hua; Jin, Chuan; Gao, Dong-Mei; Li, Meng-Fei; Li, Lin; Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Hai-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Bioaerosol samples were collected using an Andersen sampler from Jul. 2009 to Nov. 2009 in the Qingdao coastal region. Total microbe (including 'culturable microbe' and 'non-culturable microbe'), the terrigenous and marine microbe were analyzed by the counting methods of fluorescence microscope and Petri dishes containing agar media. The results showed that the proportion of non-culturable microbe to total microbe was as high as 99.58% of total on average, while the average proportion of culturable microbe to total microbe was 0.42%. The average proportions of marine bacteria/fungi did to the culturable microbe (18.99% and 45.47% respectively) were more than that of terrigenous bacteria/fungi (16.91% and 18.63% respectively), therefore marine bacteria/fungi contributed more to the microbe than terrigenous bacteria/fungi. It could be seen that the composition and concentration distribution were greatly affected by the ocean in the Qingdao coastal region. The average concentrations of total microbe were higher in Autumn (181 682.5 CFU/m3) than that in Summer (159 704.2 CFU/m3), and that of terrigenous bacteria, marine bacteria/fungi were also higher in Autumn than in Summer. The particle sizes of total microbe presented a log-normal distribution in summer and autumn, and the total microbe mainly existed in coarse particles larger than 2.1 microm. There was the highest proportion of total microbe in 3.3-4.7 microm particles, the lowest one in 0.65-1.1 microm. The terrigenous and marine bacterial particle sizes showed a skew distribution with a higher value in large particles (> 7 microm) and a lower one in fine particles (0.65-1.1 microm). The terrigenous and marine fungal particle sizes showed a log-normal distribution in summer and autumn, and the highest concentration proportion existed in particles with diameter of 2.1-3.3 microm. PMID:21404658

  7. Evidence for a bimodal distribution of Escherichia coli doubling times below a threshold initial cell concentration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the process of developing a microplate-based growth assay, we discovered that our test organism, a native E. coli isolate, displayed very uniform doubling times (?) only up to a certain threshold cell density. Below this cell concentration (? 100 -1,000 CFU mL-1 ; ? 27-270 CFU well-1) we observed an obvious increase in the ? scatter. Results Working with a food-borne E. coli isolate we found that ? values derived from two different microtiter platereader-based techniques (i.e., optical density with growth time {=OD[t]} fit to the sigmoidal Boltzmann equation or time to calculated 1/2-maximal OD {=tm} as a function of initial cell density {=tm[CI]}) were in excellent agreement with the same parameter acquired from total aerobic plate counting. Thus, using either Luria-Bertani (LB) or defined (MM) media at 37C, ? ranged between 17-18 (LB) or 51-54 (MM) min. Making use of such OD[t] data we collected many observations of ? as a function of manifold initial or starting cell concentrations (CI). We noticed that ? appeared to be distributed in two populations (bimodal) at low CI. When CI ?100 CFU mL-1 (stationary phase cells in LB), we found that about 48% of the observed ? values were normally distributed around a mean (??1) of 18 0.68 min ( ??1) and 52% with ??2 = 20 2.5 min (n = 479). However, at higher starting cell densities (CI>100 CFU mL-1), the ? values were distributed unimodally (?? = 18 0.71 min; n = 174). Inclusion of a small amount of ethyl acetate to the LB caused a collapse of the bimodal to a unimodal form. Comparable bimodal ? distribution results were also observed using E. coli cells diluted from mid-log phase cultures. Similar results were also obtained when using either an E. coli O157:H7 or a Citrobacter strain. When sterile-filtered LB supernatants, which formerly contained relatively low concentrations of bacteria(1,000-10,000 CFU mL-1), were employed as a diluent, there was an evident shift of the two populations towards each other but the bimodal effect was still apparent using either stationary or log phase cells. Conclusion These data argue that there is a dependence of growth rate on starting cell density. PMID:20678197

  8. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38μgL(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65μgL(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848μgL(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15μgL(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures. PMID:26599150

  9. Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Concentrations in Soils from Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Gizem

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify regional variations in soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in Bursa, Turkey, and to determine the distributions and sources of various PAH species and their possible sources. Surface soil samples were collected from 20 different locations. The PAH concentrations in soil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations (?12 PAH) varied spatially between 8 and 4970ng/g dry matter (DM). The highest concentrations were measured in soils taken from traffic+barbecue+ residential areas (4970ng/g DM) and areas with cement (4382 ng/g DM) and iron-steel (4000ng/g DM) factories. In addition, the amounts of ?7 carcinogenic PAH ranged from 1 to 3684ng/g DM, and between 5 and 74% of the total PAHs consisted of such compounds. Overall, 4-ring PAH compounds (Fl, Pyr, BaA and Chr) were dominant in the soil samples, with 29-82% of the ?12 PAH consisting of 4-ring PAH compounds. The ?12 BaPeq values ranged from 0.1 to 381.8ng/g DM. Following an evaluation of the molecular diagnostic ratios, it was concluded that the PAH pollution in Bursa soil was related to pyrolytic sources; however, the impact of petrogenic sources should not be ignored. PMID:26658619

  10. 3D-Simulation Of Concentration Distributions Inside Large-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischnewski, R.; Ratschow, L.; Hartge, E. U.; Werthe, J.

    With increasing size of modern CFB combustors the lateral mixing of fuels and secondary air gains more and more importance. Strong concentration gradients, which result from improper lateral mixing, can lead to operational problems, high flue gas emissions and lower boiler efficiencies. A 3D-model for the simulation of local gas and solids concentrations inside industrial-sized CFB boilers has been developed. The model is based on a macroscopic approach and considers all major mechanisms during fuel spreading and subsequent combustion of char and volatiles. Typical characteristics of modern boilers like staged combustion, a smaller cross-sectional area in the lower section of the combustion chamber and the co-combustion of additional fuels with coal can be considered. The 252 MWth combustor of Stadtwerke Duisburg AG is used for the validation of the model. A comprehensive picture of the local conditions inside the combustion chamber is achieved by the combination of local gas measurements and the three-dimensional simulation of concentration distributions.

  11. Measurements of CO concentration distribution for Mars atmospheric entry by combining OES and TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xin; Chen, Lianzhong; Ou, Dongbin; Li, Fei; Yu, Xilong

    2015-05-01

    Shock tube experiments are carried out to study the physical and chemical processes during a vehicle entry into the Mars atmosphere using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Gas temperature and CO concentration distribution are diagnosed behind a shock wave in a CO2-N2 mixture with two different conditions of initial pressure and velocity. The strong shock wave is established in a shock tube driven by combustion of hydrogen and oxygen. Time-resolved spectra of the Δv = 0 sequence of the B2Σ+→X2Σ+ electronic transition of CN have been observed through OES. A precise analysis of the CN violet spectra is performed and used to determine rotational and vibrational temperatures. Two absorption lines in the first overtone band of CO near 2.33 μm, are selected from a HITRAN simulation to calibrate laser wavelength and detect the CO concentration. Combined with these temperature results using OES, CO concentrations in the thermal equilibrium region are derived, which are 2.91 × 1012 cm-3 and 1.01 × 1013 cm-3, corresponding to equilibrium temperatures equal to 7000 ± 400 K and 6000 ± 300 K in low and high pressure conditions, respectively.

  12. Spatial distribution patterns of molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in potable groundwater in Northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad; Mashal, Kholoud; Abed, Abdulkader M

    2015-03-01

    Two hundred and three groundwater samples were collected during March 2011 to June 2012 from the B2/A7 aquifer water supply wells of northern part of Jordan. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in situ for the major cations, anions, while certain heavy metals were analyzed in the laboratory. Some oilshale rock samples were geochemically analyzed. The Upper Cretaceous aquifer (B2/A7) is used as water supply for most of the communities in the study area. It consists of limestone, marly limestone, bedded chert, and minor phosphorite. Hydrochemical results from the B2/A7 aquifer indicate two main water types: alkaline-earth water (CaHCO3) and alkaline-earth water with high alkaline component (NaHCO3 (-), Na2SO4). Standard column leaching experiments on oilshale rock samples and the R-mode factor analysis suggest that the sources for elevated Mo concentrations in the groundwater of certain parts of northern Jordan are attributed to water-oilshale interaction, mobility of Mo down to the groundwater and the extensive use of fertilizers within these areas. Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in the groundwater water range from 0.07 to 1.44 mg/L with an average value of 98 ?g/L. They are found to exceed the JISM and WHO guidelines in two areas in northern part of Jordan. Spatial distribution of Mo, using ordinary kriging techniques and the resulting map, shows high Mo concentration in the northwestern part near Wadi Al Arab area reaching concentrations of 650 ?g/L and in the southeastern corner of the investigated area, south of Al Ukaydir village, with an average concentration of 468 ?g/L. Both areas are characterized by extensive oilshale exposures with average concentration of 11.7 mg/kg Mo and intensive agricultural activities. These two areas represent approximately 33 % of the groundwater in the northern part of Jordan. Mobility of Mo to the groundwater in northern part of Jordan is attributed to two mechanisms. First, there is reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide, which releases substantial adsorbed Mo concentrations. Secondly, there is oxidation of Mo into dissolved forms in sulfide organic-rich system. PMID:25720968

  13. Model studies directed toward the boron neutron-capture therapy of cancer: boron delivery to murine tumors with liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Shelly, K; Feakes, D A; Hawthorne, M F; Schmidt, P G; Krisch, T A; Bauer, W F

    1992-01-01

    The successful treatment of cancer by boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) requires the selective concentration of boron-10 within malignant tumors. The potential of liposomes to deliver boron-rich compounds to tumors has been assessed by the examination of the biodistribution of boron delivered by liposomes in tumor-bearing mice. Small unilamellar vesicles with mean diameters of 70 nm or less, composed of a pure synthetic phospholipid (distearoyl phosphatidylcholine) and cholesterol, have been found to stably encapsulate high concentrations of water-soluble ionic boron compounds. The hydrolytically stable borane anions B10H10(2-), B12H11SH2-, B20H17OH4-, B20H19(3-), and the normal form and photoisomer of B20H18(2-) were encapsulated in liposomes as their soluble sodium salts. The tissue concentration of boron in tumor-bearing mice was measured at several time points over 48 h after i.v. injection of emulsions of liposomes containing the borane anions. Although the boron compounds used do not exhibit an affinity for tumors and are normally rapidly cleared from the body, liposomes were observed to selectively deliver the borane anions to tumors. The highest tumor concentrations achieved reached the therapeutic range (greater than 15 micrograms of boron per g of tumor) while maintaining high tumor-boron/blood-boron ratios (greater than 3). The most favorable results were obtained with the two isomers of B20H18(2-). These boron compounds have the capability to react with intracellular components after they have been deposited within tumor cells by the liposome, thereby preventing the borane ion from being released into blood. PMID:1409600

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of boron doping profile of fin and trench structures by plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahsenov, Izat S.; Miakonkikh, Andrey V.; Rudenko, Kostantin V.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation into fins and trenches at elevated pressures is simulated. In the present work we calculate boron concentration distribution in the sample accounting for ion scattering in plasma sheath and geometric shadowing effects (ions at certain angle of incidence couldn't achieve shadowed part of trench wall and bottom). First, energy and angle distribution of ions passed through the plasma sheath to the sample surface is obtained. These data are used to calculate boron concentration distribution in the sample. Pressure range is 30-300 mTorr, plasma electron temperature 5 eV, plasma density 1010-1012 cm-3. The degree of conformity increases with the pressure raises and decreases with the density of plasma.

  15. Investigation of the structure and properties of boron-containing coatings obtained by electron-beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivezhenko, Dina S.; Drobyaz, Ekaterina A.; Bataev, Ivan A.; Chuchkova, Lyubov V.

    2015-10-01

    An investigation of surface-hardened materials obtained by cladding with an electron beam injected into the air atmosphere was carried out. Structural investigations of coatings revealed that an increase in boron carbide concentration in a saturating mixture contributed to a rise of a volume fraction of iron borides in coatings. The maximum hardened depth reached 2 mm. Hardened layers were characterized by the formation of heterogeneous structure which consisted of iron borides and titanium carbides distributed uniformly in the eutectic matrix. Areas of titanium boride conglomerations were detected. It was found that an increase in the boron carbide content led to an enhancement in hardness of the investigated materials. Friction testing against loosely fixed abrasive particles showed that electron-beam cladding of powder mixtures containing boron carbides, titanium, and iron in air atmosphere allowed enhancing a resistance of materials hardened in two times.

  16. Characteristics of inhalable particulate matter concentration and size distribution from power plants in China

    SciTech Connect

    Honghong Yi; Jiming Hao; Lei Duan; Xinghua Li; Xingming Guo

    2006-09-15

    The collection efficiency of particulate emission control devices (PECDs), particulate matter (PM) emissions, and PM size distribution were determined experimentally at the inlet and outlet of PECDs at five coal-fired power plants. Different boilers, coals, and PECDs are used in these power plants. Measurement in situ was performed by an electrical low-pressure impactor with a sampling system, which consisted of an isokinetic sampler probe, precut cyclone, and two- stage dilution system with a sample line to the instruments. The size distribution was measured over a range from 0.03 to 10 {mu}m. Before and after all of the PECDs, the particle number size distributions display a bimodal distribution. The PM2.5 fraction emitted to atmosphere includes a significant amount of the mass from the coarse particle mode. The controlled and uncontrolled emission factors of total PM, inhalable PM (PM10), and fine PM (PM2.5) were obtained. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse total collection efficiencies are 96.38 99.89% and 99.94%, respectively. The minimum collection efficiency of the ESP and the baghouse both appear in the particle size range of 0.1 1 0 {mu}m. In this size range, ESP and baghouse collection efficiencies are 85.79 98.6% and 99.54%. Real- time measurement shows that the mass and number concentration of PM10 will be greatly affected by the operating conditions of the PECDs. The number of emitted particles increases with increasing boiler load level because of higher combustion temperature. During test run periods, the data reproducibility is satisfactory. 19 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. The structure of boron in boron fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, J.; Krawitz, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of noncrystalline, chemically vapour-deposited boron fibres was investigated by computer modelling the experimentally obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. The diffraction patterns from the models were computed using the Debye scattering equation. The modelling was done utilizing the minimum nearest-neighbour distance, the density of the model, and the broadening and relative intensity of the various peaks as boundary conditions. The results suggest that the fibres consist of a continuous network of randomly oriented regions of local atomic order, about 2 nm in diameter, containing boron atoms arranged in icosahedra. Approximately half of these regions have a tetragonal structure and the remaining half a distorted rhombohedral structure. The model also indicates the presence of many partial icosahedra and loose atoms not associated with any icosahedra. The partial icosahedra and loose atoms indicated in the present model are in agreement with the relaxing sub-units which have been suggested to explain the anelastic behavior of fibre boron and the loosely bound boron atoms which have been postulated to explain the strengthening mechanism in boron fibres during thermal treatment.

  18. Beyond phthalates: gas phase concentrations and modeled gas/particle distribution of modern plasticizers.

    PubMed

    Schossler, Patrícia; Schripp, Tobias; Salthammer, Tunga; Bahadir, Müfit

    2011-09-01

    The ongoing health debate about polymer plasticizers based on the esters of phthalic acid, especially di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has caused a trend towards using phthalates of lower volatility such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and towards other acid esters, such as adipates, terephthalates, citrates, etc. Probably the most important of these so-called "alternative" plasticizers is diisononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH). In the indoor environment, the continuously growing market share of this compound since its launch in 2002 is inter alia apparent from the increasing concentration of DINCH in settled house dust. From the epidemiological point of view there is considerable interest in identifying how semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) distribute in the indoor environment, especially in air, airborne particles and sedimented house dust. This, however, requires reliable experimental concentration data for the different media and good measurements or estimates of their physical and chemical properties. This paper reports on air concentrations for DINP, DINCH, diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), diisobutyl adipate (DIBA), diisobutyl succinate (DIBS) and diisobutyl glutarate (DIBG) from emission studies in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). For DINP and DINCH it took about 50 days to reach the steady-state value: for four months no decay in the concentration could be observed. Moreover, vapor pressures p(0) and octanol-air partitioning coefficients K(OA) were obtained for 37 phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers from two different algorithms: EPI Suite and SPARC. It is shown that calculated gas/particle partition coefficients K(p) and fractions can widely differ due to the uncertainty in the predicted p(0) and K(OA) values. For most of the investigated compounds reliable experimental vapor pressures are not available. Rough estimates can be obtained from the measured emission rate of the pure compound in a microchamber as is shown for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate(DEHA), tri(octyl) trimellitate (TOTM) and DEHP. PMID:21764421

  19. [The reconstruction of two-dimensional distributions of gas concentration in the flat flame based on tunable laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Shen; Wang, Fei; Xing, Da-Wei; Xu, Ting; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2012-11-01

    The experimental method by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the model and algo- rithm was studied to reconstruct the two-dimensional distribution of gas concentration The feasibility of the reconstruction program was verified by numerical simulation A diagnostic system consisting of 24 lasers was built for the measurement of H2O in the methane/air premixed flame. The two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame was reconstructed, showing that the reconstruction results reflect the real two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame. This diagnostic scheme provides a promising solution for combustion control. PMID:23387144

  20. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (<1.1 μm). These toxic metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. PMID:26278373

  1. Metal concentrations and distribution in the household, stairs and entryway dust of some Egyptian homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Salwa Kamal Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Household, stairs and entryway dust samples were collected from 16 houses distributed across Greater Cairo by using vacuum cleaner and sweeping methods during summer season of 2009. Lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) were measured in different dust particle sizes: <38 ?m, >38-45 ?m and >45-63 ?m. The highest average concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Cu, and Cr in different particle sizes were found in entryway followed by household and stairs. Al, Fe and Zn concentrations followed the pattern of entryway > stairs > household. Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Co and Cr were found in significantly (p < 0.01) higher concentrations in dust of the small particle size (<38 ?m), whereas Al, Fe and Cu were detected in significantly (p < 0.01) higher concentrations in dust of the large particle size (>45-63 ?m). The average concentrations of the individual metals in dust of the small particle size (<38 ?m) were 268, 196.4 and 254.49 ?g gm-1 for Pb, 49.6, 43.5 and 46.66 ?g gm-1 for Ni, 2.86, 2.15 and 2.71 ?g gm-1 for Cd, 4340, 3796 and 2602 ?g gm-1 for Al, 2860, 2200 and 2004 ?g gm-1 for Fe, 209.25, 152.3 and 103.26 ?g gm-1 for Zn, 4.1, 2.88 and 1.96 ?g gm-1 for Co, 85.99, 74.06 and 83.17 ?g gm-1 for Cr and 168.2, 156.5 and 122.02 ?g gm-1 for Cu in entryway, stairs and household, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cu and Pb in the entryway, stairs and household dust exceeded the maximum permissible limit 100 ?g gm-1 for Cu and Pb in soil. The highest concentrations of Pb, Cd, Co and Ni were found in urban areas, Al and Fe in the residential areas, and Cu, Zn and Cr in the residential near to industrial area. Significant positive correlation (p < 0.001) were found between the metal concentrations in household and entryway dust, indicating that the metals in household dust may be derived from outdoor sources in addition to dust generated within the house itself. The contribution of anthropogenic sources, especially traffic emission, to metal levels in household, entryway and stairs dust was reflected by the high values of enrichment factors for Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu and Ni and Cr in fine dust particle compared to the average crustal composition. Insignificant positive correlation coefficients were found between the concentrations of Pb and other metals in household dust. However, the correlation coefficients between the concentrations of Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe were statistically significant.

  2. Fluorine-enhanced boron diffusion in germanium-preamorphized silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, J.M.; Jones, K.S.; Robertson, L.S.; Li-Fatou, A.; Hazelton, C.M.; Napolitani, E.; Rubin, L.M.

    2005-10-01

    Silicon wafers were preamorphized with 60 keV Ge{sup +} or 70 keV Si{sup +} at a dose of 1x10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2}. F{sup +} was then implanted into some samples at 6 keV at doses ranging from 1x10{sup 14} to 5x10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2}, followed by {sup 11}B{sup +} implants at 500 eV, 1x10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2}. Secondary-ion-mass spectrometry confirmed that fluorine enhances boron motion in germanium-preamorphized materials in the absence of annealing. The magnitude of boron diffusion scales with increasing fluorine dose. Boron motion in as-implanted samples occurs when fluorine is concentrated above 1x10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 3}. Boron atoms are mobile in as-implanted, amorphous material at concentrations up to 1x10{sup 19} atoms/cm{sup 3}. Fluorine directly influences boron motion only prior to activation annealing. During the solid-phase epitaxial regrowth process, fluorine does not directly influence boron motion, it simply alters the recrystallization rate of the silicon substrate. Boron atoms can diffuse in germanium-amorphized silicon during recrystallization at elevated temperatures without the assistance of additional dopants. Mobile boron concentrations up to 1x10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 3} are observed during annealing of germanium-preamorphized wafers.

  3. Preparation of pure boron coating film and its characterization by XPS and TDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyaidzu, M.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kodama, H.; Oya, Y.; Sagara, A.; Noda, N.; Okuno, K.

    2005-05-01

    A PACVD apparatus was designed and fabricated at Shizuoka University in order to prepare high-pure boron coating films. In the present study, some parameters, especially feeding gas concentration, substrate temperature and CVD input power, have been optimized to prepare pure boron coating films. It was found that the purity of boron coating film was controlled by the decaborane concentration of feeding gas and substrate temperature during the PACVD process, and each optimized values were 0.4 and 473 K, respectively. The atomic composition of boron in the boron coating film under the optimized condition has been achieved to be 0.94.

  4. The impact of the concentration of drug binding plasma proteins on drug distribution according to ie-Tozer's model.

    PubMed

    Svennebring, Andreas Mats

    2016-04-01

    1.?New equations have been developed from an updated version of ie-Tozer's model expressing how the free concentration and volume of distribution change in relation to changes in the concentration of drug binding plasma proteins. This updated model accommodates more than one drug binding plasma protein to contribute to the plasma protein binding. 2.?Demonstrations of the model show that variability in the concentration of one plasma protein has considerably less impact on the free drug concentration and volume of distribution if other plasma proteins contribute to binding, than if they don't. PMID:26259025

  5. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  6. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  7. Ranges and moments of depth distributions of boron and phosphorus implanted into silicon in the energy range 1.7-5.0 MeV with an Eaton NV-GSD/VHE implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.; Shaw, W.; Jones, M.A.; Wilson, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    High energy implantation of dopant atoms is used to form buried layers of high conductivity in silicon. These layers have many potential applications, including triple wells for FLASH memory devices, buried layers for CCD devices, and damage induced gettering regions in all devices. In order to make optimum use of very high energy dopant implants, the depth and profile shape characteristics of these implants need to be determined. This paper presents the results of depth profiling by SIMS of implants of boron and phosphorus in silicon. The implants were done on an Eaton NV-GSD/VHE mechanically scanned implanter with energies of 1.7-3.0 MeV for boron and 3-5 MeV for phosphorus, doses of 1 {times} 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} to 1 {times} 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}, and tilt/twist orientations of 0{degrees}/0{degrees}, 5.2{degrees}/16.7{degrees}, and 7{degrees}/27{degrees}. The four central moments of the depth distributions, as well as the peak depth have been calculated for each of the profiles. The projected ranges of all these implants are underestimated by TRIM92 calculations.

  8. Safety Assessment of Boron Nitride as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-11-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of boron nitride which functions in cosmetics as a slip modifier (ie, it has a lubricating effect). Boron nitride is an inorganic compound with a crystalline form that can be hexagonal, spherical, or cubic; the hexagonal form is presumed to be used in cosmetics. The highest reported concentration of use of boron nitride is 25% in eye shadow formulations. Although boron nitride nanotubes are produced, boron nitride is not listed as a nanomaterial used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel reviewed available chemistry, animal data, and clinical data and concluded that this ingredient is safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations. PMID:26684796

  9. X-ray Microprobe Investigations of Elemental Distributions and Concentrations at Mineral-Microbe Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, S. D.; O'Loughlin, E. J.; Lai, B.; Maser, J.; Cai, Z.; Londer, Y.; Schiffer, M.; Nealson, K.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the fate of heavy-metal contaminants in the environment is of fundamental importance in the development and evaluation of effective remediation and sequestration strategies. Bacteria and the extracellular material associated with them are thought to play a key role in determining a contaminant's speciation and thus its mobility in the environment. Additionally, the metabolism and surface properties of bacteria can be quite different depending upon whether the bacteria exhibit a planktonic (free-floating) or biofilm (surface adhered) habit. The microenvironment at and adjacent to actively metabolizing cells also can be significantly different from the bulk environment. Thus, to understand the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that determine a contaminant's macroscopic fate, the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of contaminants and elements that are key to biological processes must be characterized at micron and submicron lengthscales for bacteria in both planktonic and adhered states. Hard x-ray microimaging is a powerful technique for the element-specific investigation of complex environmental samples at the needed micron and submicron resolution. An important advantage of these techniques results from the large penetration depth of hard x-rays in water. This advantage minimizes the requirements for sample preparation and allows the detailed study of hydrated samples. The objectives of the studies to be presented are (1) to determine the spatial distribution, concentration, and chemical speciation of metals at, in, and near bacteria and bacteria-geosurface interfaces, (2) to use this information to identify the metabolic processes occurring within the microbes, and (3) to identify the interactions occurring near these interfaces among the metals, mineral surfaces, and bacteria under a variety of conditions. We have used x-ray fluorescence microscopy to investigate the spatial distribution of 3d elements in Pseudomonas fluorescens cells in both planktonic and surface-adhered states. We have used x-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy to investigate the chemical speciation and distribution of Cr that was introduced to these cells as Cr(VI). Additionally, we have used these techniques to identify the distribution of an over expressed cytochrome c7 in individual E. coli. Finally, we have used x-ray fluorescence microscopy to investigate Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells adhered to iron oxyhydroxide thin films. The zone plate used in these microscopy experiments produced a focused beam with a cross section (and hence spatial resolution) of 100-300 nanometers. Results from x-ray fluorescence imaging experiments indicate that the distribution of P, S, Cl, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn can define the location of the microbe. Additionally, quantitative elemental analysis of individual microbes identified significant changes in concentration of 3d transition elements depending on the age of the culture and the type of electron acceptor presented to the microbes. These results and a discussion of the use of this technique for identifying metabolic states of individual microbes within communities and the chemical speciation of metal contaminants at the mineral-microbe interface will be presented.

  10. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  11. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution, and their relationship with heavy metal content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S. H. R.; Harchegani, M. Kiani; Younesi, H. A.

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims at assessing the feasibility of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) estimation by using predictor variables of heavy metal concentration (HMC, viz., iron, chromium, zinc and nickel) transported in solution and solid. The study was conducted in the Research and Educational Forest Watershed of the Tarbiat Modares University (Kojour) which comprises an area of ca. 50000 ha. For this study, suspended sediment samples were collected from the left bank of the Kojour River twice a week, as well as during runoff events from November 2007 to June 2008. The samples were then prepared through direct digestion and finally analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The relationship between SSC and particle size distribution (PSD) were correlated with HMC by using bivariate and multivariate regression models. Proposed models were then selected based on statistical criteria. The results showed high correlation between dissolved and particulate chromium content with efficiency coefficients beyond 77% ( P < 0.001). However, a lower relationship was found between SSC and nickel content. From these results, it is clearly shown that the HMC can practically be estimated by SSC in watersheds with different accuracy and vice versa. It is also understood that heavy metal pollution can be easily managed by controlling SSC.

  12. Concentration and distribution of sixty-one elements in coals from DPR Korea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hu, Jiawen; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.; Wang, B.; Wang, M.; Li, S.; Wu, D.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty coal samples (28 anthracite and 22 lignites) were collected from both main and small coal mines in DPR Korea prioritized by resource distribution and coal production. The concentrations of 61 elements in 50 coal samples were determined by several multielement and element-specific techniques, including inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ion chromatogram (IC), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). The ranges, arithmetic means and geometric means of concentrations of these elements are presented. A comparison with crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that some potentially hazardous elements in the coals of DPR Korea are highly enriched Li, B, S, Cl, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sn, Sb, W, Te, Hg, Ag, Pb, and La, Ce, Dy, Tm, Ge, Mo, Cs, Tl, Bi, Th and U are moderately enriched. A comparison of ranges and means of elemental concentrations in DPR Korea, Chinese, and world coals shows the ranges of most elements in DPR Korea coals are very close to the ranges of world coals. Arithmetic means of most elements in DPR Korea coals are close to that of American coals. Most elements arithmetic means are higher in Jurassic and Paleogene coals than coals of other ages. In DPR Korea coals, only seven elements in early Permian coals are higher than other periods: Li, Zn, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Bi. Only five elements B, As, Sr, Mo, W in Neogene coals have arithmetic means higher than others. SiO2 and Al2O 3 in ashes are more than 70% except six samples. The correlation between ash yields and major elements from high to low is in the order of Si>Al>Ti>K>Mg>Fe>Na>Ca>P>S. Most elements have high positive correlation with ash (r>0.5) and show high inorganic affinity. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal and spatial PM10 concentration distribution using an inverse distance weighted method in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarmizi, S. N. M.; Asmat, A.; Sumari, S. M.

    2014-02-01

    PM10 is one of the air contaminants that can be harmful to human health. Meteorological factors and changes of monsoon season may affect the distribution of these particles. The objective of this study is to determine the temporal and spatial particulate matter (PM10) concentration distribution in Klang Valley, Malaysia by using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method at different monsoon season and meteorological conditions. PM10 and meteorological data were obtained from the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE). Particles distribution data were added to the geographic database on a seasonal basis. Temporal and spatial patterns of PM10 concentration distribution were determined by using ArcGIS 9.3. The higher PM10 concentrations are observed during Southwest monsoon season. The values are lower during the Northeast monsoon season. Different monsoon seasons show different meteorological conditions that effect PM10 distribution.

  14. Accumulation and loss of arsenic and boron, alone and in combination, in mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, G.W.; Whitworth, M.R.; Olsen, G.H.

    1995-08-01

    Arsenic and boron are common in the environment, and wildlife can be exposed to toxic concentrations through both natural and human-influenced processes. The authors exposed adult male mallard ducks to dietary concentrations of 300 ppm arsenic as sodium arsenate, 1,600 ppm boron as boric acid, or both and estimated the tissue accumulation and loss rates when the ducks were returned to uncontaminated food. Both elements were accumulated rapidly; equilibrium levels were reached for arsenic in 10 to 30 d and for boron in 2 to 15 d. Accumulation of each element was slowed by the presence of the other in the diet. Boron was eliminated by mallards very rapidly, with few detectable residues {ge}1 d after removal of boron from the diet; arsenic was also rapidly lost with half-lives of 1 to 3 d (half-lives were not constant throughout the loss period). Arsenic loss rate was not affected by the presence of boron. Arsenic accumulated to the highest level in liver tissue, with blood and brain levels lower; concentrations in the liver and blood were proportional but affected by the presence of boron. Boron concentrations were highest in the blood, followed by the brain and liver; concentrations in the liver and blood were proportional but affected by the presence of boron. Boron concentrations were highest in the blood, followed by the brain and liver; concentrations in the blood and liver were proportional.

  15. Concentration and distribution of heavy metals in two Andisols of the Azuay Andes (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nria; Ugalde, Sandra; Tonon, Luis; Larriva, Giovani

    2013-04-01

    At present many governmental and environmental bureaus are interested in establishing reliable soil quality criteria for heavy metals to enable the detection of polluted sites. To evaluate the variation of heavy metal natural concentration and to assess heavy metal contamination in soils, it is necessary to survey heavy metal baseline levels in order to understand their migration and distribution during pedogenesis. Many nationwide projects report elemental baseline values in soils. Baseline levels of heavy metals in soils have also been determined at local scales. Data is scarce on qualitative and quantitative trace elements content of Ecuatorian soils. The soils in the Azuay Andes (S of Ecuador) are thought to be generally non-contaminated. The objective of this study is to determine and evaluate the natural concentrations and distribution of seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Andisol of Azuay Andes. Soil samples were grounded in an agate mill prior to pseudototal heavy metal analysis. Cadmium, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by a masses spectrometer (MS-ICP) after aqua regia extraction according to ISO standard procedures. Soil particle size distribution, organic carbon, electrical conductivity and pH have been previously determined. Andisols are dominated by amorphous aluminium silicates and Al-organic complexes. The soils of volcanic area usually have an Ah-Bh-Bhs/Bw-C horizon sequence. The Ah horizon is dark-coloured and normally very high in organic matter, ranging from 6.4 to 15.2 %. A strong rise in pH upon addition of a fluoride solution is used to signal the presence of allophane. The pH usually rises to 10.5 bellow 20 cm. The range of total soil values in mgkg-1 is as follows: Cd (0.03-0.3), Co (0.8-5), Cr (7-15), Cu (9-25), Ni (2-4), Pb (11-41) and Zn (12-37). All heavy metal contents, except for Cd, are strongly correlated with pH. For the pseudototal fraction, there was significant difference between the soil horizons in regards to complex profile development.

  16. Iron concentrations and distributions in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of aged and young primate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M. Q.; Xie, J. P.; Wang, X. S.; Ong, W. Y.; Leong, S. K.; Watt, F.

    2001-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuronal degenerative brain disease of the elderly, and is caused by the selective degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain, resulting in a reduced production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Iron has been linked to dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson's disease because of its potential to promote free radicals, leading to oxidative stress. The present study is aimed at using the techniques of nuclear microscopy to elucidate the iron concentrations and distributions in the SN of both young and old monkeys following unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioning. A group of three old monkeys (older than 7 years) and a group of three young monkeys (younger than 7 years) were unilaterally MPTP-lesioned (right side) to induce parkinsonism and sacrificed after 35 days. The left side SN was used as a control. This time interval was chosen to correspond to an average 50% loss of dopamine producing cells in the lesioned right side SN. We have observed a significant difference in iron concentrations between the SNs of the young and old monkeys (increasing from an average of 233 to 1092 parts per million dry weight). When comparing the lesioned and non-lesioned SNs of the same animal, we found no significant difference in iron levels for each young monkey. However we have found a slight increase in iron (approximately 10%) between the lesioned SN and control SN for old monkeys. We have also observed that in the SN of younger primates, there is a weak anti-correlation in the SN iron levels with the neuron distribution. In the older monkeys, however, we have observed a proliferation of iron-rich granules, which appear to be more strongly anti-correlated with the distribution of neurons. The iron-cell anti-correlation occurs both in the control as well as the lesioned SN. Our results suggest that iron, particularly in the form of iron-rich deposits, accumulates in specific sites in the SN with age. Since Parkinson's disease mainly occurs in the elderly, this may implicate iron as a factor in dopaminergic cell death through iron-catalysed free radical production.

  17. Distributions of median nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations across the Red River Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Longing, D; Haggard, B E

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition and compilation of water-quality data for an 11-yr time period (1996-2006) from 589 stream and river stations were conducted to support nutrient criteria development for the multistate Red River Basin shared by Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Ten water-quality parameters were collected from six data sources (USGS, Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, Oklahoma Water Resources Board, and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), and an additional 13 parameters were acquired from at least one source. Median concentrations of water-quality parameters were calculated at each individual station and frequency distributions (minimum, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th percentiles, and maximum) of the median concentrations were calculated. Across the Red River Basin, median values for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and sestonic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) ranged from < 0.02 to 20.2 mg L(-1), < 0.01 to 6.66 mg L(-1), and 0.10 to 262 microg L(-1), respectively. Overall, the 25th percentiles of TN data specific to the Red River Basin were generally similar to the USEPA-recommended ecoregion nutrient criteria of 0.31 to 0.88 mg L(-1), whereas median TP and chl-a data specific to the Red River Basin showed 25th percentiles higher than the USEPA-recommended criteria (0.010-0.067 mg TP L(-1); 0.93-3.00 microg chl-a L(-1)). The unique location of the Red River Basin in the south-central United States places it near the boundaries of several aggregate ecoregions; therefore, the development of ecoregion nutrient criteria likely requires using data specific to the Red River Basin, as shown in these analyses. This study provided basin-specific frequency distribution of median concentrations of water-quality parameters as the first step to support states in developing nutrient criteria to protect designated uses in the multijurisdictional Red River Basin. PMID:21284293

  18. Effects of Boron Doping on the Properties of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wen-Xiang; WU, Q. X.; Luo, Z. K.; Wu, H. S.

    2014-04-01

    Boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were fabricated on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. UNCD films containing different concentrations of boron were prepared by using trimethylboron (B(CH3)3, TMB) as boron doping source and varying the amount of boron in the gas mixture from 0 ppm to 1000 ppm. The effects of boron doping on morphology, lattice parameter, phase composition, crystal size, and residual stress of UNCD films were investigated. No obvious change of the morphology was observed on doping with boron, and all the films had the UNCD crystal grains. Boron doping enhanced (111) growth. The preferred growth direction of the UNCD films was . Residual tensile stress was present in all the films, and increased with increasing the amount of boron in the gas mixture.

  19. Estimating the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration by integrating geographic data and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, L.; Sang, H.; Zhang, J.; An, F.

    2015-06-01

    Air quality directly affects the health and living of human beings, and it receives wide concern of public and attaches great important of governments at all levels. The estimation of the concentration distribution of PM2.5 and the analysis of its impacting factors is significant for understanding the spatial distribution regularity and further for decision supporting of governments. In this study, multiple sources of remote sensing and GIS data are utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration in Shijiazhuang, China, by utilizing multivariate linear regression modelling, and integrating year average values of PM2.5 collected from local environment observing stations. Two major sources of PM2.5 are collected, including dust surfaces and industrial polluting sources. The area attribute of dust surfaces and point attribute of industrial polluting enterprises are extracted from high resolution remote sensing images and GIS data in 2013. 30m land cover products, annual average PM2.5 concentration values from the 8 environment monitoring stations, annual mean MODIS AOD data, traffic and DEM data are utilized in the study for regression modeling analysis. The multivariate regression analysis model is applied to estimate the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration. There is an upward trend of the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration gradually from west to east, of which the highest concentration appears in the municipal district and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution pattern relatively fit the reality.

  20. Isolation and characterization of indigenous Streptomyces and Lentzea strains from soils containing boron compounds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Norma Beatriz; Poma, Hugo Ramiro; Amoroso, Mara Julia; Rajal, Vernica Beatriz

    2014-06-01

    The Salta Province - in the northwest of Argentina - is the main worldwide producer of hydroboracite and leads in exports of boron mineral and its derivatives in Latin America. In addition to the natural presence of boron compounds in the soils, there are others contaminated due to the boron mining industry. Although some bacteria are known to require boron for their growth or to be capable of storing boron, no studies have been published about Streptomyces or Lentzea genera's capacity to tolerate high boron concentrations, or about their metabolic capacities in boron contaminated environments. The results of this research show the isolation and molecular characterization of eight strains belonging to the actinobacteria phylum collected from different soils contaminated with high boron concentration in Salta state. The boron tolerance assays, which show that three of the strains were able to tolerate up 60-80?mM boron, demonstrate the potential capability of this group of bacteria to grow and maybe to remove boron from the environment. They appear to be promising, considering that these microorganisms are infrequent pathogens, are metabolically versatile and many Streptomyces can synthesize boron containing metabolites. PMID:23686918

  1. Appraisal of SIMS applicability to boron studies in plants.

    PubMed

    Dérue, Cedric; Gibouin, David; Verdus, Marie-Claire; Lefebvre, Fabrice; Demarty, Maurice; Ripoll, Camille; Thellier, Michel

    2002-07-15

    In the search for a new methodological approach applicable to the determination of the still poorly known primary role of boron in plant physiology, we have undertaken to appraise the potential of the SIMS method for the analytical imaging of the boron isotopes, (10)B and (11)B, at physiological concentrations in plants. With our own, CAMECA IMS4F SIMS ion analyser, and using O(2)(+) as primary ions for the detection of B(+) (plus (12)C(+) and (40)Ca(+)) secondary ions, we have been able to map quantitatively the two boron isotopes in control and boron-enriched plants, to evaluate boron concentrations at the level of individual cells and to determine boron isotopic ratios. This provides the opportunity to carry out the simultaneous labeling and imaging of boron, using enrichment with the stable isotopes, (10)B and (11)B. The method has also the potential for the simultaneous, quantitative detection of the boron isotopes and of the borate-binding sites in plant cells. PMID:12203710

  2. Three-dimensional structural control and analysis of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets assembly in nanocomposite films induced by electric field concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Takeshi; Cho, Hong-Baek; Kanno, Masanao; Nakayama, Tadachika; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Jiang, Weihua; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Niihara, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Fabrication and controlled localization of BN nanosheets assemblies were performed in polymer-based nanocomposite films under application of DC electric field switching. The localization of BN nanosheets with linearly assembled structure were modulated by applying a Si-mold electrode with micro-dimensional protrusions on the surface during electric field inducement. The established assembly of BN nanosheets, incorporated in the composite was analyzed three-dimensionally using X-ray computed tomography. The structural variation of linear assembles of BN nanosheets (LABNs) were modulated from filament-like to bridge-like structure by applying switching DC electric field whose effect was further intensified induced by electric field concentration. The nanocomposite films with localized LABNs can be potentially applied for efficient heat dissipation from local heat source, such as modern electronic, optoelectronic, photonic devices, and systems in semiconductor industry.

  3. Boron-enhanced diffusion of boron from ultralow-energy ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Gossmann, H.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Herner, S.B.; Fiory, A.T.; Haynes, T.E.

    1999-04-01

    We have investigated the diffusion enhancement mechanism of boron-enhanced diffusion (BED), wherein boron diffusivity is enhanced four to five times over the equilibrium diffusivity at 1050&hthinsp;{degree}C in the proximity of a silicon layer containing a high boron concentration. It is demonstrated that BED is driven by excess interstitials injected from the high boron concentration layer during annealing. For evaporated layers, BED is observed above a threshold boron concentration between 1{percent} and 10{percent}, though it appears to be closer to 1{percent} for B-implanted layers. For sub-keV B implants above the threshold, BED dominates over the contribution from transient-enhanced diffusion to junction depth. For 0.5 keV B, this threshold implantation dose lies between 3{times}10{sup 14} and 1{times}10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2}. It is proposed that the excess interstitials responsible for BED are produced during the formation of a silicon boride phase in the high B concentration layers. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Local impedance imaging of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieli?ski, A.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Ryl, J.; Burczyk, L.; Darowicki, K.

    2014-09-01

    Local impedance imaging (LII) was used to visualise surficial deviations of AC impedances in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD). The BDD thin film electrodes were deposited onto the highly doped silicon substrates via microwave plasma-enhanced CVD. The studied boron dopant concentrations, controlled by the [B]/[C] ratio in plasma, ranged from 1 1016 to 2 1021 atoms cm-3. The BDD films displayed microcrystalline structure, while the average size of crystallites decreased from 1 to 0.7 ?m with increasing [B]/[C] ratios. The application of LII enabled a direct and high-resolution investigation of local distribution of impedance characteristics within the individual grains of BDD. Such an approach resulted in greater understanding of the microstructural control of properties at the grain level. We propose that the obtained surficial variation of impedance is correlated to the areas of high conductance which have been observed at the grain boundaries by using LII. We also postulate that the origin of high conductivity is due to either preferential boron accumulation, the presence of defects, or sp2 regions in the intragrain regions. The impedance modulus recorded by LII was in full agreement with the bulk impedance measurements. Both variables showed a decreasing trend with increasing [B]/[C] ratios, which is consistent with higher boron incorporation into BDD film.

  5. Local impedance imaging of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zieliński, A.; Ryl, J.; Burczyk, L.; Darowicki, K.

    2014-09-29

    Local impedance imaging (LII) was used to visualise surficial deviations of AC impedances in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD). The BDD thin film electrodes were deposited onto the highly doped silicon substrates via microwave plasma-enhanced CVD. The studied boron dopant concentrations, controlled by the [B]/[C] ratio in plasma, ranged from 1 × 10{sup 16} to 2 × 10{sup 21} atoms cm{sup −3}. The BDD films displayed microcrystalline structure, while the average size of crystallites decreased from 1 to 0.7 μm with increasing [B]/[C] ratios. The application of LII enabled a direct and high-resolution investigation of local distribution of impedance characteristics within the individual grains of BDD. Such an approach resulted in greater understanding of the microstructural control of properties at the grain level. We propose that the obtained surficial variation of impedance is correlated to the areas of high conductance which have been observed at the grain boundaries by using LII. We also postulate that the origin of high conductivity is due to either preferential boron accumulation, the presence of defects, or sp{sup 2} regions in the intragrain regions. The impedance modulus recorded by LII was in full agreement with the bulk impedance measurements. Both variables showed a decreasing trend with increasing [B]/[C] ratios, which is consistent with higher boron incorporation into BDD film.

  6. Innovative method for boron extraction from iron ore containing boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang; Wang, Jing-song; Yu, Xin-yun; Shen, Ying-feng; Zuo, Hai-bin; Xue, Qing-guo

    2016-03-01

    A novel process for boron enrichment and extraction from ludwigite based on iron nugget technology was proposed. The key steps of this novel process, which include boron and iron separation, crystallization of boron-rich slag, and elucidation of the boron extraction behavior of boron-rich slag by acid leaching, were performed at the laboratory. The results indicated that 95.7% of the total boron could be enriched into the slag phase, thereby forming a boron-rich slag during the iron and slag melting separation process. Suanite and kotoite were observed to be the boron-containing crystalline phases, and the boron extraction properties of the boron-rich slag depended on the amounts and grain sizes of these minerals. When the boron-rich slag was slowly cooled to 1100°C, the slag crystallized well and the efficiency of extraction of boron (EEB) of the slag was the highest observed in the present study. The boron extraction property of the slow-cooled boron-rich slag obtained in this study was much better than that of szaibelyite ore under the conditions of 80% of theoretical sulfuric acid amount, leaching time of 30 min, leaching temperature of 40°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 8 mL/g.

  7. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  8. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  9. Selenium concentration in the milk of breast-feeding mothers and its geographic distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Zachara, B A; Pilecki, A

    2000-01-01

    A total of 905 human milk samples collected in all provinces of Poland, between 12 and 75 days of lactation, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The distribution of Se levels in milk between the provinces was narrow and varied from 8.81 to 11.58 ng/mL, with the mean value (+/- SD) of 10.24 +/- 2.82 ng/mL. The regions with lower levels of Se were in the central and eastern part of Poland; the areas with higher values were in the northern, western, and southern parts of Poland. No significant correlations were found between Se levels in milk and the age of lactating mothers or between Se levels and the postpartum period. The calculated daily Se intakes by breast-fed infants varied from 6.46 to 8.50 microg/day, with the mean value of 7.52 microg/day. This amount does not meet the recommended dietary allowances for infants between 0 and 6 months of age. Based on Se levels in human milk, we present a selenium map of Poland. PMID:11102294

  10. Role of oxygen concentration distribution and microstructure in luminescent properties of laser-irradiated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Guoqiang; Xie, Changxin; Qiu, Rong; Li, Jiawen; Huang, Wenhao

    2015-03-01

    We study the photoluminescence (PL) of monocrystalline silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses in different environments (deionized water and air) and energy intensities. The fluorescence spectroscopy measurement results indicate that the visible blue luminescence is observed both from the silicon surfaces ablated in the deionized water and air. The more interesting phenomenon is that the position and shape of the emission luminescence peaks in the visible range are substantially the same at the same excitation wavelength 330 nm. Compared with the granular-like microstructure generated on the silicon surface in air, the smaller and stripe-like microstructure is formed in the deionized water as the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) measures. The results of the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show that silicon and oxygen is the main elemental composition on laser-induced silicon surfaces, and the oxygen content on the sample surfaces formed in air is nearly four times more than that in the deionized water. The studies confirm that oxygen element plays an important role in PL enhancement. The PL is not merely caused by the oxygen defects or quantum confinement effects, but is commonly decided by the concentration distribution of SiOx (x < 2) and the depth of the surface microstructure. The PL achieves the strongest only when the surface microstructure depth is not too deep and the shallow low oxide SiOx is intensive.

  11. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/coron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Manos, Dennis (Williamsburg, VA); Nartowitz, Ed (Edison, NJ)

    1994-01-01

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

  12. Boronate affinity nanoparticles for nucleoside separation.

    PubMed

    Okutucu, Burcu; Vurmaz, Deniz; Tuncal, Akile; Trkcan, Ceren; Akta? Uygun, Deniz; Akgl, Sinan

    2016-02-01

    Boronate affinity systems have been recently used for the specific isolation of cis-diol group carrying biomolecules such as glycoproteins, nucleosides, carbohydrates. Nanosized materials have been extremely used for the biotechnological purposes due to their unique properties and their high surface areas. The objective of this presented work was to develop a new boronate affinity system for the nucleoside adsorption. For this purpose, poly(HEMA) nanoparticles were synthesized by using surfactant free emulsion polymerization technique and then functionalized with phenylboronic acid. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with FTIR, SEM, and Zeta size analysis. Nucleic acid adsorption experiments were repeated for different medium pH values, for various nucleosides concentrations, for different temperatures and ionic strengths, in order to determine the optimum adsorption conditions. In the light of these studies, it can be concluded that this boronate ligand carrying nanoparticles were very valuable for the separation of nucleosides. PMID:25137488

  13. Chemical disposition of boron in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moseman, R F

    1994-01-01

    Elemental boron was isolated in 1808. It typically occurs in nature as borates hydrated with varying amounts of water. Important compounds are boric acid and borax. Boron compounds are also used in the production of metals, enamels, and glasses. In trace amounts, boron is essential for the growth of many plants, and is found in animal and human tissues at low concentrations. Poisoning in humans has been reported as the result of accidental ingestion or use of large amounts in the treatment of burns. Boron as boric acid is fairly rapidly absorbed and excreted from the body via urine. The half-life of boric acid in humans is on the order of 1 day. Boron does not appear to accumulate in soft tissues of animals, but does accumulate in bone. Normal levels of boron in soft tissues, urine, and blood generally range from less than 0.05 ppm to no more than 10 ppm. In poisoning incidents, the amount of boric acid in brain and liver tissue has been reported to be as high as 2000 ppm. Recent studies at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences have indicated that boron may contribute to reduced fertility in male rodents fed 9000 ppm of boric acid in feed. Within a few days, boron levels in blood and most soft tissues quickly reached a plateau of about 15 ppm. Boron in bone did not appear to plateau, reaching 47 ppm after 7 days on the diet. Cessation of exposure to dietary boron resulted in a rapid drop in bone boron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889870

  14. A new adsorbent for boron removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kluczka, Joanna; Korolewicz, Teofil; Zo?otajkin, Maria; Simka, Wojciech; Raczek, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    A new adsorbent based on natural clinoptilolite and amorphous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) was prepared for the uptake of boron from fresh water. The sorption behaviour of this adsorbent for boron was investigated using a batch system and found to obey Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. The ZrO2 loading level, pH, temperature, contact time, initial boron concentration and adsorbent dose, on the removal of boron were studied. It was found that the removal of boron increased while the adsorbent dose increased and the temperature decreased at an optimum pH (pH = 8) and a contact time of 30 min. At optimum conditions, the maximum boron percentage removal was 75%. According to the D-R model, the maximum capacity was estimated to be > 3 mg B/g of the adsorbent. The adsorption energy value (calculated as 9.13 kJ/mol) indicated that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with ZrO2 was physical in nature. The parameters of the adsorption models and the pH investigations pointed to the possibility of a chemisorption process. The thermodynamic parameters (standard entropy deltaS degrees, enthalpy deltaH degrees , and free energy deltaG degrees changes) of boron adsorption were also calculated. The negative value of deltaS degrees indicated a decreased randomness at the solid-solution interface during the boron adsorption. Negative values of deltaH degrees showed the exothermic nature of the process. The negative values of deltaG degrees implied that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with amorphous ZrO2 at 25 degrees C was spontaneous. It was considered that boron dissolved in water had been adsorbed both physically and chemically on clinoptilolite modified with 30% ZrO2. PMID:24191469

  15. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Glass-fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The report discusses the following: domestic data coverage; legislation and government programs; domestic production; comsumption and uses; prices; foreign trade; world capacity; world review--Argentina, Chile, France, Italy, Turkey, United Kingdom; Technology.

  16. Degenerate crystalline silicon films by aluminum-induced crystallization of boron-doped amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. D.; Luo, L. C.; Hsueh, T. J.; Hwang, S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Degenerate p-type crystalline silicon film with a hole concentration of 4 1021 cm-3 was investigated using aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) of boron-doped amorphous silicon (a-Si). The AIC mechanism is different from that in the undoped AIC-Si. Boron atoms accumulate at Al layer forming a boron bump and segregate the Al atoms into Si layer, resulting to the formation of AlSi alloy. The degeneracy is not attributed to boron doping but instead to the AlSi alloy. Observations show that Al and Si layer transfer occurs not at original interface of Al and Si, but at the boron bump.

  17. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  18. Characterization of a boron carbide-based polymer neutron sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chuting; James, Robinson; Dong, Bin; Driver, M. Sky; Kelber, Jeffry A.; Downing, Greg; Cao, Lei R.

    2015-12-01

    Boron is used widely in thin-film solid-state devices for neutron detection. The film thickness and boron concentration are important parameters that relate to a device's detection efficiency and capacitance. Neutron depth profiling was used to determine the film thicknesses and boron-concentration profiles of boron carbide-based polymers grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of ortho-carborane (1,2-B10C2H12), resulting in a pure boron carbide film, or of meta-carborane (1,7-B10C2H12) and pyridine (C5H5N), resulting in a pyridine composite film, or of pyrimidine (C4H4N2) resulting in a pure pyrimidine film. The pure boron carbide film had a uniform surface appearance and a constant thickness of 250 nm, whereas the thickness of the composite film was 250-350 nm, measured at three different locations. In the meta-carborane and pyridine composite film the boron concentration was found to increase with depth, which correlated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)-derived atomic ratios. A proton peak from 14N (n,p)14C reaction was observed in the pure pyrimidine film, indicating an additional neutron sensitivity to nonthermal neutrons from the N atoms in the pyrimidine.

  19. Boron removal by electrocoagulation and recovery.

    PubMed

    Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Ahmed, Zubair; Magram, Saleh Faraj; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2014-03-15

    This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm(2), and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water. PMID:24412846

  20. Quantitative cross-sectional measurement of solid concentration distribution in slurries using a wire-mesh sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes dos Santos, Eduardo; Schleicher, Eckhard; Reinecke, Sebastian; Hampel, Uwe; Da Silva, Marco Jose

    2016-01-01

    Wire-mesh sensors have so far been widely applied in gas–liquid flows where resistance or capacitance distributions are measured and converted into gas or liquid holdup distributions. In this work we report on the qualification of the wire-mesh imaging technique for the measurement of cross-sectional solid concentrations in solid–liquid mixtures. As the dielectric constants of solid particles are different from those of gas, water or oil in the flow, measuring this property can be used as an indication of solid distribution. Experiments were performed in a stirred tank of 100 mm diameter equipped with a capacitance wire-mesh sensor. The wire-mesh sensor was operated at an acquisition speed of 4000 frames per second and has a spatial resolution of 6.25 mm. As solids we used silica sand particles (diameter ~250 μm) which were suspended in water in a volume concentration range of 1% to 35% to form slurries. By varying the stirring speed, different solid concentration distributions were produced and investigated. In order to convert the measured relative permittivity distribution into a solid concentration distribution, an empirical approach was employed.

  1. Reconstruction of national distribution of indoor radon concentration in Russia using results of regional indoor radon measurement programs.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Malinovsky, G; Vasilyev, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is a reconstruction of the national distribution and estimation of the arithmetic average indoor radon concentration in Russia using the data of official annual 4-DOZ reports. Annual 4-DOZ reports summarize results of radiation measurements in 83 regions of Russian Federation. Information on more than 400,000 indoor radon measurements includes the average indoor radon isotopes equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) and number of measurements by regions and by three main types of houses: wooden, one-storey non-wooden, and multi-storey non-wooden houses. To reconstruct the national distribution, all-Russian model sample was generated by integration of sub-samples created using the results of each annual regional program of indoor radon measurements in each type of buildings. According to indoor radon concentration distribution reconstruction, all-Russian average indoor radon concentration is 48 Bq/m(3). Average indoor radon concentration by region ranges from 12 to 207 Bq/m(3). The 95-th percentile of the distribution is reached at indoor radon concentration 160 Bq/m(3). PMID:26313426

  2. Biodistribution of boron after intravenous 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) infusion in meningioma and schwannoma patients: A feasibility study for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kulvik, Martti; Kallio, Merja; Laakso, Juha; Vhtalo, Jyrki; Hermans, Raine; Jrviluoma, Eija; Paetau, Anders; Rasilainen, Merja; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Seppl, Matti; Jskelinen, Juha

    2015-12-01

    We studied the uptake of boron after 100 mg/kg BPA infusion in three meningioma and five schwannoma patients as a pre-BNCT feasibility study. With average tumour-to-whole blood boron concentrations of 2.5, we discuss why BNCT could, and probably should, be developed to treat severe forms of the studied tumours. However, analysing 72 tumour and 250 blood samples yielded another finding: the plasma-to-whole blood boron concentrations varied with time, suggesting that the assumed constant boron ratio of 1:1 between normal brain tissue and whole blood deserves re-assessment. PMID:26298436

  3. Effect of fluorine implantation dose on boron thermal diffusion in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mubarek, H. A. W.; Bonar, J. M.; Dilliway, G. D.; Ashburn, P.; Karunaratne, M.; Willoughby, A. F.; Wang, Y.; Hemment, P. L. F.; Price, R.; Zhang, J.; Ward, P.

    2004-10-01

    This paper investigates how the thermal diffusion of boron in silicon is influenced by a high energy fluorine implant with a dose in the range 51014-2.31015cm-2. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) profiles of boron marker layers are presented for different fluorine doses and compared with fluorine profiles to establish the conditions under which thermal boron diffusion is suppressed. The (SIMS) profiles show significantly reduced boron thermal diffusion above a critical F+ dose of 0.9-1.41015cm-2. Fitting of the measured boron profiles gives suppressions of the boron thermal diffusion coefficient by factors of 1.9 and 3.7 for F + implantation doses of 1.41015 and 2.31015cm-2, respectively. The suppression of boron thermal diffusion above the critical fluorine dose correlates with the appearance of a shallow fluorine peak on the (SIMS) profile in the vicinity of the boron marker layer. This shallow fluorine peak is present in samples with and without boron marker layers, and hence it is not due to a chemical interaction between the boron and the fluorine. Analysis of the (SIMS) profiles and cross-section Transmission Electron Microscope micrographs suggests that it is due to the trapping of fluorine at vacancy-fluorine clusters, and that the suppression of the boron thermal diffusion is due to the effect of the clusters in suppressing the interstitial concentration in the vicinity of the boron profile.

  4. Boron diffusion in nanocrystalline 3C-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabel, Manuel; Weiss, Charlotte; Rachow, Thomas; Löper, Philipp; Janz, Stefan; Canino, Mariaconcetta; Summonte, Caterina; Mirabella, Salvo; Wilshaw, Peter R.

    2014-05-26

    The diffusion of boron in nanocrystalline silicon carbide (nc-SiC) films with a grain size of 4–7 nm is studied using a poly-Si boron source. Diffusion is found to be much faster than in monocrystalline SiC as it takes place within the grain boundary (GB) network. Drive-in temperatures of 900–1000°C are suitable for creating shallow boron profiles up to 100 nm deep, while 1100°C is sufficient to flood the 200 nm thick films with boron. From the resulting plateau at 1100 °C a boron segregation coefficient of 28 between nc-SiC and the Si substrate, as well as a GB boron solubility limit of 0.2 nm{sup −2} is determined. GB diffusion in the bulk of the films is Fickian and thermally activated with D{sub GB}(T)=(3.1−5.6)×10{sup 7}exp(−5.03±0.16  eV/k{sub B}T) cm{sup 2}s{sup −1}. The activation energy is interpreted in terms of a trapping mechanism at dangling bonds. Higher boron concentrations are present at the nc-SiC surface and are attributed to immobilized boron.

  5. Concentration, Size Distribution, and Infectivity of Airborne Particles Carrying Swine Viruses.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Carmen; Raynor, Peter C; Davies, Peter R; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    When pathogens become airborne, they travel associated with particles of different size and composition. Particle size determines the distance across which pathogens can be transported, as well as the site of deposition and the survivability of the pathogen. Despite the importance of this information, the size distribution of particles bearing viruses emitted by infectious animals remains unknown. In this study we characterized the concentration and size distribution of inhalable particles that transport influenza A virus (IAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) generated by acutely infected pigs and assessed virus viability for each particle size range. Aerosols from experimentally infected pigs were sampled for 24 days using an Andersen cascade impactor able to separate particles by size (ranging from 0.4 to 10 micrometer (μm) in diameter). Air samples collected for the first 9, 20 and the last 3 days of the study were analyzed for IAV, PRRSV and PEDV, respectively, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantified as geometric mean copies/m(3) within each size range. IAV was detected in all particle size ranges in quantities ranging from 5.5x10(2) (in particles ranging from 1.1 to 2.1 μm) to 4.3x10(5) RNA copies/m(3) in the largest particles (9.0-10.0 μm). PRRSV was detected in all size ranges except particles between 0.7 and 2.1 μm in quantities ranging from 6x10(2) (0.4-0.7 μm) to 5.1x10(4) RNA copies/m(3) (9.0-10.0 μm). PEDV, an enteric virus, was detected in all particle sizes and in higher quantities than IAV and PRRSV (p < 0.0001) ranging from 1.3x10(6) (0.4-0.7 μm) to 3.5x10(8) RNA copies/m(3) (9.0-10.0 μm). Infectious status was demonstrated for the 3 viruses, and in the case of IAV and PRRSV, viruses were isolated from particles larger than 2.1 μm. In summary, our results indicated that airborne PEDV, IAV and PRRSV can be found in a wide range of particle sizes. However, virus viability is particle size dependent. PMID:26287616

  6. Concentration, Size Distribution, and Infectivity of Airborne Particles Carrying Swine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Carmen; Raynor, Peter C.; Davies, Peter R.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    When pathogens become airborne, they travel associated with particles of different size and composition. Particle size determines the distance across which pathogens can be transported, as well as the site of deposition and the survivability of the pathogen. Despite the importance of this information, the size distribution of particles bearing viruses emitted by infectious animals remains unknown. In this study we characterized the concentration and size distribution of inhalable particles that transport influenza A virus (IAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) generated by acutely infected pigs and assessed virus viability for each particle size range. Aerosols from experimentally infected pigs were sampled for 24 days using an Andersen cascade impactor able to separate particles by size (ranging from 0.4 to 10 micrometer (?m) in diameter). Air samples collected for the first 9, 20 and the last 3 days of the study were analyzed for IAV, PRRSV and PEDV, respectively, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantified as geometric mean copies/m3 within each size range. IAV was detected in all particle size ranges in quantities ranging from 5.5x102 (in particles ranging from 1.1 to 2.1?m) to 4.3x105 RNA copies/m3 in the largest particles (9.010.0?m). PRRSV was detected in all size ranges except particles between 0.7 and 2.1?m in quantities ranging from 6x102 (0.40.7?m) to 5.1x104 RNA copies/m3 (9.010.0?m). PEDV, an enteric virus, was detected in all particle sizes and in higher quantities than IAV and PRRSV (p < 0.0001) ranging from 1.3x106 (0.40.7?m) to 3.5x108 RNA copies/m3 (9.010.0?m). Infectious status was demonstrated for the 3 viruses, and in the case of IAV and PRRSV, viruses were isolated from particles larger than 2.1?m. In summary, our results indicated that airborne PEDV, IAV and PRRSV can be found in a wide range of particle sizes. However, virus viability is particle size dependent. PMID:26287616

  7. Primary Accretion and Turbulent Cascades: Scale-Dependence of Particle Concentration Multiplier Probability Distribution Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Weston, B.; Shariff, K.

    2013-10-01

    Primitive bodies with 10s-100s of km diameter (or even larger) may form directly from small nebula constituents, bypassing the step-by-step incremental growth that faces a variety of barriers at cm, m, and even 1-10km sizes. In the scenario of Cuzzi et al (Icarus 2010 and LPSC 2012; see also Chambers Icarus 2010) the immediate precursors of 10-100km diameter asteroid formation are dense clumps of chondrule-(mm-) size objects. These predictions utilize a so-called cascade model, which is popular in turbulence studies. One of its usual assumptions is that certain statistical properties of the process (the so-called multiplier pdfs p(m)) are scale-independent within a cascade of energy from large eddy scales to smaller scales. In similar analyses, Pan et al (2011 ApJ) found discrepancies with results of Cuzzi and coworkers; one possibility was that p(m) for particle concentration is not scale-independent. To assess the situation we have analyzed recent 3D direct numerical simulations of particles in turbulence covering a much wider range of scales than analyzed by either Cuzzi and coworkers or by Pan and coworkers (see Bec et al 2010, J. Flu. Mech 646, 527). We calculated p(m) at scales ranging from 45-1024? where ? is the Kolmogorov scale, for both particles with a range of stopping times spanning the optimum value, and for energy dissipation in the fluid. For comparison, the p(m) for dissipation have been observed to be scale-independent in atmospheric flows (at much larger Reynolds number) for scales of at least 30-3000?. We found that, in the numerical simulations, the multiplier distributions for both particle concentration and fluid dissipation are as expected at scales of tens of ?, but both become narrower and less intermittent at larger scales. This is consistent with observations of atmospheric flows showing scale independence to >3000? if scale-free behavior is established only after some number 10 of large-scale bifurcations (at scales perhaps 10x smaller than the largest scales in the flow), but become scale-free at smaller scales. Predictions of primitive body initial mass functions can now be redone using a slightly modified cascade.

  8. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Boron Removal from Metallurgical Grade Silicon by Addition of High Basic Potassium Carbonate to Calcium Silicate Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jijun; Wang, Fanmao; Ma, Wenhui; Lei, Yun; Yang, Bin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) using a calcium silicate slag containing a high basic potassium carbonate. The distribution of boron between slag and silicon was theoretically derived and the distribution coefficients (L B) of boron with different compositions of CaO, SiO2, and K2CO3 in slag reagents were determined. The maximal value of L B reached 2.08 with a high basicity slag of 40 pctCaO-40 pctSiO2-20 pctK2CO3 (Λ = 0.73). The boron removal rates from MG-Si using CaO-SiO2 and CaO-SiO2-K2CO3 slags at 1823 K (1550 °C) were investigated in an electromagnetic induction furnace. The results showed that the boron concentration in MG-Si can be reduced from 22 to 1.8 ppmw at 1823 K (1550 °C) with 20 pct K2CO3 addition to calcium silicate slag, where the removal efficiency of boron reached 91.8 pct. The mass transfer coefficient (β S) of boron in binary 50 pctCaO-50 pctSiO2 slag was 3.16 × 10-6 m s-1 at 1823 K (1550 °C) and was 2.43 × 10-5 m s-1 in ternary 40 pctCaO-40 pctSiO2-20 pctK2CO3 slag.

  9. Atomic diffusion across Ni50Ti50Cu explosive welding interface: Diffusion layer thickness and atomic concentration distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi-Yang; Wu, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Kai-Xin

    2014-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to study atomic diffusion in the explosive welding process of Ni50Ti50Cu (at.%). By using a hybrid method which combines molecular dynamics simulation and classical diffusion theory, the thickness of the diffusion layer and the atomic concentration distribution across the welding interface are obtained. The results indicate that the concentration distribution curves at different times have a geometric similarity. According to the geometric similarity, the atomic concentration distribution at any time in explosive welding can be calculated. Ni50Ti50Cu explosive welding and scanning electron microscope experiments are done to verify the results. The simulation results and the experimental results are in good agreement.

  10. Effects of boron supplementation on bone mineral density and dietary, blood, and urinary calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and boron in female athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, S L; Taper, L J; Volpe, S L

    1994-01-01

    The effects of boron supplementation on blood and urinary minerals were studied in female college students--17 athletes and 11 sedentary controls--over a one-year period. The athletes had lower percent body fat and higher aerobic capacities than sedentary controls. Athletic subjects consumed more boron in their normal diets than sedentary subjects; all other dietary measures were similar between the two groups. The athletes showed a slight increase in bone mineral density, whereas the sedentary group showed a slight decrease. Serum phosphorus concentrations were lower in boron-supplemented subjects than in subjects receiving placebos, and were lower at the end of the study period than during baseline analysis. Activity depressed changes in serum phosphorus in boron-supplemented subjects. Serum magnesium concentrations were greatest in the sedentary controls whose diets were supplemented with boron, and increased with time in all subjects. A group x supplement interaction was observed with serum magnesium; exercise in boron-supplemented subjects lowered serum magnesium. In all subjects, calcium excretion increased over time; in boron-supplemented subjects, boron excretion increased over time. In all subjects, boron supplementation affected serum phosphorus and magnesium, and the excretion of urinary boron. PMID:7889886

  11. TRANSMEMBRANE PARTITIONING ON BORON AND OTHER ELEMENTS IN RAW 264.7 AND HL60 CELL CULTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trace element boron is essential for all higher plants and is beneficial or established essential for several models of human nutrition. To help identify the biomolecules that require boron for function in humans, we determined whether intracellular boron is retained against a concentration grad...

  12. Investigation of the effects of soluble boron tracking on coupled CTF / NEM, LWR simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Biery, M.; Avramova, M.; Ivanov, K.

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of introducing a boron tracking capability to the COBRA-TF / NEM code coupling. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) versions of COBRA-TF - CTF, and Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) codes are utilized. Previous implementations of the CTF / NEM coupled code had no capability to model soluble boron feedback effects due to boron transport. This study builds upon the validation and qualification efforts of the boron tracking model implementation in CTF by modeling the boron feedback calculated by the CTF boron tracking model in NEM. The core model chosen for this study is the Purdue MOX/UO{sub 2} core model used in the 2007 OECD/NRC code benchmark study. Following the implementation of an explicit online coupling scheme and accompanying k-search routine, the newly coupled CTF / NEM code version with boron tracking is compared to prior results of the non-boron tracking CTF / NEM code version at steady-state hot full power and hot zero power conditions. It was found that the boron tracking model exhibited little influence on the hot zero power result as expected due to a smaller heat flux, which does not significantly change the moderator density and boron concentration as the moderator travels up the axial core length. Meanwhile the boron tracking model had a much greater impact on the hot full power results, predicting the critical inlet boron concentration to be 9.9 ppm below the non-boron tracking result due to greater and more rapid changes in boron concentration corresponding to the reduction in moderator density from being more rapidly heated. (authors)

  13. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  14. Roadside particle number distributions and relationships between number concentrations, meteorology, and traffic along a northern California freeway.

    PubMed

    Nanzetta, M Katherine; Holmn, Britt A

    2004-05-01

    Particle number distributions were measured simultaneously upwind and downwind of a suburban-agricultural freeway to determine relationships with traffic and meteorological parameters. Average traffic volumes were 6330 vehicles/hr with 10% heavy-duty vehicles, and volumes were higher in July than November. Most downwind particle number distributions were bimodal, with a primary mode at approximately 10-25 nm, indicating that newly formed particles were sampled. Total downwind 6-237 nm particle number concentrations (Ntot) ranged from 9.3 x 10(3) to 2.5 x 10(5) cm(-3), with higher daily average concentrations in November compared with July. Ntot correlated with wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. Upwind photochemically initiated nucleation likely led to elevated background nanoparticle concentrations in July, as evidenced by increasing upwind distribution modal diameter with increasing temperature and a strong correlation between upwind Ntot and solar radiation. Also in summer, Ntot showed stronger correlation with heavy-duty vehicle volumes than wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. These results indicate the importance of measuring background particle size distributions simultaneously with roadside distributions. There may be a minimum vehicle volume from which useful real-world vehicle particle number distributions can be measured at roadside, even when collecting samples within 10 m of the traveled lanes. PMID:15149042

  15. Two-dimensional depth-averaged model simulation of suspended sediment concentration distribution in a groyne field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jennifer G.; Nanda, S. K.

    2006-08-01

    SummaryRiver-training structures, such as spur dikes, are effective engineered methods used to protect banks and improve aquatic habitat. This paper reports the development and application of a two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic model to simulate suspended sediment concentration distribution in a groyne field. The governing equations of flow hydrodynamic model are depth-averaged two-dimensional Reynold's averaged momentum equations and continuity equation in which the density of sediment laden-flow varies with the concentration of suspended sediment. The depth-averaged two-dimensional convection and diffusion equation was solved to obtain the depth-averaged suspended sediment concentration. The source term is the difference between suspended sediment entrainment and deposition from bed surface. One laboratory experiment was chosen to verify the simulated flow field around a groyne, and the other to verify the suspended sediment concentration distribution in a meandering channel. Then, the model utility was demonstrated in a field case study focusing on the confluence of the Kankakee and Iroquois Rivers in Illinois, United States, to simulate the distribution of suspended sediment concentration around spur dikes. Results demonstrated that the depth-averaged, two-dimensional model can approximately simulate the flow hydrodynamic field and concentration of suspended sediment. Spur dikes can be used to effectively relocate suspended sediment in alluvial channels.

  16. Effects of wall boron coating on FTU plasma operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apicella, M. L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Apruzzese, G.; Bracco, G.; Esposito, B.; Gabellieri, L.; Kroegler, H.; Leigheb, M.; Maddaluno, G.; Marinucci, M.; Mattioli, M.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Pieroni, L.; Romanelli, M.; FTU Team

    2003-03-01

    To achieve good performance on FTU in a large density range (0.3-6.010 20 m -3), boronization with a mixture of He (90%) and B 2H 6 (10%) (diborane) as the feeding gas has been tested with thermal loads on the limiter surface up to 2.5 MW/m 2. With boronized limiter (TZM alloy with 98% of Mo) and walls (SS AISI 304), the total radiated power drastically drops from 70-90% down to 35-45% and the Zeff decreases from 6.0 to 2.2 at 0.3-0.410 20 m -3 related to a strong reduction of heavy-metal concentration and to the getter effect of boron on oxygen (<0.5%). During this phase the action of the boron film as particle reservoir and its quick saturation due to the low temperature of FTU walls makes it difficult to obtain reproducible plasmas. Another consequence of boronization is the large dilution of the plasma with the hydrogen particles released from the B film. All these effects decrease after about 60 discharges when boron is eroded by the limiter but it is still present on the chamber walls. During this phase which lasts for more than 500 discharges, oxygen concentration does not increase at all and metal influx is lower than before boronization because the physical sputtering by oxygen ions and atoms is strongly reduced.

  17. Annealing studies of highly doped boron superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Jackman, T. E.; Houghton, D. C.; Jackman, J. A.; Denhoff, M. W.; Kechang, S.; McCaffrey, J.; Rockett, A.

    1989-09-01

    Coevaporation of B/sub 2/ O/sub 3/ during silicon molecular-beam epitaxy at growth temperatures (/ital T//sub /ital G// ) varying from 540 to 800 /degree/C has been used to prepare superlattice structures (/ital pipi/'s) of varying boron concentration (3/times/10/sup 18/ --3/times/10/sup 20/ B cm/sup /minus/3/). The superlattices were subsequently subjected to various annealing procedures and the layers were examined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, electrochemical profiling, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. A significant redistribution of boron was observed even before annealing for /ital T//sub /ital G// /gt/700 /degree/C and high boron concentrations. In addition, significant oxygen was incorporated for /ital T//sub /ital G// /le/700 /degree/C, with a growth rate of 0.5 nm s/sup /minus/1/ and a B/sub 2/ O/sub 3/ flux of 2/times/10/sup 13/ cm/sup /minus/2/ s/sup /minus/1/. After annealing, the boron diffusion coefficients were determined for the layers and found to vary significantly with /ital T//sub /ital G//.

  18. Boron analysis for neutron capture therapy using particle-induced gamma-ray emission.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kei; Yamamoto, Yohei; Okamoto, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Fumiyo; Matsumura, Akira; Yamada, Naoto; Kitamura, Akane; Koka, Masashi; Satoh, Takahiro

    2015-12-01

    The neutron source of BNCT is currently changing from reactor to accelerator, but peripheral facilities such as a dose-planning system and blood boron analysis have still not been established. To evaluate the potential application of particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) for boron measurement in clinical boron neutron capture therapy, boronophenylalanine dissolved within a cell culture medium was measured using PIGE. PIGE detected 18?gB/mL f-BPA in the culture medium, and all measurements of any given sample were taken within 20min. Two hours of f-BPA exposure was required to create a boron distribution image. However, even though boron remained in the cells, the boron on the cell membrane could not be distinguished from the boron in the cytoplasm. PMID:26242558

  19. Lactational changes in concentration and distribution of ganglioside molecular species in human breast milk from Chinese mothers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Liu, Xihong; MacGibbon, Alastair K H; Rowan, Angela; McJarrow, Paul; Fong, Bertram Y

    2015-11-01

    Gangliosides play a critical role in human brain development and function. Human breast milk (HBM) is an important dietary source of gangliosides for the growing infant. In this study, ganglioside concentrations were measured in the breast milk from a cross-sectional sample of Chinese mothers over an 8-month lactation period. The average total ganglioside concentration increased from 13.1 mg/l during the first month to 20.9 mg/l by 8 months of lactation. The average concentration during the typically solely breast-feeding period of 1‒6 months was 18.9 mg/l. This is the first study to report the relative distribution of the individual ganglioside molecular species through lactation for any population group. The ganglioside molecular species are made up of different fatty acid moieties that influence the physical properties of these gangliosides, and hence affect their function. The GM(3) molecular species containing long-chain acyl fatty acids had the most prominent changes, increasing in both concentration and relative distribution. The equivalent long-chain acyl fatty acid GD(3) molecular species typically decreased in concentration and relative distribution. The lactational trends for both concentration and relative distribution for the very long-chain acyl fatty acid molecular species were more varied. The major GM(3) and GD(3) molecular species during lactation were d40:1 and d42:1, respectively. An understanding of ganglioside molecular species distribution in HBM is essential for accurate application of mass spectrometry methods for ganglioside quantification. PMID:26404454

  20. Distribution of Particle and Gas Concentrations in Swine Gestation Confined Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, T. Rene; Taylor, Craig; Altmaier, Ralph; Anderson, Kimberley; OShaughnessy, Patrick T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dust mass concentrations, temperatures, and carbon dioxide concentrations were mapped in a modern, 1048-pen swine gestation barn in winter, spring, and summer. Methods In each season, two technicians measured respirable mass concentrations with an aerosol photometer and temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations with an indoor air quality monitor at 60 positions in the barn. Stationary photometers were also deployed to measure mass concentrations during mapping at five fixed locations. Results In winter when building ventilation rates were low (centerbarn mean air velocity = 0.34 m s?1, 68 fpm) to conserve heat within the barn, mass and carbon dioxide concentrations were highest (mass geometric mean, GM = 0.50mg m?3; CO2 GM = 2060 ppm) and fairly uniform over space (mass geometric standard deviation, GSD = 1.48; CO2 GSD = 1.24). Concentrations were lowest in summer (mass GM = 0.13mg m?3; CO2 GM = 610 ppm) when ventilation rates were high (centerbarn mean air velocity = 0.99 m s?1, 196 fpm) to provide cooling. Spatial gradients were greatest in spring (mass GSD = 2.11; CO2 GSD = 1.50) with low concentrations observed near the building intake, increasing to higher concentrations at the building exhaust. Conclusions Mass concentrations obtained in mapping were generally consistent with those obtained from stationary monitors. A moderately strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.60) was observed between the log of photometer-measured mass concentration and the log of carbon dioxide concentration, suggesting that carbon dioxide may be an inexpensive alternative to assessing air quality in a swine barn. These results indicate that ventilation can effectively reduce contaminant levels in addition to controlling temperature. PMID:22904211

  1. Airborne DOAS measurements in Arctic: vertical distributions of aerosol extinction coefficient and NO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, A.; van Roozendael, M.; Theys, N.; Fayt, C.; Hermans, C.; Quennehen, B.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Ancellet, G.; Pommier, M.; Pelon, J.; Burkhart, J.; Stohl, A.; de Mazière, M.

    2011-09-01

    We report on airborne Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of aerosol extinction and NO2 tropospheric profiles performed off the North coast of Norway in April 2008. The DOAS instrument was installed on the Safire ATR-42 aircraft during the POLARCAT-France spring campaign and recorded scattered light spectra in near-limb geometry using a scanning telescope. We use O4 slant column measurements to derive the aerosol extinction at 360 nm. Regularization is based on the maximum a posteriori solution, for which we compare a linear and a logarithmic approach. The latter inherently constrains the solution to positive values and yields aerosol extinction profiles more consistent with independently measured size distributions. We present results from two soundings performed on 8 April 2008 above 71° N, 22° E and on 9 April 2008 above 70° N, 17.8° E. The first profile shows aerosol extinction and NO2 in the marine boundary layer with respective values of 0.04 ± 0.005 km-1 and 1.9 ± 0.3 × 109 molec cm-3. A second extinction layer of 0.01 ± 0.003 km-1 is found at 4 km altitude where the NO2 concentration is 0.32 ± 0.2 × 109 molec cm-3. During the second sounding, clouds prevent retrieval of profile parts under 3 km altitude but a layer with enhanced extinction (0.025 ± 0.005 km-1) and NO2 (1.95 ± 0.2 × 109 molec cm-3) is clearly detected at 4 km altitude. From CO and ozone in-situ measurements complemented by back-trajectories, we interpret the measurements in the free troposphere as, for the first sounding, a mix between stratospheric and polluted air from Northern Europe and for the second sounding, polluted air from Central Europe containing NO2. Considering the boundary layer measurements of the first flight, modeled source regions indicate closer sources, especially the Kola Peninsula smelters, which can explain the NO2 enhancement not correlated with a CO increase at the same altitude.

  2. Boron exposure assessment using drinking water and urine in the North of Chile.

    PubMed

    Cortes, S; Reynaga-Delgado, E; Sancha, A M; Ferreccio, C

    2011-12-01

    Boron is an essential trace element for plants and humans however it is still an open question what levels of boron are actually safe for humans. This study, conducted between 2006 and 2010, measured exposure levels of boron in drinking water and urine of volunteers in Arica, an area in the North of Chile with high levels of naturally occurring boron. Samples were taken of tap and bottled water (173 and 22, respectively), as well as urine from 22 volunteers, and subsequently analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron varied in public tap water from 0.22 to 11.3mgL(-1), with a median value of 2.9mgL(-1), while concentrations of boron in bottled water varied from 0.01 to 12.2mgL(-1). Neither tap nor bottled water samples had concentrations of boron within WHO recommended limits. The concentration of boron in urine varied between 0.45 and 17.4mgL(-1), with a median of 4.28mgL(-1) and was found to be correlated with tap water sampled from the homes of the volunteers (r=0.64). Authors highly recommend that in northern Chile - where levels of boron are naturally high - that the tap and bottled water supplies be monitored in order to protect public health and that regulatory standards also be established for boron in drinking water in order to limit exposure. PMID:21978616

  3. Characteristics of Au Migration and Concentration Distributions in Au-Doped HgCdTe LPE Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Quanzhi; Yang, Jianrong; Wei, Yanfeng; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Ruiyun

    2015-08-01

    Annealing techniques and secondary ion mass spectrometry have been used to study the characteristics of Au migration and concentration distributions in HgCdTe materials grown by liquid phase epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements showed that Au concentrations had obvious positive correlations with Hg-vacancy concentration and dislocation density of the materials. Au atoms migrate toward regions of high Hg-vacancy concentration or move away from these regions when the Hg-vacancy concentration decreases during annealing. The phenomenon can be explained by defect chemical equilibrium theory if Au atoms have a very large migration velocity compared with Hg vacancies. Au atoms will also migrate toward regions of high dislocation density, leading to a peak concentration in the inter-diffusion region of HgCdTe materials near the substrate. By use of an Hg and Te-rich annealing technique, different concentration distributions of both Au atoms and Hg vacancies in HgCdTe materials were obtained, indicating that Au-doped HgCdTe materials can be designed and prepared to satisfy the requirements of HgCdTe devices.

  4. Method for separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  5. Mineral of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  6. A measurement plan of gas concentration and temperature distribution reconstruction based on the tunable diode laser absorption tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao-ran; Jin, Xing; Wang, Guang-yu; Song, Jun-ling

    2014-11-01

    Based on the tunable diode laser absorption tomography, gas concentration and temperature two-dimensional distribution reconstruction is realized using algebraic iterative reconstruction technique (ART). A measurement plan is proposed based on the beam splitting lens, and the corresponding beam arrangement is put forward. The beam splitting lenses are used in the plan to making one laser beam cross the measurement area repeatedly. Thus can raise the utilization ratio of laser beam and simplify the structure of measurement platform. A model for H2O vapor concentration and temperature distribution is assumed, and numerical simulation is utilized using two absorption transitions. The feasibility of the measurement plan is proved by the simulation experiment. The influences of initial beam angle, the number of beams and grids on the reconstructed results are analyzed numerically. A concept of phantom description method using in simulation experiments is proposed in order to getting closer to the real experiments. The phantom description method is used in the numerical simulation to evaluating concentration and temperature field reconstruction. Through this method, expected data is sampled from initial data, and reconstructed result is obtained by interpolation. The influence of random errors in projections on distribution reconstruction is also analyzed. The measurement plan can reconstruct the gas concentration and temperature distribution with a simplified measurement platform using beam splitting lenses. The feasibility of the phantom description method is also proved by the simulation experiment.

  7. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  8. Ames positive boronic acids are not all eukaryotic genotoxins.

    PubMed

    Scott, Heather; Walmsley, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Boronic acids and their derivatives have been exploited for their pharmacological activity and their utility as intermediates in the synthesis of novel non-boron containing compounds. A recent study reported that boronic acids are bacterial mutagens. Here, results are reported from the testing of nine boronic acids using the pan-mechanistic eukaryotic GADD45a genotoxicity assays, BlueScreen HC and GreenScreen HC. Positive results were produced for one compound in GreenScreen and four compounds in BlueScreen. Only negative results were produced when tested with S9 metabolic activation. These data suggest that there is not a general genotoxic liability in eukaryotes, within this chemical domain. Furthermore, they are not potent eukaryotic genotoxins: positive results were produced only at concentrations between 1mM and 10mM. Their presence as low concentration contaminants or impurities would be unlikely to produce misleading positive results for a test material. PMID:25726177

  9. Uranium in runoff from the Gulf of Mexico distributive province: anomalous concentrations.

    PubMed

    Spalding, R F; Sackett, W M

    1972-02-11

    Uranium concentrations in North American rivers are higher than those reported 20 years ago. The increase is attributed to applications to agricultural land of larger amounts of phosphate fertilizer containing appreciable concentrations of uranium. Experiments showing a constant phosphorous-uranium ratio for various types of fertilizers and for the easily solubilized fraction of 0-46-0 fertilizers support this view. PMID:5009762

  10. A Drude model analysis of conductivity and free carriers in boron-doped diamond films and investigations of their internal stress and strain

    PubMed Central

    Manciu, Marian; Durrer, William G.; Salazar, Jessica G.; Lee, Kendall H.; Bennet, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) has seen a substantial increase in interest for use as electrode coating material for electrochemistry and studies of deep brain stimulation mechanism. In this study, we present an alternative method for determining important characteristics, including conductivity, carrier concentration, and time constant, of such material by the signature of Drude-like metallic behavior in the far-infrared (IR) spectral range. Unlike the direct determination of conductivity from the four-point probe method, using far-IR transmittance provides additional information, such as whether the incorporation of boron results in a large concentration of carriers or in inducing defects in the diamond lattice. The slightly doped to medium-doped BDD samples that were produced using chemical vapor deposition and analyzed in this work show conductivities ranging between 5.5 and 11 (? cm)?1. Different growth conditions demonstrate that increasing boron concentration results in an increase in the carrier concentration, with values between 7.2 1016 and 2.5 1017 carriers/cm3. Addition of boron, besides leading to a decrease in the resistivity, also resulted in a decrease in the time constant, limiting BDD conductivity. Investigations, by confocal Raman mapping, of the induced stress in the material due to interaction with the substrate or to the amount of doping are also presented and discussed. The induced tensile stress, which was distributed closer to the film-substrate interface decreased slightly with doping. PMID:25328245

  11. Using vapor phase tomography to measure the spatial distribution of vapor concentrations and flux for vadose-zone VOC sources.

    PubMed

    Mainhagu, J; Morrison, C; Brusseau, M L

    2015-01-01

    A test was conducted at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated site in Tucson, AZ, to evaluate the effectiveness of vapor-phase tomography (VPT) for characterizing the distribution of volatile organic contaminants (VOC) in the vadose zone. A soil vapor extraction (SVE) system has been in operation at the site since 2007. Vapor concentration and vacuum pressure were measured at four different depths in each of the four monitoring wells surrounding the extraction well. The test provided a 3D characterization of local vapor concentrations under induced-gradient conditions. Permeability data obtained from analysis of borehole logs were used along with pressure and the vapor-concentration data to determine VOC mass flux within the test domain. A region of higher mass flux was identified in the deepest interval of the S-SW section of the domain, indicating the possible location of a zone with greater contaminant mass. These results are consistent with the TCE-concentration distribution obtained from sediment coring conducted at the site. In contrast, the results of a standard soil gas survey did not indicate the presence of a zone with greater contaminant mass. These results indicate that the VPT test provided a robust characterization of VOC concentration and flux distribution at the site. PMID:25835545

  12. Using vapor phase tomography to measure the spatial distribution of vapor concentrations and flux for vadose-zone VOC sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainhagu, J.; Morrison, C.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2015-06-01

    A test was conducted at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated site in Tucson, AZ, to evaluate the effectiveness of vapor-phase tomography (VPT) for characterizing the distribution of volatile organic contaminants (VOC) in the vadose zone. A soil vapor extraction (SVE) system has been in operation at the site since 2007. Vapor concentration and vacuum pressure were measured at four different depths in each of the four monitoring wells surrounding the extraction well. The test provided a 3D characterization of local vapor concentrations under induced-gradient conditions. Permeability data obtained from analysis of borehole logs were used along with pressure and the vapor-concentration data to determine VOC mass flux within the test domain. A region of higher mass flux was identified in the deepest interval of the S-SW section of the domain, indicating the possible location of a zone with greater contaminant mass. These results are consistent with the TCE-concentration distribution obtained from sediment coring conducted at the site. In contrast, the results of a standard soil gas survey did not indicate the presence of a zone with greater contaminant mass. These results indicate that the VPT test provided a robust characterization of VOC concentration and flux distribution at the site.

  13. Inhibition of sickling after reduction of intracellular hemoglobin concentration with an osmotic pulse: characterization of the density and hemoglobin concentration distributions.

    PubMed

    Franco, R S; Barker-Gear, R; Green, R

    1993-01-01

    Hemoglobin S polymerization is markedly dependent on intracellular hemoglobin concentration. In the studies presented here, sickle RBC were subjected to a transient osmotic stress, which induced a short period of increased membrane permeability and allowed partial efflux of Hb S. Morphological sickling of the resulting hypochromic RBC was inhibited. The response of RBC to this osmotic pulse is influenced by the presence of a polyanion, which in these experiments was either inositol hexaphosphate (IHP, 27 mM or 46 mM) or pyrophosphate (69 mM or 95 mM). The decrease in MCHC, measured manually, ranged from 3.1 +/- 1.7 (1 SD) to 6.3 +/- 2.8 g/dl, depending on the conditions used during modification. Parallel electronic analysis of RBC indices demonstrated a comparable decrease in MCHC which was due to both an increased MCV and a decreased MCH. Since the modified cell population is quite heterogeneous, cells were analyzed using discontinuous stractan gradients and/or a laser-based instrument which measures the hemoglobin concentration (HC) of individual cells. For most treatment conditions, the modified cells have a bimodal HC distribution with one peak centered at about 20 g/dL and the other peak corresponding to the unmodified cells. With the higher concentration of IHP, however, many cells had an intermediate HC. For modified RBC with a bimodal HC distribution (27 mM IHP, 69 mM PP, 95 mM PP), inhibition of morphological sickling was proportional to the change in HC and there were no subpopulations with an increased tendency to undergo sickling. However, the intermediate density cells present when RBCs were treated with the higher concentration of IHP underwent sickling at a higher oxygen partial pressure than control cells. PMID:8312575

  14. BORON TRANSPORT WITHIN AN AGRICULTURAL FIELD: UNIFORM FLOW VERSUS MOBILE-IMMOBILE MODEL SIMULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport of boron in soil is important to agriculture because boron concentrations in soil water are beneficial to plants only over a limited range (0.37 to 1.39 mmol L-1 for tolerant crops). Irrigation water in the San Joaquin Valley, California commonly has elevated B concentrations and soil ...

  15. Boron Ion Implantation into Silicon by Use of the Boron Vacuum-Arc Plasma Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.; Moschella, J. J.; Keitz, M. D.

    2006-11-13

    This paper continues with presentation of experimental work pertaining to use of the boron vacuum arc (a.k.a. cathodic arc) plasma generator for boron doping in semiconductor silicon, particularly with a view to the problems associated with shallow junction doping. Progress includes development of an excellent and novel macroparticle filter and subsequent ion implantations. An important perceived issue for vacuum arc generators is the production of copious macroparticles from cathode material. This issue is more important for cathodes of materials such as carbon or boron, for which the particles are not molten or plastic, but instead are elastic, and tend to recoil from baffles used in particle filters. The present design starts with two vanes of special orientation, so as to back reflect the particles, while steering the plasma between the vanes by use of high countercurrents in the vanes. Secondly, behind and surrounding the vanes is a complex system of baffles that has been designed by a computer-based strategy to ultimately trap the particles for multiple bounces. The statistical transmittance of particles is less than 5 per coulomb of boron ions transmitted at a position just a few centimeters outside the filter. This value appears adequate for the silicon wafer application, but improvement is easily visualized as wafers will be situated much further away when they are treated in systems. A total of 11 silicon samples, comprising an area of 250 cm2, have been implanted. Particles were not detected. Sample biases ranged from 60 to 500 V. Boron doses ranged from 5 x 1014 to 5 x 1015/cm2. Exposure times ranged from 20 to 200 ms for average transmitted boron current values of about 125 mA. SIMS concentration profiles from crystalline material are presented. The results appear broadly favorable in relation to competitive techniques and will be discussed. It is concluded that doubly charged boron ions are not present in the plume.

  16. Pore-size distributions of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels varying in initial monomer concentration and cross-linker/monomer ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, M.; Pothmann, E.; Roessler, T.; Baker, J.; Yee, A.; Blanch, H.; Prausnitz, J.M. )

    1994-05-23

    Pore-size distributions have been measured for cationic acrylamide-based hydrogels. The authors use the experimental mixed-solute-exclusion method, MSE (introduced by Kuga), to obtain the solute-exclusion curve representing the amount of imbibed liquid inside the gel inaccessible for a solute of radius r. The authors use the Brownian motion model (developed by Cassasa) to convert the size-exclusion curve into the pore-size distribution, which gives the frequency of pore radius R as a function of R. This theoretically-based interpretation of MSE data leads to the Fredholm integral equation that they solve numerically. Results are reported for a series of hydrogels containing acrylamide and 3% MAPTAC; the hydrogels differed in extent of cross-linking and/or initial concentration of monomer. Pore-size distributions shift to lower pore sizes with rising initial monomer concentration and with rising cross-linker-to-monomer ratio.

  17. Mercury concentrations in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Adam M; Titcomb, Elizabeth Murdoch; Fair, Patricia A; Stavros, Hui-Chen W; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2015-08-15

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) have tissue mercury concentrations among the highest reported worldwide. Analysis of total mercury (THg) concentrations in blood collected between 2003 and 2012 showed a significant linear decrease over time (p=0.04). Significant differences in the spatial distribution of THg in resident IRL dolphins were also observed with a general gradient in concentration from north to south. Evaluation of local biogeochemistry and accumulation of mercury in prey species is needed to better understand factors influencing the distribution of Hg in the apex predator. Analyses of temporal and spatial patterns of exposure to THg in this sentinel species may have implications for both ecosystem and public health in the region. PMID:26119626

  18. Study on Seasonal Variation of Metal Ion (Beryllium) Concentration in Water, Sediment and its Distribution in a Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, P. N.; Soundararajan, S.; Sharma, D. N.

    2015-06-01

    This study was aimed at determination of the beryllium concentration and its temporal variation in stream water and sediment (mud). The metal ion distribution in the stream of length 3.2 km, near the beryllium facility was evaluated. Beryllium in stream water and sediment was estimated by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GFAAS). The beryllium concentration in water and sediment, varied in the range of 0.01-0.2 ng/ml and 600-30,000 ng/g respectively. The distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated for each locations was observed to be in the range of 500-212,500. The variation of the beryllium concentration at sampling locations of stream, selected for the study, with respect to distance may be due to sorption capacity of the matrix and other reactions of the metal ion involved in water and sediments.

  19. EFFECT OF HIGH BORON APPLICATION ON BORON CONTENT AND GROWTH OF MELONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management options for reducing drainage water volumes on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley of California such as reuse of saline drainage water and water table control have the potential to adversely impact crop yields due to a build up in boron concentration. An earlier experiment had shown...

  20. In Vivo Boron Uptake Determination for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Binello, Emanuela; Shortkroff, Sonya; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    1999-06-06

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) has been proposed as a new application of the boron neutron capture reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In BNCS, a boron compound is injected into the joint space, where it is taken up by the synovium. The joint is then irradiated with neutrons of a desired energy range, inducing the boron neutron capture reaction in boron-loaded cells. Boron uptake by the synovium is an important parameter in the assessment of the potential of BNCS and in the determination of whether to proceed to animal irradiations for the testing of therapeutic efficacy. We present results from an investigation of boron uptake in vivo by the synovium.

  1. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  2. In situ deposition of boron layer by electron cyclotron resonance discharges for wall conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Sugai, H.; Kokura, T.; Sasaki, K.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma-assisted coating of boron thin films on inner surfaces of nuclear fusion devices, referred to as boronization, has been applied to many machines since its development in a laboratory device and the first performance in TEXTOR. Tile boronization is the most promising method of wall conditioning for particle controls in fusion experiments, in view of strong oxygen gettering (impurity control) and low hydrogen recycling (fuel control). To date, decomposition of boron hydride such as diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) and decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}) has been accomplished by dc glow discharges without magnetic fields which can boronize a large vessel as uniformly as possible. In a next generation fusion device such as ITER, however, a hot core plasma should be sustained quasi-steadily in a strong magnetic field provided by super-conducting magnets. Thus, a new boronization technique will be needed which enables in situ boron deposition using a fusion plasma itself without interrupting magnetic fields. In this paper, we report a fundamental experiment on boronization using a magnetized plasma, i.e., an electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) microwave discharge. The spatial distributions of boron films suggest that boron containing ions (B{sub m}H{sub n}{sup +}) are easily transported far away along the magnetic field lines, thus making boron deposition in a wide area of fusion machine.

  3. Hydrodynamic analysis of fully developed turbidity currents over plane beds based on self-preserving velocity and concentration distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantero-Chinchilla, Francisco Nicols.; Dey, Subhasish; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Ali, Sk Zeeshan

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a hydrodynamic analysis for the fully developed turbidity currents over a plane bed stemming from the classical three-equation model (depth-averaged fluid continuity, sediment continuity, and fluid momentum equations). The streamwise velocity and the concentration distributions preserve self-similarity characteristics and are expressed as single functions of vertical distance over the turbidity current layer. Using the experimental data of turbidity and salinity currents, the undetermined coefficients and exponents are approximated. The proposed relationships for velocity and concentration distributions exhibit self-preserving characteristics for turbidity currents. The depth-averaged velocity, momentum, and energy coefficients are thus obtained using the proposed expression for velocity law. Also, from the expressions for velocity and concentration, the turbulent diffusivity and the Reynolds shear stress distributions are deduced with the aid of the diffusion equation of sediment concentration and the Boussinesq hypothesis. The generalized equation of unsteady nonuniform turbidity current is developed by using the velocity and concentration distributions in the moments of the integral scales over the turbidity current layer. Then, the equation is applied to analyze the gradually varied turbidity currents considering closure relationships for boundary interaction and shear velocity. The streamwise variations of current depth, velocity, concentration, reduced sediment flux, and Richardson number are presented. Further, the self-accelerating and depositional characteristics of turbidity currents including the transitional feature from erosional to depositional modes are addressed. The effects of the streamwise bed slope are also accounted for in the mathematical derivations. The results obtained from the present model are compared with those from the classical model.

  4. Development of Compact 1.6 ?m DIAL System for Measurement of Lower-Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, C.; Shibata, Y.; Abo, M.

    2014-12-01

    For the detailed analysis of forest carbon dynamics and CO2 fluxes of urban area, the CO2 concentration measurement techniques with high spatial and temporal resolution are required in the lower atmosphere. We had developed the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system to achieve high accurate measurements of vertical CO2 profiles and the vertical distribution of CO2 concentration from 2 km to 7 km altitude has been observed1. In order to measure the CO2 concentration distribution in the lower altitude, the dynamic range of the photon counter and the output power of transmitter of the CO2 DIAL have improved. We develope the compact 1.6 ?m CO2 DIAL with the high-speed photon counter (10 GHz) and the small power transmitter to perform high-precision measurements of CO2 concentration profiles in the lower atmosphere. This compact mobile DIAL system has a 2 mJ OPG transmitter and a 25 cm coaxial telescope for measurements of limitted range. As the transmitter beam of this DIAL system is able to scan from -4 degree to 52 degree with elevation angle, the vertical distribution of lower CO2 concentration as well as the horizontal distribution from short range can be measured with high precision. The compact DIAL was conducted test observations and achieved successfully measurements of CO2 concentration profiles for the range from 0.25 to 3 km with integration time of 30 minutes and range resolution of 300 m. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency. REFERENCES Y. Shibata, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Proc. SPIE 8894, 889406 (2013); doi: 10.1117/12.2029359

  5. Use of boron waste as an additive in red bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, T.; Arol, A.I

    2004-07-01

    In boron mining and processing operations, large amounts of clay containing tailings have to be discarded. Being rich in boron, the tailings do not only cause economical loss but also pose serious environmental problems. Large areas have to be allocated for waste disposal. In order to alleviate this problem, the possibility of using clayey tailings from a borax concentrator in red brick manufacturing was investigated. Up to 30% by weight tailings addition was found to improve the brick quality.

  6. Use of boron waste as an additive in red bricks.

    PubMed

    Uslu, T; Arol, A I

    2004-01-01

    In boron mining and processing operations, large amounts of clay containing tailings have to be discarded. Being rich in boron, the tailings do not only cause economical loss but also pose serious environmental problems. Large areas have to be allocated for waste disposal. In order to alleviate this problem, the possibility of using clayey tailings from a borax concentrator in red brick manufacturing was investigated. Up to 30% by weight tailings addition was found to improve the brick quality. PMID:14761761

  7. Profiling the PM2.5 mass concentration vertical distribution in the boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Z.; Wang, Z.; Yang, S.; Shan, H.; Ma, X.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, S.; Liu, D.; Xie, C.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Fine particle (PM2.5) affects human life and activities directly; the detection of PM2.5 mass concentration profile is very essential due to its practical and scientific meanings (such as, quantifying of air quality and its variability, and improving air quality forecast and assessment). But so far, it is difficult to detect PM2.5 mass concentration profile. The proposed methodology to study the relationship between aerosol extinction coefficient and PM2.5 mass concentration is described, which indicates that the PM2.5 mass concentration profile could be retrieved by combining a charge-coupled device (CCD) side-scatter lidar and a PM2.5 sampling detector. When the relative humidity is less than 70 %, PM2.5 mass concentration is proportional to aerosol extinction coefficient, and then the specific coefficient can be calculated. Using this specific coefficient, aerosol extinction profile is converted to PM2.5 mass concentration profile. Three cases of clean night (on 21 September 2014), pollutant night (on 17 March 2014), and heavy pollutant night (on 13 February 2015) are studied. The characteristic of PM2.5 mass concentration profile in near-ground during these three nights' cases in the western suburb of Hefei city was discussed. The PM2.5 air pollutant concentration is comparatively large in close surface varying with time and altitude. The experiment results show that the CCD side-scatter lidar combined with a PM2.5 detector is an effective and new method to explore pollutant mass concentration profile in near-ground.

  8. The major facilitator superfamily transporter Knq1p modulates boron homeostasis in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Svrbicka, Alexandra; Toth Hervay, Nora; Gbelska, Yvetta

    2016-03-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for living cells, yet its excess causes toxicity. To date, the mechanisms of boron toxicity are poorly understood. Recently, the ScATR1 gene has been identified encoding the main boron efflux pump in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we analyzed the ScATR1 ortholog in Kluyveromyces lactis-the KNQ1 gene, to understand whether it participates in boron stress tolerance. We found that the KNQ1 gene, encoding a permease belonging to the major facilitator superfamily, is required for K. lactis boron tolerance. Deletion of the KNQ1 gene led to boron sensitivity and its overexpression increased K. lactis boron tolerance. The KNQ1 expression was induced by boron and the intracellular boron concentration was controlled by Knq1p. The KNQ1 promoter contains two putative binding motifs for the AP-1-like transcription factor KlYap1p playing a central role in oxidative stress defense. Our results indicate that the induction of the KNQ1 expression requires the presence of KlYap1p and that Knq1p like its ortholog ScAtr1p in S. cerevisiae functions as a boron efflux pump providing boron resistance in K. lactis. PMID:26142045

  9. Numerical simulation on the effects of drug eluting stents at different Reynolds numbers on hemodynamic and drug concentration distribution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The changes of hemodynamics and drug concentration distribution caused by the implantation of drug eluting stents (DESs) in curved vessels have significant effects on In-Stent Restenosis. Methods A 3D virtual stent with 90curvature was modelled and the distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) and drug concentration in this model were numerically studied at Reynolds numbers of 200, 400, 600, 800. Results The results showed that (1) the intensity of secondary flow at the 45 cross-section was stronger than that at the 90 cross-section; (2) As the Reynolds number increases, the WSS decreases. When the Reynolds number reaches 600, the low-WSS region only accounts for 3% of the total area. (3) The effects of Reynolds number on drug concentration in the vascular wall decreases in proportionally and then the blood velocity increased 4 times, the drug concentration in the vascular wall decreased by about 30%. (4) The size of the high drug concentration region is inversely proportional to the Reynolds number. As the blood velocity increases, the drug concentration in the DES decreases, especially at the outer bend. Conclusions It is beneficial for the patient to decrease vigorous activities and keep calm at the beginning of the stent implantation, because a substantial amount of the drug is released in the first two months of stent implantation, thus a calm status is conducive to drug release and absorption; Subsequently, appropriate exercise which increases the blood velocity is helpful in decreasing regions of low-WSS. PMID:25602685

  10. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Bystroff, Roman I. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Dale E. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  11. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  12. Concentration Regimes of Biopolymers Xanthan, Tara, and Clairana, Comparing Dynamic Light Scattering and Distribution of Relaxation Time

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Patrcia D.; Michel, Ricardo C.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Moreira, Angelita S.; Lomba, Rosana F. T.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the utilization of analysis of the distribution of relaxation time (DRT) using a dynamic light back-scattering technique as alternative method for the determination of the concentration regimes in aqueous solutions of biopolymers (xanthan, clairana and tara gums) by an analysis of the overlap (c*) and aggregation (c**) concentrations. The diffusion coefficients were obtained over a range of concentrations for each biopolymer using two methods. The first method analysed the behaviour of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the concentration of the gum solution. This method is based on the analysis of the diffusion coefficient versus the concentration curve. Using the slope of the curves, it was possible to determine the c* and c** for xanthan and tara gum. However, it was not possible to determine the concentration regimes for clairana using this method. The second method was based on an analysis of the DRTs, which showed different numbers of relaxation modes. It was observed that the concentrations at which the number of modes changed corresponded to the c* and c**. Thus, the DRT technique provided an alternative method for the determination of the critical concentrations of biopolymers. PMID:23671627

  13. A study of Monitoring and Mapping for Radon-Concentration Distribution in Gyeongju - 12201

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Jung Min; Jang, So Young; Kim, Shin Jae; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Radon is one of the most important contributors to the radiation exposure in humans. This study measured the indoor radon concentrations at the 17 elementary school auditoriums that were sampled from those in the city of Gyeongju, Korea. The reason that an elementary school was selected as a measurement object is that many students and teachers stay for a long time in a day and it's easy to identify the characteristics of the auditorium building such as the essential building. The measurement shows that most of the indoor radon concentrations at the 17 elementary school auditoriums did not exceed 148 Bq/m{sup 3} that is the action level recommended by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This study measured the indoor radon concentrations at the elementary school auditoriums in Gyeongju. The measurements were analyzed according to the bedrock type and the time intervals per day. In this study, it was found that the indoor radon concentrations over off-duty hours were generally higher that those over on-duty hours, and the indoor radon concentration in the area whose bedrock is volcanic rock was higher than those in the area of the other types of bedrock. As mentioned above, attention has to be paid to an elementary school since many young students and teachers stay for more 6 hours a day at it. Hence, it is necessary to continuously monitor and properly manage the indoor radon concentrations in the elementary schools. (authors)

  14. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, Danny C.; Pyzik, Aleksander J.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    1986-01-01

    Hard, tough, lightweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidation step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modulus of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 ksi.sqroot.in. These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  15. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Nigg; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung.

  16. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-17

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  17. [Concentration distribution of metal elements in atmospheric aerosol under different weather conditions in Qingdao Coastal Region].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jian-Hua; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Shen, Heng-Qing; Liu, Ming-Xu

    2014-10-01

    To know the influence of different weather conditions on the concentration of metal elements in aerosols in the coastal region, total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected from April to May 2012, and August 2012 to March 2013 in the Qingdao coastal region, and common trace metals were analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results showed that Al, Ca, Fe, Na, K and Mg were the dominant metal elements in TSP, and the sum of the six elements accounted for 94.2% of the sum of all metals. TSP and metal elements had significant monthly variations, Fe, Al, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ba, Mn, Ti, Sr and Li had the highest concentration in November and January, while Be, Sc, Co, Ni and Cr showed the highest value in January. Na had the highest concentration in August, November and February, and the lowest in December. Pb had the highest concentration in January and February, and the lowest in August and December. Enrichment factors indicated that Be, Co, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sr and Ti were mainly affected by natural sources; Li, Cr, Ni, Zn, Ba and Na were affected by natural sources and part of anthropogenic sources; Pb was mainly from anthropogenic sources. Different weather conditions had great impact on TSP and metal elements concentrations, all the measured metals had the highest concentrations in smog except Ti. Compared with the sunny day, the concentration of atmospheric particulate Ti decreased, while the other elements increased by 1 to 4 times in smog. Li, Be, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Mg and Mn had little variation in concentration in foggy day, and the concentration of Pb and Na increased considerably. The concentration of Co, Ca and Ti reduced obviously in fog. Except for Cr, Co and Ti, the other elements increased by 1 to 3 times in haze. Most of the elements had the minimal enrichment factors in sunny day, while the other had the maximal enrichment factor in foggy day. Enrichment factors of Ni, Zn, Ba, K, Na, Pb and Sr varied in the order of sunny day < haze day < smog day

  18. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1995-02-28

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil. 7 figs.

  19. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil.

  20. [Concentrations, distribution characteristics and electron beam radiolysis degradation of PCDD/Fs in waste water from a paper mill].

    PubMed

    Qing, Xian; Huang, Jin-Qiong; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Su-Kun; Yang, Yan-Yan; Ren, Ming-Zhong; Wen, Yu-Long

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations and distribution characteristics of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in waste water from a paper mill. And concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in waste water before and after electron beam irradiation with different doses were compared. The feasibility, mechanism and rates of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs degradation were discussed. The PCDD/Fs concentrations and corresponding I-TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity) values were 239 pg x L(-1) and 41.0 pg x L(-1), respectively, in the waste water. The concentrations of total 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs decreased after electron beam radiolysis at a dose of 30 kGy and 60 kGy with degradation rates of 5.27% and 23.6%, respectively. PMID:25244850

  1. Use of dissolved H2 concentrations to determine distribution of microbially catalyzed redox reactions in anoxic groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.; Woodward, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for using concentrations of dissolved H2 to determine the distribution of redox processes in anoxic groundwaters was evaluated. In pristine aquifers in which standard geochemical measurements indicated that Fe-(III) reduction, sulfate reduction, or methanogenesis was the terminal electron accepting process (TEAP), the H2 concentrations were similar to the H2 concentrations that have previously been reported for aquatic sediments with the same TEAPs. In two aquifers contaminated with petroleum products, it was impossible with standard geochemical analyses to determine which TEAPs predominated in specific locations. However, the TEAPs predicted from measurements of dissolved H2 were the same as those determined directly through measurements of microbial processes in incubated aquifer material. These results suggest that H2 concentrations may be a useful tool for analyzing the redox chemistry of nonequilibrium groundwaters.

  2. Proposed physiologic functions of boron in plants pertinent to animal and human metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, D G; Lukaszewski, K M

    1994-01-01

    Boron has been recognized since 1923 as an essential micronutrient element for higher plants. Over the years, many roles for boron in plants have been proposed, including functions in sugar transport, cell wall synthesis and lignification, cell wall structure, carbohydrate metabolism, RNA metabolism, respiration, indole acetic acid metabolism, phenol metabolism and membrane transport. However, the mechanism of boron involvement in each case remains unclear. Recent work has focused on two major plant-cell components: cell walls and membranes. In both, boron could play a structural role by bridging hydroxyl groups. In membranes, it could also be involved in ion transport and redox reactions by stimulating enzymes like nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and reduced (NADH) oxidase. There is a very narrow window between the levels of boron required by and toxic to plants. The mechanisms of boron toxicity are also unknown. In nitrogen-fixing leguminous plants, foliarly applied boron causes up to a 1000% increase in the concentration of allantoic acid in leaves. In vitro studies show that boron inhibits the manganese-dependent allantoate amidohydrolase, and foliar application of manganese prior to application of boron eliminates allantoic acid accumulation in leaves. Interaction between borate and divalent cations like manganese may alter metabolic pathways, which could explain why higher concentrations of boron can be toxic to plants. PMID:7889877

  3. Axial residual stresses in boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The axial residual stress distribution as a function of radius was determined from the fiber surface to the core including the average residual stress in the core. Such measurements on boron on tungsten (B/W) fibers show that the residual stresses for 102, 142, 203, and 366 micron diameter fibers were similar, being compressive at the surface and changing monotonically to a region of tensile within the boron. At approximately 25 percent of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile stress of about 860 mn/sq.m and then decreases to a compressive stress near the tungsten boride core. Data were presented for 203 micron diameter B/W fibers that show annealing above 900 C reduces the residual stresses. A comparison between 102 micron diameter B/W and boron on carbon (b/C) shows that the residual stresses were similar in the outer regions of the fibers, but that large differences near and in the core were observed. The effects of these residual stresses on the fracture of boron fibers were discussed.

  4. Facile synthesis of concentrated gold nanoparticles with low size-distribution in water: temperature and pH controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunfang; Li, Dongxiang; Wan, Gangqiang; Xu, Jie; Hou, Wanguo

    2011-07-01

    The citrate reduction method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has known advantages but usually provides the products with low nanoparticle concentration and limits its application. Herein, we report a facile method to synthesize GNPs from concentrated chloroauric acid (2.5 mM) via adding sodium hydroxide and controlling the temperature. It was found that adding a proper amount of sodium hydroxide can produce uniform concentrated GNPs with low size distribution; otherwise, the largely distributed nanoparticles or instable colloids were obtained. The low reaction temperature is helpful to control the nanoparticle formation rate, and uniform GNPs can be obtained in presence of optimized NaOH concentrations. The pH values of the obtained uniform GNPs were found to be very near to neutral, and the pH influence on the particle size distribution may reveal the different formation mechanism of GNPs at high or low pH condition. Moreover, this modified synthesis method can save more than 90% energy in the heating step. Such environmental-friendly synthesis method for gold nanoparticles may have a great potential in large-scale manufacturing for commercial and industrial demand.

  5. Facile synthesis of concentrated gold nanoparticles with low size-distribution in water: temperature and pH controls

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The citrate reduction method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has known advantages but usually provides the products with low nanoparticle concentration and limits its application. Herein, we report a facile method to synthesize GNPs from concentrated chloroauric acid (2.5 mM) via adding sodium hydroxide and controlling the temperature. It was found that adding a proper amount of sodium hydroxide can produce uniform concentrated GNPs with low size distribution; otherwise, the largely distributed nanoparticles or instable colloids were obtained. The low reaction temperature is helpful to control the nanoparticle formation rate, and uniform GNPs can be obtained in presence of optimized NaOH concentrations. The pH values of the obtained uniform GNPs were found to be very near to neutral, and the pH influence on the particle size distribution may reveal the different formation mechanism of GNPs at high or low pH condition. Moreover, this modified synthesis method can save more than 90% energy in the heating step. Such environmental-friendly synthesis method for gold nanoparticles may have a great potential in large-scale manufacturing for commercial and industrial demand. PMID:21733153

  6. Estimation of surface anthropogenic radioactivity concentrations from NaI(Tl) pulse-height distribution observed at monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Hirouchi, J; Yamazawa, H; Hirao, S; Moriizumi, J

    2015-04-01

    A method of estimating surface radioactivity concentrations of key anthropogenic radionuclides from NaI(Tl) pulse-height distribution observed at a monitoring station (MS) was discussed. In the estimation, a realistic assumption on geometric distribution of source and obstacles around the detector of the MS including the infiltration of radionuclides into the ground was used and the results were compared with ones with a commonly used assumption of a uniformly distributed plane source. The surface radioactivity concentration was determined by comparing the count rates at the full-energy peak ranges between observation and calculation with an electron-photon transport code EGS5. It was shown that the estimated absolute values of concentration differed by a factor of ?1.5 depending on the assumption of infiltration depth. The estimated surface concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were in good agreement with ones determined by the in situ measurements with an HPGe detector and the cumulative values of daily surface depositions. PMID:25313172

  7. Distribution of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons projecting to the medial mammillary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Casatti, C A; Elias, C F; Sita, L V; Frigo, L; Furlani, V C G; Bauer, J A; Bittencourt, J C

    2002-01-01

    The melanin-concentrating hormone and neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine are expressed in neurons located mainly in the hypothalamus that project widely throughout the CNS. One of the melanin-concentrating hormone main targets is the medial mammillary nucleus, but the exact origin of these fibers is unknown. We observed melanin-concentrating hormone and neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine immunoreactive fibers coursing throughout the mammillary complex, showing higher density in the pars lateralis of the medial mammillary nucleus, while the lateral mammillary nucleus showed sparse melanin-concentrating hormone innervation. The origins of these afferents were determined by using implant of the retrograde tracer True Blue in the medial mammillary nucleus. Double-labeled neurons were observed in the lateral hypothalamic area, rostromedial zona incerta and dorsal tuberomammillary nucleus. A considerable population of retrogradely labeled melanin-concentrating hormone perikaryal profiles was also immunoreactive to neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine (74+/-15% to 85+/-15%). The afferents from the lateral hypothalamic area, rostromedial zona incerta and dorsal tuberomammillary nucleus to the medial mammillary nucleus were confirmed using implant of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. In addition, using double-labeled immunohistochemistry, we found no co-localization between neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone and adenosine deaminase (histaminergic marker) in the dorsal tuberomammillary nucleus. We hypothesize that these melanin-concentrating hormone projections participate in spatial memory process mediated by the medial mammillary nucleus. These pathways would enable the animal to look for food during the initial moments of appetite stimulation. PMID:12435428

  8. Pesticide distributions in surface water: The distribution of pesticide concentrations at two study sites points to herbicides that may affect management of public water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Wieczorek, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Distributions of concentrations of 46 pesticides were documented from May 1992 through March 1994 for Maple Creek near Nickerson, Neb., and Platte River at Louisville, Neb. As their source of public water supplies, Lincoln and the western part of Omaha withdraw groundwater from the adjacent alluvium near the Platte River site, which is hydraulically connected to the Platte River. Organonitrogen herbicides dominated the pesticide distributions at each site. Variations in the distributions of pesticides at the two sites partly reflect differences in land use and land management practices. Diazinon, an insecticide used in urban areas, was commonly detected at the Platte River site but not at the Maple Creek site. Of the 46 pesticides analyzed at the Platte River site, the herbicides atrazine and alachlor were more likely to exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels of 3.0 and 2.0 pg/L; cyanazine was more likely to exceed the health advisory level of 1.0 ??g/L.

  9. Naturalized salmonid populations occur in the presence of elevated trace element concentrations and temperatures in the firehole river, yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, J.N.; Hubert, W.A.; Woodward, D.F.; Farag, A.M.; Meyer, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects of geothermally influenced waters on the distribution of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brown trout, Salmo trutta, in the Firehole River and its tributaries in Yellowstone National Park (WY, USA) from June 1997 to June 1998. Geothermal features in the Firehole River basin elevate mineral content and temperature in portions of the river and its tributaries. We found concentrations of boron and arsenic to be elevated in geothermally influenced areas compared with upstream sites. Boron concentrations occasionally exceeded 1,000 ??g/L, a proposed limit for the protection of aquatic organisms. Arsenic concentrations occasionally exceeded 190 ??g/L, the chronic ambient water quality criterion. Temperatures in geothermally influenced sites ranged up to 30??C and were consistently 5 to 10??C higher than upstream sites unaffected by geothermal inputs. Rainbow trout occurred at sites with elevated concentrations of boron, arsenic, and other trace elements and elevated water temperatures. Rainbow trout inhabited and spawned at sites with the most elevated trace element concentrations and temperatures; however, brown trout were absent from these sites. Water temperature may be the major factor determining brown trout distributions, but we cannot exclude the possibility that brown trout are more sensitive than rainbow trout to boron, arsenic, or other trace elements. Further investigations are needed to determine species-specific tolerances of boron, arsenic, and other trace elements among salmonids.

  10. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / 04 / 052 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BORON AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 42 - 8 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2004 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed

  11. Is Boron Nutritionally Relevant?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from numerous laboratories using a variety of experimental models, including humans, shows that boron is a bioactive beneficial element. Much evidence has come from studies that did not require nutritional or environmental stressors or fastidious methods in diet preparation or environmental...

  12. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Boron and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 42 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  13. Concentrations and geographic distribution of selected organic pollutants in Scottish surface soils.

    PubMed

    Rhind, S M; Kyle, C E; Kerr, C; Osprey, M; Zhang, Z L; Duff, E I; Lilly, A; Nolan, A; Hudson, G; Towers, W; Bell, J; Coull, M; McKenzie, C

    2013-11-01

    Concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) representing three chemical classes (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and the organic pollutant diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm) collected at 20 km grid intersects throughout Scotland over a three-year period. Detectable amounts of all chemical classes and most individual congeners were present in all samples. There were no consistent effects of soil or vegetation type, soil carbon content, pH, altitude or distance from centres of population on concentrations which exhibited extreme variation, even in adjacent samples. It is concluded that soil POPs and DEHP concentrations and associated rates of animal and human exposure were highly variable, influenced by multiple, interacting factors, and not clearly related to local sources but possibly related to wet atmospheric deposition and the organic carbon content of the soil. PMID:23892068

  14. Boron and marine life: a new look at an enigmatic bioelement.

    PubMed

    Carrano, Carl J; Schellenberg, Stephen; Amin, Shady A; Green, David H; Kpper, Frithjof C

    2009-01-01

    On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the discovery of boron, we review the oceanic biogeochemistry of boron as well as suitable analytical techniques for its determination. This overview includes aspects of biogeochemistry including geochemical stable isotope variations, uptake, transport, storage, nutritional value, toxicity, and distribution within biological materials, providing a framework for discussion of the role of boron in marine organisms, which remains largely enigmatic. PMID:19424754

  15. [Effect of the change in sulphate and dissolved oxygen mass concentration on metal release in old cast iron distribution pipes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-li; Shi, Bao-you; Sun, Hui-fang; Zhang, Zhi-huan; Gu, Jun-nong; Wang, Dong-sheng

    2013-09-01

    To understand the processes of corrosion by-product release and the consequent "red water" problems caused by the variation of water chemical composition in drinking water distribution system, the effect of sulphate and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on total iron release in corroded old iron pipe sections historically transporting groundwater was investigated in laboratory using small-scale pipe section reactors. The release behaviors of some low-level metals, such as Mn, As, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni, in the process of iron release were also monitored. The results showed that the total iron and Mn release increased significantly with the increase of sulphate concentration, and apparent red water occurred when sulphate concentration was above 400 mg x L(-1). With the increase of sulfate concentration, the effluent concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni also increased obviously, however, the effluent concentrations of these metals were lower than the influent concentrations under most circumstances, which indicated that adsorption of these metals by pipe corrosion scales occurred. Increasing DO within a certain range could significantly inhibit the iron release. PMID:24288993

  16. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Maruhashi, Akira

    2006-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger.

  17. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  18. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (440 Sugarwood Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Morrow, Marvin S. (Rte. #3, Box 113, Kingston, TN 37763)

    1993-01-01

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  19. Nothing Boring About Boron.

    PubMed

    Pizzorno, Lara

    2015-08-01

    The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body's use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents. In none of the numerous studies conducted to date, however, do boron's beneficial effects appear at intakes > 3 mg/d. No estimated average requirements (EARs) or dietary reference intakes (DRIs) have been set for boron-only an upper intake level (UL) of 20 mg/d for individuals aged ? 18 y. The absence of studies showing harm in conjunction with the substantial number of articles showing benefits support the consideration of boron supplementation of 3 mg/d for any individual who is consuming a diet lacking in fruits and vegetables or who is at risk for or has osteopenia; osteoporosis; osteoarthritis (OA); or breast, prostate, or lung cancer. PMID:26770156

  20. Low Temperature Treatment Affects Concentration and Distribution of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in Argyranthemum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Sivertsen, Astrid; Skjeseth, Gry; Haugslien, Sissel; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiao-Chun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in 'Border Dark Red', but none in 'Yellow Empire'. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased 'Yellow Empire' following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased 'Border Dark Red' following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected 'Border Dark Red' and 'Yellow Empire' indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants. PMID:26973607

  1. Oscillating bubble concentration and its size distribution using acoustic emission spectra.

    PubMed

    Avvaru, Balasubrahmanyam; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2009-01-01

    New method has been proposed for the estimation of size and number density distribution of oscillating bubbles in a sonochemical reactor using acoustic emission spectra measurements. Bubble size distribution has been determined using Minnaert's equation [M. Minnaert, On musical air bubbles and sound of running water, Philanthr. Mag. 16 (1933) 235], i.e., size of oscillating bubble is inversely related to the frequency of its volume oscillations. Decomposition of the pressure signal measured by the hydrophone in frequency domain of FFT spectrum and then inverse FFT reconstruction of the signal at each frequency level has been carried out to get the information about each of the bubble/cavity oscillation event. The number mean radius of the bubble size is calculated to be in the range of 50-80 microm and it was not found to vary much with the spatial distribution of acoustic field strength of the ultrasound processor used in the work. However, the number density of the oscillating bubbles and the nature of the distribution were found to vary in different horizontal planes away from the driving transducer surface in the ultrasonic bath. A separate set of experiments on erosion assessment studies were carried out using a thin aluminium foil, revealing a phenomena of active region of oscillating bubbles at antinodal points of the stationary waves, identical to the information provided by the acoustic emission spectra at the same location in the ultrasonic bath. PMID:18752981

  2. Low Temperature Treatment Affects Concentration and Distribution of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in Argyranthemum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Sivertsen, Astrid; Skjeseth, Gry; Haugslien, Sissel; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiao-Chun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants. PMID:26973607

  3. Electrical properties and hyperfine interactions of boron doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Md; nal, B.; Geleri, M.; Gngne?, H.; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Baykal, A.

    2015-12-01

    The single spinel phase nano-structured particles of FeBxFe2-xO4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were synthesized by the glycothermal method and the effect of B3+ substitution on structural and dielectric properties of Fe3O4 were studied. From 57Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy data, the variation in line width, isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and hyperfine magnetic field values on B3+ substitution have been determined. The hyperfine field values at B- and A-sites gradually decrease with increasing B3+ ion concentration (x). The cation distributions obtained from Bertaut method are in line with Mssbauer results. Complex impedance analysis of boron-substituted spinel ferrites have been made extensively in order to investigate the significant changes in ac and dc conductivity as well as complex permittivity when the boron composition ratio varies from 0.1 to 0.5. It is found that both ac and dc conductivity are also dependent on the boron content in addition to both temperature and applied frequency. The dc conductivity tendency does not purely obey the Arrhenius plots. The dielectric constant and loss of complex permittivity, in general, show similar attitudes as seen in some nanocomposites containing spinel ferrites except for some fluctuations and shifts along the characteristics of the curves. Furthermore, their imaginary components of both permittivity and modulus are almost found to obey the power law with any exponent values varying between 0.5 and 2 in accordance with the level of boron concentrations.

  4. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PHYTOPLANKTON CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATIONS IN NARRAGANSETT BAY USING AIRCRAFT REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 2002, phytoplankton chlorophyll concentrations were determined in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island using a light aircraft equipped with the MicroSAS remote sensing system. From an altitude of 300 m, the three sensor system measured sea surface radiance (Lt), sk...

  5. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia and Salmonella isolates obtained from beef cattle concentrated animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern High Plains are home to numerous cattle feedlots containing approximately 3.5 million beef cattle that account for nearly 30% of the United States fed beef cattle operations. The high density of beef cattle results in a concentration of nutrients (C, N, and P) due to the generation of m...

  6. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods for the identification of fecal microorganisms in surface waters has the potential to revolutionize water quality monitoring worldwide. Unlike traditional cultivation methods, qPCR estimates the concentration of gen...

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF FINGERLING BROOK TROUT, SALVELINUS FONTINALIS (MITCHELL), IN DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A self-recording linear gradient tank and procedures are described in which individual brook trout fingerlings unstressed by recent transfer, unaccustomed surroundings or the presence of an observer could move freely in 16 oxygen concentration gradients within the limits of 1 and...

  8. Effects on environment and agriculture of geothermal wastewater and boron pollution in great Menderes basin.

    PubMed

    Ko, Cengiz

    2007-02-01

    Boron toxicity is an important disorder that can be limit plant growth on soils of arid and semi arid environments through the world. High concentrations of Boron may occur naturally in the soil or in groundwater, or be added to the soil from mining, fertilizers, or irrigation water. Off all the potential resources, irrigation water is the most important contributor to high levels of soil boron, boron is often found in high concentrations in association with saline soil and saline well water. Although of considerable agronomic importance, our understanding of Boron toxicity is rather fragment and limited. In this study, Boron content of Great Menderes River and Basin was researched. Great Menderes Basin is one of the consequence basins having agricultural potential, aspect of water and soil resources in Turkey. Great Menderes River, water resource of the basin was to be polluted by geothermal wastewater and thermal springs including Boron element. Great Menderes Basin has abundant geothermal water resources which contain high amounts of Boron and these ground water are brought to surface and used for various purposes such as power generation, heating or thermal spring and than discharged to Great Menderes River. In order to prevent Boron pollution and hence unproductively in soils, it is necessary not to discharged water with Boron to irrigation water. According to results, it was obtained that Boron content of River was as high in particular Upper Basin where there was a ground thermal water reservoir. Boron has been accumulated more than plant requirement in this area irrigated by this water. Boron content of River was relatively low in rainy months and irrigation season while it was high in dry season. Boron concentration in the River was to decrease from upstream to downstream. If it is no taken measure presently, about 130,000 ha irrigation areas which was constructed irrigation scheme in the Great Menderes basin will expose the Boron pollution and salinity. Even though Boron concentration of river water is under 0.5 ppm limit value, Boron element will store in basin soils, decrease in crop yields, and occur problematic soils in basin. PMID:17171286

  9. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  10. Development of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography for Determination of Spatially Resolved Distributions of Water Vapor Temperature and Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryner, Elliott

    Optical diagnostic techniques used in high speed, high enthalpy flows, such as in a supersonic ramjet (scramjet) combustor, allow direct measurement of temperature and species concentration. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a common laser based measurement technique for measuring temperature and species concentration in harsh environments such as chemically reacting flows. TDLAS is a one-dimensional, path integrated measurement that provides average values of the measured quantities and can be affected by gradients in the measurement space. By combining TDLAS with tomographic image reconstruction a two-dimensional spatially resolved distribution can be obtained. This technique is called Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography. TDLAT has been developed for the purpose of making temperature and species concentration measurements on the supersonic combustion facility at the Aerospace Research Laboratory. TDLAT has been developed for the purpose of making two-dimensional measurements of water vapor concentration, which when combined with Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry can be used to calculate supersonic combustion efficiency of a scramjet combustor. This measurement system has been used in measurements of a flat flame burner from which two-dimensional distributions of temperature and water vapor concentration have been calculated. The calculated temperatures were then compared to measurements made on the same flat flame burner. Reconstructions of temperature and concentration show the structure of the flat flame burner, resolving regions of ambient room air, nitrogen co-flow, mixing layer and hot burner core. The TDLAT system was then installed on the supersonic combustion facility, where measurements were made for a known mole fraction of steam injected into the free stream. The TDLAT system was then used to measure water vapor concentration and temperature for clean-air combustion for an equivalence ratio of 0.17. The resulting values were then used to calculate supersonic combustion efficiency of the scramjet combustor.

  11. Distributional patterns of arsenic concentrations in contaminant plumes offer clues to the source of arsenic in groundwater at landfills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    The distributional pattern of dissolved arsenic concentrations from landfill plumes can provide clues to the source of arsenic contamination. Under simple idealized conditions, arsenic concentrations along flow paths in aquifers proximal to a landfill will decrease under anthropogenic sources but potentially increase under in situ sources. This paper presents several conceptual distributional patterns of arsenic in groundwater based on the arsenic source under idealized conditions. An example of advanced subsurface mapping of dissolved arsenic with geophysical surveys, chemical monitoring, and redox fingerprinting is presented for a landfill site in New Hampshire with a complex flow pattern. Tools to assist in the mapping of arsenic in groundwater ultimately provide information on the source of contamination. Once an understanding of the arsenic contamination is achieved, appropriate remedial strategies can then be formulated.

  12. Toward a clinical application of ex situ boron neutron capture therapy for lung tumors at the RA-3 reactor in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Farías, R. O.; Trivillin, V. A.; Portu, A. M.; Schwint, A. E.; González, S. J.; Garabalino, M. A.; Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Thorp, S. I.; Curotto, P.; Miller, M. E.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Saint Martin, G.; Ferraris, S.; Santa María, J.; Rovati, O.; Lange, F.; Bortolussi, S.; Altieri, S.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Many types of lung tumors have a very poor prognosis due to their spread in the whole organ volume. The fact that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) would allow for selective targeting of all the nodules regardless of their position, prompted a preclinical feasibility study of ex situ BNCT at the thermal neutron facility of RA-3 reactor in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. (L)-4p-dihydroxy-borylphenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) biodistribution studies in an adult sheep model and computational dosimetry for a human explanted lung were performed to evaluate the feasibility and the therapeutic potential of ex situ BNCT. Methods: Two kinds of boron biodistribution studies were carried out in the healthy sheep: a set of pharmacokinetic studies without lung excision, and a set that consisted of evaluation of boron concentration in the explanted and perfused lung. In order to assess the feasibility of the clinical application of ex situ BNCT at RA-3, a case of multiple lung metastases was analyzed. A detailed computational representation of the geometry of the lung was built based on a real collapsed human lung. Dosimetric calculations and dose limiting considerations were based on the experimental results from the adult sheep, and on the most suitable information published in the literature. In addition, a workable treatment plan was considered to assess the clinical application in a realistic scenario. Results: Concentration-time profiles for the normal sheep showed that the boron kinetics in blood, lung, and skin would adequately represent the boron behavior and absolute uptake expected in human tissues. Results strongly suggest that the distribution of the boron compound is spatially homogeneous in the lung. A constant lung-to-blood ratio of 1.3 ± 0.1 was observed from 80 min after the end of BPA-F infusion. The fact that this ratio remains constant during time would allow the blood boron concentration to be used as a surrogate and indirect quantification of the estimated value in the explanted healthy lung. The proposed preclinical animal model allowed for the study of the explanted lung. As expected, the boron concentration values fell as a result of the application of the preservation protocol required to preserve the lung function. The distribution of the boron concentration retention factor was obtained for healthy lung, with a mean value of 0.46 ± 0.14 consistent with that reported for metastatic colon carcinoma model in rat perfused lung. Considering the human lung model and suitable tumor control probability for lung cancer, a promising average fraction of controlled lesions higher than 85% was obtained even for a low tumor-to-normal boron concentration ratio of 2. Conclusions: This work reports for the first time data supporting the validity of the ovine model as an adequate human surrogate in terms of boron kinetics and uptake in clinically relevant tissues. Collectively, the results and analysis presented would strongly suggest that ex situ whole lung BNCT irradiation is a feasible and highly promising technique that could greatly contribute to the treatment of metastatic lung disease in those patients without extrapulmonary spread, increasing not only the expected overall survival but also the resulting quality of life.

  13. Concentration and Spatial Distribution of Selected Constituents in Detroit River Bed Sediment Adjacent to Grassy Island, Michigan, August 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, collected sediment?core samples from the bed of the Detroit River adjacent to Grassy Island. The goal of the sampling was to assess the distribution and concentration of chemical constituents in sediment adjacent to Grassy Island, which was operated from 1960 to 1982 as a confined disposal facility to hold dredge spoils. On August 31, 2006, seven samples were collected at four locations in the Detroit River on the north, south, east, and west sides of the island. Metals concentrations in the riverbed sediment tended to be higher on the west side of the island, whereas organic?compound concentrations were generally higher on the east side. Comparison of results from this sampling to concentrations reported in previous studies indicates that the concentrations of inorganic constituents, mainly metals, in the riverbed sediment around Grassy Island fell within the range of concentrations found regionally throughout the Detroit River and in most cases have lower mean and median values than found elsewhere regionally in the Detroit River. Comparison of results from the August 31, 2006, sampling to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk?based sediment?quality guidelines indicates that 18 organic constituents for which an ecological screening level (ESL), and (or) a threshold effect concentration (TEC), and (or) a probable effect concentration (PEC) has been defined exceeded one or more of these guidelines at least once. Further work would be needed to determine whether constituent concentrations in the river sediment are related to constituent runoff from Grassy Island.

  14. Concentrations, spatial distributions and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils from a coastal city--Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyong; Kong, Shaofei; Chen, Li; Bai, Zhipeng; Ji, Yaqin; Liu, Jinwei; Lu, Bing; Han, Bin; Wang, Qianwen

    2011-10-01

    A total of 82 surface soil samples collected from central urban sites, surrounding rural sites, coastal sites and background sites in Tianjin were analyzed for 84 PCB congeners. The mean values of total PCBs concentrations for surrounding rural sites, central urban sites, coastal sites, background sites and the whole Tianjin region were 4.45, 3.20, 12.65, 1.96 and 4.02 ng g(-1), respectively. No "urban fractionation effect" was found in Tianjin, which reflected the influence of local emission sources for PCBs such as industries and township enterprises in surrounding rural sites. In contrast, a "primary fractionation effect" was found in Tianjin region. The PCBs concentrations for whole Tianjin region showed a strong east-west gradient and the percentages of lighter molecular weight PCBs homologs (sum of di- to tetra-PCBs) to the total PCBs concentrations increased from east to west. The seven indicator PCBs concentrations were well correlated with the total PCBs concentrations with the correlation coefficients as 0.76 for Tianjin region and 0.74 for central urban sites, respectively. Predominant PCB homolog groups were penta- and tri-PCBs for Tianjin region. 10 dioxin-like PCBs concentrations were well correlated with total PCBs concentrations for all the sampling sites (R=0.79, P<0.0001). The TEQ concentrations for 10 dioxin-like PCBs were 5.3424 ng kg(-1) for Tianjin region and showed a strong east to west gradient. The spatial distribution of PCBs levels, homolog composition patterns and TEQ concentrations were all obviously influenced by local emission sources for PCBs in the east part of Tianjin region. PMID:21880349

  15. Deuterium-induced passivation of boron acceptors in polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habka, N.; Chikoidze, E.; Jomard, F.; Dumont, Y.; Chevallier, J.; Barjon, J.; Mer, C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2010-12-01

    In monocrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD), the diffusion of deuterium induces an electrical passivation of acceptors by the formation of (B,D) complexes. However, device applications based on this process are presently limited by the small size of available monocrystalline substrates. In this work, we show that the grain size of polycrystalline diamond is a key parameter in order to achieve efficient deuterium diffusion by trapping on boron atoms. As a result, we present the first clear evidences of the electrical passivation of boron acceptors in the case of polycrystalline diamond layers with an average grain size of 50 ?m. We show that, for a boron concentration of 21019 cm-3, the room temperature hole mobility increases from 70 to 120 cm2 V-1 s-1 after deuteration. More surprisingly, the compensation ratio keeps the same order of magnitude which suggests a passivation effect on both acceptors and donors.

  16. Boron and silicon: Effects on growth, plasma lipids, urinary cyclic AMP and bone and brain mineral composition of male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborn, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H. . Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    Because boron resembles silicon in its chemical properties, an experiment was performed to determine if excessive dietary boron would affect the response to silicon deprivation and, conversely, if silicon would influence the effects of an excessive intake of boron. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups of 6 or 12 in a two-by-two factorially arranged experiment. Supplemented to a ground corn/casein diet containing 1.2 [mu]g silicon and 3 [mu]g boron per gram were silicon as sodium metasilicate at 0 or 50 [mu]g/g and boron as orthoboric acid at 0 or 500 [mu]g/g diet. At nine weeks, animals fed high dietary boron had significantly decreased final body weights, liver-weight-to-body-weight ratios, urinary cAMP concentrations, plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, glycine, valine, leucine, and lysine concentrations and skull copper, sodium, and manganese concentrations. High dietary boron also significantly increased brain-weight-to-body-weight ratios, magnesium concentrations of femur, brain, and plasma, zinc concentration of femur, and iron concentration of skull. The bone mineral findings suggest that excess dietary boron exerts subtle effects on bone composition. Dietary silicon affected blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the concentrations of plasma threonine and aspartic acid in animals fed excess boron. Depression of the testes-weight-to-body-weight ratio of animals fed 500 [mu]g boron per gram diet was most marked in animals not fed silicon. Although excessive dietary boron did not markedly enhanced the response of rats to silicon deprivation, dietary silicon affected their response to high dietary boron. Thus, dietary silicon apparently can influence boron toxicity.

  17. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Takao; Nomura, Masao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the 11B /10B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher 11B /10B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing 11B /10B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite ( Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with higher BO 3/BO 4 ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO 3 triangle units to the number of the BO 4 tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher 11B /10B ratios.

  18. Spatial concentration distributions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in Patras, Greece, in a winter period.

    PubMed

    Yannopoulos, Panayotis C

    2007-12-01

    An economic and quick methodology for performing a preliminary spatial assessment of a city air quality with the purpose to identify locations and zones susceptible to high pollution levels is proposed. A Patras case-study is selected, regarding the air pollutants of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). A total number of 451 samples of short duration, of which 225 were randomly picked in morning rush hours and 226 within evening rush hours, were collected from 50 locations of the major Patras area during a year period, when peaks of primary air pollutants usually occur. Concentration measurements at prescribed locations used to statistically calculate spatial average concentrations approximating 1-h mean values with mean probable errors less than 25.9% for SO(2), NO and NO(x) and less than 15.5% for NO(2). Then iso-concentration contour diagrams plotted indicate high pollution zones and possibly appropriate locations for continuous or random monitoring according to the European Community (EC) Directives. The 1-h mean concentrations were in good correlation to the corresponding traffic rates and useful relationships are given (0.54

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans Maintains Highly Compartmentalized Cellular Distribution of Metals and Steep Concentration Gradients of Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Sheridan; Howard, Daryl L.; Ryan, Christopher G.; Kirkham, Robin; Moorhead, Gareth F.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Bush, Ashley I.

    2012-01-01

    Bioinorganic chemistry is critical to cellular function. Homeostasis of manganese (Mn), for example, is essential for life. A lack of methods for direct in situ visualization of Mn and other biological metals within intact multicellular eukaryotes limits our understanding of management of these metals. We provide the first quantitative subcellular visualization of endogenous Mn concentrations (spanning two orders of magnitude) associated with individual cells of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:22393436

  20. Concentrations, distribution, and bioaccumulation of synthetic musks in the Haihe River of China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengjun; Shi, Yali; Cai, Yaqi

    2011-09-01

    Seven typical synthetic musks (SMs) in the samples from the surface water, sediment and fish of the Haihe River were measured. The SM concentrations in the sediment and surface water of the Haihe River were significantly lower than those in the Dagu Drainage River and Chentaizi Drainage River (p<0.05). Along the flow direction, the SM concentrations in surface water and sediment tended to increase from the upstream to the downstream of Dagu Drainage River. The Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were calculated at high levels in the muscles of crucian carp, common carp, and silver carp. Most of the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for HHCB and AHTN were higher than 1.7, suggesting magnification possibly exist in the musk bioaccumulations of the three fishes in the Haihe River. No significant differences in HHCB/AHTN ratios were observed among the water, fish, and sediment samples (p>0.05). However, the HHCB/AHTN values in the Haihe River were much lower than those in the Dagu Drainage River and Chentaizi Drainage River (p<0.05). Compared with several typical persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the musk concentrations were higher or comparable in the Haihe River. PMID:21624633

  1. Concentration and distribution of PCNs in ambient soil of a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhenyu; Li, Haifeng; Xie, Huiting; Tang, Chen; Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin

    2014-09-01

    The impact of a typical municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) on polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) concentrations in surrounding soil was studied. We collected 6 stack gas samples from the MSWI and 21 soil samples from sampling sites at distances of between 300 and 1,700 m from the MSWI stack. Total dl-PCN (dioxin-like PCN) concentrations in the stack gas samples ranged from 6898 and 89,032 pg m(-3), with a mean value of 36,241 pg m(-3). The total dl-PCN concentrations in the soil samples ranged from 30.35 to 280.9 pg g(-1), with a mean value of 87.03 and a median value of 70.32 pg g(-1), while the TEQ values were between 7.7 and 130.2 fg TEQ g(-1), with a mean value of 41.12 fg TEQ g(-1) and a median value of 31.52fg TEQ g(-1). The PCN homologue patterns and the results of Principal Component Analysis suggested that the MSWI may be a source of PCNs in the soils. A contour map, created using an ordinary Kriging interpolation technique, showed that a limited area (≤ 1,000 m radius) surrounding the MSWI was influenced by the emissions from the MSWI. Furthermore, an exponential function equation was proposed to quantify the relationship between TEQs of PCNs and the distance from the stack. PMID:24457132

  2. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remoterural villageurban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. PMID:20199833

  3. Sensitivity of aerosol concentrations and cloud properties to nucleation and secondary organic distribution in ECHAM5-HAM global circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkonen, R.; Asmi, A.; Korhonen, H.; Kokkola, H.; Jrvenoja, S.; Risnen, P.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laaksonen, A.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Jrvinen, H.; Lohmann, U.; Bennartz, R.; Feichter, J.; Kulmala, M.

    2009-03-01

    The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM was modified to improve the representation of new particle formation in the boundary layer. Activation-type nucleation mechanism was introduced to produce observed nucleation rates in the lower troposphere. A simple and computationally efficient model for biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was implemented. Here we study the sensitivity of the aerosol and cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC) to these additions. Activation-type nucleation significantly increases aerosol number concentrations in the boundary layer. Increased particle number concentrations have a significant effect also on cloud droplet number concentrations and therefore on cloud properties. We performed calculations with activation nucleation coefficient values of 210-7s-1, 210-6s-1 and 210-5s-1 to evaluate the sensitivity to this parameter. For BSOA we have used yields of 0.025, 0.07 and 0.15 to estimate the amount of monoterpene oxidation products available for condensation. The hybrid BSOA formation scheme induces large regional changes to size distribution of organic carbon, and therefore affects particle optical properties and cloud droplet number concentrations locally. Although activation-type nucleation improves modeled aerosol number concentrations in the boundary layer, the use of a global activation coefficient generally leads to overestimation of aerosol number. Overestimation can also arise from underestimation of primary emissions.

  4. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, Jos F.; Rivera-Gonzlez, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jimnez-Vlez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (182 weeks, 222 weeks, and 262 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations, temporal variability, and predictors of phthalate biomarkers among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Preliminary results suggest several potentially important exposure sources to phthalates in this population and future analysis from this ongoing prospective cohort will help to inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure. PMID:24161445

  5. Sampling and analysis of chemical element concentration distribution in rock units and orebodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agterberg, F. P.

    2012-01-01

    Existing sampling techniques applied within known orebodies, such as sampling along mining drifts, yield element concentration values for larger blocks of ore if they are extended into their surroundings. The resulting average concentration values have relatively small "extension variance". These techniques can be used for multifractal modeling as well as ore reserve estimation approaches. Geometric probability theory can aid in local spatial covariance modeling. It provides information about increase of variability of element concentration over short distances exceeding microscopic scale. In general, the local clustering of ore crystals results in small-scale variability known as the "nugget effect". Parameters to characterize spatial covariance estimated from ore samples subjected to chemical analysis for ore reserve estimation may not be valid at local scale because of the nugget effect. The novel method of local singularity mapping applied within orebodies provides new insights into the nature of the nugget effect. Within the Pulacayo orebody, Bolivia, local singularity for zinc is linearly related with logarithmically transformed concentration value. If there is a nugget effect, moving averages resulting from covariance models or estimated by other methods that have a smoothing effect, such as kriging, can be improved by incorporating local singularities indicating local element enrichment or depletion. Although there have been many successful applications of the multifractal binomial/p model, its application within the Pulacayo orebody results in inconsistencies, indicating some shortcomings of this relatively simple approach. Local singularity analysis and universal multifractal modeling are two promising new approaches to improve upon results obtained by commonly used geostatistical techniques and use of the binomial/p model. All methods in this paper are illustrated using a single example (118 Pulacayo zinc values), and several techniques are applied to other orebody datasets (Whalesback copper deposit, Witwatersrand goldfields and Black Cargo titanium deposit). Additionally, it is discussed that nugget effects exist in a binary series of alternating mostly gneiss and metabasite previously derived from KTB borehole velocity and lithology logs, and within a series of 2796 copper concentration values from this same drill-hole.

  6. Airborne fiber concentration and size distribution of mineral fibers in area with serpentinite outcrops in Aichi prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K; Hisanaga, N; Kohyama, N; Shibata, E; Takeuchi, Y

    2001-04-01

    Airborne fiber concentrations and size distributions of both asbestos and nonasbestos fibers were determined at property boundaries of 4 serpentinite quarries producing crushed stone (quarry property boundary), 10 sites within 10 km of the area with serpentinite outcrops (serpentinite area), and 2 sites in a reference area. The asbestos was identified in 7 rock and 3 soil samples collected in the serpentinite area. The geometric means of airborne concentrations of asbestos and nonasbestos fibers longer than 0.2 microm in length were: 384 and 447 fibers/liter (f/L) in the quarry property boundary (in operation), 12 and 124 f/L in the quarry property boundary (in closed), 5 and 103 fibers/liter in the serpentinite area, and less than 2 and 59 fibers/liter in the reference area, respectively. There was a significant difference in airborne concentrations of both asbestos and nonasbestos fibers among the areas. Ttremolite/actinolite were found with chrysotile in the stones. Airborne concentrations of tremolite/actinolite were higher than those of chrysotile at the quarry property boundary and in the serpentinite area. Tremolite/actinolite were also found in the soils. There was no significant difference among the areas in the arithmetic means of fiber size distribution of both asbestos and nonasbestos fibers. PMID:11341543

  7. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Discharge of Sublimation Gas of Decaborane and Its Application to Preparation of Boron Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yoshifumi; Kanazawa, Naoki; Arakawa, Takashi; Saidoh, Masahiro; Nishikawa, Masahiro

    1994-07-01

    Plasmas are produced by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge of a mixture of hydrogen and sublimation gas of decaborane B10H14 in its solid state. Emissions from boron atoms B and boron hydride BH in the plasmas are measured spectroscopically. Hydrogenated boron films are prepared using the ECR plasmas. The hydrogen concentration in the boron films is about 2% at the substrate temperature T s of 300C. Apparent activation energy of the growth reactions of the boron films is estimated to be about -0.06 eV.

  8. Selective boron delivery to murine tumors by lipophilic species incorporated in the membranes of unilamellar liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Feakes, D A; Shelly, K; Hawthorne, M F

    1995-01-01

    The nido-carborane species K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] has been synthesized for use as an addend for the bilayer membrane of liposomes. Small unilamellar vesicles, composed of distearoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, 1:1, and incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer, have been investigated in vivo. The time-course biodistribution of boron delivered by these liposomes was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analyses after the injection of liposomal suspensions in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinomas. At the low injected doses normally used (approximately 5-10 mg of boron per kg of body weight), peak tumor boron concentrations of approximately 35 micrograms of boron per g of tissue and tumor/blood boron ratios of approximately 8 were achieved. These values are sufficiently high for the successful application of boron neutron capture therapy. The bilayer-embedded boron compound may provide the sole boron source or, alternatively, a concentrated aqueous solution of a hydrophilic boron compound may also be encapsulated within the liposomes to provide a dose enhancement. Thus, the incorporation of both K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] and the hydrophilic species, Na3[1-(2'-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8], within the same liposomes demonstrated significantly enhanced biodistribution characteristics, exemplified by maximum tumor boron concentrations of approximately 50 micrograms of boron per g of tissue and tumor/blood boron ratios of approximately 6. PMID:7877984

  9. Magnetron sputtering synthesis of large area well-ordered boron nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Limin; Zhang, Ze; Wang, Wenkui

    2004-08-01

    One-dimensionally nanostructured materials, such as nanowires and nanotubes, are the smallest dimensional structures for efficient transport of electrons and excitons, and are therefore critical building blocks for nanoscale electronic and mechanical devices. In this paper, boron nanowires with uniform diameters from 20 to 80 nm were synthesized by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of pure boron powder and B2O3 powder mixtures in argon atmosphere. The boron nanowires produced stand vertically on the substrate surface to form well-ordered arrays over large areas with self-organized arrangements without involvement of any template and patterned catalyst. The high-density boron nanowires are parallel to each other and well distributed, forming highly ordered and uniform arrays. A more interesting and unique feature of the boron nanowires is that most of their tips are flat rather than hemispherical in morphologies. Detailed studies on its structure and composition indicate that boron nanowires are amorphous. Boron nanowire appears as a new member in the family of one-dimensional nanostructures. Considering the unique properties of boron-rich solids and other nanostructures, it is reasonable to expect that the boron nanowires will display some exceptional and interesting properties. A vapor-cluster-solid (VCS) mechanism was proposed to explain the growth of boron nanowires based on our experimental observations.

  10. Distribution of Arsenic Sulfides in Van Phuc, Vietnam, and Their Relationship to Aquifer Arsenic Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, B. C.; Harvey, C.; Stahl, M.; Oates, P.; L., Vi; Nguyen, M.; Viet, P.; Trang, P. T.; Berg, M.; Stengel, C.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater arsenic concentrations are highly heterogeneous, in part due to spatial variability in sediment geochemical and hydrological properties on fine scales. The concentration of As in groundwater depends on the balance between sources of dissolved As, and the sinks that can return it to the solid phase. While much effort has focused on Fe(III) reduction as a source of groundwater arsenic, much less research has been devoted the variation in the sinks of arsenic in exhibiting sharp contrasts between As-impacted and As-free waters. It is critical to understand these processes at such boundaries to properly evaluate the long-term viability of low-As aquifers as alternative water sources. Here, we examine the Fe, As, and S speciation in sediments collected while installing a transect of wells across a sharp gradient in dissolved As levels in Van Phuc village, Vietnam. Marked variations in solid phase As speciation as As(V), As(III) and As2S3 were observed as a function of core location and depth. Arsenic sulfides were not found in shallow, weakly reducing and oxic sediments associated with groundwater low in As, but were extensive in some gray sediments from reduced aquifers. Many reduced aquifers also exhibited low dissolved sulfate concentrations. These observations indicate that the formation of these sulfides is tied to sulfate reduction within anoxic aquifers, but the prevalence of arsenic sulfide is not correlated directly to aqueous As levels. Iron speciation indicates that many, but not all, sediments from low-As aquifers materials contain appreciable Fe(III). In such low-As aquifers, As concentrations may be buffered by adsorption to iron oxides. In low-As aquifers within reduced sediments, however, Fe(III) minerals are rare and sulfide minerals may play a dominant role in regulating the fate of arsenic. In either case, the quantity of Fe(III) and/sulfate as terminal electron acceptors limits the sediments capacity to scavenge As. Thus, the boundaries between high- and low-As groundwaters may not be stable over time. This is a concern in Van Phuc because high-As groundwater elevated appears to be passing through the low-As portion of the aquifer. Extensive groundwater pumping of low-As groundwater may also facilitate this process.

  11. Boronizing protects metals against wear

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.

    1997-03-01

    Boronizing is a thermochemical surface treatment that involves diffusion of boron into a base metal at a high temperature. The resulting metallic boride provides high hardness and resistance to acid corrosion, and lengthens service life by a factor of three to ten. Boronizing fills a gap between conventional surface treatments and the more exotic chemical and physical vapor deposition. In a number of applications, boronizing has replaced such processes as carburizing, nitriding, and nitrocarburizing. It has even replaced hard chrome plating in some cases, while achieving similar service life improvements. Boron can be uniformly applied to irregular surfaces, and can be applied to specific areas of a surface. It is also suitable for high-volume production applications, as first demonstrated in the European automotive industry. This article describes the boronizing process, provides material selection/preparation criteria, and lists industrial applications.

  12. Characterization of concentration, particle size distribution, and contributing factors to ambient hexavalent chromium in an area with multiple emission sources

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Huang, Lihui; Shin, Jin Young; Artigas, Francisco; Fan, Zhi-hua (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and can be emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including diesel emissions. However, there is limited knowledge about ambient Cr(VI) concentration levels and its particle size distribution. This pilot study characterized ambient Cr(VI) concentrations in the New Jersey Meadowlands (NJ ML) district, which is close to the heavily trafficked New Jersey Turnpike (NJTPK) as well as Chromium Ore Processing Residue (COPR) waste sites. Monitoring was simultaneously conducted at two sites, William site (~50 m from NJTPK) and MERI site (~700 m from NJTPK). The distance between the two sites is approximately 6.2 km. Ambient Cr(VI) concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently measured at both sites during summer and winter. The summer concentrations (mean S.D. [median]), 0.13 0.06 [0.12] ng/m3 at the MERI site and 0.08 0.05 [0.07] ng/m3 at the William site, were all significantly higher than the winter concentrations, 0.02 0.01 [0.02] ng/m3 and 0.03 0.01 [0.03] ng/m3 at the MERI and William sites, respectively. The site difference (i.e., MERI > William) was observed for summer Cr(VI) concentrations; however, no differences for winter and pooled datasets. These results suggest higher Cr(VI) concentrations may be attributed from stronger atmospheric reactions such as photo-oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the summer. The Cr(VI) distribution as a function of particle size, ranging from 0.18 to 18 ?m, was determined at the William site. It was found that Cr(VI) was enriched in the particles less than 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM2.5). This finding suggested potential health concerns, because PM2.5 are easily inhaled and deposited in the alveoli. A multiple linear regression analysis confirmed ambient Cr(VI) concentrations were significantly affected by meteorological factors (i.e., temperature and humidity) and reactive gases/particles (i.e., O3, Fe and Mn). PMID:25750579

  13. Characterization of concentration, particle size distribution, and contributing factors to ambient hexavalent chromium in an area with multiple emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Huang, Lihui; Shin, Jin Young; Artigas, Francisco; Fan, Zhi-hua (Tina)

    2014-09-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and can be emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including diesel emissions. However, there is limited knowledge about ambient Cr(VI) concentration levels and its particle size distribution. This pilot study characterized ambient Cr(VI) concentrations in the New Jersey Meadowlands (NJ ML) district, which is close to the heavily trafficked New Jersey Turnpike (NJTPK) as well as Chromium Ore Processing Residue (COPR) waste sites. Monitoring was simultaneously conducted at two sites, William site (?50 m from NJTPK) and MERI site (?700 m from NJTPK). The distance between the two sites is approximately 6.2 km. Ambient Cr(VI) concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently measured at both sites during summer and winter. The summer concentrations (mean S.D. [median]), 0.13 0.06 [0.12] ng/m3 at the MERI site and 0.08 0.05 [0.07] ng/m3 at the William site, were all significantly higher than the winter concentrations, 0.02 0.01 [0.02] ng/m3 and 0.03 0.01 [0.03] ng/m3 at the MERI and William sites, respectively. The site difference (i.e., MERI > William) was observed for summer Cr(VI) concentrations; however, no differences for winter and pooled datasets. These results suggest higher Cr(VI) concentrations may be attributed from stronger atmospheric reactions such as photo-oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the summer. The Cr(VI) distribution as a function of particle size, ranging from 0.18 to 18 ?m, was determined at the William site. It was found that Cr(VI) was enriched in the particles less than 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM2.5). This finding suggested potential health concerns, because PM2.5 are easily inhaled and deposited in the alveoli. A multiple linear regression analysis confirmed ambient Cr(VI) concentrations were significantly affected by meteorological factors (i.e., temperature and humidity) and reactive gases/particles (i.e., O3, Fe and Mn).

  14. Binding form of vitamin B2 in bovine milk: its concentration, distribution and binding linkage.

    PubMed

    Kanno, C; Kanehara, N; Shirafuji, K; Tanji, R; Imai, T

    1991-02-01

    The contents of total, free, and bound vitamin B2 (B2) in bovine milk and their distribution in four separate milk fractions, including milk during the early lactation stage, were estimated. The total B2 content in whole mature milk was 179 +/- 25 micrograms/100 g (n = 16), and its distribution in the cream, whey, skim milk membrane, and casein fractions was 6, 67, 9, and 18%, respectively. The amount of flavins bound to protein in the total B2 was 13.6% in whole milk and rich in membrane fraction. The total B2 content (micrograms/100 g of milk) was higher in colostrum at 1-3 days (287 +/- 120) than in colostrum at 4-7 days (173 +/- 27), in transitional milk (182 +/- 33), and in mature milk (179 +/- 44). The bound flavin content decreased slightly as lactation progressed (20-30 micrograms/100 g), but the ratio of bound/total B2 did not vary (12-15%). Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) contained 414 +/- 65 micrograms of B2/g of protein, most of it being bound to protein (92%). Market milks contained as much total B2 as raw whole milk, but the amount of bound form was only 2%. Guanidine HC1, urea, sodium dodecyl sulfate, pH at 3.0-3.5, delipidation, and boiling released most of the B2 bound to protein, suggesting that bound flavins bind to milk proteins by a hydrophobic linkage. PMID:1880629

  15. Concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in pine needles of typical regions in Northern Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoning; Ran, Dan; Lu, Jianjiang; Du, Zhijian; Liu, Zilong

    2015-02-01

    The residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 29 pine needle samples of typical regions (including Shihezi, Beitun, and Kanas) in Northern Xinjiang was determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Total OCPs concentrations in pine needles ranged from 2.94 to 186 ng/g dry weight, with a mean concentration of 39.63 ng/g. The results indicated that Beitun was the most polluted region while Kanas was the least polluted one. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the predominant species in samples. Analysis of the sources of contamination showed that HCHs in the needles were derived from an old mixed source of technical HCHs or lindane. For DDTs, it was suspected to have recent application at some sites, which were derived mainly from a mixture of technical DDTs and dicofol containing DDT impurities. Categorical principal component analysis was performed in finding out more about the degradation behavior of DDTs and HCHs, which was identical with the results of source analysis. PMID:23740302

  16. Numerical study on determining formation porosity using a boron capture gamma ray technique and MCNP.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Xinguang; Han, Fei; Yuan, Zhelong

    2014-12-01

    Formation porosity can be determined using the boron capture gamma ray counting ratio with a near to far detector in a pulsed neutron-gamma element logging tool. The thermal neutron distribution, boron capture gamma spectroscopy and porosity response for formations with different water salinity and wellbore diameter characteristics were simulated using the Monte Carlo method. We found that a boron lining improves the signal-to-noise ratio and that the boron capture gamma ray counting ratio has a higher sensitivity for determining porosity than total capture gamma. PMID:25255304

  17. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BCNT) for the Treatment of Liver Metastases: Biodistribution Studies of Boron Compounds in an Experimental Model

    SciTech Connect

    Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Jorge E. Cardoso; Lucas L. Colombo; Susana Nievas; David W. Nigg; Romina F. Aromando

    2011-03-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B10H10), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  18. Annealing kinetics of boron-containing centers in electron-irradiated silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Feklisova, O. V. Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2013-02-15

    The annealing kinetics of B{sub i}O{sub i} pairs created by fast-electron irradiation in Si wafers is studied. The wafers are grown by the Czochralski method and doped with boron to different levels. It is found that, at a particular temperature, the annealing rate steadily increases with increasing boron concentration. The results are described with a simple model that takes into consideration the interaction of interstitial boron atoms with oxygen atoms and substitutional boron atoms. In the context of the model, the temperature dependence of the dissociation rate of the B{sub i}O{sub i} complex is calculated.

  19. B28: the smallest all-boron cage from an ab initio global search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jijun; Huang, Xiaoming; Shi, Ruili; Liu, Hongsheng; Su, Yan; King, R. Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Our ab initio global searches reveal the lowest-energy cage for B28, which is built from two B12 units and prevails over the competing structural isomers such as planar, bowl, and tube. This smallest boron cage extends the scope of all-boron fullerene and provides a new structural motif of boron clusters and nanostructures.Our ab initio global searches reveal the lowest-energy cage for B28, which is built from two B12 units and prevails over the competing structural isomers such as planar, bowl, and tube. This smallest boron cage extends the scope of all-boron fullerene and provides a new structural motif of boron clusters and nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Planar isomer structures of B28 and spatial distributions of front molecular orbitals. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04034e

  20. Investigation of gasoline distributions within petrol stations: spatial and seasonal concentrations, sources, mitigation measures, and occupationally exposed symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sairat, Theerapong; Homwuttiwong, Sahalaph; Homwutthiwong, Kritsana; Ongwandee, Maneerat

    2015-09-01

    We measured levels of VOCs and determined the distributions of benzene concentrations over the area of two petrol stations in all three seasons. Using the concentrations and sampling positions, we created isoconcentration contour maps. The average concentrations ranged 18-1288 ?g m(-3) for benzene and 12-81 ?g m(-3) for toluene. The contour maps indicate that high-level contours of benzene were found not only at the fuel dispenser areas but also at the storage tank refilling points, open drainage areas where gasoline-polluted wastewater was flowing, and the auto service center located within the station area. An assessment of the benzene to toluene ratio contour plots implicates that airborne benzene and toluene near the fuel dispenser area were attributed to gasoline evaporation although one of the studied stations may be influenced by other VOC sources besides gasoline evaporation. Additionally, during the routine refilling of the underground fuel storage tanks by a tank truck, the ambient levels of benzene and toluene increased tremendously. The implementation of source control by replacing old dispensers with new fuel dispensers that have an efficient cutoff feature and increased delivery speed can reduce spatial benzene concentrations by 77%. Furthermore, a questionnaire survey among 63 service attendants in ten stations revealed that headache was the most reported health complaint with a response rate of 32%, followed by fatigue with 20%. These prominent symptoms could be related to an exposure to high benzene concentrations. PMID:25943517

  1. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in surface waters of a region impacted by historical metal mining (Cornwall, UK).

    PubMed

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic heavy metal whose concentrations and distributions in the aquatic environment are poorly defined. In this study, concentrations of aqueous and total Tl have been measured in water samples from a variety of rivers and effluents (the latter related to historical metal mining) in the county of Cornwall, SW England. Aqueous concentrations ranged from about 13 ng L(-1) in a river whose catchment contained no metal mines to 2,640 ng L(-1) in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine shaft. Concentrations of Tl in rivers were greatest in the vicinity of mine-related effluents, with a maximum value measured of about 770 ng L(-1). Thallium was not efficiently removed by the conventional, active treatment of mine water, and displayed little interaction with suspended particles. Its mobility in surface waters, coupled with concentrations that are close to a quality guideline of 800 ng L(-1), is cause for concern. Accordingly, we recommend that the metal is more closely monitored in this and other regions impacted by mining activities. PMID:24368195

  2. Breath Hydrogen Gas Concentration Linked to Intestinal Gas Distribution and Malabsorption in Patients with Small-bowel Pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Urita, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Toshiyasu; Maeda, Tadashi; Sasaki, Yosuke; Ishihara, Susumu; Hike, Kazuo; Sanaka, Masaki; Nakajima, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Motonobu

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background The patient with colonic obstruction may frequently have bacterial overgrowth and increased breath hydrogen (H2) levels because the bacterium can contact with food residues for longer time. We experienced two cases with intestinal obstruction whose breath H2 concentrations were measured continuously. Case 1 A 70-year-old woman with small bowel obstruction was treated with a gastric tube. When small bowel gas decreased and colonic gas was demonstrated on the plain abdominal radiograph, the breath H2 concentration increased to 6 ppm and reduced again shortly. Case 2 A 41-year-old man with functional small bowel obstruction after surgical treatment was treated with intravenous administration of erythromycin. Although the plain abdominal radiograph demonstrated a decrease of small-bowel gas, the breath H2 gas kept the low level. After a clear-liquid meal was supplied, fasting breath H2 concentration increased rapidly to 22 ppm and gradually decreased to 9 ppm despite the fact that the intestinal gas was unchanged on X-ray. A rapid increase of breath H2 concentration may reflect the movement of small bowel contents to the colon in patients with small-bowel pseudo-obstruction or malabsorption following diet progression. Conclusions Change in breath H2 concentration had a close association with distribution and movement of intestinal gas. PMID:19652759

  3. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. Methods First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models’ benefits and costs. Results The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. Conclusions This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated over the lifespan of the farm, outweigh any minor concerns or potential externalities. PMID:22540991

  4. Use of Uniformly Distributed Concentrated Sunlight for Highly Accelerated Testing of Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Bingham, C.; King, D.; Lewandowski, A.; Netter, J.; Terwilliger, K.; Adamsons, K.

    2000-12-14

    NREL has developed a new ultraviolet (UV) light concentrator that allows material samples to be subjected to uniform intensity levels of 50-100X solar UV at closely controlled sample exposure temperatures. In collaboration with industry, representative coating systems have been exposed without introducing unrealistic degradation mechanisms. Furthermore, correlations have been derived between these highly accelerated test conditions and results obtained at 1-2 suns. Such information is used to predict the degradation of materials in real-world applications. These predictions are compared with measured in-service performance losses to validate the approach. This allows valuable information to be obtained in greatly reduced timeframes, which can provide tremendous competitive advantage in the commercial marketplace.

  5. Preliminary weight and costs of sandwich panels to distribute concentrated loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belleman, G.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Minimum mass honeycomb sandwich panels were sized for transmitting a concentrated load to a uniform reaction through various distances. The form skin gages were fully stressed with a finite element computer code. The panel general stability was evaluated with a buckling computer code labeled STAGS-B. Two skin materials were considered; aluminum and graphite-epoxy. The core was constant thickness aluminum honeycomb. Various panel sizes and load levels were considered. The computer generated data were generalized to allow preliminary least mass panel designs for a wide range of panel sizes and load intensities. An assessment of panel fabrication cost was also conducted. Various comparisons between panel mass, panel size, panel loading, and panel cost are presented in both tabular and graphical form.

  6. Concentration and distribution of antibiotics in water-sediment system of Bosten Lake, Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoning; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zilong; Tong, Yanbin; Li, Shanman

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the residues of four sulfonamides, four quinolones, and four tetracyclines in surface water as well as surficial sediment samples, of Bosten Lake, in Xinjiang, China. The results showed the presence of 10 out of the 12 selected antibiotics in both water and sediment. Lomefloxacin was not detected in any of the samples. Among the 12 antibiotics considered, ciprofloxacin, with median concentrations of 39.22 ng L(-1) in surface water and 76.51 ?g kg(-1) in surficial sediment, was the dominant antibiotic in all samples. The sorption coefficient values presented higher sorption capacities of tetracycline and chlortetracycline than the other antibiotics. The cluster analysis revealed elevated levels of pollution in sampling sites 1, 2, and 3, which were situated in a nearby urban area and in the estuary of Kaidu River. This study demonstrates the necessity of regulating the use of antibiotics and improving the management and treatment of their release. PMID:24809500

  7. Seasonal variations in concentrations, distributions, and air-soil exchange fluxes of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yajun; Nie, Zhiqiang; He, Jie; Die, Qingqi; Fang, Yanyan; Liu, Feng; Yang, Yufei; Gao, Xingbao; Huang, Qifei

    2016-02-01

    Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCB) concentrations in ambient air and soil in Shanghai, China, were measured to allow seasonal and spatial differences in the dl-PCB concentrations, profiles, distributions, fugacity fractions, and air-soil fluxes to be determined. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) dl-PCB concentrations in the air were higher in summer (mean 9.46fgm(-3), range 1.32-26.3fgm(-3)) than in winter (mean 4.57fgm(-3), range 1.55-10.9fgm(-3)). The dl-PCB concentrations in air were different in different areas, and the concentrations decreased in the order industrial areas?>?commercial and residential areas?>?suburban areas?>?rural area. The mean dl-PCB concentration in soil was 0.25pgTEQg(-1) dry weight (dw) and the range was 0.05-0.90pgTEQg(-1) dw. The highest dl-PCB concentration in soil was found in a sample from a commercial/residential area. The dl-PCB fluxes were negative (-216pgm(-2)h(-1) in summer and -41.1pgm(-2)h(-1) in winter), and the fugacity fractions were below 0.5, indicating that dl-PCBs in Shanghai are deposited from the air to the soil in all seasons. The net fluxes were higher in summer than in winter, and the deposition fluxes were higher in industrial areas than in other areas in both summer and winter. PMID:26490912

  8. Relationships between stream nitrate concentration and spatially distributed snowmelt in high-elevation catchments of the western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Danielle; Molotch, Noah P.; Williams, Mark W.; Jepsen, Steven M.; Sickman, James O.

    2014-11-01

    This study compares stream nitrate (NO3-) concentrations to spatially distributed snowmelt in two alpine catchments, the Green Lakes Valley, Colorado (GLV4) and Tokopah Basin, California (TOK). A snow water equivalent reconstruction model and Landsat 5 and 7 snow cover data were used to estimate daily snowmelt at 30 m spatial resolution in order to derive indices of new snowmelt areas (NSAs). Estimates of NSA were then used to explain the NO3- flushing behavior for each basin over a 12 year period (1996-2007). To identify the optimal method for defining NSAs and elucidate mechanisms underlying catchment NO3- flushing, we conducted a series of regression analyses using multiple thresholds of snowmelt based on temporal and volumetric metrics. NSA indices defined by volume of snowmelt (e.g., snowmelt ≤ 30 cm) rather than snowmelt duration (e.g., snowmelt ≤ 9 days) were the best predictors of stream NO3- concentrations. The NSA indices were better correlated with stream NO3- concentration in TOK (average R2= 0.68) versus GLV4 (average R2= 0.44). Positive relationships between NSA and stream NO3- concentration were observed in TOK with peak stream NO3- concentration occurring on the rising limb of snowmelt. Positive and negative relationships between NSA and stream NO3- concentration were found in GLV4 with peak stream NO3- concentration occurring as NSA expands. Consistent with previous works, the contrasting NO3- flushing behavior suggests that streamflow in TOK was primarily influenced by overland flow and shallow subsurface flow, whereas GLV4 appeared to be more strongly influenced by deeper subsurface flow paths.

  9. Concentration, distribution, and bioavailability of mercury and methylmercury in sediments of Baltimore Harbor and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.P.; Lawrence, A.L.

    1999-11-01

    For the Chesapeake Bay, sediments in regions such as Baltimore Harbor have total mercury (Hg) concentrations that exceed environmental effects guidelines. However, fish concentrations do not appear elevated. Indeed, the factors controlling the transfer of sedimentary Hg, especially as monomethylmercury (MMHg), the most bioaccumulative form of Hg, to these aquatic organisms are poorly understood. To examine this, the authors have investigated the distribution and bioavailability of Hg and MMHg to benthic organisms in Baltimore harbor and the Chesapeake Bay, in Maryland, USA. The results discussed here show that sediment concentration for both total Hg and MMHg covaries with sediment organic content and that this parameter is a better predictor, for surface sediments, of concentration than iron content, acid volatile sulfide (AVS), or other factors. Furthermore, correlations between inorganic Hg and MMHg in benthic biota with sediment levels suggest that variation in the bioaccumulation factor (SBAF) for invertebrates is best explained in terms of sediment organic content. thus, the results from this study emphasize the importance of organic matter in regions removed from point source input in controlling both the concentration and bioavailability of MMHg to organisms. Because of the exponential nature of the SBAF/organic content relationship, there is a nonlinear organism response to MMHg in sediments that must be considered in any estimation of the toxic effect of sediment MMHg. Also, as a result of the decoupling between total Hg and MMHg concentration and bioavailability in surface sediments, any remediation evaluation of bioavailability and/or toxicity that is based only on total Hg concentration is unlikely to provide a reliable prediction.

  10. The simulation of temperature distribution and relative humidity with liquid concentration of 50% using computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohana, Eflita; Yulianto, Mohamad Endy; Kwang-Hwang, Choi; Putro, Bondantio; Yohanes Aditya W., A.

    2015-12-01

    The study of humidity distribution simulation inside a room has been widely conducted by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Here, the simulation was done by employing inputs in the experiment of air humidity reduction in a sample house. Liquid dessicant CaCl2was used in this study to absorb humidity in the air, so that the enormity of humidity reduction occured during the experiment could be obtained.The experiment was conducted in the morning at 8 with liquid desiccant concentration of 50%, nozzle dimension of 0.2 mms attached in dehumidifier, and the debit of air which entered the sample house was 2.35 m3/min. Both in inlet and outlet sides of the room, a DHT 11 censor was installed and used to note changes in humidity and temperature during the experiment. In normal condition without turning on the dehumidifier, the censor noted that the average temperature inside the room was 28C and RH of 65%.The experiment result showed that the relative humidity inside a sample house was decreasing up to 52% in inlet position. Further, through the results obtained from CFD simulation, the temperature distribution and relative humidity inside the sample house could be seen. It showed that the concentration of liquid desiccant of 50% experienced a decrease while the relative humidity distribution was considerably good since the average RH was 55% followed by the increase in air temperature of 29.2 C inside the sample house.

  11. Improving Simulations of Fine Dust Surface Concentrations over the Western United States by Optimizing the Particle Size Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Li; Kok, Jasper F.; Henze, Daven; Li, Qinbin; Zhao, Chun

    2013-06-28

    To improve estimates of remote contributions of dust to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the western United States, new dust particle size distributions (PSDs) based upon scale-invariant fragmentation theory (Kok_PSD) with constraints from in situ measurements (IMP_PSD) are implemented in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Compared to initial simulations, this leads to reductions in the mass of emitted dust particles with radii <1.8 mm by 40%-60%. Consequently, the root-mean-square error in simulated fine dust concentrations compared to springtime surface observations in the western United States is reduced by 67%-81%. The ratio of simulated fine to coarse PM mass is also improved, which is not achievable by reductions in total dust emissions. The IMP_PSD best represents the PSD of dust transported from remote sources and reduces modeled PM2.5 concentrations up to 5 mg/m3 over the western United States, which is important when considering sources contributing to nonattainment of air quality standards. Citation: Zhang, L., J. F. Kok, D. K. Henze, Q. Li, and C. Zhao (2013), Improving simulations of fine dust surface concentrations over the western United States by optimizing the particle size distribution, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 3270-3275, doi:10.1002/grl.50591.

  12. Natural Radioactivity of Boron Added Clay Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, I.; Guenoglu, K.; Canakcii, H.; Mavi, B.

    2011-12-26

    Clay, consisting fine-grained minerals, is an interesting materials and can be used in a variety of different fields especially in dermatology application. Using clay such a field it is important to measure its natural radioactivity. Thus the purpose of this study is to measure {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K concentration in clay samples enriched with boron. Three different types of clay samples were prepared where boron is used in different rate. The measurements have been determined using a gamma-ray spectrometry consists of a 3''x3'' NaI(Tl) detector. From the measured activity the radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), external hazard index (H{sub ex}), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose (AED) have also been obtained.

  13. Natural Radioactivity of Boron Added Clay Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, I.; ?anakci?, H.; Mavi, B.; Gno?lu, K.

    2011-12-01

    Clay, consisting fine-grained minerals, is an interesting materials and can be used in a variety of diferent fields especially in dermatology application. Using clay such a field it is important to measure its natural radioacitivty. Thus the purpose of this study is to measure 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentration in clay samples enriched with boron. Three different types of clay samples were prepared where boron is used in different rate. The measurements have been determined using a gamma-ray spectrometry consists of a 3?3? NaI(Tl) detector. From the measured activity the radium equivalent activities (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose (AED) have also been obtained.

  14. Experimental Microbiology of Saturated Salt Solutions and Other Harsh Environments. III. Growth of Salt-Tolerant Penicillium notatum in Boron-Rich Media 1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Karen; Siegel, S. M.

    1967-01-01

    A stress-tolerant strain of Penicillium notatum, isolated by passage through a nutrient solution saturated with calcium acetate, was found to have a tolerance to boron in several states of oxidation. Growth in the presence of elementary boron, saturating amounts of boric acid, and with various concentrations of sodium borohydride was observed and mycelial mats were spectrographically analyzed for boron accumulation. PMID:6076112

  15. Concentration, size-distribution and deposition of mineral aerosol over Chinese desert regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao Y.; Arimoto, R.; Zhu, G. H.; Chen, T.; Zhang, G. Y.

    1998-09-01

    The mass-particle size distributions (MSDs) of 9 elements in ground-based aerosol samples from dust storm (DS) and non-dust storm (N-DS) periods were determined for 12 sites in 9 major desert regions in northern China. The masses of the 9 elements (Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sc, Si, Sr and Ti) in the atmosphere were dominated by local mineral dust that averaged 270?g m-3, and the MSDs for the elements were approximately log-normal. On the basis of Al data, the<10?m particles account for ~84% of the total dust mass over the deserts. Model-calculated ("100-step" method) dry deposition velocities (Vd) for the 9 dust-derived elements during N-DS periods ranged from 4.4 to 6.8cms-1, with a median value of 5.6cms-1. On the basis of a statistical relationship between D99% (the dust particle diameter corresponding to the uppermost 1% of the cumulative mass distribution) and Vd, one can also predict dry velocities, especially when D99% ranges from 30 to 70?m. This provides a simple way to reconstruct Vd for dust deposits (like aeolian loess sediments in the Loess Plateau). The estimated daily dry deposition fluxes were higher during DS vs. N-DS periods, but in most cases, the monthly averaged fluxes were mainly attributable to N-DS dust. Two regions with high dust loading and fluxes are identified: the "Western High-Dust Desert" and the "Northern High-Dust Desert", with Taklimakan Desert and Badain Juran Desert as their respective centers. These are energetic regions in which desert-air is actively exchanged, and these apparently are the major source areas for Asian dust.

  16. Concentration and distribution of Cr and Ni in soils of Talcahuano, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tume, Pedro; Gonzalez, Elizabeth; King, Robert; Alvarez, Manuel; Roca, Nuria; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    Urban soils can serve as a recipient for a large amount of trace elements from multiple sources, including, municipal wastes, vehicular emissions and industrial wastes.Several researchers have pointed out the need for a better understanding of urban soils in order to assist in developing strategies to protect urban environments and human health against the longterm accumulation of trace elements.The objectives of this study were to (1) define the background levels of chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in soil of Talcahuano; (2) evaluate the site contaminated by trace metals.In this study, 140 soil plots (420 samples: TS:0-10 cm; SS:10-20 cm and BS:150 cm) located approximately in a 1 km regular grid covering the Talcahuano city(94 square km) have been examined. Soil samples (<2mm fraction) were analyzed by standard methods. Aqua regia digest (ISO 11466.2002) of Cr and Ni were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The median concentrations (mg kg-1) obtained include: Cr 134 (range 66.6 - 657) and Ni 56.1 (26.4 - 137). In weakly developed urban soils, Ni follows the same pattern without any real distinguishing features. Chromium displays slight surface enrichment (Cr content in topsoil (mg kg-1): 14570; Cr content in basement (mg kg-1): 138 53 ). However, the differences are not significative. Different methods were evaluated in order to facilitate the best diagnosis of contamination. First, the trace metal geochemical background was determined using basic descriptive statistics. The upper limit (Upper Whisker value) of the background content in mgkg-1is 266 for Cr and 112 for Ni. Secondly, the basic descriptive statistics were then compared with Dutch guidelines, in order to evaluate whether the concentrations measured in soils were abnormally high or not. By comparing the results of the different methods, we estimate that 5% of the soils demonstrate anthropogenic signatures of Cr and Ni.The greatest enrichment anomalies in heavy metals were detected in top soil due to an unauthorized rubbish dump.

  17. The behaviour of boron in a peraluminous granite-pegmatite system and associated hydrothermal solutions: a melt and fluid-inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rainer; Frster, Hans-Jrgen; Heinrich, Wilhelm

    2002-09-01

    Detailed analyses of melt and fluid inclusions combined with an electron-microprobe survey of boron-bearing minerals reveal the evolution of boron in a highly evolved peraluminous granite-pegmatite complex and the associated high- and medium-temperature ore-forming hydrothermal fluids (Ehrenfriedersdorf, Erzgebirge, Germany). Melt inclusions in granite represent embryonic pegmatite-forming melts containing about 10 wt% H2O and 1.8 wt% B2O3. These melts are also enriched in F, P, and other incompatible elements such as Be, Sn, Rb, and Cs. Ongoing differentiation and volatile enrichment drove the system into a solvus, where two pegmatite-forming melts coexisted. The critical point is at about 712 C, 100 MPa, 20 wt% H2O and 4.1 wt% B2O3. Cooling and concomitant fractional crystallisation from 700 to 500 C induced development of two conjugate melts, an H2O-poor (A-melt) and an H2O-rich melt (B-melt) along the opening solvus. Boron is a major element in both melts and is preferentially partitioned into the H2O-rich melt. Temperature-dependent distribution coefficients $ D{boron}{{B - melt/A - melt}} $ are 1.3 at 650 C, 1.5 at 600 C, and 1.8 at 500 C. In both melts, boron concentrations decreased during cooling because of exsolution of a boron-rich hypersaline brine throughout the pegmatitic stage. Boromuscovite containing up to 8.5 wt% was another sink for boron at this stage. The end of the melt-dominated pegmatitic stage was attained at a solidus temperature of around 490 C. Fluid inclusions of the hydrothermal stage reveal trapping temperatures of 480 to 370 C, along with varying densities and highly variable B2O3 contents ranging from 0.20 to 2.94 wt%. A boiling system evolved, indicating a complex interplay between closed- and open-system behaviour. Pressure switched from lithostatic to hydrostatic and back, generating hydrothermal convection cells where meteoric waters were introduced and mixed with magmatic fluids. Boron-rich solutions originated from magmatic fluids, whereas boron-depleted fluids were mainly of meteoric origin. This highlights the potential of boron for discriminating fluids of different origin. Tin is continuously enriched during the evolution because tin and boron are cross-linked by formation of boron-, fluorine- and tin-fluorine-bearing complexes and is finally deposited within quartz-cassiterite veins during the transition from closed- to open-system behaviour. Boron does not only trace the complex evolution of the Ehrenfriedersdorf complex but exerts, together with H2O, F and P, an important control on the physical and chemical properties of pegmatite-forming melts, and particularly on the formation of a two-melt solvus at low pressure. We discuss this with respect to experimental results on H2O solubility and the critical behaviour of the haplogranite-water system which contained variable concentrations of volatiles.

  18. The behaviour of boron in a peraluminous granite-pegmatite system and associated hydrothermal solutions: a melt and fluid-inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rainer; Frster, Hans-Jrgen; Heinrich, Wilhelm

    Detailed analyses of melt and fluid inclusions combined with an electron-microprobe survey of boron-bearing minerals reveal the evolution of boron in a highly evolved peraluminous granite-pegmatite complex and the associated high- and medium-temperature ore-forming hydrothermal fluids (Ehrenfriedersdorf, Erzgebirge, Germany). Melt inclusions in granite represent embryonic pegmatite-forming melts containing about 10 wt% H2O and 1.8 wt% B2O3. These melts are also enriched in F, P, and other incompatible elements such as Be, Sn, Rb, and Cs. Ongoing differentiation and volatile enrichment drove the system into a solvus, where two pegmatite-forming melts coexisted. The critical point is at about 712 C, 100 MPa, 20 wt% H2O and 4.1 wt% B2O3. Cooling and concomitant fractional crystallisation from 700 to 500 C induced development of two conjugate melts, an H2O-poor (A-melt) and an H2O-rich melt (B-melt) along the opening solvus. Boron is a major element in both melts and is preferentially partitioned into the H2O-rich melt. Temperature-dependent distribution coefficients $ D{boron}{{B - melt/A - melt}} $ are 1.3 at 650 C, 1.5 at 600 C, and 1.8 at 500 C. In both melts, boron concentrations decreased during cooling because of exsolution of a boron-rich hypersaline brine throughout the pegmatitic stage. Boromuscovite containing up to 8.5 wt% was another sink for boron at this stage. The end of the melt-dominated pegmatitic stage was attained at a solidus temperature of around 490 C. Fluid inclusions of the hydrothermal stage reveal trapping temperatures of 480 to 370 C, along with varying densities and highly variable B2O3 contents ranging from 0.20 to 2.94 wt%. A boiling system evolved, indicating a complex interplay between closed- and open-system behaviour. Pressure switched from lithostatic to hydrostatic and back, generating hydrothermal convection cells where meteoric waters were introduced and mixed with magmatic fluids. Boron-rich solutions originated from magmatic fluids, whereas boron-depleted fluids were mainly of meteoric origin. This highlights the potential of boron for discriminating fluids of different origin. Tin is continuously enriched during the evolution because tin and boron are cross-linked by formation of boron-, fluorine- and tin-fluorine-bearing complexes and is finally deposited within quartz-cassiterite veins during the transition from closed- to open-system behaviour. Boron does not only trace the complex evolution of the Ehrenfriedersdorf complex but exerts, together with H2O, F and P, an important control on the physical and chemical properties of pegmatite-forming melts, and particularly on the formation of a two-melt solvus at low pressure. We discuss this with respect to experimental results on H2O solubility and the critical behaviour of the haplogranite-water system which contained variable concentrations of volatiles.

  19. The Visualization Method of the 3d Concentration Distribution of Asian Dust in the Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, W.; Kusaka, T.

    2012-07-01

    The Asian dust (called "Kosa" in Japan) transported from desert areas in the northern China often covers over East Asia in the late winter and spring seasons. In this study, first of all, for dust events observed at various places in Japan on April 1, 2007 and March 21, 2010, the long-range transport simulation of Asian dust from desert areas in the northern China to Japan is carried out. Next, the method for representing 3D dust clouds by means of the image overlay functionality provided in the Google Earth is described. Since it is very difficult to display 3D dust clouds along the curvature of the Earth on the global scale, the 3D dust cloud distributed at the altitude of about 6300m was divided into many thin layers, each of which is the same thickness. After each of layers was transformed to the image layer, each image layer was displayed at the appropriate altitude in the Google Earth. Thus obtained image layers were displayed every an hour in the Google Earth. Finally, it is shown that 3D Asian dust clouds generated by the method described in this study are represented as smooth 3D cloud objects even if we looked at Asian dust clouds transversely in the Google Earth.

  20. Impact of spectral irradiance distribution and temperature on the outdoor performance of concentrator photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, Husyira Al; Shibata, Naoki; Sawano, Naoki; Ueno, Seiya; Ota, Yasuyuki; Minemoto, Takashi; Araki, Kenji; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2013-09-01

    Multi-junction solar cell is designed to have considerable effect towards the solar spectrum distribution so that the maximum solar radiation could be absorbed hence, enhancing the energy conversion efficiency of the cell. Due to its application in CPV system, the system's characteristics are more sensitive to environmental factor in comparison to flat-plate PV system which commonly equipped with Si-based solar cell. In this paper, the impact of environmental factors i.e. average photon energy (APE) and temperature of solar cell (Tcell) towards the performance of the tracking type CPV system were discussed. A year data period of direct spectral irradiance, cell temperature, and power output which recorded from November 2010 to October 2011 at a CPV system power generator plant located at Miyazaki, Japan was used in this study. The result showed that most frequent condition during operation was at APE = 1.87±0.005eV, Tcell = 65±2.5°C with performance ratio of 83.9%. Furthermore, an equivalent circuit simulation of a CPV subsystem in module unit was conducted in order to investigate the influence of environmental factors towards the performance of the module.

  1. Addition of oxygen to and distribution of oxides in tantalum alloy T-111 at low concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1975-01-01

    Oxygen was added at 820 and 990 C at an oxygen pressure of about .0003 torr. The technique permitted predetermined and reproducible oxygen doping of the tantalum alloy (T-111). Based on the temperature dependency of the doping reaction, it was concluded that the initial rates of oxygen pickup are probably controlled by solution of oxygen into the T-111 lattice. Although hafnium oxides are more stable than those of tantalum or tungsten, analyses of extracted residues indicate that the tantalum and tungsten oxides predominate in the as-doped specimens, presumably because of the higher concentrations of tantalum and tungsten in the alloy. However, high-temperature annealing promotes gettering of dissolved oxygen and oxygen from other oxides to form hafnium oxides. Small amounts of tantalum and tungsten oxides were still present after high temperature annealing. Tungsten oxide (WO3) volatilizes slightly from the surface of T-111 at 990 C but not at 820 C. The vaporization of WO3 has no apparent effect on the doping reaction.

  2. Changes in Concentration and Distribution of Biomarkers in Biodegraded Oils from Dongying Depression, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhonghong; Wang, T-G; Yan, Detian

    2015-10-01

    The alkane fraction of 11 biodegraded oils and five non-biodegraded oils from the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to investigate the biomarker alteration caused by biodegradation. Results indicated that the concentration of 25-norhopanes was correlated with increased biodegradation. The oil samples showed an increase in the C31 and C32 hopane 22S/(22S + 22R), C29 sterane C2920S/(20S + 20R), and C29ββ/(ββ + αα) thermal maturity parameters in the heavily biodegraded oils. Oleanane was preferentially biodegraded compared with C3017α-hopane, which was preferentially biodegraded compared with C2917α, 21β-norhopane, C30 moretane, and C29 25-norhopane. The selective depletion of C27-C29 steranes followed the order ααα 20R > ααα 20S + αββ 20R > αββ 20S and C27 > C29 > C28, and the diasteranes and C20-C21 steranes were much more resistant to biodegradation than regular C27-C29 steranes. The steranes were generally preferentially biodegraded compared with the hopanes in this study. PMID:26239445

  3. 40 CFR Table F-4 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Coarse Aerosol Size Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Coarse Aerosol Size Distribution F Table F-4 to Subpart F of Part 53... Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Coarse Aerosol Size Distribution Particle Aerodynamic...

  4. 40 CFR Table F-6 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution F Table F-6 to Subpart F of Part 53... Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution Particle Aerodynamic...

  5. 40 CFR Table F-6 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution F Table F-6 to Subpart F of Part 53... Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution Particle Aerodynamic...

  6. 40 CFR Table F-4 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Coarse Aerosol Size Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Coarse Aerosol Size Distribution F Table F-4 to Subpart F of Part 53... Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Coarse Aerosol Size Distribution Particle Aerodynamic...

  7. Beneficiation of borax by reverse flotation in boron saturated brine.

    PubMed

    Cafer Cilek, Emin; Uresin, Hasan

    2005-10-15

    Flotation is one of the plausible methods for recovering borax fines discharged as fine waste to the tailings dam in the Kirka borax processing plant. A literature review dealing with the flotation behavior of boron minerals reveals that clay minerals in the boron ores coat boron minerals and thus deteriorate the quality of boron concentrates produced by direct flotation. The main objective of this study is therefore to recover borax fines from the tailings of the concentrator by reverse flotation. A three-level-factor experimental design was used to determine the main and interaction effects of variables selected on the metallurgical performance of reverse flotation. An analysis of variance for experimental results indicates that interaction effects of the variables for concentrate quality and recovery of B2O3 is nonsignificant and the most important variable for grade of concentrate and recovery is the collector dosage. It is shown that a concentrate assaying 11.25% B2O3 with 89.90% B2O3 recovery could be produced by means of single-stage (rougher) reverse flotation. Additionally, in order to produce a sufficient-quality concentrate, a multistage reverse flotation scheme involving rougher, scavenger, and two cleaners was devised. A final concentrate containing 23.47% B2O3 with 81.78% B2O3 recovery was obtained from these tests. The reverse flotation method can be thus considered as an important option for the beneficiation of borax fines. PMID:15939429

  8. Reverse annealing of boron in boron implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation describes a study intended to clarify, in boron-implanted silicon, the mechanism of boron reverse annealing which occurs in the temperature range from 550 to about 700/sup 0/C. The electrical properties of a boron implanted silicon were correlated with cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopic (XTEM) studies and Deep Level Capacitance Transient Spectroscopic (DLTS) studies. Isothermal kinetic studies were performed to characterize the evolution and diminution of boron reverse annealing. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) using tungsten-halogen lamps was employed for the study of the early time kinetics of reverse annealing. Float Zone (FZ) silicon wafers were used to investigate the effect of oxygen on reverse annealing. Boron and argon implants into p/sup -/ silicon wafers were carried out to sort out the defect species responsible for reverse annealing. The role of rod-like defects, which are commonly observed in an annealed boron implanted silicon, was also examined. Results point to boron-vacancy complex model as the most appropriate mechanism for boron reverse annealing. It is shown that precipitation, rod-like defects, and the Watkins' displacement mechanism are unlikely as causes for reverse annealing. Reverse annealing is a reaction that has a limited supply of reactants as revealed by the kinetic study.

  9. Boron Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1990-01-01

    Ecological and toxicological aspects of boron (B) in the environment are reviewed, with emphasis on natural resources. Subtopics covered include environmental chemistry, background concentrations, effects, and current recommendations for the protection of living resources. Boron is not now considered essential in mammalian nutrition, although low dietary levels protect against fluorosis and bone demineralization. Excessive consumption (i.e., >1,000 mg B/kg diet, >15 mg B/kg body weight daily, >1.0 mg B/L drinking water, or >210 mg B/kg body weight in a single dose) adversely affects growth, survival, or reproduction in sensitive mammals. Boron and its compounds are potent teratogens when applied directly to the mammalian embryo, but there is no evidence of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity. Boron`s unique affinity for cancerous tissues has been exploited in neutron capture radiation therapy of malignant human brain tumors. Current boron criteria recommended for the protection of sensitive species include <0.3 mg B/L in crop irrigation waters, <1.0 mg B/L for aquatic life, <5.0 mg B/L in livestock drinking waters, <30 mg B/kg in waterfowl diets, and <100 mg B/kg in livestock diets.

  10. The Use of Neutron Analysis Techniques for Detecting The Concentration And Distribution of Chloride Ions in Archaeological Iron

    PubMed Central

    Watkinson, D; Rimmer, M; Kasztovszky, Z; Kis, Z; Marti, B; Szentmiklsi, L

    2014-01-01

    Chloride (Cl) ions diffuse into iron objects during burial and drive corrosion after excavation. Located under corrosion layers, Cl is inaccessible to many analytical techniques. Neutron analysis offers non-destructive avenues for determining Cl content and distribution in objects. A pilot study used prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and prompt gamma activation imaging (PGAI) to analyse the bulk concentration and longitudinal distribution of Cl in archaeological iron objects. This correlated with the object corrosion rate measured by oxygen consumption, and compared well with Cl measurement using a specific ion meter. High-Cl areas were linked with visible damage to the corrosion layers and attack of the iron core. Neutron techniques have significant advantages in the analysis of archaeological metals, including penetration depth and low detection limits. PMID:26028670

  11. Distribution and concentration of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in plasma of normolipemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Marcel, Y L; McPherson, R; Hogue, M; Czarnecka, H; Zawadzki, Z; Weech, P K; Whitlock, M E; Tall, A R; Milne, R W

    1990-01-01

    A MAb (TP-2) directed against human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been applied to the development of a competitive solid-phase RIA. Experiments with immobilized CETP have shown that upon incubation with plasma or HDL in the presence of Tween (0.05%) apo A-I (but not apo A-II) binds to CETP while TP-2 binding to CETP is concomitantly decreased. With high detergent concentration (0.5% Triton), the interference is eliminated and a specific RIA in which all plasma CETP fractions have the same affinity can be obtained. Plasma levels of CETP, apo A-I, lipids, and lipoproteins were measured in 50 normolipemic, healthy subjects of both sexes. CETP levels varied nearly fourfold with a mean value of 1.7 micrograms/ml. CETP was positively correlated only with apo A-I (r = 0.38) and HDL-triglyceride (r = 0.39). In 29 other normolipemic subjects, where several apolipoproteins were also measured, significant correlations of CETP with apo A-I (0.41), apo E (0.43), and HDL-cholesterol (0.41) were observed, but there was no significant relationship between CETP and either apo A-II, B, or D. In other experiments CETP was shown to be present mostly in HDL3 and VHDL, to display exclusively an alpha 2-electrophoretic migration, and to occur within discrete particles ranging in size from 129 to 154 kD. In conclusion, the association of CETP with apo A-I-containing lipoproteins probably explains the correlation between CETP and apo A-I levels. The relationship between CETP and apo E suggests either a common metabolism or a specific cooperative role in cholesterol ester transport for these proteins. PMID:2295691

  12. [Distribution characteristics of soil profile nitrous oxide concentration in paddy fields with different rice-upland crop rotation systems].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping-li; Zhang, Xiao-lin; Xiong, Zheng-qin; Huang, Tai-qing; Ding, Min; Wang, Jin-yang

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the dynamic distribution patterns of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the soil profiles in paddy fields with different rice-upland crop rotation systems, a special soil gas collection device was adopted to monitor the dynamics of N2O at the soil depths 7, 15, 30, and 50 cm in the paddy fields under both flooding and drainage conditions. Two rotation systems were installed, i.e., wheat-single rice and oilseed rape-double rice, each with or without nitrogen (N) application. Comparing with the control, N application promoted the N2O production in the soil profiles significantly (P < 0.01), and there existed significant correlations in the N2O concentration among the four soil depths during the whole observation period (P < 0.01). In the growth seasons of winter wheat and oilseed rape under drainage condition and with or without N application, the N2O concentrations at the soil depths 30 cm and 50 cm were significantly higher than those at the soil depths 7 cm and 15 cm; whereas in the early rice growth season under flooding condition and without N application, the N2O concentrations at the soil depth 7 cm and 15 cm were significantly higher than those at the soil depths 30 cm and 50 cm (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the N2O concentrations at the test soil depths among the other rice cropping treatments. The soil N2O concentrations in the treatments without N application peaked in the transitional period from the upland crops cropping to rice planting, while those in the treatments with N application peaked right after the second topdressing N of upland crops. Relatively high soil N2O concentrations were observed at the transitional period from the upland crops cropping to rice planting. PMID:22126049

  13. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Oi, Takao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Kakihana, Hidetake ); Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto )

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite (Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with high BO{sub 3}/BO{sub 4} ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO{sub 3} triangle units to the number of the BO{sub 4} tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios.

  14. Elevated heavy metal concentrations in top soils of an Aegean island town (Greece): total and available forms, origin and distribution.

    PubMed

    Massas, I; Ehaliotis, C; Gerontidis, S; Sarris, E

    2009-04-01

    Elevated heavy metal concentrations in urban top soils are principal indicators of environmental pollution; however, relative data on the heavy metal status in soils of Greek island towns, that are regional administrative centers and popular tourist destinations, are missing. A survey was conducted to examine heavy metal concentrations in the urban soils of Ermoupolis, the capital of Syros island and of the prefecture of Cyclades complex in the Aegean Sea. Total (aqua-regia extracted) and available (DTPA extracted) concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Sn and Fe were determined in top soil samples collected from green areas and open spaces of the town and in surface samples from inland reference soils of the island. Mean values for the aqua-regia extracted fraction of Cu, Pb and Zn were 117, 155 and 440 mg kg(-1) respectively, up to four times higher than the respective mean values of the reference soils. Enrichment factors (EFs) for these metals indicated high accumulation in the urban top soils and the available to total concentration ratio of Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe was higher for the urban compared to the reference soils, suggesting differences in metal sequestration, resulting in higher metal availability in the urban soils. GIS analysis was used to visualize the spatial distribution of EFs of the studied heavy metals. Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis, applied to aqua-regia and DTPA data sets, adequately elucidated the origin of metals grouped under each factor or cluster. PMID:18431683

  15. Effects of diesel exhaust aftertreatment devices on concentrations and size distribution of aerosols in underground mine air.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Schnakenberg, George H; Hummer, Ion A; Cauda, Emanuele; Janisko, Samuel I; Patts, Larry D

    2009-09-01

    Three types of uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems, three types of high-temperature disposable filter elements (DFEs), and one diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC) were evaluated in underground mine conditions for their effects on the concentrations and size distributions of diesel aerosols. Those effects were compared with the effects of a standard muffler. The experimental work was conducted directly in an underground environment using a unique diesel laboratory developed in an underground experimental mine. The DPF systems reduced total mass of aerosols in the mine air approximately 10-fold for light-load and 20-fold or more for high-load test conditions. The DFEs offered similar reductions in aerosol mass concentrations. The efficiency of the new DFEs significantly increased with accumulation of operating time and buildup of diesel particulate matter in the porous structure of the filter elements. A single laundering process did not exhibit substantial effects on performance of the filter element The effectiveness of DPFs and DFEs in removing aerosols by number was strongly influenced by engine operating mode. The concentrations of nucleation mode aerosols in the mine air were found to be substantially higher for both DPFs and DFEs when the engine was operated at high-load modes than at low-load modes. The effects of the DOC on mass and number concentrations of aerosols in mine air were relatively minor when compared to those of the DPF and DFE systems. PMID:19764243

  16. Time-series MODIS image-based retrieval and distribution analysis of total suspended matter concentrations in Lake Taihu (China).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchao; Lin, Shan; Liu, Jianping; Qian, Xin; Ge, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of total suspended matter (TSM), there are limited studies on universal TSM retrieval models. In this paper, we have developed a TSM retrieval model for Lake Taihu using TSM concentrations measured in situ and a time series of quasi-synchronous MODIS 250 m images from 2005. After simple geometric and atmospheric correction, we found a significant relationship (R = 0.8736, N = 166) between in situ measured TSM concentrations and MODIS band normalization difference of band 3 and band 1. From this, we retrieved TSM concentrations in eight regions of Lake Taihu in 2007 and analyzed the characteristic distribution and variation of TSM. Synoptic maps of model-estimated TSM of 2007 showed clear geographical and seasonal variations. TSM in Central Lake and Southern Lakeshore were consistently higher than in other regions, while TSM in East Taihu was generally the lowest among the regions throughout the year. Furthermore, a wide range of TSM concentrations appeared from winter to summer. TSM in winter could be several times that in summer. PMID:20948942

  17. Time-series MODIS Image-based Retrieval and Distribution Analysis of Total Suspended Matter Concentrations in Lake Taihu (China)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuchao; Lin, Shan; Liu, Jianping; Qian, Xin; Ge, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of total suspended matter (TSM), there are limited studies on universal TSM retrieval models. In this paper, we have developed a TSM retrieval model for Lake Taihu using TSM concentrations measured in situ and a time series of quasi-synchronous MODIS 250 m images from 2005. After simple geometric and atmospheric correction, we found a significant relationship (R = 0.8736, N = 166) between in situ measured TSM concentrations and MODIS band normalization difference of band 3 and band 1. From this, we retrieved TSM concentrations in eight regions of Lake Taihu in 2007 and analyzed the characteristic distribution and variation of TSM. Synoptic maps of model-estimated TSM of 2007 showed clear geographical and seasonal variations. TSM in Central Lake and Southern Lakeshore were consistently higher than in other regions, while TSM in East Taihu was generally the lowest among the regions throughout the year. Furthermore, a wide range of TSM concentrations appeared from winter to summer. TSM in winter could be several times that in summer. PMID:20948942

  18. Towards an understanding of deep boron: study of type IIb blue diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillou, E.; Rost, D.; Post, J. E.; Butler, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Boron concentration and isotopic signature are known as a tracer of recycled crustal material from subduction zones inside the Earth's mantle. Thus far, the focus has been on analyzing boron in volcanic rocks and olivine inclusions. However, these materials always experience some degree of late processing on their way to the surface (alteration, crystallization, change in structure, etc.). As of now, the boron content and isotopic ratio of the mantle end-member is only assumed through mass balance calculations (Chaussidon & Marty, 1995). Diamonds, on the other hand, would be a more ideal material to analyze for boron, as it does not undergo significant processing while on its way to the surface. Boron-containing diamonds are well known but extremely rare; they are referred as type IIb diamonds. They are highly valuable in the gem market, as the presence of boron in the diamond structure gives rise to the blue color, such as in the Hope diamond. Only a few boron analyses have been undertaken on type IIb natural diamonds, however, it is generally accepted that their boron concentration is ~1 ppm or lower. The combination of rarity, high value, and low boron content are the most likely reasons why geologists have not yet performed boron analyses on blue diamonds. This study used various spectroscopic methods and time-of-fight (ToF-) SIMS, which are non- or nearly non-destructive techniques, to characterize and analyze for boron in natural type IIb blue diamonds, including the well-known Hope diamond. Results obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and phosphorescence spectroscopies on 103 diamonds will be presented and compared to some analyses of boron contents measured using ToF-SIMS. ToF-SIMS analyses gave spot (50 x 50 ?m x few nm deep) boron concentrations as high as 8.4 1.1 (atomic) ppm for the Hope diamond to less than 0.08 ppm in other blue diamonds, with an overall average value of ~1 ppm. ToF-SIMS analyses revealed strong zoning of boron in some diamonds, which was confirmed by mapping active boron using synchrotron FTIR. ToF-SIMS gives the spectrum of all the masses at once, so both 11B and 10B were detected. However, the counts on 10B were too low at the counting time we used (several hours) to provide significant ?11B measurements. We observed that there is not a strong correlation between the amount of boron and the color intensity in type IIb diamonds (Gaillou et al., 2012). However, the deep-blue colored diamonds are always associated with a "high" boron content, and therefore, future attempted measurements of boron isotopic ratios should be conducted on deep blue (and unfortunately, valuable) diamonds, using either a much longer counting time, or a different ion mass spectrometer (with different standards), that would consume more material. This study shows that the range of boron concentration, even if in the lower range of instrument detectability, should soon be able to provide boron isotopic measurements, and perhaps gives insights into the origin of boron in diamonds, e.g. from a subducted slab and/or from primitive mantle reservoir. Chaussidon M., Marty B. (1995) Primitive boron isotope composition of the mantle, Science, 269, 383-386. Gaillou E., Rost D., Post J.E., Butler J.E. (2012) Boron in natural type IIb blue diamonds: chemical and spectroscopic measurements. Am. Min., 1, 1-18.

  19. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1999-04-27

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition. 3 figs.

  20. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1999-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition.

  1. Determining the concentration and distribution of arsenic deposits in rock matrices and porous media by X-ray difference microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, D.; Alsina, M.; Chen, C.; Keane, D.; Packman, A. I.; Gaillard, J.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Pasten, P. A.; Pizarro, G.

    2009-12-01

    Synchrotron-based high resolution X-ray microtomography was used to characterize arsenic (As) deposits within porous media. The distribution of arsenic was determined using difference tomography, where the X-rays used to image the sample were selected to be just above and below the As absorption edge at 11,853 eV. The difference tomograms have background noise from other minerals contained in the sample, local variation of X-ray beam intensity, and electronic noise associated with the data acquisition process. Image processing filters, such as windowing or adaptive filters derived from the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, were employed to reduce background noise in the tomograms and enhance information on the arsenic deposits. These errors are generally larger in difference tomography than in conventional X-ray microtomography because this method requires operating at very specific X-ray energies (i.e., an edge of the element of interest), and this constraint makes it very difficult to obtain optimal contrast for tomographic reconstruction. In particular, the signal-to-noise ratio is often low in difference tomograms of geological samples having high background X-ray absorption. The relationship between As concentration and difference image intensity was evaluated using well defined As samples prepared in the laboratory, along with As-rich sinter deposits from El Tatio hydrothermal field and fluvial sediments from the Loa River downstream of El Tatio. This relationship is non-linear because of interactions between the different sources of error in the construction of the difference tomograms. As a result, the difference tomography method is relatively insensitive to bulk As concentrations, and instead primarily provides information on the distribution of regions of the sample that have high As concentrations, such as As-rich particles, precipitates, or evaporite deposits. Tomographic 3D reconstructions of the porous media and of the aggregate structure thus provide an unique opportunity to observe the distribution and morphology of arsenic deposits within primary source formations and mixed fluvial sediments. This approach provides a useful method for obtaining 3D microstructural and chemical information in rock matrices, for investigating contaminant distributions within sedimentary deposits, and for assessing distributions of different mineral phases within biofilms and other organic material.

  2. Airborne DOAS measurements in Arctic: vertical distributions of aerosol extinction coefficient and NO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, A.; van Roozendael, M.; Theys, N.; Fayt, C.; Hermans, C.; Quennehen, B.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Ancellet, G.; Pommier, M.; Pelon, J.; Burkhart, J.; Stohl, A.; de Mazière, M.

    2011-05-01

    We report airborne differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of aerosol extinction and NO2 tropospheric profiles performed off the North coast of Norway in April 2008. The DOAS instrument was installed on the Safire ATR-42 aircraft during the POLARCAT-France spring campaign and recorded scattered light spectra in near-limb geometry using a scanning telescope. We use O4 slant column measurements to derive the aerosol extinction at 360 nm. Regularization is based on the maximum a posteriori solution, for which we compare a linear and a logarithmic approach. The latter inherently constrains the solution to positive values and yields aerosol extinction profiles more consistent with independently measured size distributions. Two soundings are presented, performed on 8 April 2008 above 71° N, 22° E and on 9 April 2008 above 70° N, 17.8° E. The first profile shows aerosol extinction and NO2 in the marine boundary layer with respective values of 0.04±0.005 km-1 and 1.9±0.3 × 109 molec cm-3. A second extinction layer of 0.01±0.003 km-1 is found at 4 km altitude. During the second sounding, clouds prevented us to retrieve profile parts under 3 km altitude but a layer with enhanced extinction (0.025±0.005 km-1) and NO2 (1.95±0.2 × 109 molec cm-3) is clearly detected at 4 km altitude. From CO and ozone in-situ measurements complemented by back-trajectories, we interpret the measurements in the free troposphere as, for the first sounding, a mix between stratospheric and polluted air from Northern Europe and for the second sounding, polluted air from Central Europe containing NO2. Considering the boundary layer measurements of the first flight, modeled source regions indicate closer sources, especially the Kola Peninsula smelters, which can explain the NO2 enhancement not correlated with a CO increase at the same altitude.

  3. Polarization control of an infrared silicon light-emitting diode by dressed photons and analyses of the spatial distribution of doped boron atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazoe, Tadashi; Nishioka, Katsuhiro; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of a polarization-controlled infrared LED fabricated by dressed-photon-phonon (DPP)-assisted annealing of a bulk Si crystal. For the DPP-assisted annealing, linearly polarized infrared light with a wavelength of 1.342 ?m was made normally incident on the top surface of the crystal. The photon energy at the peak of the emitted light spectrum of the fabricated LED was close to that of the light irradiated during the DPP-assisted annealing. A degree of polarization of as large as 0.07 was obtained. The spatial distribution of the doped B atoms in the fabricated LED was measured, and the following findings were obtained: (1) B atoms formed pairs in which the separation between the two B atoms was three times the lattice constant of the Si crystal; and (2) the B atom pairs were apt to orient along the direction perpendicular to the propagation direction and to the polarization direction of the light irradiated during the DPP-assisted annealing. Based on these findings (1) and (2), photon breeding was confirmed with respect to photon energy and spin, respectively.

  4. Concentration and Distribution of Well Drilling in the Amargosa Desert Area of Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. P.; Gross, A. J.; Coleman, N. M.

    2002-05-01

    The earliest sources of fresh water supply in the Amargosa Desert area of Southern Nevada were the abundant, naturally occurring (cold) springs. They initially sustained the indigenous Native American populations and later, Euro-American miners, farmers, and ranchers. Prior to 1900, the many local springs and a few (mostly shallow) hand-dug wells were the principal sources of water supply. The first hand-dug well in the area was the Franklin well; it was dug in 1852 for workers performing a survey of the California-Nevada State line. The first mechanically bored wells were drilled for local railroads, along their respective alignments, sometime between 1905-07. About 1917, the first irrigation well in the Amargosa Desert area was drilled for an experimental farm operated by the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad. In the late 1940s-early 1950s, permanent interest in the area was established, in large measure because of a Federally sponsored desert reclamation program. For the period 1900-1999, a preliminary evaluation of publicly available information (collected principally by the State Engineer) indicates that more than 950 boreholes were drilled in the Amargosa Desert area. Almost half of these boreholes were drilled in the last 20 years. Forty-two percent of the boreholes were drilled to supply fresh drinking water; 26 percent were in support of irrigated agriculture; 21 percent of the wells were drilled for some non-water supply related purpose - ground-water monitoring and testing; and 11 percent were drilled to supply water for commercial or unspecified applications. Most of the well drilling has been concentrated in a parcel of land about 30-40 kilometers south of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Most wells have been generally drilled to depths less than 30 meters (100 feet), although deeper wells are uncommon. The main reason is that drilling is expensive and the profitability of finding and extracting potable water, in sufficient quantity, generally declines with depth. However, during the last two decades, there has been a general decline in drilling for irrigation. Designation of local aquifers in the area as "protected" in 1979 has favored new well-permitting for residential or commercial uses. Moreover, in the 1990s, local farmers were required to forfeit unused water rights and these rights have been reallocated to new, non-farming residents by the State Engineer in Nevada's Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Nevertheless, the general decline in irrigation permitting for farming over the last several decades most likely has more to do with the physical and/or economic factors that have historically controlled local farming rather than with recent water availability issues.

  5. Boron enhancement of high LET Cf-252 brachytherapy in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, J.L.; Ashtari, M.; Harris, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have investigated the potential enhancement in dose distribution and cell killing effectiveness for Cf-252 brain implants by the addition of boron-10 enriched boron compounds which cross the blood brain barrier. There is a significant enhancement in both the absorbed dose and the high LET event frequency at distances of 3-5 cm from the sources. The principal difficulty, aside from toxicity and delivery problems, is a tendency for the thermal neutron distribution to peak at the center of the head instead of centering on the source distribution. The increase in cell killing was found to closely parallel the increase in absorbed dose from the boron capture events.

  6. Influence of Boron in Semi-insulating GaAs Crystals on Their Electrical Activation by Si-Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Seiichi; Otoki, Yoohei; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Kuma, Shoji

    1993-05-01

    The influence of boron on the activation of silicon ions implanted in semi-insulating GaAs crystals grown by liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) method from As-rich melt was investigated using crystals with the same carbon concentration and the same deep donor (EL2) concentration. The resistivity of the crystal was not affected by the boron concentration. The sheet resistivity of the implanted layer, however, became higher with increase of the boron concentration. An analysis of the electrical properties of the implanted layer suggested that the occupation rate of the implanted silicon at As site (SiAs), which decides the acceptor level, increased with the boron concentration. The dependence of this occupation rate was influenced by the annealing temperature for activation in the region of low boron concentration under 15 1016 cm-3.

  7. Boron Clusters Come of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Russell N.

    2004-01-01

    Boron is the only element other than carbon that can build molecules of unlimited size by covalently boding to itself, a property known as catenation. In contrast to the chains and rings favored by carbon, boron arguably adopts a cluster motif that is reflected in the various forms of the pure element and in the huge area of polyhedral borane

  8. Titanium reinforced boron polyimide composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Program involves development of process technique for boron-polyimide prepeg, lay-up and curing procedures for prepegs when processed under vacuum bag pressure, and development and evaluation of titanium hard points for smooth transition of loads from titanium attach points into boron reinforced body of structure.

  9. Boron Clusters Come of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Russell N.

    2004-01-01

    Boron is the only element other than carbon that can build molecules of unlimited size by covalently boding to itself, a property known as catenation. In contrast to the chains and rings favored by carbon, boron arguably adopts a cluster motif that is reflected in the various forms of the pure element and in the huge area of polyhedral borane…

  10. [Concentration and distribution of fluorine in hen's eggs as an aspect of selected biological parameters].

    PubMed

    Machali?ski, B

    1996-01-01

    The actual paper presents the method and results of studies concerning the content and decomposition of fluorine compounds in the component structures of eggs and in the bone system of a domestic hen, as well as its progeny under conditions of increased content of these compounds in the drinking water. The objective of the paper has been: 1) determining the effect of environmental contamination (NaF in drinking water) exerted on the presence of fluorine in eggs, 2) defining the distribution of fluorine in component structures of the egg, 3) studying the fluorine effect on selected physical parameters of eggs, 4) determination of fluorine content in tibial bones of laying hens, after receiving NaF in drinking water, and to compare the tibial bone composition in hens and their progeny with control groups, 5) analyzing the share of fluorine compounds in the construction of skeleton and beaks of chicks. The conceptions of the work were elaborated on the basis of results stemming from an accomplished experimental breeding of domestic hens in a semi-intensive system. The experiment proceeded 4 weeks. A part of eggs obtained by breeding was designed for hatching. Due to the requirements associated with analyzing the skeleton, all the experimental birds, including the chicks, were assigned for further analyses. The material, obtained in this way, (bones of hens, chicks, eggs) was subsequently subjected to detailed studies. According to the conceptions of the paper the selected physical parameters of eggs were studied, therein resistance tests, using specialized apparatuses. Fluoride was determined potentiometrically, by applying fluoride ion selective electrode, while the metallic elements by aid of atomic spectrophotometer (Tab. 1-5, Fig. 1). Finally, the following conclusions were presented, namely: 1. The egg shell in hens plays an essential role in binding fluorine compounds and constitutes one of the means of their fast elimination from the organism. 2. Egg shells may provide an easily accessible bioindicator for the exposure of birds to fluorine compound, particularly with regard to a given species. 3. Moderately increased fluorine content in the shells of eggs fails to influence their thickness and does not cause any changes in their resistance to decay. 4. In conditions of increased exposure of hens to fluorine compounds, no elevation in the accumulation of this element was disclosed in the substance, which is evidence that there is a lack of apparent influence of local contamination by emissions of fluorine compounds exerted on nutritional usefulness of eggs. 5. Comparison of fluorine content in the bones of chicks, stemming from hens being given water with NaF to drink, with control hens points to a significant rise in fluoride accumulation in progeny of hens, exposed to sodium fluoride action. That may have a negative influence on their correct development. PMID:9199123

  11. Boron removal from aqueous solutions using alginate gel beads in fixed-bed systems

    PubMed Central

    Demey-Cedeo, Hary; Ruiz, Montserrat; Barron-Zambrano, Jess Alberto; Sastre, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background A column sorption study was carried out using calcium alginate gel beads as adsorbent for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of pH, initial concentration of boron, feed flow rate, adsorbent mass and column diameter. The breakthrough capacity values and adsorption percentage of calcium alginate gel for boron were calculated. Column data obtained at different conditions were described using the AdamsBohart model and bed-depth service time (BDST), derived from the AdamsBohart equation to predict breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. Results The maximum adsorption percentage of boron on calcium alginate gel beads using an initial concentration of boron of 50 mg L?1 at pH 11 and room temperature (201C) was calculated to be 55.14%. Conclusion The results indicated that calcium alginate can be used in a continuous packed-bed column for boron adsorption. The optimal conditions for boron adsorption were obtained at high pH, higher initial boron concentration, increased column depth and lower flow velocity. 2014 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25821332

  12. Crystal structure of new composition boron-rich boron nitride using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Katsuhito; Yarbrough, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of polycrystalline boron nitride films, with beta-rhombohedral boron crystallites, was accomplished with BCl3-NH3-H2 in a tungsten hot filament chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Raman spectra and XRD results revealed that the crystal structure of the boron nitride films is similar to rhombohedral boron carbide B4C. The composition of these crystallites by XPS was found to give a ratio of boron to nitrogen of 3:1. These results suggest that the boron nitride crystals obtained in this work are previously unreported compounds of a rhombohedral boron-rich boron nitride, analogous to boron carbide, B4C.

  13. Anomalous ichthyoplankton distributions and concentrations in the northern California Current during the 2010 El Nio and La Nia events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auth, Toby D.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Peterson, Jay O.

    2015-09-01

    In late spring of 2010, the northern California Current (NCC) experienced a transition from El Nio to La Nia conditions resulting in anomalous distributions and concentrations within the ichthyoplankton community. We analyzed larval fish data collected during the four months before and after this transition and compared them to data from three previous studies conducted in the NCC. In one comparison, concentrations of larvae collected during winter from stations 2 to 46 km offshore along the central Oregon coast were higher in 2010 than in any other year from 1998 to 2011. In a second comparison of nearshore larvae collected during six periods (1971-1972, 1978, 1983, 1998, 1999-2002, and 2003-2005) previous to 2010, concentrations of total larvae and most dominant larval taxa were higher during the winter/spring and lower during the summer/fall seasons in 2010 (corresponding to the shift from El Nio to La Nia conditions) than during similar seasons in any other annual period. In a third comparison, larvae collected from stations 21 to 102 km offshore along the southern Washington to south-central Oregon coast in May 2010, at the end of the El Nio event, were found in higher concentrations than during any May from 2004 to 2009 and 2011. The high concentration of larvae in the winter and spring of 2010 was likely the direct result of El Nio and warm-ocean conditions (high values of the MEI, NOI, and PDO) along with strong downwelling and onshore transport that increased the abundance of offshore taxa over the shelf. Continued monitoring of the NCC is warranted as El Nio effects on larval fish observed in the past may not be indicative of future effects.

  14. Distribution of Microbial Arsenic Reduction, Oxidation and Extrusion Genes along a Wide Range of Environmental Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Lorena V.; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Chong, Guillermo; Pedrós-Alió, Carles; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. A combination of primers from the literature and newly designed primers were used to explore the presence of the arsC gene, coding for the reduction of As (V) to As (III) in one of the most common detoxification mechanisms. Enterobacterial related arsC genes appeared only in the environments with the lowest As concentration, while Firmicutes-like genes were present throughout the range of As concentrations. The arrA gene, involved in anaerobic respiration using As (V) as electron acceptor, was found in all the systems studied. The As (III) oxidation gene aioA and the As (III) transport gene acr3 were tracked with two primer sets each and they were also found to be spread through the As concentration gradient. Sediment samples had a higher number of arsenic related genes than water samples. Considering the results of the bacterial community composition available for these samples, the higher microbial phylogenetic d