Sample records for boron concentration distribution

  1. The effects of low boron on growth, gas exchange, boron concentration and distribution of ‘Newhall’ navel orange ( Citrus sinensis Osb.) plants grafted on two rootstocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ou Sheng; Shangwei Song; Shuang Peng; Xiuxin Deng

    2009-01-01

    The effects of low boron (B) on plant growth, photosynthesis, B concentration and distribution of ‘Newhall’ orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) plants grafted on either Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) or Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] rootstocks were investigated. One-year-old plants of the two scion-rootstock combinations were grown for 183 days in sand:perlite (1:1, v\\/v) medium

  2. Boron isotopic composition and concentration in modern marine carbonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Hemming; G. N. Hanson

    1992-01-01

    The boron isotopic compositions and boron concentrations of selected modern marine carbonates were analysed by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a 2 reproducibility of standards and samples better than 0.7%. It was found that the boron isotopic compositions of modern marine carbonates fall within a relatively narrow range (+22.1 ± 3%. relative to NBS SRM951 boric acid standard) for

  3. Boron isotopic composition and concentration in modern marine carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Hemming, N.G.; Hanson, G.N. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The boron isotopic compositions and boron concentrations of selected modern marine carbonates were analyzed by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a 2{sigma} reproducibility of standards and samples better than 0.7{per thousand}. It was found that the boron isotopic compositions of modern marine carbonates fall within a relatively narrow range (+22.1 {plus minus} 3{per thousand} relative to NBS SRM951 boric acid standard) for all samples (biogenic, nonbiogenic, warm water, cold water, aragonitic, or calcitic). This is about 17{per thousand} lighter than seawater. This indicates that mineralogy, temperature, and vital effects are not primary controls on the observed isotopic composition. The narrow range in isotopic composition is no contrast to the wide range in boron concentrations of these samples (10.9-71.4 ppm). The boron isotopic compositions and boron concentrations in modern marine carbonates are consistent with preferential adsorption of the isotopically lighter B(OH){sub 4}{sup 1 {minus}} aqueous species over the B(OH){sub 3} species before incorporation into the carbonate site. Because there is a pH control on the availability of B(OH){sub 4}{sup 1{minus}}, the result is a pH control on the boron abundance in the carbonates. Possible second-order biomineralogic controls on pH may account for boron concentrations in calcareous organisms that produce low pH microenvironments at the site of CaCO{sub 3} precipitation.

  4. Boron distribution in the core of Si nanowire grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wanghua; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.; Liu, Xiaolong; Xu, Tao; Lardé, Rodrigue; Philippe Nys, Jean; Grandidier, Bruno; Stiévenard, Didier; Patriarche, Gilles; Pareige, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The boron dopant distribution in Si nanowires grown by the Au-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition is characterized by laser-assisted atom probe tomography. A convenient and an effective method for performing the atom probe tomography of an individual nanowire is developed. Using this technique, we demonstrate that when Si nanowires are doped with boron at high silane partial pressure, the radial distribution of boron atoms is rather inhomogeneous. Much more boron atoms incorporate at the periphery than in the center, with the concentration increasing by an order of magnitude as the distance from the nanowire axis increases from zero to only 15 nm. A theoretical model is presented that is capable of describing the observed spatial inhomogeneity of boron dopant. We also consider different kinetic pathways of boron incorporation and discuss the values of diffusion length and diffusion coefficients obtained by fitting the experimental data.

  5. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141

  6. Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Ficklin, W.H.; Thompson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.

  7. BORON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of boron chemical speciation is important in understanding bioavailability, excretion, and retention of boron derived from supplemental dietary sources. Undissociated boric acid is the predominant species of boron in most natural freshwater systems. Five antibiotics, one with apparent pote...

  8. Mathematical modeling and experimental validation of the spatial distribution of boron in the root of Arabidopsis thaliana identify high boron accumulation in the tip and predict a distinct root tip uptake function.

    PubMed

    Shimotohno, Akie; Sotta, Naoyuki; Sato, Takafumi; De Ruvo, Micol; Marée, Athanasius F M; Grieneisen, Verônica A; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-04-01

    Boron, an essential micronutrient, is transported in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana mainly by two different types of transporters, BORs and NIPs (nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins). Both are plasma membrane localized, but have distinct transport properties and patterns of cell type-specific accumulation with different polar localizations, which are likely to affect boron distribution. Here, we used mathematical modeling and an experimental determination to address boron distributions in the root. A computational model of the root is created at the cellular level, describing the boron transporters as observed experimentally. Boron is allowed to diffuse into roots, in cells and cell walls, and to be transported over plasma membranes, reflecting the properties of the different transporters. The model predicts that a region around the quiescent center has a higher concentration of soluble boron than other portions. To evaluate this prediction experimentally, we determined the boron distribution in roots using laser ablation-inductivity coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The analysis indicated that the boron concentration is highest near the tip and is lower in the more proximal region of the meristem zone, similar to the pattern of soluble boron distribution predicted by the model. Our model also predicts that upward boron flux does not continuously increase from the root tip toward the mature region, indicating that boron taken up in the root tip is not efficiently transported to shoots. This suggests that root tip-absorbed boron is probably used for local root growth, and that instead it is the more mature root regions which have a greater role in transporting boron toward the shoots. PMID:25670713

  9. Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Validation of the Spatial Distribution of Boron in the Root of Arabidopsis thaliana Identify High Boron Accumulation in the Tip and Predict a Distinct Root Tip Uptake Function

    PubMed Central

    Shimotohno, Akie; Sotta, Naoyuki; Sato, Takafumi; De Ruvo, Micol; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Grieneisen, Verônica A.; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Boron, an essential micronutrient, is transported in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana mainly by two different types of transporters, BORs and NIPs (nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins). Both are plasma membrane localized, but have distinct transport properties and patterns of cell type-specific accumulation with different polar localizations, which are likely to affect boron distribution. Here, we used mathematical modeling and an experimental determination to address boron distributions in the root. A computational model of the root is created at the cellular level, describing the boron transporters as observed experimentally. Boron is allowed to diffuse into roots, in cells and cell walls, and to be transported over plasma membranes, reflecting the properties of the different transporters. The model predicts that a region around the quiescent center has a higher concentration of soluble boron than other portions. To evaluate this prediction experimentally, we determined the boron distribution in roots using laser ablation-inductivity coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The analysis indicated that the boron concentration is highest near the tip and is lower in the more proximal region of the meristem zone, similar to the pattern of soluble boron distribution predicted by the model. Our model also predicts that upward boron flux does not continuously increase from the root tip toward the mature region, indicating that boron taken up in the root tip is not efficiently transported to shoots. This suggests that root tip-absorbed boron is probably used for local root growth, and that instead it is the more mature root regions which have a greater role in transporting boron toward the shoots. PMID:25670713

  10. In vitro determination of uptake, retention, distribution, biological efficacy, and toxicity of boronated compounds for neutron capture therapy: a comparison of porphyrins with sulfhydryl boron hydrides.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, R G; Kahl, S B; Laster, B H; Kalef-Ezra, J; Popenoe, E A

    1990-08-15

    A major problem remaining in the evaluation of boronated compounds for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is the need to know the intra- or extracellular microdistribution of boron. This is a consequence of the short range of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction products (approximately 10 microns), such that biological efficacy is dependent upon intracellular distribution. In particular, if boron location is predominantly extracellular, a significant reduction in efficacy would be expected. The in vitro procedure described here was developed mainly to provide information regarding the intra- and extracellular location and concentration of boron. However, use of the technique also allows the measurement of compound uptake and retention (binding) and the determination of biological efficacy by the evaluation of survival curves obtained following irradiation with thermal neutrons. Comparison is made to results obtained with boric acid (H3(10)BO3) and to results calculated for various boron distributions. Concomitantly, an indication of compound toxicity can be obtained from the plating efficiency of unirradiated control cells. Currently, most investigators utilize in vivo systems for testing and evaluating boron uptake from various carrier molecules. Given the large number of boron compounds being synthesized and needing evaluation as to their usefulness for NCT, the in vitro technique described here is simple and advantageous for initial compound screening. In addition to sparing animal lives, it is both time and cost effective and utilizes much smaller quantities of test compound than are required for an in vivo assay. A boronated porphyrin (BOPP) evaluated by the above procedure shows an uptake and retention approximately 20 times that of sulfhydryl boron hydride monomer (BSH); the latter compound is currently being used clinically for NCT in Japan and is anticipated for use in clinical trials in the United States. If the advantages demonstrated by BOPP in these in vitro studies are validated in animal experiments, BOPP should be considered for clinical application. PMID:2379150

  11. Artificial neural network prediction of PWR critical boron concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, S.E.; Maldonado, G.I.; Bartlett, E.B. [Iowa State Univ., Aimes, IA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The direct calculation of core parameters such as k{sub eff} and pin power peaks for light water reactors is ordinarily accomplished by numerically solving the neutron diffusion equation. Despite the rapid advances in computer architecture and algorithm development, further calculational speedups are always in great demand. One example of such an application is nuclear fuel management optimization, where the core attributes of tens of thousands of loading pattern candidates must typically be evaluated over the fuel cycle. If an artificial neural network (ANN) could be trained to accurately model the neutronic behavior of a core, a substantial time savings could be realized in the prediction of core parameters. Such an ANN could be exploited in at least two ways: 1. The a priori training of an ANN model could be tailored to address a specific plant and its corresponding licensing core neutronics software. 2. Once trained to within acceptable accuracy guidelines, an ANN model could provide the luxury of nearly instantaneous evaluations of core parameters. Recent publications by Kim et al. on core parameter prediction via ANNs have revealed a variety of promising results, which, in part, motivated our studies. Kim proved that a solution was possible; however, the large size and complexity of such a model can lead to memorization instead of generalization of the problem`s solution. Thus, the purpose of this work was to show that a much smaller ANN could predict a global core parameter such as the critical boron concentration over a wide range of training and validation data. The successful modeling of this problem with a much smaller ANN is considered to be a significant highlight of this study. This work employed Studsvik of America`s SOA1 Database, which proved to be useful for ANN training and validation.

  12. Effect of boron concentration on recombination at the p-Si-Al2O3 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Lachlan E.; Allen, Thomas; McIntosh, Keith R.; Cuevas, Andres

    2014-03-01

    We examine the surface passivation properties of Al2O3 deposited on boron-doped planar ?100? crystalline silicon surfaces as a function of the boron concentration. Both uniformly doped and diffused surfaces are studied, with surface boron concentrations ranging from 9.2 × 1015 to 5.2 × 1019 cm-3. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and thermal atomic layer deposition are used to deposit the Al2O3 films. The surface recombination rate of each sample is determined from photoconductance measurements together with the measured dopant profiles via numerical simulation, using the latest physical models. These values are compared with calculations based on the interface properties determined from capacitance-voltage and conductance measurements. It is found that the fundamental surface recombination velocity of electrons, Sn0, which describes the chemical passivation of the interface, is independent of the surface boron concentration Ns for Ns ? 3 × 1019 cm-3, and in excellent agreement with values calculated from the interface state density Dit and capture coefficients cn and cp measured on undiffused boron-doped surfaces. We conclude that the physical properties of the Si-Al2O3 interface are independent of the boron dopant concentration over this range.

  13. CAN BROCCOLI TOLERATE HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS OF BORON UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reuse of saline drainage water is a management option that is necessary for reducing the volume of drainage water produced on the west side of California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). A potential limitation in implementing a drainage water reuse system is determining the extent by which boron, a natur...

  14. A new process for upgrading boron content and recovery of borax concentrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Acarkan; G. Bulut; O. Kangal; G. Önal

    2005-01-01

    K?rka borax deposit is the biggest boron deposit in the world. The extracted ores from this deposit have been beneficiated using stirring scrubbing and classification methods and borax concentrates have been obtained with 32–33% B2O3 content. In this study, a new process was developed to improve boron content. Two staged scrubbing (tumbling+stirring scrubbing) was applied as new method. The laboratory

  15. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day. PMID:15759874

  16. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial ?-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C. [Dpto Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain)] [Dpto Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain); Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E. [Institut Néel, CNRS-Université Joseph Fourier, 25 av. des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)] [Institut Néel, CNRS-Université Joseph Fourier, 25 av. des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Jomard, F. [Groupe d'Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), UMR 8635 du CNRS, UVSQ, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)] [Groupe d'Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), UMR 8635 du CNRS, UVSQ, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup ?}/p{sup ++}/p{sup ?} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  17. BORON UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION IN FIELD GROWN CITRUS TREES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto; José Antônio Quaggio; Dirceu Mattos Jr; Takashi Muraoka; Antonio Enedi Boaretto

    2011-01-01

    In low fertility tropical soils, boron (B) deficiency impairs fruit production. However, little information is available on the efficiency of nutrient application and use by trees. Therefore, this work verified the effects of soil and foliar applications of boron in a commercial citrus orchard. An experiment was conducted with fertigated 4-year-old ‘Valencia’ sweet orange trees on ‘Swingle’ citrumelo rootstock. Boron

  18. Effect of Zinc × Boron Interaction on Plant Growth and Tissue Nutrient Concentration of Corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Hosseini; M. Maftoun; N. Karimian; A. Ronaghi; Y. Emam

    2007-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse on a calcareous soil (fine, mixed, mesic, Fluventic Haploxerepts) to study the interaction of zinc (Zn) and boron (B) on the growth and nutrient concentration of corn (Zeamays L.). Treatments consisted of a factorial arrangement of seven levels of B (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg kgas boric acid),

  19. Variation of carbon concentration, ion energy, and ion current density of magnetron-sputtered boron carbonitride films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ulrich; A. Kratzsch; H. Leiste; M. Stüber; P. Schloßmacher; H. Holleck; J. Binder; D. Schild; S. Westermeyer; P. Becker; H. Oechsner

    1999-01-01

    Diamond, cubic boron nitride and also ternary materials consisting of boron, carbon and nitrogen exhibit an extraordinary combination of extreme mechanical and physical properties due to their bonding characteristics and crystal structure. This results in a high application potential in protective and functional layers. Taking into account the special properties of these phases, the compositions inside the B?C?N concentration triangle

  20. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial d-doped diamond layers

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 1020 cmÀ3 were quantitatively

  1. BLOOD BORON CONCENTRATIONS IN PREGNANT RATS FED BORIC ACID THROUGHOUT GESTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CATHERINE J. PRICE; PHILIP L. STRONG; F. JAY MURRAY; MARGARET M. GOLDBERGS

    Timed-mated Sprague-Dawley rats (28 to 32\\/group) were exposed to boric acid (BA) in the diet from Gestational Day (GD) 0 to 20. Dietary concentrations of added BA (0%, 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.075%, O.lOO%, or 0.200%) yielded average daily intakes equivalent to 0,3, 6, 10, 13, or 25 mg boron\\/kg body weight\\/d. Dams and their fetuses were evaluated for evidence of maternal

  2. Blood boron concentrations in pregnant rats fed boric acid throughout gestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine J. Price; Philip L. Strong; F. Jay Murray; Margaret M. Goldberg

    1997-01-01

    Timed-mated Sprague-Dawley rats (28 to 32\\/group) were exposed to boric acid (BA) in the diet from Gestational Day (GD) 0 to 20. Dietary concentrations of added BA (0%, 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.075%, 0.100%, or 0.200%) yielded average daily intakes equivalent to 0, 3, 6,10, 13, or 25 mg boron\\/kg body weight\\/d. Dams and their fetuses were evaluated for evidence of maternal

  3. Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Chandra

    2008-05-30

    The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

  4. Peculiarities of boron distribution in as-grown boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, V. D.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Terentiev, S. A.; Nosukhin, S. A.; Kuznetsov, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) single crystals have been grown under conditions of high isostatic pressure by the temperature gradient method. Numerous equilateral triangles were found on the fluorescence images of {111}-diamond facets. Structural peculiarities of BDD were investigated by JEM-2010 transmission electron microscope with GIF Quantum attachment for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). High resolution image of diamond lattice revealed some distorted {111}-layers. EELS testifies the presence of boron in distorted regions of diamond lattice. The crystallographic features of BDD and their connection with the superconductivity are discussed.

  5. Cooling Rate Dependence of Boron Distribution in Low Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Dong Jun; Shin, Eun Joo; Cho, Kyung Chul; Lee, Jae Sang; Koo, Yang Mo

    2012-05-01

    The behavior of boron (B) segregation to austenite grain boundaries in low carbon steel was studied using particle tracking autoradiography (PTA) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). An effective time method was used to compare the cooling rate (CR) dependence of this segregation during continuous cooling and its time dependence during isothermal holding. Comparison of these segregation behaviors has confirmed that the CR dependence of B segregation agrees well with its time dependence and is mainly a result of the phenomenon of nonequilibrium segregation. Based on the CR dependence of B segregation, the continuous cooling transformation behavior of B-bearing steel as compared with B-free steel was also investigated using dilatometry and microstructural observations. The addition of a small amount of B to low carbon steel retarded significantly the austenite-to-ferrite transformation and finally expanded the range of cooling programs that result in the formation of bainitic microstructures. Analysis of the B distribution has confirmed that this retardation effect of B on ferrite transformation is attributed to the CR dependence of B segregation to austenite grain boundaries during cooling after austenitization.

  6. Effect of boron concentration on recombination at the p-Si–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Lachlan E., E-mail: lachlan.black@anu.edu.au; Allen, Thomas; Cuevas, Andres [Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); McIntosh, Keith R. [PV Lighthouse, Coledale, NSW 2515 (Australia)

    2014-03-07

    We examine the surface passivation properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited on boron-doped planar ?100? crystalline silicon surfaces as a function of the boron concentration. Both uniformly doped and diffused surfaces are studied, with surface boron concentrations ranging from 9.2?×?10{sup 15} to 5.2?×?10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3}. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and thermal atomic layer deposition are used to deposit the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. The surface recombination rate of each sample is determined from photoconductance measurements together with the measured dopant profiles via numerical simulation, using the latest physical models. These values are compared with calculations based on the interface properties determined from capacitance–voltage and conductance measurements. It is found that the fundamental surface recombination velocity of electrons, S{sub n0}, which describes the chemical passivation of the interface, is independent of the surface boron concentration N{sub s} for N{sub s}???3?×?10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3}, and in excellent agreement with values calculated from the interface state density D{sub it} and capture coefficients c{sub n} and c{sub p} measured on undiffused boron-doped surfaces. We conclude that the physical properties of the Si–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface are independent of the boron dopant concentration over this range.

  7. High-concentration boron doping of graphene nanoplatelets by simple thermal annealing and their supercapacitive properties.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Da-Young; Jeon, Woojin; Tu, Nguyen Dien Kha; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sung, Bong June; Chang, Hyejung; Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Heesuk

    2015-01-01

    For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000?°C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04?±?1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448?F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment. PMID:25940534

  8. High-concentration boron doping of graphene nanoplatelets by simple thermal annealing and their supercapacitive properties

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Da-Young; Jeon, Woojin; Tu, Nguyen Dien Kha; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sung, Bong June; Chang, Hyejung; Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Heesuk

    2015-01-01

    For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000?°C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04?±?1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448?F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment. PMID:25940534

  9. OsNIP3;1, a rice boric acid channel, regulates boron distribution and is essential for growth under boron-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Hideki; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Takano, Junpei; Tanaka, Mayuki; Fujiwara, Toru

    2014-06-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for higher plants. Boron deficiency is an important agricultural issue because it results in loss of yield quality and/or quantity in cereals and other crops. To understand boron transport mechanisms in cereals, we characterized OsNIP3;1, a member of the major intrinsic protein family in rice (Oryza sativa L.), because OsNIP3;1 is the most similar rice gene to the Arabidopsis thaliana boric acid channel genes AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1. Yeast cells expressing OsNIP3;1 imported more boric acid than control cells. GFP-tagged OsNIP3;1 expressed in tobacco BY2 cells was localized to the plasma membrane. The accumulation of OsNIP3;1 transcript increased fivefold in roots within 6 h of the onset of boron starvation, but not in shoots. Promoter-GUS analysis suggested that OsNIP3;1 is expressed mainly in exodermal cells and steles in roots, as well as in cells around the vascular bundles in leaf sheaths and pericycle cells around the xylem in leaf blades. The growth of OsNIP3;1 RNAi plants was impaired under boron limitation. These results indicate that OsNIP3;1 functions as a boric acid channel, and is required for acclimation to boron limitation. Boron distribution among shoot tissues was altered in OsNIP3;1 knockdown plants, especially under boron-deficient conditions. This result demonstrates that OsNIP3;1 regulates boron distribution among shoot tissues, and that the correct boron distribution is crucial for plant growth. PMID:24654769

  10. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ghosh, C. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ravindran, T.R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ? 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  11. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    PubMed Central

    Zio?a-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40?mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13?mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77?mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  12. Suspended sediment concentration distribution using Tsallis entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay P.; Cui, Huijuan

    2014-11-01

    Assuming sediment movement in channel flow as steady, Tsallis entropy is employed for deriving the distribution of sediment concentration. This distribution is found to be analogous to the distribution obtained from a random walk model. The sediment concentration distribution parameters are obtained from physical considerations. With these parameters, the distribution is tested using experimental observations and its sensitivity is evaluated. The agreement between entropy-based distribution and laboratory observations is found to be close.

  13. Relationships between Boron concentrations and trout in the firehole river, Wyoming: Historical information and preliminary results of a field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, J.S.; Boelter, A.M.; Woodward, D.F.; Goldstein, J.N.; Farag, A.M.; Hubert, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Firehole River (FHR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is a world- renowned recreational fishery that predominantly includes rainbow trout (RBT, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (BNT, Salmo trutta). The trout populations apparently are closed to immigration and have been self- sustaining since 1955. Inputs from hot springs and geysers increase the temperature and mineral content of the water, including elevating the boron (B) concentrations to a maximum of ~1 mg B/L. Both RBT and BNT reside in warm-water reaches, except when the water is extremely warm (???~25??C) during midsummer. They spawn in late fall and early winter, with documented spawning of BNT in the cold-water reach upstream from the Upper Geyser Basin and of RBT in the Lower Geyser Basin reach, where water temperatures presumably are the warmest; however, successful recruitment of RBT in waters containing ~1 mg B/L has not been demonstrated conclusively. Thus, we began investigating the relationships among temperature, B concentrations, other water-quality parameters, and the distribution and reproduction of trout in the FHR in spring 1997. However, atypical high water flows and concomitant lower than historical temperatures and B concentrations during summer 1997 preclude conclusions about avoidance of high B concentrations.

  14. Relationships between boron concentrations and trout in the Firehole River, Wyoming: historical information and preliminary results of a field study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J S; Boelter, A M; Woodward, D F; Goldstein, J N; Farag, A M; Hubert, W A

    1998-01-01

    The Firehole River (FHR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is a world-renowned recreational fishery that predominantly includes rainbow trout (RBT, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (BNT, Salmo trutta). The trout populations apparently are closed to immigration and have been self-sustaining since 1955. Inputs from hot springs and geysers increase the temperature and mineral content of the water, including elevating the boron (B) concentrations to a maximum of approximately 1 mg B/L. Both RBT and BNT reside in warm-water reaches, except when the water is extremely warm (> or = approximately 25 degrees C) during midsummer. They spawn in late fall and early winter, with documented spawning of BNT in the cold-water reach upstream from the Upper Geyser Basin and of RBT in the Lower Geyser Basin reach, where water temperatures presumably are the warmest; however, successful recruitment of RBT in waters containing approximately 1 mg B/L has not been demonstrated conclusively. Thus, we began investigating the relationships among temperature, B concentrations, other water-quality parameters, and the distribution and reproduction of trout in the FHR in spring 1997. However, atypical high water flows and concomitant lower than historical temperatures and B concentrations during summer 1997 preclude conclusions about avoidance of high B concentrations. PMID:10050918

  15. The distribution of boron and boric acid complexes in the sea 

    E-print Network

    Noakes, John Edward

    1959-01-01

    LIBRARY A a m GOLLEGE 0F TEXAS THE DISTRIBUTION OF BORON AND BORIC ACID COMPLEXES IN THE SEA A Thesis By John Noakes o%e Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1959 Major: Chemical Oceanography THE DISTRIBUTION OF BORON AND BORIC ACID COMPLEXES IN THE SEA A Thesis By John Noakes Approved as to style and content by: C irman of the C ittee Head...

  16. The theory of concentrated Langevin distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey S. Watson

    1984-01-01

    The density of the Langevin (or Fisher-Von Mises) distribution is proportional to exp ?[mu]'x, where x and the modal vector [mu] are unit vectors in q. ? (>=0) is called the concentration parameter. The distribution of statistics for testing hypotheses about the modal vectors of m distributions simplify greatly as the concentration parameters tend to infinity. The non-null distributions are

  17. Micro-Scale Distribution of Trace Elements in a High Boron Soil from Kern County, California

    E-print Network

    AND METHODS Soil samples from a Lethent series soil located in Kern County, CA were taken from various soil aggregate structure. The resin was hardened by heating samples at 60º C for 48 hours. The hardenedMicro-Scale Distribution of Trace Elements in a High Boron Soil from Kern County, California P. Fox

  18. Boron dose determination for BNCT using Fricke and EPR dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Ciesielski, B. [Medical Academy, Gdansk (Poland). Dept. of Physics and Biophysics

    1995-02-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) the dominant dose delivered to the tumor is due to {alpha} and {sup 7}Li charged particles resulting from a neutron capture by {sup 10}B and is referred to herein as the boron dose. Boron dose is directly attributable to the following two independent factors, one boron concentration and the neutron capture energy dependent cross section of boron, and two the energy spectrum of the neutrons that interact with boron. The neutron energy distribution at a given point is dictated by the incident neutron energy distribution, the depth in tissue, geometrical factors such as beam size and patient`s dimensions. To account for these factors can be accommodated by using Monte Carlo theoretical simulations. However, in conventional experimental BNCT dosimetry, e.g., using TLDs or ionization chambers, it is only possible to estimate the boron dose. To overcome some of the limitations in the conventional dosimetry, modifications in ferrous sulfate dosimetry (Fricke) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry in alanine, enable to measure specifically boron dose in a mixed gamma neutron radiation fields. The boron dose, in either of the dosimeters, is obtained as a difference between measurements with boronated and unboronated dosimeters. Since boron participates directly in the measurements, the boron dosimetry reflects the true contribution, integral of the neutron energy spectrum with boron cross section, of the boron dose to the total dose. Both methods are well established and used extensively in dosimetry, they are presented briefly here.

  19. ANFIS based modelling of Boron concentration in a Pressurized Water Reactor in response to changes in power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dlomo; S. Chowdhury

    2010-01-01

    Functioning, control and safety requirements of nuclear reactors must be well understood and implemented to ensure safety amongst employees and prevent accidents in nuclear power plants. This paper deals with one aspect of pressurised water reactor core control, viz., determination of Boron concentration in the reactor in response to variations in power generation in order to prevent poisoning of the

  20. Effect of carbon species on the reduction and melting behavior of boron-bearing iron concentrate/carbon composite pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang; Ding, Yin-gui; Wang, Jing-song; She, Xue-feng; Xue, Qing-guo

    2013-06-01

    Iron nugget and boron-rich slag can be obtained in a short time through high-temperature reduction of boronbearing iron concentrate by carbonaceous material, both of which are agglomerated together as a carbon composite pellet. This is a novel flow sheet for the comprehensive utilization of boron-bearing iron concentrate to produce a new kind of man-made boron ore. The effect of reducing agent species (i.e., carbon species) on the reduction and melting process of the composite pellet was investigated at a laboratory scale in the present work. The results show that, the reduction rate of the composite pellet increases from bituminite, anthracite, to coke at temperatures ranging from 950 to 1300°C. Reduction temperature has an important effect on the microstructure of reduced pellets. Carbon species also affects the behavior of reduced metallic iron particles. The anthracite-bearing composite pellet melts faster than the bituminitebearing composite pellet, and the coke-bearing composite pellet cannot melt due to the high fusion point of coke ash. With anthracite as the reducing agent, the recovery rates of iron and boron are 96.5% and 95.7%, respectively. This work can help us get a further understanding of the new process mechanism.

  1. Oligomer distribution in concentrated lactic acid solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dung T. Vu; Aspi K. Kolah; Navinchandra S. Asthana; Lars Peereboom; Carl T. Lira; Dennis J. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid) is a significant platform chemical for the biorenewable economy. Concentrated aqueous solutions of lactic acid (>30wt.%) contain a distribution of oligomers that arise via intermolecular esterification. As a result, the titratable acidity changes non-linearly with acid concentration. In this work, the oligomer distribution of lactic acid is characterized using GC, GC\\/MS, and HPLC to extend existing

  2. Development of particle induced gamma-ray emission methods for nondestructive determination of isotopic composition of boron and its total concentration in natural and enriched samples.

    PubMed

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, Raghunath; Sodaye, Suparna; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2014-11-18

    We report simple particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) methods using a 4 MeV proton beam for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the isotopic composition of boron ((10)B/(11)B atom ratio) and total boron concentrations in various solid samples with natural isotopic composition and enriched with (10)B. It involves measurement of prompt gamma-rays at 429, 718, and 2125 keV from (10)B(p,??)(7)Be, (10)B(p, p'?)(10)B, and (11)B(p, p'?)(11)B reactions, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in natural and enriched samples was determined by comparing peak area ratios corresponding to (10)B and (11)B of samples to natural boric acid standard. An in situ current normalized PIGE method, using F or Al, was standardized for total B concentration determination. The methods were validated by analyzing stoichiometric boron compounds and applied to samples such as boron carbide, boric acid, carborane, and borosilicate glass. Isotopic compositions of boron in the range of 0.247-2.0 corresponding to (10)B in the range of 19.8-67.0 atom % and total B concentrations in the range of 5-78 wt % were determined. It has been demonstrated that PIGE offers a simple and alternate method for total boron as well as isotopic composition determination in boron based solid samples, including neutron absorbers that are important in nuclear technology. PMID:25312472

  3. High-pressure behaviour of selected boron minerals and the question of boron distribution between fluids and rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyer, W.; Werding, G.

    1997-08-01

    Experimental results in the simplest possible systems up to generally 20-50 kbar, in a few cases 100 kbar, bearing on the PT-stability limits of 17 end member borosilicates and borates are summarized. Except for the sillimanite-structure-type minerals grandidierite and werdingite, which break down near 10 kbar, the following phases are stable up to much higher pressures and no influence of boron coordination with oxygen, three- or fourfold, can be recognized: Alkali-free dravite, 'B-nepheline', boromuscovite, danburite, dravite, dumortierite, jeremejevite—OH, kotoite, magnesiodumortierite, prismatine, 'pseudosinhalite', reedmergnerite, szaibelyite, sinhalite, suanite. The framework borosilicates reedmergnerite and danburite remain more stable towards higher pressures than their Al-analogues albite and anorthite, respectively. Kornerupine stability decreases with decreasing boron content in the mineral from about 37 kbar for near-end member prismatine to 12 kbar for the boron-free end member. With a maximum thermal stability of 1050°C at 30 kbar boron-rich kornerupine (prismatine) is the thermally most stable borosilicate at high pressures. Thus, all the above 15 phases can, in principle, occur as minerals of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks. Boron initially enriched in crustal rocks may be subducted to depths exceeding 100 km. In Al-rich systems B 2O 3 generally behaves as an inert component and enters refractory minerals so that such rocks may act as sinks for boron, even in the presence of H 2O. In other systems rich SiO 2, Na 2O, MgO, however, boron is more volatile and may fractionate into hydrous fluids that may cause metasomatism elsewhere. Altogether, the behaviour of boron in natural petrogenetic systems is strongly dependent on the local chemical environment.

  4. Removal of Boron from Silicon by Solvent Refining Using Ferrosilicon Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajavi, Leili Tafaghodi; Morita, Kazuki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Barati, Mansoor

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of boron between purified solid silicon and iron-silicon melt was evaluated to investigate the possibility of boron removal from silicon by solvent refining with iron-silicon alloys. The distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of the mole fraction of boron in solid to that of liquid, was found to be strongly dependent on boron concentration. Solvent refining at lower temperatures resulted in smaller distribution coefficient values. The boron removal percentages for the lowest boron concentration examined in this study were 70 pct [1583 K (1310 °C)], 65 pct [1533 K (1260 °C)], and 65 pct [1483 K (1210 °C)]. The values obtained for interaction parameter of boron on iron in solid silicon are as follows: -813 ± 53 [1583 K (1310 °C)], -830 ± 92 [1533 K (1260 °C)], -863 ± 91 [1483 K (1210 °C)]. Lower temperature resulted in smaller distribution coefficient and higher silicon yield.

  5. Boron distribution in silicon after multiple pulse excimer laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L. [Department of Physics, Physical Electronics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Royal Institute of Technology, Lab of Materials and Semiconductor Physics, P.O. Box Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); CNR-IMM, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); CNR-IFN, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2005-08-22

    We have studied B redistribution in Si after excimer laser annealing (ELA) with multiple laser pulses. B was implanted with energies of 1 and 10 keV and doses of 1x10{sup 14} and 1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. ELA with the number of pulses from 1 to 100 was performed at room temperature and 450 deg. C in vacuum. Irrespective of the implantation parameters and the ELA conditions used, a pile-up in the B concentration is observed near the maximum melting depth after ten pulses of ELA. Moreover, a detailed study has revealed that B accumulates at the maximum melt depth gradually with the number of ELA pulses. Besides, an increase in the carrier concentration is observed at the maximum melt depth, suggesting electrical activity of the accumulated B. Formation of Si-B complexes and vacancy accumulation during multiple ELA are discussed as possible mechanisms for the B build-up.

  6. Concentration Distributions during Pulse Jet Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2010-08-05

    Obtaining real-time, in situ slurry concentration measurements during unsteady mixing can provide increased understanding into mixer performance. During recent tests an ultrasonic attenuation sensor was inserted into a mixing vessel to measure the slurry concentration during unsteady mixing in real time during pulse jet mixer operation. These pulse jet mixing tests to suspend noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid were conducted at three geometric scales. To understand the solids suspension process and resulting solids distribution, the concentration of solids in the cloud was measured at various elevations and radial positions during the pulse jet mixer cycle. In the largest scale vessel, concentration profiles were measured at three radial locations: r = 0, 0.5 and 0.9 R where R is the vessel radius. These radial concentration data are being analyzed to provide a model for predicting concentration as a function of elevation. This paper describes pulse jet mixer operation, provides a description of the concentration probe, and presents transient concentration data obtained at three radial positions: in the vessel center (O R), midway between the center and the wall (0.5 R) and near the vessel wall (0.9 R) through out the pulse to provide insight into pulse jet mixer performance.

  7. Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast to concentrations over 5,000 ?g/L in the Congo Road area. Although concentrations of fluoride up to 4 mg/L were reported for a few well-water samples collected throughout the Newark Basin, about 90 percent of the samples had concentrations of 0.5 mg/L or less. The USGS sampled 58 wells primarily in 5 areas in the Newark Basin, southeastern Pennsylvania, from February 2004 through April 2005 to identify other possible areas of elevated arsenic, boron, and fluoride and to characterize the geochemical environment associated with elevated concentrations of these constituents. Sampled wells included 12 monitor wells at an industrial facility near Congo Road, 45 private-supply wells in Berks, Montgomery, and Bucks Counties, and 1 private-supply well near Dillsburg, York County, an area where elevated fluoride in ground water had been reported in the adjacent Gettysburg Basin. Wells were sampled in transects from the diabase through the adjacent hornfels and into the unaltered shales of the Brunswick Group. Field measurements were made of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and specific conductance. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for major ions, nutrients, total organic carbon, dissolved and total concentrations of selected trace elements, and boron isotopic composition. Generally, the ground water from the 46 private-supply wells had relatively neutral to alkaline pH (ranging from 6.1 to 9.1) and moderate concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Most water samples were of the calcium-bicarbonate type. Concentrations of arsenic up to 60 ?g/L, boron up to 3,950 ?g/L, and fluoride up to 0.70 mg/L were measured. Drinking-water standards or health advisories (for constituents that do not have standards established) were exceeded most frequently (about 20 percent of samples) for arsenic and boron and less frequently (6 percent or less of samples) for total iron, manganese, sulfate, nitrate, lead, molybdenum, and strontium. In water from 12 monitor

  8. EFFECTS OF ZINC FERTILIZATION ON GRAIN YIELD AND SHOOT CONCENTRATIONS OF ZINC, BORON, AND PHOSPHORUS OF 25 WHEAT CULTIVARS GROWN ON A ZINC-DEFICIENT AND BORON-TOXIC SOIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Torun; I. Gültekin; M. Kalayci; A. Yilmaz; S. Eker; I. Cakmak

    2001-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study the grain yield, shoot concentrations of zinc (Zn), boron (B) and phosphorus (P), and tolerance to Zn deficiency of 21 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and four durum wheat (Triticum durum) cultivars grown in a B-toxic and Zn-deficient calcareous soil in Central Anatolia with (+Zn = 23 kg Zn ha) and without Zn fertilization

  9. Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater.

    E-print Network

    Kasher, Roni

    Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater. Abstract: Boron isotope composition and concentration of sewage effluent and pristine and contaminated groundwater from. Anthropogenic boron in wastewater is isotopically distinct from natural boron in groundwater and thus can

  10. Demonstration of three-dimensional deterministic radiation transport theory dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Nigg; P. D. Randolph; F. J. Wheeler

    1991-01-01

    The Monte Carlo stochastic simulation technique has traditionally been the only well-recognized method for computing three-dimensional radiation dose distributions in connection with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) research. A deterministic approach to this problem would offer some advantages over the Monte Carlo method. This paper describes an application of a deterministic method to analytically simulate BNCT treatment of a canine

  11. Accurate and precise determination of boron isotopic ratios at low concentration by positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry using static multicollection of Cs2BO2+ ions.

    PubMed

    He, Mao-yong; Xiao, Ying-kai; Jin, Zhang-dong; Ma, Yun-qi; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Yan-ling; Luo, Chong-guang; Zhang, Fei

    2013-07-01

    A static double-collector system for accurate, precise, and rapid boron isotope analysis has been established by employing a newly fixed Faraday H3 and H4 cup enabling simultaneously collected Cs2BO2(+) ion beams (m/z = 308 and 309) on a Finnigan-MAT Triton thermal ionization mass spectrometer of boron (Triton B). The experimental result indicated that Cs2BO2(+) ion beams (m/z = 308 and 309) were simultaneously collected using a fixed Faraday H3 and H4 cup without using the "Zoom Quad" function and reduced accelerating voltage. Furthermore, the method enabled the measurement of samples containing as little as 20 ng of boron. An analysis of the National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material (NIST SRM) 951 standard showed external reproducibility (2RSD) of ±0.013‰, ± 0.013‰, and ±0.019‰ for 100, 50, and 20 ng of boron, respectively. The present method of static multicollection of Cs2BO2(+) ions is applicable to a wide field of boron isotopic research that requires high precision and accuracy to analyze samples with low boron concentrations, including pore fluids, foraminifera, rivers, rainwater, and other natural samples. PMID:23718810

  12. Possible roles of pH, temperature, and partial dissolution in determining boron concentration and isotopic composition in planktonic foraminifera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wara, M.W.; Delaney, M.L.; Bullen, T.D.; Ravelo, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first continuous records from 0 to 5 Ma (in 0.333 m.y. integrated time steps) of paired boron/calcium (B/Ca) ratios and boron isotopes (??11B) in the planktonic foraminifera Globogerinoides sacculifer (without sacc) from a site in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean (Ocean Drilling Program Site 806). These measurements, the first made in conjunction with calcification temperature (magnesium/calcium ratios) and average shell mass measurements, indicate that pH is not the sole environmental variable controlling B in planktonic foraminiferal calcite. Our data are consistent with calcification temperature exerting a primary control on B concentration and isotopic composition in planktonic foraminifera. If so, calcification temperature must be taken into account if pH for past oceans and atmospheric pCO2 are to be estimated from B isotope measurements in foraminiferal calcite. Doing so will substantially increase the uncertainty of PH estimates. Although this work was designed as a temporal study, its results define new aspects of calibrating the ??11B paleo-pH tracer. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Methods for radiation dose distribution analysis and treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Nigg, D W

    1994-03-30

    This article presents a survey of recent progress in the development and application of analytical methods for calculating macroscopic and microscopic radiation dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Such calculations are an essential component of in vivo BNCT research and will ultimately also be required for human BNCT treatment planning. Calculations of macroscopic absorbed dose distributions for BNCT are more complex than for photon therapy. There are several different dose components, each of which has its own characteristic spatial distribution, linear energy transfer, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Three-dimensional (3-D) energy-dependent radiation transport models with a detailed treatment of particle scattering are required. Geometric descriptions for such models are typically constructed directly from medical image data and both the Monte Carlo stochastic simulation method and the discrete-ordinates deterministic approach have been successfully used to perform the necessary radiation transport calculations. Microdosimetric effects can profoundly influence the therapeutic benefit that may be attainable in BNCT. These effects must be carefully taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data, especially when correlating observed in vivo radiobiological response with absorbed radiation dose. Calculations of microdosimetric parameters for BNCT are typically performed using the Monte Carlo method to generate single-event energy deposition frequency distributions for critical targets in various cell types of interest. This information is useful in the development of apparent RBE factors, or "compound factors" for the various dose components in BNCT. PMID:8175397

  14. Improvement of dose distribution by central beam shielding in boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji

    2007-12-01

    Since boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beams started at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in June 2002, nearly 200 BNCT treatments have been carried out. The epithermal neutron irradiation significantly improves the dose distribution, compared with the previous irradiation mainly using thermal neutrons. However, the treatable depth limit still remains. One effective technique to improve the limit is the central shield method. Simulations were performed for the incident neutron energies and the annular components of the neutron source. It was clear that thermal neutron flux distribution could be improved by decreasing the lower energy neutron component and the inner annular component of the incident beam. It was found that a central shield of 4-6 cm diameter and 10 mm thickness is effective for the 12 cm diameter irradiation field. In BNCT at KUR, the depth dose distribution can be much improved by the central shield method, resulting in a relative increase of the dose at 8 cm depth by about 30%. In addition to the depth dose distribution, the depth dose profile is also improved. As the dose rate in the central area is reduced by the additional shielding, the necessary irradiation time, however, increases by about 30% compared to normal treatment.

  15. Effect of slag basicity and oxygen potential on the distribution of boron and phosphorus between slag and silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Johnston; M. Barati

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of boron and phosphorus between Al2O3–CaO–MgO–SiO2 and Al2O3–BaO–SiO2 slags and silicon metal was examined for the purposes of establishing the possibility of refining metallurgical-grade silicon to solar grade silicon. Distribution coefficients of B and P were normalized with the estimated oxygen partial pressure of the system to isolate the influence of basicity as the composition of the slag

  16. BORON CONCENTRATIONS REMAIN STABLE IN MILK FROM MOTHERS OF FULL-TERM EXCLUSIVELY BREAST-FED INFANTS DURING THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF LACTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To expand the finding from this laboratory that human milk boron (B) concentrations remain stable during the first 3 months of lactation, we analyzed archived milk collected (1980-84) from lactating mothers of full-term, exclusively breast-fed, infants living in Houston, TX. Samples were collected o...

  17. EELS measurements of boron concentration profiles in p-a-Si and nip a-Si solar cells Bas B. Van Aken a,

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    EELS measurements of boron concentration profiles in p-a-Si and nip a-Si solar cells Bas B. Van energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); Thin film Si; Transmission electron microscopy; p-Type SiC; Doping-loss EELS combined with numerical analysis. We control the band gap and activation energy of p

  18. The effect of C atom concentration on the electronic properties of boron carbonitride alloy nanotube in zig-zag form

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H MILANI MOGHADDAM

    2011-01-01

    Electronic properties of single-walled boron nitride nanotube in zig-zag form are numerically investigated by replacing B\\u000a atoms with C atoms. Using a tight-binding Hamiltonian, the methods based on Green’s function theory, Landauer formalism and\\u000a Dyson equation, the electronic density of states and electronic conductance in boron nitride nanotube and boron carbonitride\\u000a nanotube are calculated. Our calculations indicate that in a

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of depth dose distribution in several organic models for boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate depth-dose distributions for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ICRU computational model of ADAM & EVA was used as a phantom to simulate tumors at a depth of 5 cm in central regions of the lungs, liver and pancreas. Tumors of the prostate and osteosarcoma were also centered at the depth of 4.5 and 2.5 cm in the phantom models. The epithermal neutron beam from a research reactor was the primary neutron source for the MCNP calculation of the depth-dose distributions in those cancer models. For brain tumor irradiations, the whole-body dose was also evaluated. The MCNP simulations suggested that a lethal dose of 50 Gy to the tumors can be achieved without reaching the tolerance dose of 25 Gy to normal tissue. The whole-body phantom calculations also showed that the BNCT could be applied for brain tumors without significant damage to whole-body organs.

  20. Grain Boundary Segregation Behavior of Boron in Low-Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigesato, Genichi; Fujishiro, Taishi; Hara, Takuya

    2014-04-01

    The boron concentration profiles around prior austenite grain boundaries in Fe-0.05C-0.5Mo-0.001B (mass pct) are examined using aberration-corrected STEM-EELS. In order to obtain the precise distribution of boron around the boundaries, tilt series measurements with thin specimens (<30 nm) are performed and the EEL spectra are analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR). The boron concentration profile changes with the cooling rate from the solid solution temperature. The concentration at grain boundaries is maximized at a medium rate (30 °C/s), where the concentration reaches 8 at. pct, and it decreases at a larger (250 °C/s) or smaller (5 °C/s) rate. On the other hand, the boron distribution becomes wider as the cooling rate becomes smaller. The current results suggest that the boron segregation in the alloy is formed by the "non-equilibrium segregation mechanism."

  1. The first fluorescent sensor for boronic and boric acids with sensitivity at sub-micromolar concentrations - a cautionary tale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Arimori; Christopher J. Ward; Tony D. James

    2001-01-01

    The first reported fluorescent sensor for boronic and boric acids is actually not a sensor for boronic and boric acids but rather is a sensor for protons; the system is also not the first fluorescent sensor since Alizarin has been used as a fluorescent sensor for boric acids since 1936.

  2. Effects of sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron applications on sunflower yield and plant nutrient concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, B.R.; Zubriski, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron application did not affect the seed yield or oil percentage of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on both dryland and irrigated soils in North Dakota in 1981. Field averages indicated significant Zn, Mn, and B uptake by sunflower at the 12-leaf stage as a result of fertilization with these elements. Increased Zn uptake was also observed in the uppermost mature leaf at anthesis from zinc fertilization. Although sunflower yield from boron fertilization was not significantly different from the check, a trend was observed in which boron fertilization seemed to decrease sunflower yield. Sunflower yields from the boron treatment were the lowest out of seven treatments in three out of four fields. Also, sunflower yield from the boron treatment was significantly lower than both iron and sulfur treatments when all fields were combined.

  3. Macroscopic geometric heterogeneity effects in radiation dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Moran, J M; Nigg, D W; Wheeler, F J; Bauer, W F

    1992-01-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This paper describes such a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for the tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for this model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous-tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10%-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models. PMID:1508112

  4. Macroscopic geometric heterogeneity effects in radiation dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J.M.; Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Bauer, W.F. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-3515 (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This paper describes such a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for the tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for this model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous-tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10%--20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  5. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

  6. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2010-06-22

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

  7. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf F. Barth; Albert H. Soloway; Ralph G. Fairchild

    1990-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) bring together two components that when kept separate have only minor effects on normal cells. The first component is a stable isotope of boron (boron 10) that can be concentrated in tumor cells. The second is a beam of low-energy neutrons that produces short-range radiation when absorbed, or captured, by the boron. The combination of

  8. An introduction to boron: history, sources, uses, and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Woods, W G

    1994-11-01

    Following a brief overview of the terrestrial distribution of boron in rocks, soil, and water, the history of the discovery, early utilization, and geologic origin of borate minerals is summarized. Modern uses of borate-mineral concentrates, borax, boric acid, and other refined products include glass, fiberglass, washing products, alloys and metals, fertilizers, wood treatments, insecticides, and microbiocides. The chemistry of boron is reviewed from the point of view of its possible health effects. It is concluded that boron probably is complexed with hydroxylated species in biologic systems, and that inhibition and stimulation of enzyme and coenzymes are pivotal in its mode of action. PMID:7889881

  9. An introduction to boron: history, sources, uses, and chemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, W G

    1994-01-01

    Following a brief overview of the terrestrial distribution of boron in rocks, soil, and water, the history of the discovery, early utilization, and geologic origin of borate minerals is summarized. Modern uses of borate-mineral concentrates, borax, boric acid, and other refined products include glass, fiberglass, washing products, alloys and metals, fertilizers, wood treatments, insecticides, and microbiocides. The chemistry of boron is reviewed from the point of view of its possible health effects. It is concluded that boron probably is complexed with hydroxylated species in biologic systems, and that inhibition and stimulation of enzyme and coenzymes are pivotal in its mode of action. Images Figure 1. PMID:7889881

  10. Ab initio study of boron in ?-iron: Migration barriers and interaction with point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialon, A. F.; Hammerschmidt, T.; Drautz, R.

    2013-03-01

    Boron is a common alloying element in modern steels with a significant influence on the mechanical properties already at concentrations of only a few parts per million. The effect of boron depends on its distribution in the microstructure. Here, we characterize the elemental factors that determine the boron distribution in ?-iron by density functional theory calculations. Boron as point defect has been considered in substitutional and interstitial sites. The calculated migration barriers for the substitutional and interstitial mechanisms show the first nearest-neighbor hops being preferred over second nearest-neighbor hops. A dissociative mechanism shows boron migrating via an interstitial mechanism to be likely trapped by vacancies. In order to characterize the interaction with other point defects, we determined the distance-dependent interaction energy of a boron defect with a vacancy, a second boron, and with hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur atoms. We find that substitutional boron binds strongly to interstitial point defects with dumbbell formation and weaker to substitutional point defects. Interstitial boron tends to repel substitutional and interstitial point defects. We find a similarity of substitutional boron and vacancies regarding their influence on elastic properties and their interaction with point defects in ?-iron.

  11. Growth Response and Selenium and Boron Distribution in Broccoli Varieties Irrigated with Poor Quality Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Bañuelos; S. Pasakdee; J. W. Finley

    2003-01-01

    Selenium (Se), and boron (B), and salinity contamination of agricultural drainage water is potentially hazardous for water reuse strategies in central California. This greenhouse study assessed tolerance and Se, B, and chloride (Cl) accumulation in different varieties (Emerald City, Samurai, Greenbelt, Marathon) of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) irrigated with water of the following different qualities: (1) non?saline [electrical conductivity (EC)

  12. Biological evaluation of boronated unnatural amino acids as new boron carriers.

    PubMed

    Kabalka, G W; Yao, M-L; Marepally, S R; Chandra, S

    2009-07-01

    There is a pressing need for new and more efficient boron delivery agents to tumor cells for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A class of boronated unnatural cyclic amino acids has demonstrated a remarkable selectivity toward tumors in animal and cell culture models, far superior to currently used agents in clinical BNCT. One of these amino acids, 1-amino-3-boronocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (ABCPC), has shown a tumor to blood ratio of 8 and a tumor to normal brain ratio of nearly 21 in a melanoma bearing mouse model. This work represents further biological characterization of this compound for tumor targeting in an EMT6 murine mammary carcinoma mouse model and a T98G human glioblastoma cell line. Female BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 tumors were injected with the fructose complex form of racemic mixtures of cis and trans isomers of ABCPC in identical concentrations. Boron concentrations were measured in the tumor, blood, brain, skin, and liver tissues at 1, 3, and 5 h post-injection. These observations revealed a remarkable difference in racemic mixtures of cis and trans isomers in tumor targeting by boron. This implies that further separation of the L and D forms of this compound may enhance tumor targeting to an even higher degree than that provided by the racemic mixtures. Since the uptake measurements were made in homogenized tumor and normal tissues, little is known about the subcellular location of the boron arising from the various isomeric forms of the amino acid. To study subcellular delivery of boron from ABCPC in T98G human glioblastoma cells, we employed secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of ion microscopy, which is capable of quantitatively imaging isotopic (elemental) gradients in cells and tissues at 500 nm spatial resolution. The T98G cells were exposed to the nutrient medium containing 100 ppm boron equivalent of a mixture of both L and D isomers of ABCPC in the form of a fructose complex for 1 h. Following this treatment, the cells were fast frozen, freeze-fractured, and freeze-dried for SIMS analysis. Within an hour of exposure, ABCPC provided partitioning of intracellular to extracellular boron of 3/1. SIMS imaging revealed that boron from ABCPC was distributed throughout the cell, including the nucleus. This level of boron delivery within an hour of exposure is superior to p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium borocaptate (BSH), which have been previously studied by SIMS in the same cell line. These encouraging observations provide compelling support for further isomeric separations of ABCPC into the D and L forms for enhanced tumor targeting and continued testing of these compounds as new boron carriers in BNCT. PMID:19398346

  13. Exact analytic flux distributions for two-dimensional solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Fraidenraich, Naum; Henrique de Oliveira Pedrosa Filho, Manoel; Vilela, Olga C; Gordon, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    A new approach for representing and evaluating the flux density distribution on the absorbers of two-dimensional imaging solar concentrators is presented. The formalism accommodates any realistic solar radiance and concentrator optical error distribution. The solutions obviate the need for raytracing, and are physically transparent. Examples illustrating the method's versatility are presented for parabolic trough mirrors with both planar and tubular absorbers, Fresnel reflectors with tubular absorbers, and V-trough mirrors with planar absorbers. PMID:23842256

  14. Original article Effect of concentrate type and distribution method

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Effect of concentrate type and distribution method on milk fat content and milk fermentation. dairy cow / fat content / concentrate / milk yield Résumé - Effet de la nature et des modalités affect milk fat con- tent, especially dietary factors linked to the type of forage and to the proportion

  15. Droplet Concentration and Size Distribution in Haze and Fog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Podzimek

    1997-01-01

    Fog (haze) droplet concentrations and size distributions were measured at five sampling sites representing rural and urban regions and a highly polluted marine-urban environment. Droplet imprints in a thin gelatine layer were evaluated and compared to the measurement by light scattering instruments. This enabled conditions for the application of the logarithmic-normal size distribution and for the classification of typical fog

  16. Effects assessment: boron compounds in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Schoderboeck, Lucia; Mühlegger, Simone; Losert, Annemarie; Gausterer, Christian; Hornek, Romana

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, boron compounds were considered to be of comparatively low toxicity in the aquatic environment, with predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) values ranging around 1 mg B/L (expressed as boron equivalent). In the present study, we describe an evaluation of toxicity data for boron available for the aquatic environment by different methods. For substances with rich datasets, it is often possible to perform a species sensitivity distribution (SSD). The typical outcome of an SSD is the Hazardous Concentration 5% (HC5), the concentration at which 95% of all species are protected with a probability of 95%. The data set currently available on the toxic effects of boron compounds to aquatic organisms is comprehensive, but a careful evaluation of these data revealed that chronic data for aquatic insects and plants are missing. In the present study both the standard assessment factor approach as well as the SSD approach were applied. The standard approach led to a PNEC of 0.18 mg B/L (equivalent to 1.03 mg boric acid/L), while the SSD approach resulted in a PNEC of 0.34 mg B/L (equivalent to 1.94 mg boric acid/L). These evaluations indicate that boron compounds could be hazardous to aquatic organisms at concentrations close to the natural environmental background in some European regions. This suggests a possible high sensitivity of some ecosystems for anthropogenic input of boron compounds. Another concern is that the anthropogenic input of boron could lead to toxic effects in organisms adapted to low boron concentration. PMID:21055789

  17. Simple digestion procedure followed by the azomethine-H method for accurate boron analysis and discrimination between its fractions in wastewater and soils.

    PubMed

    Gross, Amit; Bernstein, Anat; Vulkan, Raya; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Ben-Gal, Alon; Yermiyahu, Uri

    2008-06-01

    Excess boron is a growing environmental problem. It often affects agricultural yields, where reuse of wastewater for irrigation is practiced. This problem raises the need for reliable, simple and economical methods to monitor boron concentrations in wastewater and soil extracts. One such method, the commonly used azomethine-H spectrophotometric method, suffers from color interference, originating from high concentrations of dissolved organic matter, when applied to many wastewater and agricultural soil extracts. Moreover, this method only quantifies free dissolved boron and lacks the ability to quantify boron that is adsorbed to either the dissolved organic matter or suspended solids that are present in the sample. This work suggests a modification of the standard azomethine-H method, in which the solution is digested with potassium persulfate prior to the standard procedure. We show that this pretreatment can overcome the color interference and lead to highly accurate and precise boron analyses in wastewater. In soil extracts, the boron concentrations obtained using the suggested procedure were better correlated to inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry results than those measured by the standard method, because whereas the standard method quantifies the free dissolved boron only, the modified method, like the ICP method, quantifies the total dissolved boron in the sample. Thus, the suggested modification can be used to quantify the respective distributions of free dissolved boron, boron adsorbed to dissolved organic matter and boron adsorbed to suspended solids in soil extracts and water samples. PMID:18396315

  18. Turbulent Concentration of Chondrules: Size Distribution and Multifractal Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hogan, Robert C.; Paque, Julie M.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    Size-selective concentration of particles in 3D turbulence may be related to collection of chondrules and other constituents into primitive bodies in a weakly turbulent protoplanetary nebula. In the terrestrial planet region, both the characteristic size and narrow size distribution of chondrules are explained, whereas "fluffier" particles would be concentrated in lower density, or more intensely turbulent, regions of the nebula. The spatial distribution of concentrated particle density obeys multifractal scaling, suggesting a dose tie to the turbulent cascade process. This scaling behavior allows predictions of the concentration probabilities to be made in the protoplanetary nebula, which are so large (> 10(exp 3) - 10(exp 4)) that further studies must be made of the role of mass loading.

  19. Effects of High Boron Concentration and Scion-Rootstock Combination on Growth and Nutritional Status of Olive Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Chatzissavvidis; Ioannis Therios; Chrysovalantou Antonopoulou; Kortessa Dimassi

    2008-01-01

    Own rooted olive plants (Olea europaea L.) of the cvs. ‘Megaritiki’ (M), ‘Chondrolia Chalkidikis’ (C), ‘Amfissis’ (A), ‘Kalamon’, ‘Koroneiki’, ‘Agiou Orous’, and wild olives, as well as the scion x rootstock combinations CxC, MxC, MxM, AxM, CxM, AxA, and CxA were irrigated with a nutrient solution containing 10 mg boron (B)\\/L for two months. In all the own rooted plants

  20. Dust size distribution and concentrations with cottonseed oil mills

    E-print Network

    Wiederhold, Lee Roy

    1976-01-01

    concentrations, particle sizes, and sampling techniques. Four areas of each oil mill were investigated with three sampling devices. An electronic method of dust particle sizing was also investigated with the use of the Coulter Counter. Results of the data...). However, should a specific particle diameter be chosen as the cutoff limit for the respirable range, the Coulter Counter particle size distributions analysis would allow for calculation of dust concentrations in this range. This method of particle size...

  1. Distribution of boron and its forms in young “Newhall” navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) plants grafted on two rootstocks in response to deficient and excessive boron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Guidong; Jiang Cuncang; Wang Yunhua

    2011-01-01

    Boron (B) deficiency is widespread and serious in navel orange orchards in southern Jiangxi in China and has been considered an important soil constraint to citrus yield and quality. It has been observed that there was great variation in responses to different B supply levels between “Newhall” navel orange grafted on citrange and trifoliate orange. The aim of this work

  2. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1997-03-18

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  3. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1995-10-03

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  4. Impact of boron dilution accidents on low boron PWR safety

    SciTech Connect

    Papukchiev, A.; Liu, Y. [Dept. of Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety, Technical Univ. Munich, Walther Meissner-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schaefer, A. [ISaR Inst. for Safety and Reliability, Walther Meissner-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, soluble boron is used for reactivity control over core fuel cycle. As an inadvertent reduction of the boron concentration during a boron dilution accident could introduce positive reactivity and have a negative impact on PWR safety, design changes to reduce boron concentration in the reactor coolant are of general interest. In the framework of an investigation into the feasibility of low boron design, a PWR core configuration based on fuel with higher gadolinium (Gd) load has been developed which permits to reduce the natural boron concentration at begin of cycle (BOC) to 518 ppm. For the assessment of the potential safety advantages, a boron dilution accident due to small break loss-of-coolant-accident (SBLOCA) has been simulated with the system code ATHLET for two PWR core designs: a low boron design and a standard core design. The results from the comparative analyses showed that the impact of the boron dilution accident on the new PWR design safety is significantly lower in comparison with the standard design. The new reactor design provided at least 4, 4% higher reactivity margin to recriticality during the whole accident which is equivalent to the negative reactivity worth of additional 63% of all control rods fully inserted in to the core. (authors)

  5. Optimum irradiance distribution of concentrated sunlight for photovoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, Pablo; Mohedano, Rubén

    1999-04-01

    The irradiance distribution on a concentration photovoltaic cell that produces maximum conversion efficiency has been found with the tools of Variational Calculus. The analysis is two dimensional and can be applied to a comb-like double busbar solar cell illuminated by a line-focus concentrator. The optimum distribution is, in general, nonuniform, and depends on the internal parameters of the solar cell: the higher the contribution of the grid to the global cell series resistance, the lower the uniformity of the optimum irradiance distribution. In practical cases, the efficiency for uniform illumination is close to that of the optimum, but in the latter the irradiance close to the busbar may be noticeable higher than the average.

  6. Concentration distribution of contaminant transport in wetland flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zi; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian

    2015-06-01

    Study on contaminant transport in wetland flows is of fundamental importance. Recent investigation on scalar transport in laminar tube flows (Wu and Chen, 2014. J. Fluid Mech., 740: 196-213.) indicates that the vertical concentration difference in wetland flows may be remarkable for a very long time, which cannot be captured by the extensively applied one-dimensional Taylor dispersion model. To understand detailed information for the vertical distribution of contaminant in wetland flows, for the first time, the present paper deduces an analytical solution for the multi-dimensional concentration distribution by the method of mean concentration expansion. The solution is verified by both our analytical and numerical results. Representing the effects of vegetation in wetlands, the unique dimensionless parameter ? can cause the longitudinal contraction of the contaminant cloud and the change of the shape of the concentration contours. By these complicated effects, it is shown unexpectedly that the maximum vertical concentration difference remains nearly unaffected, although its longitudinal position may change. Thus the slow-decaying transient effect (Wu and Chen, 2014. J. Hydrol., 519: 1974-1984.) is shown also apply to the process of contaminant transport in wetland flows.

  7. Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

  8. A stochastic model for subcellular dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Ceberg, C P; Persson, A; Brun, A; Huiskamp, R; Salford, L G; Persson, B R

    1995-11-01

    The therapeutic effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy is highly dependent on the microscopic distribution of the administered boron compound. Two boron compounds with different uptake mechanisms in the tumour cells may thus cause effects of different degrees even if the macroscopic boron concentrations in the tumour tissue are the same. This difference is normally expressed quantitatively by the so-called relative local efficiency (RLE). In this work, a stochastic model for the subcellular dosimetry has been developed. This model can be used to calculate the probability for an energy deposition above a certain threshold level in the cell nucleus due to a single neutron capture reaction. If a threshold cell-kill function is assumed, and if the dose is low enough that multiple energy depositions are rare, the model can also be applied to calculations of the survival probability for a cell population. Subcellular boron distributions in rats carrying RG 2 rat gliomas were measured by subcellular fractionation after administration of two different boron compounds: a sulphydryl boron hydride (BSH) and a boronated porphyrin (BOPP). Based on these data, the RLE factors were then calculated for these compounds using the stochastic model. PMID:8587934

  9. Numerical prediction of concentration and current distributions in PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Fang-Bor; Su, Ay; Jung, Guo-Bin; Chiu, Yen-Chiao; Chan, Shih-Hung

    In this study, we present a rigorous 3-D mathematical model, to treat prediction and analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) species concentration and current density distributions in different flow field patterns and operating conditions. The model is based on the solution of the conservation equations of mass, momentum, species and electric current in a fully integrated finite-volume solver using the CFDRC commercial code. The polarization curve of serpentine flow pattern is well correlated with experimental data. The cell performance with parallel straight, serpentine and interdigitated flow patterns are calculated and compared. The simulation results reveal that serpentine and interdigitated flow patterns show strong convection and high mass transfer. However, they also have larger pressure loss. In addition, the effects of operating temperature and relative humidity are also studied. Non-uniform distributions of concentration and current density appear at high temperature, high current density and low humidity operation, which could lead to an unstable cell performance.

  10. Methods for boron delivery to mammalian tissue

    DOEpatents

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick (Encino, CA); Feaks, Debra A. (Los Angeles, CA); Shelly, Kenneth J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy can be used to destroy tumors. This treatment modality is enhanced by delivering compounds to the tumor site where the compounds have high concentrations of boron, the boron compounds being encapsulated in the bilayer of a liposome or in the bilayer as well as the internal space of the liposomes. Preferred compounds, include carborane units with multiple boron atoms within the carborane cage structure. Liposomes with increased tumor specificity may also be used.

  11. Distribution and concentration of cyclosporin in human blood.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, K; Britton, K; Biggs, J

    1984-01-01

    In patients receiving cyclosporin to minimise graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, whole blood cyclosporin concentration was roughly twice the serum concentration when blood was separated at 37 degrees C. In turn, blood separation at 37 degrees C resulted in a doubling of serum cyclosporin concentration compared with separation at room temperature. In vitro studies showed that the latter phenomenon was due to a temperature dependent partitioning of cyclosporin between plasma and red cells, such that increased cyclosporin was taken up from the serum into red cells at room temperature. Increasing delay in separation of patient blood (at either temperature) resulted in a gradually increasing cyclosporin serum concentration. Further in vitro studies showed that a distribution equilibrium between blood components was reached within 30 min incubation. Red cell uptake of cyclosporin was saturable at an incubation concentration of greater than 4 microgram/ml, while plasma and mononuclear cells showed a linear uptake to 7 micrograms/ml. The cellular cyclosporin content of a mononuclear cell was roughly 1000 times greater than that of an erythrocyte. For clinical monitoring we recommend the measurement of cyclosporin concentration either in whole blood or in serum separated at 37 degrees C without delay after venepuncture. Images PMID:6386891

  12. Distribution of airborne radon-222 concentrations in U. S. homes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Nero; M. B. Schwehr; W. W. Nazaroff; K. L. Revzan

    1986-01-01

    Apparently large exposures of the general public to the radioactive decay products of radon-222 present in indoor air have led to systematical appraisal of monitoring data from U.S. single-family homes; several ways of aggregating data were used that take into account differences in sample selection and season of measurements. The resulting distribution of annual-average radon-222 concentrations can be characterized by

  13. In-time concentration distribution measurements using a neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenroth, W. [Univ. of Padeborn, Meschede (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    This contribution deals with the experimental development of an entirely new measuring approach for the concentration distribution of solid matter in a horizontal pipe. The method, proposed by Wetzlar, use a pretrained neural network and therefore permits measurements in real time. The paper will present the different steps of the development, display first results gained with this new measuring arrangement and interpret their results taking into account other leading parameters, such as particle velocity, critical velocity and pressure gradient.

  14. Concentration distributions of arbitrary shaped particles in microfluidic channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibaba, Arvind; Shaqfeh, Eric; Darve, Eric

    2009-11-01

    We are interested in the study of the transient and steady state concentration distribution of orientable Brownian particles across channels at low Reynolds numbers. This is important in understanding margination of blood ``particles'' including platelets as well as new drug delivery and cancer nanotechnology particles which are involved in hemostasis as well as delivering drugs to the vascular endothelial cells. Although our formulation is general, the particles we consider are rigid Brownian ``surfboards'' which have been found to be effective in drug delivery since they are resistant to leukocyte attack [1]. The Stokes flow in the channel around the particles, driven by a mean pressure gradient, is computed using the Boundary Element method within the single layer formulation. The particle motion is calculated using rigid body dynamics with a contribution due to Brownian motion that satisfies the Fluctuation-Dissipation theorem. Finite concentrations are considered, and all hydrodynamic interactions are included. The concentration distribution is computed and interpreted as a balance between the concentration dependent variation in the non-equilibrium particle osmotic pressure and the cross stream particle normal stresses. [4pt] [1] J. A. Champion, S. Mitragotri, ``Role of target geometry in phagocytosis'', PNAS 103, 4930-4934, (2006)

  15. Boron reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-07-01

    A process to recover high purity /sup 10/B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron.

  16. Performance of sulfhydryl boron hydride in patients with grade III and IV astrocytoma: a basis for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Ceberg, C P; Persson, A; Brun, A; Huiskamp, R; Fyhr, A S; Persson, B R; Salford, L G

    1995-07-01

    This study investigated the rationale of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of Grade III and IV astrocytoma. The European Community joint research program on BNCT plans to use sulfhydryl boron hydride (BSH) in clinical trials. The work presented here, examines the performance of BSH in eight patients with Grade III and IV astrocytoma using a measurement technique which precisely correlates the boron uptake with the histology of the tumor and the peritumoral brain. Astrocytomas are exceptionally heterogeneous and spread migrating tumor cells into the surrounding brain. The patients were infused with 50 mg BSH per kilogram of body weight at 12, 18, 24 or 48 hours before surgery. At the time of operation, specimens were obtained of the tumor, skin, muscle, dura, blood, urine, and, when surgically possible, the brain adjacent to tumor. In three patients the intracellular boron distribution was investigated by subcellular fractionation. The blood clearance was biphasic with half-lives of 0.6 and 8.2 hours. After 3 days, approximately 70% of the dose injected was excreted in the urine. The maximum boron concentration in the tumor was 20 ppm, 12 hours after the infusion. The tumor-to-blood ratios ranged between 0.2 and 1.4, with the highest values after 18 to 24 hours. In the brain specimens the boron concentration never exceeded 1 ppm. This work confirms a selective uptake of boron in the tumor compared to the surrounding brain and that boron, to some extent, is incorporated in the tumor cells. PMID:7782854

  17. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 ?m-25 ?m.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 ?g/m3 to 1344 ?g/m3 with an average of 532 ?g/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 ?m to 2.43 ?m with an average of 1.5 ?m ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for atmospheric aerosols with a coarse mode diameter situated at about 3.5 ?m. The experimental results reported in this study will be important in validating satellite based observations and simulation models of the African dust plume towards the Gulf of Guinea during winter.

  18. Distribution of indoor radon concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1990-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2013-01-01

    Results from 548,507 indoor radon tests from a database compiled by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, Radon Division, are evaluated in this report in an effort to determine areas where concentrations of radon are highest. Indoor radon concentrations were aggregated according to geologic unit and hydrogeologic setting for spatial analysis. Indoor radon concentrations greater than or equal to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were observed for 39 percent of the test results; the highest concentration was 1,866.4 pCi/L. When analyzed according to Pennsylvania’s geologic units, 93 of the 188 (49.5 percent) geologic units with indoor radon concentrations had median concentrations greater than the USEPA action level of 4 pCi/L; most of these geologic units are located in the eastern part of the State and include metamorphic rocks, limestones, sandstones, shales, and glacial deposits. When analyzed according to Pennsylvania’s hydrogeologic settings, 5 of the 20 (25 percent) settings had median indoor radon concentrations greater than the USEPA action level of 4 pCi/L; these settings are located mostly in the south-central part of the State. Median indoor radon concentrations aggregated according to geologic units and hydrogeologic settings are useful for drawing general conclusions about the occurrence of indoor radon in specific geologic units and hydrogeologic settings, but the associated data and maps have limitations. The aggregated indoor radon data have testing and spatial accuracy limitations due to lack of available information regarding testing conditions and the imprecision of geocoded test locations. In addition, the associated data describing geologic units and hydrogeologic settings have spatial and interpretation accuracy limitations, which are a result of using statewide data to define conditions at test locations and geologic data that represent a broad interpretation of geologic units across the State. As a result, indoor air radon concentration distributions are not proposed for use in predicting individual concentrations at specific sites nor for use as a decision-making tool for property owners to decide whether to test for indoor radon concentrations at specific property locations.

  19. Vertical distribution of HOx concentrations driven by boundary layer dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomm, Sebastian; Broch, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Bohn, Birger; Häseler, Rolf; Jäger, Julia; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Li, Xin; Lu, Keding; Lohse, Insa; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Wolfe, Glenn; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key compounds for the degradation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Therefore, accurate and precise measurements of HOx radicals (= OH + HO2) at different altitudes and in different regions are necessary to test our understanding of atmospheric chemical processes. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is of special interest as it is chemically the most active part of the atmosphere. Until today, there is a general lack of measurements investigating the distribution of radicals, trace gases, and aerosols in the PBL with high spatial resolution. Here, we present results of measurements performed in June/July 2012 in the Po valley region in Italy as part of the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS). A Zeppelin NT was used as an airborne platform for measurements of HOx radical concentrations and total OH reactivity (kOH) applying a remotely controlled Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument. In addition a comprehensive set of other trace gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2, HCHO, HONO, VOCs), photolysis frequencies, particle number concentration, and meteorological parameters were measured. During the morning hours, a layered atmospheric structure with vertical gradients in trace gas concentrations was observed. In altitudes larger than 600 m above ground, air masses with low trace gas concentrations (NOx < 500 ppt, kOH < 3 s-1) were probed, whereas air masses in altitudes below 100 m above ground were influenced by ground emissions resulting in higher trace gas concentrations (NOx > 6 ppb, kOH > 6 s-1). The airship Zeppelin NT was used to perform localized height profiles between 75 and 900 m above ground in order to investigate the influence of these trace gas gradients on HOx radical concentrations. Due to changing chemical conditions, the measured OH concentration shows a variability with height up to a factor of 2.5 and for the measured HO2 concentration up to a factor of 5. Additionally, we present box model calculations of HOx to identify the processes driving the radical chemistry and its change in concentration with height.

  20. Silicon nanocrystals with high boron and phosphorus concentration hydrophilic shell—Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Minoru; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Masataka; Imakita, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Boron (B) and phosphorus (P) codoped silicon (Si) nanocrystals, which exhibit very wide range tunable luminescence due to the donor to acceptor transitions and can be dispersed in polar liquids without organic ligands, are studied by Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Codoped Si nanocrystals exhibit a Raman spectrum significantly different from those of intrinsic ones. First, the Raman peak energy is almost insensitive to the size and is very close to that of bulk Si crystal in the diameter range of 2.7 to 14 nm. Second, the peak is much broader than that of intrinsic ones. Furthermore, an additional broad peak, the intensity of which is about 20% of the main peak, appears around 650 cm-1. The peak can be assigned to local vibrational modes of substitutional B and B-P pairs, B clusters, B-interstitial clusters, etc. in Si crystal. The Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that a crystalline shell heavily doped with these species is formed at the surface of a codoped Si nanocrystal and it induces the specific properties, i.e., hydrophilicity, high-stability in water, high resistance to hydrofluoric acid, etc.

  1. Silicon nanocrystals with high boron and phosphorus concentration hydrophilic shell—Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Minoru, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Masataka; Imakita, Kenji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-02-28

    Boron (B) and phosphorus (P) codoped silicon (Si) nanocrystals, which exhibit very wide range tunable luminescence due to the donor to acceptor transitions and can be dispersed in polar liquids without organic ligands, are studied by Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Codoped Si nanocrystals exhibit a Raman spectrum significantly different from those of intrinsic ones. First, the Raman peak energy is almost insensitive to the size and is very close to that of bulk Si crystal in the diameter range of 2.7 to 14?nm. Second, the peak is much broader than that of intrinsic ones. Furthermore, an additional broad peak, the intensity of which is about 20% of the main peak, appears around 650?cm{sup ?1}. The peak can be assigned to local vibrational modes of substitutional B and B-P pairs, B clusters, B-interstitial clusters, etc. in Si crystal. The Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that a crystalline shell heavily doped with these species is formed at the surface of a codoped Si nanocrystal and it induces the specific properties, i.e., hydrophilicity, high-stability in water, high resistance to hydrofluoric acid, etc.

  2. Intra-Fuel Cell Stack Measurements of Transient Concentration Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  3. Demonstration of three-dimensional deterministic radiation transport theory dose distribution analysis for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Nigg, D W; Randolph, P D; Wheeler, F J

    1991-01-01

    The Monte Carlo stochastic simulation technique has traditionally been the only well-recognized method for computing three-dimensional radiation dose distributions in connection with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) research. A deterministic approach to this problem would offer some advantages over the Monte Carlo method. This paper describes an application of a deterministic method to analytically simulate BNCT treatment of a canine head phantom using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven medical research reactor (BMRR). Calculations were performed with the TORT code from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an implementation of the discrete ordinates, or Sn method. Calculations were from first principles and used no empirical correction factors. The phantom surface was modeled by flat facets of approximately 1 cm2. The phantom interior was homogeneous. Energy-dependent neutron and photon scalar fluxes were calculated on a 32 x 16 x 22 mesh structure with 96 discrete directions in angular phase space. The calculation took 670 min on an Apollo DN10000 workstation. The results were subsequently integrated over energy to obtain full three-dimensional dose distributions. Isodose contours and depth-dose curves were plotted for several separate dose components of interest. Phantom measurements were made by measuring neutron activation (and therefore neutron flux) as a function of depth in copper-gold alloy wires that were inserted through catheters placed in holes drilled in the phantom. Measurements agreed with calculations to within about 15%. The calculations took about an order of magnitude longer than comparable Monte Carlo calculations but provided various conveniences, as well as a useful check. PMID:1901131

  4. Boron removal in RO seawater desalination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahide Taniguchi; Yoshinari Fusaoka; Tsuyoshi Nishikawa; Masaru Kurihara

    2004-01-01

    In the seawater desalination field, the WHO requires that boron concentration in drinking water be below 0.5 mg\\/l, and this requirement has affected SWRO process design because of the difficulty in achieving such a low boron concentration. In order to overcome this problem, anew SWRO membrane element with higher boron-rejecting performance was developed. This new SWRO membrane element exhibits excellent

  5. High arsenic and boron concentrations in groundwaters related to mining activity in the Bigadiç borate deposits (Western Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ünsal Gemici; Gültekin Tarcan; Cahit Helvac?; A. Melis Somay

    2008-01-01

    This study documents the environmental impacts of borate mines in Bigadiç district, which are the largest colemanite and ulexite deposits in the world. Borate-bearing formations have affected the concentrations of some contaminants in groundwater. Groundwater quality is directly related to the borate zones in the mines as a result of water–rock interaction processes. Calcium is the dominant cation and waters

  6. Boron Diffusion In Silicon From Ultrafine Boron-Silicon Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Arunava; West, Gary A.; Donlan, Jeffrey P.

    1984-06-01

    A CO2 laser pyrolysis technique has been used to prepare ultrafine (< 0.1p diameter) boron-silicon powders with different boron concentrations. These powders have been used as a spin-on boron diffusion source for silicon wafers. The spin-on colloidal suspension is prepared by mixing the powder with a thermally degradable polymer binder, polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), and an organic vehicle, cyclohexanone. Thin, uniform films are spun-on using a standard photoresist spinner. Two different procedures are followed in diffusing the boron from the boron-silicon powder. In the first process, the boron is diffused by heating the wafer in an argon ambient (1000-1260°C). The excess dopant layer is removed by oxidation (02) and subsequent etching (HF). In the second process, the powder is first converted to a borosilicate glass layer by oxidation, followed by diffusion in an argon ambient. Some experiments using commercially available boron nitride powder as a diffusion source are also discussed.

  7. New Advances in Boron Soil Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Goldberg; Chunming Su

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout\\u000a the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under\\u000a irrigation. Plants respond directly to the B concentration in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B attached\\u000a to soil surfaces

  8. Boron Removal by Polymer-Assisted Ultrafiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan M. Smith; Paul Todd; Christopher N. Bowman

    1995-01-01

    Boron contamination of natural waters is a widespread environmental problem which lacks a cost-effective solution. Polymer-assisted ultrafiltration is a method of boron removal that is compatible with other water-treatment processes. This boron removal technique exploits the pH-dependent complexation between boric acid and a macromolecule containing vicinal diol groups to prevent boric acid from passing through an ultrafiltration membrane. The concentration

  9. Boron carbonitride nanojunctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Guo; C. Y. Zhi; X. D. Bai; E. G. Wang

    2002-01-01

    Boron carbonitride (BCN) nanometric heterojunctions are controllably fabricated by bias-assisted hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with a pause-reactivation two-stage (PRTS) process. Tailored composition revulsion across the nanotube junction is obtained by simply varying the concentration of the gaseous precursor between the two stages of the PRTS process. The critical effect of the plasma power density in the reactivation process on continuous

  10. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

    1994-12-13

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

  11. Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

    Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer in the UK PII: S0022-3727(98)92614-6 Spectromicroscopy of boron for the optimization of boron neutron synchrotron spectromicroscopy to study the microscopic distribution of boron in rat brain tumour and healthy

  12. Boron in Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, P.; Goswami, J. N.; Krähenbühl, U.; Marti, K.

    2001-10-01

    Isotopic compositions and abundances of boron were measured in sixteen chondrules from seven chondrites by ion microprobe mass spectrometry. The chondrules are of the porphyritic, barred, and radial type and host meteorites include carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites. Boron abundances are generally low with average boron concentrations of between 80 and 500 ppb. These abundances are lower than those of bulk chondrites (0.35 to 1.2 ppm; Zhai et al., 1996), confirming earlier suggestions that boron is mostly contained in the matrix. No significant variation in the 11B/10B ratio is observed among these chondrules, outside our experimental error limits of several permil, and B-isotopic compositions agree with those reported for bulk chondrites. The lack of a significant isotope fractionation between chondrules and matrix implies that the low boron abundances are not the result of a Rayleigh fractionation during chondrule formation. Isotopic heterogeneities within individual chondrules are constrained to be < +/-20% at >95% confidence level at a spatial scale of 20-30 um, significantly lower than the value of about +/-40% previously reported for chondrules from carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites (Chaussidon and Robert, 1995, 1998). The observed B-isotopic homogeneity does not conflict with the presence of decay products from extinct 10Be, with (10Be/9Be)0 ~ 10-3, as was inferred for calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions. Extinct 10Be in chondrules would shift the abundance ratio 11B/10B at best by several permil because of their commonly observed low Be/B ratios (<2). The results show that potential B-isotopic heterogeneities in the solar nebula due to the presence of components with different B-isotopic signatures, such as boron produced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays (11B/10B ~ 2.5), or by the hypothetical low-energy particle irradiation (11B/10B ~ 3.5-11) or boron from type II supernovae (11B/10B >> 1), did not survive the chondrule formation processes to a measurable extent.

  13. Boron deposition from fused salts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.L.

    1980-08-01

    A partial evaluation of the feasibility of a process to electrodeposit pure coherent coatings of elemental boron from molten fluorides has been performed. The deposit produced was powdery and acicular, unless the fluoride melt was purified to have very low oxygen concentration. When the oxygen activity was reduced in the melt by addition of crystalline elemental boron, dense, amorphous boron deposit was produced. The boron deposits produced had cracks but were otherwise pure and dense and ranged up to 0.35 mm thick. Information derived during this project suggests that similar deposits might be obtained crack-free up to 1.00 mm thick by process modifications and improvements.

  14. Myocardial Blood Flow Distribution in Concentric Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rembert, Judith C.; Kleinman, Leonard H.; Fedor, John M.; Wechsler, Andrew S.; Greenfield, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    Regional myocardial blood flow during both control conditions and ischemia-induced vasodilatation was studied in eight chronically instrumented awake dogs. Seven of these animals had coarctation-banding of the ascending aorta performed at 6 wk of age, and the other dog had congenital subvalvular aortic stenosis. The mean left ventricular weight for the group was 157±7.6 g, and the left ventricular body weight ratio was 8.76±0.47 g/kg. None of the animals exhibited signs of congestive heart failure. During the control state, the mean left ventricular systolic pressure was 249±12 mm Hg and the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 11.5±0.5 mm Hg. The aortic diastolic pressure was 74±6 mm Hg. Mean left circumflex coronary artery blood flow was 71±6 cm3/min. In the animals with coarctation-banding, 52±6% of the flow occurred during systole. In the dog with congenital subvalvular aortic stenosis, 5% of the coronary flow was systolic. Mean transmural blood flow during resting conditions was 0.97±0.08 cm3/min per g, and the ratio of endocardial to epicardial flow (endo/epi) was 0.88±0.07. During reactive hyperemia, the mean transmural blood flow increased to 3.5±0.30 cm3/min per g; however, the endo/epi decreased to 0.52±0.06. These studies document a difference in transmural blood flow distribution between the normal and the hypertrophied left ventricle: during resting conditions, in the normal ventricle, the highest flow occurs in the endocardial layer, whereas in the hypertrophied ventricle, the highest flow is in the middle layers with the endocardial flow less than the epicardial flow. During ischemia-induced vasodilatation, the abnormal endo/epi becomes accentuated markedly. These data demonstrate that, in situations requiring high flow, the endocardial layer of a heart with marked concentric left ventricular hypertrophy may not be perfused adequately. Images PMID:149800

  15. Axial pressure profiles and solids concentration distributions in the CFB bottom zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Schlichthaerle; J. Werther

    1999-01-01

    The solids concentration distribution in the bottom zone of a cold model CFB unit was measured with fiber-optical probes and by ?-ray absorption. A higher solids concentration at the wall and a lower concentration in the center of the riser was found. Starting at the distributor, the time and cross-sectional average solids volume concentration increases slightly or remains constant with

  16. Boron neutron capture enhancement of 252Cf brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Beach, J L; Schroy, C B; Ashtari, M; Harris, M R; Maruyama, Y

    1990-06-01

    Dosimetric and radiobiological studies were undertaken to investigate the potential enhancement in dose, dose distribution and cell killing effectiveness of 252Cf brachytherapy achievable when boron-10 enriched compounds are incorporated into simulated 252Cf brain implants. Thermal neutron distributions in a human head phantom containing a 252Cf source were measured by gold foil activation and calculated using a 1-dimensional transport code. This information was then used to modify measured event size distributions for 252Cf neutrons to determine the corresponding increase in dose and dose equivalent throughout the phantom. The addition of subtoxic levels of boron-10 to a typical 252Cf implant was found to significantly enhance both the absorbed dose and the high LET event frequency at distances of 3 to 5 cm from individual sources. Some unexpected geometric considerations are discussed. Reduced survival of cultured Chinese hamster cells correlated with the predicted increase in absorbed dose from the capture events with a concentration of about 60 micrograms 10B per ml in the culture medium. It was found that boron increased alpha (the "single-hit" parameter of the linear quadratic survival model) by 32% and decreased beta (the "double-hit" parameter) by 8%. The alpha/beta ratio increased to 4.34 Gy in the presence of boron, from 3.03 Gy in its absence. This translated to an 8% reduction in californium dose needed to effect 10% cell survival. It is concluded that there is a sufficiently high thermal neutron fluence present during californium brachytherapy for boron neutron capture dose augmentation to be feasible. PMID:2370192

  17. National distribution of chemical concentrations in mussels and oysters in the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. O'Connor

    2002-01-01

    Since 1986 the NOAA National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program Mussel Watch has monitored concentrations of trace chemicals in the coastal United States by sampling mussels, oysters, and sediment. The sediment data have been used to define the status or geographic distribution of chemical concentrations (Daskalakis, K. D., & O'Connor, T. P (1995). Distribution of chemical contamination in coastal and

  18. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System of analysis of Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power (DCS-CHP) systems is a design of a theoretical solar CHP system. Then, we explore the economic and technological impetus for a solar powered

  19. Effect of Particle Size Distribution and Concentration on Flow Behavior of Dense Slurries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Vlasak; Zdenek Chara

    2011-01-01

    The flow behavior of concentrated slurry depends on particle size distribution, shape, density, and concentration. The slurry flow behavior can change from Newtonian to non-Newtonian depending on the concentration, slurry composition, and content of fine and especially colloidal particles, which evoke a complex rheological behavior of the slurry. The present article deals with experimental investigation of the flow behavior and

  20. Synthesis and Raman Characterization of Boron Doped Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, K.; Gothard, N.; Gai, P. L.; Chao, S. G.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Rao, A. M.

    2003-11-01

    Boron-doped SWNTs were prepared by pulsed laser vaporization of carbon targets containing boron with concentrations ranging between 0.5 - 10 at%. As-prepared samples were characterized using Raman spectroscopy and HRTEM measurements. Above a threshold boron concentration of 3 at%, the growth of SWNT bundles ceases due to the low solubility of boron in carbon at ˜1200 ^oC. Interestingly, a few ˜0.5 nm diameter single walled tubes are found, along with nanographitic material in the soot generated from a target with a boron concentration of ˜7 at%. As expected, the intensity of the ˜1350 cm-1 D-band increases with increasing boron concentration due to boron substitution into the honeycomb lattice. Both the radial breathing mode and tangential G- bands were observed in the Raman spectra in samples with <3 at % boron at ˜186 cm-1 and ˜1591 cm-1, respectively. Implications of boron doping in the nanotube shell will be discussed.

  1. Synthesis and Raman Characterization of Boron Doped Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, K.; Gothard, N.; Gai, P. L.; Chou, S. G.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Rao, A. M.

    2003-03-01

    Boron-doped SWNTs were prepared by pulsed laser vaporization of carbon targets containing boron with concentrations ranging between 0.5 - 10 at%. As-prepared samples were characterized using Raman spectroscopy and HRTEM measurements. Above a threshold boron concentration of 3 at%, the growth of SWNT bundles ceases due to the low solubility of boron in carbon at ˜1200 ^oC. Interestingly, a few ˜0.5 nm diameter single walled tubes are found, along with nanographitic material in the soot generated from a target with a boron concentration of ˜7 at%. As expected, the intensity of the ˜1350 cm-1 D-band increases with increasing boron concentration due to boron substitution into the honeycomb lattice. Both the radial breathing mode and tangential G- bands were observed in the Raman spectra in samples with <3 at % boron at ˜186 cm-1 and ˜1591 cm-1, respectively. Implications of boron doping in the nanotube shell will be discussed.

  2. Reactions of boron with soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Goldberg

    1997-01-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but the range between deficient and toxic B concentration is smaller than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the activity of B in soil solution and only indirectly to B adsorbed on soil constituents. Soil factors affecting availability of B to plants are: pH, texture, moisture, temperature, organic matter and

  3. Boron carbonitride nanojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. D.; Zhi, C. Y.; Bai, X. D.; Wang, E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Boron carbonitride (BCN) nanometric heterojunctions are controllably fabricated by bias-assisted hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with a pause-reactivation two-stage (PRTS) process. Tailored composition revulsion across the nanotube junction is obtained by simply varying the concentration of the gaseous precursor between the two stages of the PRTS process. The critical effect of the plasma power density in the reactivation process on continuous growth of the nanotubes is realized and controlled, leading to successful synthesis of the Y-shaped BCN nanojunctions.

  4. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  5. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W. (Newport News, VA); Jordan, Kevin (Newport News, VA); Park, Cheol (Yorktown, VA)

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  6. Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

    1981-10-01

    High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10/sup 15/cm/sup -3/ has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium ..beta..-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H/sub 2/ with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sup -3/ and are estimated to contain 10/sup 8/ H atoms each.

  7. Ecological risk assessment of a wetland exposed to boron

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Coyle, G.T. [Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States). Environmental Sciences Center; Best, G.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A wetland located in the southeastern portion of the United States was the site of an investigation to determine the potential ecological risk of elevated boron concentrations to the flora and fauna living in the wetland. The conceptual model identified the vegetation as the primary receptor of concern, and thus the vegetation is the focus of this article. Samples of surface water, sediments, and selected vegetation were collected from the study wetland and several nearby reference sites and were analyzed for boron. Concentrations of boron in all three media exceeded reference site concentrations. Boron concentrations were highest near the suspected source but decreased almost to reference-site concentrations near the outer perimeter of the wetland. Some plants appeared stressed with yellowing and necrotic leaves; however, a correlation between tissue boron concentrations and the plant`s visual appearance was not apparent for all species studied. Modeling of the fate of boron indicated that the wetland has likely been at a steady state for many years and that boron concentrations were not expected to increase. It was concluded that no observable adverse ecological impacts to the vegetation could be attributed to boron, nor is it likely that the boron poses an unacceptable risk to the surrounding areas.

  8. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

    1998-06-09

    A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

  9. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  10. Pressure-dependent boron isotopic fractionation observed by column chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musashi, M.; Oi, T.; Matsuo, M.; Nomura, M.

    2007-12-01

    Boron isotopic fractionation factor ( S ) between boron taken up in strongly basic anion exchange resin and boron in aqueous solution was determined by breakthrough column chromatography at 5 and 17 MPa at 25°C, using 0.1 mmol/L boric acid solution as feed solution. The S values obtained were 1.018 and 1.012, respectively, which were smaller than the value reported by using the same chromatographic method at atmospheric pressure at 25°C with the boron concentration of 10 mmol/L, but were larger than the values at the same condition with much higher concentration of 100 and 501 mmol/L, indicating that borate-polymerization reducing the isotopic fractionation was negligible. However, calculations based on the theory of isotope distribution between two phases estimated that 21% (5MPa) and 47% (17MPa) of boron taken up in the resin phase was in the three-coordinated B(OH)3-form, instead of in the four-coordinated B(OH)4--form, at high pressures even with the very diluted solution. We discussed this discrepancy by introducing (1) hydration or (2) a partial molar volume difference between isotopic molecules. It was inferred that borate ions were partially dehydrated upon transfer from the solution phase to the resin phase at high pressures, which resulted in smaller S values compared with those at the atmospheric pressure. Alternatively, it was likely that the S value decreased with increasing pressure, because the difference of the partial isotopic molar volumes between 10B(OH)3 and 11B(OH)3 was larger than that between 10B(OH)4- and 11B(OH)4-. If either will be the case, the influence of a pressure upon the isotope effect may not be negligible for boron isotopic exchange equilibrium. This knowledge is crucial for the principle of the boron isotopic pH-metry reconstructing a chemical variation at the paleo-deep oceanic environment where the early life may have been evolved.

  11. A Novel Method of Boron Delivery Using Sodium Iodide Symporter for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    PubMed Central

    KUMAR, Sanath; FREYTAG, Svend O.; BARTON, Kenneth N.; BURMEISTER, Jay; JOINER, Michael C.; SEDGHI, Bijan; MOVSAS, Benjamin; BINNS, Peter J.; KIM, Jae Ho; BROWN, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) effectiveness depends on the preferential sequestration of boron in cancer cells relative to normal tissue cells. We present a novel strategy for sequestering boron using an adenovirus expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Human glioma grown subcutaneously in athymic mice and orthotopic rat brain tumors were transfected with NIS using a direct tumor injection of adenovirus. Boron bound as sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF4) was administered systemically several days after transfection. Tumors were excised hours later and assessed for boron concentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. In the human glioma transfected with NIS, boron concentration was more than 10 fold higher with 100 mg/kg of NaBF4, compared to tumor not transfected. In the orthotopic tumor model, the presence of NIS conferred almost 4 times the boron concentration in rat tumors transfected with human virus compared with contralateral normal brain not transfected. We conclude that adenovirus expressing NIS has the potential to be used as a novel boron delivery agent and should be explored for future clinical applications. PMID:20921830

  12. Development and Application of Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Estimating Atrazine Concentration Distributions in Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Regression models were developed for predicting atrazine concentration distributions in rivers and streams, using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology. Separate regression equations were derived for each of nine percentiles of the annual distribution of atrazine concentrations and for the annual time-weighted mean atrazine concentration. In addition, seasonal models were developed for two specific periods of the year--the high season, when the highest atrazine concentrations are expected in streams, and the low season, when concentrations are expected to be low or undetectable. Various nationally available watershed parameters were used as explanatory variables, including atrazine use intensity, soil characteristics, hydrologic parameters, climate and weather variables, land use, and agricultural management practices. Concentration data from 112 river and stream stations sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment and National Stream Quality Accounting Network Programs were used for computing the concentration percentiles and mean concentrations used as the response variables in regression models. Tobit regression methods, using maximum likelihood estimation, were used for developing the models because some of the concentration values used for the response variables were censored (reported as less than a detection threshold). Data from 26 stations not used for model development were used for model validation. The annual models accounted for 62 to 77 percent of the variability in concentrations among the 112 model development stations. Atrazine use intensity (the amount of atrazine used in the watershed divided by watershed area) was the most important explanatory variable in all models, but additional watershed parameters significantly increased the amount of variability explained by the models. Predicted concentrations from all 10 models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentrations at most model development and model validation stations. Results for the two sets of seasonal models were similar. Concentration distributions derived from the seasonal-model predictions provided additional information compared to distributions derived from the annual models.

  13. [Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

    2013-06-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality. PMID:24066568

  14. Female offspring of rat dams fed low boron diets during pregnancy and lactation exhibit signs of the metabolic syndrome during early adulthood: increased body weight, & serum triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To expand on reports from this laboratory that low dietary boron may affect energy substrate utilization, we determined whether low dietary boron during early development promotes manifestation of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed either a boron-low (BL; ~0.1 mg...

  15. Boron removal from seawater reverse osmosis permeate utilizing selective ion exchange resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nissim Nadav

    1999-01-01

    A minimum of boron in irrigation water is required for certain metabolic activities, but if its concentration is only slightly higher, plant growth will exhibit effects of boron poisoning, which are yellowish spots on the leaves and fruits, accelerated decay and ultimately plant expiration. Seawater in general contains relatively high concentration of boron: 4 to 5 ppm. The Red Sea

  16. Impact of Moving Objects on Contaminant Concentration Distributions in an Inpatient Ward with

    E-print Network

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Impact of Moving Objects on Contaminant Concentration Distributions in an Inpatient Ward Moving objects can disturb stratified flow and contaminant concentration gradient in an inpatient ward of moving objects, such as a walking visitor, a walking caretaker, the changing of the sheet on a patient

  17. A GAMMA RAY TOMOGRAPHY OF FCC CATALYST CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTION AND A TOMOGRAPH GENERATION COMPARISON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adérito de Aquino Filho; Carlos Costa Dantas; Silvio de Barros Melo; Eric Ferreira de Oliveira; Paulo Magalhães Simões; Marcos Luiz Crispino; Valdemir Alexandre

    The gamma ray tomography of concentration distribution of the FCC - fluid catalytic cracking catalyst is presented in 3D graphics. The catalyst concentration was measured in an experimental arrangement with a 137 Cs radioactive source, a NaI(Tl) solid state detector and a stainless steel riser by gamma ray transmission. By radial scan of the riser each gamma ray trajectory will

  18. Simple model of the vertical distribution of electron concentration in the ionosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Bradley; J. R. Dudeney

    1973-01-01

    An idealized model of the vertical distribution of the electron ; concentration in the E and F regions of the ionosphere is developed in which the ; model parameters are given by simple empirical expressions in terms of the ; characteristics conventionally measured at ionospheric observatories. ; Differences in the heights with a given electron concentration, as indicated by ;

  19. Dtermination numrique de la distribution des concentrations ponctuelles au foyer des concentrateurs facettes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    réalisation d'un capteur à concentration du rayonnement solaire, le plus délicat réside générale- ment dans la détermination numérique de la distribution des concentrations ponctuelles au foyer de réflecteurs solaires facettes de forme et de concavité quelconques, utilisant une réflexion du rayonnement inci- dent. Le

  20. Extended description of tunnel junctions for distributed modeling of concentrator multi-junction solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Espinet; I. García; I. Rey-Stolle; C. Algora; M. Baudrit

    2011-01-01

    One of the key components of highly efficient multi-junction concentrator solar cells is the tunnel junction interconnection. In this paper, an improved 3D distributed model is presented that considers real operation regimes in a tunnel junction. This advanced model is able to accurately simulate the operation of the solar cell at high concentrations at which the photogenerated current surpasses the

  1. Unconventional charge distribution in the planar wheel-type M©B6H6(-/0/+) (M = Mn, Fe and Co): central M with negative charges and peripheral boron ring with positive charges.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jianhua; Duan, Qian; Qin, Jieming; Shen, Xiande; Zhao, Jianxun; Liang, Qingcheng; Jiang, Dayong; Gao, Shang

    2015-04-21

    Planar wheel-type D6h M©B6H6(-/0/+) (M = Mn, Fe and Co for anion, neutral and cation, respectively.) clusters with a planar hexacoordinate transition-metal at the center of the boron ring were designed and investigated by density functional theory. These planar clusters are chemically stable as a result of their large binding energy, vertical ionization potential, and vertical electron affinity. The detailed natural population and molecular orbital analyses suggest that not only does the M atom donate electrons to the boron ring for participation in the ?-delocalized bonding, but also the boron ring donates electrons back to the M atom for the formation of the ?-delocalized bonding, which leads to a strong aromaticity and unconventional charge distribution, i.e., the M atom is negatively charged, while the boron ring is positively charged. This study may open a new area in coordination chemistry for planar hexacoordinate transition metals and we expect further experimental exploration of their synthesis and potential applications. PMID:25830384

  2. Boron strengthening in FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured FeAl is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % Al), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in FeAl. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.

  3. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  4. Controls on boron and germanium distribution in the low-sulfur Amos coal bed, Western Kentucky coalfield, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C Hower; Leslie F Ruppert; David A Williams

    2002-01-01

    The Duckmantian-aged Amos coal bed is a thin (Geochemical analysis of the Amos coal bed shows higher concentrations of B and Ge than other Western Kentucky coal beds. High total B concentrations as well as high B\\/Be, both considered to be indicators of marine environments, increase toward the top of the coal bed. Most of the B values for the

  5. Study of the structure and mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant steel with a high concentration of boron at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, A. Yu.; Khomutov, M. G.; Tsar'kov, A. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. V.; Solonin, A. N.; Efimov, V. M.; Mukhanov, E. L.

    2014-08-01

    Because of the high cost of corrosion-resistant steels, a necessary condition for their production is reducing rejection at all stages of processing, including hot forming, by optimizing process parameters. In this work, the mechanical characteristics of a corrosion-resistant steel with high content of boron have been studied at elevated temperatures. Using a special complex for the physical simulation of thermomechanical processes, it has been shown that the optimum temperature range of hot compressive plastic deformation is 950-1100°C. A mathematical model has been constructed, which relates the yield stress to the parameters of the process of hot plastic deformation. During deformation in the range of 850-1150°C, the boride particles present in the steel become oriented perpendicular to the compression axis; at high temperatures, the spheroidization of titanium diborides occurs, which reduces their size.

  6. Effect of dietary boron on the aging process.

    PubMed Central

    Massie, H R

    1994-01-01

    Total boron concentrations in Drosophila changed during development and aging. The highest concentration of boron was found during the egg stage, followed by a decline during the larval stages. Newly emerged flies contained 35.5 ppm boron. During the adult stage the boron concentration increased by 52% by 9 weeks of age. Adding excess dietary boron during the adult stage decreased the median life span by 69% at 0.01 M sodium borate and by 21% at 0.001 M sodium borate. Lower concentrations gave small but significant increases in life span. Supplementing a very low boron diet with 0.00025 M sodium borate improved life span by 9.5%. The boron contents of young and old mouse tissues were similar to those of Drosophila and human samples. Boron supplements of 4.3 and 21.6 ppm in the drinking water, however, did not significantly change the life span of old mice fed a diet containing 31.1 ppm boron. PMID:7889879

  7. The interaction of boron with goethite: experiments and CD-MUSIC modeling.

    PubMed

    Goli, Esmaiel; Rahnemaie, Rasoul; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Malakouti, Mohammad Jafar

    2011-03-01

    Boron (B) is an essential element for plants and animals growth that interacts with mineral surfaces regulating its bioavailability and mobility in soils, sediments, and natural ecosystems. The interaction with mineral surfaces is quite important because of a narrow range between boron deficiency and toxicity limits. In this study, the interaction of boric acid with goethite (?-FeOOH) was measured in NaNO(3) background solution as a function of pH, ionic strength, goethite and boron concentration representing as adsorption edges and isotherms. Boron adsorption edges showed a bell-shaped pattern with maximum adsorption around pH 8.50, whereas adsorption isotherms were rather linear. The adsorption data were successfully described with the CD-MUSIC model in combination with the Extended Stern (ES) model. The charge distribution (CD) of inner-sphere boron surface complexes was calculated from the geometry optimized with molecular orbital calculations applying density functional theory (MO/DFT). The CD modeling suggested dominant binding of boric acid as a trigonal inner-sphere complex with minor contributions of a tetrahedral inner-sphere complex (at high pH) and a trigonal outer-sphere complex (at low pH). The interpretation with the CD model is consistent with the spectroscopic observations. PMID:21185584

  8. Fabrication of boron articles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benton

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to the fabrication of boron articles by a powder metallurgical method wherein the articles are of a density close to the theoretical density of boron and are essentially crackfree. The method comprises the steps of admixing 1 to 10 weight percent carbon powder with amorphous boron powder, cold pressing the mixture and then hot pressing the

  9. Characterization of PECVD boron carbonitride layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamm, T.; Körner, K.-U.; Bohne, W.; Strub, E.; Röhrich, J.; Stöckel, S.; Marx, G.

    2005-09-01

    BCN films on silicon substrates were deposited with two different PECVD techniques. A microwave plasma with RF-bias enhancement (MW-PECVD) and a direct current glow discharge plasma system (GD-PECVD) was used with N-trimethylborazine (TMB) and triethylamine borane (TEAB) as precursors and with benzene as an additional carbon source. Argon and nitrogen were used as plasma gases. Substrate temperature, substrate bias and gas composition were varied. ERDA (elastic recoil detection analysis) measurements yield information on the layer composition regarding the concentrations of the elements boron, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen. Depth profiles are also available. The hydrogen content in the produced BCN layers strongly depends on the substrate temperature and increases up to 35 at.%. Depth profiles show a homogeneous distribution of the elements B, C , N and H over the entire layer thickness. Further, the layers were examined regarding their structure (FTIR spectroscopy) and their mechanical properties (nanoindentation measurements).

  10. Factors Controlling Droplet Concentration and Size Distribution in Clouds over Dominica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, R. D.; Storelvmo, T.; Smith, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    Since precipitation in convective, tropical clouds, and the impact of these clouds on Earth's radiation budget, are dependent on the concentration and size distribution of the water droplets that make up the clouds, we are interested in understanding the factors controlling the droplet concentration and size distribution in these clouds. Previous studies from field campaigns have led to contradictory conclusions, with some research pointing to updraft velocity as the most influential factor, and other studies pointing to aerosol concentration. The 2011 Dominica Experiment (DOMEX) field campaign provides a wealth of data with which to study this problem, and to test existing models of droplet activation and growth; these data include aerosol and cloud droplet concentrations and size distributions, and wind speed measurements, from research flights above and upwind of the island of Dominica, as well as precipitation data from rain gauges installed on the island. Over 17 DOMEX research flights, cloud droplet concentrations averaged over flight legs above the island were positively correlated with aerosol concentrations from legs flown upwind of the island at 305 m altitude, while cloud droplet mean diameters were negatively correlated with oversea aerosol concentrations, supporting the idea that higher aerosol concentrations (if they are water soluble aerosols, such as sea salt) result in more droplets becoming activated and not growing as large. Meanwhile, average horizontal wind speeds in the oversea legs were negatively correlated with droplet concentrations in clouds over the island, and positively correlated with the mean diameter, the opposite of what would be expected if stronger convection accompanied the higher horizontal wind speeds. The horizontal wind speeds were also negatively correlated with the aerosol concentrations, especially at very low wind speeds, suggesting that the negative impact of wind speed on droplet concentration may have been due to a different aerosol regime that accompanied the lower wind speeds.

  11. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  12. Diffusion-induced dislocations in highly boron-doped silicon layers used for bulk micromachining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiseanu, Florin; Esteve, Jaume; Kissinger, Gudrun; Kruger, D.

    1998-08-01

    Boron-doped silicon layers with sufficiently high doping levels become effective stop-layers during the chemical etching of silicon in alkaline type solutions (KOH, NaOH, LiOH) or in EDP (ethylene-diamine-pyrocatechol). An advantageous chemical solution consisting in tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) with isopropyl alcohol (IPA), showing similar etching properties was also proposed. The property as a stop layer of the boron-doped silicon is currently used as the most convenient etch-stop technique, because it is easy to define the thickness of the structure by the depth of boron diffusion in silicon. However, the boron diffusion profile in silicon is not a step-like distribution, but it presents a continuous decrease of the concentration from the silicon surface to the bulk, that depending on the diffusion conditions, i.e. diffusion time, temperature and doping technique. It is therefore expected that such a decrease will result to a continuous variation of the etching rate and a consequently variation of the etching time with the diffusion depth. In this paper we present firstly the doping properties of the silicon layers doped by the termo-chemical method using chemical sources. It is shown that the doping properties vary within the boron-doped layers. Boron diffusion profiles determined by SIMS method and electrical method are presented in order show the specific behavior of the concentration distribution in the silicon bulk. Misfit dislocations are induced by the boron diffusion in silicon at high concentrations. The conditions of the generation of the misfit dislocations in the boron-doped layers depends on the processing conditions, especially on the diffusion time and temperature. We show that the density distribution of the misfit dislocations in the silicon bulk is not uniform after the boron prediffusion and diffusion processes. From the point of view of the micromechanical applications, the inhomogeneity of the structural and doping properties of the silicon layer can influence the stress properties of such silicon-doped layers. Therefore, in order to reduce the stress gradient in the silicon membranes and micromechanical elements, it is necessary to obtain layers with uniform material properties. Both the doping and structural properties of the boron doped layers are to be therefore better knowledged and controlled. However, the doping properties obtained after the boron doping by termo-chemical method or by implantation doping technique cannot provide uniformly doped silicon layers. Therefore, a careful chemical etching during the self-limitation process of the boron-doped silicon layers offers such a possibility, as it will be presented in the paper. In order to eliminate from the silicon doped layers the regions were the properties of the silicon layers are not uniform, it is necessary to control the chemical etching process which is the next important step in the bulk micromachining technology useful to prepare the micromechanical elements. These key parameters of the chemical etching process are the chemical etching rate and the chemical etching time. It is shown that it is possible to calculate the chemical etching rate and the chemical etching time for some specified etching conditions. Such a possibility allows to control the thickness of the micromechanical elements and to eliminate the stress gradient induced by the non-uniform doping and by the misfit dislocations in the silicon micromechanical elements.

  13. Effects assessment: Boron compounds in the aquatic environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Schoderboeck; Simone Mühlegger; Annemarie Losert; Christian Gausterer; Romana Hornek

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, boron compounds were considered to be of comparatively low toxicity in the aquatic environment, with predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) values ranging around 1mgB\\/L (expressed as boron equivalent). In the present study, we describe an evaluation of toxicity data for boron available for the aquatic environment by different methods.For substances with rich datasets, it is often possible

  14. Development of boron reduction system for sea water desalination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasumoto Magara; Akihisa Tabata; Minoru Kohki; Mutsuo Kawasaki; Masahiko Hirose

    1998-01-01

    Since boron has been showing to induce male reproductive impediments in laboratory animals, the 1993 WHO guidelines for drinking water quality set the recommended guideline value at 0.3 mg boron\\/l based on the NOEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level). Since boron is not effectively removed by the conventional water treatment not only for drinking water and domestic wastewater treatment, the concentration in ambient

  15. Quantitative neutron capture radiography for studying the biodistribution of tumor-seeking boron-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Gabel, D; Holstein, H; Larsson, B; Gille, L; Ericson, G; Sacker, D; Som, P; Fairchild, R G

    1987-10-15

    Biodistribution of two compounds presently considered for use in neutron capture therapy has been studied in mice carrying a transplantable Harding-Passey melanoma. A method is described by which quantitative assessment can be made of the boron distribution in whole-body sections of such animals. An alpha-particle-sensitive film is placed in close contact with a freeze-dried section of an animal and exposed to neutrons. The tracks visible after etching are analyzed optoelectronically in fields of 0.6 X 0.6 mm2 and compared to standards of boron homogeneously distributed in liver homogenates. The dynamic range of this method is about two orders of magnitude in concentration, with a lower detection limit of 0.1 to 0.01 ppm 10B, depending on the rate of induction of spurious tracks by fast neutrons present in the neutron beam chosen. In a transplantable Harding-Passey melanoma in mice, it was found that the sulfhydryl boron hydride Na2B12H11SH presently used for therapy of glioblastoma clears blood, muscle, and brain very rapidly. Its accumulation in tumors was persistent for more than three days. A higher tumor accumulation was observed with its disulfide, which has been suggested for neutron capture therapy. For both compounds, a marked heterogeneity of boron distribution within one tumor was found. PMID:3652047

  16. A 3-D model for concentrator solar cells based on distributed circuit units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Galiana; Carlos Algora; Ignacio Rey-Stolle; Ivan García Vara

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) distributed model for high-concentrator solar cells based on elementary units made up of electrical circuits is presented. The recombination mechanisms are dealt with in detail, paying special attention to the perimeter properties. No ohmic effect is omitted making this a powerful simulation tool for concentrator solar cells. A shunt resistance is also included. The model allows the

  17. Inverse identification of intensity distributions from multiple flux maps in concentrating solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Ben; Petrasch, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    Radiative flux measurements at the focal plane of solar concentrators are typically performed using digital cameras in conjunction with Lambertian targets. To accurately predict flux distributions on arbitrary receiver geometries directional information about the radiation is required. Currently, the directional characteristics of solar concentrating systems are predicted via ray tracing simulations. No direct experimental technique to determine intensities of concentrating solar systems is available. In the current paper, multiple parallel flux measurements at varying distances from the focal plane together with a linear inverse method and Tikhonov regularization are used to identify the directional and spatial intensity distribution at the solution plane. The directional binning feature of an in-house Monte Carlo ray tracing program is used to provide a reference solution. The method has been successfully applied to two-dimensional concentrators, namely parabolic troughs and elliptical troughs using forward Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations that provide the flux maps as well as consistent, associated intensity distribution for validation. In the two-dimensional case, intensity distributions obtained from the inverse method approach the Monte Carlo forward solution. In contrast, the method has not been successful for three dimensional and circular symmetric concentrator geometries.

  18. Structure and reactivity of boron-ate complexes derived from primary and secondary boronic esters.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Kathryn; Berionni, Guillaume; Mayr, Herbert; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2015-06-01

    Boron-ate complexes derived from primary and secondary boronic esters and aryllithiums have been isolated, and the kinetics of their reactions with carbenium ions studied. The second-order rate constants have been used to derive nucleophilicity parameters for the boron-ate complexes, revealing that nucleophilicity increased with (i) electron-donating aromatics on boron, (ii) neopentyl glycol over pinacol boronic esters, and (iii) 12-crown-4 ether. PMID:25973673

  19. Concentration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-09-15

    This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

  20. Log-stable concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kubala-Kukus; E. Kuternoga; J. Braziewicz; M. Pajek

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, which follows our earlier observation that the asymmetric and long-tailed concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, measured by the X-ray fluorescence techniques, can be modeled by the log-stable distributions, further specific aspects of this observation are discussed. First, we demonstrate that, typically, for a quite substantial fraction (10–20%) of trace elements studied in different

  1. Ultralow Contact Resistivity for a Metal/p-Type Silicon Interface by High-Concentration Germanium and Boron Doping Combined with Low-Temperature Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakoshi, Atsushi; Iwase, Masao; Niiyama, Hiromi; Koike, Mitsuo; Suguro, Kyoichi

    2013-07-01

    A contact resistivity of 6.9×10-9 ?.cm2 has been obtained in an AlSi (1 wt %)-Cu (0.5 wt %) alloy/silicon system by using heavy-dose ion implantations of germanium and boron combined with low-temperature annealing. The analysis of the combined state showed that B12 cluster was incorporated and the supersaturation activation layer was formed into the region where germanium separated. Separated germanium is expected to have high interface state density. It is considered that this interface state density also has a Fermi level, and in order to reduce the difference from the Fermi level of the substrate, the charge moves to interface state density from the substrate. As a result, it is not based on a metallic material but a work function becomes small because pinning by which a Fermi level is fixed to interface state density occurs owing to the substrate/metal interface. It is considered to be attributable to the existence of a Ge-rich layer formed by low-temperature annealing, and a supersaturation activation layer that lowers contact resistance was formed.

  2. Application of wavelength scanning for measuring water vapour concentration by distributed laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jun; Guangping, Lv; Zhou, Guoqing; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhongliang; Zhang, Shicong; Wang, Qiang; Song, Fujun

    2011-10-01

    A technique which takes advantage of distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) wavelength scanning to measure water vapor concentration is presented. Concentration is gotten by peak absorption rate according to Beer-Lambert law and absorption coefficient of water vapor in HITRAN database. Theoretical work on the pressure affection to light intensity absorption rate has been done, a scheme is presented to cope with the affection of overlap of two adjacent lines, it takes advantage of the peak absorption difference between 1368.597nm and 1367.862 nm, and the difference value is used to calculate the water-vapor concentration.

  3. The effect of concentrator field layout on the performance of point-focus distributed receiver systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pons, R. L.; Dugan, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of concentrator field layout on the technical-economic performance of a point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) solar thermal power plant is presented. The plant design is based on the small community prototype system currently under development for JPL/DOE; parabolic dish concentrators are employed, and small heat engines are used to generate electricity at each dish. The effect of field size, array proportions, dish-to-dish spacing and packing fraction (concentrator-land area ratio) are presented for typical PFDR layouts. Economic analyses are carried out to determine optimum packing fraction as a function of site cost.

  4. Dose point kernel for boron-11 decay and the cellular S values in boron neutron capture therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunzhi Ma; Jinpeng Geng; Song Gao; Shanglian Bao

    2006-01-01

    The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction ¹°B(n,α)⁷Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the dose is heterogeneously distributed in cells. In the present work, the

  5. A literature review of concentrations and size distributions of ambient airborne Pb-containing particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Thornburg, Jonathan; Portzer, Jeff; Vanderpool, Robert; Cavender, Kevin; Rice, Joann

    2011-09-01

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM 10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 ?m) Federal Reference Method (FRM) monitors in lieu of total suspended particulate (TSP) monitors for some non-source-oriented monitoring. PM 10 FRM monitors are known to provide more reliable concentration measurements than TSP samplers because they are omni-directional samplers and so are not biased by wind conditions. However, by design they exclude the upper tail of the particle size distribution. Hence, each monitor produces uncertainties about measured concentrations of Pb-bearing PM. Uncertainties in reported Pb data are also related to spatiotemporal variation of the concentration and size distribution of Pb-bearing PM. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review was performed to summarize the current knowledge regarding the concentration and size distribution of Pb particles in the atmosphere. The objectives of this review were to compile data that could shed light on these uncertainties, to provide insights useful during future Pb NAAQS reviews, and to identify areas where more research is needed. Results of this review indicated that Pb size distribution data are relatively limited and often outdated. Thirty-nine articles were found to have sufficiently detailed information regarding airborne Pb concentrations, study location, sample collection methods, and analytical techniques; only 16 of those papers reported Pb concentration data for multiple size fractions. For the most part, U.S. and European studies from the last forty years illustrate that the largest mode of the size distribution of airborne particle-bound Pb has shifted to larger sizes while airborne Pb concentrations have decreased in urban areas. This shift occurred as tetraethyl Pb additives in gasoline were phased out and industrial emissions and resuspended road dust became more important sources of Pb. Several studies also suggested the occurrence of long-range transport of Pb-bearing PM from industrial emissions. Uncertainties associated with these studies include influence of wind speed and direction on captured concentrations and variability in analytical techniques used to quantify Pb concentrations on the reported size distributions.

  6. [Ultrafine particle number concentration and size distribution of vehicle exhaust ultrafine particles].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ye-qiang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Sun, Zai; Cai, Zhi-liang; Yang, Wen-jun

    2014-09-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations obtained from three different vehicles were measured using fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and automobile exhaust gas analyzer. UFP number concentration and size distribution were studied at different idle driving speeds. The results showed that at a low idle speed of 800 rmin-1 , the emission particle number concentration was the lowest and showed a increasing trend with the increase of idle speed. The majority of exhaust particles were in Nuclear mode and Aitken mode. The peak sizes were dominated by 10 nm and 50 nm. Particle number concentration showed a significantly sharp increase during the vehicle acceleration process, and was then kept stable when the speed was stable. In the range of 0. 4 m axial distance from the end of the exhaust pipe, the particle number concentration decayed rapidly after dilution, but it was not obvious in the range of 0. 4-1 m. The number concentration was larger than the background concentration. Concentration of exhaust emissions such as CO, HC and NO showed a reducing trend with the increase of idle speed,which was in contrast to the emission trend of particle number concentration. PMID:25518646

  7. Properties of boron/boron-nitride multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.; Wall, M.A.; Hayes, J.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Alexander, K.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Boron-Nitride films are of interest for their high hardness and wear resistance. Large intrinsic stresses and poor adhesion which often accompany high hardness materials can be moderated through the use of a layered structure. Alternate layers of boron (B) and boron-nitride (BN) are formed by modulating the composition of the sputter gas during deposition from a pure B target. The thin films are characterized with TEM to evaluate the microstructure and with nanoindentation to determine hardness. Layer pair spacing and continuity effects on hardness are evaluated for the B/BN films.

  8. Particle Size Concentration Distribution and Influences on Exhaled Breath Particles in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Wang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chun-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Humans produce exhaled breath particles (EBPs) during various breath activities, such as normal breathing, coughing, talking, and sneezing. Airborne transmission risk exists when EBPs have attached pathogens. Until recently, few investigations had evaluated the size and concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients with different ventilation mode settings. This study thus broke new ground by not only evaluating the size concentration distributions of EBPs in mechanically ventilated patients, but also investigating the relationship between EBP level and positive expiratory end airway pressure (PEEP), tidal volume, and pneumonia. This investigation recruited mechanically ventilated patients, with and without pneumonia, aged 20 years old and above, from the respiratory intensive care unit of a medical center. Concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients were analyzed with an optical particle analyzer. This study finds that EBP concentrations from mechanically ventilated patients during normal breathing were in the range 0.47–2,554.04 particles/breath (0.001–4.644 particles/mL). EBP concentrations did not differ significantly between the volume control and pressure control modes of the ventilation settings in the mechanically ventilated patients. The patient EBPs were sized below 5 µm, and 80% of them ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 µm. The EBPs concentrations in patients with high PEEP (> 5 cmH2O) clearly exceeded those in patients with low PEEP (? 5 cmH2O). Additionally, a significant negative association existed between pneumonia duration and EBPs concentration. However, tidal volume was not related to EBPs concentration. PMID:24475230

  9. Absence of boron aggregates in superconducting silicon confirmed by atom probe tomography

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Absence of boron aggregates in superconducting silicon confirmed by atom probe tomography K November 2012) Superconducting boron-doped silicon films prepared by gas immersion laser doping (GILD reveals that boron atoms are incorporated into crystalline silicon in the atomic percent concentration

  10. Raman characterization of boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes J. Maultzsch,a)

    E-print Network

    Nabben, Reinhard

    Raman characterization of boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes J. Maultzsch,a) S. Reich, and C of boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The Raman intensities are analyzed as a function of the nominal boron concentration. The intensities of both the D mode and the high-energy mode in the first

  11. Influence of pH in the elimination of boron by means of reverse osmosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rodríguez Pastor; A. Ferrándiz Ruiz; M. F. Chillón; D. Prats Rico

    2001-01-01

    The European Union (EU) stipulates the maximum admissible value for the concentration of boron at 1 ppm and the World Health Organization (WHO) at 0.3 ppm as the non-observed effect level (NOEL) for drinking water. The content of boron in water can be reduced by means of various processes. Treatment by means of conventional reverse osmosis only reduces the boron

  12. Reconstruction of Air Contaminant Concentration Distribution in a Two-dimensional Plane by Computed Tomography and Remote Sensing FTIR Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yibo Ren; Yan Li; Junde Wang; Xiaofei Wang; Bingping Liu; Liming Zhang; Lin Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This research combined open path FTIR (OP-FTIR) technique and computed tomography (CT) to reconstruct air contaminant concentration distribution in a two-dimensional plane. Remote sensing FTIR instrument was used to scan radial beam geometry and obtain path integrated concentration (PIC) data of acetone gas in the measuring plane. Smooth basis function minimization (SBFM) algorithm was adopted to reconstruct gaseous concentration distribution.

  13. Abstract--We examined the diel ver-tical distribution, concentration, and

    E-print Network

    313 Abstract--We examined the diel ver- tical distribution, concentration, and community structure than during the day, and there was evidence of larval diel vertical migration. Depth stratum was the most important factor explaining variability in larval and egg con- centrations. Diel variation

  14. Vertical profiles of black carbon concentration and particle number size distribution in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Deng, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical distribution of aerosols is of great importance to our understanding in the impacts of aerosols on radiation balance and climate, as well as air quality and public health. To better understand and estimate the effects of atmospheric components including trace gases and aerosols on atmospheric environment and climate, an intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP), was carried out from late July to early August 2013 over a rural site in the polluted NCP. During the campaign, vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration and particle number size distribution were measured respectively by a micro-Aethalometer and an optical particle counter attached to a tethered balloon within 1000 m height. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, were measured simultaneously by a radiosonde also attached to the tethered balloon. Preliminary results showed distinct diurnal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosol total number concentration and BC concentration, following the development of the mixing layer. Generally, there was a well mixing of aerosols within the mixing layer and a sharp decrease above the mixing layer. Particularly, a small peak of BC concentrations was observed around 400-500 m height for several profiles. Further analysis would be needed to explain such phenomenon. It was also found that measured vertical profiles of BC using the filter-based method might be affected by the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  15. ON THE PROPORTIONALITY OF FINE MASS CONCENTRATION AND EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT FOR BIMODAL SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For a bimodal size distribution of ambient aerosol, an upper limit in particle size can be chosen for the fine aerosol fraction so that the extinction coefficient for light scattering and absorption is directly proportional to the fine mass concentration, with no dependence on th...

  16. A three-dimensional model for calculating the concentration distribution in inhomogeneous turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kaplan; N. Dinar

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for calculating the concentration distribution in inhomogeneous turbulence is suggested. The model is a 3-D model, constrained to describe incompressible flow. The model requires a knowledge of the covariance matrix of the Eulerian velocities and the two-point third moments. The model is applied for three types of turbulent field: homogeneous isotropic turbulence, constant flux neutral boundary layer

  17. Boron nitride - Composition, optical properties, and mechanical behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at. percent. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at. percent range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  18. Boron and Selenium Contamination in South Texas Groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Hudak

    2004-01-01

    Boron and selenium concentrations from 112 water wells in an irrigated agricultural region of south Texas were compiled, mapped, and statistically analyzed. Wells in the study area produce water from the Gulf Coast Aquifer System, comprising coastward sloping beds of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Nearly 84 percent of boron observations exceeded the 600 ug\\/L advisory level for drinking water, 70%

  19. Modeling of the interstitial diffusion of boron in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, O. I.; Aksenov, V. V.; Kovaleva, A. P.

    2012-07-01

    The redistribution of ion-implanted boron in crystalline silicon under fast low-temperature annealing has been modeled. It has been shown that in the region of low impurity concentration "tails" are formed by long-range migration of interstitial boron atoms.

  20. Influence of soil solution salinity on boron adsorption by soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron adsorption on two arid-zone soils from the San Joaquin Valley of California was investigated as a function of equilibrium solution B concentration (0-250 mg L-1), solution pH (3-12), and electrical conductivity (EC = 0.3 or 7.8 dS m-1). Boron adsorption on both soils increased with increasing...

  1. Boron Arsenide and Boron Phosphide for High Temperature and Luminescent Devices. [semiconductor devices - crystal growth/crystal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal growth of boron arsenide and boron phosphide in the form of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers on suitable substrates is discussed. The physical, chemical, and electrical properties of the crystals and epitaxial layers are examined. Bulk crystals of boron arsenide were prepared by the chemical transport technique, and their carrier concentration and Hall mobility were measured. The growth of boron arsenide crystals from high temperature solutions was attempted without success. Bulk crystals of boron phosphide were also prepared by chemical transport and solution growth techniques. Techniques required for the fabrication of boron phosphide devices such as junction shaping, diffusion, and contact formation were investigated. Alloying techniques were developed for the formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts to boron phosphide. Four types of boron phosphide devices were fabricated: (1) metal-insulator-boron phosphide structures, (2) Schottky barriers; (3) boron phosphide-silicon carbide heterojunctions; and (4) p-n homojunctions. Easily visible red electroluminescence was observed from both epitaxial and solution grown p-n junctions.

  2. Precipitation of Boron in Highly Boron-Doped Silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiro Mizushima; Yuichiro Mitani; Mitsuo Koike; Masahiko Yoshiki; Mitsuhiro Tomita; Sigeru Kambayashi

    1998-01-01

    The clustering of boron in highly boron-doped silicon and its influence on electrical deactivation are reported. Highly boron-doped crystalline silicon was fabricated as a starting material by solid phase epitaxy of boron-doped amorphous silicon films. Boron can be supersaturated in the crystallized samples annealed at a low temperature of about 600°C. A lot of precipitates, containing clustered boron, were observed

  3. [Interpretation of spatial distribution pattern for dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration in coastal estuary using hyperspectral data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Huan

    2010-06-01

    Choosing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) as one of the representative nutritional salt monitoring indexes, a hyperspectral remotely sensed inversion model was built and applied to quantitatively retrieve water quality parameters with its spatial distribution patterns in coastal estuary with high suspended sediment concentration (SSC). It was found that when SSC was larger than 0.1 kg/m3, DIN concentration had a notable inverse correlation with SSC and the correlation coefficient R2 reached 0.617. Based on this conclusion, firstly the in-situ observed water surface remote sensing reflectance was resampled according to the spectral response characters of Hyperion sensor. And then, statistical correlation analysis between reflectance and DIN concentration was carried out. The results showed that band reflectance of R804 and R630 representing the second and first reflectance peak of water spectrum curve were sensitive to the variation of DIN concentration. And then, a pseudo remotely sensed sand parameter index R804 x R630/(R804 - R630) was calculated for the construction of the nonlinear DIN quantitative reversion model. Correlation coefficient R2 between observed and simulated DIN concentrations for 29 calibrating samples and 10 validating samples were 0.746 and 0.67, while their mean absolute errors reached 109.07 and 147.58 microg/L, respectively. The model was then applied on Hyperion hyperspectral image to get the spatial distribution character of DIN concentration in Sheyanghe river estuary and the DIN concentration was between 52 to 513 microg/L. Results indicated that in coastal estuary which was dominated by suspended sediments, the diffusive trends of DIN concentration reversed by remote sensing techniques had an intimate relationship with motions of tidal current and transportation attributes of SSC. As the hydrodynamic conditions were unclear, hyperspectral remote sensing technique was an effective technical way for dynamic survey of DIN concentration. PMID:20698253

  4. Cadmium distribution in sediment and the lugworm Arenicola marina in a low concentration exposure experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Everaarts, J.M. [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Den Burg-Texel (Netherlands)] [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Den Burg-Texel (Netherlands); SaralaDevi, K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Kerala (India)] [National Institute of Oceanography, Kerala (India)

    1996-12-31

    In the central and southern North Sea, and in the Dutch coastal zone, total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in water are 0.02 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/L and 0.06 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g/L, respectively Cadmium in the estuarine waters of the Dutch Wadden Sea varied from 0.3 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/L in the western part to 0.08 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/L in the eastern part. In whole sediment, the Cd background concentration for the Wadden Sea is 0.5 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/g dry weight (dw), whereas the reference concentration is 0.08 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g/g dw. The concentrations of total-Cd in surface bulk sediments (0-2 cm) of the central North Sea (Oyster Grounds), and of intertidal mud-flats in the western Wadden Sea varied from 0.05 to 0.15 {mu}g/g dw and from 0.13 to 0.46 {mu}g dw, respectively (calculated from Kahn et al. 1992). These concentration ranges match the reference Cd concentration for Wadden Sea whole sediment (0.5 {+-} 0.01) {mu}g/g dw. Cadmium concentrations in surface sediments of the Dutch coastal zone and estuaries are only slightly elevated compared to the 0.2 {mu}g/g dw, considered as the background concentrations in pristine areas, but well below the level of 10 {mu}g/g dw at heavily contaminated sites. This laboratory study reports on the distribution of cadmium in the sediment column, and the uptake in the blood/coelomic fluid, intestine and body-wall of lugworms at low cadmium concentration exposure. The aim was to determine possible interaction between the vertical distribution of sediment-bound cadmium and the bioturbating activity of lugworms. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C. [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey)] [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Koc, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetkoc@iyte.edu.tr [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey)] [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} ATR1 paralog YMR279c plays role in boron detoxification. {yields} YMR279c overexpression lowers cytoplasmic boron levels. {yields} ATR1 paralog YOR378w has no roles in boron stress response. -- Abstract: Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  6. The Effect of Flow Distribution on the Concentration of NO Produced by Pulsed Arc Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Bao, Bin; Wang, Heli; Liang, Haiyan; He, Junjia; He, Zhenghao; Li, Jin

    2007-12-01

    As a new method to cure acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), high blood pressure and some illnesses related to the lung, NO has recently received more attention. Thermal plasmas produced by arc discharge can create medical NO, but the concentration of NO2 produced by arc discharge must be controlled simultaneously. This paper investigates the characteristics and regulations of NO production at different flow distribution by pulsed arc discharge in dry air with a special pulsed power. The experimental results show that the flow distribution has a considerable effect on the NO concentration, the stabilization of NO. The production of NO2 could be controlled and the ratio of NO2/NO was decreased to about 10% in the arc discharge. Therefore, the arc discharge could produce stable inhaled NO for medical treatment by changing the flow distribution.

  7. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be discussed together with meteorological parameters and trace gas measurements. Acknowledgement: PEGASOS project funded by the European Commission and the Framework Program 7 (FP7-ENV-2010-265148).

  8. Boron toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross O. Nable; Gary S. Bañuelos; Jeffrey G. Paull

    1997-01-01

    Whilst of lesser prevalence than B deficient soils, B-rich soils are important, causing B toxicity in the field and decreased crop yields in different regions of the world. The highest naturally occurring concentrations of soil B are in soils derived from marine evaporites and marine argillaceous sediment. In addition, various anthropogenic sources of excess B may increase soil B to

  9. Boron removal from drinking water with a boron selective resin: is the treatment really selective?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Odile Simonnot; Christophe Castel; Miguel NicolaÏ; Christophe Rosin; Michel Sardin; Henri Jauffret

    2000-01-01

    Drinking water and even mineral water may contain boron until a few ppm and WHO has recommended a limit of 0.3mg boronl?1. The treatment by the resin Amberlite IRA743 seems to be the most convenient. Water deboronation with this resin has been revisited through laboratory column experiments, especially for low boron concentrations. Given that the resin bears weakly basic anion

  10. Removal of boron from aqueous solutions by a hybrid ion exchange–membrane process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nalan Kabay; ?dil Yilmaz; Marek Bryjak; Mithat Yüksel

    2006-01-01

    For irrigation water boron is required for certain metabolic activities in plants. However, higher boron levels accelerate plant decay and expiration. Different plants can withstand different boron levels. For example, the optimal boron concentration range is 0.3–0.5 mg\\/L for citrus and grapes but is 0.5–0.75 mg\\/L for corn. Thus, the B-reduction in irrigation waters seems to be the most important

  11. Depth analysis of boron diffusion in MgO/CoFeB bilayer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Lépine, B.; Jézéquel, G.; Ababou, S.; Alnot, M.; Lambert, J.; Renard, A.; Mullet, M.; Deranlot, C.; Jaffrès, H.; Petroff, F.; George, J.-M.

    2010-08-01

    We have studied the boron (B) diffusion in MgO/CoFeB bilayer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth analysis. A large concentration of B (B/Mg=0.16) was found to diffuse into the MgO barrier after 350 °C annealing. The boron in MgO is in a highly oxidized B3+ state and is homogenously distributed in the whole barrier. The important B diffusion in MgO could be related to the CoFeB crystallization process which begins from the under CoFeB/Ru interface and pushes boron atoms to diffuse into the MgO barrier during annealing.

  12. Production of anhydrous, crystalline boron oxide in fluidized bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kocaku?ak; K. Akçay; T. Ayok; H. J. Koöro?lu; M. Koral; Ö. T. Sava?çi; R. Tolun

    1996-01-01

    Industrial production of boron oxide is via fusion of boric acid at 550–1000 °C. The glassy melt thus obtained is then cooled until solid; crushed, ground and then sieved to allow classification according to particle size and distribution. The melting of boric acid is both the most critical and costly stage of all these operations, because boron oxide is highly

  13. Characterization of ultrafine particle number concentration and size distribution during a summer campaign in southwest Detroit.

    PubMed

    Young, Li-Hao; Keeler, Gerald J

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents results from a study conducted in southwest Detroit from July 20 to July 30, 2002, to characterize ambient ultrafine particles (dP < 0.1 microm), and to examine the effect of local sources and meteorological parameters on the ultrafine number concentration and size distribution. The number concentrations of ambient particles in the size range of 0.01-0.43 microm were obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Meteorological parameters including ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, and solar radiation flux were also monitored concurrently atop a 10-m tower. On average, ultrafine particles ranged from 1.4 x 10(4) to 2.5 x 10(4) cm(-3), with significant diurnal and daily variations, and accounted for approximately 89% of the total number concentration (0.01 < dP < 0.43 microm). Time-series plots of the 5-min number concentrations revealed that peak concentrations often occurred during morning rush hour and/or around solar noon when photochemical activity was at a maximum. The morning traffic-related peak coincided with the NOx peak, whereas the photochemical-related peak correlated with solar radiation flux. On some days, the noon peak concentration was many times higher than the morning peak concentration. Although the number size distribution varied considerably over the course of the study, it typically exhibited one to three modes, with diameters around 0.01, 0.05, and 0.09 microm. Analysis of the influence of wind direction indicated that stationary sources could be one of the contributors to elevated ultrafine particle concentration. Overall, the data indicated that fossil fuel combustion and atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion of precursor gases are the major sources of ultrafine particles in the southwest Detroit area during the summer. PMID:15468661

  14. Distribution of exposure concentrations and doses for constituents of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States)] [LaKind Associates (United States); Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States)] [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; James, A.C. [A.C. James and Associates (United States)] [A.C. James and Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dourson, M.L.; Felter, S.P. [TERA (United States)] [TERA (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, the authors describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions for the workplace exposure. Next, they present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, they derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).

  15. The level and distribution of ²²?Rn concentration in soil-gas in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Peng, A; Xiao, L; Chu, X; Yin, Y; Qin, C; Zheng, L

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the level and distribution of (220)Rn concentrations in soil-gas in the high-radiation-background area, an (220)Rn survey was carried out for the first time using a RAD7 portable radon monitor at 67 locations covering a total area of 1800 km(2) in the South of China. (220)Rn concentrations were significantly different from that in the surface areas covered by the weathered granite of Yanshan Period or Quaternary sediments. The (220)Rn concentrations varied between 6.65 and 461 kBq m(-3) and the averages were 294.42 ± 81.36 and 23.30 ± 25.84 kBq m(-3) for weathered granite products and sediments, respectively. A high positive correlation between (220)Rn concentrations and (232)Th activity concentrations was found. (220)Rn concentrations had no statistically significant variations from depths of 20-140 cm with an interval of 20 cm. It is worth paying attention to the problem of such a high soil (220)Rn concentration in Zhuhai City and Zhongshan City. PMID:22923249

  16. Spatiotemporal distribution and short-term trends of particulate matter concentration over China, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Air quality problems caused by atmospheric particulate have drawn broad public concern in the global scope. In the paper, the spatiotemporal distributions of fine particle (PM2.5) and inhalable particle (PM10) concentrations estimated with the artificial neural network (ANN) over China during 2006 to 2010 have been discussed. Most high PM10 concentration appears in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Hubei, and parts of Inner Mongolia. The distribution of PM2.5 concentration is consistent with China's three gradient terrains. The seasonal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations both indicate that they are higher in north China in spring and winter, lowest in summer. In autumn, most provinces in south China appear high value. In particular, high PM2.5 concentration appears in the southeast coastal cities while high PM10 concentration prefers the central regions in south China. On this basis, seasonal Mann-Kendall test method is utilized to analyze the short-term trends. The results also show significant changes of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations of China in the past 5 years, and most provinces present the tendency of reduction (3-5 ?g/m(3) for PM2.5 and 10-20 ?g/m(3) for PM10 per year) while a fraction of provinces appear the increasing trend of 8-16 ?g/m(3) (PM2.5) and 16-30 ?g/m(3) (PM10). Simultaneously, PM2.5 population exposure is discussed with the combination of population density-gridded data. Municipalities get much higher exposure level than other provinces. Shanghai suffers the highest population exposure to PM2.5, followed by Beijing and then Tianjin, Jiangsu province. Most provincial capitals, such as Guangzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, and Wuhan, face much higher exposure level than other regions of their province. Moreover, the PM2.5 exposure situation is more serious in southeast than northwest regions for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Also, per capita PM2.5 concentration and population-weighted PM2.5 concentration are calculated. The former shows that the high-level regions distribute in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Tianjin, while the latter in Hebei, Chongqing, and Shandong provinces. Further studies may consider optimizing concentration estimation model and use it to discuss the effects of particulate matters on human health. PMID:24824505

  17. Spatial distribution of lead concentrations in urban surface soils of New Orleans, Louisiana USA.

    PubMed

    Abel, Michael T; Suedel, Burton; Presley, Steven M; Rainwater, Thomas R; Austin, Galen P; Cox, Stephen B; McDaniel, Les N; Rigdon, Richard; Goebel, Timothy; Zartman, Richard; Leftwich, Blair D; Anderson, Todd A; Kendall, Ronald J; Cobb, George P

    2010-10-01

    Immediately following hurricane Katrina concern was raised over the environmental impact of floodwaters on the city of New Orleans, especially in regard to human health. Several studies were conducted to determine the actual contaminant distribution throughout the city and surrounding wetlands by analyzing soil, sediment, and water for a variety of contaminants including organics, inorganics, and biologics. Preliminary investigations by The Institute of Environmental and Human Health at Texas Tech University concluded that soils and sediments contained pesticides, semi-volatiles, and metals, specifically arsenic, iron, and lead, at concentrations that could pose a significant risk to human health. Additional studies on New Orleans floodwaters revealed similar constituents as well as compounds commonly found in gasoline. More recently, it has been revealed that lead (Pb), arsenic, and vanadium are found intermittently throughout the city at concentrations greater than the human health soil screening levels (HHSSLs) of 400, 22 (non-cancer endpoint) and 390 ?g/g, respectively. Of these, Pb appears to present the greatest exposure hazard to humans as a result of its extensive distribution in city soils. In this study, we spatially evaluated Pb concentrations across greater New Orleans surface soils. We established 128 sampling sites throughout New Orleans at approximately half-mile intervals. A soil sample was collected at each site and analyzed for Pb by ICP-AES. Soils from 19 (15%) of the sites had Pb concentrations exceeding the HHSSL threshold of 400 ?g/g. It was determined that the highest concentrations of Pb were found in the south and west portions of the city. Pb concentrations found throughout New Orleans in this study were then incorporated into a geographic information system to create a spatial distribution model that can be further used to predict Pb exposure to humans in the city. PMID:20054703

  18. Accumulation and loss of arsenic and boron, alone and in combination, in mallard ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, G.W.; Whitworth, M.R.; Olsen, G.H. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States). Patuxent Environmental Science Center

    1995-08-01

    Arsenic and boron are common in the environment, and wildlife can be exposed to toxic concentrations through both natural and human-influenced processes. The authors exposed adult male mallard ducks to dietary concentrations of 300 ppm arsenic as sodium arsenate, 1,600 ppm boron as boric acid, or both and estimated the tissue accumulation and loss rates when the ducks were returned to uncontaminated food. Both elements were accumulated rapidly; equilibrium levels were reached for arsenic in 10 to 30 d and for boron in 2 to 15 d. Accumulation of each element was slowed by the presence of the other in the diet. Boron was eliminated by mallards very rapidly, with few detectable residues {ge}1 d after removal of boron from the diet; arsenic was also rapidly lost with half-lives of 1 to 3 d (half-lives were not constant throughout the loss period). Arsenic loss rate was not affected by the presence of boron. Arsenic accumulated to the highest level in liver tissue, with blood and brain levels lower; concentrations in the liver and blood were proportional but affected by the presence of boron. Boron concentrations were highest in the blood, followed by the brain and liver; concentrations in the liver and blood were proportional but affected by the presence of boron. Boron concentrations were highest in the blood, followed by the brain and liver; concentrations in the blood and liver were proportional.

  19. Concentration and vertical distribution of plutonium and americium in Italian mosses and lichens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Jia; D. Desideri; F. Guerra; M. A. Meli; C. Testa

    1997-01-01

    The plutonium and americium concentration and vertical distribution in some Italian mosses and lichens have been determined. The239,240Pu,238Pu and241Am concentration ranges in tree trunk lichens 0.83–1.87, 0.052–0.154 and 0.180–0.770 Bq\\/kg, respectively. The corresponding values in tree mosses are higher and more scattered ranging from 0.321 to 4.96, from 0.029 to 0.171 and from 0.200 to 1.93 Bq\\/kg. The mean238Pu\\/239,240Pu and241Am\\/239,240Pu

  20. Estimation of pore size distribution using concentric double pulsed-field gradient NMR.

    PubMed

    Benjamini, Dan; Nevo, Uri

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of pore size distribution of well calibrated phantoms using NMR is demonstrated here for the first time. Porous materials are a central constituent in fields as diverse as biology, geology, and oil drilling. Noninvasive characterization of monodisperse porous samples using conventional pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR is a well-established method. However, estimation of pore size distribution of heterogeneous polydisperse systems, which comprise most of the materials found in nature, remains extremely challenging. Concentric double pulsed-field gradient (CDPFG) is a 2-D technique where both q (the amplitude of the diffusion gradient) and ? (the relative angle between the gradient pairs) are varied. A recent prediction indicates this method should produce a more accurate and robust estimation of pore size distribution than its conventional 1-D versions. Five well defined size distribution phantoms, consisting of 1-5 different pore sizes in the range of 5-25 ?m were used. The estimated pore size distributions were all in good agreement with the known theoretical size distributions, and were obtained without any a priori assumption on the size distribution model. These findings support that in addition to its theoretical benefits, the CDPFG method is experimentally reliable. Furthermore, by adding the angle parameter, sensitivity to small compartment sizes is increased without the use of strong gradients, thus making CDPFG safe for biological applications. PMID:23548563

  1. Estimation of pore size distribution using concentric double pulsed-field gradient NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamini, Dan; Nevo, Uri

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of pore size distribution of well calibrated phantoms using NMR is demonstrated here for the first time. Porous materials are a central constituent in fields as diverse as biology, geology, and oil drilling. Noninvasive characterization of monodisperse porous samples using conventional pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR is a well-established method. However, estimation of pore size distribution of heterogeneous polydisperse systems, which comprise most of the materials found in nature, remains extremely challenging. Concentric double pulsed-field gradient (CDPFG) is a 2-D technique where both q (the amplitude of the diffusion gradient) and ? (the relative angle between the gradient pairs) are varied. A recent prediction indicates this method should produce a more accurate and robust estimation of pore size distribution than its conventional 1-D versions. Five well defined size distribution phantoms, consisting of 1-5 different pore sizes in the range of 5-25 ?m were used. The estimated pore size distributions were all in good agreement with the known theoretical size distributions, and were obtained without any a priori assumption on the size distribution model. These findings support that in addition to its theoretical benefits, the CDPFG method is experimentally reliable. Furthermore, by adding the angle parameter, sensitivity to small compartment sizes is increased without the use of strong gradients, thus making CDPFG safe for biological applications.

  2. Electrochemical oxidation of electrodialysed reverse osmosis concentrate on Ti/Pt-IrO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bagastyo, Arseto Y; Batstone, Damien J; Rabaey, Korneel; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Reverse osmosis concentrate from wastewater reclamation contains biorefractory trace organic contaminants that may pose environmental or health hazard. Due to its high conductivity, electrochemical oxidation of brine requires low voltage which is energetically favourable. However, the presence of chloride ions may lead to the formation of chlorinated by-products, which are likely to exert an increased toxicity and persistence to further oxidation than their non-chlorinated analogues. Here, the performance of Ti/Pt-IrO(2), Ti/SnO(2)-Sb and Si/BDD anodes was evaluated for the electrochemical oxidation of ROC in the presence of chloride, nitrate or sulfate ions (0.05 M sodium salts). In order to investigate the electrooxidation of ROC with nitrate and sulfate ions as dominant ion mediators, chloride ion concentration was decreased 10 times by electrodialytic pretreatment. The highest Coulombic efficiency for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was observed in the presence of high chloride ions concentration for all anodes tested (8.3-15.9%). Electrooxidation of the electrodialysed concentrate at Ti/SnO(2)-Sb and Ti/Pt-IrO(2) electrodes exhibited low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (i.e. 23 and 12%, respectively) and COD removal (i.e. 37-43 and 6-22%, respectively), indicating that for these electrodes chlorine-mediated oxidation was the main oxidation mechanism, particularly in the latter case. In contrast, DOC removal for the electrodialysed concentrate stream was enhanced at Si/BDD anode in the presence of SO(4)(2-) (i.e. 51%) compared to NO(3)(2-) electrolyte (i.e. 41%), likely due to the contribution of SO(4)(·-) and S(2)O(8)(2-) species to the oxidative degradation. Furthermore, decreased concentration of chloride ions lead to a lower formation of haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes at all three electrodes tested. PMID:23137830

  3. Present status of boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, J; Sjöberg, S; Larsson, B S

    1992-01-01

    The neutron capture reaction 10B(1n,4He)7Li produces two energetic particles, 4He2+ and 7Li3+ that are strongly cell toxic. Due to the short range of these nuclear fragments (5-9 microns) mainly those cells that have bound or internalized a 10B-containing substance are growth-inactivated. The most critical and difficult step in an efficient boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is the tumour targeting. It is today possible to synthesize a large number of boron compounds and conjugate them to tumour-seeking macromolecules, such as monoclonal antibodies or different polypeptides. The boron-containing substances presently considered for therapy are sulfhydryl boron hydride (BSH) and boron-phenylalanine, (BPA) for the treatment of gliomas and malignant melanomas respectively. Other boronated compounds considered are ligands for receptor-amplified tumour cells, antibodies for tumour cells with specific antigens and thioureas for treatment of melanotic melanomas. The required boron concentration is given by the relative dose due to neutron capture in 10B and that of the competing capture reactions in nitrogen and hydrogen. Capture in nitrogen produces protons with a range of about 10-11 microns and this gives a radiation dose to all cells in the neutron activated area. Calculations show that the local concentration of 10B near the critical radiation target, DNA, must be higher than 10 ppm (10 micrograms/g). Increased emphasis will be put on the development of combinations of treatments that fulfil the requirements for attacking the microscopic spread of the tumour. PMID:1290630

  4. A Study of the Effect of Adhesive and Matrix Stiffnesses on the Axial, Normal, and Shear Stress Distributions of a Boron-epoxy Reinforced Composite Joint. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanical properties of a symmetrical, eight-step, titanium-boron-epoxy joint are discussed. A study of the effect of adhesive and matrix stiffnesses on the axial, normal, and shear stress distributions was made using the finite element method. The NASA Structural Analysis Program (NASTRAN) was used for the analysis. The elastic modulus of the adhesive was varied from 345 MPa to 3100 MPa with the nominal value of 1030 MPa as a standard. The nominal values were used to analyze the stability of the joint. The elastic moduli were varied to determine their effect on the stresses in the joint.

  5. Spatially Resolved Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Distributions in Supersonic Combustion Facilities by TDLAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busa, K. M.; McDaniel J. C.; Diskin, G. S.; DePiro, M. J.; Capriotti, D. P.; Gaffney, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the internal structure of high-enthalpy flows can provide valuable insight to the performance of scramjet combustors. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is often employed to measure temperature and species concentration. However, TDLAS is a path-integrated line-of-sight (LOS) measurement, and thus does not produce spatially resolved distributions. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography (TDLAT) is a non-intrusive measurement technique for determining two-dimensional spatially resolved distributions of temperature and species concentration in high enthalpy flows. TDLAT combines TDLAS with tomographic image reconstruction. More than 2500 separate line-of-sight TDLAS measurements are analyzed in order to produce highly resolved temperature and species concentration distributions. Measurements have been collected at the University of Virginia's Supersonic Combustion Facility (UVaSCF) as well as at the NASA Langley Direct-Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility (DCSCTF). Due to the UVaSCF s unique electrical heating and ability for vitiate addition, measurements collected at the UVaSCF are presented as a calibration of the technique. Measurements collected at the DCSCTF required significant modifications to system hardware and software designs due to its larger measurement area and shorter test duration. Tomographic temperature and water vapor concentration distributions are presented from experimentation on the UVaSCF operating at a high temperature non-reacting case for water vitiation level of 12%. Initial LOS measurements from the NASA Langley DCSCTF operating at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are also presented. Results show the capability of TDLAT to adapt to several experimental setups and test parameters.

  6. Stochastic analysis to assess the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate concentrations in the Po catchment (Italy).

    PubMed

    Cinnirella, Sergio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Pirrone, Nicola

    2005-02-01

    A large database including temporal trends of physical, ecological and socio-economic data was developed within the EUROCAT project. The aim was to estimate the nutrient fluxes for different socio-economic scenarios at catchment and coastal zone level of the Po catchment (Northern Italy) with reference to the Water Quality Objectives reported in the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) and also in Italian legislation. Emission data derived from different sources at national, regional and local levels are referred to point and non-point sources. While non-point (diffuse) sources are simply integrated into the nutrient flux model, point sources are irregularly distributed. Intensive farming activity in the Po valley is one of the main Pressure factors Driving groundwater pollution in the catchment, therefore understanding the spatial variability of groundwater nitrate concentrations is a critical issue to be considered in developing a Water Quality Management Plan. In order to use the scattered point source data as input in our biogeochemical and transport models, it was necessary to predict their values and associated uncertainty at unsampled locations. This study reports the spatial distribution and uncertainty of groundwater nitrate concentration at a test site of the Po watershed using a probabilistic approach. Our approach was based on geostatistical sequential Gaussian simulation used to yield a series of stochastic images characterized by equally probable spatial distributions of the nitrate concentration across the area. Post-processing of many simulations allowed the mapping of contaminated and uncontaminated areas and provided a model for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of nitrate concentrations. PMID:15519731

  7. Leptin plasma concentrations are dependent on body fat distribution in obese patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Minocci; G Savia; R Lucantoni; ME Berselli; M Tagliaferri; G Calò; ML Petroni; C de Medici; GC Viberti; A Liuzzi

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether fat distribution plays a role in determining serum leptin concentrations.PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-hundred and forty-seven obese patients, 77 males and 70 females, aged 45.1±13.2 y (mean±s.d.; range 21–73 y), with body mass index (BMI) ranging from 30 to 55 kg\\/m2 (mean 42.3±5.9). Ultrasound assessment of the thickness of subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat was carried out and

  8. Effects of Boron Doping on the Properties of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wen-Xiang; WU, Q. X.; Luo, Z. K.; Wu, H. S.

    2014-04-01

    Boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were fabricated on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. UNCD films containing different concentrations of boron were prepared by using trimethylboron (B(CH3)3, TMB) as boron doping source and varying the amount of boron in the gas mixture from 0 ppm to 1000 ppm. The effects of boron doping on morphology, lattice parameter, phase composition, crystal size, and residual stress of UNCD films were investigated. No obvious change of the morphology was observed on doping with boron, and all the films had the UNCD crystal grains. Boron doping enhanced (111) growth. The preferred growth direction of the UNCD films was . Residual tensile stress was present in all the films, and increased with increasing the amount of boron in the gas mixture.

  9. Modelling the Concentration Distributions of Aerosol Puffs Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiaoying; Roy, Gilles; Andrews, William S.

    2010-07-01

    A neural network model was developed to predict the short-term (<150 s) concentration distributions of aerosols released from point sources over very short time periods (approximately 2 s). The model was based on data from field experiments covering a wide range of meteorological conditions. The study focused on relative dispersion about the puff centroid, with puff/cloud meander and large-scale gusts not being considered. The artificial neural network (ANN) model included explicitly a number of meteorological and turbulence parameters, and was compared with predictions from two Gaussian-based puff models to the measurements of four independent trials representing different stability conditions. The performance of the neural network model was comparable (in stable conditions) or better (in unstable and neutral conditions) than these two models when high concentration predictions were considered. Simulations of concentration distributions under different stability conditions were also generated using the developed neural network model, with the result that Gaussian distributions provided good descriptors for puff dispersion in the downwind and crosswind directions, and for particles close to the centroid in the vertical when dealing with short dispersion times.

  10. On the concentration of large deviations for fat tailed distributions, with application to financial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiasi, Mario; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Peressi, Maria; Vesselli, Erik; Zarinelli, Elia

    2014-09-01

    Large deviations for fat tailed distributions, i.e. those that decay slower than exponential, are not only relatively likely, but they also occur in a rather peculiar way where a finite fraction of the whole sample deviation is concentrated on a single variable. The regime of large deviations is separated from the regime of typical fluctuations by a phase transition where the symmetry between the points in the sample is spontaneously broken. For stochastic processes with a fat tailed microscopic noise, this implies that, while typical realizations are well described by a diffusion process with continuous sample paths, large deviation paths are typically discontinuous. For eigenvalues of random matrices with fat tailed distributed elements, a large deviation where the trace of the matrix is anomalously large concentrates on just a single eigenvalue, whereas in the thin tailed world the large deviation affects the whole distribution. These results find a natural application to finance. Since the price dynamics of financial stocks are characterized by fat tailed increments, large fluctuations in stock prices are expected to be realized by discrete jumps. Interestingly, we find that large excursions of prices are more likely realized by continuous drifts rather than by discontinuous jumps. Indeed, auto correlations suppress the concentration of large deviations. Financial covariance matrices also exhibit an anomalously large eigenvalue, the market mode, as compared to the prediction of random matrix theory. We show that this is explained by a large deviation with excess covariance rather than by one with excess volatility.

  11. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014). PMID:25771157

  12. Aerosol size distribution and mass concentration measurements in various cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khan; Blaschke, Thomas; Madl, Pierre; Mukhtar, Azam; Hussain, Majid; Trautmann, Thomas; Rahman, Said

    2011-07-01

    During March and April 2010 aerosol inventories from four large cities in Pakistan were assessed in terms of particle size distributions (N), mass (M) concentrations, and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. These M and PM concentrations were obtained for Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar from N concentrations using a native algorithm based on the Grimm model 1.109 dust monitor. The results have confirmed high N, M and PM concentrations in all four cities. They also revealed major contributions to the aerosol concentrations from the re-suspension of road dust, from sea salt aerosols, and from vehicular and industrial emissions. During the study period the 24 hour average PM(10) concentrations for three sites in Karachi were found to be 461 ?g m(-3), 270 ?g m(-3), and 88 ?g m(-3), while the average values for Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar were 198 ?g m(-3), 448 ?g m(-3), and 540 ?g m(-3), respectively. The corresponding 24 hour average PM(2.5) concentrations were 185 ?g m(-3), 151 ?g m(-3), and 60 ?g m(-3) for the three sites in Karachi, and 91 ?g m(-3), 140 ?g m(-3), and 160 ?g m(-3) for Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar, respectively. The low PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios revealed a high proportion of coarser particles, which are likely to have originated from (a) traffic, (b) other combustion sources, and (c) the re-suspension of road dust. Our calculated 24 hour averaged PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations at all sampling points were between 2 and 10 times higher than the maximum PM concentrations recommended by the WHO guidelines. The aerosol samples collected were analyzed for crustal elements (Al, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca) and trace elements (B, Ba, Cr, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sr, Cd, Ti, Zn and Zr). The averaged concentrations for crustal elements ranged from 1.02 ± 0.76 ?g m(-3) for Si at the Sea View location in Karachi to 74.96 ± 7.39 ?g m(-3) for Ca in Rawalpindi, and averaged concentrations for trace elements varied from 7.0 ± 0.75 ng m(-3) for B from the SUPARCO location in Karachi to 17.84 ± 0.30 ?g m(-3) for Na at the M. A. Jinnah Road location, also in Karachi. PMID:21677943

  13. Boron Deficiency in Tea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Chenery

    1958-01-01

    TEA must be the last commodity crop to show a need for boron. This is probably due to its low calcium requirement and to the fact that tea gardens are very rarely limed. The boron deficiency syndrome first appeared accidentally in a pot experiment testing five different soils for natural potassium uptake. All plants in two soils when they were

  14. Isolation and characterization of indigenous Streptomyces and Lentzea strains from soils containing boron compounds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Norma Beatriz; Poma, Hugo Ramiro; Amoroso, María Julia; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2014-06-01

    The Salta Province - in the northwest of Argentina - is the main worldwide producer of hydroboracite and leads in exports of boron mineral and its derivatives in Latin America. In addition to the natural presence of boron compounds in the soils, there are others contaminated due to the boron mining industry. Although some bacteria are known to require boron for their growth or to be capable of storing boron, no studies have been published about Streptomyces or Lentzea genera's capacity to tolerate high boron concentrations, or about their metabolic capacities in boron contaminated environments. The results of this research show the isolation and molecular characterization of eight strains belonging to the actinobacteria phylum collected from different soils contaminated with high boron concentration in Salta state. The boron tolerance assays, which show that three of the strains were able to tolerate up 60-80?mM boron, demonstrate the potential capability of this group of bacteria to grow and maybe to remove boron from the environment. They appear to be promising, considering that these microorganisms are infrequent pathogens, are metabolically versatile and many Streptomyces can synthesize boron containing metabolites. PMID:23686918

  15. The association between spatial distribution of common malignancies and soil lead concentration in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Masoumeh; Rameshat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharib, Hadi; Rouzbahani, Reza; Ghias, Majid; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Malignancies are primarily environmental diseases mostly attributed to environmental factors. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences can be observed in detail. This study aimed to determine the association between map distribution of malignancies and the geological phenomena of lead (Pb) accumulation in soil in the province of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of malignant diseases were plotted by using data recorded during 2007 to 2009 in the Isfahan Cancer Registry Program. Data on Pb accumulation in soil was obtained from the National Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. Pb concentrations were documented in three parts of agricultural, non-agricultural, urban, and industrial land. The geographical mapping of cancers and soil Pb were then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to create a spatial distribution model. Results: The spatial distributions of ten common malignant diseases in the province, i.e. skin cancers, hematological malignancies, and breast cancers, followed by other malignancies were scattered based on Pb distribution. In fact, common cancers were more prevalent in the parts of the province where soil Pb was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of preventing Pb exposure and controlling industrial production of Pb. The data is also important to establish further effects modeling for cancers. Moreover, physicians and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients’ health. PMID:23267396

  16. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  17. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  18. Influence Of Low Boron Core Design On PWR Transient Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov Papukchiev, Angel; Yubo Liu [Technical University Munich, Arcisstrasse 21, 80333 Muenchen (Germany); Schaefer, Anselm [ISaR Institute for Safety and Reliability, Walther-Meissner-Str. 2 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, the concentration of boron in primary coolant is limited by the requirement of having a negative moderator density coefficient. As high boron concentrations have significant impact on reactivity feedback properties, design changes to reduce boron concentration in the reactor coolant are of general interest in view of improving PWR inherent safety. In the framework of an investigation into the feasibility of low boron design, a PWR core configuration based on fuel with higher gadolinium (Gd) content has been developed which permits to reduce the natural boron concentration at begin of cycle (BOC) by approx. 50% compared to current German PWR technology. For the assessment of the potential safety advantages, a Loss-of-Feedwater Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS LOFW) has been simulated with the system code ATHLET for two PWR core designs: a low boron design and a standard core design. The most significant difference in the transient performance of both designs is the total primary fluid mass released through the pressurizer (PRZ) valves. It is reduced by a factor of four for the low boron reactor, indicating its improved density reactivity feedback. (authors)

  19. Ice concentration and distribution near the south pole of Mars: Synthesis of odyssey and global surveyor analyses

    E-print Network

    Head III, James William

    Ice concentration and distribution near the south pole of Mars: Synthesis of odyssey and global; published 3 October 2002. [1] Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) neutron spectrometer data. V. Boynton, Ice concentration and distribution near the south pole of Mars: Synthesis of odyssey

  20. The behavior of disk electrodes: Optical imaging of the concentration distribution over a disk electrode under galvanostatic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Daschbach; S. F. Simpson; J. M. Harris; M. Fleischmann; S. Pons

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the theoretical and experimental determination of the integrated time dependent concentration distribution of an electrogenerated species over a disk electrode embedded in an insulated plane. We have derived this result for case of constant applied flux (chronopotentiometry). The experimental technique used for observing the integrated concentration distribution over the electrode was imaging by a low noise charge

  1. Local impedance imaging of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zieli?ski, A.; Ryl, J.; Burczyk, L.; Darowicki, K. [Department of Electrochemistry, Corrosion and Material Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Bogdanowicz, R., E-mail: rbogdan@eti.pg.gda.pl [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland)

    2014-09-29

    Local impedance imaging (LII) was used to visualise surficial deviations of AC impedances in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD). The BDD thin film electrodes were deposited onto the highly doped silicon substrates via microwave plasma-enhanced CVD. The studied boron dopant concentrations, controlled by the [B]/[C] ratio in plasma, ranged from 1 × 10{sup 16} to 2 × 10{sup 21} atoms cm{sup ?3}. The BDD films displayed microcrystalline structure, while the average size of crystallites decreased from 1 to 0.7??m with increasing [B]/[C] ratios. The application of LII enabled a direct and high-resolution investigation of local distribution of impedance characteristics within the individual grains of BDD. Such an approach resulted in greater understanding of the microstructural control of properties at the grain level. We propose that the obtained surficial variation of impedance is correlated to the areas of high conductance which have been observed at the grain boundaries by using LII. We also postulate that the origin of high conductivity is due to either preferential boron accumulation, the presence of defects, or sp{sup 2} regions in the intragrain regions. The impedance modulus recorded by LII was in full agreement with the bulk impedance measurements. Both variables showed a decreasing trend with increasing [B]/[C] ratios, which is consistent with higher boron incorporation into BDD film.

  2. Surface-level fine particle mass concentrations: from hemispheric distributions to megacity sources.

    PubMed

    Hidy, George M

    2009-07-01

    Since 1990, basic knowledge of the "chemical climate" of fine particles, has greatly improved from Junge's compilation from the 1960s. A worldwide baseline distribution of fine particle concentrations on a synoptic scale of approximately 1000 km can be estimated at least qualitatively from measurements. A geographical distribution of fine particle characteristics is deduced from a synthesis of a variety of disparate data collected at ground level on all continents, especially in the northern hemisphere. On the average, the regional mass concentrations range from 1 to 80 microg/m3, with the highest concentrations in regions of high population density and industrialization. Fine particles by mass on a continental and hemispheric spatial scale are generally dominated by non-sea salt sulfate (0.2 to approximately 20 microg/m3, or approximately 25%) and organic carbon (0.2-> 10 microg/m3, or approximately 25%), with lesser contributions of ammonium, nitrate, elemental carbon, and elements found in sea salt or soil dust. The crustal and trace metal elements contribute a varied amount to fine particle mass depending on location, with a larger contribution in marine conditions or during certain events such as dust storms or volcanic disturbances. The average distribution of mass concentration and major components depends on the proximity to areal aggregations of sources, most of which are continental in origin, with contributions from sea salt emissions in the marine environment. The highest concentrations generally are within or near very large population and industrial centers, especially in Asia, including parts of China and India, as well as North America and Europe. Natural sources of blowing dust, sea salt, and wildfires contribute to large, intermittent spatial-scale particle loadings beyond these ranges. A sampling of 10 megacities illustrates a range of characteristic particle composition, dependent on local and regional sources. Long-range transport of pollution from spatially aggregated sources over hundreds of kilometers creates persistent regional- and continental-scale gradients of mass concentration, sulfate, and carbon species especially in the northern hemisphere. Data are sparse in the southern hemisphere, especially beyond 45 degrees S, but are generally very low in mass concentrations. PMID:19645262

  3. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  4. Metal concentrations and distribution in paint waste generated during bridge rehabilitation in New York State.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhan; Axe, Lisa; Jahan, Kauser; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Kochersberger, Carl

    2015-09-01

    Between 1950 and 1980, lead and chromium along with other metals have been used in paint coatings to protect bridges from corrosion. In New York State with 4500 bridges in 11 Regions 2385 of the bridges have been rehabilitated and subsequently repainted after 1989 when commercial use of lead based paint was prohibited. The purpose of this research was to address the concentration and distribution of trace metals in the paint waste generated during bridge rehabilitation. Using hypothesis testing and stratified sampling theory, a representative sample size of 24 bridges from across the state was selected that resulted in 117 paint waste samples. Field portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) analysis revealed metal concentrations ranged from 5 to 168,090mgkg(-1) for Pb, 49,367 to 799,210mgkg(-1) for Fe, and 27 to 425,510mgkg(-1) for Zn. Eighty percent of the samples exhibited lead concentrations greater than 5000mgkg(-1). The elevated iron concentrations may be attributed to the application of steel grit as an abrasive blasting material routinely used by state Departments of Transportation in the paint removal process. Other metals including Ba and Cr were observed in the paint waste as well. As a result of the paint formulation, metals were found to be associated in the paint waste (Pb correlated with Cr (r=0.85)). The elevated metal concentrations observed raises concern over the potential impact of leaching from this waste stream. PMID:25955694

  5. Analysis of boron by charged particle bombardment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Moncoffre

    1992-01-01

    The determination of boron concentration in thin films, semiconductors or other materials requires techniques providing good depth resolution and high sensitivities. For this purpose nuclear analysis techniques can be powerful tools and this paper presents a review of the nuclear reactions essentially with charged particles (p, alpha, d) that have been used (including charge particle activation analysis). Irradiation with neutrons

  6. Boron in the major UK rivers entering the North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Neal; Kay K Fox; Martin Harrow; Margaret Neal

    1998-01-01

    Boron in the major UK rivers entering the North Sea is predominantly in dissolved form and concentrations show large variations in time and space. The time-dependent feature relates to seasonal patterns linked to flow. Boron concentrations are well described by a power relationship of the type [B]=a?flowb, where a and b are constants. In this equation, the a term varies

  7. Spatial distribution and interannual variation of surface PM10 concentrations over eighty-six Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W. J.; Arimoto, R.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhao, C. H.; Wang, Y. Q.; Sheng, L. F.; Fu, G.

    2010-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the aerosols over 86 Chinese cities was reconstructed from air pollution index (API) records for summer 2000 to winter 2006. PM10 (particulate matter ?10 ?m) mass concentrations were calculated for days when PM10 was the principal pollutant, these accounted for 91.6% of the total 150 428 recorded days. The 83 cities in mid-eastern China (100° E to 130° E) were separated into three latitudinal zones using natural landscape features as boundaries. Areas with high PM10 level in northern China (127 to 192 ?g m-3) included Urumchi, Lanzhou-Xining, Weinan-Xi'an, Taiyuan-Datong-Yangquan-Changzhi, Pingdingshan-Kaifeng, Beijing-Tianjin-Shijiazhuang, Jinan, and Shenyang-Anshan-Fushun; in the middle zone, high PM10 (119-147 ?g m-3) occurred at Chongqing-Chengdu-Luzhou, Changsha-Wuhan, and Nanjing-Hangzhou; in the southern zone, only four cities (Qujing, Guiyang, Guangzhou and Shaoguan) showed PM10 concentration >80 ?g m-3. The median PM10 concentration decreased from 108 ?g m-3 for the northern cities to 95 ?g m-3 and 55 ?g m-3 for the middle and southern zones, respectively. PM10 concentration and the APIs both exhibited wintertime maxima, summertime minima, and the second highest values in spring. PM10showed evidence for a decreasing trend for the northern cities while in the other zones urban PM10 levels fluctuated, but showed no obvious change over time. The spatial distribution of PM10 was compared with the emissions, and the relationship between the surface PM10 concentration and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) was also discussed.

  8. The effective distribution system for the concentration of patients to extra-large hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Du Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In Korean society, extra-large hospitals are congested with the majority of patients. Because of the congestions, the urgent patients need to wait anywhere from as short as a month to around three months. These concentrations of the patients on the extra-large hospitals causes not only the economic problem in terms of loss of opportunity cost and resources of other medium and large hospitals but also the fear and the consequential stress of the patients and the families of the patients who are waiting for the surgeries. The phenomenon of the concentrations derived due to the insufficient information to the medical consumers. If the information on medical treatment services such as surgery schedule is provided before the selection of hospital, we expect that the selection of hospital for the patients and their family will differ, resulting in redistribution of concentration phenomenon. In this paper, we propose and verify the effective distribution system for the concentration on the extra-large hospitals. Methods Web simulation survey was conducted. A total 100 respondents were divided into 4 groups of 25 respondents and the different information was provided to each group. Results Through multiple comparisons among groups, only group which was provided with both information about 'the difference of surgical results' and 'the waiting time for surgery', had difference in significance. Conclusion By providing two sets of information to patients, reckless selection of extra-large hospitals can be spread to more appropriate hospitals and therefore achieve effective distribution of the population concentration on extra-large hospital. PMID:22066063

  9. Concentration and distribution of copper and cadmium in water, sediments, detritus, plants and animals in a hardwater lowland river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Smith; M.-H. Chen; R. G. Bailey; W. P. Williams

    1996-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) were examined in water, sediments, detritus, plants and animals in a small, lowland, hardwater river. Consistently higher concentrations of Cu and Cd were found in all types of samples from two sites. There were marked variations in metal concentrations between different types of samples, and between seasons. Copper and Cd

  10. Boron absorption imaging in rat lung colon adenocarcinoma metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.; Fossati, F.; Vittor, K.; Nano, R.; Facoetti, A.; Chiari, P.; Bakeine, J.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Salvucci, O.

    2006-05-01

    Given the encouraging results from our previous work on the clinical application of BNCT on non-resectable, chemotherapy resistant liver metastases, we explore the possibility to extend our technique to lung metastases. A fundamental requirement for BNCT is achieving higher 10B concentrations in the metastases compared to those in healthy tissue. For this reason we developed a rat model with lung metastases in order to study the temporal distribution of 10B concentration in tissues and tumoral cells. Rats with induced lung metastases from colon adenocarcinoma were sacrificed two hours after intraperitoneal Boronphenylalanine infusion. The lungs were harvested, frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently histological sections underwent neutron autoradiography in the nuclear reactor Triga Mark II, University of Pavia. Our findings demonstrate higher Boron uptake in tumoral nodules compared to healthy lung parenchyma 2 hours after Boronphenylalanine infusion.

  11. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  12. Influential parameters on particle concentration and size distribution in the mainstream of e-cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fuoco, F C; Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Vigo, P

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of particle number concentrations and size distributions through a Condensation Particle Counter and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer spectrometer, respectively. A thermodilution system was also used to properly sample and dilute the mainstream aerosol. Different types of electronic cigarettes, liquid flavors, liquid nicotine contents, as well as different puffing times were tested. Conventional tobacco cigarettes were also investigated. The total particle number concentration peak (for 2-s puff), averaged across the different electronic cigarette types and liquids, was measured equal to 4.39 ± 0.42 × 10(9) part. cm(-3), then comparable to the conventional cigarette one (3.14 ± 0.61 × 10(9) part. cm(-3)). Puffing times and nicotine contents were found to influence the particle concentration, whereas no significant differences were recognized in terms of flavors and types of cigarettes used. Particle number distribution modes of the electronic cigarette-generated aerosol were in the 120-165 nm range, then similar to the conventional cigarette one. PMID:24172659

  13. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in korean soils determined by single and sequential extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Kim, Dong-Jin; Ahn, Byung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of thallium in soils collected near suspected areas such as cement plants, active and closed mines, and smelters and to examine the extraction of thallium in the soils using 19 single chemical and sequential chemical extraction procedures. Thallium concentrations in soils near cement plants were distributed between 1.20 and 12.91 mg kg(-1). However, soils near mines and smelters contained relatively low thallium concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1.09 mg kg(-1). Thallium extractability with 19 single chemical extractants from selected soils near cement plants ranged from 0.10 % to 8.20 % of the total thallium concentration. In particular, 1.0 M NH4Cl, 1.0 M (NH4)2SO4, and 1.0 M CH3COONH4 extracted more thallium than other extractants. Sequential fractionation results of thallium from different soils such as industrially and artificially contaminated soils varied with the soil properties, especially soil pH and the duration of thallium contamination. PMID:25836266

  14. Nonempirical simulations of boron interstitials in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundim, Kleber C.; Liubich, Vlad; Dorfman, Simon; Felsteiner, Joshua; Fuks, David; Borstel, Gunnar

    2001-08-01

    Formation of W-B solid solutions for different concentrations of boron is studied within nonempirical modeling. We consider ordering tendencies, study electronic structure and provide total energy calculations on the basis of coherent potential approximation. We also study an equilibrium structure of a lattice with ? 3<1 1 1> grain boundary in pure tungsten and in tungsten-based solid solution with boron additives. We used simulated annealing methods in atomistic simulations to obtain relaxed configurations of the lattice in the vicinity of grain boundary.

  15. [Concentration and distribution characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particles with different sizes].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia-Bin; Wang, Tie-Guan; Huang, Yun-Bi; Mao, Ting; Zhong, Ning-Ning; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Shan

    2005-03-01

    Airborne particles with different sizes were collected in 2003 at two sampling sites(urban border and suburban area) of Beijing. Compositions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected by GC/MS. The results show that total concentrations of 17 PAHs ranged between 0.84 and 152.23 ng/m3, in urban border area were 1.07 - 6.60 times higher than those measured in suburban area. The total concentration of PAHs increased with decreasing ambient temperature (winter > autumn > spring > summer). About 68.4% - 84.7% of PAHs were absorbed on particles having aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.0 microm. The distribution of PAHs varies with the size of the molecules. Nearly bimodal distribution was found for two- and three-rings PAHs, four- to six-rings PAHs, however, followed unimodal distribution. The overall mass median diameter (MMD) for PAHs decreases with increasing molecular weight. Higher pollution level of PAHs in wintertime is probably ascribed to domestic heating and lower ambient temperature. PMID:16004297

  16. Degenerate crystalline silicon films by aluminum-induced crystallization of boron-doped amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. D.; Luo, L. C.; Hsueh, T. J.; Hwang, S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Degenerate p-type crystalline silicon film with a hole concentration of 4 × 1021 cm-3 was investigated using aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) of boron-doped amorphous silicon (a-Si). The AIC mechanism is different from that in the undoped AIC-Si. Boron atoms accumulate at Al layer forming a boron bump and segregate the Al atoms into Si layer, resulting to the formation of AlSi alloy. The degeneracy is not attributed to boron doping but instead to the AlSi alloy. Observations show that Al and Si layer transfer occurs not at original interface of Al and Si, but at the boron bump.

  17. Local boron environment in B-doped nanocrystalline diamond films.

    PubMed

    Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Janssens, Stoffel D; Da Pieve, Fabiana; Lamoen, Dirk; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Wagner, Patrick; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2012-09-28

    Thin films of heavily B-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B:NCD) have been investigated by a combination of high resolution annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy performed on a state-of-the-art aberration corrected instrument to determine the B concentration, distribution and the local B environment. Concentrations of ~1 to 3 at.% of boron are found to be embedded within individual grains. Even though most NCD grains are surrounded by a thin amorphous shell, elemental mapping of the B and C signal shows no preferential embedding of B in these amorphous shells or in grain boundaries between the NCD grains, in contrast with earlier work on more macroscopic superconducting polycrystalline B-doped diamond films. Detailed inspection of the fine structure of the boron K-edge and comparison with density functional theory calculated fine structure energy-loss near-edge structure signatures confirms that the B atoms present in the diamond grains are substitutional atoms embedded tetrahedrally into the diamond lattice. PMID:22903371

  18. Concentrations, size distributions and temporal variations of fluorescent biological aerosol particles in southern tropical India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, Aswathy; Krishna R, Ravi; CV, Biju; Huffman, Alex; Poschl, Ulrich; Gunthe, Sachin

    2015-04-01

    Biological aerosols constitute a wide range of dead and alive biological materials and structures that are suspended in the atmosphere. They play an important role in the atmospheric physical, chemical and biological processes and health of living being by spread of diseases among humans, plants, and, animals. The atmospheric abundance, sources, physical properties of PBAPs as compared to non-biological aerosols, however, is poorly characterized. The Indian tropical region, where large fraction of the world's total population is residing, experiences a distinctive meteorological phenomenon by means of Indian Summer Monsoon (IMS). Thus, the properties and characteristics of biological aerosols are also expected to be very diverse over the Indian subcontinent depending upon the seasons. Here we characterize the number concentration and size distribution of Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles (FBAP) at a high altitude continental site, Munnar (10.09 N, 77.06 E; 1605 m asl) in South India during the South-West monsoon, which constitute around 80 percent of the annual rainfall in Munnar. Continuous three months measurements (from 01 June 2014 to 21 Aug 2104) FBAPs were carried out at Munnar using Ultra Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) during IMS. The mean number and mass concentration of coarse FBAP averaged over the entire campaign was 1.7 x 10-2 cm-3 and 0.24 µg m-3 respectively, which corresponds to 2 percent and 6 percent of total aerosol particle number and mass concentration. In agreement to other previous measurements the number size distribution of FBAP also peaks at 3.2 micron indicating the strong presence of fungal spores. This was also supported by the Scanning Electron Microscopic analysis of bioaerosols on filter paper. They also displayed a strong diurnal cycle with maximum concentration occurring at early morning hours. During periods of heavy and continuous rain where the wind is consistently blowing from South-West direction it was observed that the FBAP concentrations were very low. This may be due to the clean marine influx coming over the Indian Ocean and due to continuous wash out during the rain. While in case of sporadic rain events with fluctuating wind direction, high FBAP concentration was noticed. However such a similar trend was not observed for total aerosol particle concentration. The detailed results will be presented.

  19. [Concentration and distribution characteristics of estrogen in aquatic organism from Chongming Island].

    PubMed

    Geng, Jing-Jing; Ye, Ai-Li; Yang, Yi; Liu, Min; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Jun-Liang

    2014-12-01

    Five typical estrogens, including estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17?-ethynyl estradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA), were simultaneously determined in typical aquatic organisms from Chongming Island by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography equipped with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS2). The distribution pattern of estrogens was studied and preliminary heath risk assessment was discussed. The results showed that the total dry weight concentrations of estrogens were from 1.1 ng x g(-1) to 7.38 ng x g(-1) with a mean of 4.25 ng x g(-1). The lipid content-standardized estrogens concentrations were in the range of 5.01- 83.41 ng x g(-1) with a mean of 40.75 ng x g(-1), showing a descending order of fish > shrimp > crab. Fish and crab, fish and shrimp showed a significant difference in lipid content-standardized estrogen concentrations, whereas no significant difference was found between crab and shrimp. Compared to BPA, the dry weight concentrations of steroids (E1, E2, E3 and EE2) were found at lower levels (0.17-0.69 ng x g(-1)) with lower detection frequency (< 66.67%) in aquatic organisms from Chongming Island. In contrast, the detection rate of BPA reached 100%, and the average dry weight concentration detected was 2.60 ng x g(-1). The results of health risk assessment showed the concentration of estrogens in aquatic products from Chongming Island could not cause any adverse population-level effects. PMID:25826940

  20. Enhanced boron diffusion in excimer laser preannealed Si

    SciTech Connect

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Spinella, C.; Bongiorno, C.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Mariucci, L. [Department of Physics, Physical Electronics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Royal Institute of Technology, Lab of Materials and Semiconductor Physics, P.O. Box Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); CNR-IMM Sezione Catania, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); IFN-CNR, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2005-04-11

    We have investigated boron diffusion during rapid thermal annealing in Si implanted with boron using an energy of 1 keV and a dose of 1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. Two types of samples have been studied: As-implanted and pretreated with excimer laser annealing. For both types an enhanced diffusion of boron has been observed with an enhancement by a factor of 3-5 over the 'standard' diffusion. It is suggested that the high concentration of implanted boron is a dominant factor for the diffusion enhancement as compared to the effect of implantation-induced damage. The data indicate that the proximity of the surface can also affect the boron diffusion enhancement.

  1. Precipitation recovery of boron from wastewater by hydrothermal mineralization.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Takeshi; Sasai, Ryo; Itoh, Hideaki

    2005-07-01

    It is well known that boric acid exhibits various toxic effects on plant, animal and human beings even at very low concentrations. Thus, the development of boron-removal technique from wastewater has been intensively investigated. In this study, a new hydrothermal treatment technique was developed to recover boron as recyclable precipitate Ca(2)B(2)O(5).H(2)O from aqueous solutions. As a result, it was found that the hydrothermal treatment using calcium hydroxide as a mineralizer converted boron in the aqueous media effectively into calcium borate, Ca(2)B(2)O(5).H(2)O. In the optimal hydrothermal condition, more than 99% of boron was collected from the synthetic wastewater of 500 ppm. Thus, the present hydrothermal treatment in the presence of calcium hydroxide is recommended as one of the effective techniques to recover boron from aqueous media. PMID:15978646

  2. Measurement of the thermal neutron distribution in a water phantom using a cyclotron based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Tanaka; Yoshinori Sakurai; Minoru Suzuki; Shinichiro Masunaga; Toshinori Mitsumoto; Satoru Yajima; Hiroshi Tsutsui; Takemi Sato; Tomoyuki Asano; Genro Kashino; Yuko Kinashi; Yong Liu; Koji Ono; A. Maruhashi

    2009-01-01

    We have been developed an epithermal neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy(BNCT), consisting of a cyclotron accelerator that can provide a ~ 1 mA, 30 MeV proton beam, a neutron production beryllium target and the moderator that can reduce the energy of fast neutrons to an effective energy range. In order to validate the simulations, we measured the depth

  3. Adjustable boron carbonitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, C. Y.; Guo, J. D.; Bai, X. D.; Wang, E. G.

    2002-04-01

    The adjustable photoluminescence (PL) and field electron emission (FEE) properties of boron carbonitride (B-C-N) nanotubes grown under well-controlled conditions are studied systematically. Large-scale highly aligned B-C-N nanotubes are synthesized directly on Ni substrates by the bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition method. Single-walled B-C-N nanotubes and nanometric B-C-N heterojunctions are obtained by the pulsed-arc-discharge technique and pause-reactivation two-stage process, respectively. It is found that the microstructures, orientations, and chemical compositions of the nanotubes can be controlled by varying growth parameters. The mechanism of the controllable growth is also investigated. Intense and stable PL from the nanotubes is observed in both blue-violet (photon energies 3.14-2.55 eV) and yellow-green bands (photon energies 2.13-2.34 eV) and the emission bands are adjusted by varying the compositions of the nanotubes. FEE properties are also studied and optimized by varying the B or N atomic concentrations in the nanotubes. All these results verify the controllability of the electronic band structure of the B-C-N nanotubes.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and oxidation of boron-doped carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermignani, William

    The goal of this study was to gain a fundamental understanding of the role of boron in carbon oxidation. Boron-doped carbons were synthesized via CVD, ion implantation and high temperature doping and subsequently characterized. It was found that high temperature doped HOPG carbons were ideal for oxidation studies because their surface could be reproduced, their surface structures were determined and they were able to be characterized by XPS, AFM and SEM. The direct analysis of the chemical structures and atomic arrangements in boron-doped carbon or carbon surfaces by these techniques was critical in determining the effect of boron on carbon oxidation. XPS was utilized in this work to determine the local bonding environment of boron in carbon before and after oxidation. It was necessary to obtain an accurate calibration of the B1s binding energy scale which was accomplished by obtaining photoemission spectra of boron-doped carbons with known structures (local boron bonding environments), such as boron oxide, boron carbide, triphenylboroxine, tourmaline, boric acid, danburite and high temperature boron-doped graphite. All of the aforementioned standards contain boron in a unique bonding environment and thus their spectra formulated a complete conversion of B1s binding energies to boron chemical environments which had not been reported in the past. It was clearly established that a chemical shift for substitutional boron in graphite exists at 186.5 eV with a FWHM of 1.2. The chemical structures of the boron in the standards were related to the binding energy using a Pauling charge distribution model and a modification of the Sanderson electronegativity method. This approach was used to determine whether the B1s binding energy would change depending upon the specific location of boron in the graphite or graphite surface. This model was used, along with XPS, TEM and Raman results, to show that edge sites are preferred lattice sites in graphite for boron substitution. The oxidation behaviors of the synthesized high temperature doped samples were studied with TGA, SEM, XPS and AFM. It was found that boron caused the gasification rates of the carbons to decrease. The SEM and AFM results showed that the pits that were formed in the undoped and doped carbons were different in size, depth and orientation. A semi-empirical Molecular Orbital Package method and experimental results were used to show that the reactivity of the zig-zag edge sites of a pit wall could be reduced by the replacement of carbon atoms with boron atoms at these sites; hence, the oxidation would be inhibited in the a-direction of a graphene layer. Conversely, boron doping on an armchair edge surface of a pit wall results in increased reactivity at these sites and the subsequent formation of boron oxide during oxidation, which does not prevent oxidation in the a-direction of a graphene layer. Rather, the build-up of boron oxide clusters prevented oxidation in the c-direction. A model was proposed for the oxidation inhibition mechanism in boron-doped graphite based upon the stability of pits with boron substitution on the zig-zag sites.

  5. Global distribution and seasonal concentration change of methyl iodide in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokouchi, Yoko; Osada, Kazuo; Wada, Makoto; Hasebe, Fumio; Agama, Mario; Murakami, Ryuichi; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Inuzuka, Yoko; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree; Fraser, Paul

    2008-09-01

    We investigated seasonal variations in atmospheric CH3I at high, middle, and low latitudes in both hemispheres: at Alert (82.5°N, 62.5°W), over the northern and western Pacific Ocean (shipboard measurements); Cape Ochiishi (43.2°N, 145.5°E); Tsukuba (36.0°N, 140.1°E); Happo Ridge (36.7°N, 137.8°E); Hateruma Island (24.1°N, 123.8°E); San Cristobal Island (1.0°S, 89.4°W); Cape Grim (40.4°S, 144.6°E); and Syowa Station in Antarctica (68.5°S, 41.3°E) throughout 2004 and over an extended period of years at some sites. The highest median CH3I concentration was observed at San Cristobal Island, on the equator in the eastern Pacific, although no concentration elevation was found on or near the equator over the western Pacific. The lowest concentration was found in the Arctic and Antarctica, where they showed very similar seasonal variations that were clearly inversely correlated with variations in incident solar radiation. In the marine boundary air at midlatitude, the CH3I concentration was well correlated with surface seawater temperature (SST). Global atmospheric CH3I in wintertime was rather uniformly distributed (around 0.5 ppt) at middle and high latitudes.

  6. Chemical disposition of boron in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Moseman, R F

    1994-11-01

    Elemental boron was isolated in 1808. It typically occurs in nature as borates hydrated with varying amounts of water. Important compounds are boric acid and borax. Boron compounds are also used in the production of metals, enamels, and glasses. In trace amounts, boron is essential for the growth of many plants, and is found in animal and human tissues at low concentrations. Poisoning in humans has been reported as the result of accidental ingestion or use of large amounts in the treatment of burns. Boron as boric acid is fairly rapidly absorbed and excreted from the body via urine. The half-life of boric acid in humans is on the order of 1 day. Boron does not appear to accumulate in soft tissues of animals, but does accumulate in bone. Normal levels of boron in soft tissues, urine, and blood generally range from less than 0.05 ppm to no more than 10 ppm. In poisoning incidents, the amount of boric acid in brain and liver tissue has been reported to be as high as 2000 ppm. Recent studies at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences have indicated that boron may contribute to reduced fertility in male rodents fed 9000 ppm of boric acid in feed. Within a few days, boron levels in blood and most soft tissues quickly reached a plateau of about 15 ppm. Boron in bone did not appear to plateau, reaching 47 ppm after 7 days on the diet. Cessation of exposure to dietary boron resulted in a rapid drop in bone boron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889870

  7. A new adsorbent for boron removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kluczka, Joanna; Korolewicz, Teofil; Zo?otajkin, Maria; Simka, Wojciech; Raczek, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    A new adsorbent based on natural clinoptilolite and amorphous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) was prepared for the uptake of boron from fresh water. The sorption behaviour of this adsorbent for boron was investigated using a batch system and found to obey Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. The ZrO2 loading level, pH, temperature, contact time, initial boron concentration and adsorbent dose, on the removal of boron were studied. It was found that the removal of boron increased while the adsorbent dose increased and the temperature decreased at an optimum pH (pH = 8) and a contact time of 30 min. At optimum conditions, the maximum boron percentage removal was 75%. According to the D-R model, the maximum capacity was estimated to be > 3 mg B/g of the adsorbent. The adsorption energy value (calculated as 9.13 kJ/mol) indicated that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with ZrO2 was physical in nature. The parameters of the adsorption models and the pH investigations pointed to the possibility of a chemisorption process. The thermodynamic parameters (standard entropy deltaS degrees, enthalpy deltaH degrees , and free energy deltaG degrees changes) of boron adsorption were also calculated. The negative value of deltaS degrees indicated a decreased randomness at the solid-solution interface during the boron adsorption. Negative values of deltaH degrees showed the exothermic nature of the process. The negative values of deltaG degrees implied that the adsorption of boron on clinoptilolite modified with amorphous ZrO2 at 25 degrees C was spontaneous. It was considered that boron dissolved in water had been adsorbed both physically and chemically on clinoptilolite modified with 30% ZrO2. PMID:24191469

  8. Imaging the proton concentration and mapping the spatial distribution of the electric field of catalytic micropumps

    E-print Network

    A. Afshar Farniya; M. J. Esplandiu; D. Reguera; A. Bachtold

    2013-11-13

    Catalytic engines can use hydrogen peroxide as a chemical fuel in order to drive motion at the microscale. The chemo-mechanical actuation is a complex mechanism based on the interrelation between catalytic reactions and electro-hydrodynamics phenomena. We studied catalytic micropumps using fluorescence confocal microscopy to image the concentration of protons in the liquid. In addition, we measured the motion of particles with different charges in order to map the spatial distributions of the electric field, the electrostatic potential and the fluid flow. The combination of these two techniques allows us to contrast the gradient of the concentration of protons against the spatial variation in the electric field. We present numerical simulations that reproduce the experimental results. Our work sheds light on the interrelation between the different processes at work in the chemo-mechanical actuation of catalytic pumps. Our experimental approach could be used to study other electrochemical systems with heterogeneous electrodes.

  9. Imaging the proton concentration and mapping the spatial distribution of the electric field of catalytic micropumps

    E-print Network

    Farniya, A Afshar; Reguera, D; Bachtold, A

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic engines can use hydrogen peroxide as a chemical fuel in order to drive motion at the microscale. The chemo-mechanical actuation is a complex mechanism based on the interrelation between catalytic reactions and electro-hydrodynamics phenomena. We studied catalytic micropumps using fluorescence confocal microscopy to image the concentration of protons in the liquid. In addition, we measured the motion of particles with different charges in order to map the spatial distributions of the electric field, the electrostatic potential and the fluid flow. The combination of these two techniques allows us to contrast the gradient of the concentration of protons against the spatial variation in the electric field. We present numerical simulations that reproduce the experimental results. Our work sheds light on the interrelation between the different processes at work in the chemo-mechanical actuation of catalytic pumps. Our experimental approach could be used to study other electrochemical systems with heteroge...

  10. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future. PMID:25754336

  11. Modeling extreme PM10 concentration in Malaysia using generalized extreme value distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Husna; Mansor, Nadiah; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Extreme PM10 concentration from the Air Pollutant Index (API) at thirteen monitoring stations in Malaysia is modeled using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The data is blocked into monthly selection period. The Mann-Kendall (MK) test suggests a non-stationary model so two models are considered for the stations with trend. The likelihood ratio test is used to determine the best fitted model and the result shows that only two stations favor the non-stationary model (Model 2) while the other eleven stations favor stationary model (Model 1). The return level of PM10 concentration that is expected to exceed the maximum once within a selected period is obtained.

  12. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye.

    PubMed

    Joseph Antony, S

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future. PMID:25754336

  13. Origin of High Boron Contents of the Thermal Waters of Kizildere and Vicinity, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEVZAT ÖZGÜR

    The thermal waters of Kizildere and environs in the Büyük Menderes rift zone are marked by boron concentrations of up to 32 mg\\/l, and flow rates of ~250 l\\/s into the Büyük Menders River, thus increasing boron contents of the river water up to 4.4 mg\\/l (e.g., in1992), for a river-water flow rate of 2 m³\\/s. These high boron concentrations

  14. The systematics of boron abundances in young volcanic rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey G. Ryan; Charles H. Langmuir

    1993-01-01

    Boron behaves as a highly incompatible trace element in oceanic settings, while in arcs it shows unique systematics indicative of fluid-rock interactions. Boron analyses conducted on well-characterized mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) suites show that B approximates K most closely in its solid\\/ melt distribution behavior, with inferred bulk distribution coefficients of 0.004-0.009 during melting in the mantle and up to

  15. Effects of the halo concentration distribution on strong-lensing optical depth and X-ray emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fedeli; M. Bartelmann; M. Meneghetti; L. Moscardini

    2007-01-01

    We use simulated merger trees of galaxy-cluster halos to study the effect of the halo concentration distribution on strong lensing and X-ray emission. Its log-normal shape typically found in simulations favors outliers with high concentration. Since, at fixed mass, more concentrated halos tend to be more efficient lenses, the scatter in the concentration increases the strong-lensing optical depth by ⪅50%.

  16. Recovery of acceptor concentration distribution in a direct energy transfer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng Liu, Yuan; Li, Lin; Ni, Shaoru; Winnik, Mitchell A.

    1993-12-01

    The Klafter-Blumen equation, describing the kinetics of direct non-radiative energy transfer (DET) by the Förster mechanism, is extended to the case of guest molecules distributed non-uniformly in a space of known dimensionality. We describe a technique to recover the distribution of acceptor molecules in the medium, based upon the theory of the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind and its numerical solutions. The technique has been tested by computer simulations, and applied to several sets of experimental data. Examples are chosen from experiments involving energy transfer between dyes absorbed to the surface of polymeric microspheres, between dyes attached to polymer chains diffusing across an interface, and between dyes which undergo particle aggregation when dissolved at high concentrations in polymer matrices. Based on a comparison of these results with those obtained from directly fitting donor fluorescence decay profiles to the Klafter-Blumen equation, the merit of this new approach and its limitation are discussed.

  17. Boron removal by electrocoagulation and recovery.

    PubMed

    Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Ahmed, Zubair; Magram, Saleh Faraj; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2014-03-15

    This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm(2), and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water. PMID:24412846

  18. Neutron capture therapy with a new boron-porphyrin compound in the rat 9L glioma model.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Y; Matsumura, A; Yamamoto, T; Nakagawa, K; Yoshii, Y; Nose, T; Sakata, I; Nakajima, S; Hayakawa, Y; Ono, K

    1998-09-01

    Neutron capture therapy with a new boron-porphyrin compound was tested in a rat brain tumor model. Although the concentration of boron in the tumor was too low to elicit a therapeutic effect, prominent histopathologic changes, such as necrosis, congestion and bleeding were observed in the tumors of the rats which were administered the boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:9894763

  19. Multilayer graded boron carbide-aluminum composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuhong

    Boron carbide aluminum composites with multi-layer microstructure were developed by molten aluminum infiltration of boron carbide preforms. A centrifugal casting process was employed to obtain preforms with multiple graded layer structure, where particles were distributed gradually from fine particles on one side to coarse particles on the other side within each layer. A tape casting process was also developed. Uniform or stepwise multiple gradient layer structures were obtained by stacking like tapes or different tapes in repeated patterns. A narrow range of preform densities was obtained by varying the densification conditions according to green forms. It has been previously reported that boron carbide and aluminum can form many different reaction products and contact angles between boron carbide and aluminum vary with temperature and time. Minimizing the reaction products might lead to better performance of composites. This study found that spontaneous infiltration can be achieved in minutes under rough vacuum (<100 muTorr) at 1200°C or higher. The amounts of reaction products could be effectively suppressed by rapid spontaneous infiltration. A low-temperature infiltration (LTI) scheme was designed and full infiltration of boron carbide by aluminum at T < 1000°C was achieved. Reaction products obtained by LTI were significantly less then that in composites obtained by spontaneous infiltration. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the resulting layered composites were evaluated and correlated to microstructure.

  20. Boron diffusion in nanocrystalline 3C-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Manuel; Weiss, Charlotte; Canino, Mariaconcetta; Rachow, Thomas; Löper, Philipp; Summonte, Caterina; Mirabella, Salvo; Janz, Stefan; Wilshaw, Peter R.

    2014-05-01

    The diffusion of boron in nanocrystalline silicon carbide (nc-SiC) films with a grain size of 4-7 nm is studied using a poly-Si boron source. Diffusion is found to be much faster than in monocrystalline SiC as it takes place within the grain boundary (GB) network. Drive-in temperatures of 900-1000 °C are suitable for creating shallow boron profiles up to 100 nm deep, while 1100 °C is sufficient to flood the 200 nm thick films with boron. From the resulting plateau at 1100 °C a boron segregation coefficient of 28 between nc-SiC and the Si substrate, as well as a GB boron solubility limit of 0.2 nm-2 is determined. GB diffusion in the bulk of the films is Fickian and thermally activated with DGB(T)=(3.1-5.6)×107exp(-5.03±0.16 eV/kBT) cm2s-1. The activation energy is interpreted in terms of a trapping mechanism at dangling bonds. Higher boron concentrations are present at the nc-SiC surface and are attributed to immobilized boron.

  1. Boron diffusion in nanocrystalline 3C-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Schnabel, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.schnabel@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Weiss, Charlotte; Rachow, Thomas; Löper, Philipp; Janz, Stefan [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Canino, Mariaconcetta; Summonte, Caterina [CNR-IMM, Via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mirabella, Salvo [CNR-IMM MATIS, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Wilshaw, Peter R. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-26

    The diffusion of boron in nanocrystalline silicon carbide (nc-SiC) films with a grain size of 4–7 nm is studied using a poly-Si boron source. Diffusion is found to be much faster than in monocrystalline SiC as it takes place within the grain boundary (GB) network. Drive-in temperatures of 900–1000°C are suitable for creating shallow boron profiles up to 100?nm deep, while 1100°C is sufficient to flood the 200?nm thick films with boron. From the resulting plateau at 1100?°C a boron segregation coefficient of 28 between nc-SiC and the Si substrate, as well as a GB boron solubility limit of 0.2?nm{sup ?2} is determined. GB diffusion in the bulk of the films is Fickian and thermally activated with D{sub GB}(T)=(3.1?5.6)×10{sup 7}exp(?5.03±0.16??eV/k{sub B}T) cm{sup 2}s{sup ?1}. The activation energy is interpreted in terms of a trapping mechanism at dangling bonds. Higher boron concentrations are present at the nc-SiC surface and are attributed to immobilized boron.

  2. Mineral-fluid partitioning and isotopic fractionation of boron in synthetic calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Hemming, N.G.; Reeder, R.J.; Hanson, G.N. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Aragonite, high-Mg calcite, and Mg-free calcite have been grown under monitored laboratory conditions to investigate mineral-fluid partitioning and isotopic fractionation of boron into carbonates. At pH {approx} 8, both polymorphs have boron isotopic compositions 16.5% lower than the boron isotopic composition of the experimental fluid ({theta}{sup 11}B = 0 {+-} 0.7%). The isotopic composition of the synthetic minerals is identical to the calculated boron isotopic composition of the B(OH){sub 4}{sup -} species in the parent solutions, consistent with only B(OH){sub 4}{sup -} interacting with the crystal surface. The fractionation factor calculated from this isotopic offset is within analytical error of that measured between seawater and modern marine carbonates. The boron concentrations of the experimentally grown aragonite are 13.4, 85.1, and 379 ppm for total fluid boron concentrations of 0.59, 5.1, and 37.0 ppm, respectively. High-Mg calcite (HMC) coprecipitating with the aragonite has bulk boron concentrations of 5.6, 56.2, 260, and 1771 ppm for fluid boron concentrations of 0.59, 5.1. 37, and 272 ppm, respectively. Calcite boron concentrations are 1.78, 14.0, 137.7, by aragonite is greater than boron uptake by calcite grown under nearly identical conditions, while boron uptake by HMC is intermediate. Synthetic calcite crystals grown in solutions with greater than 4 ppm boron exhibit habit modification with the appearance of a subordinate form {l_brace}1120{r_brace} in addition to the dominant {l_brace}1014{r_brace}, the perfect cleavage rhombohedron, found in low-boron calcites. This is evidence of strong interaction of the borate with the crystal surface.

  3. Semiconducting boron carbonitride nanostructures: Nanotubes and nanofibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yu; J. Ahn; S. F. Yoon; Q. Zhang; Rusli; B. Gan; K. Chew; M. B. Yu; X. D. Bai; E. G. Wang

    2000-01-01

    Highly oriented boron carbonitride (BCN) nanostructures consisting of nanotubes and nanofibers have been synthesized by bias-assisted hot-filament chemical vapor deposition from the source gases of B2H6, CH4, N2, and H2. It is found that the B concentration of the BCN nanostructures increases with increasing B2H6 in the gas mixture, and the highest B concentration is 45 at. %. Photoluminescence spectrum

  4. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  5. Droplet Size Distributions as a function of rainy system type and Cloud Condensation Nuclei concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2014-06-01

    This work aims to study typical Droplet Size Distributions (DSDs) for different types of precipitation systems and Cloud Condensation Nuclei concentrations over the Vale do Paraíba region in southeastern Brazil. Numerous instruments were deployed during the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: a contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM) Project in Vale do Paraíba campaign, from November 22, 2011 through January 10, 2012. Measurements of CCN (Cloud Condensation Nuclei) and total particle concentrations, along with measurements of rain DSDs and standard atmospheric properties, including temperature, pressure and wind intensity and direction, were specifically made in this study. The measured DSDs were parameterized with a gamma function using the moment method. The three gamma parameters were disposed in a 3-dimensional space, and subclasses were classified using cluster analysis. Seven DSD categories were chosen to represent the different types of DSDs. The DSD classes were useful in characterizing precipitation events both individually and as a group of systems with similar properties. The rainfall regime classification system was employed to categorize rainy events as local convective rainfall, organized convection rainfall and stratiform rainfall. Furthermore, the frequencies of the seven DSD classes were associated to each type of rainy event. The rainfall categories were also employed to evaluate the impact of the CCN concentration on the DSDs. In the stratiform rain events, the polluted cases had a statistically significant increase in the total rain droplet concentrations (TDCs) compared to cleaner events. An average concentration increase from 668 cm- 3 to 2012 cm- 3 for CCN at 1% supersaturation was found to be associated with an increase of approximately 87 m- 3 in TDC for those events. For the local convection cases, polluted events presented a 10% higher mass weighted mean diameter (Dm) on average. For the organized convection events, no significant results were found.

  6. Boron-Silicon complex defects in GaAs: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitsmann, R.; Chicker, F.; Plänitz, Ph.; Radehaus, C.; Kretzer, U.; Scheffer-Czygan, M.; Eichler, S.

    2011-03-01

    First principles calculations have been performed to investigate defect equilibria of the silicon-boron pair complex (Si-B) in a GaAs matrix. For several charge states, the formation energies were evaluated within the Car-Parrinello scheme considering cation and anion substitutional site defects. The calculations, including the full relaxation of all ionic coordinates, investigate native defects and isolated substitutional silicon (Si) and boron (B) impurities. The obtained formation energies are used to calculate the impurity concentration for different growth conditions. These results can be used to estimate the effect of different thermal profiles on the distribution and electrical state of Si and B defects, which is interesting for classical process simulations.

  7. Boron-Based Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Ban, Hyun Seung; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The use of the element boron, which is not generally observed in a living body, possesses a high potential for the discovery of new biological activity in pharmaceutical drug design. In this account, we describe our recent developments in boron-based drug design, including boronic acid containing protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, and tubulin polymerization inhibitors, and ortho-carborane-containing proteasome activators, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 inhibitors, and topoisomerase inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied a closo-dodecaborate as a water-soluble moiety as well as a boron-10 source for the design of boron carriers in boron neutron capture therapy, such as boronated porphyrins and boron lipids for a liposomal boron delivery system. PMID:25800654

  8. Investigation of the effects of soluble boron tracking on coupled CTF / NEM, LWR simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Biery, M.; Avramova, M.; Ivanov, K. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, 331 Reber Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of introducing a boron tracking capability to the COBRA-TF / NEM code coupling. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) versions of COBRA-TF - CTF, and Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) codes are utilized. Previous implementations of the CTF / NEM coupled code had no capability to model soluble boron feedback effects due to boron transport. This study builds upon the validation and qualification efforts of the boron tracking model implementation in CTF by modeling the boron feedback calculated by the CTF boron tracking model in NEM. The core model chosen for this study is the Purdue MOX/UO{sub 2} core model used in the 2007 OECD/NRC code benchmark study. Following the implementation of an explicit online coupling scheme and accompanying k-search routine, the newly coupled CTF / NEM code version with boron tracking is compared to prior results of the non-boron tracking CTF / NEM code version at steady-state hot full power and hot zero power conditions. It was found that the boron tracking model exhibited little influence on the hot zero power result as expected due to a smaller heat flux, which does not significantly change the moderator density and boron concentration as the moderator travels up the axial core length. Meanwhile the boron tracking model had a much greater impact on the hot full power results, predicting the critical inlet boron concentration to be 9.9 ppm below the non-boron tracking result due to greater and more rapid changes in boron concentration corresponding to the reduction in moderator density from being more rapidly heated. (authors)

  9. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Glass-fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The report discusses the following: domestic data coverage; legislation and government programs; domestic production; comsumption and uses; prices; foreign trade; world capacity; world review--Argentina, Chile, France, Italy, Turkey, United Kingdom; Technology.

  10. Boron and Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munir Ozturk; Serdal Sakcali; Salih Gucel; Huseyin Tombuloglu

    \\u000a Boron is found naturally in the earth’s crust in the oxidized form as borax and colemanite, particularly in the oceans, sedimentary\\u000a rocks, coal, shale, and some soils. It is never found in the elemental form in nature possessing a complex chemistry similar\\u000a to that of silicon, with properties switching between metals and non-metals. Boron has become an important and strategic

  11. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

  12. Concentration and distribution of cobalt in higher plants: The use of micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkaus, E.; Gouget, B.; Gallien, J.-P.; Khodja, H.; Carrot, F.; Morel, J. L.; Collins, R.

    2005-04-01

    Cobalt is not classified as an essential element for plants, however, it is usually described as "beneficial". This trace element can be a contaminant in soils due to agricultural additives or metal refineries. Certain plants species have the ability to extract metals (such as Co) from soils, thus, cleaning the environment. Therefore, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms of metal absorption is required to improve these phytoremediation technologies. Patterns of cobalt accumulation and storage were determined in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum) species. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions, with different Co treatments, using controlled environmental conditions. The spatial distributions of K, Ca, Fe and Co in whole plants, and in leaf and stem sections, were examined by micro-PIXE. In conjunction, total Co concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Micro-PIXE spectroscopy proved to be a convenient technique for indicating Co concentrations and distribution patterns in these plants. This knowledge aids in the identification of vegetal Co sequestration and, thus, helps to unravel how Co is transported in higher plants.

  13. Uranium concentration and distribution in six peridotite inclusions of probable mantle origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Zartman, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Fission-track activation was used to investigate uranium concentration and distribution in peridotite inclusions in alkali basalt from six localities. Whole-rock uranium concentrations range from 24 to 82 ng/g. Most of the uranium is uniformly distributed in the major silicate phases - olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene. Chromian spinels may be classified into two groups on the basis of their uranium content - those which have less than 10 ng/g and those which have 100 to 150 ng/g U. In one sample accessory hydrous phases, phlogopite and hornblende, contain 130 and 300 ng/g U, respectively. The contact between the inclusion and the host basalt is usually quite sharp. Glassy or microcrystalline veinlets found in some samples contain more than 1 microgram/g. Very little uranium is associated with microcrystals of apatite. These results agree with some earlier investigators, who have concluded that suboceanic peridotites contain too little uranium to account for normal oceanic heat flow by conduction alone.

  14. Effects of the halo concentration distribution on strong-lensing optical depth and X-ray emission

    E-print Network

    C. Fedeli; M. Bartelmann; M. Meneghetti; L. Moscardini

    2007-09-24

    We use simulated merger trees of galaxy-cluster halos to study the effect of the halo concentration distribution on strong lensing and X-ray emission. Its log-normal shape typically found in simulations favors outliers with high concentration. Since, at fixed mass, more concentrated halos tend to be more efficient lenses, the scatter in the concentration increases the strong-lensing optical depth by $\\lesssim50%$. Within cluster samples, mass and concentration have counteracting effects on strong lensing and X-ray emission because the concentration decreases for increasing mass. Selecting clusters by concentration thus has no effect on the lensing cross section. The most efficiently lensing and hottest clusters are typically the \\textit{least} concentrated in samples with a broad mass range. Among cluster samples with a narrow mass range, however, the most strongly lensing and X-ray brightest clusters are typically 10% to 25% more concentrated.

  15. [Concentration distribution of bioaerosol in summer and autumn in the Qingdao coastal region].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Bing; Qi, Jian-Hua; Jin, Chuan; Gao, Dong-Mei; Li, Meng-Fei; Li, Lin; Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Hai-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Bioaerosol samples were collected using an Andersen sampler from Jul. 2009 to Nov. 2009 in the Qingdao coastal region. Total microbe (including 'culturable microbe' and 'non-culturable microbe'), the terrigenous and marine microbe were analyzed by the counting methods of fluorescence microscope and Petri dishes containing agar media. The results showed that the proportion of non-culturable microbe to total microbe was as high as 99.58% of total on average, while the average proportion of culturable microbe to total microbe was 0.42%. The average proportions of marine bacteria/fungi did to the culturable microbe (18.99% and 45.47% respectively) were more than that of terrigenous bacteria/fungi (16.91% and 18.63% respectively), therefore marine bacteria/fungi contributed more to the microbe than terrigenous bacteria/fungi. It could be seen that the composition and concentration distribution were greatly affected by the ocean in the Qingdao coastal region. The average concentrations of total microbe were higher in Autumn (181 682.5 CFU/m3) than that in Summer (159 704.2 CFU/m3), and that of terrigenous bacteria, marine bacteria/fungi were also higher in Autumn than in Summer. The particle sizes of total microbe presented a log-normal distribution in summer and autumn, and the total microbe mainly existed in coarse particles larger than 2.1 microm. There was the highest proportion of total microbe in 3.3-4.7 microm particles, the lowest one in 0.65-1.1 microm. The terrigenous and marine bacterial particle sizes showed a skew distribution with a higher value in large particles (> 7 microm) and a lower one in fine particles (0.65-1.1 microm). The terrigenous and marine fungal particle sizes showed a log-normal distribution in summer and autumn, and the highest concentration proportion existed in particles with diameter of 2.1-3.3 microm. PMID:21404658

  16. Geostatistical analysis of the spatial distribution of mycotoxin concentration in bulk cereals.

    PubMed

    Rivas Casado, M; Parsons, D J; Weightman, R M; Magan, N; Origgi, S

    2009-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in agricultural commodities present hazards to human and animal health. Bulk lots are routinely sampled for their presence, but it is widely acknowledged that designing sampling plans is particularly problematical because of the heterogeneous distribution of the mycotoxins. Previous studies have not explicitly looked at the interactions between the spatial distribution of the mycotoxin and the strategy used to take samples from bulk. Sampling plans are therefore designed on the assumption of random distributions. The objective of this study was to analyse the spatial distribution of DON and OTA in bulk commodities with geostatistics. This study was the first application of geostatistical analysis to data on mycotoxins contamination of bulk commodities. Data sets for DON and OTA in bulk storage were collected from the literature and personal communications, of which only one contained data suitable for geostatistical analysis. This data set represented a 26-tonne truck of wheat with a total of 100 sampled points. The mean concentrations of DON and OTA were 1342 and 0.59 microg kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that DON presented spatial structure, whilst OTA was randomly distributed in space. This difference between DON and OTA probably reflected the fact that DON is produced in the field, whereas OTA is produced in storage. The presence of spatial structure for DON implies that sampling plans need to consider the location of sample points in addition to the number of points sampled in order to obtain reliable estimates of quantities such as the mean contamination. PMID:19680962

  17. Effects of established hypolipidemic drugs on HDL concentration, subclass distribution, and function.

    PubMed

    Gomaraschi, Monica; Adorni, Maria Pia; Banach, Maciej; Bernini, Franco; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of an inverse relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and rates of cardiovascular disease has led to the concept that increasing plasma HDL-C levels would be protective against cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions presently available to correct the plasma lipid profile have not been designed to specifically act on HDL, but have modest to moderate effects on plasma HDL-C concentrations. Statins, the first-line lipid-lowering drug therapy in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention, have quite modest effects on plasma HDL-C concentrations (2-10%). Fibrates, primarily used to reduce plasma triglyceride levels, also moderately increase HDL-C levels (5-15%). Niacin is the most potent available drug in increasing HDL-C levels (up to 30%), but its use is limited by side effects, especially flushing.The present chapter reviews the effects of established hypolipidemic drugs (statins, fibrates, and niacin) on plasma HDL-C levels and HDL subclass distribution, and on HDL functions, including cholesterol efflux capacity, endothelial protection, and antioxidant properties. PMID:25523003

  18. Measurements of CO concentration distribution for Mars atmospheric entry by combining OES and TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xin; Chen, Lianzhong; Ou, Dongbin; Li, Fei; Yu, Xilong

    2015-05-01

    Shock tube experiments are carried out to study the physical and chemical processes during a vehicle entry into the Mars atmosphere using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Gas temperature and CO concentration distribution are diagnosed behind a shock wave in a CO2-N2 mixture with two different conditions of initial pressure and velocity. The strong shock wave is established in a shock tube driven by combustion of hydrogen and oxygen. Time-resolved spectra of the ?v = 0 sequence of the B2?+?X2?+ electronic transition of CN have been observed through OES. A precise analysis of the CN violet spectra is performed and used to determine rotational and vibrational temperatures. Two absorption lines in the first overtone band of CO near 2.33 ?m, are selected from a HITRAN simulation to calibrate laser wavelength and detect the CO concentration. Combined with these temperature results using OES, CO concentrations in the thermal equilibrium region are derived, which are 2.91 × 1012 cm-3 and 1.01 × 1013 cm-3, corresponding to equilibrium temperatures equal to 7000 ± 400 K and 6000 ± 300 K in low and high pressure conditions, respectively.

  19. 3D-Simulation Of Concentration Distributions Inside Large-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischnewski, R.; Ratschow, L.; Hartge, E. U.; Werthe, J.

    With increasing size of modern CFB combustors the lateral mixing of fuels and secondary air gains more and more importance. Strong concentration gradients, which result from improper lateral mixing, can lead to operational problems, high flue gas emissions and lower boiler efficiencies. A 3D-model for the simulation of local gas and solids concentrations inside industrial-sized CFB boilers has been developed. The model is based on a macroscopic approach and considers all major mechanisms during fuel spreading and subsequent combustion of char and volatiles. Typical characteristics of modern boilers like staged combustion, a smaller cross-sectional area in the lower section of the combustion chamber and the co-combustion of additional fuels with coal can be considered. The 252 MWth combustor of Stadtwerke Duisburg AG is used for the validation of the model. A comprehensive picture of the local conditions inside the combustion chamber is achieved by the combination of local gas measurements and the three-dimensional simulation of concentration distributions.

  20. Effect of solids concentration distribution on the flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Haiying Qi; Changhe Chen; Xuchang Xu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering

    2006-06-15

    A dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at 600-800{sup o}C was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. Various fresh sorbent distribution types and internal structures were modeled numerically to investigate their effect on the gas-solid flow and sulfate reaction characteristics. Experimental results show that, after the fresh sorbent supply was stopped, the desulfurization efficiency declined rapidly even though the sorbent recirculation was maintained. Therefore, the fresh sorbent is the main contributor to the desulfurization process and the primary effect of the recirculated sorbent was to evenly distribute the fresh sorbent and to prolong the sorbent particle residence time. The numerical results demonstrate that the desulfurization efficiency varied greatly for the various fresh sorbent bottom injection methods. The desulfurization efficiency of the bottom-even injection method was 1.5 times that of the bottom two-sided injection method. Internal structures effectively improved the fresh sorbent solids concentration distribution and the desulfurization efficiency. Optimized internal structures increased the desulfurization efficiency of the bottom two-sided injection method by 46%, so that it was very close to that of the bottom-even injection method with only a 4.6% difference. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Optimal reconstruction of concentrations, gradients and reaction rates from particle distributions.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-Garcia, D; Sanchez-Vila, X

    2011-03-01

    Random walk particle tracking methodologies to simulate solute transport of conservative species constitute an attractive alternative for their computational efficiency and absence of numerical dispersion. Yet, problems stemming from the reconstruction of concentrations from particle distributions have typically prevented its use in reactive transport problems. The numerical problem mainly arises from the need to first reconstruct the concentrations of species/components from a discrete number of particles, which is an error prone process, and then computing a spatial functional of the concentrations and/or its derivatives (either spatial or temporal). Errors are then propagated, so that common strategies to reconstruct this functional require an unfeasible amount of particles when dealing with nonlinear reactive transport problems. In this context, this article presents a methodology to directly reconstruct this functional based on kernel density estimators. The methodology mitigates the error propagation in the evaluation of the functional by avoiding the prior estimation of the actual concentrations of species. The multivariate kernel associated with the corresponding functional depends on the size of the support volume, which defines the area over which a given particle can influence the functional. The shape of the kernel functions and the size of the support volume determines the degree of smoothing, which is optimized to obtain the best unbiased predictor of the functional using an iterative plug-in support volume selector. We applied the methodology to directly reconstruct the reaction rates of a precipitation/dissolution problem involving the mixing of two different waters carrying two aqueous species in chemical equilibrium and moving through a randomly heterogeneous porous medium. PMID:20627365

  2. Optimal reconstruction of concentrations, gradients and reaction rates from particle distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernàndez-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.

    2011-03-01

    Random walk particle tracking methodologies to simulate solute transport of conservative species constitute an attractive alternative for their computational efficiency and absence of numerical dispersion. Yet, problems stemming from the reconstruction of concentrations from particle distributions have typically prevented its use in reactive transport problems. The numerical problem mainly arises from the need to first reconstruct the concentrations of species/components from a discrete number of particles, which is an error prone process, and then computing a spatial functional of the concentrations and/or its derivatives (either spatial or temporal). Errors are then propagated, so that common strategies to reconstruct this functional require an unfeasible amount of particles when dealing with nonlinear reactive transport problems. In this context, this article presents a methodology to directly reconstruct this functional based on kernel density estimators. The methodology mitigates the error propagation in the evaluation of the functional by avoiding the prior estimation of the actual concentrations of species. The multivariate kernel associated with the corresponding functional depends on the size of the support volume, which defines the area over which a given particle can influence the functional. The shape of the kernel functions and the size of the support volume determines the degree of smoothing, which is optimized to obtain the best unbiased predictor of the functional using an iterative plug-in support volume selector. We applied the methodology to directly reconstruct the reaction rates of a precipitation/dissolution problem involving the mixing of two different waters carrying two aqueous species in chemical equilibrium and moving through a randomly heterogeneous porous medium.

  3. Beyond phthalates: gas phase concentrations and modeled gas/particle distribution of modern plasticizers.

    PubMed

    Schossler, Patrícia; Schripp, Tobias; Salthammer, Tunga; Bahadir, Müfit

    2011-09-01

    The ongoing health debate about polymer plasticizers based on the esters of phthalic acid, especially di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has caused a trend towards using phthalates of lower volatility such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and towards other acid esters, such as adipates, terephthalates, citrates, etc. Probably the most important of these so-called "alternative" plasticizers is diisononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH). In the indoor environment, the continuously growing market share of this compound since its launch in 2002 is inter alia apparent from the increasing concentration of DINCH in settled house dust. From the epidemiological point of view there is considerable interest in identifying how semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) distribute in the indoor environment, especially in air, airborne particles and sedimented house dust. This, however, requires reliable experimental concentration data for the different media and good measurements or estimates of their physical and chemical properties. This paper reports on air concentrations for DINP, DINCH, diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), diisobutyl adipate (DIBA), diisobutyl succinate (DIBS) and diisobutyl glutarate (DIBG) from emission studies in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). For DINP and DINCH it took about 50 days to reach the steady-state value: for four months no decay in the concentration could be observed. Moreover, vapor pressures p(0) and octanol-air partitioning coefficients K(OA) were obtained for 37 phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers from two different algorithms: EPI Suite and SPARC. It is shown that calculated gas/particle partition coefficients K(p) and fractions can widely differ due to the uncertainty in the predicted p(0) and K(OA) values. For most of the investigated compounds reliable experimental vapor pressures are not available. Rough estimates can be obtained from the measured emission rate of the pure compound in a microchamber as is shown for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate(DEHA), tri(octyl) trimellitate (TOTM) and DEHP. PMID:21764421

  4. Metal concentrations and distribution in the household, stairs and entryway dust of some Egyptian homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Salwa Kamal Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Household, stairs and entryway dust samples were collected from 16 houses distributed across Greater Cairo by using vacuum cleaner and sweeping methods during summer season of 2009. Lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) were measured in different dust particle sizes: <38 ?m, >38-45 ?m and >45-63 ?m. The highest average concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Cu, and Cr in different particle sizes were found in entryway followed by household and stairs. Al, Fe and Zn concentrations followed the pattern of entryway > stairs > household. Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Co and Cr were found in significantly (p < 0.01) higher concentrations in dust of the small particle size (<38 ?m), whereas Al, Fe and Cu were detected in significantly (p < 0.01) higher concentrations in dust of the large particle size (>45-63 ?m). The average concentrations of the individual metals in dust of the small particle size (<38 ?m) were 268, 196.4 and 254.49 ?g gm-1 for Pb, 49.6, 43.5 and 46.66 ?g gm-1 for Ni, 2.86, 2.15 and 2.71 ?g gm-1 for Cd, 4340, 3796 and 2602 ?g gm-1 for Al, 2860, 2200 and 2004 ?g gm-1 for Fe, 209.25, 152.3 and 103.26 ?g gm-1 for Zn, 4.1, 2.88 and 1.96 ?g gm-1 for Co, 85.99, 74.06 and 83.17 ?g gm-1 for Cr and 168.2, 156.5 and 122.02 ?g gm-1 for Cu in entryway, stairs and household, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cu and Pb in the entryway, stairs and household dust exceeded the maximum permissible limit 100 ?g gm-1 for Cu and Pb in soil. The highest concentrations of Pb, Cd, Co and Ni were found in urban areas, Al and Fe in the residential areas, and Cu, Zn and Cr in the residential near to industrial area. Significant positive correlation (p < 0.001) were found between the metal concentrations in household and entryway dust, indicating that the metals in household dust may be derived from outdoor sources in addition to dust generated within the house itself. The contribution of anthropogenic sources, especially traffic emission, to metal levels in household, entryway and stairs dust was reflected by the high values of enrichment factors for Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu and Ni and Cr in fine dust particle compared to the average crustal composition. Insignificant positive correlation coefficients were found between the concentrations of Pb and other metals in household dust. However, the correlation coefficients between the concentrations of Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe were statistically significant.

  5. Carbon-rich icosahedral boron carbide designed from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, Antoine; Vast, Nathalie; Sjakste, Jelena; Duparc, Olivier Hardouin

    2014-07-01

    The carbon-rich boron-carbide (B11C)C-C has been designed from first principles within the density functional theory. With respect to the most common boron carbide at 20% carbon concentration B4C, the structural modification consists in removing boron atoms from the chains linking (B11C) icosahedra. With C-C instead of C-B-C chains, the formation of vacancies is shown to be hindered, leading to enhanced mechanical strength with respect to B4C. The phonon frequencies and elastic constants turn out to prove the stability of the carbon-rich phase, and important fingerprints for its characterization have been identified.

  6. Boron Nutrition and Boron Application in Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Marcelli Boaretto; Takashi Muraoka; Maria Fernanda Giné; Antonio Enedi Boaretto

    The application of micronutrients in citrus plants has usually been done by foliar spraying. The citrus plants are exigent\\u000a in boron, zinc, manganese, iron and deficiency of these micronutrients is common in worldwide citriculture. In Brazilian citriculture,\\u000a the B and Zn deficiencies are most frequent (Quaggio et al. 2003). For this reason, these micronutrients are routinely applied\\u000a as foliar fertilizers

  7. Boron Nutrition and Boron Application in Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rashid; M. Masud Mahmood; E. Rafique; K. Farooq

    Deficiencies of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) are well established in many agronomic and horticultural crops grown in calcareous\\u000a soils of Pakistan (Rashid 2006). As crop responses to B as well as to Zn are appreciable and use of their fertilizers is highly\\u000a cost–effective, application of these micronutrients is now recommended in the country. The history of Zn use in

  8. Ames positive boronic acids are not all eukaryotic genotoxins.

    PubMed

    Scott, Heather; Walmsley, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Boronic acids and their derivatives have been exploited for their pharmacological activity and their utility as intermediates in the synthesis of novel non-boron containing compounds. A recent study reported that boronic acids are bacterial mutagens. Here, results are reported from the testing of nine boronic acids using the pan-mechanistic eukaryotic GADD45a genotoxicity assays, BlueScreen HC and GreenScreen HC. Positive results were produced for one compound in GreenScreen and four compounds in BlueScreen. Only negative results were produced when tested with S9 metabolic activation. These data suggest that there is not a general genotoxic liability in eukaryotes, within this chemical domain. Furthermore, they are not potent eukaryotic genotoxins: positive results were produced only at concentrations between 1mM and 10mM. Their presence as low concentration contaminants or impurities would be unlikely to produce misleading positive results for a test material. PMID:25726177

  9. Estimating the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration by integrating geographic data and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, L.; Sang, H.; Zhang, J.; An, F.

    2015-06-01

    Air quality directly affects the health and living of human beings, and it receives wide concern of public and attaches great important of governments at all levels. The estimation of the concentration distribution of PM2.5 and the analysis of its impacting factors is significant for understanding the spatial distribution regularity and further for decision supporting of governments. In this study, multiple sources of remote sensing and GIS data are utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration in Shijiazhuang, China, by utilizing multivariate linear regression modelling, and integrating year average values of PM2.5 collected from local environment observing stations. Two major sources of PM2.5 are collected, including dust surfaces and industrial polluting sources. The area attribute of dust surfaces and point attribute of industrial polluting enterprises are extracted from high resolution remote sensing images and GIS data in 2013. 30m land cover products, annual average PM2.5 concentration values from the 8 environment monitoring stations, annual mean MODIS AOD data, traffic and DEM data are utilized in the study for regression modeling analysis. The multivariate regression analysis model is applied to estimate the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration. There is an upward trend of the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration gradually from west to east, of which the highest concentration appears in the municipal district and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution pattern relatively fit the reality.

  10. EFFECT OF HIGH BORON APPLICATION ON BORON CONTENT AND GROWTH OF MELONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management options for reducing drainage water volumes on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley of California such as reuse of saline drainage water and water table control have the potential to adversely impact crop yields due to a build up in boron concentration. An earlier experiment had shown...

  11. On maximum likelihood estimation of the concentration parameter of von Mises-Fisher distributions.

    PubMed

    Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation of the concentration parameter of von Mises-Fisher distributions involves inverting the ratio [Formula: see text] of modified Bessel functions and computational methods are required to invert these functions using approximative or iterative algorithms. In this paper we use Amos-type bounds for [Formula: see text] to deduce sharper bounds for the inverse function, determine the approximation error of these bounds, and use these to propose a new approximation for which the error tends to zero when the inverse of [Formula: see text] is evaluated at values tending to [Formula: see text] (from the left). We show that previously introduced rational bounds for [Formula: see text] which are invertible using quadratic equations cannot be used to improve these bounds. PMID:25309045

  12. Boron control system for a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.W.; Van der Schoot, M.R.

    1980-09-30

    Ion exchangers which reversibly store borate ions in a temperature dependent process are combined with evaporative boric acid recovery apparatus to provide a boron control system for controlling the reactivity of nuclear power plants. A plurality of ion exchangers are operated sequentially to provide varying amounts of boric acid to a nuclear reactor for load follow operations. Evaporative boric acid recovery apparatus is utilized for major changes in the boron concentration within the nuclear reactor.

  13. Turbostratic boron carbonitride film and its field-emitting behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Yu; E. G. Wang

    1999-01-01

    The turbostratic structure of boron carbonitride (BCN) films with various compositions synthesized by bias-assisted hot-filament chemical-vapor deposition was studied by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Boron atoms can be incorporated into the turbostratic structure with a concentration up to 70%, and the interplanar spacing 3.49 Å is independent of the film compositions in this range. Field-emission behavior of

  14. Use of boron waste as an additive in red bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, T.; Arol, A.I

    2004-07-01

    In boron mining and processing operations, large amounts of clay containing tailings have to be discarded. Being rich in boron, the tailings do not only cause economical loss but also pose serious environmental problems. Large areas have to be allocated for waste disposal. In order to alleviate this problem, the possibility of using clayey tailings from a borax concentrator in red brick manufacturing was investigated. Up to 30% by weight tailings addition was found to improve the brick quality.

  15. Boron enhances strength and alters mineral composition of bone in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether boron had a beneficial effect on bone strength and composition in rabbits with apparent adiposity induced by a high energy diet. Sixty female New Zealand rabbits, aged 8 months, were randomly divided into five groups with the following treatments for seven months: control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg); control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg boron/kg); B10, high energy diet+10 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B30, high energy diet+30 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B50, high energy diet+50mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h. Bone boron concentrations were lowest in rabbits fed the high energy diet without boron supplementation, which suggested an inferior boron status. Femur maximum breaking force was highest in the B50 rabbits. Tibia compression strength was highest in B30 and B50 rabbits. All boron treatments significantly increased calcium and magnesium concentrations, and the B30 and B50 treatments increased the phosphorus concentration in tibia of rabbits fed the high energy diet. The B30 treatment significantly increased calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in femur of rabbits fed the high energy diet. Principal component analysis of the tibia minerals showed that the three boron treatments formed a separate cluster from controls. Discriminant analysis suggested that the concentrations of the minerals in femur could predict boron treatment. The findings indicate boron has beneficial effects on bone strength and mineral composition in rabbits fed a high energy diet. PMID:22944583

  16. Indoor radon concentration data: Its geographic and geologic distribution, an example from the Capital District, NY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.J. [Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY (United States); Overeynder, H.M. [C.E.S., Gabon (Central African Republic); Thomas, B.R. [CMT Independent Laboratories, Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Most studies of the geographic distribution of indoor radon levels are plotted by county or ZIP code. This method is used for the radon potential maps produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH). The basis for the mapping is the mean or median indoor radon count for all the data provided by NYSDOH within each geographic area. While testing the indoor radon analyses provided to the authors by CMT Independent Laboratories, we discovered data that deviated markedly from the EPA and NYSDOH means for the Capital District of New York (Albany and surrounding counties). Their screening indoor radon average concentrations in pCi/L, indicate low potential for Schenectady (3.0), Saratoga (3.2), and Albany (3.7) counties; and moderate potential for Rensselaer (6.4) and Columbia (7.0) counties. Our database of over 3,000 analyses contains over 800 records of indoor radon counts above 4 pCi/L (14-47% of each county`s analyses), many high enough to be rated as a serious health hazard. In order to obtain greater precision of information, the authors plotted their indoor radon data by street address using MapInfo, a geographic Information System (GIS), and StreetInfo, MapInfo`s TIGER address database. We compared the geographic distribution of our data to both the Bedrock Geology and Surficial Geology Maps of New York State. The results show a striking relationship of radon concentrations to bedrock, faults and permeability of surficial material. Data being compiled and mapped by street address by the NYSDOH in Erie County in western New York, confirm our results.

  17. The Cloud and Autonomic Computing Center concentrates on topics in advanced distributed computing as part of the National Science Foundation

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    The Cloud and Autonomic Computing Center concentrates on topics in advanced distributed program. The Cloud and Autonomic Computing Center at Texas Tech University (CAC@TTU) provides expertise in cloud security and standards, machine learning, data mining, parallel and distributed computing

  18. Boron incorporation into mullite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesser, K. J.; Beran, A.; Voll, D.; Schneider, H.

    2008-03-01

    Boron-doped mullites were synthesized using aluminium nitrate-nonahydrate, tetraethoxysilane and boric acid in a sol gel process with subsequent annealing at 950 and 1300 °C for five hours. Two different bulk compositions with constant Al2O3 contents (60 and 70 mol%, respectively) and varying SiO2 plus B2O3 contents were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction analyses yielded a linear decrease of the lattice parameters with increasing bulk B2O3 content, which was interpreted as to be due to boron incorporation. Related to the increasing boron content, corresponding infrared spectra revealed a slight and continuous shift for most of the absorption bands. These data show that mullite is able to incorporate large amounts of boron into its structure (up to about 20 mol% B2O3 depending on the bulk composition of the starting materials). Infrared analyses suggest that boron is incorporated into the mullite structure in form of planar three-fold coordinated BO3 groups.

  19. Concentration profiles and spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in an industrial center with condensed fluorochemical facilities.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guoqiang; Wei, Mingcui; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

    2014-08-15

    Jiangsu Hi-tech Fluorochemical Industry Park, China, is one of the largest fluorochemical industry centers in Asia and could be a point source of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the surrounding environment. Besides water, sediment and soil samples, tree leaves and bark were also collected to monitor airborne PFASs around the facilities. Perfluorooctanoic acid and short-chain perfluorocarboxylates including perfluorohexanoic acid and perfluoropentanoic acid were found predominantly in all the samples. The target ?PFASs were distributed in the dissolved phase with a proportion of 96.5±2.9%. High concentrations of ?PFASs (up to 12,700 ng/L in surface water) were found at sites near and within the wastewater treatment plant and the facilities. The ?PFASs in the sediment/sludge were in the range of 3.33-324 ng/g dw. For the first time, tree samples were used for bio-monitoring airborne PFASs in the environment. The ?PFASs in the tree leaf and bark samples were in the range of 10.0-276 and 6.76-120 ng/g dw, respectively. The spatial distribution of ?PFASs in the tree leaves suggested that airborne PFASs could be transported from the center to the surrounding environment by prevailing wind. PMID:24867700

  20. Receptor-targeted liposomal delivery of boron-containing cholesterol mimics for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

    PubMed

    Thirumamagal, B T S; Zhao, Xiaobin B; Bandyopadhyaya, Achintya K; Naranyanasamy, Sureshbabu; Johnsamuel, Jayaseharan; Tiwari, Rohit; Golightly, Danold W; Patel, Vimalkumar; Jehning, Brian T; Backer, Marina V; Barth, Rolf F; Lee, Robert J; Backer, Joseph M; Tjarks, Werner

    2006-01-01

    Liposomes have been a main focus of tumor-selective boron delivery strategies in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a binary method for the treatment of cancer that is based on the nuclear reaction between boron atoms and low-energy thermal neutrons. Three novel carboranyl cholesterol derivatives were prepared as lipid bilayer components for the construction of nontargeted and receptor-targeted boronated liposomes for BNCT. A major structural feature of these novel boronated cholesterol mimics is the replacement of the B and the C ring of cholesterol with a carborane cluster. Computational analyses indicated that all three boronated compounds have structural features and physicochemical properties that are very similar to those of cholesterol. One of the synthesized boronated cholesterol mimics was stably incorporated into non-, folate receptor (FR)-, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-targeted liposomes. No major differences were found in appearance, size distribution, and lamellarity between conventional dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol liposomes, nontargeted, and FR-targeted liposomal formulations of this carboranyl cholesterol derivative. FR-targeted boronated liposomes were taken up extensively in FR overexpressing KB cells in vitro, and the uptake was effectively blocked in the presence of free folate. In contrast, a boronated cholesterol mimic incorporated into nontargeted liposomes showed significantly lower cellular uptake. There was no apparent in vitro cytotoxicity in FR overexpressing KB cells and VEGFR-2 overexpressing 293/KDR cells when these were incubated with boronated FR- and (VEGFR-2)-targeted liposomes, respectively, although the former accumulated extensively in KB cells and the latter effectively interacted with VEGFR-2 by causing autophosphorylation and protecting 293/KDR cells from SLT (Shiga-like toxin)-VEGF cytotoxicity. PMID:16984121

  1. X-ray Microprobe Investigations of Elemental Distributions and Concentrations at Mineral-Microbe Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, S. D.; O'Loughlin, E. J.; Lai, B.; Maser, J.; Cai, Z.; Londer, Y.; Schiffer, M.; Nealson, K.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the fate of heavy-metal contaminants in the environment is of fundamental importance in the development and evaluation of effective remediation and sequestration strategies. Bacteria and the extracellular material associated with them are thought to play a key role in determining a contaminant's speciation and thus its mobility in the environment. Additionally, the metabolism and surface properties of bacteria can be quite different depending upon whether the bacteria exhibit a planktonic (free-floating) or biofilm (surface adhered) habit. The microenvironment at and adjacent to actively metabolizing cells also can be significantly different from the bulk environment. Thus, to understand the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that determine a contaminant's macroscopic fate, the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of contaminants and elements that are key to biological processes must be characterized at micron and submicron lengthscales for bacteria in both planktonic and adhered states. Hard x-ray microimaging is a powerful technique for the element-specific investigation of complex environmental samples at the needed micron and submicron resolution. An important advantage of these techniques results from the large penetration depth of hard x-rays in water. This advantage minimizes the requirements for sample preparation and allows the detailed study of hydrated samples. The objectives of the studies to be presented are (1) to determine the spatial distribution, concentration, and chemical speciation of metals at, in, and near bacteria and bacteria-geosurface interfaces, (2) to use this information to identify the metabolic processes occurring within the microbes, and (3) to identify the interactions occurring near these interfaces among the metals, mineral surfaces, and bacteria under a variety of conditions. We have used x-ray fluorescence microscopy to investigate the spatial distribution of 3d elements in Pseudomonas fluorescens cells in both planktonic and surface-adhered states. We have used x-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy to investigate the chemical speciation and distribution of Cr that was introduced to these cells as Cr(VI). Additionally, we have used these techniques to identify the distribution of an over expressed cytochrome c7 in individual E. coli. Finally, we have used x-ray fluorescence microscopy to investigate Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells adhered to iron oxyhydroxide thin films. The zone plate used in these microscopy experiments produced a focused beam with a cross section (and hence spatial resolution) of 100-300 nanometers. Results from x-ray fluorescence imaging experiments indicate that the distribution of P, S, Cl, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn can define the location of the microbe. Additionally, quantitative elemental analysis of individual microbes identified significant changes in concentration of 3d transition elements depending on the age of the culture and the type of electron acceptor presented to the microbes. These results and a discussion of the use of this technique for identifying metabolic states of individual microbes within communities and the chemical speciation of metal contaminants at the mineral-microbe interface will be presented.

  2. Distributions of median nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations across the Red River Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Longing, D; Haggard, B E

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition and compilation of water-quality data for an 11-yr time period (1996-2006) from 589 stream and river stations were conducted to support nutrient criteria development for the multistate Red River Basin shared by Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Ten water-quality parameters were collected from six data sources (USGS, Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Oklahoma Conservation Commission, Oklahoma Water Resources Board, and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), and an additional 13 parameters were acquired from at least one source. Median concentrations of water-quality parameters were calculated at each individual station and frequency distributions (minimum, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th percentiles, and maximum) of the median concentrations were calculated. Across the Red River Basin, median values for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and sestonic chlorophyll-a (chl-a) ranged from < 0.02 to 20.2 mg L(-1), < 0.01 to 6.66 mg L(-1), and 0.10 to 262 microg L(-1), respectively. Overall, the 25th percentiles of TN data specific to the Red River Basin were generally similar to the USEPA-recommended ecoregion nutrient criteria of 0.31 to 0.88 mg L(-1), whereas median TP and chl-a data specific to the Red River Basin showed 25th percentiles higher than the USEPA-recommended criteria (0.010-0.067 mg TP L(-1); 0.93-3.00 microg chl-a L(-1)). The unique location of the Red River Basin in the south-central United States places it near the boundaries of several aggregate ecoregions; therefore, the development of ecoregion nutrient criteria likely requires using data specific to the Red River Basin, as shown in these analyses. This study provided basin-specific frequency distribution of median concentrations of water-quality parameters as the first step to support states in developing nutrient criteria to protect designated uses in the multijurisdictional Red River Basin. PMID:21284293

  3. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  4. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides activity concentration in East Malaysian marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Yii, M W; Zaharudin, A; Abdul-Kadir, I

    2009-04-01

    Studies of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) distribution of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in East Malaysia were carried out as part of a marine coastal environment project. The results of measurements will serve as baseline data and background reference level for Malaysia coastlines. Sediments from 21 coastal locations and 10 near shore locations were collected for analyses. The samples were dried, finely ground, sealed in a container and stored for a minimum of 30 days to establish secular equilibrium between (226)Ra and (228)Ra and their respective radioactive progenies. They were counted using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometer covering the respective progeny energy peak. For (40)K, the presence of this was measured directly via its 1460 keV energy peak. The concentration of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in samples obtained from coastal Sarawak ranged between 23 and 41 (mean 30+/-2) Bq/kg, 27 and 45 (mean 39+/-4) Bq/kg and 142 and 680 (mean 462+/-59) Bq/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K for samples obtained from coastal Sabah ranged between 16 and 30 (mean 23+/-2) Bq/kg, 23 and 45 (mean 35+/-4) Bq/kg and 402 and 842 (mean 577+/-75) Bq/kg, respectively. For the Sarawak near shore stations, the concentration of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K ranged between 11 and 36 (mean 22+/-2) Bq/kg, 21 and 65 (mean 39+/-5) Bq/kg and 149 and 517 (mean 309+/-41) Bq/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K for samples obtained from Sabah ranged between 9 and 31 (mean 14+/-2) Bq/kg, 10 and 48 (mean 21+/-3) Bq/kg and 140 and 580 (mean 269+/-36) Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated external hazard values of between 0.17 and 0.33 (less than unity) showed that there is little risk of external hazard to the workers handling the sediments. PMID:19168367

  5. Study on boron doped silicon quantum dots superlattices for all-silicon tandem solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojing Hao; Eunchel Cho; Sangwook Park; Yansong Shen; Gavin Conibeer; Martin Andrew Green

    2008-01-01

    Optimized chemical structure was proposed for boron-doped Si quantum dots superlattices. Boron-doped Si quantum dots superlattices were then synthesized by a co-sputtering technique, and characterized for their promising application in all-Si tandem solar cells. The formation of Si quantum dots was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of boron dopant concentration on the Si crystallization was investigated. Lateral resistivity

  6. Origin of High Boron Contents of the Thermal Waters of Kizildere and Vicinity, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nevzat ÖZGUR

    2001-01-01

    The thermal waters of Kizildere and environs in the Buyuk Menderes rift zone are marked by boron concentrations of up to 32 mg\\/l, and flow rates of ?250 l\\/s into the Buyuk Menderes River, thus increasing boron contents of the river water up to 4.4 mg\\/1l (e.g., in 1992), for a river-water flow rate of 2 m\\/s. These high boron

  7. Boron behavior during desalination of sea and underground water by electrodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludmila Melnik; Olga Vysotskaja; Boris Kornilovich

    1999-01-01

    The degree of boron removal and its residual content in desalinated water vs. the feed boron concentration and the total salt content of a solution by means of electrodialysis have been studied. A comparative analysis of treatment of waters containing boron by the electrodialysis using the heterogeneous [MK-40 and MA-40 (Russia)], homogeneous [MK-100 and MA-100 (Ukraine)], and IONICS [CR67-HMR and

  8. Synthesis of boron nitride powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreissig, Dirk Horst

    2002-09-01

    In the materials science community there is much interest in the development of new, efficient approaches for preparing ceramic powders having properties or performance characteristics not found with powders produced by traditional metallurgical synthesis methods. In this regard, aerosol-based syntheses are finding general acceptance for the preparation of non-metal and metal oxide powders. In contrast, much less effort has been given to aerosol-type syntheses for non-oxide powders despite potentially useful benefits. This dissertation describes the application of two chemical systems in aerosol assisted vapor phase synthesis (AAVS) for the preparation of spherical morphology boron oxynitride, BNxOy, powders that are subsequently converted to spherical morphology boron nitride in a second nitridation step. Chapter 1 describes the AAVS synthesis of BNxOy powders using a reaction of an aqueous boric acid containing aerosol with ammonia at 1000°C. The effect of reactor tube material, total gas flow rate, ammonia concentration, boric acid concentration, and urea addition to the boric acid aerosol on the percent oxygen composition is described. The resulting BNxOy powders contain significant amounts of oxygen that require replacement in a second stage nitridation reaction at elevated temperature under ammonia. The influences of the reaction temperature profile, crucible geometry and transformation additive on final oxygen composition and powder crystallinity are described. Chapter 2 outlines the formation of BNxOy powders from an AAVS reaction between the boron precursor (MeO)3B and ammonia. The formation of the powders is studied as a function of total gas flow rate and ammonia concentration. In all cases the resulting powders contain lower levels of oxygen compared to powders produced from aqueous boric acid aerosols. The conversion of the BNxOy powders in the second stage nitridation reaction with ammonia is examined as a function of crucible geometry, temperature profile and ammonia flow rate. In support of this process, the molecular reaction between (MeO)3B and NH3 was reexamined. The adduct, (MeO)3B·NH3, was isolated and its molecular structure determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of these studies provide guidance for more detailed studies that should result in industrial scale synthesis of spherical morphology BN which currently is not formed by standard metallurgical syntheses. This new material has potential applications in several areas including the formation of BN loaded organic polymer composites.

  9. Boron isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids from submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Hong, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Gamo, T.; Kawahata, H.

    2013-12-01

    Boron is highly mobile in submarine hydrothermal systems and useful to trace the process of water-rock reaction. In this study, we measured the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids collected from arc-backarc hydrothermal systems in the western Pacific. In sediment-starved hydrothermal systems (Manus Basin, Suiyo Seamount, and Mariana Trough), the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids are dependent on type of host rock. The end member fluids from MORB-like basalt-hosted Vienna Woods in the Manus Basin showed low boron content and high ?11B value (0.53 mM, 29.8‰), while dacite-hosted PACMANUS and the Suiyo Seamount showed high boron contents and low ?11B values (1.45 and 1.52 mM, 13.6 and 18.5‰, respectively). The Alice Springs and Forecast Vent field in the Mariana Trough showed values intermediate between them (0.72 and 0.63 mM, 19.9 and 24.0‰, respectively), reflecting reaction of seawater and basalt influenced by slab material. In phase separated hydrothermal systems (North Fiji Basin), boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids (0.44-0.56 mM, 34.5-35.9‰) were similar to those in the Vienna Woods. Considering little fractionation of boron and boron isotope during phase separation demonstrated by the previous experimental studies, it is suggested that the host rock in the North Fiji Basin is MORB-like basalt. In sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (Okinawa Trough), the reaction with boron-enriched sediment following seawater-rock reaction resulted in significantly high boron contents and low ?11B values of vent fluids (4.4-5.9 mM, 1.5-2.6‰). The water-sediment ratio was estimated to be ~2. In spite of the different geological settings, the end member fuids from all vent fields are enriched in B relative to seawater (0.41 mM, 39.6‰) and the ?11B values are inversely propotional to the boron concentrations. It suggests that boron isotopic composition of vent fluid predominantly depends on the amount of boron originated from solid-phase.

  10. Tissue disposition of boron in male Fischer rats.

    PubMed

    Ku, W W; Chapin, R E; Moseman, R F; Brink, R E; Pierce, K D; Adams, K Y

    1991-10-01

    Boric acid (H3BO3), an inorganic acid with widespread commercial use and consumer exposure, impairs fertility in male rodents at dose levels lower than those required to cause other adverse effects. Previous studies found a testicular lesion in adult Fischer rats fed 9000 ppm boric acid (1575 ppm boron) and slightly reduced basal serum testosterone levels. A CNS-mediated hormonal component to this lesion was suggested. Detailed data on the tissue disposition of boron in the rat, including accessory sex organs and the brain, are lacking. This study examined the tissue disposition of boron in reproductive, accessory sex organs, and other selected tissues in adult male Fischer rats fed 9000 ppm boric acid to determine if selective accumulation of boron in reproductive tissues, accessory sex organs, and/or the brain might correlate with and explain the apparent selective testicular toxicity. Adult male Fischer rats were fed 9000 ppm boric acid for up to 7 days. Animals were killed at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 days after the start of exposure. Plasma and excised tissues were heat-digested in acid and analyzed for boron by inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry (ICAP). With the exception of adrenal glands, control boron levels in all tissues examined were below 4 micrograms/g. There was a rapid increase in plasma and tissue boron 1 day after the start of exposure (range 2- to 20-fold), with the exception of adipose tissue. With the exception of bone and adipose tissue, all soft tissues examined, including the testis, epididymis, accessory sex organs, hypothalamus, and rest of brain, appeared to reach steady-state boron levels (range 12-30 micrograms/g) by 3-4 days. Bone boron levels continued to increase up to the termination at 7 days (40-50 micrograms/g by Day 7). Bone attained the greatest concentration of boron (2- to 3-fold over plasma levels) while levels in adipose tissue were 20% of plasma levels during the 7-day exposure period. All other tissues appeared to show no appreciable accumulation of boron over plasma levels. The data suggest that neither the apparent selective testicular toxicity nor the slight CNS hormonal effect associated with boric acid exposure can be explained on the basis of selective accumulation of boron in the testis or brain/hypothalamus, respectively. Thus, the testicular toxicity is likely the result of certain biological processes that are unique to the testis and which are targets of boron exposure. PMID:1949031

  11. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  12. Boron and silicon: Effects on growth, plasma lipids, urinary cyclic AMP and bone and brain mineral composition of male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborn, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    Because boron resembles silicon in its chemical properties, an experiment was performed to determine if excessive dietary boron would affect the response to silicon deprivation and, conversely, if silicon would influence the effects of an excessive intake of boron. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups of 6 or 12 in a two-by-two factorially arranged experiment. Supplemented to a ground corn/casein diet containing 1.2 [mu]g silicon and 3 [mu]g boron per gram were silicon as sodium metasilicate at 0 or 50 [mu]g/g and boron as orthoboric acid at 0 or 500 [mu]g/g diet. At nine weeks, animals fed high dietary boron had significantly decreased final body weights, liver-weight-to-body-weight ratios, urinary cAMP concentrations, plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, glycine, valine, leucine, and lysine concentrations and skull copper, sodium, and manganese concentrations. High dietary boron also significantly increased brain-weight-to-body-weight ratios, magnesium concentrations of femur, brain, and plasma, zinc concentration of femur, and iron concentration of skull. The bone mineral findings suggest that excess dietary boron exerts subtle effects on bone composition. Dietary silicon affected blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the concentrations of plasma threonine and aspartic acid in animals fed excess boron. Depression of the testes-weight-to-body-weight ratio of animals fed 500 [mu]g boron per gram diet was most marked in animals not fed silicon. Although excessive dietary boron did not markedly enhanced the response of rats to silicon deprivation, dietary silicon affected their response to high dietary boron. Thus, dietary silicon apparently can influence boron toxicity.

  13. Effects on environment and agriculture of geothermal wastewater and boron pollution in great Menderes basin.

    PubMed

    Koç, Cengiz

    2007-02-01

    Boron toxicity is an important disorder that can be limit plant growth on soils of arid and semi arid environments through the world. High concentrations of Boron may occur naturally in the soil or in groundwater, or be added to the soil from mining, fertilizers, or irrigation water. Off all the potential resources, irrigation water is the most important contributor to high levels of soil boron, boron is often found in high concentrations in association with saline soil and saline well water. Although of considerable agronomic importance, our understanding of Boron toxicity is rather fragment and limited. In this study, Boron content of Great Menderes River and Basin was researched. Great Menderes Basin is one of the consequence basins having agricultural potential, aspect of water and soil resources in Turkey. Great Menderes River, water resource of the basin was to be polluted by geothermal wastewater and thermal springs including Boron element. Great Menderes Basin has abundant geothermal water resources which contain high amounts of Boron and these ground water are brought to surface and used for various purposes such as power generation, heating or thermal spring and than discharged to Great Menderes River. In order to prevent Boron pollution and hence unproductively in soils, it is necessary not to discharged water with Boron to irrigation water. According to results, it was obtained that Boron content of River was as high in particular Upper Basin where there was a ground thermal water reservoir. Boron has been accumulated more than plant requirement in this area irrigated by this water. Boron content of River was relatively low in rainy months and irrigation season while it was high in dry season. Boron concentration in the River was to decrease from upstream to downstream. If it is no taken measure presently, about 130,000 ha irrigation areas which was constructed irrigation scheme in the Great Menderes basin will expose the Boron pollution and salinity. Even though Boron concentration of river water is under 0.5 ppm limit value, Boron element will store in basin soils, decrease in crop yields, and occur problematic soils in basin. PMID:17171286

  14. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  15. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Bystroff, Roman I. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Dale E. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  16. Boron and selenium contamination in south Texas groundwater.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2004-01-01

    Boron and selenium concentrations from 112 water wells in an irrigated agricultural region of south Texas were compiled, mapped, and statistically analyzed. Wells in the study area produce water from the Gulf Coast Aquifer System, comprising coastward sloping beds of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Nearly 84 percent of boron observations exceeded the 600 ug/L advisory level for drinking water, 70% exceeded the 1250 ug/L level for sensitive crops, and 24% exceeded the 3750 ug/L level for tolerant crops. Additionally, 21% of selenium observations exceeded the 20 ug/L advisory level for irrigation water, and five percent surpassed the 50 ug/L standard for drinking water. Many wells with high boron concentrations also had high selenium concentrations, and several clusters of high concentrations were in irrigated parts of the study area. However, there was no association between selenium and well depth, and a direct rather than inverse association between boron and well depth. Progressively brackish water in downdip reaches of the aquifer largely controls observed boron patterns. Both irrigation practices and prevailing groundwater chemistry significantly influence selenium concentrations in the study area. PMID:15533007

  17. Axial residual stresses in boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The axial residual stress distribution as a function of radius was determined from the fiber surface to the core including the average residual stress in the core. Such measurements on boron on tungsten (B/W) fibers show that the residual stresses for 102, 142, 203, and 366 micron diameter fibers were similar, being compressive at the surface and changing monotonically to a region of tensile within the boron. At approximately 25 percent of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile stress of about 860 mn/sq.m and then decreases to a compressive stress near the tungsten boride core. Data were presented for 203 micron diameter B/W fibers that show annealing above 900 C reduces the residual stresses. A comparison between 102 micron diameter B/W and boron on carbon (b/C) shows that the residual stresses were similar in the outer regions of the fibers, but that large differences near and in the core were observed. The effects of these residual stresses on the fracture of boron fibers were discussed.

  18. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil.

  19. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1995-02-28

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil. 7 figs.

  20. On the submicron aerosol distributions and CCN number concentrations in and around the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Yum, S. S.; Shim, S.; Kim, W. J.; Park, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim, M.-H.; Yoon, S.-C.

    2014-08-01

    Total number concentrations of particles having a diameter larger than 10 nm (NCN), cloud condensation nuclei at several supersaturation (S) values (NCCN) and number size distributions of particles with 10-414 nm diameter were measured in Seoul between 2004 and 2010. Overall average values of NCN and geometric mean diameter were 17 811 ± 5581 cm-3 and 48 ± 6 nm. Average NCCN at 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% S were 4145 ± 2016, 5323 ± 2453 and 6067 ± 2780 cm-3 and corresponding NCCN / NCN were 0.26 ± 0.11, 0.33 ± 0.11 and 0.37 ± 0.12. There is a clear seasonal variation in aerosol concentration, which seems to be due to the monsoon. NCN and NCCN are also found to depend on the volume of traffic and the height of the planetary boundary layer, respectively. During aircraft campaigns in 2009 and 2011, NCN and NCCN at 0.6% S (N0.6%) were measured in and around the Korean Peninsula. During the 2011 campaign, the aerosol scattering coefficient was also measured. NCN and N0.6% in the lower altitudes were generally higher than at higher altitudes, except for cases when particle formation and growth events were thought to occur at higher altitudes. NCN and N0.6% generally show a positive correlation with aerosol scattering coefficients but this correspondence tends to vary with altitude. Occasional instances of low (< 0.3) N0.6% / NCN in the boundary layer are demonstrated to be associated with particle formation and growth events. With the support of ground measurements, it is confirmed that a particle formation and growth event did indeed occur over the Yellow Sea on a flight day, and the areal extent of this event is estimated to be greater than 100 km × 450 km. With the combination of the current and several relevant previous studies, a composite map of NCN and NCCN in and around the Korean Peninsula is produced. Overall, the exhibited concentrations are typical of values measured over polluted regions elsewhere on the globe. Moreover, there is a generally decreasing trend from west to east over the region, implying that the region is constantly under the dominant influence of continental outflow.

  1. Selective boron delivery to murine tumors by lipophilic species incorporated in the membranes of unilamellar liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Feakes, D A; Shelly, K; Hawthorne, M F

    1995-01-01

    The nido-carborane species K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] has been synthesized for use as an addend for the bilayer membrane of liposomes. Small unilamellar vesicles, composed of distearoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, 1:1, and incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer, have been investigated in vivo. The time-course biodistribution of boron delivered by these liposomes was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analyses after the injection of liposomal suspensions in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinomas. At the low injected doses normally used (approximately 5-10 mg of boron per kg of body weight), peak tumor boron concentrations of approximately 35 micrograms of boron per g of tissue and tumor/blood boron ratios of approximately 8 were achieved. These values are sufficiently high for the successful application of boron neutron capture therapy. The bilayer-embedded boron compound may provide the sole boron source or, alternatively, a concentrated aqueous solution of a hydrophilic boron compound may also be encapsulated within the liposomes to provide a dose enhancement. Thus, the incorporation of both K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] and the hydrophilic species, Na3[1-(2'-B10H9)-2-NH3B10H8], within the same liposomes demonstrated significantly enhanced biodistribution characteristics, exemplified by maximum tumor boron concentrations of approximately 50 micrograms of boron per g of tissue and tumor/blood boron ratios of approximately 6. PMID:7877984

  2. Atomic diffusion across Ni50Ti50—Cu explosive welding interface: Diffusion layer thickness and atomic concentration distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi-Yang; Wu, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Kai-Xin

    2014-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to study atomic diffusion in the explosive welding process of Ni50Ti50—Cu (at.%). By using a hybrid method which combines molecular dynamics simulation and classical diffusion theory, the thickness of the diffusion layer and the atomic concentration distribution across the welding interface are obtained. The results indicate that the concentration distribution curves at different times have a geometric similarity. According to the geometric similarity, the atomic concentration distribution at any time in explosive welding can be calculated. Ni50Ti50—Cu explosive welding and scanning electron microscope experiments are done to verify the results. The simulation results and the experimental results are in good agreement.

  3. Boron Nutrition of Avocados

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Whiley; I. E. Smith; B. N. Wolstenholme; J. B. Saranah

    1996-01-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth, but is deficient in many soils that support avocado cultivation. In avocado, deficiency symptoms include yellowing and deformation of leaves, thickening of nodal regions on branch es, loss of geotropism, reduced root growth, branch and trunk lesions, reduced pollen viability, and deformed and smaller fruit. Avocado trees are particularly recalcitrant in

  4. Role of oxygen concentration distribution and microstructure in luminescent properties of laser-irradiated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Guoqiang; Xie, Changxin; Qiu, Rong; Li, Jiawen; Huang, Wenhao

    2015-03-01

    We study the photoluminescence (PL) of monocrystalline silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses in different environments (deionized water and air) and energy intensities. The fluorescence spectroscopy measurement results indicate that the visible blue luminescence is observed both from the silicon surfaces ablated in the deionized water and air. The more interesting phenomenon is that the position and shape of the emission luminescence peaks in the visible range are substantially the same at the same excitation wavelength 330 nm. Compared with the granular-like microstructure generated on the silicon surface in air, the smaller and stripe-like microstructure is formed in the deionized water as the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) measures. The results of the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show that silicon and oxygen is the main elemental composition on laser-induced silicon surfaces, and the oxygen content on the sample surfaces formed in air is nearly four times more than that in the deionized water. The studies confirm that oxygen element plays an important role in PL enhancement. The PL is not merely caused by the oxygen defects or quantum confinement effects, but is commonly decided by the concentration distribution of SiOx (x < 2) and the depth of the surface microstructure. The PL achieves the strongest only when the surface microstructure depth is not too deep and the shallow low oxide SiOx is intensive.

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of near-surface CO2 concentration over China based on GOSAT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Cui, Weihong; Sun, Yunhua

    2014-11-01

    To study the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of near-surface CO2 concentration over China, the data of GOSAT L4B and auxiliary data of Mt Waliguan background observations, population density, total energy consumption (coal) and GDP in 2009 were applied to this study. The ArcGIS Geostatistical Analytical Method was used. The ground-based validation was processed by comparing GOSAT data with Mt Waliguan background observations. The variation characteristics of the near-surface CO2 concentration over China was analysed spatially and temporally. The results show that: GOSAT retrieved near-surface products are consistent with Mt Waliguan ground-based measurement; Near-surface CO2 concentration over China is relatively concentrated, and has significant differences between the East and the West, with a overall characteristic that CO2 concentration in the east of China is high and in the west is low; Near-surface CO2 concentration over China has a significant seasonal variation characteristic, and the monthly average concentration rise to the highest value of 396.512 ppmv in April (spring), which is significantly higher than other seasons, decline to the lowest value of 382.781 ppmv in July (summer); All relationships illustrate a big uncertainty, resulting a conclusion that the reasons causing the spatial distribution of near-surface CO2 concentration may be varied, could not be easily determined as anthropogenic or natural ressons, which need further study.

  6. Efficacy of plasma arc treatment for the reduction of boron in the refining of solar-grade silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Imler; Robert E. Haun; Robin A. Lampson; Matthew Charles; Paul Meese

    2011-01-01

    Removal of boron is the major difficulty with refining metallurgical grade silicon into higher purity solar-grade silicon. A plasma arc refining process was developed which efficiently reduces the boron concentration in silicon to below 0.01 ppmW, enabling a low-cost process for manufacturing polysilicon comparable in quality to that made through the Siemens process. The low background boron concentration achieved allows

  7. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaisa Vaaramaa; Dina Solatie; Lasse Aro

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210Pb and 210Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order:

  8. Tersoff Potential Parameters for Simulating Cubic Boron Carbonitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Fisher, Craig; Matsubara, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    We have developed Tersoff potential parameters for boron in order to simulate cubic boron carbonitride systems by molecular dynamics. Combined with parameters for C and N available from the literature, our parameters are shown to reproduce the lattice parameters and bulk moduli of boron nitride and boron carbonitride (C0.33(BN)0.67) with good accuracy. By simulating several systems of formula (Cx(BN)1-x) over a wide range of carbon contents (x=0 to 1), we observed the same trends in the deviation from ideal mixing as found experimentally. We attribute this deviation to the relatively longer C-N bonds distributed randomly throughout the intermediate C content systems.

  9. Annealing kinetics of boron-containing centers in electron-irradiated silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Feklisova, O. V., E-mail: feklisov@iptm.ru; Yarykin, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials (Russian Federation); Weber, J. [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The annealing kinetics of B{sub i}O{sub i} pairs created by fast-electron irradiation in Si wafers is studied. The wafers are grown by the Czochralski method and doped with boron to different levels. It is found that, at a particular temperature, the annealing rate steadily increases with increasing boron concentration. The results are described with a simple model that takes into consideration the interaction of interstitial boron atoms with oxygen atoms and substitutional boron atoms. In the context of the model, the temperature dependence of the dissociation rate of the B{sub i}O{sub i} complex is calculated.

  10. Toxic elements at a disused mine district: Particle size distribution and total concentration in stream sediments and mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, V; Pagnanelli, F; Bornoroni, L; Toro, L; Abbruzzese, C

    2007-09-01

    Heavy metal and metalloid pollution at a disused pyrite mine was investigated. Five solid samples collected in the area (three stream sediments with different soil texture, a background soil sample and a mine tailing) were characterised by mineral and element composition, particle size distribution (by wet and dry sieving and laser diffraction) and total concentration by acid digestion (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Cd, Sb and As). X-ray and element analyses denoted a common mineralogical and chemical composition of mainly quartz, clinochlore, muscovite, anorthite, and hematite. Particle size distributions of the five samples showed that stream sediments were characterised by larger percentage of sand range classes (2000-60 microm) while background sample and tailing are mainly characterised by gravel particles (>2000 microm). Wet and dry sieving procedures gave different particle size distributions, which can be interpreted by laser diffraction analysis and represented by Rosin-Rammler model. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd were higher in the stream sediments than the tailing and background soil, while Mn, As, Sb and Hg are mainly concentrated in the tailing sample. Metal concentrations in the three stream sediment samples are correlated with both particle size dimensions (D(63.2)) and concentration of geochemical normalizers (iron and aluminium). These correlations are observed also for the pollutants that are mainly concentrated in tailing sample (Mn and As), denoting the importance of surface interactions also for the binding of these elements onto stream sediments. PMID:17400373

  11. Experimental microbiology of saturated salt solutions and other harsh environments. 3. Growth of salt-tolerant penicillium notatum in boron-rich media.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K; Siegel, S M

    1967-09-01

    A stress-tolerant strain of Penicillium notatum, isolated by passage through a nutrient solution saturated with calcium acetate, was found to have a tolerance to boron in several states of oxidation. Growth in the presence of elementary boron, saturating amounts of boric acid, and with various concentrations of sodium borohydride was observed and mycelial mats were spectrographically analyzed for boron accumulation. PMID:6076112

  12. Partitioning of boron among melt, brine and vapor in the system haplograniteH2ONaCl at 800 jC and 100 MPa

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    Partitioning of boron among melt, brine and vapor in the system haplogranite­H2O­NaCl at 800 j-saturated experiments were conducted to investigate the partitioning of boron among haplogranitic melt, aqueous vapor analyzed for boron concentration by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and for major elements

  13. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BCNT) for the Treatment of Liver Metastases: Biodistribution Studies of Boron Compounds in an Experimental Model

    SciTech Connect

    Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Jorge E. Cardoso; Lucas L. Colombo; Susana Nievas; David W. Nigg; Romina F. Aromando

    2011-03-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B10H10), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  14. Boron toxicity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings in relation to soil temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Mahalakshmi; S. K. Yau; J. Ryan; J. M. Peacock

    1995-01-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient in crop growth but its sufficiency range is narrow. Boron toxicity is a widespread problem in arid and semi-arid areas with cold weather. We investigated the effect of soil temperature (5, 10 and 15°C) on development of symptoms of B toxicity, plant growth and plant development, and on content and concentration of B in

  15. Concentration, distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Lijiang River, South China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Baoming; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Jinlian; Leng, Bing; Huang, Wenyu; Chen, Zhenghua

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations, distributions and sources of PAHs were investigated in surface sediments from Lijiang River, South China. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 160 to 602 ng g(-1) dry weight.The total PAHs concentrations from different area descended in the order: middle reach > upper reach > down reach. Based on the PAHs indicators and the surrounding along Lijiang River, PAHs were mainly derived from the burning of coal. The ecological risk assessment suggested that the probability of negative toxic effective caused by PAHs in Lijiang River was lower than 25 %. PMID:23299952

  16. Roadside particle number distributions and relationships between number concentrations, meteorology, and traffic along a northern California freeway.

    PubMed

    Nanzetta, M Katherine; Holmén, Britt A

    2004-05-01

    Particle number distributions were measured simultaneously upwind and downwind of a suburban-agricultural freeway to determine relationships with traffic and meteorological parameters. Average traffic volumes were 6330 vehicles/hr with 10% heavy-duty vehicles, and volumes were higher in July than November. Most downwind particle number distributions were bimodal, with a primary mode at approximately 10-25 nm, indicating that newly formed particles were sampled. Total downwind 6-237 nm particle number concentrations (Ntot) ranged from 9.3 x 10(3) to 2.5 x 10(5) cm(-3), with higher daily average concentrations in November compared with July. Ntot correlated with wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. Upwind photochemically initiated nucleation likely led to elevated background nanoparticle concentrations in July, as evidenced by increasing upwind distribution modal diameter with increasing temperature and a strong correlation between upwind Ntot and solar radiation. Also in summer, Ntot showed stronger correlation with heavy-duty vehicle volumes than wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. These results indicate the importance of measuring background particle size distributions simultaneously with roadside distributions. There may be a minimum vehicle volume from which useful real-world vehicle particle number distributions can be measured at roadside, even when collecting samples within 10 m of the traveled lanes. PMID:15149042

  17. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Takao; Nomura, Masao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the 11B /10B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher 11B /10B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing 11B /10B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite ( Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with higher BO 3/BO 4 ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO 3 triangle units to the number of the BO 4 tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher 11B /10B ratios.

  18. Crystalline Boron Nanoribbons: Synthesis and Characterization

    E-print Network

    to its electron-deficient nature.1-3 Extensive fundamental and ap- plied research of bulk boron and boron vapor transport method using boron and iodine as precursor,12,13 and also by laser ablation of a B

  19. Distribution of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium concentrations in stream sediments from the Mapocho River in Santiago, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Segura; V. Arancibia; M. C. Zúñiga; P. Pastén

    2006-01-01

    The Mapocho river, which crosses downtown Santiago, is one of the most important rivers in contact with a population of about six million inhabitants. Anthropogenic activities, industrialization, farming activities, transport, urbanization, animal and human excretions, domestic wastes and copper mining have affected the river, contaminating it and its sediments with heavy metals. Concentration and distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb and

  20. CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) IN THE TOWN OF KOTA BHARU, KELANTAN DARUL NAIM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Fais Fadzil; Norhayati Mohd Tahir; Wan Mohd; Khairul Wan; Mohd Zin

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of Kota Bharu, Kelantan Darul Naim. A total of 20 sampling sites were chosen covering the town center and surrounding suburban area of this district. PAHs in soil matrix were extracted using ultrasonic agitation technique with dichloromethane as extraction solvent. Fractionation of

  1. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  2. A measurement plan of gas concentration and temperature distribution reconstruction based on the tunable diode laser absorption tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao-ran; Jin, Xing; Wang, Guang-yu; Song, Jun-ling

    2014-11-01

    Based on the tunable diode laser absorption tomography, gas concentration and temperature two-dimensional distribution reconstruction is realized using algebraic iterative reconstruction technique (ART). A measurement plan is proposed based on the beam splitting lens, and the corresponding beam arrangement is put forward. The beam splitting lenses are used in the plan to making one laser beam cross the measurement area repeatedly. Thus can raise the utilization ratio of laser beam and simplify the structure of measurement platform. A model for H2O vapor concentration and temperature distribution is assumed, and numerical simulation is utilized using two absorption transitions. The feasibility of the measurement plan is proved by the simulation experiment. The influences of initial beam angle, the number of beams and grids on the reconstructed results are analyzed numerically. A concept of phantom description method using in simulation experiments is proposed in order to getting closer to the real experiments. The phantom description method is used in the numerical simulation to evaluating concentration and temperature field reconstruction. Through this method, expected data is sampled from initial data, and reconstructed result is obtained by interpolation. The influence of random errors in projections on distribution reconstruction is also analyzed. The measurement plan can reconstruct the gas concentration and temperature distribution with a simplified measurement platform using beam splitting lenses. The feasibility of the phantom description method is also proved by the simulation experiment.

  3. Natural Radioactivity of Boron Added Clay Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, I.; ?anakci?, H.; Mavi, B.; Güno?lu, K.

    2011-12-01

    Clay, consisting fine-grained minerals, is an interesting materials and can be used in a variety of diferent fields especially in dermatology application. Using clay such a field it is important to measure its natural radioacitivty. Thus the purpose of this study is to measure 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentration in clay samples enriched with boron. Three different types of clay samples were prepared where boron is used in different rate. The measurements have been determined using a gamma-ray spectrometry consists of a 3?×3? NaI(Tl) detector. From the measured activity the radium equivalent activities (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose (AED) have also been obtained.

  4. Semiconducting boron carbonitride nanostructures: Nanotubes and nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Ahn, J.; Yoon, S. F.; Zhang, Q.; Rusli, Gan, B.; Chew, K.; Yu, M. B.; Bai, X. D.; Wang, E. G.

    2000-09-01

    Highly oriented boron carbonitride (BCN) nanostructures consisting of nanotubes and nanofibers have been synthesized by bias-assisted hot-filament chemical vapor deposition from the source gases of B2H6, CH4, N2, and H2. It is found that the B concentration of the BCN nanostructures increases with increasing B2H6 in the gas mixture, and the highest B concentration is 45 at. %. Photoluminescence spectrum shows that the BCN nanostructures, identified as B0.34C0.42N0.24, are semiconductors with a band gap energy of around 1.0 eV.

  5. Using vapor phase tomography to measure the spatial distribution of vapor concentrations and flux for vadose-zone VOC sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainhagu, J.; Morrison, C.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2015-06-01

    A test was conducted at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated site in Tucson, AZ, to evaluate the effectiveness of vapor-phase tomography (VPT) for characterizing the distribution of volatile organic contaminants (VOC) in the vadose zone. A soil vapor extraction (SVE) system has been in operation at the site since 2007. Vapor concentration and vacuum pressure were measured at four different depths in each of the four monitoring wells surrounding the extraction well. The test provided a 3D characterization of local vapor concentrations under induced-gradient conditions. Permeability data obtained from analysis of borehole logs were used along with pressure and the vapor-concentration data to determine VOC mass flux within the test domain. A region of higher mass flux was identified in the deepest interval of the S-SW section of the domain, indicating the possible location of a zone with greater contaminant mass. These results are consistent with the TCE-concentration distribution obtained from sediment coring conducted at the site. In contrast, the results of a standard soil gas survey did not indicate the presence of a zone with greater contaminant mass. These results indicate that the VPT test provided a robust characterization of VOC concentration and flux distribution at the site.

  6. Using vapor phase tomography to measure the spatial distribution of vapor concentrations and flux for vadose-zone VOC sources.

    PubMed

    Mainhagu, J; Morrison, C; Brusseau, M L

    2015-01-01

    A test was conducted at a chlorinated-solvent contaminated site in Tucson, AZ, to evaluate the effectiveness of vapor-phase tomography (VPT) for characterizing the distribution of volatile organic contaminants (VOC) in the vadose zone. A soil vapor extraction (SVE) system has been in operation at the site since 2007. Vapor concentration and vacuum pressure were measured at four different depths in each of the four monitoring wells surrounding the extraction well. The test provided a 3D characterization of local vapor concentrations under induced-gradient conditions. Permeability data obtained from analysis of borehole logs were used along with pressure and the vapor-concentration data to determine VOC mass flux within the test domain. A region of higher mass flux was identified in the deepest interval of the S-SW section of the domain, indicating the possible location of a zone with greater contaminant mass. These results are consistent with the TCE-concentration distribution obtained from sediment coring conducted at the site. In contrast, the results of a standard soil gas survey did not indicate the presence of a zone with greater contaminant mass. These results indicate that the VPT test provided a robust characterization of VOC concentration and flux distribution at the site. PMID:25835545

  7. Effects of boron derivatives on extracellular matrix formation.

    PubMed

    Benderdour, M; Van Bui, T; Hess, K; Dicko, A; Belleville, F; Dousset, B

    2000-10-01

    Boric acid solution (3%) dramatically improves wound healing through action on the extracellular matrix, a finding that has been obtained in vitro. Consequently, investigations are presently underway to produce boronated compounds having a therapeutical effectiveness similar to that of boric acid. On the basis of experimental results obtained with boric acid, we examined the effects of boron derivatives on extracellular matrix formation and degradation and analyzed their potential toxicity by using two biological models (chick embryo cartilage and human fibroblasts). The four boron derivatives tested in this study (triethanolamine borate; N-diethyl-phosphoramidate-propylboronique acid; 2,2 dimethylhexyl-1,3-propanediol-aminopropylboronate and 1,2 propanediol-aminopropylboronate) mimicked the effects of boric acid. They induced a decrease of intracellular concentrations in extracellular matrix macromolecules (proteoglycans, proteins)-associated with an increase of their release in culture medium and stimulated the activity of intra- and extracellular proteases. Similarly to boric acid, these actions occurred after exposure of the cells to concentrations of all boron derivatives without apparent toxic effects. The compounds were found to be more toxic than boric acid itself when concentrations were calculated according to their molecular weight. Nevertheless, these in vitro preliminary results demonstrate effects of boron derivatives that may be of therapeutic benefit in wound repair. PMID:11130854

  8. The polarographic microdetermination of boron 

    E-print Network

    Peacock, Dixon Williams

    1958-01-01

    LIBRARY A A M COLLEGE OF TEXAS THE POLAROGRAPHIC MICRODETERMINATION OF BORON By DIXON WILLIAMS PEACOCK A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment................................. vi Chapter I- a. Introduction........................ 1 b. Analytical Chemistry of Boron........ 4 c. Alternative Methods................. 11 d. Objects and Methods of This Study.... 15 Chapter II- Polarography in the Determination of Boron...

  9. Decline of Avocado Trees as Related to the Theory of Boron Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Parker; B. M. Laurance

    A possible relationship between avocado tree decline and boron deficiency in the Vista District of San Diego County was suggested in 1942 and 1943. This suggestion apparently arose because of rumors that the irrigation waters are lacking in boron, an element which is essential in minute quantities for plant growth. These waters are derived from Lake Henshaw and distributed by

  10. Study on Seasonal Variation of Metal Ion (Beryllium) Concentration in Water, Sediment and its Distribution in a Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, P. N.; Soundararajan, S.; Sharma, D. N.

    2015-06-01

    This study was aimed at determination of the beryllium concentration and its temporal variation in stream water and sediment (mud). The metal ion distribution in the stream of length 3.2 km, near the beryllium facility was evaluated. Beryllium in stream water and sediment was estimated by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GFAAS). The beryllium concentration in water and sediment, varied in the range of 0.01-0.2 ng/ml and 600-30,000 ng/g respectively. The distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated for each locations was observed to be in the range of 500-212,500. The variation of the beryllium concentration at sampling locations of stream, selected for the study, with respect to distance may be due to sorption capacity of the matrix and other reactions of the metal ion involved in water and sediments.

  11. Structural Modification in Carbon Nanotubes by Boron Incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handuja, Sangeeta; Srivastava, P.; Vankar, V. D.

    2009-08-01

    We have synthesized boron-incorporated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by decomposition of ferrocene and xylene in a thermal chemical vapor deposition set up using boric acid as the boron source. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies of the synthesized CNT samples showed that there was deterioration in crystallinity and improvement in alignment of the CNTs as the boron content in precursor solution increased from 0% to 15%. Raman analysis of these samples showed a shift of ~7 cm-1 in wave number to higher side and broadening of the G band with increasing boron concentration along with an increase in intensity of the G band. Furthermore, there was an increase in the intensity of the D band along with a decrease in its wave number position with increase in boron content. We speculate that these structural modifications in the morphology and microstructure of CNTs might be due to the charge transfer from boron to the graphite matrix, resulting in shortening of the carbon-carbon bonds.

  12. Boron Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1990-01-01

    Ecological and toxicological aspects of boron (B) in the environment are reviewed, with emphasis on natural resources. Subtopics covered include environmental chemistry, background concentrations, effects, and current recommendations for the protection of living resources. Boron is not now considered essential in mammalian nutrition, although low dietary levels protect against fluorosis and bone demineralization. Excessive consumption (i.e., >1,000 mg B/kg diet, >15 mg B/kg body weight daily, >1.0 mg B/L drinking water, or >210 mg B/kg body weight in a single dose) adversely affects growth, survival, or reproduction in sensitive mammals. Boron and its compounds are potent teratogens when applied directly to the mammalian embryo, but there is no evidence of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity. Boron`s unique affinity for cancerous tissues has been exploited in neutron capture radiation therapy of malignant human brain tumors. Current boron criteria recommended for the protection of sensitive species include <0.3 mg B/L in crop irrigation waters, <1.0 mg B/L for aquatic life, <5.0 mg B/L in livestock drinking waters, <30 mg B/kg in waterfowl diets, and <100 mg B/kg in livestock diets.

  13. Concentration Regimes of Biopolymers Xanthan, Tara, and Clairana, Comparing Dynamic Light Scattering and Distribution of Relaxation Time

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Patrícia D.; Michel, Ricardo C.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Moreira, Angelita S.; Lomba, Rosana F. T.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the utilization of analysis of the distribution of relaxation time (DRT) using a dynamic light back-scattering technique as alternative method for the determination of the concentration regimes in aqueous solutions of biopolymers (xanthan, clairana and tara gums) by an analysis of the overlap (c*) and aggregation (c**) concentrations. The diffusion coefficients were obtained over a range of concentrations for each biopolymer using two methods. The first method analysed the behaviour of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the concentration of the gum solution. This method is based on the analysis of the diffusion coefficient versus the concentration curve. Using the slope of the curves, it was possible to determine the c* and c** for xanthan and tara gum. However, it was not possible to determine the concentration regimes for clairana using this method. The second method was based on an analysis of the DRTs, which showed different numbers of relaxation modes. It was observed that the concentrations at which the number of modes changed corresponded to the c* and c**. Thus, the DRT technique provided an alternative method for the determination of the critical concentrations of biopolymers. PMID:23671627

  14. Geographical distribution of the annual mean radon concentrations in primary schools of Southern Serbia - application of geostatistical methods.

    PubMed

    Bossew, P; Žuni?, Z S; Stojanovska, Z; Tollefsen, T; Carpentieri, C; Veselinovi?, N; Komatina, S; Vaupoti?, J; Simovi?, R D; Antignani, S; Bochicchio, F

    2014-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2011 a survey of radon ((222)Rn) was performed in schools of several districts of Southern Serbia. Some results have been published previously (Žuni? et al., 2010; Carpentieri et al., 2011; Žuni? et al., 2013). This article concentrates on the geographical distribution of the measured Rn concentrations. Applying geostatistical methods we generate "school radon maps" of expected concentrations and of estimated probabilities that a concentration threshold is exceeded. The resulting maps show a clearly structured spatial pattern which appears related to the geological background. In particular in areas with vulcanite and granitoid rocks, elevated radon (Rn) concentrations can be expected. The "school radon map" can therefore be considered as proxy to a map of the geogenic radon potential, and allows identification of radon-prone areas, i.e. areas in which higher Rn radon concentrations can be expected for natural reasons. It must be stressed that the "radon hazard", or potential risk, estimated this way, has to be distinguished from the actual radon risk, which is a function of exposure. This in turn may require (depending on the target variable which is supposed to measure risk) considering demographic and sociological reality, i.e. population density, distribution of building styles and living habits. PMID:24231373

  15. Pore-size distributions of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels varying in initial monomer concentration and cross-linker/monomer ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, M.; Pothmann, E.; Roessler, T.; Baker, J.; Yee, A.; Blanch, H.; Prausnitz, J.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1994-05-23

    Pore-size distributions have been measured for cationic acrylamide-based hydrogels. The authors use the experimental mixed-solute-exclusion method, MSE (introduced by Kuga), to obtain the solute-exclusion curve representing the amount of imbibed liquid inside the gel inaccessible for a solute of radius r. The authors use the Brownian motion model (developed by Cassasa) to convert the size-exclusion curve into the pore-size distribution, which gives the frequency of pore radius R as a function of R. This theoretically-based interpretation of MSE data leads to the Fredholm integral equation that they solve numerically. Results are reported for a series of hydrogels containing acrylamide and 3% MAPTAC; the hydrogels differed in extent of cross-linking and/or initial concentration of monomer. Pore-size distributions shift to lower pore sizes with rising initial monomer concentration and with rising cross-linker-to-monomer ratio.

  16. Boron nitride nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Chopra; R. J. Luyken; K. Cherrey; V. H. Crespi; M. L. Cohen; S. G. Louie; A. Zettl

    1995-01-01

    The successful synthesis of pure boron nitride (BN) nanotubes is reported here. Multi-walled tubes with inner diameters on the order of 1 to 3 nanometers and with lengths up to 200 nanometers were produced in a carbon-free plasma discharge between a BN-packed tungsten rod and a cooled copper electrode. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy on individual tubes yielded B:N ratios of approximately

  17. Growth and electronic structure of boron-doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, J.; Koch, R. J.; Zhao, W.; Höfert, O.; Gotterbarm, K.; Mammadov, S.; Papp, C.; Görling, A.; Steinrück, H.-P.; Seyller, Th.

    2013-04-01

    The doping of graphene to tune its electronic properties is essential for its further use in carbon-based electronics. Adapting strategies from classical silicon-based semiconductor technology, we use the incorporation of heteroatoms in the 2D graphene network as a straightforward way to achieve this goal. Here, we report on the synthesis of boron-doped graphene on Ni(111) in a chemical vapor deposition process of triethylborane on the one hand and by segregation of boron from the bulk of the substrate crystal on the other hand. The chemical environment of boron was determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the impact on the band structure. Doping with boron leads to a shift of the graphene bands to lower binding energies. The shift depends on the doping concentration and for a doping level of 0.3 ML a shift of up to 1.2 eV is observed. The experimental results are in agreement with density-functional calculations. Furthermore, our calculations suggest that doping with boron leads to graphene preferentially adsorbed in the top-fcc geometry, since the boron atoms in the graphene lattice are then adsorbed at substrate fcc-hollow sites. The smaller distance of boron atoms incorporated into graphene compared to graphene carbon atoms leads to a bending of the doped graphene sheet in the vicinity of the boron atoms. By comparing calculations of doped and undoped graphene on Ni(111), as well as the respective freestanding cases, we are able to distinguish between the effects that doping and adsorption have on the band structure of graphene. Both doping and bonding to the surface result in opposing shifts on the graphene bands.

  18. Modeling the U.S. national distribution of waterborne pathogen concentrations with application to Cryptosporidium parvum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Ruppert, David; Behr, Christopher T.

    2003-09-01

    This paper provides a general statistical methodology for modeling environmental pathogen concentrations in natural waters. A hierarchical model of pathogen concentrations captures site and regional random effects as well as random laboratory recovery rates. Recovery rates were modeled by a generalized linear mixed model. Two classes of pathogen concentration models are differentiated according to their ultimate purpose: water quality prediction or health risk analysis. A fully Bayesian analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation is used for statistical inference. The applicability of this methodology is illustrated by the analysis of a national survey of Cryptosporidium parvum concentrations, in which 93% of the observations were zero counts.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N) nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes. PMID:20596377

  20. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lijie; Mo, Libin; Tong, Zhangfa; Chen, Yongjun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B-C-N) nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 degrees C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B-C-N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes. PMID:20596377

  1. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lijie; Mo, Libin; Tong, Zhangfa; Chen, Yongjun

    2009-08-01

    In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B-C-N) nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B-C-N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  2. Boron removal from aqueous solutions using alginate gel beads in fixed-bed systems

    PubMed Central

    Demey-Cedeño, Hary; Ruiz, Montserrat; Barron-Zambrano, Jesús Alberto; Sastre, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background A column sorption study was carried out using calcium alginate gel beads as adsorbent for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of pH, initial concentration of boron, feed flow rate, adsorbent mass and column diameter. The breakthrough capacity values and adsorption percentage of calcium alginate gel for boron were calculated. Column data obtained at different conditions were described using the Adams–Bohart model and bed-depth service time (BDST), derived from the Adams–Bohart equation to predict breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. Results The maximum adsorption percentage of boron on calcium alginate gel beads using an initial concentration of boron of 50 mg L?1 at pH 11 and room temperature (20±1°C) was calculated to be 55.14%. Conclusion The results indicated that calcium alginate can be used in a continuous packed-bed column for boron adsorption. The optimal conditions for boron adsorption were obtained at high pH, higher initial boron concentration, increased column depth and lower flow velocity. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25821332

  3. Use of dissolved H2 concentrations to determine distribution of microbially catalyzed redox reactions in anoxic groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.; Woodward, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for using concentrations of dissolved H2 to determine the distribution of redox processes in anoxic groundwaters was evaluated. In pristine aquifers in which standard geochemical measurements indicated that Fe-(III) reduction, sulfate reduction, or methanogenesis was the terminal electron accepting process (TEAP), the H2 concentrations were similar to the H2 concentrations that have previously been reported for aquatic sediments with the same TEAPs. In two aquifers contaminated with petroleum products, it was impossible with standard geochemical analyses to determine which TEAPs predominated in specific locations. However, the TEAPs predicted from measurements of dissolved H2 were the same as those determined directly through measurements of microbial processes in incubated aquifer material. These results suggest that H2 concentrations may be a useful tool for analyzing the redox chemistry of nonequilibrium groundwaters.

  4. Influence of fruit development on seasonal elemental concentrations and distribution in fruit and leaves of pecan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen G. Diver; Michael W. Smith; Ronald W. McNew

    1984-01-01

    The elemental concentrations of leaves and fruits were monitored during one season on fruiting and vegetative pecan shoots. Pecan fruit and leaves of fruiting and vegetative shoots on 31?year?old ‘Western’ pecan trees were collected biweekly from May 15 through October 15, 1982 and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, Zn,

  5. Investigation and control strategies of lead concentration in drinking water distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu Shihu; Liu Suiqing; Zhang Dong

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of lead pipes in the major countries in Europe was investigated. International protocols of lead concentration in drinking water on human health were reviewed and compared. Lead concentration in drinking water samples was measured and single pipe model was used to simulate the dissolution of lead into the water flowing. It has been successfully validated in a range

  6. Azomethine H colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.R.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    An automated colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water is described. The boron is complexed with azomethine H, which is readily available as the condensation product of H acid (8-amino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid) and salicylaldehyde. The absorbance of the yellow complex formed is then measured colorimetrically at 410 nm. Interference effects from other dissolved species are minimized by the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); however, iron, zinc, and bicarbonate interfere at concentrations above 400 ??g/L, 2000 ??g/L, and 200 mg/L, respectively. The bicarbonate interference can be eliminated by careful acidification of the sample with concentrated HCl to a pH between 5 and 6. Thirty samples per hour can be routinely analyzed over the range of from 10 to 400 ??g/L, boron.

  7. Estimation of surface anthropogenic radioactivity concentrations from NaI(Tl) pulse-height distribution observed at monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Hirouchi, J; Yamazawa, H; Hirao, S; Moriizumi, J

    2015-04-01

    A method of estimating surface radioactivity concentrations of key anthropogenic radionuclides from NaI(Tl) pulse-height distribution observed at a monitoring station (MS) was discussed. In the estimation, a realistic assumption on geometric distribution of source and obstacles around the detector of the MS including the infiltration of radionuclides into the ground was used and the results were compared with ones with a commonly used assumption of a uniformly distributed plane source. The surface radioactivity concentration was determined by comparing the count rates at the full-energy peak ranges between observation and calculation with an electron-photon transport code EGS5. It was shown that the estimated absolute values of concentration differed by a factor of ?1.5 depending on the assumption of infiltration depth. The estimated surface concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were in good agreement with ones determined by the in situ measurements with an HPGe detector and the cumulative values of daily surface depositions. PMID:25313172

  8. [Effect of the change in sulphate and dissolved oxygen mass concentration on metal release in old cast iron distribution pipes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-li; Shi, Bao-you; Sun, Hui-fang; Zhang, Zhi-huan; Gu, Jun-nong; Wang, Dong-sheng

    2013-09-01

    To understand the processes of corrosion by-product release and the consequent "red water" problems caused by the variation of water chemical composition in drinking water distribution system, the effect of sulphate and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on total iron release in corroded old iron pipe sections historically transporting groundwater was investigated in laboratory using small-scale pipe section reactors. The release behaviors of some low-level metals, such as Mn, As, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni, in the process of iron release were also monitored. The results showed that the total iron and Mn release increased significantly with the increase of sulphate concentration, and apparent red water occurred when sulphate concentration was above 400 mg x L(-1). With the increase of sulfate concentration, the effluent concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni also increased obviously, however, the effluent concentrations of these metals were lower than the influent concentrations under most circumstances, which indicated that adsorption of these metals by pipe corrosion scales occurred. Increasing DO within a certain range could significantly inhibit the iron release. PMID:24288993

  9. Aircraft measurements of vertical and spatial distribution of aerosol concentration and size over different environments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari B., Padma; S, Mahesh Kumar R.; R, Kulkarni J.; N, Goswami B.

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that atmospheric aerosols play a major role in climate change by directly scattering and absorbing the incoming and outgoing radiation as well as through modifying cloud properties, such as droplet size distribution and cloud lifetime. However, aerosol measurements, particularly their vertical distribution, are less and unevenly distributed around the globe. Cloud Aerosol Interactions and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) is an Indian National program conducted by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India, during summer monsoon season May-September 2009. Under CAIPEEX program, an instrumented aircraft has been used to study background aerosol along with cloud microphysical properties and their interactions over different parts of India. This experiment has been carried out for the first time in India. During CAIPEEX, PCASP (Passive Cavity aerosol Spectro Photometer) which measures aerosol concentrations in the size range 0.1 to 3 microns is operated in the aircraft over different parts of India viz., Pathankot (May), Hyderabad (June), Bengaluru (June-July), Bareilly (July-August), Guwahati (August- September) and Pune (September). The preliminary results suggest that aerosol vertical distribution is observed up to a maximum of 7.0 - 7.5 km, with high surface concentrations and enhanced layers at higher altitudes. During monsoon period also high concentrations are observed. The spatial distribution of aerosols along the flight track shows aerosol gradient from one place to another place. Also thick haze is observed near Himalayas during the month of May. The results at all the locations showed high aerosol concentrations in the size range of 0.1 to 0.3 microns, steep decreasing trend from 0.3 - 0.6 microns and less concentration from 0.6 to 3 microns. In the size range of 0.1 to 0.3 microns the concentrations varied from 100-10000 particles/cc. In-depth analysis of CAIPEEX data gives a clear picture of aerosol distribution over different parts of India during monsoon season, which further helps to understand the cloud micro physics. This paper presents a glimpse of the CAIPEEX mission and the preliminary results of aerosol measurements over different environments in India.

  10. Mass Size Distributions and Precursor Gas Concentrations of Major Inorganic Ions in'Antarctic Aerosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Risto Hillamo; Ivo Allegrini; Roberto Sparapani; Veli-Matti Kerminen

    1998-01-01

    Mass size distributions of major inorganic ions in aerosol particles and their atmospheric precursor gases were studied at Terra Nova Bay in Antarctica (74° 41? 42?S, 164° 05?36 ?E) between January 30 and February 18, 1995. The mass size distributions of sulphate, the major inorganic ion, had two submicron and two supermicron modes. The accumulation mode (average mass median diameter

  11. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Oi, Takao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Kakihana, Hidetake (Sophia Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto (Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite (Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with high BO{sub 3}/BO{sub 4} ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO{sub 3} triangle units to the number of the BO{sub 4} tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios.

  12. A study of Monitoring and Mapping for Radon-Concentration Distribution in Gyeongju - 12201

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Jung Min; Jang, So Young; Kim, Shin Jae; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, 707, Seokjang-Dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Radon is one of the most important contributors to the radiation exposure in humans. This study measured the indoor radon concentrations at the 17 elementary school auditoriums that were sampled from those in the city of Gyeongju, Korea. The reason that an elementary school was selected as a measurement object is that many students and teachers stay for a long time in a day and it's easy to identify the characteristics of the auditorium building such as the essential building. The measurement shows that most of the indoor radon concentrations at the 17 elementary school auditoriums did not exceed 148 Bq/m{sup 3} that is the action level recommended by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This study measured the indoor radon concentrations at the elementary school auditoriums in Gyeongju. The measurements were analyzed according to the bedrock type and the time intervals per day. In this study, it was found that the indoor radon concentrations over off-duty hours were generally higher that those over on-duty hours, and the indoor radon concentration in the area whose bedrock is volcanic rock was higher than those in the area of the other types of bedrock. As mentioned above, attention has to be paid to an elementary school since many young students and teachers stay for more 6 hours a day at it. Hence, it is necessary to continuously monitor and properly manage the indoor radon concentrations in the elementary schools. (authors)

  13. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2009-12-15

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210Pb and 210Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems>leaves>berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of 210Po/210Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of 210Pb and especially 210Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of 210Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). The 210Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg(-1) d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg(-1) d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of 210Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of 210Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of 210Po were higher than those of 210Pb. 210Po and 210Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout. PMID:19800659

  14. Process for producing boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, L.N.; Chase, C.C.

    1988-06-07

    A process for producing boron nitride is described which comprises mixing boron oxide, orthoboric acid and melamine to form a reaction composition which comprises from about 45 to about 50 weight percent, based on the weight of the reaction composition, of melamine and from about 50 to about 55 weight percent, based on the weight of the reaction composition, of a combination of boron oxide and orthoboric acid. The weight ratio of boron oxide to orthoboric acid is from about 3:1 to about 4:1; and heating the composition to temperature of about 700/sup 0/C to about 1200/sup 0/C under a non-oxidizing atmosphere to form boron nitride.

  15. Distribution of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons projecting to the medial mammillary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Casatti, C A; Elias, C F; Sita, L V; Frigo, L; Furlani, V C G; Bauer, J A; Bittencourt, J C

    2002-01-01

    The melanin-concentrating hormone and neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine are expressed in neurons located mainly in the hypothalamus that project widely throughout the CNS. One of the melanin-concentrating hormone main targets is the medial mammillary nucleus, but the exact origin of these fibers is unknown. We observed melanin-concentrating hormone and neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine immunoreactive fibers coursing throughout the mammillary complex, showing higher density in the pars lateralis of the medial mammillary nucleus, while the lateral mammillary nucleus showed sparse melanin-concentrating hormone innervation. The origins of these afferents were determined by using implant of the retrograde tracer True Blue in the medial mammillary nucleus. Double-labeled neurons were observed in the lateral hypothalamic area, rostromedial zona incerta and dorsal tuberomammillary nucleus. A considerable population of retrogradely labeled melanin-concentrating hormone perikaryal profiles was also immunoreactive to neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine (74+/-15% to 85+/-15%). The afferents from the lateral hypothalamic area, rostromedial zona incerta and dorsal tuberomammillary nucleus to the medial mammillary nucleus were confirmed using implant of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. In addition, using double-labeled immunohistochemistry, we found no co-localization between neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone and adenosine deaminase (histaminergic marker) in the dorsal tuberomammillary nucleus. We hypothesize that these melanin-concentrating hormone projections participate in spatial memory process mediated by the medial mammillary nucleus. These pathways would enable the animal to look for food during the initial moments of appetite stimulation. PMID:12435428

  16. Early-life exposure to lithium and boron from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Harari, Florencia; Ronco, Ana María; Concha, Gabriela; Llanos, Miguel; Grandér, Margaretha; Castro, Francisca; Palm, Brita; Nermell, Barbro; Vahter, Marie

    2012-12-01

    The transfer of lithium and boron from exposed mothers to fetuses and breast-fed infants was investigated in areas in northern Argentina and Chile with up to 700 ?g lithium/L and 5-10 mg boron/L in drinking water. Maternal and cord blood concentrations were strongly correlated and similar in size for both lithium (47 and 70 ?g/L, respectively) and boron (220 and 145 ?g/L, respectively). The first infant urine produced after birth contained the highest concentrations (up to 1700 ?g lithium/L and 14,000 ?g boron/L). Breast-milk contained 40 and 60% of maternal blood concentrations of lithium and boron, respectively (i.e. about 30 and 250 ?g/L, respectively, in high exposure areas), and infant urine concentrations decreased immediately after birth (120 ?g lithium/L and 920 ?g boron/L). We conclude that lithium and boron easily passed the placenta to the fetus, and that exclusively breast-fed infants seemed to have lower exposure than formula-fed infants. PMID:23017911

  17. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2010-05-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. PMID:20199833

  18. Fracture Strength: Stress Concentration, Extreme Value Statistics, and the Fate of the Weibull Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertalan, Zsolt; Shekhawat, Ashivni; Sethna, James P.; Zapperi, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The statistical properties of fracture strength of brittle and quasibrittle materials are often described in terms of the Weibull distribution. However, the weakest-link hypothesis, commonly used to justify it, is expected to fail when fracture occurs after significant damage accumulation. Here we show that this implies that the Weibull distribution is unstable in a renormalization-group sense for a large class of quasibrittle materials. Our theoretical arguments are supported by numerical simulations of disordered fuse networks. We also find that for brittle materials such as ceramics, the common assumption that the strength distribution can be derived from the distribution of preexisting microcracks by using Griffith's criteria is invalid. We attribute this discrepancy to crack bridging. Our findings raise questions about the applicability of Weibull statistics to most practical cases.

  19. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  20. Adjustable boron carbonitride nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Zhi; J. D. Guo; X. D. Bai; E. G. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The adjustable photoluminescence (PL) and field electron emission (FEE) properties of boron carbonitride (B–C–N) nanotubes grown under well-controlled conditions are studied systematically. Large-scale highly aligned B–C–N nanotubes are synthesized directly on Ni substrates by the bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition method. Single-walled B–C–N nanotubes and nanometric B–C–N heterojunctions are obtained by the pulsed-arc-discharge technique and pause-reactivation two-stage process, respectively.

  1. Adjustable boron carbonitride nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Zhi; J. D. Guo; X. D. Bai; E. G. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The adjustable photoluminescence (PL) and field electron emission (FEE) properties of boron carbonitride (B-C-N) nanotubes grown under well-controlled conditions are studied systematically. Large-scale highly aligned B-C-N nanotubes are synthesized directly on Ni substrates by the bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition method. Single-walled B-C-N nanotubes and nanometric B-C-N heterojunctions are obtained by the pulsed-arc-discharge technique and pause-reactivation two-stage process, respectively.

  2. Distribution of BPA and metabolic assessment in glioblastoma patients during BNCT treatment: a microdialysis study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tommy Bergenheim; Jacek Capala; Michael Roslin; Roger Henriksson

    2005-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is dependent on the selective accumulation of boron-10 in tumour cells. To maximise the radiation effect, the neutrons should be delivered when the ratio between the boron concentration in tumour cells to that in normal tissues reaches maximum. However, the pharmacokinetics of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and other boron delivery agents are only partly known. We used

  3. Distribution of uranium concentration in groundwater samples from the Peddagattu/Nambapur and Seripally regions using laser fluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, T; Srilatha, K; Mahender, C; Elander, M; Vijayalakshmi, T; Himabindu, V; Prasad, Vishwa; Padma Savithri, P; Datta, D; Arunachalam, J

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring element, which is widespread in nature. It is found in low levels within all rocks, soils and water. Peddagattu and Seripally areas of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India were known as a rich uranium mineralised zone. Atomic mineral division and Baba Atomic Research Center proposed a uranium mine in this area. This study was carried out to know the distribution of uranium concentration in the groundwater samples by using laser fluorimetry. The observation reveals that the uranium concentration in the groundwater of this region ranges from 0.6 to 521.15 ppb. About 43 % of the groundwater samples had the uranium concentration above the standards set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (30 ppb). PMID:24048245

  4. Pesticide distributions in surface water: The distribution of pesticide concentrations at two study sites points to herbicides that may affect management of public water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Wieczorek, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Distributions of concentrations of 46 pesticides were documented from May 1992 through March 1994 for Maple Creek near Nickerson, Neb., and Platte River at Louisville, Neb. As their source of public water supplies, Lincoln and the western part of Omaha withdraw groundwater from the adjacent alluvium near the Platte River site, which is hydraulically connected to the Platte River. Organonitrogen herbicides dominated the pesticide distributions at each site. Variations in the distributions of pesticides at the two sites partly reflect differences in land use and land management practices. Diazinon, an insecticide used in urban areas, was commonly detected at the Platte River site but not at the Maple Creek site. Of the 46 pesticides analyzed at the Platte River site, the herbicides atrazine and alachlor were more likely to exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels of 3.0 and 2.0 pg/L; cyanazine was more likely to exceed the health advisory level of 1.0 ??g/L.

  5. Anaemia of rheumatoid arthritis: serum erythropoietin concentrations and red cell distribution width in relation to iron status.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, O J; Andersen, L S; Ludwigsen, E; Bouchelouche, P; Hansen, T M; Birgens, H; Hansen, N E

    1990-06-01

    Immunoreactive serum erythropoietin concentrations were measured in 35 patients with anaemia associated with active rheumatoid arthritis. Based on an evaluation of stainable iron in the bone marrow (marrow iron grade 0-4) and serum ferritin concentrations (concentrations less than or equal to 60 micrograms/l compatible with iron deficiency) the anaemia was found to be complicated by iron deficiency in 19/35 (54%) of the patients. The mean serum erythropoietin level (57.6 (SD) 27.3) U/l) was sufficiently raised for the degree of anaemia irrespective of the size of the marrow iron stores. Thus the data do not support the contention that suppressed secretion of erythropoietin is involved in the pathogenesis of anaemia of chronic disorders. There was a significant inverse correlation between the haemoglobin concentration and log serum erythropoietin in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In the patients with adequate iron stores, but not in the iron depleted patients, there was a tendency for serum erythropoietin concentrations to correlate positively both with C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Red cell distribution width (mean (SD) 16.3 (1.8)%) was above normal (11.5-14.5%) both in the iron replete and the iron depleted patients, and the mean red cell distribution width values did not differ significantly among the two subpopulations. The plasma lactoferrin concentration (mean (SD) 137.6 (109.9) micrograms/l) was normal and did not differ significantly between the iron deficient patients and those with adequate iron. PMID:2383057

  6. Characterization of concentration, particle size distribution, and contributing factors to ambient hexavalent chromium in an area with multiple emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Huang, Lihui; Shin, Jin Young; Artigas, Francisco; Fan, Zhi-hua (Tina)

    2014-09-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and can be emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including diesel emissions. However, there is limited knowledge about ambient Cr(VI) concentration levels and its particle size distribution. This pilot study characterized ambient Cr(VI) concentrations in the New Jersey Meadowlands (NJ ML) district, which is close to the heavily trafficked New Jersey Turnpike (NJTPK) as well as Chromium Ore Processing Residue (COPR) waste sites. Monitoring was simultaneously conducted at two sites, William site (?50 m from NJTPK) and MERI site (?700 m from NJTPK). The distance between the two sites is approximately 6.2 km. Ambient Cr(VI) concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently measured at both sites during summer and winter. The summer concentrations (mean ± S.D. [median]), 0.13 ± 0.06 [0.12] ng/m3 at the MERI site and 0.08 ± 0.05 [0.07] ng/m3 at the William site, were all significantly higher than the winter concentrations, 0.02 ± 0.01 [0.02] ng/m3 and 0.03 ± 0.01 [0.03] ng/m3 at the MERI and William sites, respectively. The site difference (i.e., MERI > William) was observed for summer Cr(VI) concentrations; however, no differences for winter and pooled datasets. These results suggest higher Cr(VI) concentrations may be attributed from stronger atmospheric reactions such as photo-oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the summer. The Cr(VI) distribution as a function of particle size, ranging from 0.18 to 18 ?m, was determined at the William site. It was found that Cr(VI) was enriched in the particles less than 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM2.5). This finding suggested potential health concerns, because PM2.5 are easily inhaled and deposited in the alveoli. A multiple linear regression analysis confirmed ambient Cr(VI) concentrations were significantly affected by meteorological factors (i.e., temperature and humidity) and reactive gases/particles (i.e., O3, Fe and Mn).

  7. Characterization of concentration, particle size distribution, and contributing factors to ambient hexavalent chromium in an area with multiple emission sources

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Huang, Lihui; Shin, Jin Young; Artigas, Francisco; Fan, Zhi-hua (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and can be emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including diesel emissions. However, there is limited knowledge about ambient Cr(VI) concentration levels and its particle size distribution. This pilot study characterized ambient Cr(VI) concentrations in the New Jersey Meadowlands (NJ ML) district, which is close to the heavily trafficked New Jersey Turnpike (NJTPK) as well as Chromium Ore Processing Residue (COPR) waste sites. Monitoring was simultaneously conducted at two sites, William site (~50 m from NJTPK) and MERI site (~700 m from NJTPK). The distance between the two sites is approximately 6.2 km. Ambient Cr(VI) concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently measured at both sites during summer and winter. The summer concentrations (mean ± S.D. [median]), 0.13 ± 0.06 [0.12] ng/m3 at the MERI site and 0.08 ± 0.05 [0.07] ng/m3 at the William site, were all significantly higher than the winter concentrations, 0.02 ± 0.01 [0.02] ng/m3 and 0.03 ± 0.01 [0.03] ng/m3 at the MERI and William sites, respectively. The site difference (i.e., MERI > William) was observed for summer Cr(VI) concentrations; however, no differences for winter and pooled datasets. These results suggest higher Cr(VI) concentrations may be attributed from stronger atmospheric reactions such as photo-oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the summer. The Cr(VI) distribution as a function of particle size, ranging from 0.18 to 18 ?m, was determined at the William site. It was found that Cr(VI) was enriched in the particles less than 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM2.5). This finding suggested potential health concerns, because PM2.5 are easily inhaled and deposited in the alveoli. A multiple linear regression analysis confirmed ambient Cr(VI) concentrations were significantly affected by meteorological factors (i.e., temperature and humidity) and reactive gases/particles (i.e., O3, Fe and Mn). PMID:25750579

  8. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PHYTOPLANKTON CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATIONS IN NARRAGANSETT BAY USING AIRCRAFT REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 2002, phytoplankton chlorophyll concentrations were determined in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island using a light aircraft equipped with the MicroSAS remote sensing system. From an altitude of 300 m, the three sensor system measured sea surface radiance (Lt), sk...

  9. Corrosion of concentric neutrals on buried power distribution cables. Paper No. 128

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Schick

    1975-01-01

    Galvanic corrosion between the carbon particles in polyethylene and copper or lead-tin alloy coating of concentric neutral wires contribute to the neutral wire corrosion but it cannot cause the type and rate of failures observed in the field. The corrosion failure areas are localized, the most corroded areas are covered by red cuprous oxide, and surrounded by virtually unaffected lead-tin

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF FINGERLING BROOK TROUT, SALVELINUS FONTINALIS (MITCHELL), IN DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A self-recording linear gradient tank and procedures are described in which individual brook trout fingerlings unstressed by recent transfer, unaccustomed surroundings or the presence of an observer could move freely in 16 oxygen concentration gradients within the limits of 1 and...

  11. CONCENTRATIONS AND PHASE DISTRIBUTIONS OF NITRATED AND OXYGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of nitrated and oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air, both in the vapor phase and adsorbed on airborne particles, were measured over a 12-month period in Houston, Texas. easonal variations in the levels of the target compounds were weakly relat...

  12. Boron injection/dilution capabilities in TRACB/NEM coupled code

    SciTech Connect

    Jambrina, A.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G. [Inst. for the Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety ISIRYM, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia UPV (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    The coupled code TRAC-BF1/NEM is a thermal-hydraulic-neutronic code which allows transient simulations considering neutronic 3D and thermal-hydraulic process in multiple channels with one-dimensional geometry. TRAC-BF1 and NEM can be executed either in stand-alone mode, i.e. without coupling, as well as coupled. In stand-alone calculations NEM code is used without coupling and the thermal-hydraulic conditions (fuel temperature, moderator density and boron concentration) and xenon concentration for each node are taken from the SIMULATE3 output files. The NEM's source code has been modified to be able to read these conditions from external files when it is executed without being coupled. The coupling between TRAC-BF1 and NEM follows an integration scheme in which the thermal-hydraulic solution of TRAC-BF1 is sent to NEM to incorporate the feedback effects through the cross sections. TRAC-BF1 solves heat conduction equations inside of the heat structures using the 3D power distribution from NEM. The coupling is carried out through the communication protocol functions of PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). The present article presents a study which constitutes an advance in the simulation of injection, transport and mix of boron in the reactor, increasing the capabilities of TRAC-BF1/NEM coupled code. This article shows the modifications introduced in the TRAC-BF1/NEM's source code to allow a more realistic simulation of boron injection transients. The qualification of these improvements in both codes is performed simulating a steady state of a generic BWR at nominal power. The results have been compared with SIMULATE3 which is used as a reference to obtain the cross sections through the SIMTAB methodology. (authors)

  13. Raman characterization of boron carbonitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, C. Y.; Bai, X. D.; Wang, E. G.

    2002-05-01

    A systematic Raman study of boron carbonitride (BCN) nanotubes, synthesized by bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition, is reported. Raman spectra up to the fourth order are observed from the BCN nanotubes. Comparing with pure carbon nanotubes, the Raman bands in BCN nanotubes are broadened and the relative intensity of the D mode with respect to the G mode varies with increasing B and N atomic concentrations. The underlying mechanism has been studied on the basis of the microstructures obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  14. Aerosol particle concentration and size distribution measurements and modeling in the urban environment for semi-arid and rainy atmospheric conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bendersky; N. Kopeika; N. Blaunstein

    2006-01-01

    Various experiments have been carried out recently in the Middle East urban (Beer Sheva, Israel) environment for prediction of aerosol particle concentration and size distribution. During these experiments aerosol particle concentrations for different weather conditions were measured and analyzed. This work proposes a new model for urban aerosol size distribution prediction based on an extensive series of measurements. The model

  15. Influence of sea-breeze winds on aerosol particle concentration and size distribution for up to 50-km overland distances in the Middle East

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bendersky; N. Kopeika; N. Blaunstein

    2005-01-01

    Various experiments have been carried out recently in Middle East (Israel) environments for prediction of aerosol particle concentration and size distribution versus sea-breeze wind speeds and overland ranges. During these experiments aerosol particle concentrations for different overland distances were measured and analyzed. This work proposes a new model for aerosol size distribution prediction up to 50-km distance away from the

  16. The behavior of disk electrodes. Optical imaging of the concentration distribution over a disk electrode under galvanostatic conditions species selective gas chromatographic detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Daschbach; Stanley F. Simpson; Joel M. Harris; Martin Fleischmann; Stanley Pons

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the theoretical and experimental determination of the integrated time dependent concentration distribution of an electrogenerated species over a disk electrode embedded in an insulated plane. We have derived this result for the case of constant applied flux (chronopotentiometry). The experimental technique used for observing the integrated concentration distribution over the electrode was imaging by a

  17. Chromium boron surfaced nickel-iron base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashid, James M. (Inventor); Friedrich, Leonard A. (Inventor); Freling, Melvin (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Chromium boron diffusion coatings on nickel iron alloys uniquely provide them with improvement in high cycle fatigue strength (up to 30%) and erosion resistance (up to 15 times), compared to uncoated alloy. The diffused chromium layer extends in two essential concentration zones to a total depth of about 40.times.10.sup.-6 m, while the succeeding boron layer is limited to 50-90% of the depth of the richest Cr layer nearest the surface. Both coatings are applied using conventional pack diffusion processes.

  18. Turbostratic boron carbonitride film and its field-emitting behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Wang, E. G.

    1999-05-01

    The turbostratic structure of boron carbonitride (BCN) films with various compositions synthesized by bias-assisted hot-filament chemical-vapor deposition was studied by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Boron atoms can be incorporated into the turbostratic structure with a concentration up to 70%, and the interplanar spacing 3.49 Å is independent of the film compositions in this range. Field-emission behavior of the BCN films is characterized. A low threshold electric field of 4 V/?m and maximum emission current of 0.31 mA are obtained, which suggest a new candidate as a field-emitting material.

  19. Evaluation of hexagonal boron nitride as a new tablet lubricant.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Murat; Sahin, Inan; San, Tangul

    2005-01-01

    In this study, hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) was evaluated as a new lubricant for pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing. The other conventional lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), and glyceryl behenate (COMP) were also tested along with HBN. Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented single-station tablet press to monitor and quantify the lower punch ejection force (LPEF). The force ratio, tablet crushing strength, disintegration time, and thickness were measured. The lubricant film formation and lubricant distribution in tablets were studied using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Based on the force ratio, a good lubrication was obtained at 1% for MGST and HBN; in contrast, STAC and COMP did not show a good lubrication. After 1%, all lubricants performed well. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on LPEF-lubricant concentration profile. HBN provided a 50% decrease in LPEF at 2% lubricant concentration and was rated as an effective tablet lubricant. HBN was better than either STAC or COMP. Unlike MGST, HBN had no significant prolongation effect on tablet disintegration times. PMID:16176018

  20. On Boron Diffusion in MgF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Cervena, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR and Research Centrum Rez, CZ-25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Posta, S. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez, plc. and Research Centrum Rez, CZ-25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Koester, U. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 6, Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Pasold, G. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich Schiller Universitaet Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2009-03-10

    The MgF{sub 2} monocrystals were irradiated at room temperature with 390 keV B{sup +} ions up to the fluence of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. The irradiated samples were (isochronally and isothermally) annealed in high vacuum at the temperatures 200 deg. C, 300 deg. C, 400 deg. C, 500 deg. C, 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C for the times ranging from 2-100 hours. After each annealing step, the boron depth distribution was determined using the neutron depth profiling technique. As implanted, the depth distributions of boron exhibited standard Gaussian-like forms, but the evaluated profile parameters, R{sub P} = 960 nm and {delta}R{sub P} = 140 nm, were higher than those calculated using the SRIM code (R{sub P} = 870 nm and {delta}R{sub P} = 115 nm). Annealing at temperatures up to 400 deg. C did not change the depth profiles. Annealing at 600 deg. C, however, led to a one-way gradual transfer of the boron atoms from the site of implantation towards the sample surface, and in this way a bimodal profile was created. The amount of boron atoms, transferred to the sample surface, was an increasing function of the annealing time. After annealing at 700 deg. C for 64 hours the bimodal profile collapsed into a single broad distribution, extending from the sample surface up to the implantation depth. The observed phenomena clearly points out the stability of the as-implanted boron depth profiles at lower annealing temperatures. Thermal annealing above 600 deg. C, however, liberates boron atoms, which then predominantly migrate from the implantation site towards the sample surface, where they are captured on some unspecified surface defects.

  1. Bath Concentration of Anionic Contrast Agents Does Not Affect Their Diffusion and Distribution in Articular Cartilage In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Tiitu, Virpi; Quinn, Thomas M.; Töyräs, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Differences in contrast agent diffusion reflect changes in composition and structure of articular cartilage. However, in clinical application the contrast agent concentration in the joint capsule varies, which may affect the reliability of contrast enhanced cartilage tomography (CECT). In the present study, effects of concentration of x-ray contrast agents on their diffusion and equilibrium distribution in cartilage were investigated. Design: Full-thickness cartilage discs (d = 4.0 mm, n = 120) were detached from bovine patellae (n = 24). The diffusion of various concentrations of ioxaglate (5, 10, 21, 50 mM) and iodide (30, 60, 126, 300 mM) was allowed only through the articular surface. Samples were imaged with a clinical peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanner before immersion in contrast agent, and after 1, 5, 9, 16, 25, and 29 hours in the bath. Results: Diffusion and partition coefficients were similar between different contrast agent concentrations. The diffusion coefficient of iodide (473 ± 133 µm2/s) was greater (P ? 0.001) than that of ioxaglate (92 ± 46 µm2/s). In full-thickness cartilage, the partition coefficient (at 29 h) of iodide (71 ± 5%) was greater (P ? 0.02 with most concentrations) than that of ioxaglate (62 ± 6%). Conclusions: Significant differences in partition and diffusion coefficient of two similarly charged (?1) contrast agents were detected, which shows the effect of steric interactions. However, the increase in solute concentration did not increase its partition coefficient. In clinical application, it is important that contrast agent concentration does not affect the interpretation of CECT imaging.

  2. Concentration, distribution, and human health risk assessment of endosulfan from a manufacturing facility in Huai'an, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Gao; Alaee, Mehran; Guo, Ming-Xing; Pei, Wei; Wu, Qian

    2014-09-01

    Endosulfan concentrations and its distribution in air, soil, sediment and foodstuffs in the area surrounding a production facility in Huai'an, China were investigated because of its threats to the environment and human health. Air concentrations for endosulfan ?, endosulfan II and endosulfan sulfate measured in this study were several orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously for this region. Surface soil concentration ranges of endosulfan I, endosulfan II, and endosulfan sulfate were greater than in sediment. Endosulfan II was the greatest contributor to total endosulfan concentrations in both surface sediment and soil followed by endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan ?. However, a different concentration profile was observed in fish and crop samples, with endosulfan sulfate having the highest concentration followed by endosulfan I and endosulfan II. The concentration of ?endosulfans (endosulfans ? and II) in soil decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the plant by a factor of 10 within 45 km. Trace amounts of ?endosulfans were observed in deep soil layers which implied that these compounds are transported through the leaching of pore water in soil. This demonstrated that emissions from the manufacturing facility can lead to ground water contamination in the area near the plant. A screening level human health risk assessment of ?endosulfans based on the worst-case scenario was performed for people living in the vicinity of the manufacturing facility. The hazard indices were at least 2 orders of magnitude of <1, indicating no adverse health effects are likely to occur at current exposure levels, and the risk to human health is generally acceptable. PMID:24491393

  3. Determination of boron and lithium by recording the products from (n, alpha) reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobanov, Y. M.; Zverev, B. P.; Simakhin, Y. F.; Usmanova, M. M.

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation with thermal neutrons in the VVR-S reactor provides a nondestructive method for determining the presence of boron and lithium in solids. The charged particles produced in the reactions Li-6(n,alpha)H-3 and B-10(n,alpha)Li-7 were detected using CsI single crystal. For alpha-particle spectrometry in the boron determination, an ionization chamber (W and Sn electrodes, 99% Ar + 1% H2) was developed allowing both absolute and relative measurements. In determining boron in lithium-containing samples, both scintillation and ionization chambers are used. In determining lithium in minerals, the error was 1.5%, and the sensitivity 0.00005 wt.%. In the determination of boron in SiC with a concentration of boron approximately (3 plus or minus 2) the error given by the alpha-range uncertainty was 15%.

  4. Some aspects of statistical distribution of trace element concentrations in biomedical samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Majewska; J. Braziewicz; D. Banas; A. Kubala-Kukus; S. Góz Dz; M. Pajek; M. Zadrozsolarna; M. Jaskóla; T. Czyzsolarewski

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in biomedical samples were studied using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methods. Used analytical methods were compared in terms of their detection limits and applicability for studying the trace elements in large populations of biomedical samples. In a result, the XRF and TRXRF methods were selected to be

  5. Effect of traffic restriction on atmospheric particle concentrations and their size distributions in urban Lanzhou, Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Liu, Na; He, Jianjun; Chen, Jinbei

    2014-02-01

    During the 2012 Lanzhou International Marathon, the local government made a significant effort to improve traffic conditions and air quality by implementing traffic restriction measures. To evaluate the direct effect of these measures on urban air quality, especially particle concentrations and their size distributions, atmospheric particle size distributions (0.5-20 microm) obtained using an aerodynamic particle sizer (model 3321, TSI, USA) in June 2012 were analyzed. It was found that the particle number, surface area and volume concentrations for size range 0.5-10 microm were (15.0 +/- 2.1) cm(-3), (11.8 +/- 2.6) microm2/cm3 and (1.9 +/- 0.6) microm2/cm3, respectively, on the traffic-restricted day (Sunday), which is 63.2%, 53.0% and 47.2% lower than those on a normal Sunday. For number and surface area concentrations, the most affected size range was 0.5-0.7 and 0.5-0.8 microm, respectively, while for volume concentration, the most affected size ranges were 0.5-0.8, 1.7-2.0 and 5.0-5.4 microm. Number and volume concentrations of particles in size range 0.5-1.0 microm correlated well with the number of non-CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) powered vehicles, while their correlation with the number of CNG-powered vehicles was very low, suggesting that reasonable urban traffic controls along with vehicle technology improvements could play an important role in improving urban air quality. PMID:25076527

  6. Carbon-rich icosahedral boron carbide designed from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, Antoine; Vast, Nathalie; Sjakste, Jelena; Duparc, Olivier Hardouin [Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CEA-DSM-IRAMIS, CNRS UMR 7642, F-91120 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-07-21

    The carbon-rich boron-carbide (B{sub 11}C)C-C has been designed from first principles within the density functional theory. With respect to the most common boron carbide at 20% carbon concentration B{sub 4}C, the structural modification consists in removing boron atoms from the chains linking (B{sub 11}C) icosahedra. With C-C instead of C-B-C chains, the formation of vacancies is shown to be hindered, leading to enhanced mechanical strength with respect to B{sub 4}C. The phonon frequencies and elastic constants turn out to prove the stability of the carbon-rich phase, and important fingerprints for its characterization have been identified.

  7. Ordering of carbon atoms in boron carbide structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev, V. I., E-mail: i2212@yandex.ru; Kovalev, I. D.; Konovalikhin, S. V.; Vershinnikov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    Boron carbide crystals have been obtained in the entire compositional range according to the phase diagram by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Based on the results of X-ray diffraction investigations, the samples were characterized by the unit-cell metric and reflection half-width in the entire range of carbon concentrations. A significant spread in the boron carbide unit-cell parameters for the same carbon content is found in the data in the literature; this spread contradicts the structural concepts for covalent compounds. The SHS samples have not revealed any significant spread in the unit-cell parameters. Structural analysis suggests that the spread of parameters in the literary data is related to the unique process of ordering of carbon atoms in the boron carbide structure.

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): A radiation oncology perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.V. III (Mountain States Tumor Institute, Boise, ID (United States) Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1994-03-30

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) offers considerable promise in the search for the ideal cancer therapy, a therapy which selectively and maximally damages malignant cells while sparing normal tissue. This bimodal treatment modality selectivity concentrates a boron compound in malignant cells, and then [open quotes]activates[close quotes] this compound with slow neutrons resulting in a highly lethal event within the cancer cell. This article reviews this treatment modality from a radiation oncology, biology, and physics perspective. The remainder of the articles in this special issue provide a survey of the current [open quotes]state-of-the-art[close quotes] in this rapidly expanding field, including information with regard to boron compounds and their localization. 118 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of traces of boron in high purity silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, D.C.; Sarkar, A.K.; Singh, N. (National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India))

    1989-07-01

    A reddish brown complex is formed between boron and curcumin in concentrated sulfuric acid and glacial acetic acid mixture (1:1). The colored complex is highly selective and stable for about 3 hours and has the maximum absorbance at 545 nm. The sensitivity of the method is extremely high and the detection limit is 3 parts per billion based on 0.004 absorbance value. The interference of some of the important cations and anions relevant to silicon were studied and it is found that 100 fold excess of most of these cations and anions do not interfere in the determination of boron. The method is successfully employed for the determination of boron in silicon used in semiconductor devices. The results have been verified by standard addition method.

  10. Reprint of: Concentrations, distribution, and bioaccumulation of synthetic musks in the Haihe River of China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengjun; Shi, Yali; Cai, Yaqi

    2011-09-01

    Seven typical synthetic musks (SMs) in the samples from the surface water, sediment and fish of the Haihe River were measured. The SM concentrations in the sediment and surface water of the Haihe River were significantly lower than those in the Dagu Drainage River and Chentaizi Drainage River (p<0.05). Along the flow direction, the SM concentrations in surface water and sediment tended to increase from the upstream to the downstream of Dagu Drainage River. The Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were calculated at high levels in the muscles of crucian carp, common carp, and silver carp. Most of the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for HHCB and AHTN were higher than 1.7, suggesting magnification possibly exist in the musk bioaccumulations of the three fishes in the Haihe River. No significant differences in HHCB/AHTN ratios were observed among the water, fish, and sediment samples (p>0.05). However, the HHCB/AHTN values in the Haihe River were much lower than those in the Dagu Drainage River and Chentaizi Drainage River (p<0.05). Compared with several typical persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the musk concentrations were higher or comparable in the Haihe River. PMID:21944040

  11. Concentrations, distribution, and bioaccumulation of synthetic musks in the Haihe River of China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengjun; Shi, Yali; Cai, Yaqi

    2011-09-01

    Seven typical synthetic musks (SMs) in the samples from the surface water, sediment and fish of the Haihe River were measured. The SM concentrations in the sediment and surface water of the Haihe River were significantly lower than those in the Dagu Drainage River and Chentaizi Drainage River (p<0.05). Along the flow direction, the SM concentrations in surface water and sediment tended to increase from the upstream to the downstream of Dagu Drainage River. The Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were calculated at high levels in the muscles of crucian carp, common carp, and silver carp. Most of the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for HHCB and AHTN were higher than 1.7, suggesting magnification possibly exist in the musk bioaccumulations of the three fishes in the Haihe River. No significant differences in HHCB/AHTN ratios were observed among the water, fish, and sediment samples (p>0.05). However, the HHCB/AHTN values in the Haihe River were much lower than those in the Dagu Drainage River and Chentaizi Drainage River (p<0.05). Compared with several typical persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the musk concentrations were higher or comparable in the Haihe River. PMID:21624633

  12. Concentration and distribution of PCNs in ambient soil of a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhenyu; Li, Haifeng; Xie, Huiting; Tang, Chen; Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin

    2014-09-01

    The impact of a typical municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) on polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) concentrations in surrounding soil was studied. We collected 6 stack gas samples from the MSWI and 21 soil samples from sampling sites at distances of between 300 and 1,700 m from the MSWI stack. Total dl-PCN (dioxin-like PCN) concentrations in the stack gas samples ranged from 6898 and 89,032 pg m(-3), with a mean value of 36,241 pg m(-3). The total dl-PCN concentrations in the soil samples ranged from 30.35 to 280.9 pg g(-1), with a mean value of 87.03 and a median value of 70.32 pg g(-1), while the TEQ values were between 7.7 and 130.2 fg TEQ g(-1), with a mean value of 41.12 fg TEQ g(-1) and a median value of 31.52fg TEQ g(-1). The PCN homologue patterns and the results of Principal Component Analysis suggested that the MSWI may be a source of PCNs in the soils. A contour map, created using an ordinary Kriging interpolation technique, showed that a limited area (? 1,000 m radius) surrounding the MSWI was influenced by the emissions from the MSWI. Furthermore, an exponential function equation was proposed to quantify the relationship between TEQs of PCNs and the distance from the stack. PMID:24457132

  13. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations, temporal variability, and predictors of phthalate biomarkers among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Preliminary results suggest several potentially important exposure sources to phthalates in this population and future analysis from this ongoing prospective cohort will help to inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure. PMID:24161445

  14. Sampling and analysis of chemical element concentration distribution in rock units and orebodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agterberg, F. P.

    2012-01-01

    Existing sampling techniques applied within known orebodies, such as sampling along mining drifts, yield element concentration values for larger blocks of ore if they are extended into their surroundings. The resulting average concentration values have relatively small "extension variance". These techniques can be used for multifractal modeling as well as ore reserve estimation approaches. Geometric probability theory can aid in local spatial covariance modeling. It provides information about increase of variability of element concentration over short distances exceeding microscopic scale. In general, the local clustering of ore crystals results in small-scale variability known as the "nugget effect". Parameters to characterize spatial covariance estimated from ore samples subjected to chemical analysis for ore reserve estimation may not be valid at local scale because of the nugget effect. The novel method of local singularity mapping applied within orebodies provides new insights into the nature of the nugget effect. Within the Pulacayo orebody, Bolivia, local singularity for zinc is linearly related with logarithmically transformed concentration value. If there is a nugget effect, moving averages resulting from covariance models or estimated by other methods that have a smoothing effect, such as kriging, can be improved by incorporating local singularities indicating local element enrichment or depletion. Although there have been many successful applications of the multifractal binomial/p model, its application within the Pulacayo orebody results in inconsistencies, indicating some shortcomings of this relatively simple approach. Local singularity analysis and universal multifractal modeling are two promising new approaches to improve upon results obtained by commonly used geostatistical techniques and use of the binomial/p model. All methods in this paper are illustrated using a single example (118 Pulacayo zinc values), and several techniques are applied to other orebody datasets (Whalesback copper deposit, Witwatersrand goldfields and Black Cargo titanium deposit). Additionally, it is discussed that nugget effects exist in a binary series of alternating mostly gneiss and metabasite previously derived from KTB borehole velocity and lithology logs, and within a series of 2796 copper concentration values from this same drill-hole.

  15. Particle size distribution, concentration, and magnetic attraction affect transport of polymer-modified Fe(0) nanoparticles in sand columns.

    PubMed

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Kim, Hye-Jin; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Illangasekare, Tissa; Tilton, Robert D; Lowry, Gregory V

    2009-07-01

    The effect of particle concentration, size distribution (polydispersity) and magnetic attractive forces (Fe(0) content) on agglomeration and transport of poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) modified NZVI was studied in water-saturated sand (d(p) = 300 microm) columns. Particle concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 6 g/L in 5 mM NaCl/5 mM NaHCO3 at a pore water velocity of 3.2 x 10(-4) m/s. Three NZVI dispersions with different intrinsic particle size distributions obtained from sequential sedimentation are compared. The influence of magnetic attraction (Fe(0) content) on NZVI agglomeration and deposition in porous media is assessed by comparing the deposition behavior of PSS-modified NZVI (magnetic) having different Fe(0) contents with PSS-modified hematite (nonmagnetic) with the same surface modifier. At low particle concentration (30 mg/L) all particles were mobile in sand columns regardless of size or magnetic attractive forces. At high concentration (1 to 6 g/L), deposition of the relatively monodisperse dispersion containing PSS-modified NZVI (hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) = 24 nm) with the lowest Fe(0) content (4 wt%) is low (attachment efficiency (alpha) = 2.5 x 10(-3)), insensitive to particle concentration, and similar to PSS-modified hematite. At 1 to 6 g/L, the attachment efficiency of polydisperse dispersions containing both primary particles and sintered aggregates (R(H) from 15 to 260 nm) of PSS-modified NZVI with a range of Fe(0) content (10-60%) is greater (alpha = 1.2 x 10(-2) to 7.2 x 10(-2) and is sensitive to particle size distribution. The greater attachment for larger, more polydisperse Fe(0) nanoparticles with higher Fe(0) content is a result of their agglomeration during transport in porous media because the magnetic attractive force between particles increases with the sixth power of particle/agglomerate radius. A filtration model that considers agglomeration in porous media and subsequent deposition explains the observed transport of polydisperse PSS-modified NZVI at high concentration. PMID:19673310

  16. Heavily boron-doped Si layers grown below 700 C by molecular beam epitaxy using a HBO2 source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Fathauer, R. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Boron doping in Si layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at 500-700 C using an HBO2 source has been studied. The maximum boron concentration without detectable oxygen incorporation for a given substrate temperature and Si growth rate has been determined using secondary-ion mass spectrometry analysis. Boron present in the Si MBE layers grown at 550-700 C was found to be electrically active, independent of the amount of oxygen incorporation. By reducing the Si growth rate, highly boron-doped layers have been grown at 600 C without detectable oxygen incorporation.

  17. Residual stresses in boron/tungsten and boron/carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    By measuring the change in fracture stress of 203 micrometer diameter fibers of boron on tungsten (B/W) as a function of fiber diameter as reduced by chemical etching, it is shown that the flaws which limit B/W fiber strength are located at the surface and in the tungsten boride core. After etching to a diameter of 188 micrometers m virtually all fiber fractures were caused by core flaws, the average strength being 4.50 GN/sq m. If both the surface and core flaws are removed, the fracture strength, limited by flaws in the boron itself, is approximately 6.89 GN/sq m. This was measured on B/W fibers which were split longitudinally and had their cores removed by chemical etching. The longitudinal residual stress distribution was determined for 102 micrometer diameter B/W and B/C fibers.

  18. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoZZoque 128, suppZ6ment au n08, Tome 41, ao2t 2980, page C8-352 DIFFUSION IN SOME IRON-NICKEL-BORON GLASSES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IN SOME IRON-NICKEL-BORON GLASSES U. Ksster and U. Herold Institut fur Werkstoffe, Ruhr-Universitat, 0- stallization. Therefore, only very few measurements .. 4, have been published so far. Very recently, boron this approach and assuming boron concentrations of less than 1 at.% in the primary crystals and about 25 at

  19. Ion implantation of boron in germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.S.

    1985-05-01

    Ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into room temperature Ge samples leads to a p-type layer prior to any post implant annealing steps. Variable temperature Hall measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy experiments indicate that room temperature implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into Ge results in 100% of the boron ions being electrically active as shallow acceptor, over the entire dose range (5 x 10/sup 11//cm/sup 2/ to 1 x 10/sup 14//cm/sup 2/) and energy range (25 keV to 100 keV) investigated, without any post implant annealing. The concentration of damage related acceptor centers is only 10% of the boron related, shallow acceptor center concentration for low energy implants (25 keV), but becomes dominant at high energies (100 keV) and low doses (<1 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 2/). Three damage related hole traps are produced by ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/. Two of these hole traps have also been observed in ..gamma..-irradiated Ge and may be oxygen-vacancy related defects, while the third trap may be divacancy related. All three traps anneal out at low temperatures (<300/sup 0/C). Boron, from room temperature implantation of BF/sub 2//sup +/ into Ge, is not substitutionally active prior to a post implant annealing step of 250/sup 0/C for 30 minutes. After annealing additional shallow acceptors are observed in BF/sub 2//sup +/ implanted samples which may be due to fluorine or flourine related complexes which are electrically active.

  20. Investigation of the matrix effect in determining microimpurities in boron and its compounds by atomic-emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, R. V.; Tumanova, A. N.; Mashin, N. I.

    2007-07-01

    We carried out a systematic study of the influence of the main component on the change of analytical signal during atomic-emission analysis of boron compounds. Changes in the intensity of spectral lines of microimpurities as functions of their concentrations in the analytical system based on graphite powder with a variable content of boric acid and boron oxide are presented.

  1. IMPAIRMENT OF GROWTH AND IMMUNE FUNCTION OF AVOCET CHICKS FROM SITES WITH ELEVATED SELENIUM, ARSENIC, AND BORON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Avocet chicks hatched from eggs collected from the south Central Valley of California were studied to determine the impact of elevated concentrations of selenium, boron, and arsenic on the immune system and growth to maturity. elenium, arsenic, and boron residues were measured in...

  2. How well can a regression function be estimated if the distribution of the (random) design is concentrated on a finite set?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hamers; Michael Kohler

    2004-01-01

    In nonparametric regression with random design one often derives rate-of-convergence results under the assumption that the distribution of the (random) design is (in some sense) close to a uniform distribution on some infinite set. But in real data applications the distribution of the random design is often concentrated on some finite set. We show that in this case one gets

  3. How well can a regression function be estimated if the distribution of the (random) design is concentrated on a finite set?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamers; M. Kohler

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: In nonparametric regression one often derives rate-of-convergence results under the assumption that the distribution of the design is (in some sense) close to a uniform distribution on some infinite set. But in real data applications the distribution of the design is usually concentrated on some finite set. We show that in this case one gets totally different results concerning

  4. Boron carbonitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhi, C Y; Bai, X D; Wang, E G

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the design, synthesis, characterization, and properties of boron carbonitride nanotubes (BCN) is presented in this review. Distinctive structural and electronic properties are revealed in theoretical studies of the BCN nanotubes and compared with the properties of carbon nanotubes. In the experimental studies, BCN nanotubes have been synthesized by various techniques. For different purposes, controllable growth processes have been used to fabricate BCN nanotubes with novel structures, such as nanojunctions and filled nanotubes. Some interesting phenomena originating from the substitution of B and N atoms, such as the phase segregation, are considered theoretically and experimentally. Mainly the physical properties--field electron emission and photoluminescence--are discussed, which turn out to have potential applications in the industry. PMID:15112540

  5. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Atlanta, GA); Kim, Dong Seop (Atlanta, GA); Nakayashiki, Kenta (Smyrna, GA); Rounsaville, Brian (Stockbridge, GA)

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  6. Dose point kernel for boron-11 decay and the cellular S values in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunzhi; Geng, JinPeng; Gao, Song; Bao, Shanglian

    2006-12-01

    The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction 10B(n,alpha)7Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the dose is heterogeneously distributed in cells. In the present work, the (scaled) dose point kernel of boron-11 decay, called 11B-DPK, was calculated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The DPK curve drops suddenly at the radius of 4.26 microm, the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) range of a lithium-7 ion. Then, after a slight ascending, the curve decreases to near zero when the radius goes beyond 8.20 microm, which is the CSDA range of a 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion. With the DPK data, S values for nuclei and cells with the boron-10 on the cell surface are calculated for different combinations of cell and nucleus sizes. The S value for a cell radius of 10 microm and a nucleus radius of 5 microm is slightly larger than the value published by Tung et al. [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 739-743 (2004)]. This result is potentially more accurate than the published value since it includes the contribution of a lithium-7 ion as well as the alpha particle. PMID:17278826

  7. CIRCE2/DEKGEN2: A software package for facilitated optical analysis of 3-D distributed solar energy concentrators. Theory and user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.J.

    1994-03-01

    CIRCE2 is a computer code for modeling the optical performance of three-dimensional dish-type solar energy concentrators. Statistical methods are used to evaluate the directional distribution of reflected rays from any given point on the concentrator. Given concentrator and receiver geometries, sunshape (angular distribution of incident rays from the sun), and concentrator imperfections such as surface roughness and random deviation in slope, the code predicts the flux distribution and total power incident upon the target. Great freedom exists in the variety of concentrator and receiver configurations that can be modeled. Additionally, provisions for shading and receiver aperturing are included.- DEKGEN2 is a preprocessor designed to facilitate input of geometry, error distributions, and sun models. This manual describes the optical model, user inputs, code outputs, and operation of the software package. A user tutorial is included in which several collectors are built and analyzed in step-by-step examples.

  8. Preliminary weight and costs of sandwich panels to distribute concentrated loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belleman, G.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Minimum mass honeycomb sandwich panels were sized for transmitting a concentrated load to a uniform reaction through various distances. The form skin gages were fully stressed with a finite element computer code. The panel general stability was evaluated with a buckling computer code labeled STAGS-B. Two skin materials were considered; aluminum and graphite-epoxy. The core was constant thickness aluminum honeycomb. Various panel sizes and load levels were considered. The computer generated data were generalized to allow preliminary least mass panel designs for a wide range of panel sizes and load intensities. An assessment of panel fabrication cost was also conducted. Various comparisons between panel mass, panel size, panel loading, and panel cost are presented in both tabular and graphical form.

  9. Concentration and distribution of antibiotics in water-sediment system of Bosten Lake, Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoning; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zilong; Tong, Yanbin; Li, Shanman

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the residues of four sulfonamides, four quinolones, and four tetracyclines in surface water as well as surficial sediment samples, of Bosten Lake, in Xinjiang, China. The results showed the presence of 10 out of the 12 selected antibiotics in both water and sediment. Lomefloxacin was not detected in any of the samples. Among the 12 antibiotics considered, ciprofloxacin, with median concentrations of 39.22 ng L(-1) in surface water and 76.51 ?g kg(-1) in surficial sediment, was the dominant antibiotic in all samples. The sorption coefficient values presented higher sorption capacities of tetracycline and chlortetracycline than the other antibiotics. The cluster analysis revealed elevated levels of pollution in sampling sites 1, 2, and 3, which were situated in a nearby urban area and in the estuary of Kaidu River. This study demonstrates the necessity of regulating the use of antibiotics and improving the management and treatment of their release. PMID:24809500

  10. Mineral oil in human tissues, Part I: concentrations and molecular mass distributions.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Wuerger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Biedermann, Maurus; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

    2014-10-01

    Of 37 subjects aged 25-91 y (mean 67 y), mineral oil hydrocarbons were measured in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen, liver and lung, for some of them also in kidney, heart and brain. No mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) were detected. The mean concentration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in the mesenteric lymph nodes was 223 mg/kg, in liver 131 mg/kg, in fat tissue 130 mg/kg, in spleen 93 mg/kg and in lung 12 mg/kg. They were clearly lower in kidney, heart and brain. The maxima, found in MLN and spleen, were 1390 and 1400 mg/kg, respectively. For a quarter of the subjects a total amount of MOSH in the body above 5 g was calculated. The MOSH composition in the fat tissue and the MLN appeared virtually identical and varied little between the subjects. It was centered on the n-alkanes C23-C24, ranged from C16 to C35 and included hydrocarbons of plant origin. The MOSH in spleen and liver had almost the same composition for a given subject, but varied somewhat between subjects. They were centered between C25 and C27, ranged from C18 to beyond C45 and were without hydrocarbons of plant origin. Part of the MOSH seem to be strongly accumulated, resulting in far higher concentrations in human tissues related to exposure than observed in shorter term animal experiments. The composition of the accumulated MOSH does not support that Class I mineral oils, sometimes termed "food grade", are less accumulated in the human body than Class II and III oils, which questions the present classification. PMID:24780493

  11. Determining the concentration and distribution of arsenic deposits in rock matrices and porous media by X-ray difference microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, D.; Alsina, M.; Chen, C.; Keane, D.; Packman, A. I.; Gaillard, J.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Pasten, P. A.; Pizarro, G.

    2009-12-01

    Synchrotron-based high resolution X-ray microtomography was used to characterize arsenic (As) deposits within porous media. The distribution of arsenic was determined using difference tomography, where the X-rays used to image the sample were selected to be just above and below the As absorption edge at 11,853 eV. The difference tomograms have background noise from other minerals contained in the sample, local variation of X-ray beam intensity, and electronic noise associated with the data acquisition process. Image processing filters, such as windowing or adaptive filters derived from the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, were employed to reduce background noise in the tomograms and enhance information on the arsenic deposits. These errors are generally larger in difference tomography than in conventional X-ray microtomography because this method requires operating at very specific X-ray energies (i.e., an edge of the element of interest), and this constraint makes it very difficult to obtain optimal contrast for tomographic reconstruction. In particular, the signal-to-noise ratio is often low in difference tomograms of geological samples having high background X-ray absorption. The relationship between As concentration and difference image intensity was evaluated using well defined As samples prepared in the laboratory, along with As-rich sinter deposits from El Tatio hydrothermal field and fluvial sediments from the Loa River downstream of El Tatio. This relationship is non-linear because of interactions between the different sources of error in the construction of the difference tomograms. As a result, the difference tomography method is relatively insensitive to bulk As concentrations, and instead primarily provides information on the distribution of regions of the sample that have high As concentrations, such as As-rich particles, precipitates, or evaporite deposits. Tomographic 3D reconstructions of the porous media and of the aggregate structure thus provide an unique opportunity to observe the distribution and morphology of arsenic deposits within primary source formations and mixed fluvial sediments. This approach provides a useful method for obtaining 3D microstructural and chemical information in rock matrices, for investigating contaminant distributions within sedimentary deposits, and for assessing distributions of different mineral phases within biofilms and other organic material.

  12. Activation Behavior of Boron and Phosphorus Atoms Implanted in Polycrystalline Silicon Films by Heat Treatment at 250°C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Sameshima; Nobuyuki Andoh; Yasunori Andoh

    2005-01-01

    The activation behavior of boron and phosphorus implanted into laser-crystallized silicon films were investigated. The ratio of recrystallization of an ion-doping-induced amorphous region by heat treatment at 250°C was 0.35 for a boron concentration lower than 6.4× 1019 cm-3 and 0.5 for a phosphorus concentration lower than 2.5× 1019 cm-3. This ratio decreased as dopant concentration increased. High electrical conductivities

  13. Temporally and spatially resolved plasma spectroscopy in pulsed laser deposition of ultra-thin boron nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, Nicholas R.; Muratore, Christopher; Jespersen, Michael L.; Hu, Jianjun; Fisher, Timothy S.; Voevodin, Andrey A.

    2015-04-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) has recently been investigated as a viable, alternative growth technique for two-dimensional materials with multiple benefits over other vapor deposition synthesis methods. The high kinetic energies and chemical reactivities of the condensing species formed from PVD processes can facilitate growth over large areas and at reduced substrate temperatures. In this study, chemistry, kinetic energies, time of flight data, and spatial distributions within a PVD plasma plume ablated from a boron nitride (BN) target by a KrF laser at different pressures of nitrogen gas were investigated. Time resolved spectroscopy and wavelength specific imaging were used to identify and track atomic neutral and ionized species including B+, B*, N+, N*, and molecular species including N2*, N2+, and BN. Formation and decay of these species formed both from ablation of the target and from interactions with the background gas were investigated and provided insights into fundamental growth mechanisms of continuous, amorphous boron nitride thin films. The correlation of the plasma diagnostic results with film chemical composition and thickness uniformity studies helped to identify that a predominant mechanism for BN film formation is condensation surface recombination of boron ions and neutral atomic nitrogen species. These species arrive nearly simultaneously to the substrate location, and BN formation occurs microseconds before arrival of majority of N+ ions generated by plume collisions with background molecular nitrogen. The energetic nature and extended dwelling time of incident N+ ions at the substrate location was found to negatively impact resulting BN film stoichiometry and thickness. Growth of stoichiometric films was optimized at enriched concentrations of ionized boron and neutral atomic nitrogen in plasma near the condensation surface, providing few nanometer thick films with 1:1 BN stoichiometry and good thicknesses uniformity over macroscopic areas.

  14. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis for determination of boron in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baechler, S.; Kudejova, P.; Jolie, J.; Schenker, J.-L.; Stritt, N.

    2002-08-01

    Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) is a nuclear analytical technique for the determination of trace and other elements in solid, liquid or gaseous samples. The method consists in observing gamma rays emitted by a sample during neutron irradiation. Of particular importance for PGAA is the measurement of boron. Indeed, this technique gives the opportunity to detect boron concentration down to the ppm or ppb level depending on the sample matrix. Furthermore, boron cannot be easily measured by other methods without risks of contamination. Trace analysis of boron in liquids has been performed and characterized at the PGA facility of the neutron spallation source SINQ (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). First, a calibration curve was determined with standard boron solutions. Then, the PGAA was applied for the determination of boron in geological water samples. The results were compared with ICP-MS measurements. Finally, the method yielded promising results to measure the concentration of boron taken up by cells in a new treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. BORON--1998 13.1 By Phyllis A. Lyday

    E-print Network

    BORON--1998 13.1 BORON By Phyllis A. Lyday Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Shantae, international data coordinator. Boron is produced domestically only in the State of California. Boron products. The United States and Turkey are the world's largest producers of boron. Boron is priced and sold

  16. Distribution of Microbial Arsenic Reduction, Oxidation and Extrusion Genes along a Wide Range of Environmental Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Lorena V.; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Chong, Guillermo; Pedrós-Alió, Carles; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. A combination of primers from the literature and newly designed primers were used to explore the presence of the arsC gene, coding for the reduction of As (V) to As (III) in one of the most common detoxification mechanisms. Enterobacterial related arsC genes appeared only in the environments with the lowest As concentration, while Firmicutes-like genes were present throughout the range of As concentrations. The arrA gene, involved in anaerobic respiration using As (V) as electron acceptor, was found in all the systems studied. The As (III) oxidation gene aioA and the As (III) transport gene acr3 were tracked with two primer sets each and they were also found to be spread through the As concentration gradient. Sediment samples had a higher number of arsenic related genes than water samples. Considering the results of the bacterial community composition available for these samples, the higher microbial phylogenetic diversity of microbes inhabiting the sediments may explain the increased number of genetic resources found to cope with arsenic. Overall, the environmental distribution of arsenic related genes suggests that the occurrence of different ArsC families provides different degrees of protection against arsenic as previously described in laboratory strains, and that the glutaredoxin (Grx)-linked arsenate reductases related to Enterobacteria do not confer enough arsenic resistance to live above certain levels of As concentrations. PMID:24205341

  17. Concentration and distribution of Cr and Ni in soils of Talcahuano, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tume, Pedro; Gonzalez, Elizabeth; King, Robert; Alvarez, Manuel; Roca, Nuria; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    Urban soils can serve as a recipient for a large amount of trace elements from multiple sources, including, municipal wastes, vehicular emissions and industrial wastes.Several researchers have pointed out the need for a better understanding of urban soils in order to assist in developing strategies to protect urban environments and human health against the longterm accumulation of trace elements.The objectives of this study were to (1) define the background levels of chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in soil of Talcahuano; (2) evaluate the site contaminated by trace metals.In this study, 140 soil plots (420 samples: TS:0-10 cm; SS:10-20 cm and BS:150 cm) located approximately in a 1 km regular grid covering the Talcahuano city(94 square km) have been examined. Soil samples (<2mm fraction) were analyzed by standard methods. Aqua regia digest (ISO 11466.2002) of Cr and Ni were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The median concentrations (mg kg?1) obtained include: Cr 134 (range 66.6 - 657) and Ni 56.1 (26.4 - 137). In weakly developed urban soils, Ni follows the same pattern without any real distinguishing features. Chromium displays slight surface enrichment (Cr content in topsoil (mg kg?1): 145±70; Cr content in basement (mg kg?1): 138 ± 53 ). However, the differences are not significative. Different methods were evaluated in order to facilitate the best diagnosis of contamination. First, the trace metal geochemical background was determined using basic descriptive statistics. The upper limit (Upper Whisker value) of the background content in mg•kg-1is 266 for Cr and 112 for Ni. Secondly, the basic descriptive statistics were then compared with Dutch guidelines, in order to evaluate whether the concentrations measured in soils were abnormally high or not. By comparing the results of the different methods, we estimate that 5% of the soils demonstrate anthropogenic signatures of Cr and Ni.The greatest enrichment anomalies in heavy metals were detected in top soil due to an unauthorized rubbish dump.

  18. Boron-oxygen defect imaging in p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. Y.; Rougieux, F. E.; Macdonald, D.

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an accurate method for determining the effective boron-oxygen (BO) related defect density on Czochralski-grown silicon wafers using photoluminescence imaging. Furthermore, by combining a recently developed dopant density imaging technique and microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements of the local interstitial oxygen concentration [Oi], the BO-related defect density, [Oi], and the boron dopant density from the same wafer were determined, all with a spatial resolution of 160 ?m. The results clearly confirm the established dependencies of the BO-related defect density on [Oi] and the boron dopant density and demonstrate a powerful technique for studying this important defect.

  19. Evaluation of ecological and in vitro effects of boron on prostate cancer risk (United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade T. Barranco; Paul F. Hudak; Curtis D. Eckhert

    2007-01-01

    Objective  To determine: (1) the correlation of prostate cancer incidence and mortality with groundwater boron and selenium concentrations;\\u000a and (2) the impact of boron on prostate cancer cell proliferation during co-treatment with alternative chemo-preventative\\u000a agents, along with boron pre-treatment effects on cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  For regression analysis, data on prostate cancer incidence and mortality were obtained from the Texas

  20. Defect clustering and self-healing of electron-irradiated boron-rich solids

    SciTech Connect

    Carrard, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides Semi-cristallins, Institut de Genie Atomique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides Semi-cristallins, Institut de Genie Atomique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Emin, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Zuppiroli, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides Semi-cristallins, Institut de Genie Atomique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides Semi-cristallins, Institut de Genie Atomique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-05-01

    Transmission-electron-microscopy observations are used to evaluate damage produced by irradiating boron-rich metals, semimetals, and semiconductors of three different structure types with energetic electrons. The propensity for damage increases with decreasing carrier concentration except for borides based on twelve-atom icosahedral units. In these semiconducting icosahedral borides neither defect clusters nor amorphorization were observed. In accord with studies of other icosahedral borides, we conclude that radiation-induced boron vacancies and interstitials self-heal in icosahedral borides. We explain this self-healing as having its origin in the unusual structural and electronic stability of fragments of boron-rich icosahedra, termed degraded icosahedra.

  1. Enzymatic assessment of cholesterol on electrophoresis gels for estimating HDL size distribution and plasma concentrations of HDL subclasses[S

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Ibelles, Paola; García-Sánchez, Cynthia; Ávila-Vazzini, Nydia; Carreón-Torres, Elizabeth; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an enzymatic cholesterol staining method to determine HDL subclasses in a polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, which further allows staining by protein in the same electrophoresis lane. HDLs from 120 healthy individuals were separated through nondenaturing PAGE. HDLs were stained for cholesterol using an enzymatic semisolid mixture. Once the gels were unstained, they were stained again for proteins with Coomassie blue. The proportions of HDL subclasses were determined by densitometry. HDL subclasses were transformed to concentrations using as reference HDL-cholesterol plasma levels. This method is comparable in linearity and reproducibility to Coomassie blue staining, although it provides quantitative data. As expected, HDL size distribution shifted toward larger particles when determined by cholesterol as compared with protein. With this method, we observed different proportions of HDL subclasses between men and women as compared with Coomassie blue staining. We described a method to determine HDL size distribution by enzymatic cholesterol staining on polyacrylamide gels. The method allows the quantification of the cholesterol plasma concentration of each HDL subclass with the possibility to further stain the protein in the same sample. The combination of HDL staining by cholesterol and protein on electrophoresis gels provides information that may have clinical relevance. PMID:20097938

  2. Blind Deconvolution for Distributed Parameter Systems with Unbounded Input and Output and Determining Blood Alcohol Concentration from Transdermal Biosensor Data.

    PubMed

    Rosen, I G; Luczak, Susan E; Weiss, Jordan

    2014-03-15

    We develop a blind deconvolution scheme for input-output systems described by distributed parameter systems with boundary input and output. An abstract functional analytic theory based on results for the linear quadratic control of infinite dimensional systems with unbounded input and output operators is presented. The blind deconvolution problem is then reformulated as a series of constrained linear and nonlinear optimization problems involving infinite dimensional dynamical systems. A finite dimensional approximation and convergence theory is developed. The theory is applied to the problem of estimating blood or breath alcohol concentration (respectively, BAC or BrAC) from biosensor-measured transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) in the field. A distributed parameter model with boundary input and output is proposed for the transdermal transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin to the sensor. The problem of estimating BAC or BrAC from the TAC data is formulated as a blind deconvolution problem. A scheme to identify distinct drinking episodes in TAC data based on a Hodrick Prescott filter is discussed. Numerical results involving actual patient data are presented. PMID:24707065

  3. Concentration, size-distribution and deposition of mineral aerosol over Chinese desert regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao Y.; Arimoto, R.; Zhu, G. H.; Chen, T.; Zhang, G. Y.

    1998-09-01

    The mass-particle size distributions (MSDs) of 9 elements in ground-based aerosol samples from dust storm (DS) and non-dust storm (N-DS) periods were determined for 12 sites in 9 major desert regions in northern China. The masses of the 9 elements (Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sc, Si, Sr and Ti) in the atmosphere were dominated by local mineral dust that averaged 270?g m-3, and the MSDs for the elements were approximately log-normal. On the basis of Al data, the<10?m particles account for ~84% of the total dust mass over the deserts. Model-calculated ("100-step" method) dry deposition velocities (Vd) for the 9 dust-derived elements during N-DS periods ranged from 4.4 to 6.8cms-1, with a median value of 5.6cms-1. On the basis of a statistical relationship between D99% (the dust particle diameter corresponding to the uppermost 1% of the cumulative mass distribution) and Vd, one can also predict dry velocities, especially when D99% ranges from 30 to 70?m. This provides a simple way to reconstruct Vd for dust deposits (like aeolian loess sediments in the Loess Plateau). The estimated daily dry deposition fluxes were higher during DS vs. N-DS periods, but in most cases, the monthly averaged fluxes were mainly attributable to N-DS dust. Two regions with high dust loading and fluxes are identified: the "Western High-Dust Desert" and the "Northern High-Dust Desert", with Taklimakan Desert and Badain Juran Desert as their respective centers. These are energetic regions in which desert-air is actively exchanged, and these apparently are the major source areas for Asian dust.

  4. Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil sands), are contributing to the Pb accumulated by the lichens. The Pb isotope ratios are a better indicator of the spatial distribution resulting from atmospheric deposition than the Pb concentrations because the Pb isotope ratios are not affected by the potential for canopy interactions or preferential metabolic processing of elements by the lichens.

  5. A new boronic acid fluorescent sensor based on fluorene for monosaccharides at physiological pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Mohadjerani, Maryam; Pooryousef, Mona; Eslami, Abbas; Emami, Saeed

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent boronic acids are very useful fluorescent sensor for detection of biologically important saccharides. Herein we synthesized a new fluorene-based fluorescent boronic acid that shows significant fluorescence changes upon addition of saccharides at physiological pH. Upon addition of fructose, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, ribose, and maltose at different concentration to the solution of 7-(dimethylamino)-9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-2-boronic acid (7-DMAFBA, 1), significant decreases in fluorescent intensity were observed. It was found that this boronic acid has high affinity (Ka = 3582.88 M-1) and selectivity for fructose over glucose at pH = 7.4. The sensor 1 showed a linear response toward D-fructose in the concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 10-5 to 4 × 10-4 mol L-1 with the detection limit of 1.3 × 10-5 mol L-1.

  6. Detections, concentrations, and distributional patterns of compounds of emerging concern in the San Antonio River Basin, Texas, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Opsahl, Stephen P.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2013-01-01

    During 2011–12, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, evaluated detections, concentrations, and distributional patterns of selected compounds of emerging concern (hereinafter referred to as “CECs”) from water-quality samples (hereinafter referred to as “samples”) collected at a total of 20 sampling sites distributed throughout the San Antonio River Basin, Texas. Of the 54 wastewater compounds analyzed, 32 were detected in at least one sample collected from the San Antonio River Basin, and 22 of those compounds were not detected in any samples. The flame retardants tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate and tris (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, both possible endocrine disruptors, were the most frequently detected wastewater compounds with 28 of the 33 samples analyzed for wastewater compounds having measureable concentrations of those compounds. Of the 13 analyzed pharmaceuticals, 4 compounds were detected in a least one sample. Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant, was the most frequently detected prescription pharmaceutical with 24 detections in 34 samples analyzed for pharmaceuticals. Of the 17 steroidal hormones, 4 were detected in at least one sample from the San Antonio River Basin. Estrone was detected in 9 of 34 samples analyzed for steroidal hormones, making it the most frequently detected steroidal hormone. Of the 4 sterols, all 4 were detected in at least one sample from the San Antonio River Basin. Cholesterol, detected in 19 of 34 samples analyzed for sterols, was the most frequently detected sterol. Three synoptic sampling events were completed as part of this study. The first and second synoptic sampling events included samples collected at the same 12 sampling sites. During the first and second synoptic sampling events, the lowest number of detections (2 and 0, respectively) and the lowest total concentrations of all measured compounds (0.62 and not measureable, respectively) occurred in samples collected at the Macdona site (Medina River near Macdona, Tex.). The highest number of detections (21 and 23, respectively) and highest total concentrations of all measured compounds (7.75 and 3.97 micrograms per liter [µg/L], respectively) occurred in samples collected at the SAR Elmendorf site (San Antonio River near Elmendorf, Tex.). The third synoptic sampling event included samples collected at seven sites that were added to the study after the first two synoptic sampling events were completed. During the third synoptic sampling event, the lowest number of detections (two) and the lowest total concentration (0.14 µg/L) of compounds were measured in samples collected at the North Prong site (North Prong Medina River above confluence Wallace Creek near Medina, Tex.). The highest number of detections (21) occurred at the SAR Mitchell site (San Antonio River at Mitchell Street, San Antonio, Tex.). The Dos Rios site (the Dos Rios wastewater treatment plant outfall at San Antonio, Tex.) had the highest total concentration of all measured compounds (4.37 µg/L) in the third synoptic sampling event. Because Ecleto Creek flows only intermittently at the Ecleto site (Ecleto Creek near Runge, Tex.), samples from the Ecleto site were collected at different times than were samples from the other sites and were not included in a synoptic sampling event. The presence of wastewater compounds at the Ecleto site indicates that at least some wastewater compounds can be introduced into surface waters in rural parts of the San Antonio River Basin during runoff or because of onsite wastewater system seepage. The steroidal hormone and sterols detected at the Ecleto site, including estrone, cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, and beta-stigmastanol, likely were derived from cattle waste rather than from wastewater effluent. The distributional patterns of detections and concentrations of individual compounds and compound classes show the influence of wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) outfalls on the quality of water in the San Antonio River Basin. In the Medina River Subbasin, the minimal influence of

  7. A new boron impregnation technique of wood by vapor boron of boric acid to reduce leaching boron from wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ergun Baysal; Mustafa Kemal Yalinkilic

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal impregnation ability and to enhance leaching resistance of boron from borate-treated wood. Vapor boron treatment was applied in compressed and uncompressed states at high temperatures such as 180 and 200°C for 6, 8 and 15 min. Following ten-cycle leaching periods, amounts of boron leached from vapor boron treated wood was measured by ion chromatography. According

  8. Coprecipitation and isotopic fractionation of boron in modern biogenic carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Vengosh, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia) Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Chivas, A.R.; McCulloch, M.T. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)); Kolodny, Y.; Starinsky, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1991-10-01

    The abundances and isotopic composition of boron in modern, biogenic calcareous skeletons from the Gulf of Elat, Israel, the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and in deep-sea sediments have been examined by negative thermal-ionization mass spectrometry. The selected species (Foraminifera, Pteropoda, corals, Gastropoda, and Pelecypoda) yield large variations in boron concentration that range from 1 ppm in gastropod shells to 80 ppm in corals. The variations of {delta}{sup 11}B may be controlled by isotopic exchange of boron species in which {sup 10}B is preferentially partitioned into the tetrahedral species, and coprecipitation of different proportions of trigonal and tetrahedral species in the calcium carbonates. The B content and {delta}{sup 11}B values of deep-sea sediments, Foraminifera tests, and corals are used to estimate the global oceanic sink of elemental boron by calcium carbonate deposition. As a result of enrichment of B in corals, a substantially higher biogenic sink of 6.4 {plus minus} 0.9 {times} 10{sup 10} g/yr is calculated for carbonates. This is only slightly lower than the sink for desorbable B in marine sediments (10 {times} 10{sup 10} g/yr) and approximately half that of altered oceanic crust (14 {times} 10{sup 10} g/yr). Thus, carbonates are an important sink for B in the oceans being {approximately}20% of the total sinks. The preferential incorporation of {sup 10}B into calcium carbonate results in oceanic {sup 11}B-enrichment, estimated as 1.2 {plus minus} 0.3 {times} 10{sup 12} per mil {center dot} g/yr. The boron-isotope composition of authigenic, well-preserved carbonate skeletons may provide a useful tool to record secular boron-isotope variations in seawater at various times in the geological record.

  9. Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives 

    E-print Network

    Gezer, Engin Derya

    1996-01-01

    The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

  10. Precise isotopic analysis of boron by P-TIMS with sample preheating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ishikawa; K. Nagaishi; J. Matsuoka

    2010-01-01

    Precise and accurate isotopic analysis of the boron isotopic ratio (11B\\/10B) is required in wide areas of research. One of the recent notable applications is the use of the boron isotopic ratio in marine carbonates as a proxy of seawater pH, which provides important information for understanding seawater pH variation and atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the past. In such cases,

  11. Estimation of uranium and boron contents in plants and soils by nuclear particle etch technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Goswani; K. L. Gulati; K. K. Nagpaul

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear particle etch technique has been utilized to estimate uranium concentration in soil and plant samples and boron contents in plant samples. The average value of uranium content in soil was found to be 11 ppm. Uranium was found to vary from 0.5 to 4.4 ppm and boron was found to vary from 10.9 to 19.2 ppm in plant

  12. Record in metamorphic tourmalines of subduction-zone devolatilization and boron cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gray E. Bebout; Eizo Nakamura

    2003-01-01

    Boron concentrations and isotope compositions of fluids and lavas from subduction-zone settings show great potential for elucidating mass flux at Earth's modern convergent margins. However, the fluid-mineral-melt behavior of B and its two stable isotopes remains relatively poorly understood. Boron isotope analyses of tourmaline in metasedimentary rocks subducted to 15 90 km depths (1) demonstrate the ability of this mineral

  13. Pharmacokinetics of sodium borocaptate: a critical assessment of dosing paradigms for boron neutron capture therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher R. Gibson; Alfred E. Staubus; Rolf F. Barth; Weilian Yang; Amy K. Ferketich; Melvin M. Moeschberger

    2003-01-01

    Summary  The pharmacokinetics of sodium borocaptate (BSH), a drug that has been used clinically for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)\\u000a of malignant brain tumors, have been characterized by measuring boron concentrations by direct current plasma-atomic emission\\u000a spectroscopy (DCP-AES) in a group of 23 patients with high-grade gliomas. The disposition of BSH following intravenous (i.v.)\\u000a infusion, which was determined by measuring plasma

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Sodium Borocaptate: A Critical Assessment of Dosing Paradigms for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher R. Gibson; Alfred E. Staubus; Rolf F. Barth; Weilian Yang; Amy K. Ferketich; Melvin M. Moeschberger

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of sodium borocaptate (BSH), a drug that has been used clinically for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of malignant brain tumors, have been characterized by measuring boron concentrations by direct current plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (DCP-AES) in a group of 23 patients with high-grade gliomas. The disposition of BSH following intravenous (i.v.) infusion, which was determined by measuring plasma

  15. An unusual isotopic fractionation of boron in synthetic calcium carbonate precipitated from seawater and saline water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingkai Xiao; Shizhen Li; Haizhen Wei; Aide Sun; Weijian Zhou; Weiguo Liu

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic calcium carbonate precipitation from natural seawater and saline water at various pH values was carried out experimentally.\\u000a The results show the clear positive relationships between boron concentration and ?11B of inorganic calcium carbonate with the pH of natural seawater and saline water. However, the variations of boron isotopic\\u000a fractionation between inorganic calcite and seawater\\/saline water with pH are inconsistent

  16. Effect of initial salt concentrations on cell performance and distribution of internal resistance in microbial desalination cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Euntae; Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S

    2015-04-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are modified microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that concurrently produce electricity and desalinate seawater, but adding a desalination compartment and an ion-exchange membrane may increase the internal resistance (Ri), which can limit the cell performance. However, the effects of a desalination chamber and initial NaCl concentrations on the internal resistances and the cell performances (i.e. Coulombic efficiency (CE), current and power density) of MDCs have yet to be thoroughly explored; thus, the cell performance and Ri distributions of MDCs having different initial concentrations and an MFC having no desalination chamber were compared. In the MDCs, the current and power density generation increased from 2.82?mA and 158.2?mW/m(2) to 3.17?mA and 204.5?mW/m(2) when the initial NaCl concentrations were increased from 5 to 30?g/L, as a consequence of the internal resistances decreasing from 2432.0 to 2328.4??. And even though the MFC has a lower Ri than the MDCs, lower cell performances (current: 2.59?mA; power density: 141.6?mW/m(2) and CE: 62.1%) were observed; there was no effect of improved junction potential in the MFC. Thus, in the MDCs, the higher internal resistances due to the addition of a desalination compartment can be offset by reducing the electrolyte resistance and improving the junction potential at higher NaCl concentrations. PMID:25212471

  17. Concentrations and distribution of synthetic musks and siloxanes in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nannan; Shi, Yali; Li, Wenhui; Xu, Lin; Cai, Yaqi

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we assessed the occurrence and distribution patterns of seven synthetic musks (SMs) and 17 siloxanes in anaerobic digested sludge samples collected at the dewatering process from 42 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. SMs in sludge from different WWTPs exhibited similar composition profiles, and their total concentrations ranged from 47.3 ng/g to 68.2 ?g/g dry weight (dw). On average, galaxolide (HHCB, 63.8%) and tonalide (AHTN, 31.7%) accounted for 95.5% of ?SMs. The total concentrations of cyclic siloxanes ranged from concentrations and detection frequencies of SMs and siloxanes in sewage sludge indicated that both of them were widely used in China. Among the sludge samples from 42 WWTPs, the concentrations of both ?SMs and ?siloxanes had considerable variations. We investigated the influence of potential factors (wastewater and sludge characteristics, the treatment capacity, serving population, and the treatment techniques of WWTPs) on the levels of target compounds in sludge, and found that SMs were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) of the sludge and the serving population of WWTP. There were also strong correlations (p<0.05) between the treatment capacity of WWTPs and cyclic siloxanes, as well as between the TOC of the sludge and linear siloxanes. In addition, the ecological risks of SMs and siloxanes in sewage sludge addressed to land application were assessed, which suggested that there was a low risk to the soil environment. PMID:24463026

  18. Assessment of tissue distribution and concentration of ?-cryptoxanthin in response to varying amounts of dietary ?-cryptoxanthin in the Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    La Frano, Michael R; Zhu, Chenghao; Burri, Betty J

    2014-03-28

    There is a general lack of knowledge regarding the absorption and tissue storage of the provitamin A carotenoid ?-cryptoxanthin. The present study investigated the whole-body tissue distribution of ?-cryptoxanthin in an appropriate small animal model, the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), for human provitamin A carotenoid metabolism. After 5 d of carotenoid depletion, five gerbils were euthanised for baseline measurements. The remaining gerbils were placed in three weight-matched treatment groups (n 8). All the groups received 20 ?g/d of ?-cryptoxanthin from tangerine concentrate, while the second and third groups received an additional 20 and 40 ?g/d of pure ?-cryptoxanthin (CX40 and CX60), respectively, for 21 d. During the last 2 d of the study, urine and faecal samples of two gerbils from each treatment group were collected. ?-Cryptoxanthin was detected in the whole blood, and in twelve of the fourteen tissues analysed. Most tissues resembled the liver, in which the concentrations of ?-cryptoxanthin were significantly higher in the CX60 (17·8 (sem 0·7) ?g/organ; P= 0·004) and CX40 (16·2 (sem 0·9) ?g/organ; P= 0·006) groups than in the CX20 group (13·3 (sem 0·4) ?g/organ). However, in intestinal tissues, the concentrations of ?-cryptoxanthin increased only in the CX60 group. Despite elevated vitamin A concentrations in tissues at baseline due to pre-study diets containing high levels of vitamin A, ?-cryptoxanthin maintained those vitamin A stores. These results indicate that ?-cryptoxanthin is stored in many tissues, potentially suggesting that its functions are widespread. PMID:24229567

  19. Concentration and particle size distribution of particulate matter inside tunnel-ventilated high-rise layer operation houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Cao, Zihan; Li, Qianfeng; Liu, Zifei; Beasley, David B.

    2013-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a criteria pollutant emitted from animal feeding operation (AFO) facilities, especially from poultry operation buildings. Fundamental data regarding AFO PM either do not exist, or are not representative of different animal production systems or housing types. This field study investigated particle size distributions (PSDs) and concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) in a tunnel ventilated high-rise layer house under different operational conditions. Six low-volume (1 m3 h-1) TSP samplers were used to collect PM samples on two floors of the high-rise layer houses across four seasons through day/night sampling protocols. The day/night sampling design was to examine animal activity impact. The PM samples were analyzed by a multi-wave length laser diffraction particle size analyzer (LS13 320) for PSDs characterized by mass median diameters (MMDs) and geometric standard deviations (GSDs). It was discovered that the mean TSP concentrations ranged from 1.0 ± 0.5 mg m-3 to 5.33 ± 0.36 mg m-3 (mean ± SD). TSP concentrations in winter were higher than in summer; concentrations on the 2nd floor were higher than that on the 1st floor; concentrations of daytime samples were higher than those of nighttime samples. Animal activity (represented by day/night samples) had the highest impact on TSP concentration as compared to other influential factors (spatial, seasonal, ventilation). No significant seasonal variations of MMD and GSD were observed in most of samples. Majority of day/night MMDs and GSDs demonstrated no significant differences. Thus the impact of animal activity (day vs. night) on MMD and GSD were not significant. Mean MMDs ± SDs ranged from 16.81 ± 1.57 ?m to 20.26 ± 3.53 ?m, whereas means ± SDs of GSDs ranged from 2.38 ± 0.20 to 2.81 ± 0.30. Mean PM2.5 fractions ± SDs ranged from 5.03 ± 1.60% to 8.93 ± 0.97%, whereas mean PM10 fractions ± SDs ranged from 23.25 ± 5.18% to 38.55 ± 2.96%. Significant seasonal variation in both PM10 and PM2.5 mass fractions were observed.

  20. [Effect of NPK and B supply levels on boron uptake and biological properties of different genotypic oilseed rape].

    PubMed

    Lou, Y; Yang, Y

    2001-04-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to study the boron absorption by oilseed rape(Brassica napus), the mechanism of its resistance to boron deficiency, and the effect of boron deficiency on its biological properties under different NPK supply levels. The results indicated that under boron deficiency, increasing NPK supply aggravated boron deficiency symptoms, which led to the decrease of leaf area and its growth rate and nitrate reductase activity(NRA) and the increase of chlorophyll(a + b) content at seedling stage, and the decrease of the number of productive branches and pods of each plant and seed yield at maturity. It was suggested that the ratio of boron concentration in youngest open leaves(YOL) to youngest mature leaves(YML) at seedling stage could be an index to judge the boron mobility in plants of different genotypic oilseed rape. Boron mobility and its utilization efficiency were one of the important nutritional mechanisms responsible for the difference in response of different genotypic oilseed rapes to boron deficiency. PMID:11757364

  1. Diffusion of boron in alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Zhang, S; He, X. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Material Physics] [Univ. of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Material Physics

    1995-04-01

    By means of particle tracking autoradiography (PTA), the diffusion coefficients of boron between 900 and 1,200 C were measured in 04MnNbB steel, 25MnTiB steel, Ni-B, Fe-30%Ni-B and Fe-3%Si-B alloys, and the frequency factor D{sub 0} and activation energy Q were obtained respectively. The experiment results indicated that there was an obvious difference between the present result and the result obtained by Busby (in 1953). It was found that the boron diffusivity in {gamma}-Fe increased as Ni was added. The diffusivity of boron in Fe-3%Si-B alloy with b.c.c. structure was much slower than one obtained by Busby in {alpha}-Fe (1954), which, however, was much faster than the results obtained in {gamma}-Fe (with f.c.c. structure). Based on the present data of boron diffusion coefficients, the mechanism of segregation of boron to grain boundaries is discussed.

  2. SUBMILLIMETER OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF HEXAGONAL BORON NITRIDE

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    SUBMILLIMETER OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF HEXAGONAL BORON NITRIDE A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles and J ABSTRACT The submillimeter optical properties of hot-pressed polycrystalline boron nitride on related materials. #12;INTRODUCTION Boron nitride (BN) has received considerable attention within the last

  3. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  4. Submicron aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations measured at Gosan, Korea, during the Atmospheric Brown Clouds–East Asian Regional Experiment 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Soo Yum; Greg Roberts; Jong Hwan Kim; Keunyong Song; Dohyeong Kim

    2007-01-01

    Submicron aerosol size distributions, CN and CCN concentrations at a constant supersaturation of 0.6% were measured at a relatively remote coastal site at Gosan in Jeju Island, Korea, during the ABC-EAREX from 11 March to 8 April 2005. The average CN concentrations were 6088 ± 3988, 5231 ± 2454 and 3513 ± 1790 cm?3, respectively, for the three major air

  5. Submicron aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations measured at Gosan, Korea, during the Atmospheric Brown Clouds-East Asian Regional Experiment 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Soo Yum; Greg Roberts; Jong Hwan Kim; Keunyong Song; Dohyeong Kim

    2007-01-01

    Submicron aerosol size distributions, CN and CCN concentrations at a constant supersaturation of 0.6% were measured at a relatively remote coastal site at Gosan in Jeju Island, Korea, during the ABC-EAREX from 11 March to 8 April 2005. The average CN concentrations were 6088 +\\/- 3988, 5231 +\\/- 2454 and 3513 +\\/- 1790 cm-3, respectively, for the three major air

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermoelectric Properties of Electrospun Boron-Doped Barium-Stabilized Bismuth-Cobalt Oxide Nanoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çinar, Emre; Koçyi?it, Serhat; Aytimur, Arda; Uslu, ?brahim; Akdemir, Ahmet

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the boron-doped barium-stabilized bismuth cobalt oxide thermoelectric nanocrystalline ceramic powders were produced by the polymeric precursor technique. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the physical properties measurement system. The X-ray diffraction results showed that these patterns have mixture of two phases as face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic. Values of the crystallite size, the dislocation density, and the microstrain were calculated by the Scherrer equation. According to these values, the crystallite size decreased from 60 to 51 nm with the boron addition in the boron-undoped and boron-doped samples, respectively. The scanning electron microscope results showed that nanograins are rarely seen in the boron-undoped samples, but nanograins turn into needle-like and layered structures with boron addition. The diameters distribution of nanofibers was calculated. The average diameter of the boron-doped sample is smaller than the boron-undoped sample. The physical properties measurement system values showed that the electrical and thermal conductivity, the Seebeck coefficient, and the figure of merit increased with the temperature rise for both samples. The boron-doping effect increased the electrical and thermal conductivity, decreased the Seebeck coefficient, and decreased the figure of merit.

  7. Synergistic methods for the production of high-strength and low-cost boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Charles Schenck

    2011-12-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a non-oxide ceramic in the same class of nonmetallic hard materials as silicon carbide and diamond. The high hardness, high elastic modulus and low density of B4C make it a nearly ideal material for personnel and vehicular armor. B4C plates formed via hot-pressing are currently issued to U.S. soldiers and have exhibited excellent performance; however, hot-pressed articles contain inherent processing defects and are limited to simple geometries such as low-curvature plates. Recent advances in the pressureless sintering of B4C have produced theoretically-dense and complex-shape articles that also exhibit superior ballistic performance. However, the cost of this material is currently high due to the powder shape, size, and size distribution that are required, which limits the economic feasibility of producing such a product. Additionally, the low fracture toughness of pure boron carbide may have resulted in historically lower transition velocities (the projectile velocity range at which armor begins to fail) than competing silicon carbide ceramics in high-velocity long-rod tungsten penetrator tests. Lower fracture toughness also limits multi-hit protection capability. Consequently, these requirements motivated research into methods for improving the densification and fracture toughness of inexpensive boron carbide composites that could result in the development of a superior armor material that would also be cost-competitive with other high-performance ceramics. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of titanium and carbon additives on the sintering and mechanical properties of inexpensive B4C powders. The boron carbide powder examined in this study was a sub-micron (0.6 mum median particle size) boron carbide powder produced by H.C. Starck GmbH via a jet milling process. A carbon source in the form of phenolic resin, and titanium additives in the form of 32 nm and 0.9 mum TiO2 powders were selected. Parametric studies of sintering behavior were performed via high-temperature dilatometry in order to measure the in-situ sample contraction and thereby measure the influence of the additives and their amounts on the overall densification rate. Additionally, broad composition and sintering/post-HIPing studies followed by characterization and mechanical testing elucidated the effects of these additives on sample densification, microstructure de- velopment, and mechanical properties such as Vickers hardness and microindentation fracture toughness. Based upon this research, a process has been developed for the sintering of boron carbide that yielded end products with high relative densities (i.e., 100%, or theoretical density), microstructures with a fine (˜2-3 mum) grain size, and high Vickers microindentation hardness values. In addition to possessing these improved physical properties, the costs of producing this material were substantially lower (by a factor of 5 or more) than recently patented work on the pressureless sintering and post-HIPing of phase-pure boron carbide powder. This recently patented work developed out of our laboratory utilized an optimized powder distribution and yielded samples with high relative densities and high hardness values. The current work employed the use of titanium and carbon additives in specific ratios to activate the sintering of boron carbide powder possessing an approximately mono-modal particle size distribution. Upon heating to high temperatures, these additives produced fine-scale TiB2 and graphite inclusions that served to hinder grain growth and substantially improve overall sintered and post-HIPed densities when added in sufficient concentrations. The fine boron carbide grain size manifested as a result of these second phase inclusions caused a substantial increase in hardness; the highest hardness specimen yielded a hardness value (2884.5 kg/mm2) approaching that of phase-pure and theoretically-dense boron carbide (2939 kg/mm2). Additionally, the same high-hardness composition exhibited a noticeably higher fracture toughness (3.04 MPa

  8. Explorations of mechanisms regulating ectomycorrhizal colonization of boron-fertilized pine

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, H.E.; Begonia, G.; Sword, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of foliar boron fertilization and inoculation with an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Pisolithus tinctorius) on {sup 14}C-photosynthate partitioning to various tissues of shortleaf pine seedlings, placing special emphasis on the {sup 14}C distribution to the root systems. Specifically, the hypotheses tested are: (a) {sup 14}C allocation to the root systems will increase with inoculation, and (b) {sup 14}C partitioning will be enhanced by foliar boron application. 13 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Terahertz emission and absorption characteristics of silicon containing boron and phosphorous impurity dopants and the effect of temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Matmon; Stephen A. Lynch; Paul Townsend; Douglas J. Paul; Mike Bain; Harry S. Gamble; Jing Zhang; Zoran Ikonic; Robert W. Kelsall; Paul Harrison

    2005-01-01

    The emission and absorption characteristics of boron-doped and phosphorous-doped silicon at terahertz frequencies are investigated. Different doping concentrations are considered and individual terahertz optical transitions are identified. The effect of temperature is considered.

  10. Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, Zack; Kammen, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of 0.25 kWh-1 electricity and 0.03 kWh-1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ˜80 gCO2eq kWh-1 of electricity and ˜10 gCO2eq kWh-1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of 1.40 m-3, water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that 0.40-1.90 m-3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions.

  11. The cosmochemical behavior of beryllium and boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, Dante S.; Lodders, Katharina

    1997-01-01

    The chemistry of Be and B in the solar nebula is reinvestigated using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The dominant Be gases are monatomic Be at high temperatures and the hydroxides BeOH and Be(OH)2 at lower temperatures. Beryllium condenses as gugiaite (Ca2BeSi2O7) in solid solution with melilite with a 50% condensation temperature of 1490 K. If an ideal solid solution of chrysoberyl (BeAl2O4) into spinel is assumed, most of the Be condenses into spinel, yielding a 50% condensation temperature of 1501 K. However, the difference in the crystal structures of spinel and chrysoberyl indicates that their solid solution may be non-ideal. At high temperatures the dominant B gases are BO, HBO, and HBO2, while NaBO2, KBO2, and LiBO2 are dominant at lower temperatures. Boron is less refractory than Be and is calculated to condense into solid solution with feldspar. The majority of B condenses as danburite (CaB2Si2O8) in solid solution with anorthite. At lower temperatures, when the feldspar composition is more albitic, the remaining B condenses as reedmergnerite (NaBSi3O8). The 50% condensation temperature of B is 964 K. The 50% condensation temperature of B is similar to that of Na and much higher than that of S. Therefore, normalized B abundances in chondrites are expected to correlate with Na abundances. Be is predicted to be concentrated in melilite, a conclusion which is consistent with the few measurements of Be concentrations in calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). Boron is predicted to be concentrated in feldspar, but no analytical data are available to test this prediction.

  12. A Nanometer Aerosol Size Analyzer (nASA) for Rapid Measurement of High-Concentration Size Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Hee-Siew; Chen, Da-Ren; Pui, David Y. H.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a fast-response Nanometer Aerosol Size Analyzer (nASA) that is capable of scanning 30 size channels between 3 and 100 nm in a total time of 3 seconds. The analyzer includes a bipolar charger (P0210), an extended-length Nanometer Differential Mobility Analyzer (Nano-DMA), and an electrometer (TSI 3068). This combination of components provides particle size spectra at a scan rate of 0.1 second per channel free of uncertainties caused by response-time-induced smearing. The nASA thus offers a fast response for aerosol size distribution measurements in high-concentration conditions and also eliminates the need for applying a de-smearing algorithm to resulting data. In addition, because of its thermodynamically stable means of particle detection, the nASA is useful for applications requiring measurements over a broad range of sample pressures and temperatures. Indeed, experimental transfer functions determined for the extended-length Nano-DMA using the Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMA) technique indicate the nASA provides good size resolution at pressures as low as 200 Torr. Also, as was demonstrated in tests to characterize the soot emissions from the J85-GE engine of a T38 aircraft, the broad dynamic concentration range of the nASA makes it particularly suitable for studies of combustion or particle formation processes. Further details of the nASA performance as well as results from calibrations, laboratory tests and field applications are presented.

  13. Modelling and experimental analysis of the angular distribution of the emitted light from the edge of luminescent solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parel, Thomas S.; Pistolas, Christos; Danos, Lefteris; Markvart, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have the potential to provide cheap solar electricity by significantly reducing the solar cell area. However, these devices are still at the research level and several aspects of their behaviour need investigation in order to improve efficiencies. Understanding how light is absorbed/emitted and concentrated to the edge of LSCs is required to design a high efficiency device as well as identifying and overcoming the various losses present. One strategy for investigating the photon absorption and transport in LSCs as well as pinpointing the sources of losses in these devices is to look at the luminescence escaping the LSC as a function of angle. This paper presents a new model that reveals the main features of the angular distribution of light escaping a LSC edge. We compare this model with experimental measurements and provide an assessment of non-ideal losses and identify which emission angles are affected most by these losses. We investigated experimentally the effects of the absorption profile of the chromophores and re-absorption on the photon flux travelling at different angles. The effect of back surface reflectors, commonly used to 'recycle lost photons', on the edge emission of LSCs has also been investigated in this work.

  14. [Mercury concentration and its distribution in Nycticorax nycticorax and Chinese Ardeola bacchus fledglings at Huangpu District of Guangzhou City, China].

    PubMed

    Zou, Fasheng; Yang, Qiongfang; Li, Yanhong; Cui, Kunyan

    2005-02-01

    In this study, live fledglings of Nycticorax nycticorax and Ardeola bacchus at the Huangpu District of Guangzhou City were collected, and their primary feather, breast feather, tail feather, liver, chest muscle and egg shell were sampled for mercury determination. The results showed that these two heron species had a very similar distribution pattern of mercury concentration in their tissues and organs, i. e., tail feather > breast and primary feather > liver > chest muscle > egg shell. Ardeola bacchus had higher levels of mercury in all its tissues than Nycticorax nycticorax. There were significant interspecific differences in mercury level for breast feather and primary feather. Because the collection of breast feather is easier and not harmful to birds, it is better to use it rather than primary or tail feather to monitor environmental pollution. The mercury level in breast feather was ten times higher than that in liver, lower than that in tail feather, but not significantly different to that in primary feather. The mercury concentrations in the tissues of Nycticorax nycticorax and Ardeola bacchus from Huangpu District of Guangzhou were similar to those from the suburbs of Chengdu, Sichuan Province, but lower than those from Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province and higher than those from Hong Kong. PMID:15852945

  15. The spatial distribution pattern of heavy metal concentrations in urban soils — a study of anthropogenic effects in Berehove, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vince, Tímea; Szabó, György; Csoma, Zoltán; Sándor, Gábor; Szabó, Szilárd

    2014-09-01

    In the present study we examined the Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination levels of the soils of Berehove, a small city in West-Ukraine. As a first step we determined the spatial distribution of the heavy metal contents of the urban soils; then, by studying the land use structure of the city and by statistical analysis we identified the major sources of contamination; we established a matrix of correlations between the heavy metal contents of the soils and the different types of land use; and finally, we drew a conclusion regarding the possible origin(s) of these heavy metals. By means of multivariate statistical analysis we established that of the investigated metals, Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn accumulated in the city's soils primarily as a result of anthropogenic activity. In the most polluted urban areas (i.e. in the industrial zones and along the roads and highways with heavy traffic), in the case of several metals (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) we measured concentration levels even two or three times higher than the threshold limit values. Furthermore, Cr, Fe and Ni are primarily of lithogenic origin; therefore, the soil concentrations of these heavy metals depend mainly on the chemical composition of the soil-forming rocks.

  16. Characterisation of graphite using boron as a marker element

    SciTech Connect

    Kamble, Granthali S.; Pandey, Shailaja; Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Venkatesh, K.; Kumar, Sangita D.; Kameswaran, R.; Reddy, A. V. R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai- 400 085 (India)

    2013-06-12

    Graphite has many industrial applications. Two of the most important applications are as electrodes in industries and as moderator in nuclear industry. Determination of the Boron Equivalent of the impurity elements in graphite is the most important parameter for certifying the grade of graphite electrode [1]. The use of a suitable method with low limits of determination of boron is therefore necessary. A method has been standardised in Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC for determining trace amounts of boron in graphite electrodes. It involves controlled dissolution of graphite sample powder and measurement of boron by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) using matrix matched standards. The method detection limit is 1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The method Relative Standard Deviation was 5%. The method was verified by spike recovery experiments. Recoveries were found to be within 100{+-}2% in the concentration range of 1 to 100 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The developed method has been adopted for the compositional characterization of several graphite electrode samples.

  17. The role of boron in ductilizing Ni3Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedula, K.; Shabel, B. S.; Khadkikar, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    Ductilization of Ni3Al at room temperature by microalloying with boron has been primarily attributed to the increased grain boundary cohesion in the presence of boron. However, another aspect of the role played by boron in ductilizing Ni3Al is revealed when the Hall-Petch relationships for Ni3Al and B-doped Ni3Al are compared. A shallower slope for the B-doped Ni3Al compared to that for Ni3Al indicates a reduced resistance to slip propagation across grain boundaries, and therefore reduced stress concentration at boundaries, in the presence of boron. This comparison of Hall-Petch relationships was carried out by generating data for powder processed B-doped Ni3Al at various grain sizes and by compiling data for Ni3Al from the literature. In addition, the room temperature fracture of B-doped Ni3Al has been shown to initiate along certain grain boundaries. The fracture eventually occurs by transgranular ductile tearing.

  18. Characterisation of graphite using boron as a marker element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Granthali S.; Pandey, Shailaja; Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Venkatesh, K.; Kumar, Sangita D.; Kameswaran, R.; Reddy, A. V. R.

    2013-06-01

    Graphite has many industrial applications. Two of the most important applications are as electrodes in industries and as moderator in nuclear industry. Determination of the Boron Equivalent of the impurity elements in graphite is the most important parameter for certifying the grade of graphite electrode [1]. The use of a suitable method with low limits of determination of boron is therefore necessary. A method has been standardised in Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC for determining trace amounts of boron in graphite electrodes. It involves controlled dissolution of graphite sample powder and measurement of boron by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) using matrix matched standards. The method detection limit is 1 ?g g-1. The method Relative Standard Deviation was 5%. The method was verified by spike recovery experiments. Recoveries were found to be within 100±2% in the concentration range of 1 to 100 ?g g-1. The developed method has been adopted for the compositional characterization of several graphite electrode samples.

  19. Interactions between dietary boron and thiamine affect lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Herbel, J.L.; Hunt, C.D. (Dept. of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-15

    An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary boron impacts upon the function of various coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. In a 2 {times} 7 factorially-arranged experiment, weanling, vitamin D{sub 3}-deprived rats were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet supplemented with 0 or 2 mg boron/kg and 50% of the requirement for thiamine (TM), riboflavin (RF), pantothenic acid (PA) or pyridoxine (PX); 0% for folic acid (FA) or nicotinic acid (NA). All vitamins were supplemented in adequate amounts in the control diet. At 8 weeks of age, the TM dietary treatment was the one most affected by supplemental dietary boron (SDB). In rats that were fed 50% TM, SDB increased plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), and the liver to body weight (L/B) ratio. However, in the SDB animals, adequate amounts of TM decreased the means of those variables to near that observed in non-SDB rats fed 50% TM. The findings suggest that an interaction between dietary boron and TM affects lipid metabolism.

  20. Unusual properties of icosahedral boron-rich solids

    SciTech Connect

    Emin, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 800 Yale Boulevard NE (MSC 07 4220), University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)]. E-mail: emin@unm.edu

    2006-09-15

    Icosahedral boron-rich solids are materials containing boron-rich units in which atoms reside at an icosahedron's 12 vertices. These materials are known for their exceptional bonding and the unusual structures that result. This article describes how the unusual bonding generates other distinctive and useful effects. In particular, radiation-induced atomic vacancies and interstitials spontaneously recombine to produce the 'self-healing' that underlies these materials' extraordinary radiation tolerance. Furthermore, boron carbides, a group of icosahedral boron-rich solids, possess unusual electronic, magnetic and thermal properties. For example, the charge carriers, holes, localize as singlet pairs on icosahedra. The unusual origin of this localization is indicated by the absence of a concomitant photo-ionization. The thermally assisted hopping of singlet pairs between icosahedra produces Seebeck coefficients that are unexpectedly large and only weakly dependent on carrier concentration. These properties are exploited in devices: (1) long-lived high-power high-capacity beta-voltaic cells (2) very high temperature thermoelectrics and (3) solid-state neutron detectors. - Graphical abstract: Very high-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows no damage to B{sub 12}P{sub 2} after an intense bombardment (10{sup 18} electrons/cm{sup 2} s) by 400 keV electrons to a net dose of about 10{sup 23} electrons/cm{sup 2}.

  1. Cytotoxicity of Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Films Prepared by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Gou, Li; Ran, Junguo; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) exhibits extraordinary mechanical properties and chemical stability, making it highly suitable for biomedical applications. For implant materials, the impact of boron-doped NCD films on the character of cell growth (i.e., adhesion, proliferation) is very important. Boron-doped NCD films with resistivity of 10?2 ?·cm were grown on Si substrates by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) process with H2 bubbled B2O3. The crystal structure, diamond character, surface morphology, and surface roughness of the boron-doped NCD films were analyzed using different characterization methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact potential difference and possible boron distribution within the film were studied with a scanning kelvin force microscope (SKFM). The cytotoxicity of films was studied by in vitro tests, including fluorescence microscopy, SEM and MTT assay. Results indicated that the surface roughness value of NCD films was 56.6 nm and boron was probably accumulated at the boundaries between diamond agglomerates. MG-63 cells adhered well and exhibited a significant growth on the surface of films, suggesting that the boron-doped NCD films were non-toxic to cells. supported by the Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China) (No. KFJJ201313)

  2. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, L.I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2011-06-21

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate in agreement with the dominant pollution source being SO{sub 2} from Cu smelters and power plants. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a BL contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25% of aerosol in the PCASP size range are interstitial (not activated). One hundred and two constant altitude cloud transects were identified and used to determine properties of interstitial aerosol. One transect is examined in detail as a case study. Approximately 25 to 50% of aerosol with D{sub p} > 110 nm were not activated, the difference between the two approaches possibly representing shattered cloud droplets or unknown artifact. CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated in all cloud transects, consistent with the occurrence of dry in-cloud areas due to entrainment or circulation mixing.

  3. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2012-01-04

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a boundary layer (BL) contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (D{sub p} > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25 % of aerosol with D{sub p} > 100 nm are interstitial (not activated). A direct comparison of pre-cloud and in-cloud aerosol yields a higher estimate. Artifacts in the measurement of interstitial aerosol due to droplet shatter and evaporation are discussed. Within each of 102 constant altitude cloud transects, CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated. An examination of one cloud as a case study shows that the interstitial aerosol appears to have a background, upon which is superimposed a high frequency signal that contains the anti-correlation. The anti-correlation is a possible source of information on particle activation or evaporation.

  4. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2011-06-01

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O3 and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate in agreement with the dominant pollution source being SO2 from Cu smelters and power plants. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 °C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a BL contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of ~150 cm-3, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that ~25 % of aerosol in the PCASP size range are interstitial (not activated). One hundred and two constant altitude cloud transects were identified and used to determine properties of interstitial aerosol. One transect is examined in detail as a case study. Approximately 25 to 50 % of aerosol with Dp > 110 nm were not activated, the difference between the two approaches possibly representing shattered cloud droplets or unknown artifact. CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated in all cloud transects, consistent with the occurrence of dry in-cloud areas due to entrainment or circulation mixing.

  5. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2012-01-01

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O3 and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 °C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a boundary layer (BL) contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp>100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of ~150 cm-3, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that ~25 % of aerosol with Dp>100 nm are interstitial (not activated). A direct comparison of pre-cloud and in-cloud aerosol yields a higher estimate. Artifacts in the measurement of interstitial aerosol due to droplet shatter and evaporation are discussed. Within each of 102 constant altitude cloud transects, CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated. An examination of one cloud as a case study shows that the interstitial aerosol appears to have a background, upon which is superimposed a high frequency signal that contains the anti-correlation. The anti-correlation is a possible source of information on particle activation or evaporation.

  6. Influence of Boron on Somatic Embryogenesis in Papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Renukdas; M. L. Mohan; S. S. Khuspe; S. K. Rawal

    2003-01-01

    Influence of boron on somatic embryogenesis in papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Honey Dew was investigated. Immature zygotic embryos were grown in the induction medium containing Murashige and\\u000a Skoog basal salts, with B5 vitamins, picloram (1 mg dm?3) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2 mg dm?3) and different concentrations of boric acid (30 to 500 mg dm?3). Maximum somatic embryo initiation

  7. Process for recovering boron trifluoride from an impure gaseous boron trifluoride residue

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, F.E.; Schroeder, K.H.; Wagner, W.J.

    1990-07-24

    This patent describes a method for removing sulfur dioxide from a boron trifluoride stream. It comprises: condensing a gaseous boron trifluoride stream; distilling the condensed boron trifluoride stream to yield pure boron trifluoride and a liquid boron trifluoride residue wherein the liquid boron trifluoride residue comprises by weight: about 40 to about 95% boron trifluoride, about 5 to about 30% sulfur dioxide, about 0 to 19% sulfur trioxide, about 0 to about 0.2% silicon fluoride, about 0 to about 1.0% arsenic fluoride, and about 0 to about 0.1% antimony fluoride; vaporizing the liquid boron trifluoride residue; feeding the gaseous boron trifluoride residue into a mixture of boric and sulfuric acids; and removing the unabsorbed sulfur dioxide from the acid mixture.

  8. Thermionic properties of the molybdenum boron system

    SciTech Connect

    Storms, E.K.

    1980-01-01

    The thermionic work function has been measured as a function of composition within the various two phase regions between Mo and MoB/sub 2/. Values at the low boron and high boron phase boundaries for the various compounds were obtained by extrapolation. The following effective work functions were obtained: Mo/sub 2/B (low boron) = 3.08 eV; Mo/sub 2/B (high boron) = 3.63 eV; ..cap alpha..-MoB (low boron) = 3.38 eV; ..cap alpha..-MoB (high boron) = 4.30 eV; ..beta..-MoB (low boron) = 2.83 eV; ..beta..-MoB (high boron) = 3.92; Mo/sub 2/B/sub 3/ (low boron) = 4.65 eV; Mo/sub 2/B/sub 3/ (high boron) = 3.85 eV; and MoB/sub 2/ (low boron) = 3.52 eV. Because the composition range of these compounds is very narrow, the work function is very sensitive to the composition within the single phase regions.

  9. Influence of Si Co-doping on electrical transport properties of magnesium-doped boron nanoswords

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Yuan; Lu Hongliang; Tian Jifa; Li Chen; Hui Chao; Shi Xuezhao; Huang Yuan; Shen Chengmin; Gao Hongjun [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-03-05

    Magnesium-doped boron nanoswords were synthesized via a thermoreduction method. The as-prepared nanoswords are single crystalline and {beta}-rhombohedral ({beta}-rh) phase. Electrical transport measurements show that variable range hopping conductivity increases with temperature, and carrier mobility has a greater influence than carrier concentration. These results are consistent with the three dimensional Mott's model (M. Cutler and N. F. Mott, Phys. Rev. 181, 1336 (1969)) besides a high density of localized states at the Fermi level compared with bulk {beta}-rh boron. Conductivity of Mg-doped boron nanoswords is significantly lower than that of ''pure'' (free of magnesium) boron nanoswords. Electron energy loss spectroscopy studies confirm that the poorer conductivity arises from silicon against magnesium doping.

  10. The Arabidopsis-related halophyte Thellungiella halophila: boron tolerance via boron complexation with metabolites?

    PubMed

    Lamdan, Netta Li; Attia, Ziv; Moran, Nava; Moshelion, Menachem

    2012-04-01

    Tolerance to boron (B) is still not completely understood. We tested here the hypothesis that Thellungiella halophila, an Arabidopsis thaliana-related 'extremophile' plant, with abundance of B in its natural environment, is tolerant to B, and examined the potential mechanisms of this tolerance. With 1-10 mm B applied ([B](ext)) to Thellungiella and Arabidopsis grown in hydroponics, the steady-state accumulated B concentration ([B](int)) in the root was below [B](ext), and was similar in both, suggesting both extrude B actively. Whether grown in soil or hydroponically, the shoot [B](int) was higher in Arabidopsis than in Thellungiella, suggesting more effective net B exclusion by Thellungiella root. Arabidopsis exhibited toxicity symptoms including reduced shoot fresh weight (FW), but Thellungiella was not affected, even at similar levels of shoot-accumulated [B](int) (about 10 to 40 mm B in 'shoot water'), suggesting additional B tolerance mechanism in Thellungiella shoot. At [B](ext) = 5 mm, the summed shoot concentration of the potentially B-binding polyhydroxyl metabolites (malic acid, fructose, glucose, sucrose and citric acid) in Arabidopsis was below [B](int) , but in Thellungiella it was over twofold higher than [B](int) , and therefore likely to allow appreciable 1:2 boron-metabolite complexation in the shoot. This, we suggest, is an important component of Thellungiella B tolerance mechanism. PMID:21999349

  11. Electrical activation of boron implanted into diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Houssaye, Paul R.; Penchina, Claude M.; Hewett, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert G.; Zeidler, James R.

    A natural IIa diamond was implanted with boron ions at a substrate temperature of 80 K. Ohmic contacts (Mo/Au) were made to the unimplanted side using a solid state reaction process. Gold wires were then bonded to the contacts for Van der Pauw/Hall measurements as a function of temperature from room temperature to nearly 600 C. Contacts were removed and the procedure repeated for the implanted side. Resistivity stabilization occurred at approximately 350 C to over 3.4 megaohms/square and 1.3 megaohms/square for the unimplanted and implanted sides, respectively. The effect of the implant was evaluated on the basis of the relative difference in the resistivities, mobilities, and carrier concentrations between the implanted and the unimplanted sides.

  12. Drinking water health advisory for boron

    SciTech Connect

    Cantilli, R.

    1991-04-01

    The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

  13. Understanding the stable boron clusters: A bond model and first-principles calculations based on high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shao-Gang; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Liao, Ji-Hai; Yang, Xiao-Bao

    2015-06-01

    The unique electronic property induced diversified structure of boron (B) cluster has attracted much interest from experimentalists and theorists. B30-40 were reported to be planar fragments of triangular lattice with proper concentrations of vacancies recently. Here, we have performed high-throughput screening for possible B clusters through the first-principles calculations, including various shapes and distributions of vacancies. As a result, we have determined the structures of Bn clusters with n = 30-51 and found a stable planar cluster of B49 with a double-hexagon vacancy. Considering the 8-electron rule and the electron delocalization, a concise model for the distribution of the 2c-2e and 3c-2e bonds has been proposed to explain the stability of B planar clusters, as well as the reported B cages. PMID:26049496

  14. Boron in plant cell walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Matoh

    1997-01-01

    Boron is an essential element for higher plants, yet the primary functions remain unclear. In intact tissues of higher plants, this element occurs as both water soluble and water insoluble forms. In this review, the intracellular localisation of B and possible function of B in cell walls of higher plants are discussed. The majority of the water soluble B seems

  15. Controlled boron doping of silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin

    1986-01-01

    A method is described of making a semiconductor device by steps comprising doping a vertical surface of a silicon body with boron characterized in that the doping is accomplished by steps comprising: forming a layer of silicon dioxide on the vertical surface; forming a layer of silicon on the silicon dioxide on the vertical surface, and on a horizontal surface

  16. A detailed examination of boronic acid–diol complexation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Springsteen; Binghe Wang

    2002-01-01

    Boronic acids bind with compounds containing diol moieties with high affinity through reversible boronate formation. However, the conditions that foster tight binding between the diol and the boronic acid are not well understood. Also, due to the multiple ionic states of both the boronic acid and boronate ester, the equilibrium constants reported in the literature have not always been strictly

  17. The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, C D

    1994-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence that supports working hypotheses for the roles of boron in animal model systems. It is well established that vascular plants, diatoms, and some species of marine algal flagellates have acquired an absolute requirement for boron, although the primary role of boron in plants remains unknown. Recent research findings suggest that physiologic amounts of supplemental dietary boron (PSB) affect a wide range of metabolic parameters in the chick and rat model systems. Much of the current interest in boron animal nutrition began with the initial finding that PSB stimulates growth in cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)-deficient chicks, but does not markedly affect growth in chicks receiving adequate vitamin D3 nutriture. The finding suggests that boron affects some aspect of vitamin D3 metabolism or is synergistic with vitamin D3 in influencing growth. Vitamin D3 regulates energy substrate utilization, and current research findings indicate that dietary boron modifies that regulatory function. The concentration of circulating glucose, the most thoroughly investigated metabolite to date, responds to PSB, especially during concomitant vitamin D3 deficiency. In chicks, PSB substantially alleviated or corrected vitamin D3 deficiency-induced elevations in plasma glucose concentrations. The influence of vitamin D3 on cartilage and bone mineralization is mediated in part through its role as a regulator of energy substrate utilization; calcification is an energy-intensive process. There is considerable evidence that dietary boron alleviates perturbations in mineral metabolism that are characteristic of vitamin D3 deficiency. In rachitic chicks, PSB alleviated distortion of the marrow sprouts of the proximal tibial epiphysial plate, a distortion characteristic of vitamin D3 deficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889878

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme using the p- boronophenylalanine-fructose complex and epithermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Liu, H.B.; Slatkin, D.N.; Wielopolski, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bergland, R.; Elowitz, E. [Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1994-12-31

    The amino acid analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is under investigation as a neutron capture agent for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme. A series of patients undergoing surgical removal of tumor received BPA orally as the free amino acid. Favorable tumor/blood boron concentration ratios were obtained but the absolute amount of boron in the tumor would have been insufficient for BNCT. BPA can be solubilized at neutral pH by complexation with fructose (BPA-F). Studies with rats suggest that intraperitoneal injection of BPA-F complex produces a much higher tumor boron concentration to rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma that were possible with oral BPA. Higher boron concentrations have allowed higher tumor radiation doses to be delivered while maintaining the dose to the normal brain vascular endothelium below the threshold of tolerance. The experience to date of the administration of BPA-F to one patient is provided in this report.

  19. Selective Formation of ortho-Aminobenzylamines by the Copper-Catalyzed Amination of Benzylamine Boronate Esters.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Kathryn A; Duenas, Alexi A; Clark, Timothy B

    2015-07-17

    The copper-catalyzed coupling between benzylamino boronate esters and aryl amines has been investigated. Formation of ortho-aminobenzylamines was achieved under oxidative conditions in the presence of copper(II) acetate. The major side product of the transformation is the homocoupling of the aryl boronate ester. The formation of the desired diamines was found to be improved in the absence of base, increasing selectivity over the homocoupled product. Both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents are tolerated on both the boronate ester substrate and the aniline coupling partner under the reaction conditions. The presence of the adjacent benzylamine moiety appears to enhance the reactivity of the boronate ester and influence the resulting product distribution, likely by affecting the competing rates of transmetalation in the catalytic cycles. PMID:26067569

  20. First principle investigations on Boron doped Fe2VAl Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Ch.; Srivastava, S. K.; Rao, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    The role of atomic size of sp-element is investigated through theoretical calculations and basic experiments to understand the physical properties of Boron doped Fe2VAl alloy. The results of ab-initio calculations on ordered L21 structure of Fe2VAl1-xBx (x=0, 0.5, 1) alloys have been compared to understand the role of sp-element size on the hybridization among their respective valance states. Interestingly, semi-metallic and paramagnetic like ground states were found in the Boron doped alloys in similar to Fe2VAl, eliminating the role of size of the doppent sp-atom. These calculations result in hybridization where the covalent distribution of valance states among the atoms is responsible to produce a finite pseudo-gap at the Fermi level. The observed features could be explained on the basis of covalent theory of magnetism in which an amount of spectral weight transfer occurs in the DOS spectrum among the same spin orbitals, leading to symmetric distribution of bonding and anti-bonding states. However, the obtained experimental findings on Boron doped alloys are in contrast with these calculations, indicating that experimentally the alloy formation into an ideal L21 lattice does not happen while doping with Boron. Further, the micro structural analysis shows Boron segregation across the grain boundaries that may form magnetic inhomogeneities in the lattice of Boron doped Fe2VAl alloys which preferably cause these experimental anomalies.