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Sample records for boron doped graphite

  1. Atomic structure of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite doped with boron

    E-print Network

    Kwak, Juhyoun

    Atomic structure of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite doped with boron Eunkyung Kim, Ilwhan Oh substitute for the carbon atom in the graphite structure and promote the graphitization of pyrolytic graphite pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The eect of the boron doping on the atomic structure of HOPG would be discussed

  2. Structure and electrochemical applications of boron-doped graphitized carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Jae-Seong; Jang, Sang-Min; Miyawaki, Jin; An, Bai; Mochida, Isao; Rhee, Choong Kyun; Yoon, Seong-Ho

    2012-08-01

    Boron-doped graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by optimizing CNFs preparation, surface treatment, graphitization and boron-added graphitization. The interlayer spacing (d002) of the boron-doped graphitized CNFs reached 3.356 Å, similar to that of single-crystal graphite. Special platelet CNFs (PCNFs), for which d002 is less than 3.400 Å, were selected for further heat treatment. The first heat treatment of PCNFs at 2800?°C yielded a d002 between 3.357 and 3.365 Å. Successive nitric acid treatment and a second heat treatment with boric acid reduced d002 to 3.356 Å. The resulting boron-doped PCNFs exhibited a high discharge capacity of 338 mAh g-1 between 0 and 0.5 V versus Li/Li+ and 368 mAh g-1 between 0 and 1.5 V versus Li/Li+. The first-cycle Coulombic efficiency was also enhanced to 71-80%. Such capacity is comparable to that of natural graphite under the same charge/discharge conditions. The boron-doped PCNFs also exhibited improved rate performance with twice the capacity of boron-doped natural graphite at a discharge rate of 5 C.

  3. Comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite crucibles for boron doped silicon epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Dyan; Richardson, Christopher J. K.

    2012-11-15

    This article reports on the comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite as crucible liners in a high-temperature effusion cell used for boron doping in silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis indicates decomposition of the beryllium oxide liner, leading to significant incorporation of beryllium and oxygen in the grown films. The resulting films are of poor crystal quality with rough surfaces and broad x-ray diffraction peaks. Alternatively, the use of pyrolytic graphite crucible liners results in higher quality films.

  4. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  5. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

    1998-06-09

    A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

  6. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States); Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States); Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States); Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  7. Method for wetting a boron alloy to graphite

    DOEpatents

    Storms, E.K.

    1987-08-21

    A method is provided for wetting a graphite substrate and spreading a a boron alloy over the substrate. The wetted substrate may be in the form of a needle for an effective ion emission source. The method may also be used to wet a graphite substrate for subsequent joining with another graphite substrate or other metal, or to form a protective coating over a graphite substrate. A noneutectic alloy of boron is formed with a metal selected from the group consisting of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt) with excess boron, i.e., and atomic percentage of boron effective to precipitate boron at a wetting temperature of less than the liquid-phase boundary temperature of the alloy. The alloy is applied to the substrate and the graphite substrate is then heated to the wetting temperature and maintained at the wetting temperature for a time effective for the alloy to wet and spread over the substrate. The excess boron is evenly dispersed in the alloy and is readily available to promote the wetting and spreading action of the alloy. 1 fig.

  8. Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A. F.; Cao Chao; Cheng, H. P.

    2013-04-28

    First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different bromine concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and bromine atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, bromine is stable in the molecular form (Br{sub 2}). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br{sub 2} molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, bromine is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br{sub 2} molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.

  9. Characterisation of graphite using boron as a marker element

    SciTech Connect

    Kamble, Granthali S.; Pandey, Shailaja; Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Venkatesh, K.; Kumar, Sangita D.; Kameswaran, R.; Reddy, A. V. R.

    2013-06-12

    Graphite has many industrial applications. Two of the most important applications are as electrodes in industries and as moderator in nuclear industry. Determination of the Boron Equivalent of the impurity elements in graphite is the most important parameter for certifying the grade of graphite electrode [1]. The use of a suitable method with low limits of determination of boron is therefore necessary. A method has been standardised in Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC for determining trace amounts of boron in graphite electrodes. It involves controlled dissolution of graphite sample powder and measurement of boron by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) using matrix matched standards. The method detection limit is 1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The method Relative Standard Deviation was 5%. The method was verified by spike recovery experiments. Recoveries were found to be within 100{+-}2% in the concentration range of 1 to 100 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The developed method has been adopted for the compositional characterization of several graphite electrode samples.

  10. Influence of Si Co-doping on electrical transport properties of magnesium-doped boron nanoswords

    E-print Network

    Gao, Hongjun

    Influence of Si Co-doping on electrical transport properties of magnesium- doped boron nanoswords://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Influence of Si Co-doping on electrical transport properties of magnesium-doped boron nanoswords; published online 9 March 2012) Magnesium-doped boron nanoswords were synthesized via a thermoreduction

  11. Boron and nitrogen co-doping of diamond-like carbon film for transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wooseok; Kim, Yooseok; Jung, Dae Sung; Lee, Su Il; Jung, Woosung; Kwon, O.-Jin; Kim, Heun Ku; Kim, Mi Sun; An, Ki-Seok; Park, Chong-Yun

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate boron and nitrogen co-doping of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film by vaporizing borane ammonia for applications in anti-scratch and extremely robust transparent conductive films. This method allows for facile fabrication of boron and nitrogen co-doped DLC (BNDLC) film with ultra-flat surface and uniform thickness. The simultaneous occurrence of graphitization and boron and nitrogen co-doping of DLC film induced by increasing the co-doping temperature was observed and lead to a significant decrease in the sheet resistance. As a result, the sheet resistance and optical transmittance at 550 nm of the BNDLC were 3.53 ± 0.19 k?/sq and 81.25%, respectively.

  12. Doping and Raman Characterization of Boron and Phosphorus Atoms in

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Doping and Raman Characterization of Boron and Phosphorus Atoms in Germanium Nanowires Naoki Fukata. The chemical bonding states and electrical activity of boron (B) and phosphorus (P) atoms in germanium

  13. Transport properties of polycrystalline boron doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, J. R.; Berengue, O. M.; Moro, J.; Ferreira, N. G.; Chiquito, A. J.; Baldan, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    The influence of doping level in the electronic conductivity and resistivity properties of synthetic diamond films grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was investigated. Eight different doping level concentrations varied from 500 to 30,000 ppm were considered. The polycrystalline morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra was strongly affected by the addition of boron. The electric characterization by Hall effect as a function of temperature and magnetic field showed that at sufficiently low temperatures, electrical conduction is dominated by variable range hopping (VRH) conducting process. The resistivity was also investigated by temperature-dependent transport measurements in order to investigate the conduction mechanism in the doped samples. The samples exhibited the VRH (m = 1/4) mechanism in the temperature range from 77 to 300 K. The interface between metal, and our HFCVD diamond was also investigated for the lower doped samples.

  14. Conductivity of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films: influence of specific boron defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcheulov, P.; Šebera, J.; Kovalenko, A.; Petrák, V.; Fendrych, F.; Nesládek, M.; Taylor, A.; Vl?ková Živcová, Z.; Frank, O.; Kavan, L.; Dra?ínský, M.; Hubík, P.; Vacík, J.; Kraus, I.; Kratochvílová, I.

    2013-10-01

    The resistivity of boron doped polycrystalline diamond films changes with boron content in a very complex way with many unclear factors. From the large number of parameters affecting boron doped polycrystalline diamond film's conductivity we focused on the role of boron atoms inside diamond grains in terms of boron contribution to the continuum of diamond electronic states. Using a combination of theoretical and experimental techniques (plane-wave Density Functional Theory, Neutron Depth Profiling, resistivity and Hall effect measurements, Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy) we studied a wide range of B defect parameters - the boron concentration, location, structure, free hole concentration and mobility. The main goal and novelty of our work was to find the influence of B defects (structure, interactions, charge localisation and spins) in highly B-doped diamonds - close or above the metal-insulator transition - on the complex material charge transport mechanisms.

  15. Boron-doped graphene and boron-doped diamond electrodes: detection of biomarkers and resistance to fouling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu Min; Poh, Hwee Ling; Sofer, Zden?k; Pumera, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Doped carbon materials are of high interest as doping can change their properties. Here we wish to contrast the electrochemical behaviour of two carbon allotropes - sp(3) hybridized carbon as diamond and sp(2) hybridized carbon as graphene - doped by boron. We show that even though both materials exhibit similar heterogeneous electron transfer towards ferro/ferricyanide, there are dramatic differences towards the oxidation of biomolecules, such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The boron-doped graphene exhibits much lower oxidation potentials than boron-doped diamond. The stability of the surfaces towards NADH oxidation product fouling has been studied and in the long term, there is no significant difference among the studied materials. The proton/electron coupled reduction of dopamine and nitroaromatic explosive (TNT) takes place on boron-doped graphene, while it is not observable at boron-doped diamond. These findings show that boron-doped sp(2) graphene and sp(3) diamond behave, in many aspects, dramatically differently and this shall have a profound influence upon their applicability as electrochemical materials. PMID:23817573

  16. The local structure of transition metal doped semiconducting boron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Dowben, P. A.; Luo, Guangfu; Mei, Wai-Ning; Kizilkaya, Orhan; Shepherd, Eric D.; Brand, J. I.

    2010-03-01

    Transition metal doped boron carbides produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of orthocarborane (closo-1,2-C2B10H12) and metallocenes were investigated by performing K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray absorption near edge structure measurements. The Mn, Fe and Co transition metal atoms dope boron carbide pairwise. The transition metal atom occupies one of icosahedral boron or carbon apical site atomic site within the icosahedral cage on adjacent icosahedral cages. There is good agreement between the experiment and theoretical modeling of the local structure two adjoined carborane cages each with a Mn, Fe and Co metal atom (forming the pair wise doping). The local spin configurations of transition metal doped boron carbides, from Ti to Cu, are compared.

  17. Characteristics of deposited boron doping diamond on tungsten carbide insert by MPECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Seok; Park, Yeong Min; Kim, Jeong Wan; Tulugan, Kelimu; Kim, Tae Gyu

    2015-03-01

    Diamond-coated cutting tools are used primarily for machining non-ferrous materials such as aluminum-silicon alloys, copper alloys, fiber-reinforced polymers, green ceramics and graphite. Because the tool life of cemented carbide cutting tool is greatly improved by diamond coating, and typically more than 10 times of the tool life is obtained. However, research of boron-doped diamond (BDD) coating tool has not been fully researched yet. In this study, we have succeeded to make boron-doped microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond-coated Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) inserts. Microcrystalline BDD thin film is deposited on WC-Co insert by using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the as-deposited diamond films.1,2

  18. Flexible Boron-Doped Laser-Induced Graphene Microsupercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Ye, Ruquan; Mann, Jason A; Zakhidov, Dante; Li, Yilun; Smalley, Preston R; Lin, Jian; Tour, James M

    2015-06-23

    Heteroatom-doped graphene materials have been intensely studied as active electrodes in energy storage devices. Here, we demonstrate that boron-doped porous graphene can be prepared in ambient air using a facile laser induction process from boric acid containing polyimide sheets. At the same time, active electrodes can be patterned for flexible microsupercapacitors. As a result of boron doping, the highest areal capacitance of as-prepared devices reaches 16.5 mF/cm(2), 3 times higher than nondoped devices, with concomitant energy density increases of 5-10 times at various power densities. The superb cyclability and mechanical flexibility of the device are well-maintained, showing great potential for future microelectronics made from this boron-doped laser-induced graphene material. PMID:25978090

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE LIFETIME STABILITY AFTER REGENERATION IN BORON-DOPED CZ SILICON

    E-print Network

    (at 10 cm ) on 1 cm boron-doped Czochralski- grown silicon suggesting that the well-known boron-doped, oxygen-rich, Czochralski-grown silicon (Cz-Si), illumination or the injection of excess carriers leads

  20. The local structure of transition metal doped semiconducting boron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Luo, Guangfu; Mei, Wai-Ning; Kizilkaya, Orhan; Shepherd, Eric D.; Brand, J. I.; Dowben, P. A.

    2010-03-01

    Transition metal doped boron carbides produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of orthocarborane (closo-1,2-C2B10H12) and 3d metal metallocenes were investigated by performing K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements. The 3d transition metal atom occupies one of the icosahedral boron or carbon atomic sites within the icosahedral cage. Good agreement was obtained between experiment and models for Mn, Fe and Co doping, based on the model structures of two adjoined vertex sharing carborane cages, each containing a transition metal. The local spin configurations of all the 3d transition metal doped boron carbides, Ti through Cu, are compared using cluster and/or icosahedral chain calculations, where the latter have periodic boundary conditions.

  1. Boron-doped superlattices and Bragg mirrors in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Fiori, A.; Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E.; Bellet-Amalric, E.

    2014-08-25

    A periodic modulation of the boron doping level of single crystal diamond multilayers over more than three orders of magnitude during epitaxial growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is shown to yield Bragg mirrors in the visible. The thicknesses and doping level of the individual layers were controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, enabling to tune the reflectance peak to the wavelength range of diamond color centers, such as NV{sup 0} or NV{sup ?}. The crystalline quality, periodicity, and sharpness of the doping transitions in these doping superlattices over tens of periods were confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction.

  2. Boron-doped superlattices and Bragg mirrors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, A.; Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Bustarret, E.

    2014-08-01

    A periodic modulation of the boron doping level of single crystal diamond multilayers over more than three orders of magnitude during epitaxial growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is shown to yield Bragg mirrors in the visible. The thicknesses and doping level of the individual layers were controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, enabling to tune the reflectance peak to the wavelength range of diamond color centers, such as NV0 or NV-. The crystalline quality, periodicity, and sharpness of the doping transitions in these doping superlattices over tens of periods were confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction.

  3. Temperature admittance spectroscopy of boron doped chemical vapor deposition diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, V. I.; Kucherova, O. V.; Bogdanov, S. A.; Zubkova, A. V.; Butler, J. E.; Ilyin, V. A.; Afanas'ev, A. V.; Vikharev, A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Precision admittance spectroscopy measurements over wide temperature and frequency ranges were carried out for chemical vapor deposition epitaxial diamond samples doped with various concentrations of boron. It was found that the experimentally detected boron activation energy in the samples decreased from 314 meV down to 101 meV with an increase of B/C ratio from 600 to 18000 ppm in the gas reactants. For the heavily doped samples, a transition from thermally activated valence band conduction to hopping within the impurity band (with apparent activation energy 20 meV) was detected at temperatures 120-150 K. Numerical simulation was used to estimate the impurity DOS broadening. Accurate determination of continuously altering activation energy, which takes place during the transformation of conduction mechanisms, was proposed by numerical differentiation of the Arrhenius plot. With increase of boron doping level the gradual decreasing of capture cross section from 3 × 10-13 down to 2 × 10-17 cm2 was noticed. Moreover, for the hopping conduction the capture cross section becomes 4 orders of magnitude less (˜2 × 10-20 cm2). At T > Troom in doped samples the birth of the second conductance peak was observed. We attribute it to a defect, related to the boron doping of the material.

  4. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  5. Room-Temperature, Low-Barrier Boron Doping of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lida; Que, Yande; Chen, Hui; Wang, Dongfei; Li, Jun; Shen, Chengmin; Xiao, Wende; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hongjun; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2015-10-14

    Doping graphene with boron has been difficult because of high reaction barriers. Here, we describe a low-energy reaction route derived from first-principles calculations and validated by experiments. We find that a boron atom on graphene on a ruthenium(0001) substrate can replace a carbon by pushing it through, with substrate attraction helping to reduce the barrier to only 0.1 eV, implying that the doping can take place at room temperature. High-quality graphene is grown on a Ru(0001) surface and exposed to B2H6. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that boron is indeed incorporated substitutionally without disturbing the graphene lattice. PMID:26348981

  6. Influence of Si Co-doping on electrical transport properties of magnesium-doped boron nanoswords

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Yuan; Lu Hongliang; Tian Jifa; Li Chen; Hui Chao; Shi Xuezhao; Huang Yuan; Shen Chengmin; Gao Hongjun

    2012-03-05

    Magnesium-doped boron nanoswords were synthesized via a thermoreduction method. The as-prepared nanoswords are single crystalline and {beta}-rhombohedral ({beta}-rh) phase. Electrical transport measurements show that variable range hopping conductivity increases with temperature, and carrier mobility has a greater influence than carrier concentration. These results are consistent with the three dimensional Mott's model (M. Cutler and N. F. Mott, Phys. Rev. 181, 1336 (1969)) besides a high density of localized states at the Fermi level compared with bulk {beta}-rh boron. Conductivity of Mg-doped boron nanoswords is significantly lower than that of ''pure'' (free of magnesium) boron nanoswords. Electron energy loss spectroscopy studies confirm that the poorer conductivity arises from silicon against magnesium doping.

  7. Effects of Boron Doping on the Properties of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wen-Xiang; WU, Q. X.; Luo, Z. K.; Wu, H. S.

    2014-04-01

    Boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were fabricated on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. UNCD films containing different concentrations of boron were prepared by using trimethylboron (B(CH3)3, TMB) as boron doping source and varying the amount of boron in the gas mixture from 0 ppm to 1000 ppm. The effects of boron doping on morphology, lattice parameter, phase composition, crystal size, and residual stress of UNCD films were investigated. No obvious change of the morphology was observed on doping with boron, and all the films had the UNCD crystal grains. Boron doping enhanced (111) growth. The preferred growth direction of the UNCD films was . Residual tensile stress was present in all the films, and increased with increasing the amount of boron in the gas mixture.

  8. Vaporization and atomization of boron in the graphite furnace investigated by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. P.; Grégoire, D. C.; Goltz, D. M.; Chakrabarti, C. L.

    1994-05-01

    The vaporization and atomization of boron in the graphite furnace were investigated using both electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results show that the majority of the boron is vaporized in molecular form and removed from the furnace at temperatures well below the appearance temperature of atomic boron. The effect of nickel nitrate chemical modifier on the vaporization of boron was also studied. The modifier is largely ineffective in preventing loss of boron from the graphite furnace prior to atomization. The extent of this preatomization loss, both in the presence and absence of the modifier, is reported. For the determination of boron by ETV-ICP-MS, the optimum sensitivity is obtained at a vaporization temperature of about 1800°C, i.e. well below the maximum possible vaporization temperature. This sensitivity is enhanced by the addition of the nickel modifier.

  9. Phase transformations of nano-sized cubic boron nitride to white graphene and white graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Wenhua; Anderson, Ryan S.; Sewell, Cody R.; Xue, Sha; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Shen, Yaogen; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-03

    We report quantum-mechanical investigations that predict the formation of white graphene and nano-sized white graphite from the first-order phase transformations of nano-sized boron nitride thin-films. The phase transformations from the nano-sized diamond-like structure, when the thickness d?>?1.4?nm, to the energetically more stable nano-sized white graphite involve low activation energies of less than 1.0?eV. On the other hand, the diamond-like structure transforms spontaneously to white graphite when d???1.4?nm. In particular, the two-dimensional structure with single-layer boron nitride, the so-called white graphene, could be formed as a result of such transformation.

  10. Phase transformations of nano-sized cubic boron nitride to white graphene and white graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Wenhua; Anderson, Ryan S.; Sewell, Cody R.; Xue, Sha; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Shen, Yaogen; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-01

    We report quantum-mechanical investigations that predict the formation of white graphene and nano-sized white graphite from the first-order phase transformations of nano-sized boron nitride thin-films. The phase transformations from the nano-sized diamond-like structure, when the thickness d > 1.4 nm, to the energetically more stable nano-sized white graphite involve low activation energies of less than 1.0 eV. On the other hand, the diamond-like structure transforms spontaneously to white graphite when d ? 1.4 nm. In particular, the two-dimensional structure with single-layer boron nitride, the so-called white graphene, could be formed as a result of such transformation.

  11. Chemical mechanical polishing of boron-doped polycrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirayesh, Hamidreza; Cadien, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a technique which helps to print a smaller depth of focus and smoother surface in micro fabrication industry. In this project, boron doped polysilicon is used as a fill material for Through Silicon Vias (TSV) creating a 3D package. It is shown that the presence of boron as dopant suppresses the polysilicon polish rate. To increase the polish rate, understanding the mechanism of polish rate retardation is essential. We believe that the electrical effects play the major role in this phenomenon and by reducing this effect we are able to increase the polish rate.

  12. Peculiarities of boron distribution in as-grown boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, V. D.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Terentiev, S. A.; Nosukhin, S. A.; Kuznetsov, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) single crystals have been grown under conditions of high isostatic pressure by the temperature gradient method. Numerous equilateral triangles were found on the fluorescence images of {111}-diamond facets. Structural peculiarities of BDD were investigated by JEM-2010 transmission electron microscope with GIF Quantum attachment for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). High resolution image of diamond lattice revealed some distorted {111}-layers. EELS testifies the presence of boron in distorted regions of diamond lattice. The crystallographic features of BDD and their connection with the superconductivity are discussed.

  13. Hydrogen adsorption on nitrogen and boron doped graphene.

    PubMed

    Pizzochero, Michele; Leenaerts, Ortwin; Partoens, Bart; Martinazzo, Rocco; Peeters, François M

    2015-10-28

    Hydrogen adsorption on boron and nitrogen doped graphene is investigated in detail by means of first-principles calculations. A comprehensive study is performed of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms and atom pairs near the dopant sites. The main effect of the substitutional atoms is charge doping which is found to greatly affect the adsorption process by increasing the binding energy at the sites closest to the substitutional species. It is also found that doping does not induce magnetism despite the odd number of electrons per atom introduced by the foreign species, and that it quenches the paramagnetic response of chemisorbed H atoms on graphene. Overall, the effects are similar for B and N doping, with only minor differences in the adsorption energetics due to different sizes of the dopant atoms and the accompanying lattice distortions. PMID:26439097

  14. Electrochemical hydrogen termination of boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Rene; Kriele, Armin; Obloh, Harald; Hees, Jakob; Wolfer, Marco; Smirnov, Waldemar; Yang Nianjun; Nebel, Christoph E.

    2010-08-02

    Boron-doped diamond is a promising transducer material for numerous devices which are designed for contact with electrolytes. For optimized electron transfer the surface of diamond needs to be hydrogen terminated. Up to now H-termination of diamond is done by plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. In this paper, we show that boron-doped diamond can be H-terminated electrochemically by applying negative voltages in acidic solutions. Electrochemical H-termination generates a clean surface with virtually no carbon-oxygen bonds (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), a reduced electron affinity (scanning electron microscopy), a highly hydrophobic surface (water contact angle), and a fast electron exchange with Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup -3/-4} (cyclic voltammetry).

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of nitrogen- and boron-doped graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoi, Susumu; Kim, Jung Gon; Hasuike, Noriyuki; Kisoda, Kenji; Harima, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen- and boron-doped graphene layers were grown on copper substrates by alcoholic chemical vapor deposition and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical transport measurements. The growth of high-quality monolayer graphene was confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The G and 2D peaks showed systematic frequency shift and broadening with the impurity concentration. The G peaks showed Fano-like asymmetric line shapes. These behaviors suggested the generation of free carriers by doping. XPS and electrical transport measurements also supported the systematic incorporation of impurities in graphene layers.

  16. Global and local superconductivity in boron-doped granular diamond.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gufei; Turner, Stuart; Ekimov, Evgeny A; Vanacken, Johan; Timmermans, Matias; Samuely, Tomás; Sidorov, Vladimir A; Stishov, Sergei M; Lu, Yinggang; Deloof, Bart; Goderis, Bart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Van de Vondel, Joris; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2014-04-01

    Strong granularity-correlated and intragrain modulations of the superconducting order parameter are demonstrated in heavily boron-doped diamond situated not yet in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. These modulations at the superconducting state (SC) and at the global normal state (NS) above the resistive superconducting transition, reveal that local Cooper pairing sets in prior to the global phase coherence. PMID:24343908

  17. Atomically controlled substitutional boron-doping of graphene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Shigeki; Saito, Shohei; Osumi, Shinichiro; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro; Foster, Adam S.; Spijker, Peter; Meyer, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Boron is a unique element in terms of electron deficiency and Lewis acidity. Incorporation of boron atoms into an aromatic carbon framework offers a wide variety of functionality. However, the intrinsic instability of organoboron compounds against moisture and oxygen has delayed the development. Here, we present boron-doped graphene nanoribbons (B-GNRs) of widths of N=7, 14 and 21 by on-surface chemical reactions with an employed organoboron precursor. The location of the boron dopant is well defined in the centre of the B-GNR, corresponding to 4.8 atom%, as programmed. The chemical reactivity of B-GNRs is probed by the adsorption of nitric oxide (NO), which is most effectively trapped by the boron sites, demonstrating the Lewis acid character. Structural properties and the chemical nature of the NO-reacted B-GNR are determined by a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy, high-resolution atomic force microscopy with a CO tip, and density functional and classical computations. PMID:26302943

  18. Nitrogen-Doped Graphitic Nanoribbons: Synthesis, Characterization and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Xiaoting; Dresselhaus, M; Cruz Silva, Eduardo; Munoz-Sandoval, E; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Lopez, Florentino

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic nanoribbons (Nx-GNRs), synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using pyrazine as a nitrogen precursor, are reported for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveal that the synthesized materials are formed by multi-layered corrugated graphitic nanoribbons (GNRs) which in most cases exhibit the formation of curved graphene edges (loops). This suggests that during growth, nitrogen atoms promote loop formation; undoped GNRs do not form loops at their edges. Transport measurements on individual pure carbon GNRs exhibit a linear I-V (current-voltage) behavior, whereas Nx-GNRs show reduced current responses following a semiconducting-like behavior, which becomes more prominent for high nitrogen concentrations. To better understand the experimental findings, electron density of states (DOS), quantum conductance for nitrogen doped zigzag and armchair single-layer GNRs are calculated for different N doping concentrations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green functions. These calculations confirm the crucial role of nitrogen atoms in the transport properties, confirming that the nonlinear I-V curves are due to the presence of nitrogen atoms within the Nx-GNRs lattice that act as scattering sites. These characteristic Nx-GNRs transport could be advantageous in the fabrication of electronic devices including sensors in which metal-like undoped GNRs are unsuitable.

  19. Superconductivity in Li-doped {alpha}-rhombohedral boron

    SciTech Connect

    Nagatochi, T.; Sumiyoshi, A.; Kimura, K.; Hyodo, H.; Soga, K.; Sato, Y.; Terauchi, M.; Esaka, F.

    2011-05-01

    Metal transition and superconductivity were observed in Li-doped {alpha}-rhombohedral boron ({alpha}-B{sub 12}). The authors have established a purification method and obtained a large amount of high-purity {alpha}-B{sub 12} powder. Li doping into purified {alpha}-B{sub 12} was attempted by vapor diffusion processing (VDP) in a Mo or Ta tube. Li-doped {alpha}-B{sub 12} contained metallic glittering particles. Meissner effects were observed in such a compound with the nominal composition Li{sub x}B{sub 12} (x = 1.0, 1.4, 1.5, 1.7, or 2.5) (T{sub c} = 3.2-7 K). As for Li{sub 2.5}B{sub 12}, the temperature dependence of its electrical conductivity indicates a metallic character and its electrical resistivity drop is detected near the Meissner temperature. The existence of Li and Fermi edges in Li-doped {alpha}-B{sub 12} crystals was verified by transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). Lattice expansion, which is a well-known indicator of metal doping into a crystal, was also observed. Thus, Li doping into {alpha}-B{sub 12} was successfully achieved. Our work also suggests that it is possible to dope a larger amount of Li into {alpha}-B{sub 12} and to increase its T{sub c}.

  20. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  1. Laser doping of boron-doped Si paste for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomizawa, Yuka; Imamura, Tetsuya; Soeda, Masaya; Ikeda, Yoshinori; Shiro, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Boron laser doping (LD) is a promising technology for high-efficiency solar cells such as p-type passivated locally diffused solar cells and n-type Si-wafer-based solar cells. We produced a printable phosphorus- or boron-doped Si paste (NanoGram® Si paste/ink) for use as a diffuser in the LD process. We used the boron LD process to fabricate high-efficiency passivated emitter and rear locally diffused (PERL) solar cells. PERL solar cells on Czochralski Si (Cz-Si) wafers yielded a maximum efficiency of 19.7%, whereas the efficiency of a reference cell was 18.5%. Fill factors above 79% and open circuit voltages above 655 mV were measured. We found that the boron-doped area effectively performs as a local boron back surface field (BSF). The characteristics of the solar cell formed using NanoGram® Si paste/ink were better than those of the reference cell.

  2. ESR and Microwave Absorption in Boron Doped Diamond Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Superconductivity has been reportedly found in boron-doped diamond. Most research to date has only studied superconductivity in polycrystalline and thin film boron-diamonds, as opposed to a single crystal. In fact, only one other group has examined a macro scale boron-doped diamond crystal. Our group has successfully grown large single crystals by using the High Temperature High Pressure method (HTHP) and observed a transition to metallic and superconducting states for high B concentrations. For the present, we are studying BDD crystal using Electron Spin Resonance. We conducted our ESR analysis over a range of temperatures (2K to 300K) and found several types of signals, proving the existence of charge carriers with spin 1/2 in BDD. Moreover, we have found that with increasing B concentrations, from n ~ 1018 cm-3 to n of over 1020 cm-3, the ESR signal changes from that of localized spins to the Dysonian shape of free carriers. The low magnetic field microwave absorption has also been studied in BDD samples at various B concentrations and the clear transition to superconducting state has been found below Tc that ranges from 2K to 4 K depending on concentration and quality of crystal. Sergey Polyakov, Victor Denisov, Vladimir Blank, Ray Baughman, Anvar Zakhidov.

  3. Kinetics of boron reactivation in doped silicon from Hall effect and spreading resistance techniques

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Kinetics of boron reactivation in doped silicon from Hall effect and spreading resistance 2002 In this work, a series of 13 boron implants were performed into Czochralski silicon substrates with doses of 2 1014 ­1.6 1015 cm 2 at energies of 10­80 keV. The boron was deliberately clustered with a 750

  4. Degenerate crystalline silicon films by aluminum-induced crystallization of boron-doped amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. D.; Luo, L. C.; Hsueh, T. J.; Hwang, S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Degenerate p-type crystalline silicon film with a hole concentration of 4 × 1021 cm-3 was investigated using aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) of boron-doped amorphous silicon (a-Si). The AIC mechanism is different from that in the undoped AIC-Si. Boron atoms accumulate at Al layer forming a boron bump and segregate the Al atoms into Si layer, resulting to the formation of AlSi alloy. The degeneracy is not attributed to boron doping but instead to the AlSi alloy. Observations show that Al and Si layer transfer occurs not at original interface of Al and Si, but at the boron bump.

  5. Efficient and highly selective boron-doped carbon materials-catalyzed reduction of nitroarenes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yangming; Wu, Shuchang; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Bingsen; Wang, Jia; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Su, Dang Sheng

    2015-08-25

    Exploring the potential catalytic applications of boron-doped carbon materials is a fascinating challenge. Here we describe that boron-doped onion-like carbon and carbon nanotubes as metal-free catalysts exhibit excellent catalytic activity and stability in nitroarene reduction under a stoichiometric amount of reductant. PMID:26186126

  6. The boron doping of single crystal diamond for high power diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicley, Shannon Singer

    Diamond has the potential to revolutionize the field of high power and high frequency electronic devices as a superlative electronic material. The realization of diamond electronics depends on the control of the growth process of both lightly and heavily boron doped diamond. This dissertation work is focused on furthering the state of the art of boron doped diamond (BDD) growth toward the realization of high power diamond Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). The achievements of this work include the fabrication of a new dedicated reactor for lightly boron doped diamond deposition, the optimization of growth processes for both heavily and lightly boron doped single crystal diamond (SCD), and the proposal and realization of the corner architecture SBD. Boron doped SCD is grown in microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) plasma disc bell-jar reactors, with feedgas mixtures including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and diborane. Characterization methods for the analysis of BDD are described, including Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and temperature-dependent four point probe conductivity for activation energy. The effect of adding carbon dioxide to the plasma feedgas for lightly boron doped diamond is investigated. The effect of diborane levels and other growth parameters on the incorporated boron levels are reported, and the doping efficiency is calculated over a range of boron concentrations. The presence of defects is shown to affect the doping uniformity. The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in heavily boron doped SCD deposition is investigated. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron concentration in the gas phase to the flux of carbon incorporated into the solid diamond phase is shown to be a more predictive measure of the resulting boron concentration than the gas phase boron to carbon ratio that is more commonly reported. The corner architecture SBD structure is proposed as an alternative vertical architecture for the realization of high power, high temperature single crystal diamond diodes. The lightly doped layer of the diode is grown in a direction perpendicular to the previous epitaxial growth of the heavily doped layer, to reduce the threading type dislocations in the active region of the fabricated diodes. The first ever corner architecture SBD is fabricated and evaluated for diode performance, using the regimes identified for high quality boron doped diamond deposition at light and heavy doping levels.

  7. Effect of Catalytic Graphitization on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Isotropic Graphite Doped with Metallic Carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OrdA~¡s, N.; GarcA~­-Rosales, C.; Lindig, S.; Balden, M.; Wang, H.

    The influence of several graphitization parameters (temperature, dwell time, HIPing subsequent to graphitization) on the final properties of doped isotropic graphite has been investigated. The aim of this work is to obtain doped isotropic graphite with reduced chemical erosion by hydrogen bombardment, high thermal conductivity and large thermal shock resistance. As starting material, a self-sintering mesophase carbon powder and different metallic carbides (TiC, VC, ZrC and WC) as dopants has been used. Longer dwell time results in a remarkable increase of thermal conductivity, depending on the dopant and on the graphitization temperature. However, it leads also to carbide coarsening and local carbide agglomeration and thus to degradation of the mechanical properties. HIPing subsequent to graphitization leads to a significant reduction of porosity for the materials doped with VC and WC and thus to an improvement of their mechanical properties. A solid–liquid–solid model for metal catalysts can be applied to our experimental observations of graphitization in the presence of metallic carbides.

  8. Doping Level of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes Controls the Grafting Density of Functional Groups for DNA Assays.

    PubMed

    Švorc, ?ubomír; Jambrec, Daliborka; Vojs, Marian; Barwe, Stefan; Clausmeyer, Jan; Michniak, Pavol; Marton, Marián; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    The impact of different doping levels of boron-doped diamond on the surface functionalization was investigated by means of electrochemical reduction of aryldiazonium salts. The grafting efficiency of 4-nitrophenyl groups increased with the boron levels (B/C ratio from 0 to 20,000 ppm). Controlled grafting of nitrophenyldiazonium was used to adjust the amount of immobilized single-stranded DNA strands at the surface and further on the hybridization yield in dependence on the boron doping level. The grafted nitro functions were electrochemically reduced to the amine moieties. Subsequent functionalization with a succinic acid introduced carboxyl groups for subsequent binding of an amino-terminated DNA probe. DNA hybridization significantly depends on the probe density which is in turn dependent on the boron doping level. The proposed approach opens new insights for the design and control of doped diamond surface functionalization for the construction of DNA hybridization assays. PMID:26285076

  9. Boron doped diamond microelectrodes arrays for electrochemical detection in HPLC.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Eric; Devilliers, Didier; Dardoize, François

    2015-01-01

    Boron doped diamond microelectrodes arrays (MEA) have been prepared in order to be used as new amperometric sensors in electrochemical cells for HPLC detectors. The following parameters were studied: number and diameter (15-40 µm) of the electrodes, distance between them (50-240 µm), and effect of the flow rate (0.1-3 mL/min). It was thus possible to find the optimum value of the parameters which give a good signal/noise ratio in the chronoamperometric responses, with a size of the electrochemical sensors as small as possible. PMID:25476357

  10. Percolation exponents and thresholds obtained from the nearly ideal continuum percolation system graphite-boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; McLachlan, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Compressed disks made from graphite and, its mechanical but not electrical isomorph, boron nitride as well as graphite-boron nitride powders, undergoing compression, are nearly ideal continuum percolation systems, as the ratio of their conductivities is nearly 10{sup {minus}18} and the scatter of the experimental points near the critical volume fraction {phi}{sub c} is very small. The following measurements, with the characteristic exponent(s) in brackets, are made on some or all of the samples in (axial) and at right angles (radial) to the direction of compression, as a function of the volume fraction of graphite ({phi}); dc conductivity (s and t), dielectric constant (s), magnetoresistivity (t{sub {perpendicular}}), and noise power (K). The noise power is also measured as function of resistance (w) and volume (b{sup {prime}}). The {phi}{sub c}{close_quote}s obtained for all measurements are consistent and explicable. The results for the exponents are less well understood but, where possible, these results are compared with theoretical predictions and previous experiments. The reasons for the nonuniversality of t are clarified. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Kozo

    2014-11-21

    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18?}cm{sup ?3}–10{sup 19?}cm{sup ?3} at temperatures from 750?°C to 950?°C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  12. Boron-doped diamond heater and its application to large-volume, high-pressure, and high-temperature experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatskiy, Anton; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Morard, Guillaume; Cooray, Titus; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Higo, Yuji; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Ito, Eiji; Katsura, Tomoo

    2009-02-01

    A temperature of 3500 °C was generated using a diamond resistance heater in a large-volume Kawai-type high-pressure apparatus. Re and LaCrO3 have conventionally been used for heaters in high-pressure studies but they cannot generate temperatures higher than 2900 °C and make in situ x-ray observations difficult due to their high x-ray absorption. Using a boron-doped diamond heater overcomes these problems and achieves stable temperature generation for pressure over 10 GPa. The heater starting material is a cold-compressed mixture of graphite with boron used to avoid the manufacturing difficulties due to the extreme hardness of diamond. The diamond heater was synthesized in situ from the boron-graphite mixture at temperature of 1600±100 °C and pressure of 20 GPa. By using the proposed technique, we have employed the diamond heater for high-temperature generation in a large-volume high-pressure apparatus. Achievement of temperatures above 3000 °C allows us to measure the melting points of the important constituents in earth's mantle (MgSiO3, SiO2, and Al2O3) and core (Fe and Ni) at extremely high pressures.

  13. Boron-doped diamond heater and its application to large-volume, high-pressure, and high-temperature experiments.

    PubMed

    Shatskiy, Anton; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Morard, Guillaume; Cooray, Titus; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Higo, Yuji; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Ito, Eiji; Katsura, Tomoo

    2009-02-01

    A temperature of 3500 degrees C was generated using a diamond resistance heater in a large-volume Kawai-type high-pressure apparatus. Re and LaCrO(3) have conventionally been used for heaters in high-pressure studies but they cannot generate temperatures higher than 2900 degrees C and make in situ x-ray observations difficult due to their high x-ray absorption. Using a boron-doped diamond heater overcomes these problems and achieves stable temperature generation for pressure over 10 GPa. The heater starting material is a cold-compressed mixture of graphite with boron used to avoid the manufacturing difficulties due to the extreme hardness of diamond. The diamond heater was synthesized in situ from the boron-graphite mixture at temperature of 1600+/-100 degrees C and pressure of 20 GPa. By using the proposed technique, we have employed the diamond heater for high-temperature generation in a large-volume high-pressure apparatus. Achievement of temperatures above 3000 degrees C allows us to measure the melting points of the important constituents in earth's mantle (MgSiO(3), SiO(2), and Al(2)O(3)) and core (Fe and Ni) at extremely high pressures. PMID:19256662

  14. B and N isolate-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins for enhanced oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Lu; Tian, Chungui; Zhao, Dongdong; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Jie; Wang, Ruihong; Fu, Honggang

    2014-06-01

    B,N-codoped carbon nanostructures (BNCS) can serve as alternative low-cost metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). However, the compensation effect between the p- (B atoms) and n-type (N atoms) dopants would make the covalent boron-nitride (BN) easily formed during the synthesis of BNCS, leading to a unsatisfactory ORR activity. Therefore, it has been challenging to develop facile and rapid synthetic strategies for highly active BNCS without forming the direct covalent BN. Here, a facile method is developed to prepare B and N isolate-doped graphitic nanosheets (BNGS) by using iron species for saving N element and simultaneous doping the B element from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins (NR). The resulting BNGS exhibits much more onset potential (Eonset) compared with the B-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (BGS), N-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (NGS), as well as B,N-codoped disorder carbon (BNC). Moreover, the BNGS shows well methanol tolerance propery and excellent stability (a minimal loss of activity after 5,000 potential cycles) compared to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The goog performance for BNGS towards ORR is attributed to the synergistic effect between B and N, and the well electrons transport property of graphitic carbon in BNGS.

  15. B and N isolate-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins for enhanced oxygen reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Lu; Tian, Chungui; Zhao, Dongdong; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Jie; Wang, Ruihong; Fu, Honggang

    2014-01-01

    B,N-codoped carbon nanostructures (BNCS) can serve as alternative low-cost metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). However, the compensation effect between the p- (B atoms) and n-type (N atoms) dopants would make the covalent boron-nitride (BN) easily formed during the synthesis of BNCS, leading to a unsatisfactory ORR activity. Therefore, it has been challenging to develop facile and rapid synthetic strategies for highly active BNCS without forming the direct covalent BN. Here, a facile method is developed to prepare B and N isolate-doped graphitic nanosheets (BNGS) by using iron species for saving N element and simultaneous doping the B element from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins (NR). The resulting BNGS exhibits much more onset potential (Eonset) compared with the B-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (BGS), N-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (NGS), as well as B,N-codoped disorder carbon (BNC). Moreover, the BNGS shows well methanol tolerance propery and excellent stability (a minimal loss of activity after 5,000 potential cycles) compared to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The goog performance for BNGS towards ORR is attributed to the synergistic effect between B and N, and the well electrons transport property of graphitic carbon in BNGS. PMID:24898033

  16. Magnetic field dependent electro-conductivity of the graphite doped magnetorheological plastomers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Haoming; Xuan, Shouhu; Liu, Taixiang; Gong, Xinglong

    2015-09-14

    In this work we reported a novel graphite doped conductive magnetorheological plastomer (GMRP) with magnetic field dependent electro-conductivity. The conductivity of the GMRPs increased by increasing the content of the graphite particles, while it decreased with the graphite size. When the graphite content reached 15 wt%, the conductivity of GMRPs is approximately 10?000 times higher than the non-doped MRP. Because the iron particles in the GMRPs were magnetic, the conductivity of the GMRPs was magnetically sensitive. Upon applying a 780 mT magnetic field, the electric conductivity could increase about 1000 times larger than the one under zero magnetic field. A particle-particle resistance model was developed to investigate the influence of the magnetic field and graphite doping on the conductivity, and the fitting curve matched the experimental results very well. Finally, a magnetically controllable on-off switch based on GMRPs was proposed and its working mechanism was discussed. PMID:26235530

  17. Stable p-and n-type doping of few-layer graphene/graphite Xiuqing Meng a

    E-print Network

    Wu, Junqiao

    Stable p- and n-type doping of few-layer graphene/graphite Xiuqing Meng a , Sefaattin Tongay b were intercalated in graphite and the presence of such molecules between the graphene sheets results- and n-type doping, respectively. For higher intercalation times, the intercalated graphite turns back

  18. Boron spectral density and disorder broadening in B-doped diamond K.-W. Lee and W. E. Pickett

    E-print Network

    Pickett, Warren

    Boron spectral density and disorder broadening in B-doped diamond K.-W. Lee and W. E. Pickett with a random alloy of substitional boron in diamond is carried out using several supercells and the coherent of superconductivity in diamond heavily doped with boron1­6 has provoked interest in the mechanism and character

  19. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  20. XPS, SIMS and FTIR-ATR characterization of boronized graphite from the thermonuclear plasma device RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, F.; Laguardia, L.; Caniello, R.; Canton, A.; Dal Bello, S.; Rais, B.; Anderle, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the characterization of a thin (tens of nanometers) boron layer on fine grain polycrystalline graphite substrate is presented. The boron film is used as conditioning technique for the full graphite wall of the Reversed Field eXperiment-modified (RFX-mod) experiment, a device for the magnetic confinement of plasmas of thermonuclear interest. Aim of the present analysis is to enlighten the chemical structure of the film, the trapping mechanism that makes it a getter for oxygen and hydrogen and the reason of its loss of effectiveness after exposure to about 100 s of hydrogen plasma. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy in combination with the Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) were used to obtain the structure and the chemical composition of graphitic samples as coated or coated and subsequently exposed to hydrogen plasma after boron deposition. The boron layers on the only coated samples were found to be amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide plus a variety of bonds like B-B, B-H, B-O, B-OH, C-C, C-H, C-O, C-OH. Both the thickness and the homogeneity of the layers were found to depend on the distance of the sample from the anode during the deposition. The samples contained oxygen along the layer thickness, at level of 5%, bound to boron. The gettering action of the boron is therefore already active during the deposition itself. The exposure to plasma caused erosion of the boron film and higher content of H and O bound to boron throughout the whole thickness. The interaction of the B layer with plasma is therefore a bulk phenomenon.

  1. The fabrication, testing and delivery of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of the boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards which were fabricated, tested and delivered to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Detailed design drawings of the standards are included to show the general structures and the types and location of simulated defects built into the panels. The panels were laminates with plies laid up in the 0 deg, + or - 45 deg, and 90 deg orientations and containing either titanium substrates or interlayered titanium perforated shims. Panel thickness was incrementally stepped from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 12.7 mm (0.500 in.) for the graphite/epoxy standards, and from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) for the boron/epoxy standards except for the panels with interlayered shims which were 2.9 mm (0.113 in.) maximum thickness. The panel internal conditions included defect free regions, resin variations, density/porosity variations, cure variations, delaminations/disbonds at substrate bondlines and between layers, inclusions, and interlayered shims. Ultrasonic pulse echo C-scan and low-kilovoltage X-ray techniques were used to evaluate and verify the internal conditions of the panels.

  2. Evolution of the Impurity Band to Diamond-Like Valence Bands in Boron Doped Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inushima, Takashi; Ota, Yuichi; Shiomi, Hiromu

    2014-02-01

    We present the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of boron doped diamond having an impurity band at 0.07 eV above the valence band maximum and compare them with those obtained by first principles calculation using a C63B supercell model containing 1.57% boron. These optical constants are in good accordance with each other, indicating that the impurity band that forms at 2p excited states of impurity boron becomes top of the valence bands in metallic condition. Based on this result we present a model of the evolution of boron atoms from isolated impurity to constituent atoms in the boron doped diamond, where the valence electrons of boron become to have k dependence and form the top of the valence bands of the C63B supercell diamond.

  3. Dirac cones in transition metal doped boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Min; Cao, Xuewei; Shao, Bin; Zuo, Xu

    2015-05-07

    The transition metal (TM) doped zinc blende boron nitride (c-BN) is studied by using the first principle calculation. TM atoms fill in the interstitials in c-BN and form two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. The generalized gradient approximation and projector augmented wave method are used. The calculated density of states and band structures show that d electrons of TM atoms form impurity bands in the gap of c-BN. When the TM-BN system is in ferromagnetic or non-magnetic state, Dirac cones emerge at the K point in Brillouin zone. When TM is Ti and Co, the Dirac cones are spin polarized and very close to the Fermi level, which makes them promising candidates of Dirac half-metal [H. Ishizuka and Y. Motome, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 237207 (2012)]. While TM is Ni and Cu, the system is non-magnetic and Dirac cones located above the Fermi level.

  4. Controlling the Bandgap of Boron Nitride Nanotubes with Carbon Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Hamze; Bagheri, Mehran

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the effects of doping by carbon (C) atoms on electronic properties of (10,10) and (16,0) boron nitride (BN) nanotubes (NTs). We exploit the random tight-binding model with Green's function technique and coherent potential approximation to show that the C dopant causes a decrease in the bandgap of the BN NTs, and their matching Van Hove singularities (VHS) in the density of states (DOS) are broadened. When the impurity concentration is large enough, the form of the DOS of the BN NTs becomes similar to that of metallic (10,10) and semiconducting (16,0) C NTs and their VHS get sharpened. This work might provide opportunities for creating new optoelectronic devices based on BN honeycomb nanosystems.

  5. Boron doped diamond biotechnology: from sensors to neurointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Hébert, C; Scorsone, E; Bendali, A; Kiran, R; Cottance, M; Girard, H A; Degardin, J; Dubus, E; Lissorgues, G; Rousseau, L; Mailley, P; Picaud, S; Bergonzo, P

    2014-01-01

    Boron doped nanocrystalline diamond is known as a remarkable material for the fabrication of sensors, taking advantage of its biocompatibility, electrochemical properties, and stability. Sensors can be fabricated to directly probe physiological species from biofluids (e.g. blood or urine), as will be presented. In collaboration with electrophysiologists and biologists, the technology was adapted to enable structured diamond devices such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs), i.e. common electrophysiology tools, to probe neuronal activity distributed over large populations of neurons or embryonic organs. Specific MEAs can also be used to build neural prostheses or implants to compensate function losses due to lesions or degeneration of parts of the central nervous system, such as retinal implants, which exhibit real promise as biocompatible neuroprostheses for in vivo neuronal stimulations. New electrode geometries enable high performance electrodes to surpass more conventional materials for such applications. PMID:25259508

  6. Porous boron-doped diamond/carbon nanotube electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zanin, H; May, P W; Fermin, D J; Plana, D; Vieira, S M C; Milne, W I; Corat, E J

    2014-01-22

    Nanostructuring boron-doped diamond (BDD) films increases their sensitivity and performance when used as electrodes in electrochemical environments. We have developed a method to produce such nanostructured, porous electrodes by depositing BDD thin film onto a densely packed "forest" of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs had previously been exposed to a suspension of nanodiamond in methanol causing them to clump together into "teepee" or "honeycomb" structures. These nanostructured CNT/BDD composite electrodes have been extensively characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Not only do these electrodes possess the excellent, well-known characteristics associated with BDD (large potential window, chemical inertness, low background levels), but also they have electroactive areas and double-layer capacitance values ?450 times greater than those for the equivalent flat BDD electrodes. PMID:24392640

  7. Effect of Boron doping on the electronic properties of the fullerenes of different sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Deepak; Sharma, Hitesh

    2011-12-12

    We report the results of the effect of Boron doping in C{sub n}; n = 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 50 and 60 using the first principle calculation based on density functional theory. The HOMO-LUMO gap changes significantly with the decreasing fullerene size below C{sub 60}, with maximum gap observed for C{sub 32}. The HOMO-LUMO gap of Boron doped fullerenes varies significantly w.r.t. pure fullerenes. Also, the gap decreases for C{sub n-m}B{sub m}X, the boron doped fullerenes with exohedral alkali metals for n = 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 50 and 60; m = 1 to 4; X = Li, Na and K. The Mulliken charge transfer from the exohedral alkali metals towards the various fullerene cages is altered marginally by the boron doping in fullerenes and follows the order K>Na>Li.

  8. INFLUENCE OF GERMANIUM CONCENTRATION AND HOMOGENEOUS BORON DOPING ON MICROSTRUCTURE, KINETICS, AND SHEET RESISTANCE OF NICKEL

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    1 INFLUENCE OF GERMANIUM CONCENTRATION AND HOMOGENEOUS BORON DOPING ON MICROSTRUCTURE, KINETICS..............................................................................15 1.2 Silicon-Germanium in Semiconductor Technologies.................................................................................................................25 2.1.1 Silicon-Germanium Binary System

  9. Raman spectroscopy study of heat-treated and boron-doped double wall carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Villalpando Paez, Federico

    We performed Raman spectroscopy experiments on undoped and boron-doped double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) that exhibit the “coalescence inducing mode” as these DWNTs are heat treated to temperatures between 1200 °C ...

  10. Evolution of ^311 type defects in boron-doped structures: Experimental evidence of boroninterstitial cluster formation

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    for publication 13 January 1999 Boron-doped well structures formed in Czochralski silicon are subjected to a self oxide into 100 Czochralski silicon with doses varying from 1 1013 to 2 1014 cm 2 followed by a 330 min

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of graphitic carbon nanomaterials doped with heteroatoms

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Thomas; Ayala, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Summary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the best tools for studying the chemical modification of surfaces, and in particular the distribution and bonding of heteroatom dopants in carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although these materials have superb intrinsic properties, these often need to be modified in a controlled way for specific applications. Towards this aim, the most studied dopants are neighbors to carbon in the periodic table, nitrogen and boron, with phosphorus starting to emerge as an interesting new alternative. Hundreds of studies have used XPS for analyzing the concentration and bonding of dopants in various materials. Although the majority of works has concentrated on nitrogen, important work is still ongoing to identify its precise atomic bonding configurations. In general, care should be taken in the preparation of a suitable sample, consideration of the intrinsic photoemission response of the material in question, and the appropriate spectral analysis. If this is not the case, incorrect conclusions can easily be drawn, especially in the assignment of measured binding energies into specific atomic configurations. Starting from the characteristics of pristine materials, this review provides a practical guide for interpreting X-ray photoelectron spectra of doped graphitic carbon nanomaterials, and a reference for their binding energies that are vital for compositional analysis via XPS. PMID:25671162

  12. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of graphitic carbon nanomaterials doped with heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Susi, Toma; Pichler, Thomas; Ayala, Paola

    2015-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the best tools for studying the chemical modification of surfaces, and in particular the distribution and bonding of heteroatom dopants in carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although these materials have superb intrinsic properties, these often need to be modified in a controlled way for specific applications. Towards this aim, the most studied dopants are neighbors to carbon in the periodic table, nitrogen and boron, with phosphorus starting to emerge as an interesting new alternative. Hundreds of studies have used XPS for analyzing the concentration and bonding of dopants in various materials. Although the majority of works has concentrated on nitrogen, important work is still ongoing to identify its precise atomic bonding configurations. In general, care should be taken in the preparation of a suitable sample, consideration of the intrinsic photoemission response of the material in question, and the appropriate spectral analysis. If this is not the case, incorrect conclusions can easily be drawn, especially in the assignment of measured binding energies into specific atomic configurations. Starting from the characteristics of pristine materials, this review provides a practical guide for interpreting X-ray photoelectron spectra of doped graphitic carbon nanomaterials, and a reference for their binding energies that are vital for compositional analysis via XPS. PMID:25671162

  13. Phase change in terahertz waves emitted from differently doped graphite: The role of carrier drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Yim, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Changyoung; Wook Lee, Sang; Jho, Young-Dahl

    2013-11-01

    We investigate characteristics of THz waves radiated from differently doped graphite samples excited by femtosecond laser pulses. Between n-type single-crystalline graphite and p-type polycrystalline graphite films, we observe the phase reversal of THz waves regardless of excitation energy variations around K-valley. In addition, variations in other parameters such as excitation fluence and azimuthal angle produce no changes in the phase of THz waves, which correlate well with the opposite dipole polarization between differently doped samples rather than unidirectional diffusive transport.

  14. Phase change in terahertz waves emitted from differently doped graphite: The role of carrier drift

    SciTech Connect

    Irfan, Muhammad; Yim, Jong-Hyuk; Jho, Young-Dahl; Kim, Changyoung; Wook Lee, Sang

    2013-11-11

    We investigate characteristics of THz waves radiated from differently doped graphite samples excited by femtosecond laser pulses. Between n-type single-crystalline graphite and p-type polycrystalline graphite films, we observe the phase reversal of THz waves regardless of excitation energy variations around K-valley. In addition, variations in other parameters such as excitation fluence and azimuthal angle produce no changes in the phase of THz waves, which correlate well with the opposite dipole polarization between differently doped samples rather than unidirectional diffusive transport.

  15. Cytotoxicity of Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Films Prepared by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Gou, Li; Ran, Junguo; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) exhibits extraordinary mechanical properties and chemical stability, making it highly suitable for biomedical applications. For implant materials, the impact of boron-doped NCD films on the character of cell growth (i.e., adhesion, proliferation) is very important. Boron-doped NCD films with resistivity of 10-2 ?·cm were grown on Si substrates by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) process with H2 bubbled B2O3. The crystal structure, diamond character, surface morphology, and surface roughness of the boron-doped NCD films were analyzed using different characterization methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact potential difference and possible boron distribution within the film were studied with a scanning kelvin force microscope (SKFM). The cytotoxicity of films was studied by in vitro tests, including fluorescence microscopy, SEM and MTT assay. Results indicated that the surface roughness value of NCD films was 56.6 nm and boron was probably accumulated at the boundaries between diamond agglomerates. MG-63 cells adhered well and exhibited a significant growth on the surface of films, suggesting that the boron-doped NCD films were non-toxic to cells. supported by the Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China) (No. KFJJ201313)

  16. Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke

    2014-06-24

    The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer. PMID:24738731

  17. Below-band-gap electroluminescence related to doping spikes in boron-implanted silicon pn diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. M.; Dekorsy, T.; Skorupa, W.; Schmidt, B.; Mücklich, A.; Helm, M.

    2004-10-01

    The origin of two luminescence bands with maxima around 1.05 eV and 0.95 eV is studied in silicon pn diodes prepared by boron implantation. The two peaks are related to the formation of p -type doping spikes on a nanometer scale. These doping spikes are generated by long-time thermal activation of preformed boron clusters. The peak with a larger binding energy stems from spatially indirect excitons bound to doping spikes in a strained environment, while the peak with a lower binding energy is related to doping spikes without strain. The doping spikes are able to capture spatially indirect bound excitons with a low recombination rate, thus effectively suppressing the fast nonradiative recombination at defects. This effect leads to an efficient room temperature electroluminescence in silicon light-emitting diodes prepared by boron implantation.

  18. Properties of boron-doped thin films of polycrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Merabet, Souad

    2013-12-16

    The properties of polycrystalline-silicon films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and doped heavily in situ boron-doped with concentration level of around 2×10{sup 20}cm{sup ?3} has been studied. Their properties are analyzed using electrical and structural characterization means by four points probe resistivity measurements and X-ray diffraction spectra. The thermal-oxidation process are performed on sub-micron layers of 200nm/c-Si and 200nm/SiO{sub 2} deposited at temperatures T{sub d} ranged between 520°C and 605°C and thermally-oxidized in dry oxygen ambient at 945°C. Compared to the as-grown resistivity with silicon wafers is known to be in the following sequence < and < . The measure X-ray spectra is shown, that the Bragg peaks are marked according to the crystal orientation in the film deposited on bare substrates (poly/c-Si), for the second series of films deposited on bare oxidized substrates (poly/SiO{sub 2}) are clearly different.

  19. Nitrogen-doped graphene by ball-milling graphite with melamine for energy conversion and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yuhua; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Dai, Liming

    2015-12-01

    N-doped graphene was prepared by ball milling of graphite with melamine. It was found that ball-milling reduced the size of graphite particles from 30 to 1 ?m and facilitated the exfoliation of the resultant small particles into few-layer N-doped graphene nanosheets under ultrasonication. The as-prepared N-doped graphene nanoplatelets (NGnPs) exhibited a nitrogen content as high as 11.4 at.%, making them attractive as efficient electrode materials in supercapacitors for energy storage and as highly-active metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction in fuel cells for energy conversion.

  20. Structure and superconductivity of isotope-enriched boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Joe D; Ekimov, E A; Sidorov, V A; Zoteev, A; Lebed, Y; Stishov, S M

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting boron-doped diamond samples were synthesized with isotopes of {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup 13}C and {sup 12}C. We claim the presence of a carbon isotope effect on the superconducting transition temperature, which supports the 'diamond-carbon'-related nature of superconductivity and the importance of the electron-phonon interaction as the mechanism of superconductivity in diamond. Isotope substitution permits us to relate almost all bands in the Raman spectra of heavily boron-doped diamond to the vibrations of carbon atoms. The 500 cm{sup 01} Raman band shifts with either carbon or boron isotope substitution and may be associated with vibrations of paired or clustered boron. The absence of a superconducting transition (down to 1.6 K) in diamonds synthesized in the Co-C-B system at 1900 K correlates with the small boron concentration deduced from lattice parameters.

  1. The effect of substrate temperature and growth rate on the doping efficiency of single crystal boron doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Demlow, SN; Rechenberg, R; Grotjohn, T

    2014-10-01

    The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in single crystal, boron doped diamond (BDD) deposition is investigated. Single crystal diamond (SCD) is grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) on high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) type Ib substrates. Samples are grown at substrate temperatures of 850-950 degrees C for each of five doping concentration levels, to determine the effect of the growth temperature on the doping efficiency and defect morphology. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron concentration in the gas phase to the flux of carbon incorporated into the solid diamond phase is shown to be a more predictive measure of the resulting boron concentration than the gas phase boron to carbon ratio that is more commonly reported. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppression of boron-oxygen defects in Czochralski silicon by carbon co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yichao; Yu, Xuegong; He, Hang; Chen, Peng; Yang, Deren

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the influence of carbon co-doping on the formation of boron-oxygen defects in Czochralski silicon. It is found that carbon can effectively suppress the formation of boron-oxygen defects. Based on our experiments and first-principle theoretical calculations, it is believed that this effect is attributed to the formation of more energetically favorable carbon-oxygen complexes. Moreover, the diffusion of oxygen dimers in carbon co-doped silicon also becomes more difficult. All these phenomena should be associated with the tensile stress field induced by carbon doping in silicon.

  3. Suppression of boron-oxygen defects in Czochralski silicon by carbon co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yichao; Yu, Xuegong He, Hang; Chen, Peng; Yang, Deren

    2015-03-09

    We have investigated the influence of carbon co-doping on the formation of boron-oxygen defects in Czochralski silicon. It is found that carbon can effectively suppress the formation of boron-oxygen defects. Based on our experiments and first-principle theoretical calculations, it is believed that this effect is attributed to the formation of more energetically favorable carbon-oxygen complexes. Moreover, the diffusion of oxygen dimers in carbon co-doped silicon also becomes more difficult. All these phenomena should be associated with the tensile stress field induced by carbon doping in silicon.

  4. Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography using a boron-doped diamond particle stationary phase

    PubMed Central

    Muna, Grace W.; Swope, Vernon M.; Swain, Greg M.; Porter, Marc D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on preliminary tests of the performance of boron-doped diamond powder (BDDP) as a stationary phase in electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). EMLC manipulates retention through changes in the potential applied (Eappl) to a conductive packing. Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) has routinely been utilized as a material in EMLC separations. Herein the utility of BDDP as a stationary phase in EMLC was investigated and its stability, both compositionally and microstructurally, relative to PGC was compared. The results show that BDDP is stable over a wide range of Eappl values (i.e., ?1.2 to +1.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl, sat’d NaCl). The data also reveal that electrostatics play a key role in the adsorption of the aromatic sulfonates on the BDDP stationary phase, and that these analytes are more weakly retained in comparison to the PGC support. The potential for this methodology to provide a means to advance the understanding of molecular adsorption and retention mechanisms on carbonaceous materials is briefly discussed. PMID:18922535

  5. Boron- and phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by silver-induced layer exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Antesberger, T.; Wassner, T. A.; Jaeger, C.; Algasinger, M.; Kashani, M.; Scholz, M.; Matich, S.; Stutzmann, M.

    2013-05-27

    Intentional boron and phosphorus doping of polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass prepared by the silver-induced layer exchange is presented. A silver/(titanium) oxide/amorphous silicon stack is annealed at temperatures below the eutectic temperature of the Ag/Si system, leading to a complete layer exchange and simultaneous crystallization of the amorphous silicon. Intentional doping of the amorphous silicon prior to the exchange process results in boron- or phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon. Hall effect measurements show carrier concentrations between 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} for phosphorus and 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} for boron-doped layers, with carrier mobilities up to 90 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  6. Graphitic electrodes modified with boron and nitrogen for electrochemical energy storage enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoping; Paul, Rajib; Reifenberger, Ron; Fisher, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Electrodes based on carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes or graphitic nanopetals) have been modified with boron (B) and nitrogen (N) through a facile microwave heating cycle. During the microwave heating, the electrodes are immersed in a precursor solution consisting of urea and boric acid dissolved in either water or methanol. After microwave heating and overnight vacuum drying, the electrodes are again heated in nitrogen to remove unreacted chemicals and to form CxBN. Hydrogen plasma was then used to remove any residual boron oxide from the surface of the electrodes. Carbon nanotubes modified with B and N exhibited higher lithium storage capacity as compared to pure carbon nanotube electrodes. We note that the modification appears to produce a highly unexpected and substantial cycle-to-cycle improvement in battery capacity as the electrode cycles through hundreds of charge-discharge iterations. This process can be applied to other carbon-based electrodes, which themselves are recognized for their high performance, to add further improvements. AFOSR MURI No. 105800

  7. High-concentration boron doping of graphene nanoplatelets by simple thermal annealing and their supercapacitive properties

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Da-Young; Jeon, Woojin; Tu, Nguyen Dien Kha; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sung, Bong June; Chang, Hyejung; Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Heesuk

    2015-01-01

    For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000?°C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04?±?1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448?F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment. PMID:25940534

  8. High-concentration boron doping of graphene nanoplatelets by simple thermal annealing and their supercapacitive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Da-Young; Jeon, Woojin; Tu, Nguyen Dien Kha; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sung, Bong June; Chang, Hyejung; Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Heesuk

    2015-05-01

    For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000?°C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04?±?1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448?F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment.

  9. Measurements of Increased Enthalpies of Adsorption for Boron-Doped Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Andrew; Beckner, Matthew; Chada, Nagaraju; Schaeperkoetter, Joseph; Singh, Anupam; Lee, Mark; Wexler, Carlos; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Boron-doping of activated carbons has been shown to increase the enthalpies of adsorption for hydrogen as compared to their respective undoped precursors (>10kJ/mol compared to ca. 5kJ/mol). This has brought significant interest to boron-doped carbons for their potential to improve hydrogen storage. Boron-doped activated carbons have been produced using a process involving the deposition of decaborane (B10H14) and high-temperature annealing resulting in boron contents up to 15%. In this talk, we will present a systematic study of the effect that boron content has on the samples' structure, hydrogen sorption, and surface chemistry. Measurements have shown a significant increase in the areal hydrogen excess adsorption and binding energy. Experimental enthalpies of adsorption will be presented for comparison to theoretical predictions. Additionally, samples have been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TGA and GC-MS results investigated the decomposition of the decaborane in the carbon. Boron-carbon bonds are shown in the FTIR and XPS spectra, indicating that boron has been incorporated into the carbon matrix. Work supported by DOE-EERE, Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18142

  10. Polyoxometalate-Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Yuichi; Yuasa, Makoto; Kawai, Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Polyoxometalates were immobilized on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) surface modified by a photochemical modification method. The BDD surface was first modified with allyltriethylammonium bromide (ATAB) to form surface quaternary ammonium groups. The ATAB-BDD was then immersed in a phosphomolybdic acid (H3PMo12O40, denoted as PMo12) solution to fabricate PMo12-adsorbed ATAB-BDD (PMo12-ATAB-BDD). The electrostatic interaction between PMo12 and the quaternary ammonium group on ATAB-BDD is considered to be critical to the stable immobilization. Polyoxometalate-modified BDD was also fabricated from phosphonic-acid-terminated BDD. BDD was first modified with vinylphosphonic acid (VPA), followed by the reaction of the surface phosphonic acid groups with ammonium molybdate to generate a lacunary phosphomolybdic acid (PMox) group. Although the coverage of the PMox group on PMox-BDD was less than that of PMo12-ATAB-BDD, PMox-BDD was found to be more stable to potential cycling than PMo12-ATAB-BDD, indicating that covalent modification methods are effective for creating stable functional groups on diamond.

  11. Crystallinity, morphology, and conductivity of boron-doped microcrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rajeswaran, G.; Tafto, J.; Sabatini, R.L.; Vanier, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Boron-doped microcrystalline (..mu..c) silicon films produced by rf glow discharge from dilute (1%) mixtures of SiH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ show a critical dependence of conductivity on deposition conditions. The dark conductivity was related to the microscopic features using electron microscopy. The ..mu..c-Si:H films contain clusters of crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix. The size of the crystalline clusters is typically 0.2 ..mu..m in diameter, and the size of the individual crystallites is about 2.5 nm. Electron micrographs of samples prepared at substrate temperatures T/sub s/=135/sup 0/C, 150/sup 0/C, 165/sup 0/C, and 180/sup 0/C show that the number of crystalline clusters increases with T/sub s/ up to 165/sup 0/C. At T/sub s/=180/sup 0/C, the crystallites completely disappear. When the concentration of SiH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ is decreased to 0.25%, the microstructure shows a high density of crystallites with no apparent clustering.

  12. Nucleosides and ODN electrochemical detection onto boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Elodie; Chane-Tune, Jérôme; Mailley, Pascal; Szunerits, Sabine; Marcus, Bernadette; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Mermoux, Michel; Vieil, Eric

    2004-06-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) is a promising material for electroanalytical chemistry due mainly to its chemical stability, its high electrical conductivity and to the large amplitude of its electroactive window in aqueous media. The latter feature allowed us to study the direct oxidation of the two electroactive nucleosides, guanosine and adenosine. The BDD electrode was first activated by applying high oxidizing potentials, allowing to increase anodically its working potential window through the oxidation of CH surface groups into hydroxyl and carbonyl terminations. Guanosine (1.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and adenosine (1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl) could then be detected electrochemically with an acceptable signal to noise ratio. The electrochemical signature of each oxidizable base was assessed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), in solutions containing one or both nucleosides. These experiments pointed out the existence of adsorption phenomena of the oxidized products onto the diamond surface. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used to investigate these adsorption effects at the microscopic scale. The usefulness of BDD electrodes for the direct electrochemical detection of synthetic oligonucleotides is also evidenced. PMID:15110292

  13. Tribological properties of undoped and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qi; Stanishevsky, Andrei; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2009-01-01

    Undoped and boron-doped nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films were deposited on mirror polished Ti–6Al–4V substrates in a Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition system. Sliding wear tests were conducted in ambient air with a nanotribometer. A systematic study of the tribological properties for both undoped and boron-doped NCD films were carried out. It was found for diamond/diamond sliding, coefficient of friction decreases with increasing normal loads. It was also found that the wear rate of boron-doped NCD films is about 10 times higher than that of undoped films. A wear rate of ~5.2×10?9 mm3/Nm was found for undoped NCD films. This value is comparable to the best known value of that of polished polycrystalline diamond films. Although no surface deformation, film delamination or micro-cracking were observed for undoped films, boron-doped NCD film undergoes a critical failure at a normal stress of 2.2 GPa, above which surface deformation is evident. Combined with high hardness and modulus, tunable conductivity and improved open air thermal stability, boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond film has tremendous potentials for applications such as Atomic Force Microscope probes, Micro-Electro-Mechanical System devices and biomedical sensors. PMID:19946362

  14. Multiple delta doping of single crystal cubic boron nitride films heteroepitaxially grown on (001)diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, H.; Ziemann, P.

    2014-06-23

    Phase pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films have been epitaxially grown on (001) diamond substrates at 900?°C. The n-type doping of c-BN epitaxial films relies on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p-) and Si doped (n-) layers with well-controlled thickness (down to several nanometer range) in the concept of multiple delta doping. The existence of nominally undoped c-BN overgrowth separates the Si doped layers, preventing Si dopant segregation that was observed for continuously doped epitaxial c-BN films. This strategy allows doping of c-BN films can be scaled up to multiple numbers of doped layers through atomic level control of the interface in the future electronic devices. Enhanced electronic transport properties with higher hall mobility (10{sup 2} cm{sup 2}/V s) have been demonstrated at room temperature as compared to the normally continuously Si doped c-BN films.

  15. Multiple delta doping of single crystal cubic boron nitride films heteroepitaxially grown on (001)diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, H.; Ziemann, P.

    2014-06-01

    Phase pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films have been epitaxially grown on (001) diamond substrates at 900 °C. The n-type doping of c-BN epitaxial films relies on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p-) and Si doped (n-) layers with well-controlled thickness (down to several nanometer range) in the concept of multiple delta doping. The existence of nominally undoped c-BN overgrowth separates the Si doped layers, preventing Si dopant segregation that was observed for continuously doped epitaxial c-BN films. This strategy allows doping of c-BN films can be scaled up to multiple numbers of doped layers through atomic level control of the interface in the future electronic devices. Enhanced electronic transport properties with higher hall mobility (102 cm2/V s) have been demonstrated at room temperature as compared to the normally continuously Si doped c-BN films.

  16. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn; Yang, Deren; Lu, Yunhao E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn

    2014-01-20

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050?°C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500?°C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800?°C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B{sub 2}I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500?°C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800?°C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition.

  17. The crystal structure of aluminum doped {beta}-rhombohedral boron

    SciTech Connect

    Bykova, Elena; Materialphysik und Technologie, Lehrstuhl fuer Kristallographie, Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, D-95440 Bayreuth ; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; Materialphysik und Technologie, Lehrstuhl fuer Kristallographie, Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, D-95440 Bayreuth ; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2012-10-15

    A crystal structure of aluminum doped {beta}-rhombohedral boron was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 80 K. The crystals were synthesized using high-pressure high temperature technique at 3 GPa and 2100 K. The structure is based on three-dimensional framework made of B{sub 12} icosahedra with voids occupied by the B{sub 28}-B-B{sub 28} units, it has the R-3m space group with a=10.9014(3), c=23.7225(7) A lattice dimensions in hexagonal setting. Aluminum atoms are located in A1 and D special positions of the {beta}-B structure with occupancies of 82.7(6)% and 11.3(4)%, respectively. Additional boron atoms are located near the D-site. Their possible distribution is discussed. Finally we have found two appropriate structural models whose refinement suggests two possible chemical compositions, AlB{sub 44.8(5)} and AlB{sub 37.8(5)}, which are in a good agreement with the chemical analysis data obtained from EDX. The crystal structure of AlB{sub 44.8(5)} is described in detail. - Graphical abstract: The atomic distribution near the B(15) atom (non-labeled atom in the center of the picture) shown along the c axis. Anisotropic displacement ellipses for Al(2) (D-site) and B(15) are shown with 50 % probability level. The mirror plane with Miller indices (1 1 0) and related to it (-1 2 0) and (-2 1 0) generated by the 3-fold rotation-inversion axis parallel to the c axis splits the position of B(16) over two sites. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure of the AlB{sub 44.8(5)} has been refined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum atoms partially fill certain types of voids (the A1- and D-sites). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have got two possible models of atomic distribution near the D-site.

  18. Impact resistance of composite fan blades. [fiber reinforced graphite and boron epoxy blades for STOL operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premont, E. J.; Stubenrauch, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    The resistance of current-design Pratt and Whitney Aircraft low aspect ratio advanced fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite fan blades to foreign object damage (FOD) at STOL operating conditions was investigated. Five graphite/epoxy and five boron/epoxy wide chord fan blades with nickel plated stainless steel leading edge sheath protection were fabricated and impact tested. The fan blades were individually tested in a vacuum whirlpit under FOD environments. The FOD environments were typical of those encountered in service operations. The impact objects were ice balls, gravel, stralings and gelatin simulated birds. Results of the damage sustained from each FOD impact are presented for both the graphite boron reinforced blades. Tests showed that the present design composite fan blades, with wrap around leading edge protection have inadequate FOD impact resistance at 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) tip speed, a possible STOL operating condition.

  19. Boron doping effects in electrochromic properties of NiO films prepared by sol-gel

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Xianchun; Zhao, Xiujian; He, Xin

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, NiO films doped with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} were first prepared by sol-gel. The effects of boron content on the structure and electrochromic properties of NiO films were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetric (CV) and UV-vis spectrophotometer, respectively. In addition, the roughness and phase of the bleached/colored were studied by atom force microscopy (AFM). B-doped prevent the crystallization of the films. The colored state transmittance could be significantly lowered when the boron added. The NiO film doped with boron exhibited a noticeable electrochromism with a variation of transmittance up to {proportional_to}60% at the wavelength range of 300-500 nm. (author)

  20. Properties and electrochemical characteristics of boron-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsierkezos, Nikos G.; Ritter, Uwe; Nugraha Thaha, Yudi; Krischok, Stefan; Himmerlich, Marcel; Downing, Clive

    2015-10-01

    Boron-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized upon decomposition of ethyl alcohol and boric acid via chemical vapor deposition. The boron-doped nanotubes were treated with hydrochloric acid and were characterized by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemistry of ferrocyanide/ferricyanide on boron-doped nanotubes was studied in temperature range of 283.15-303.15 K. The findings exhibit an improvement of films' current response and kinetics of electron transfer with the rise in temperature. The kinetics for electron transfer enhances and the redox process occurs slightly more spontaneously upon acid treatment.

  1. Critical boron-doping levels for generation of dislocations in synthetic diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Alegre, M. P. Araújo, D.; Pinero, J. C.; Lloret, F.; Villar, M. P.; Fiori, A.; Achatz, P.; Chicot, G.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2014-10-27

    Defects induced by boron doping in diamond layers were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The existence of a critical boron doping level above which defects are generated is reported. This level is found to be dependent on the CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} molar ratios and on growth directions. The critical boron concentration lied in the 6.5–17.0?×?10{sup 20}at/cm{sup 3} range in the ?111? direction and at 3.2?×?10{sup 21?}at/cm{sup 3} for the ?001? one. Strain related effects induced by the doping are shown not to be responsible. From the location of dislocations and their Burger vectors, a model is proposed, together with their generation mechanism.

  2. Critical boron-doping levels for generation of dislocations in synthetic diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegre, M. P.; Araújo, D.; Fiori, A.; Pinero, J. C.; Lloret, F.; Villar, M. P.; Achatz, P.; Chicot, G.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2014-10-01

    Defects induced by boron doping in diamond layers were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The existence of a critical boron doping level above which defects are generated is reported. This level is found to be dependent on the CH4/H2 molar ratios and on growth directions. The critical boron concentration lied in the 6.5-17.0 × 1020at/cm3 range in the ?111? direction and at 3.2 × 1021 at/cm3 for the ?001? one. Strain related effects induced by the doping are shown not to be responsible. From the location of dislocations and their Burger vectors, a model is proposed, together with their generation mechanism.

  3. An insight into what superconducts in polycrystalline boron-doped diamonds based on investigations of microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Wirth, R.; Wosnitza, J.; Papageorgiou, T.; Braun, H. F.; Miyajima, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) synthesized under high pressure and high temperatures [Ekimov, et al. (2004) Nature 428:542–545] has raised a number of questions on the origin of the superconducting state. It was suggested that the heavy boron doping of diamond eventually leads to superconductivity. To justify such statements more detailed information on the microstructure of the composite materials and on the exact boron content in the diamond grains is needed. For that we used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. For the studied superconducting BDD samples synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures the diamond grain sizes are ?1–2 ?m with a boron content between 0.2 (2) and 0.5 (1) at %. The grains are separated by 10- to 20-nm-thick layers and triangular-shaped pockets of predominantly (at least 95 at %) amorphous boron. These results render superconductivity caused by the heavy boron doping in diamond highly unlikely. PMID:18697937

  4. Atomistic boron-doped graphene field-effect transistors: a route toward unipolar characteristics.

    PubMed

    Marconcini, Paolo; Cresti, Alessandro; Triozon, François; Fiori, Gianluca; Biel, Blanca; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Macucci, Massimo; Roche, Stephan

    2012-09-25

    We report fully quantum simulations of realistic models of boron-doped graphene-based field-effect transistors, including atomistic details based on DFT calculations. We show that the self-consistent solution of the three-dimensional (3D) Poisson and Schrödinger equations with a representation in terms of a tight-binding Hamiltonian manages to accurately reproduce the DFT results for an isolated boron-doped graphene nanoribbon. Using a 3D Poisson/Schrödinger solver within the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism, self-consistent calculations of the gate-screened scattering potentials induced by the boron impurities have been performed, allowing the theoretical exploration of the tunability of transistor characteristics. The boron-doped graphene transistors are found to approach unipolar behavior as the boron concentration is increased and, by tuning the density of chemical dopants, the electron-hole transport asymmetry can be finely adjusted. Correspondingly, the onset of a mobility gap in the device is observed. Although the computed asymmetries are not sufficient to warrant proper device operation, our results represent an initial step in the direction of improved transfer characteristics and, in particular, the developed simulation strategy is a powerful new tool for modeling doped graphene nanostructures. PMID:22876866

  5. Growth of boron-doped diamond nanoclusters using the HFCVD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadfar, P.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Elahi, S. M.; Farhadyar, N.; Salar Elahi, A.

    2015-04-01

    Boron-doped diamond nanocrystals were grown on Si wafers through introduction of the gas mixture of B2O3 dissolved in ethanol and hydrogen by a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. Boron level in diamond films were controlled in the range from 100 to 500 ppm by adjusting the B/C ratios of gas mixtures in order to synthesize and improve the conductivity and quality of HFCVD diamond films with cluster size of nanometer. To investigate the effect of different boron percentage in the chamber on deposited films, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and four point probe techniques were applied to characterize the properties of diamond films. Experimental results indicated that higher boron incorporation in the diamond films introduced bigger crystal clusters, better crystal quality and smaller film resistivity when the level of boron increased from 100 to 300 ppm, while they showed an opposite trend with a further increase of boron level from 300 to 500 ppm. However, in any case the higher boron-doping level led to a decrease of the non-diamond phase in the nanodiamond films.

  6. Boron-Doped Silicon Diatom Frustules as a Photocathode for Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Macdonald, Thomas J; Gerson, Andrea R; Nann, Thomas; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-08-12

    An effective solar-powered silicon device for hydrogen production from water splitting is a priority in light of diminishing fossil fuel vectors. There is increasing demand for nanostructuring in silicon to improve its antireflective properties for efficient solar energy conversion. Diatom frustules are naturally occurring biosilica nanostructures formed by biomineralizing microalgae. Here, we demonstrate magnesiothermic conversion of boron-doped silica diatom frustules from Aulacoseira sp. into nanostructured silicon with retention of the original shape. Hydrogen production was achieved for boron-doped silicon diatom frustules coated with indium phosphide nanocrystal layers and an iron sulfur carbonyl electrocatalyst. PMID:26192101

  7. Facile Synthesis of Pre-Doping Lithium-Ion Into Nitrogen-Doped Graphite Negative Electrode for Lithium-Ion Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Kim, Ji-Il; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Park, Soo-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphite, prepared via the thermal decomposition of melamine into a carbon matrix for use as the negative electrode in lithium-ion capacitors (LICs), was evaluated by electrochemical measurements. Furthermore, in order to study the performance of pre-doped lithium components as a function of nitrogen-doped material, the pre-doped lithium graphite was allowed to react with a lithium salt solution. The results showed that the nitrogen functional groups in the graphite largely influenced the pre-doped lithium components, thereby contributing to the discharge capacity and cycling performance. We confirmed that the large initial irreversible capacity could be significantly decreased by using pre-doped lithium components obtained through the nitrogen-doping method. PMID:26716292

  8. Controlled in situ boron doping of diamond thin films using solution phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Dua, A. K.; Nuwad, J.; Girija, K. G.; Tyagi, A. K.; Kulshreshtha, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    Controlled boron doping of diamond film using nontoxic reagents is a challenge in itself. During the present study, attempts have been made to dope diamond films in situ with boron from a solution of boric acid (H3BO3) in methanol (CH3OH) using a specially designed bubbler that ensured continuous and controlled flow of vapors of boron precursors during deposition. The samples are thoroughly characterized using a host of techniques comprising of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman, x-ray diffraction, and current-voltage measurements (I-V). Cross-sectional micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used to obtain depth profile of boron in diamond films. Boron concentration ([B]) in the films is found to vary linearly on a semilog scale with molarity (M) of H3BO3 in CH3OH. Lattice constant of our samples is smaller than the reported American society for testing and materials (ASTM) values due to oxygen incorporation and it increases with [B] in the diamond samples. Heavily boron doped samples exhibit Fano deformation of the Raman line shape and negative and/zero activation barrier in temperature dependent I-V measurements that indicate the formation of metallic phase in the samples. The present study illustrates the feasibility of safe and controlled boron doping of diamond films using a solution of H3BO3 in CH3OH over a significant range of [B] from semiconductor to metallic regime but with a little adverse effect due to unintentional but unavoidable incorporation of oxygen.

  9. Adsorption of formaldehyde molecule on the pristine and silicon-doped boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruoxi; Zhu, Rongxiu; Zhang, Dongju

    2008-12-01

    The adsorption of formaldehyde (HCOH) molecule on the pristine and silicon-doped (Si-doped) single-walled (8, 0) boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Compared with the weak physisorption on the pristine BNNT, the HCOH molecule presents strong chemisorption on both silicon-substituted boron defect site and silicon-substituted nitrogen defect site of the BNNT, as indicated by the calculated geometrical structures and electronic properties for these systems. It is suggested that the Si-doped BNNT presents high sensitivity to toxic HCOH. Based on calculated results, the Si-doped BNNT is expected to be a potential novel sensor for detecting the presence of HCOH.

  10. Cat-doping: Novel method for phosphorus and boron shallow doping in crystalline silicon at 80 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Taro; Ohta, Tatsunori; Nakashima, Yuki; Miyamoto, Motoharu; Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2014-09-21

    Phosphorus (P) or boron (B) atoms can be doped at temperatures as low as 80 to 350 °C, when crystalline silicon (c-Si) is exposed only for a few minutes to species generated by catalytic cracking reaction of phosphine (PH?) or diborane (B?H?) with heated tungsten (W) catalyzer. This paper is to investigate systematically this novel doping method, “Cat-doping”, in detail. The electrical properties of P or B doped layers are studied by the Van der Pauw method based on the Hall effects measurement. The profiles of P or B atoms in c-Si are observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry mainly from back side of samples to eliminate knock-on effects. It is confirmed that the surface of p-type c-Si is converted to n-type by P Cat-doping at 80 °C, and similarly, that of n-type c-Si is to p-type by B Cat-doping. The doping depth is as shallow as 5 nm or less and the electrically activated doping concentration is 10¹? to 10¹?cm?³ for both P and B doping. It is also found that the surface potential of c-Si is controlled by the shallow Cat-doping and that the surface recombination velocity of minority carriers in c-Si can be enormously lowered by this potential control.

  11. New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Peter; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Lee, Mark W.; Jalistegi, Satish S.

    2014-08-14

    This project, since its start in 2007—entitled “Networks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storage” (2007-10) and “New pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospaces” (2010-13)—is in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program’s comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007—metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storage—sorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (“5.5 wt%”) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have demonstrated the predicted increase in binding energy experimentally, currently at ~10 kJ/mol. The synthetic route for incorporation of boron at the outset is to create appropriately designed copoly- mers, with a boron-free and a boron-carrying monomer, followed by pyrolysis of the polymer, yielding a bo- ron-substituted carbon scaffold in which boron atoms are bonded to carbon atoms by synthesis. This is in contrast to a second route (funded by DE-FG36-08GO18142) in which first high-surface area carbon is cre- ated and doped by surface vapor deposition of boron, with incorporation of the boron into the lattice the final step of the fabrication. The challenge in the first route is to create high surface areas without compromising sp2 boron-carbon bonds. The challenge in the second route is to create sp2 boron-carbon bonds without com- promising high surface areas.

  12. Biocompatibility of nanostructured boron doped diamond for the attachment and proliferation of human neural stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alice C.; Vagaska, Barbora; Edgington, Robert; Hébert, Clément; Ferretti, Patrizia; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. We quantitatively investigate the biocompatibility of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) after the inclusion of boron, with and without nanostructuring. The nanostructuring method involves a novel approach of growing NCD over carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that act as a 3D scaffold. This nanostructuring of BNCD leads to a material with increased capacitance, and this along with wide electrochemical window makes BNCD an ideal material for neural interface applications, and thus it is essential that their biocompatibility is investigated. Approach. Biocompatibility was assessed by observing the interaction of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) with a variety of NCD substrates including un-doped ones, and NCD doped with boron, which are both planar, and nanostructured. hNSCs were chosen due to their sensitivity, and various methods including cell population and confluency were used to quantify biocompatibility. Main results. Boron inclusion into NCD film was shown to have no observable effect on hNSC attachment, proliferation and viability. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of nanostructured boron-doped NCD is increased upon nanostructuring, potentially due to the increased surface area. Significance. Diamond is an attractive material for supporting the attachment and development of cells as it can show exceptional biocompatibility. When boron is used as a dopant within diamond it becomes a p-type semiconductor, and at high concentrations the diamond becomes quasi-metallic, offering the prospect of a direct electrical device-cell interfacing system.

  13. Ultrasensitive gas detection of large-area boron-doped graphene.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ruitao; Chen, Gugang; Li, Qing; McCreary, Amber; Botello-Méndez, Andrés; Morozov, S V; Liang, Liangbo; Declerck, Xavier; Perea-López, Nestor; Cullen, David A; Feng, Simin; Elías, Ana Laura; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Endo, Morinobu; Kang, Feiyu; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Meunier, Vincent; Pan, Minghu; Harutyunyan, Avetik R; Novoselov, Konstantin S; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-11-24

    Heteroatom doping is an efficient way to modify the chemical and electronic properties of graphene. In particular, boron doping is expected to induce a p-type (boron)-conducting behavior to pristine (nondoped) graphene, which could lead to diverse applications. However, the experimental progress on atomic scale visualization and sensing properties of large-area boron-doped graphene (BG) sheets is still very scarce. This work describes the controlled growth of centimeter size, high-crystallinity BG sheets. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are used to visualize the atomic structure and the local density of states around boron dopants. It is confirmed that BG behaves as a p-type conductor and a unique croissant-like feature is frequently observed within the BG lattice, which is caused by the presence of boron-carbon trimers embedded within the hexagonal lattice. More interestingly, it is demonstrated for the first time that BG exhibits unique sensing capabilities when detecting toxic gases, such as NO2 and NH3, being able to detect extremely low concentrations (e.g., parts per trillion, parts per billion). This work envisions that other attractive applications could now be explored based on as-synthesized BG. PMID:26575621

  14. Ultrasensitive gas detection of large-area boron-doped graphene

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ruitao; Chen, Gugang; Li, Qing; McCreary, Amber; Botello-Méndez, Andrés; Morozov, S. V.; Declerck, Xavier; Perea-López, Nestor; Cullen, David A.; Feng, Simin; Elías, Ana Laura; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Endo, Morinobu; Kang, Feiyu; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Meunier, Vincent; Pan, Minghu; Harutyunyan, Avetik R.; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Heteroatom doping is an efficient way to modify the chemical and electronic properties of graphene. In particular, boron doping is expected to induce a p-type (boron)-conducting behavior to pristine (nondoped) graphene, which could lead to diverse applications. However, the experimental progress on atomic scale visualization and sensing properties of large-area boron-doped graphene (BG) sheets is still very scarce. This work describes the controlled growth of centimeter size, high-crystallinity BG sheets. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are used to visualize the atomic structure and the local density of states around boron dopants. It is confirmed that BG behaves as a p-type conductor and a unique croissant-like feature is frequently observed within the BG lattice, which is caused by the presence of boron-carbon trimers embedded within the hexagonal lattice. More interestingly, it is demonstrated for the first time that BG exhibits unique sensing capabilities when detecting toxic gases, such as NO2 and NH3, being able to detect extremely low concentrations (e.g., parts per trillion, parts per billion). This work envisions that other attractive applications could now be explored based on as-synthesized BG. PMID:26575621

  15. Intergranular fracture tendency in NiAl doped with boron and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Lee, E.H.; George, E.P.; Duncan, A.J. )

    1994-02-15

    Near-stoichiometric NiAl alloys produced by powder metallurgy, or by conventional casting and fabrication, exhibit mainly intergranular fracture at ambient temperatures. NiAl doped with 300 wt ppm C also shows grain boundary fracture at room temperature, whereas NiAl doped with 300 wt ppm B exhibits mainly transgranular fracture. George and Liu concluded that boron segregation increases grain boundary cohesion and suppresses intergranular fracture in near-stoichiometric NiAl. In addition to suppressing intergranular fracture, boron additions dramatically increase the yield strength and reduce plastic deformation in NiAl at room temperature. The purpose of this study is to further examine these two factors, i.e., enhancement of grain boundary cohesion and reduction of strain incompatibility, by compression tests of near-stoichiometric NiAl alloys doped separately with 300 wt ppm B and C at room temperature. These alloys were chosen because both carbon and boron increase strength significantly, but only boron suppresses grain boundary fracture. Compression tests were used in this study to obtain plastic deformation beyond yielding and thus ensure strain incompatibility at the grain-boundary region. The results obtained so far provide additional evidence that grain boundaries in NiAl are relatively weak and that boron segregation increases grain boundary cohesion in NiAl.

  16. Delta-doping of boron atoms by photoexcited chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Akazawa, Housei

    2012-03-15

    Boron delta-doped structures in Si crystals were fabricated by means of photoexcited chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Core electronic excitation with high-energy photons ranging from vacuum ultraviolet to soft x rays decomposes B{sub 2}H{sub 6} molecules into fragments. Combined with in situ monitoring by spectroscopic ellipsometry, limited number of boron hydrides can be delivered onto a Si(100) surface by using the incubation period before the formation of a solid boron film. The boron-covered surface is subsequently embedded in a Si cap layer by Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} photo-excited CVD. The crystallinity of the Si cap layer depended on its thickness and the substrate temperature. The evaluation of the boron depth profile by secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed that boron atoms were confined within the delta-doped layer at a concentration of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} with a full width at half maximum of less than 9 nm, while the epitaxial growth of a 130-nm-thick Si cap layer was sustained at 420 deg. C.

  17. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial ?-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup ?}/p{sup ++}/p{sup ?} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  18. Heavily boron-doped Si layers grown below 700 C by molecular beam epitaxy using a HBO2 source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Fathauer, R. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Boron doping in Si layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at 500-700 C using an HBO2 source has been studied. The maximum boron concentration without detectable oxygen incorporation for a given substrate temperature and Si growth rate has been determined using secondary-ion mass spectrometry analysis. Boron present in the Si MBE layers grown at 550-700 C was found to be electrically active, independent of the amount of oxygen incorporation. By reducing the Si growth rate, highly boron-doped layers have been grown at 600 C without detectable oxygen incorporation.

  19. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial ?-doped diamond layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-01

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 1020 cm-3 were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p-/p++/p- multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  20. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  1. Atomic and electronic structure of nitrogen- and boron-doped phosphorene

    E-print Network

    Boukhvalov, Danil W

    2015-01-01

    First principle modeling of nitrogen- and boron-doped phosphorene demonstrates the tendency toward formation of highly ordered structures. Nitrogen doping leads to the formation of -N-P-P-P-N- lines. Further transformation to -P-N-P-N- lines across the chains of phosphorene occurs with increasing band gap and increasing nitrogen concentration, which coincides with the decreasing chemical activity of N-doped phosphorene. In contrast to the case of nitrogen, boron atoms prefer to form -B-B- pairs with the further formation of -P-P-B-B-P-P- patterns along the phosphorene chains. The low concentration of boron dopants converts the phosphorene from a semiconductor into a semimetal with the simultaneous enhancement of its chemical activity. Co-doping of phosphorene by both boron and nitrogen starts from the formation of -B-N- pairs, which provide flat bands and the further transformation of these pairs to hexagonal BN lines and ribbons across the phosphorene chains.

  2. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Schenectady, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  3. Porous Boron-Doped Diamond/Carbon Nanotube Electrodes H. Zanin,*,

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    Porous Boron-Doped Diamond/Carbon Nanotube Electrodes H. Zanin,*, P. W. May, D. J. Fermin, D. Plana electrodes. KEYWORDS: diamond, carbon nanotubes, porous electrodes, electrochemistry, high capacitance developed a method to produce such nanostructured, porous electrodes by depositing BDD thin film onto

  4. Mechanism of the electrochemical dehydrogenation of hexahydropyrimidine on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenyapina, M. D.; Simakova, A. P.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Makhova, N. N.; Vedenyapin, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of hexahydropyrimidine (HHP) on a boron-doped diamond electrode was studied. The obtained data were compared with the results of previous studies on the electrooxidation of HHP on platinum and gold electrodes. It was shown that different products can be obtained from one organic substance using different electrode materials.

  5. Intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism in boron-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. G.; Yang, H. L.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, D. L.; Wu, S. Z.; Miao, J.; Jiang, Y.; Qin, X. B.; Cao, X. Z.; Wang, B. Y.

    2010-12-01

    We report room temperature ferromagnetism in boron-doped ZnO both experimentally and theoretically. The single phase Zn1-xBxO films deposited under high oxygen pressure by pulsed laser deposition show ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The saturation magnetization increases monotonically from 0 to 1.5 emu/cm3 with the increasing boron component x from 0% to 6.8%. The first-principles calculations demonstrate that the ferromagnetism in the B-doped ZnO originates from the induced magnetic moment of oxygen atoms in the nearest neighbor sites to B-Zn vacancy pairs. The calculated total magnetic moment shows an increasing trend with the boron component which is consistent with experiment.

  6. Weak superconductivity in the surface layer of a bulk single-crystal boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Vladimir; Buga, Sergei; Bormashov, Vitaly; Denisov, Victor; Kirichenko, Alexei; Kulbachinskii, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Michail; Kytin, Vladimir; Kytin, Gennadii; Tarelkin, Sergei; Terentiev, Sergei

    2014-12-01

    We have grown and investigated bulk single-crystal heavily boron-doped diamonds possessing superconductivity with TC{onset} =1.7\\text-3.5 \\text{K} . Only the surface layer with the thickness less than 1 ? \\text{m} showed the degenerate semiconductor behavior with transition to the superconducting state, while the bulk of the crystal was a typical doped semiconductor. The morphology of the surface layer is dendritic polycrystalline with an average boron content of 2.5-2.9 at.%. The typical Josephson junction current-voltage characteristic was observed. The degenerate semiconductor-superconductor transition as in single-crystal high-temperature superconductors and the structural data analysis of the surface layer indicate the two-dimensional character of superconductivity, and the actual superconducting structure is a set of few-nanometer thick boron carbide layers embedded in a diamond structure.

  7. Electrical conductivity enhancement by boron-doping in diamond using first principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Mahtab; Ahmed, Ejaz; Hussain, Fayyaz; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Raza, Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Boron doping in diamond plays a vital role in enhancing electrical conductivity of diamond by making it a semiconductor, a conductor or even a superconductor. To elucidate this fact, partial and total density of states has been determined as a function of B-content in diamond. Moreover, the orbital charge distributions, B-C bond lengths and their population have been studied for B-doping in pristine diamond thin films by applying density functional theory (DFT). These parameters have been found to be influenced by the addition of different percentages of boron atoms in diamond. The electronic density of states, B-C bond situations as well as variations in electrical conductivities of diamond films with different boron content and determination of some relationship between these parameters were the basic tasks of this study. Diamond with high boron concentration (?5.88% B-atoms) showed maximum splitting of energy bands (caused by acceptor impurity states) at the Fermi level which resulted in the enhancement of electron/ion conductivities. Because B atoms either substitute carbon atoms and/or assemble at grain boundaries (interstitial sites) inducing impurity levels close to the top of the valence band. At very high B-concentration, impurity states combine to form an impurity band which accesses the top of the valence band yielding metal like conductivity. Moreover, bond length and charge distributions are found to decrease with increase in boron percentage in diamond. It is noted that charge distribution decreased from +1.89 to -1.90 eV whereas bond length reduced by 0.04 Å with increasing boron content in diamond films. These theoretical results support our earlier experimental findings on B-doped diamond polycrystalline films which depict that the addition of boron atoms to diamond films gives a sudden fall in resistivity even up to 105 ? cm making it a good semiconductor for its applications in electrical devices.

  8. The investigation of boron-doped silicon using atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blavette, D.; Cadel, E.; Cojocaru-Mirédin, O.; Deconihout, B.

    2010-02-01

    Three-dimensional atom-probe (3DAP) is the only analytical microscope able to map out the distribution of elements in 3D at the atomic scale. 3DAP provides quantitative measurements of local chemical composition in a small selected volume. A new generation of instrument, namely, a laser assisted tomographic atom probe (laser assisted wide angle atom probe LaWaTAP) has recently been designed in order to open the instrument to bad electric conductors. The use of ultra-fast laser pulses rather than of high-voltage pulses to field evaporate surface atoms makes the analysis of semiconductors or oxides that are key materials in microelectronics possible. This article is focussed on methodology and applications to boron-doped silicon. Depth profiles related to boron in various samples (boron deltas, SiGe Maya layers, boron-implanted silicon, ...) will be discussed and compared to SIMS results. Spatial resolution and sensitivities will be compared.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermoelectric Properties of Electrospun Boron-Doped Barium-Stabilized Bismuth-Cobalt Oxide Nanoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çinar, Emre; Koçyi?it, Serhat; Aytimur, Arda; Uslu, ?brahim; Akdemir, Ahmet

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the boron-doped barium-stabilized bismuth cobalt oxide thermoelectric nanocrystalline ceramic powders were produced by the polymeric precursor technique. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the physical properties measurement system. The X-ray diffraction results showed that these patterns have mixture of two phases as face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic. Values of the crystallite size, the dislocation density, and the microstrain were calculated by the Scherrer equation. According to these values, the crystallite size decreased from 60 to 51 nm with the boron addition in the boron-undoped and boron-doped samples, respectively. The scanning electron microscope results showed that nanograins are rarely seen in the boron-undoped samples, but nanograins turn into needle-like and layered structures with boron addition. The diameters distribution of nanofibers was calculated. The average diameter of the boron-doped sample is smaller than the boron-undoped sample. The physical properties measurement system values showed that the electrical and thermal conductivity, the Seebeck coefficient, and the figure of merit increased with the temperature rise for both samples. The boron-doping effect increased the electrical and thermal conductivity, decreased the Seebeck coefficient, and decreased the figure of merit.

  10. Boosting the Boron Dopant Level in Monolayer Doping by Carboranes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liang; González-Campo, Arántzazu; Núñez, Rosario; de Jong, Michel P; Kudernac, Tibor; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2015-12-16

    Monolayer doping (MLD) presents an alternative method to achieve silicon doping without causing crystal damage, and it has the capability of ultrashallow doping and the doping of nonplanar surfaces. MLD utilizes dopant-containing alkene molecules that form a monolayer on the silicon surface using the well-established hydrosilylation process. Here, we demonstrate that MLD can be extended to high doping levels by designing alkenes with a high content of dopant atoms. Concretely, carborane derivatives, which have 10 B atoms per molecule, were functionalized with an alkene group. MLD using a monolayer of such a derivative yielded up to ten times higher doping levels, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic secondary mass spectroscopy, compared to an alkene with a single B atom. Sheet resistance measurements showed comparably increased conductivities of the Si substrates. Thermal budget analyses indicate that the doping level can be further optimized by changing the annealing conditions. PMID:26595856

  11. Influence of net doping, excess carrier density and annealing on the boron oxygen related defect density in compensated n-type silicon

    E-print Network

    regarding the concentration of the boron-oxygen complex in compensated n-type silicon when subjectedInfluence of net doping, excess carrier density and annealing on the boron oxygen related defect://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Influence of net doping, excess carrier density and annealing on the boron oxygen related defect

  12. ?-Ring currents in doped coronenes with nitrogen and boron: diatropic-paratropic duality.

    PubMed

    García Cuesta, Inmaculada; Pownall, Barnaby; Pelloni, Stefano; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M

    2015-09-23

    The change in the electronic structure of coronene upon doping with nitrogen or boron has been theoretically studied by means of its magnetic properties and magnetic field induced current density maps. The addition of two atoms of nitrogen or boron to the central ring of coronene causes a drastic variation in the delocalization of ?-electrons, which does not depend on its nature but instead on its position. Then, doping in the para position makes coronene more aromatic while doping in the meta position makes it to become antiaromatic. The magnetic behavior of the pristine molecule is characterized by two concentric currents flowing in opposite senses that are converted into hemi-perimetric currents in the ortho and meta isomers, so dividing the molecule into aromatic and antiaromatic regions. The paratropic and diatropic ring currents of the coronene moiety may, therefore, be modulated through the position of the heteroatom and, consequently, also the localized/delocalized behavior. PMID:26343535

  13. Transition-Metal Strings Templated on Boron-Doped Carbon Nanotubes: A DFT Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    An, Wei; Turner, C. H.

    2009-08-27

    The binding nature, magnetic, and electronic properties of transition-metal (TM) monatomic chains anchored on boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWCNTs) are studied using density-functional theory. The TM systems studied here include Au, Pt, Ru, Pd, Ag, Co, Ni, Cu, W, and Ti, which are well-known for their technical importance. In conjunction, prototype semiconducting SWCNT(8,0) and metallic SWCNT(6,6) were chosen to model the general features of B-doped SWCNTs. It is found that the TM-strings exhibit well-defined covalent bonds with the boron-doped SWCNTs, in contrast to the pristine SWCNTs. The TMstring/ B-SWCNT composites exhibit high stability and unexpected electronic properties, which are relevant to applications in nanoelectronics, spintronics, nanocatalysis, and sensor devices.

  14. Enhancement of second-order nonlinear optical response in boron nitride nanocone: Li-doped effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Yong; Ma, Na-Na; Wang, Cun-Huan; Zhang, Meng-Ying; Sun, Shi-Ling; Qiu, Yong-Qing

    2014-03-01

    The unusual properties of Li-doped boron nitride nanomaterials have been paid further attention due to their wide applications in many promising fields. Here, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out to investigate the second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of boron nitride nanocone (BNNC) and its Li-doped BNNC derivatives. The natural bond orbital charge, electron location function, localized orbital locator and frontier molecular orbital analysis offer further insights into the electron density of the Li-doped BNNC derivatives. The electron density is effectively bounded by the Li atom and its neighboring B atoms. The Li-doped BNNC molecules exhibit large static first hyperpolarizabilities (?(tot)) up to 1.19×10³ a.u. for Li@2N-BNNC, 5.05×10³ a.u. for Li@2B-BNNC, and 1.08×10³ a.u. for Li@BN-BNNC, which are significantly larger than that of the non-doped BNNC (1.07×10² a.u.). The further investigations show that there are clearly dependencies of the first hyperpolarizabilities on the transition energies and oscillator strengths. Moreover, time-dependent DFT results show that the charge transfer from BNNC to Li atom becomes more pronounced as doping the Li atom to BNNC. It is also found that the frequency-dependent effect on the first hyperpolarizabilities is weak, which may be beneficial to experimentalists for designing Li-doped BNNC molecules with large NLO responses. PMID:24366003

  15. Optimization of metal dispersion in doped graphitic materials for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gyubong; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Park, Noejung; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2008-08-01

    The noncovalent hydrogen binding on transition-metal atoms dispersed on carbon clusters and graphene is studied with the use of the pseudopotential density-functional method. It is found that the presence of acceptorlike states in the absorbents is essential for enhancing the metal adsorption strength and for increasing the number of hydrogen molecules attached to the metal atoms. Particular configurations of boron substitutional doping are found to be very efficient for providing such states and thus enhancing storage capacity. Optimal doping conditions are suggested based on our calculations for the binding energy and ratio between metal and hydrogen molecules.

  16. Boron doping to diamond and DLC using plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikegami, T.; Grotjohn; Reinhard, D.; Asmussen, J.

    1997-12-31

    Controlling carriers in diamond by doping is important to realize diamond electronic devices with advanced electrical characteristics. As a doping method the Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) has been gathering attention due to its excellence in making shallow, highly doped regions over large areas, and its high dose rate, good dose controllability and isotropic doping properties. The authors have begun to investigate boron doping of diamond, silicon and diamond-like carbon films using PIII. As a doping source they use the plasma sputtering of a solid boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) target instead of toxic gas source like diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}). The B{sub 4}C target of 1-in. diameter and a substrate (Si, diamond or diamond-like carbon film) are located in the downtown region of an ECR plasma produced by the microwave plasma disc reactor (MPDR) filled with 1--5 mTorr Ar gas. In order to sputter the target a negative self bias from {minus}400V to {minus}700V is induced by applying RF (13.56 MHz) power of 50--200W to the target holder. For boron ion implantation, negative pulses of {minus}1kV to {minus}8kV, 1--5{micro}s pulse duration, 1--200Hz repetition rate are applied to the substrate holder using a voltage pulser which consists of high voltage capacitors and MOSFETs. After thermal treatment of the doped materials their electrical resistivity are measured using the four-probe method. Details of both the PIII source and substrate doping experimental results are shown at the meeting.

  17. Nitrogen-doped, boron-doped and undoped multiwalled carbon nanotube/polymer composites in WORM memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamo, Messai A.; Sustaita, Alan O.; Tetana, Zikhona N.; Coville, Neil J.; Hümmelgen, Ivo A.

    2013-03-01

    We report the preparation of write-once-read-many times memory devices using composites of carbon nanotubes and poly(vinyl phenol) sandwiched between Al electrodes. Three types of nanotubes (undoped multiwalled carbon nanotubes, nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes and boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes) are investigated for this application. The OFF to ON state switching threshold is only slightly dependent on nanotube type, but the ON/OFF current ratio depends on both nanotube type and concentration and varies up to 106, decreasing for nanotube concentrations larger than 0.50 wt% in the composite.

  18. Potential rare earth free permanent magnet: interstitial boron doped FeCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2014-10-01

    Using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, we investigated the structural and the magnetic properties of boron doped FeCo. After fully relaxing the lattice structure, the interatomic distances between boron and Fe atoms were found to be greatly enhanced and the tetragonal distortion was realized due to this increased interatomic distance. Nonetheless, both the unit cell volume and the total magnetic moment of the tetragonally distorted FeCo structure were weakly suppressed compared with those of ideal bulk FeCo. We found a magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant of 0.8 MJ m-3 and this was mainly due to the tetragonal distortion induced by boron impurity, not from the hybridization effect with Fe or Co, because no essential change in the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant was found even without boron impurity in the lattice distorted system. Additionally, the estimated maximum energy product and coercive field were 100 MGOe and 745 kA m-1, respectively. These results may imply that the interstitial boron doped FeCo can be used for a potential rare earth free permanent magnet although those values are likely to be suppressed in real samples due to micromagnetic factors.

  19. Boron-Doped Strontium-Stabilized Bismuth Cobalt Oxide Thermoelectric Nanocrystalline Ceramic Powders Synthesized via Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koçyi?it, Serhat; Aytimur, Arda; Ç?nar, Emre; Uslu, ?brahim; Akdemir, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Boron-doped strontium-stabilized bismuth cobalt oxide thermoelectric nanocrystalline ceramic powders were produced by using a polymeric precursor technique. The powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and physical properties measurement system (PPMS) techniques. The XRD results showed that these patterns have a two-phase mixture. The phases are face-centered cubic (fcc) and body-centered cubic (bcc). Values of the crystallite size, dislocation density, and microstrain were calculated by using the Scherrer equation. The lattice parameters were calculated for fcc and bcc phases. The SEM results showed that needle-like grains are formed in boron-undoped composite materials, but the needle-like grains changed to the plate-like grains with the addition of boron. The distribution of the nanofiber diameters was calculated and the average diameter of the boron-doped sample is smaller than the boron-undoped one. PPMS values showed that the electrical resistivity values decreased, but the thermal conductivity values, the Seebeck coefficients, and figure of merit ( ZT) increased with increasing temperature for the two samples.

  20. Effects of hole doping by neutron irradiation of magnetic field induced electronic phase transitions in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, John; Yaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated effects of hole doping by fast-neutron irradiation on the magnetic-field induced phase transitions in graphite using specimens irradiated with fast neutrons. Resistance measurements have been done in magnetic fields of up to above 50 T and at temperatures down to about 1.5 K. The neutron irradiation creates lattice defects acting as acceptors, affecting the imbalance of the electron and hole densities and the Fermi level. We have found that the reentrant field from the field induced state back to the normal state shifts towards a lower field with hole doping, suggestive of the participation of electron subbands in the magnetic-field induced state.

  1. Observation of Landau levels on nitrogen-doped flat graphite surfaces without external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Takahiro; Guo, Donghui; Shikano, Taishi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Masataka; Okada, Susumu; Nakamura, Junji

    2015-11-01

    Under perpendicular external magnetic fields, two-dimensional carriers exhibit Landau levels (LLs). However, it has recently been reported that LLs have been observed on graphene and graphite surfaces without external magnetic fields being applied. These anomalous LLs have been ascribed primarily to a strain of graphene sheets, leading to in-plane hopping modulation of electrons. Here, we report the observation of the LLs of massive Dirac fermions on atomically flat areas of a nitrogen-doped graphite surface in the absence of external magnetic fields. The corresponding magnetic fields were estimated to be as much as approximately 100?T. The generation of the LLs at the area with negligible strain can be explained by inequivalent hopping of ? electrons that takes place at the perimeter of high-potential domains surrounded by positively charged substituted graphitic-nitrogen atoms.

  2. Observation of Landau levels on nitrogen-doped flat graphite surfaces without external magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takahiro; Guo, Donghui; Shikano, Taishi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Masataka; Okada, Susumu; Nakamura, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Under perpendicular external magnetic fields, two-dimensional carriers exhibit Landau levels (LLs). However, it has recently been reported that LLs have been observed on graphene and graphite surfaces without external magnetic fields being applied. These anomalous LLs have been ascribed primarily to a strain of graphene sheets, leading to in-plane hopping modulation of electrons. Here, we report the observation of the LLs of massive Dirac fermions on atomically flat areas of a nitrogen-doped graphite surface in the absence of external magnetic fields. The corresponding magnetic fields were estimated to be as much as approximately 100?T. The generation of the LLs at the area with negligible strain can be explained by inequivalent hopping of ? electrons that takes place at the perimeter of high-potential domains surrounded by positively charged substituted graphitic-nitrogen atoms. PMID:26549618

  3. Observation of Landau levels on nitrogen-doped flat graphite surfaces without external magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takahiro; Guo, Donghui; Shikano, Taishi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Masataka; Okada, Susumu; Nakamura, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Under perpendicular external magnetic fields, two-dimensional carriers exhibit Landau levels (LLs). However, it has recently been reported that LLs have been observed on graphene and graphite surfaces without external magnetic fields being applied. These anomalous LLs have been ascribed primarily to a strain of graphene sheets, leading to in-plane hopping modulation of electrons. Here, we report the observation of the LLs of massive Dirac fermions on atomically flat areas of a nitrogen-doped graphite surface in the absence of external magnetic fields. The corresponding magnetic fields were estimated to be as much as approximately 100?T. The generation of the LLs at the area with negligible strain can be explained by inequivalent hopping of ? electrons that takes place at the perimeter of high-potential domains surrounded by positively charged substituted graphitic-nitrogen atoms. PMID:26549618

  4. A new plasma-surface interactions research facility: PISCES-B and first materials erosion experiments on boronized graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Sketchley, T.; Leung, W.K.; Doerner, R.; Elverum, J.; Gunner, G.; Khandagle, M.; Lehmer, R.; Luong, P.; Ra, Y.; Schmitz, L.; Tynan, G.

    1989-08-01

    A new plasma-surface interactions research facility: PISCES-B has been designed and constructed at University of California, Los Angeles. The entire vacuum chamber is bakable and a base pressure of the order of 10{sup {minus}8} Torr is attainable using two turbo molecular pumps with a total pumping speed of 6000 l/s. The PISCES-B facility can generate continuous plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, deuterium and nitrogen. The density of these plasmas ranges from 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup {minus}3} and the electron temperature ranges from 3 to 51 eV. The plasma bombardment flux to a target surface inserted in the plasma column can be varied from 1 {times} 10{sup 17} to 8 {times} 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Due to the high pumping speed, the neutral pressure of the working gas during plasma generation is controllable in the wide range from 3 {times} 10{sup -5} to 1 {times} 10{sup -3} Torr. These conditions are similar to those seen at the limiter and divertor areas in toroidal fusion devices. Using the PISCES-B facility, first materials erosion experiments have been conducted on 3% boronized graphites and iso-graphites as the reference materials. The chemical sputtering yield due to hydrogen plasma bombardment at 300 eV for 3% boronized graphite has been found to be about 30% smaller than that for iso-graphites at temperatures from room temperature to 900{degree}C. Also, radiation enhanced sublimation due to hydrogen plasma bombardment at 400 eV is found to be suppressed by 20-30% for 3% boronized graphite at temperatures up to 1300{degree}C. No significant surface composition change is observed after hydrogen plasma bombardment to a fluence of the order of 10{sup 22} ions cm{sup {minus}2}. 30 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Effects of Oxidation on Oxidation-Resistant Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Windes, William; Smith, Rebecca; Carroll, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades that exhibit oxidation resistance through the formation of protective oxides on the surface of the graphite material. In the unlikely event of an oxygen ingress accident, graphite components within the VHTR core region are anticipated to oxidize so long as the oxygen continues to enter the hot core region and the core temperatures remain above 400°C. For the most serious air-ingress accident which persists over several hours or days the continued oxidation can result in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material during any air-ingress accident would mitigate the structural effects and keep the core intact. Previous air oxidation testing of nuclear-grade graphite doped with varying levels of boron-carbide (B4C) at a nominal 739°C was conducted for a limited number of doped specimens demonstrating a dramatic reduction in oxidation rate for the boronated graphite grade. This report summarizes the conclusions from this small scoping study by determining the effects of oxidation on the mechanical strength resulting from oxidation of boronated and unboronated graphite to a 10% mass loss level. While the B4C additive did reduce mechanical strength loss during oxidation, adding B4C dopants to a level of 3.5% or more reduced the as-fabricated compressive strength nearly 50%. This effectively minimized any benefits realized from the protective film formed on the boronated grades. Future work to infuse different graphite grades with silicon- and boron-doped material as a post-machining conditioning step for nuclear components is discussed as a potential solution for these challenges in this report.

  6. Controlled electrochemical intercalation, exfoliation and in situ nitrogen doping of graphite in nitrate-based protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xunyu; Zhao, Chuan

    2013-12-14

    Few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene has been prepared via fast and controlled electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in a protic ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate. The method presents a potentially scalable approach for preparation of metal-free, N-doped graphene for use as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. PMID:24169792

  7. Forming mechanism of nitrogen doped graphene prepared by thermal solid-state reaction of graphite oxide and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Zhigang; Chen, Xiaoye; Du, Yukou; Wang, Xiaomei; Yang, Ping; Wang, Suidong

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen doped graphene was synthesized from graphite oxide and urea by thermal solid-state reaction. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectra, element analysis, and electrical conductivity measurement. The results reveal that there is a gradual thermal transformation of nitrogen bonding configurations from amide form nitrogen to pyrrolic, then to pyridinic, and finally to "graphitic" nitrogen in graphene sheets with increasing annealing temperature from 200 to 700 °C. The products prepared at 600 °C and 700 °C show that the quantity of nitrogen incorporated into graphene lattice is ˜10 at.% with simultaneous reduction of graphite oxide. Oxygen-containing functional groups in graphite oxide are responsible for the doping reaction to produce nitrogen doped graphene.

  8. Optoelectronic studies of boron-doped and gamma-irradiated diamond thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, Puskar; Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Peters, Raul; Farmer, John; Gupta, Sanju; Strzhemechny, Yuri M.

    2011-10-01

    Elucidation of microscopic properties of a synthetic diamond, such as formation and evolution of bulk and surface defects, chemistry of dopants, etc. is necessary for a reliable quality control and reproducibility in applications. Employing surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic probes we studied diamond thin films grown on silicon by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition with different levels of boron doping in conjunction with gamma irradiation. SPV measurements showed that while the increase of boron concentration leads to a semiconductor-metal transition, subsequent intense gamma irradiation reverts back the quasi-metallic samples to semiconducting state via compensating electrical activity of boron by hydrogen. One of the most pronounced common transitions in the SPV spectra was observed at ˜3.1 eV, also present in most of the PL spectra. We argue that this is a signature of the sp^2-C clusters/layers in the vicinity of grain boundaries.

  9. Effect of boron doping on optical properties of sol-gel based nanostructured zinc oxide films on glass

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Sunirmal; Vuk, Angela Surca; Mallick, Aparajita; Orel, Boris; Biswas, Prasanta Kumar

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Room temperature fine structured UV-vis PL emissions (a) as phonon replicas in 1 at.% boron doped film originated from LO phonon evidenced from Near Grazing Incidence Angle (NGIA) IR spectral study (b). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel based boron doped nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on pure silica glass using crystalline boric acid as boron source. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Observed first time, room temperature fine structured PL emissions in 1 at.% doped film as phonon replicas originated from LO phonon (both IR and Raman active). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron doping controls the LO phonon energy in addition to visible reflection, band gap and grain size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films possessed mixed crystal phases with hexagonal as major phase. -- Abstract: Boron doped zinc oxide thin films ({approx}80 nm) were deposited onto pure silica glass by sol-gel dip coating technique from the precursor sol/solution of 4.0 wt.% equivalent oxide content. The boron concentration was varied from 0 to 2 at.% w.r.t. Zn using crystalline boric acid. The nanostructured feature of the films was visualized by FESEM images and the largest cluster size of ZnO was found in 1 at.% boron doped film (B1ZO). The presence of mixed crystal phases with hexagonal as major phase was identified from XRD reflections of the films. Particle size, optical band gap, visible specular reflection, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) emissions (3.24-2.28 eV), infra-red (IR) and Raman active longitudinal optical (LO) phonon vibration were found to be dependent on dopant concentration. For the first time, we report the room temperature fine structured PL emissions as phonon replicas originated from the LO phonon (both IR and Raman active) in 1 at.% boron doped zinc oxide film.

  10. Properties of boron-doped ZnO thin films grown by using MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, In-Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Boron-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by using metal organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) with diethyl zinc and water as precursors and B2H6 as the dopant gas. The effects of the flow rates of H2O and B2H6 on the growth and the electrical properties of boron-doped ZnO thin film were investigated. The maximum carrier concentration and mobility and the minimum resistivity obtained under these experimental conditions were 7 × 1020 /cm3, 42 cm2 /V·sec and 4 × 10-4 ?·cm, respectively, at room temperature. The electrical properties, growth rates, transmittances, and surface morphologies of the ZnO:B films grown using MOCVD are strongly affected by growth conditions such as the relative flow rates of the precursors and dopant gases and the chamber pressure, and these effects are discussed in detail in this article.

  11. Detection of Several Carbohydrates Using Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes Modified with Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Milena E; Sedenho, Graziela C; Stradiotto, Nelson R

    2015-01-01

    In this work the electrooxidations of glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, xylose and arabinose are studied at a nickel hydroxide nanoparticle modified boron-doped diamond electrode and compared to an unmodified electrode. These carbohydrates are very important in the second-generation ethanol production process. Nickel hydroxide modified boron-doped diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to study the interface properties of surface-modified electrodes in the absence and presence of the carbohydrates. Limits of detection were 5.3 × 10(-5), 6.8 × 10(-5), 2.7 × 10(-4), 6.9 × 10(-5), 8.8 × 10(-5) and 2.6 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) for glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, respectively. PMID:26256600

  12. Boron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  13. Local impedance imaging of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zieli?ski, A.; Ryl, J.; Burczyk, L.; Darowicki, K.

    2014-09-29

    Local impedance imaging (LII) was used to visualise surficial deviations of AC impedances in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD). The BDD thin film electrodes were deposited onto the highly doped silicon substrates via microwave plasma-enhanced CVD. The studied boron dopant concentrations, controlled by the [B]/[C] ratio in plasma, ranged from 1 × 10{sup 16} to 2 × 10{sup 21} atoms cm{sup ?3}. The BDD films displayed microcrystalline structure, while the average size of crystallites decreased from 1 to 0.7??m with increasing [B]/[C] ratios. The application of LII enabled a direct and high-resolution investigation of local distribution of impedance characteristics within the individual grains of BDD. Such an approach resulted in greater understanding of the microstructural control of properties at the grain level. We propose that the obtained surficial variation of impedance is correlated to the areas of high conductance which have been observed at the grain boundaries by using LII. We also postulate that the origin of high conductivity is due to either preferential boron accumulation, the presence of defects, or sp{sup 2} regions in the intragrain regions. The impedance modulus recorded by LII was in full agreement with the bulk impedance measurements. Both variables showed a decreasing trend with increasing [B]/[C] ratios, which is consistent with higher boron incorporation into BDD film.

  14. Synthesis of boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon from asphaltene for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Dao-Long; Wang, Chun-Lei; Jin, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Jie-Shan

    2014-08-01

    Oxidized asphaltene (OA), a thermosetting material with plenty of functional groups, is synthesized from asphaltene (A) using HNO3/H2SO4 as the oxidizing agent. Boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (BNC—OA) is prepared by carbonization of the mixture of boric acid and OA at 1173 K in an argon atmosphere. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization reveals that the BNC—OA has a nitrogen content of 3.26 at.% and a boron content of 1.31 at.%, while its oxidation-free counterpart (BNC—SA) has a nitrogen content of 1.61 at.% and a boron content of 3.02 at.%. The specific surface area and total pore volume of BNC—OA are 1103 m2·g-1 and 0.921 cm3·g-1, respectively. At a current density of 0.1 A·g-1, the specific capacitance of BNC-OA is 335 F·g-1 and the capacitance retention can still reach 83% at 1 A·g-1. The analysis shows that the superior electrochemical performance of the BNC—OA is attributed to the pseudocapacitance behavior of surface heteroatom functional groups and an abundant pore-structure. Boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  15. Local impedance imaging of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieli?ski, A.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Ryl, J.; Burczyk, L.; Darowicki, K.

    2014-09-01

    Local impedance imaging (LII) was used to visualise surficial deviations of AC impedances in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD). The BDD thin film electrodes were deposited onto the highly doped silicon substrates via microwave plasma-enhanced CVD. The studied boron dopant concentrations, controlled by the [B]/[C] ratio in plasma, ranged from 1 × 1016 to 2 × 1021 atoms cm-3. The BDD films displayed microcrystalline structure, while the average size of crystallites decreased from 1 to 0.7 ?m with increasing [B]/[C] ratios. The application of LII enabled a direct and high-resolution investigation of local distribution of impedance characteristics within the individual grains of BDD. Such an approach resulted in greater understanding of the microstructural control of properties at the grain level. We propose that the obtained surficial variation of impedance is correlated to the areas of high conductance which have been observed at the grain boundaries by using LII. We also postulate that the origin of high conductivity is due to either preferential boron accumulation, the presence of defects, or sp2 regions in the intragrain regions. The impedance modulus recorded by LII was in full agreement with the bulk impedance measurements. Both variables showed a decreasing trend with increasing [B]/[C] ratios, which is consistent with higher boron incorporation into BDD film.

  16. Fe-doped ?-Rhombohedral boron: Structural changes at the p-type/n-type transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werheit, H.; Filipov, V.; Kuhlmann, U.; Dose, T.; Lundström, T.

    2015-09-01

    n-type ?-rhombohedral boron is e.g. obtained by interstitial doping with Fe atoms exceeding 2.45 at.%. The spectra of Raman- and IR-active phonons have been measured up to the solubility limit of ?4 at.%. Numerous significant discontinuities in the spectra indicate structural changes at the p/n-transition. These might be restricted to specific elements of the structure, as the lattice parameters vary continuously, thus indicating that the overall structure remains largely unchanged.

  17. Boron doped diamond ultramicroelectrodes: a generic platform for sensing single nanoparticle electrocatalytic collisions.

    PubMed

    Wakerley, David; Güell, Aleix G; Hutton, Laura A; Miller, Thomas S; Bard, Allen J; Macpherson, Julie V

    2013-06-25

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) disk ultramicroelectrodes have been used to sense single nanoparticle (NP) electrocatalytic collision events. BDD serves as an excellent support electrode due to its electrocatalytic inactivity and low background currents and thus can be used to detect the electroactivity of a wide range of colliding NPs, with high sensitivity. In particular, single NP collisions for hydrazine oxidation at Au and Pt NPs were shown to be markedly different. PMID:23680678

  18. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of boron-doped layers in amorphous thin film silicon solar cells

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of boron-doped layers in amorphous thin film silicon solar cells. de Bariloche, Argentina 3 ECN Solar Energy, High Tech Campus, Building 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is used to study p-doped layers in n-i-p amorphous thin film Si solar

  19. Boron-doped cadmium oxide composite structures and their electrochemical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhande, B.J.; Ambare, R.C.; Mane, R.S.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: Conducting nano-fibrous 3% boron doped cadmium oxide thin films were prepared by SILAR and its super capacitive properties were studied. - Highlights: • Samples are of nanofibrous nature. • All samples shows pseudocapacitive behavior. • 3% B doped CdO shows good specific capacitance. • 3% B doped CdO shows maximum 74.93% efficiency at 14 mA/cm{sup 2}. • 3% B doped CdO shows 0.8 ? internal resistance. - Abstract: Boron-doped and undoped cadmium oxide composite nanostructures in thin film form were prepared onto stainless steel substrates by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method using aqueous solutions of cadmium nitrate, boric acid and 1% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. As-deposited films were annealed at 623 K for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction study shows crystalline behavior for both doped and undoped films with a porous topography and nano-wires type architecture, as observed in SEM image. Wettability test confirms the hydrophilic surface with 58° contact angle value. Estimated band gap energy is around 1.9 eV. Electrochemical behavior of the deposited films is attempted in 1 M KOH electrolyte using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge–discharge tests. Maximum values of the specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power obtained for 3% B doped CdO film at 2 mV/s scan rate are 20.05 F/g, 1.22 Wh/kg and 3.25 kW/kg, respectively.

  20. Surface damages in diamond by Ar/O{sub 2} plasma and their effect on the electrical and electrochemical characteristics of boron-doped layers

    SciTech Connect

    Denisenko, A.; Pietzka, C.; Scharpf, J.; Kohn, E.; Romanyuk, A.

    2010-10-15

    Epitaxial single crystal and boron-doped diamond layers were exposed to reactive ion etching in Ar/O{sub 2} plasma (rf power of 25 W and self-bias of 100 V); and the electrical, structural, and electrochemical characteristics of the exposed surface were investigated. Angle-resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed a nonuniform layer of amorphous carbon at the exposed surface with an average thickness of approximately 4 nm, as confirmed also by atomic force microscopy profiling of selectively etched areas. On highly boron-doped diamond, the plasma-induced damages resulted also in a nonconductive surface layer. This damaged and insulating surface layer remained resistant to graphite-etching chemicals and to rf oxygen plasma but it was removed completely in microwave hydrogen plasma at 700 deg. C. The surface characteristics after the H-plasma process followed by wet chemical oxidation were restored back to the initial state, as confirmed by XPS. Such ''recovery'' treatment had been applied to an all-diamond submicrometer electrode array initially patterned by an Ar/O{sub 2} plasma etching. The electrochemical characteristics of this electrode array were improved by more than two orders of magnitude, approaching theoretical limit for the given geometrical configuration.

  1. Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2013-01-01

    A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6?V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors. PMID:24113335

  2. Origin of the unusual dependence of Raman D band on excitation wavelength in graphite-like materials

    E-print Network

    Asher, Sanford A.

    , glassy carbon, boron- doped highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, carbon black, mul- ticomponent carbon of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1408590 I. INTRODUCTION Carbon based materials, ranging from highly oriented pyrolitic graphite, diamond-like carbon films, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes have been the subject

  3. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays monitor cardiac action potentials.

    PubMed

    Maybeck, Vanessa; Edgington, Robert; Bongrain, Alexandre; Welch, Joseph O; Scorsone, Emanuel; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of diamond-based electronics in the area of biological interfacing has not been as thoroughly explored as applications in electrochemical sensing. However, the biocompatibility of diamond, large safe electrochemical window, stability, and tunable electronic properties provide opportunities to develop new devices for interfacing with electrogenic cells. Here, the fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrodes and their interfacing with cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells to detect cardiac action potentials are presented. A nonreductive means of structuring doped and undoped diamond on the same substrate is shown. The resulting BNCD electrodes show high stability under mechanical stress generated by the cells. It is shown that by fabricating the entire surface of the MEA with NCD, in patterns of conductive doped, and isolating undoped regions, signal detection may be improved up to four-fold over BNCD electrodes passivated with traditional isolators. PMID:23949946

  4. Growth and nucleation regimes in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Will, J. Gröschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Weißer, M.; Magerl, A.

    2014-09-15

    The oxygen precipitation of highly (17.5 m? cm) and moderately (4.5 ? cm) boron (B) doped silicon (Si) crystals at 780?°C is investigated by following in-situ the evolution of diffraction Pendellösung oscillations. All samples show an initial diffusion-driven growth process which may change over into Ostwald ripening. For the highly doped sample and involving a nucleation step at 450?°C for 30?h, the precipitate density ? is enhanced by a factor of 8 as compared to the moderately doped sample. The influence of a high B concentration on ? is dramatically higher for the samples directly heated to 780?°C, where an enhancement factor of 80 is found. Considering Ostwald ripening as a second growth regime reveals consistent ripening rates and surface energies ? with those found at 900?°C in a previous publication.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of heavily boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Yuji; Xie, Jun; Miyazaki, Yoshinobu; Aikebaier, Yusufu; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Uchida, Noriyuki; Tada, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, nanostructured thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention. However, despite this increasing attention, available information on the thermoelectric properties of single-crystal Si is quite limited, especially for high doping concentrations at high temperatures. In this study, the thermoelectric properties of heavily doped (1018-1020 cm-3) n- and p-type single-crystal Si were studied from room temperature to above 1000 K. The figures of merit, ZT, were calculated from the measured data of electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity. The maximum ZT values were 0.015 for n-type and 0.008 for p-type Si at room temperature. To better understand the carrier and phonon transport and to predict the thermoelectric properties of Si, we have developed a simple theoretical model based on the Boltzmann transport equation with the relaxation-time approximation.

  6. Radiation tolerance of boron doped dendritic web silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of dendritic web silicon for giving radiation hard solar cells is compared with the float zone silicon material. Solar cells with n(+)-p-P(+) structure and approximately 15% (AMl) efficiency were subjected to 1 MeV electron irradiation. Radiation tolerance of web cell efficiency was found to be at least as good as that of the float zone silicon cell. A study of the annealing behavior of radiation-induced defects via deep level transient spectroscopy revealed that E sub v + 0.31 eV defect, attributed to boron-oxygen-vacancy complex, is responsible for the reverse annealing of the irradiated cells in the temperature range of 150 to 350 C.

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of boron doped single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Benoy; Podila, Ramakrishna; Ayala, Paola; Oliveira, Luciana; Philip, Reji; Sankara Sai, S. Siva; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Rao, Apparao M.

    2013-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit excellent nonlinear optical (NLO) properties due to the delocalized ? electron states present along their tube axis. Using the open aperture Z-scan method in tandem with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate the simultaneous tailoring of both electronic and NLO properties of SWCNTs, from ultrafast (femtosecond) to relatively slow (nanosecond) timescales, by doping with a single substituent, viz., boron. SWCNTs were doped via a wet chemical method using B2O3, and the boron content and bonding configurations were identified using XPS. While in the ns excitation regime, the nonlinear absorption was found to increase with increasing boron concentration in the SWCNTs (due to the increasing disorder and enhanced metallicity of the SWCNTs), the saturation intensity in the fs excitation regime decreased. We attribute this counter-intuitive behavior to excited state absorption on ns timescales, and saturable absorption combined with weak two-photon transitions on fs timescales between van Hove singularities.

  8. Photodegradation of aniline by goethite doped with boron under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guanglong; Liao, Shuijiao; College of Basic Sciences of Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 ; Zhu, Duanwei; Liu, Linghua; Cheng, Dongsheng; Zhou, Huaidong

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Goethite modified by boron was prepared by sol-gel method in presence of boron acid at the low temperature. {yields} B-goethite has slight red shift in the band gap transition beside their stronger light absorption compared with pristine goethite. {yields} The results showed that semiconductor photocatalytic reaction mechanism should exist in the process of aniline degradation with goethite and B-goethite as photocatalyst. -- Abstract: In the present study, goethite and goethite doped with boron (B-goethite) were employed to detect the presence or absence of semiconductor photocatalytic reaction mechanism in the reaction systems. B-goethite was prepared by sol-gel method in presence of boron acid in order to improve its photocatalystic efficiency under the ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The optical properties of goethite and B-goethite were characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra and the result indicated that B-goethite has slight red shift in the band gap transition beside their stronger light absorption compared with pristine goethite. Degradation of aniline was investigated in presence of goethite and B-goethite in aqueous solution. It was found that the B-goethite photocatalyst exhibited enhanced ultraviolet and visible light photocatalytic activity in degradation of aniline compared with the pristine goethite. The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of B-goethite was discussed.

  9. Irradiation and penetration tests of boron-doped low activation concrete using 2.45 and 14 MeV neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Atsuhiko; Sato, Satoshi; Kinno, Masaharu; Sakasai, Akira; Hori, Junichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Masaki, Kei; Sakurai, Shinji; Hayashi, Takao; Matsukawa, Makoto; Tamai, Hiroshi; Ishida, Shinichi

    2004-08-01

    The neutron penetration and the activation characteristics of the boron-doped low activation concrete were investigated for irradiation of 2.45 and 14 MeV neutrons. The shielding property of the 2 wt% boron-doped low activation concrete is superior to that of the 1 wt% boron for the thermal neutron, on the contrary to no clear difference for the fast neutron. The total activity detected in the boron-doped low activation concrete was about one hundredth of that in the geostandard sample at more than 30 days cooling time. The total activity of the boron-doped concrete by major nuclei does not depend on the boron density for the 14 MeV neutron irradiation.

  10. The effect of boron doping on the thermal conductivity of zigzag carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezania, Hamed

    2015-11-01

    The temperature behavior of thermal conductivity of zigzag carbon nanotube (CNT) doped with boron atoms, as acceptor impurities, has been investigated in the context of tight binding model hamiltonian. A local energy term is added to the hamiltonian of the original clean system in order to obtain the effect of scattering of the electrons from impurities on the electronic spectrum. Green's function approach has been implemented to find the behavior of thermal conductivity of CNTs within linear response theory. Depending on the temperature regions, thermal conductivity shows two different behaviors. Thermal transport is found to be decreasing with dopant concentration at low temperatures. It is not the case of higher temperatures where thermal conductivity rises due to increase of boron concentration.

  11. Electronic transport of the silane chain doped with phosphorus and boron atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhou, Jicheng; Qiu, Ming

    2010-10-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with the density functional theory, the properties of a silane chain doped with phosphorus and boron atoms connected to two Au electrodes are investigated. It has been found that a barrier similar to the p-n junction is formed in the molecule because of the different electronegativities of phosphorus and boron atoms. The electronic transport properties of two parallel silanes are also investigated when they are positioned between two identical electrodes. The results show that direct interactions between chains may strengthen the rectifying effect when their separation is set suitably. The rectifying effect may disappear when their separation is altered to other values due to the splitting of the frontier molecular orbitals, which contributes to the formation of new transport channels.

  12. Macroscopically Aligned Graphite Films Prepared from Iodine-Doped Stretchable Polyacetylene Films Using Morphology-Retaining Carbonization.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo

    2015-07-22

    We prepared graphite films using typical Shirakawa-type and stretchable polyacetylene (PA) films as precursors through a morphology-retaining carbonization. A macroscopically aligned PA film was prepared from the drawable PA film using a mechanical-stretching procedure. The degree of orientation of the aligned PA film was evaluated by measuring polarized infrared absorption spectra and an azimuthal-angle profile of a Laue X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The carbonization was performed from the iodine-doped PA films as precursors at 800 °C. The carbon films were subsequently graphitized at 1400-3000 °C, yielding graphite films with almost the same surface morphology as that of the original PA films and that of the carbon films as precursors. The typical PA film graphitized at 2600 °C exhibited tensile strengths of up to 224 MPa, moduli of up to 10 GPa, and an average electrical conductivity of 2.5 × 10(2) S/cm. In contrast, the graphite film prepared from the stretched PA film presented a Laue XRD pattern in which graphitic crystal structures are aligned parallel to the direction of stretching of the PA film. The anisotropic graphite film showed an enhanced conductivity of up to 1.5 × 10(3) S/cm along the stretching direction. We demonstrated that an iodine-doped PA film is a highly efficient carbon source for producing graphite films with good mechanical and electrical properties. The total yield of a graphite film is as high as 61-74% at up to 3000 °C, which is considerably higher than that of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber and polyimide-based graphite film. PMID:26102247

  13. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT. PMID:26295765

  14. Plasma Synthesized Doped Boron Nanopowder for MgB2 Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Marzik

    2012-03-26

    Under this program, a process to synthesize nano-sized doped boron powder by a plasma synthesis process was developed and scaled up from 20 gram batches at program start to over 200 grams by program end. Over 75 batches of boron nanopowder were made by RF plasma synthesis. Particle sizes were typically in the 20-200 nm range. The powder was synthesized by the reductive pyrolysis of BCl{sub 3} in hydrogen in an RF plasma. A wide range of process parameters were investigated including plasma power, torch geometry, gas flow rates, and process pressure. The powder-in-tube technique was used to make monofilament and multifilament superconducting wires. MgB{sub 2} wire made with Specialty Materials plasma synthesized boron nanopowder exhibited superconducting properties that significantly exceeded the program goals. Superconducting critical currents, J{sub c}, in excess of 10{sup 5} A cm{sup -2} at magnetic fields of 8 tesla were reproducibly achieved. The upper critical magnetic field in wires fabricated with program boron powder were H{sub c2}(0) = 37 tesla, demonstrating the potential of these materials for high field magnet applications. T{sub c} in carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} powder showed a systematic decrease with increasing carbon precursor gas flows, indicating the plasma synthesis process can give precise control over dopant concentrations. Synthesis rates increased by a factor of 400% over the course of the program, demonstrating the scalability of the powder synthesis process. The plasma synthesis equipment at Specialty Materials has successfully and reproducibly made high quality boron nanopowder for MgB{sub 2} superconductors. Research and development from this program enabled Specialty Materials to successfully scale up the powder synthesis process by a factor of ten and to double the size of its powder pilot plant. Thus far the program has been a technical success. It is anticipated that continued systematic development of plasma processing parameters, dopant chemistry and concentration, wire processing technology, and collection technology will lead to the commercialization of boron nanopowder as a precursor for MgB{sub 2} superconductors. Potential commercial applications include magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fault current limiters, wind turbine generators.

  15. Raman and conductivity studies of boron doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond and cauliflower diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, P. W.; Ludlow, W. J.; Hannaway, M.; Heard, P. J.; Smith, J. A.; Rosser, K. N.

    2007-09-01

    We present data showing how the electrical conductivity and Raman spectra of boron-doped CVD diamond films vary with both B content and crystallite size, for microcrystalline diamond (MCD), facetted nanocrystalline diamond (f-NCD) and 'cauliflower' diamond (c-NCD). The position of the Lorentzian contribution to the 500 cm -1 Raman feature was used to estimate the B content. This underestimated the SIMS concentration of B by a factor of ˜5 for the f-NCD and c-NCD films, but remained reasonably accurate for MCD films. One explanation for this is that most of the B incorporates at the grain boundaries and not in substitutional sites.

  16. Electrochemical "read-write" microscale patterning of boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Patten, Hollie V; Hutton, Laura A; Webb, Jennifer R; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical cell microscopy is utilised as a read-write pipette-based probe to both electrochemically modify the local surface chemistry of boron doped diamond and "read" the resulting modification, at the micron scale. In this specific application, localised electrochemical oxidation results in conversion of the H-terminated surface to -O, electrochemically visualised by monitoring the current change for reduction of Ru(NH3)6(3+). This methodology, in general, provides a platform for read-write analysis of electrodes, opening up new analytical avenues, particularly as the pipette can be viewed as a microfluidic device. PMID:25387408

  17. Visible-light sensitization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond through non-covalent surface modification.

    PubMed

    Krysova, Hana; Vlckova-Zivcova, Zuzana; Barton, Jan; Petrak, Vaclav; Nesladek, Milos; Cigler, Petr; Kavan, Ladislav

    2015-01-14

    A novel simple and versatile synthetic strategy is developed for the surface modification of boron-doped diamond. In a two-step procedure, polyethyleneimine is adsorbed on the hydrogenated diamond surface and subsequently modified with a model light-harvesting donor-?-bridge-acceptor molecule (coded P1). The sensitized diamond exhibits stable cathodic photocurrents under visible-light illumination in aqueous electrolyte solution with dimethylviologen serving as an electron mediator. In spite of the simplicity of the surface sensitization protocol, the photoelectrochemical performance is similar to or better than that of other sensitized diamond electrodes which were reported in previous studies (2008-2014). PMID:25418375

  18. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on recombination centres in boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, D. C. Lim, B.; Bothe, K.; Schmidt, J.; Voronkov, V. V.; Falster, R.

    2014-01-27

    Rapid thermal annealing in a belt furnace results in a dramatic change of the recombination properties of boron-doped Czochralski silicon: (1) the lifetime degraded by applying a prolonged illumination at room temperature was significantly improved, (2) after subsequent dark recovery, the lifetime has a remarkably high value, and (3) the permanent recovery, by annealing at 185?°C under illumination, is enormously accelerated, and the finally achieved stable lifetime acquires a record value of 1.5 ms, as compared to 110??s after permanent recovery of not-annealed reference samples.

  19. Effect of Boron-Doping on the Graphene Aerogel Used as Cathode for the Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Meng, Zhen; Cai, Tingwei; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-18

    A porous interconnected 3D boron-doped graphene aerogel (BGA) was prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal treatment. The BGA material was first loaded with sulfur to serve as cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries. Boron was positively polarized on the graphene framework, allowing for chemical adsorption of negative polysufide species. Compared with nitrogen-doped and undoped graphene aerogel, the BGA-S cathode could deliver a higher capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 100 cycles, as well as an outstanding rate capability, which indicated the BGA was an ideal cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. PMID:26544917

  20. The effects of channel boron-doping on the performance and hot electron reliability of N-channel trench UMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliman, S. A.; Awadelkarim, O. O.; Fonash, S. J.; Dolny, G. M.; Hao, J.; Ridley, R. S.; Knoedler, C. M.

    2001-05-01

    We report on the effects of channel doping on the performance and hot electron stress (HES) reliability of U-shaped trench gate metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistors (UMOSFETs). The boron-doped n-channel UMOSFETs are examined using transistor parameters and charge pumping current measurements. It is shown that increasing boron doping of the channel degrades UMOSFETs performance via decreasing the effective electron mobility in the channel and increasing the electron drift resistance in the drain region of the device. It is shown that increasing the boron doping of the channel does not increase interface trap density, which is a major cause for mobility reduction in MOSFETs: instead, ionized impurity scattering in the channel as well as the electric field transverse to the device channel, both of enhanced by doping, are argued to primarily cause the observed degradation in the electron mobility. The UMOSFETs response to HES is observed to be dependent on the doping level of the channel and is discussed in terms of the hot electron energy and its influence by channel doping.

  1. Boron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and muscle coordination. Women sometimes use capsules containing boric acid, the most common form of boron, inside the vagina to treat yeast infections. People also apply boric acid to the skin as an astringent or to ...

  2. Boron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... form of boron, inside the vagina to treat yeast infections. People also apply boric acid to the ... acid, used inside the vagina, can successfully treat yeast infections (candidiasis), including infections that do not seem ...

  3. First principles Raman study of boron and nitrogen doped planar T-graphene clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arka; Pal, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Suman; Jana, Debnarayan

    2015-09-01

    Tetragonal graphene (TG) is one of the theoretically proposed dynamically stable graphene allotropes. In this study, the Raman spectra, IR spectra and some electronic properties of pristine and doped (single boron (B) and nitrogen (N)) TG have been investigated by first-principles based density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Formation energy computation indicates that for the pristine structures, stability increases with increasing cluster size. In addition, for a particular cluster size, single B doping introduces some distortion in the system while single N doping increases the stability of it. The Raman spectrum of the N doped system is dominated by a single peak but for the B doped system several intense lines are found. For all the structures low intensity similar breathing-like modes have been observed. Besides, relatively low (high) intensity Raman lines are found for single B (N) doping compared to those of the pristine one. The vibrational study also reveals the existence of a prominent phonon Raman line for pristine clusters which hardly changes its position and nature of vibration with varying cluster size. So this mode can be used for identification of pristine TG structures. Unlike pristine TG, the doped structures possess non-zero finite dipole moments due to asymmetry in charge distribution. Large values of the HOMO-LUMO gap as well as the absence of DOS at the Fermi level lead to the semiconducting nature of all the structures. All these theoretical predictions from DFT calculations may shed light on experimental observations involving TG systems.

  4. Structural and electronic properties of cubic boron nitride doped with zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yubo; Cheng, Tianyuan; Wang, Xiao; Jiang, Huaxing; Yang, Hangsheng; Nose, Kenji

    2014-07-28

    Structural and electronic properties of Zn-doped cubic boron nitride (cBN) were investigated via first principle calculation based on density functional theory. Our simulation suggests that Zn can substitute for both B (Zn{sub B}) and N (Zn{sub N}) atom; Zn{sub B} is energetically favorable, and Zn{sub N} can only be prepared under B-rich conditions. Zn{sub B} induced a shallow acceptor level; however, the large difference in electronegativity between Zn and N makes the acceptor level strongly localized, which reduces effective carrier density. In the case of Zn{sub N}, both deep acceptor levels within band gap and shallow acceptor levels at the top of valence band were induced, which produced more free carriers than Zn{sub B}. The calculated results account for experimental results of enhanced electric conductivity of Zn-doped cBN films prepared under B-rich conditions.

  5. Structural and electronic properties of cubic boron nitride doped with zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yubo; Cheng, Tianyuan; Wang, Xiao; Jiang, Huaxing; Yang, Hangsheng; Nose, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    Structural and electronic properties of Zn-doped cubic boron nitride (cBN) were investigated via first principle calculation based on density functional theory. Our simulation suggests that Zn can substitute for both B (ZnB) and N (ZnN) atom; ZnB is energetically favorable, and ZnN can only be prepared under B-rich conditions. ZnB induced a shallow acceptor level; however, the large difference in electronegativity between Zn and N makes the acceptor level strongly localized, which reduces effective carrier density. In the case of ZnN, both deep acceptor levels within band gap and shallow acceptor levels at the top of valence band were induced, which produced more free carriers than ZnB. The calculated results account for experimental results of enhanced electric conductivity of Zn-doped cBN films prepared under B-rich conditions.

  6. Optoelectronic surface-related properties in boron-doped and irradiated diamond thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemashkalo, A.; Chapagain, P. R.; Peters, R. M.; Farmer, J.; Gupta, S.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of microscopic properties of synthetic diamond films, such as formation and evolution of bulk and surface defects, chemistry of dopants, is necessary for a reliable quality control and reproducibility in applications. Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were employed to study diamond thin films grown on silicon by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with different levels of boron doping in conjunction with gamma irradiation. SPV experiments showed that while the increase of boron concentration leads to a semiconductor-metal transition, subsequent gamma irradiation reverts quasi-metallic samples back to a semiconducting state by compensating electrical activity of boron possibly via hydrogen. One of the most pronounced common transitions observed at ˜3.1-3.2 eV in the SPV spectra was also present in all of the PL spectra. It is likely that this is a signature of the sp2-hybridized carbon clusters in or in the vicinity of grain boundaries.

  7. Optoelectronic surface-related properties in boron-doped and irradiated diamond thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nemashkalo, A.; Chapagain, P. R.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.; Peters, R. M.; Farmer, J.; Gupta, S.

    2012-01-15

    Elucidation of microscopic properties of synthetic diamond films, such as formation and evolution of bulk and surface defects, chemistry of dopants, is necessary for a reliable quality control and reproducibility in applications. Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were employed to study diamond thin films grown on silicon by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with different levels of boron doping in conjunction with gamma irradiation. SPV experiments showed that while the increase of boron concentration leads to a semiconductor-metal transition, subsequent gamma irradiation reverts quasi-metallic samples back to a semiconducting state by compensating electrical activity of boron possibly via hydrogen. One of the most pronounced common transitions observed at {approx}3.1-3.2 eV in the SPV spectra was also present in all of the PL spectra. It is likely that this is a signature of the sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon clusters in or in the vicinity of grain boundaries.

  8. The structural and mechanical behaviours of Boron-doped ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senol, Abdulkadir; Demirozu Senol, Sevim; Ozturk, Ozgur; Asikuzun, Elif; Tasci, Ahmet Tolga; Terzioglu, Cabir

    2015-03-01

    Undoped and Boron (B)-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanopowders were synthesized by Hydrothermal method. The structural and mechanical behaviours of B doped ZnO (Zn1-xBx O, x =0, 0.05, 0.07, 0.11) were systematically examined. The crystal structure, phases, sizes and microstructure of Zn1-xBx O powder samples characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Microhardness values of all B doped ZnO powders were measured with different loads (0.245, 0.490, 0.980, 1.960 ve 2.940 N) using a digital Vickers microhardness tester. The experimental microhardness data were used to determine elastic modules, yield strength, and fracture toughness value of the samples. Additionally, the experimental results were analyzed using the various theoretical models namely, Kick's Law, Elastic/Plastic Deformation (EPD) models, Proportional Specimen Resistance (PSR), and Hays-Kendall (HK) approach. The Vickers microhardness measurements revealed that hardness of Zn1-xBx O powder samples increased with B doping. This research partially supported by Abant Izzet Baysal University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department under the Grant No. BAP-2013.03.02.609.

  9. Improving performance of armchair graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors via boron nitride doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goharrizi, A. Yazdanpanah; Sanaeepur, M.; Sharifi, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    Device performance of 10 nm length armchair graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors with 1.5 nm and 4 nm width (13 and 33 atoms in width respectively) are compared in terms of Ion /Ioff , trans-conductance, and sub-threshold swing. While narrow devices suffer from edge roughness wider devices are subject to more substrate surface roughness and reduced bandgap. Boron Nitride doping is employed to compensate reduced bandgap in wider devices. Simultaneous effects of edge and substrate surface roughness are considered. Results show that in the presence of both the edge and substrate surface roughness the 4 nm wide device with boron nitride doping shows improved performance with respect to the 1.5 nm one (both of which incorporate the same bandgap AGNR as channel material). Electronic simulations are performed via NEGF method along with tight-binding Hamiltonian. Edge and surface roughness are created by means of one and two dimensional auto correlation functions respectively. Electronic characteristics are averaged over a large number of devices due to statistic nature of both the edge and surface roughness.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of N-Type Zinc Oxide/P-Type Boron Doped Diamond Heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Marián; Mikolášek, Miroslav; Bruncko, Jaroslav; Novotný, Ivan; Ižák, Tibor; Vojs, Marian; Kozak, Halyna; Varga, Marián; Artemenko, Anna; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Diamond and ZnO are very promising wide-bandgap materials for electronic, photovoltaic and sensor applications because of their excellent electrical, optical, physical and electrochemical properties and biocompatibility. In this contribution we show that the combination of these two materials opens up the potential for fabrication of bipolar heterojunctions. Semiconducting boron doped diamond (BDD) thin films were grown on Si and UV grade silica glass substrates by HFCVD method with various boron concentration in the gas mixture. Doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, ZnO:Ge) thin layers were deposited by diode sputtering and pulsed lased deposition as the second semiconducting layer on the diamond films. The amount of dopants within the films was varied to obtain optimal semiconducting properties to form a bipolar p-n junction. Finally, different ZnO/BDD heterostructures were prepared and analyzed. Raman spectroscopy, SEM, Hall constant and I-V measurements were used to investigate the quality, structural and electrical properties of deposited heterostructures, respectively. I-V measurements of ZnO/BDD diodes show a rectifying ratio of 55 at ±4 V. We found that only very low dopant concentrations for both semiconducting materials enabled us to fabricate a functional p-n junction. Obtained results are promising for fabrication of optically transparent ZnO/BDD bipolar heterojunction.

  11. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion-Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chinvongamorn, Chakorn; Pinwattana, Kulwadee; Praphairaksit, Narong; Imato, Toshihiko; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2008-01-01

    A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gas diffusion unit (GDU) was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for the electrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generate gaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. The sulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 8)/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of the GDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell and detected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V (versus Ag/AgCl). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to prevent electrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mg SO32?/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 mg SO32?/L was achieved. This method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical results agreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations for the analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was 65 h?1.

  12. Iron-boron pairing kinetics in illuminated p-type and in boron/phosphorus co-doped n-type silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Möller, Christian; Bartel, Til; Gibaja, Fabien; Lauer, Kevin

    2014-07-14

    Iron-boron (FeB) pairing is observed in the n-type region of a boron and phosphorus co-doped silicon sample which is unexpected from the FeB pair model of Kimerling and Benton. To explain the experimental data, the existing FeB pair model is extended by taking into account the electronic capture and emission rates at the interstitial iron (Fe{sub i}) trap level as a function of the charge carrier densities. According to this model, the charge state of the Fe{sub i} may be charged in n-type making FeB association possible. Further, FeB pair formation during illumination in p-type silicon is investigated. This permits the determination of the charge carrier density dependent FeB dissociation rate and in consequence allows to determine the acceptor concentration in the co-doped n-type silicon by lifetime measurement.

  13. A practical guide to using boron doped diamond in electrochemical research.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-02-01

    Conducting, boron doped diamond (BDD), in addition to its superior material properties, offers several notable attributes to the electrochemist making it an intriguing material for electrochemical research. These include the widest solvent window of all electrode materials; low background and capacitive currents; reduced fouling compared to other electrodes and; the ability to withstand extreme potentials, corrosive and high temperature/pressure environments. However, BDD is not your typical electrode material, it is a semi-conductor doped degenerately with boron to present semi-metallic characteristics. Input from materials scientists, chemists and physicists has been required to aid understanding of how to work with this material from an electrochemical viewpoint and improve electrode quality. Importantly, depending on how the BDD has been grown and then subsequently treated, prior to electrochemical measurement, the resulting material properties can vary quite significantly from one electrode to the next. This likely explains the variability seen by different researchers working on the same experimental systems. The aim of this "protocols" article is not to provide a state-of-the-art review of diamond electrochemistry, suitable references are provided to the interested reader, but instead serves as a reference point for any researcher wishing to commence work with diamond electrodes and interpret electrochemical data. It provides information on how best to characterise the material properties of the electrode before use and outlines the interplay between boron dopant density, non-diamond-carbon content, grain morphology, surface chemistry and redox couple identity. All should ideally be considered when interpretating electrochemical data arising from the diamond electrode. This will aid the reader in making meaningful comparisons between data obtained by different researchers using different diamond electrodes. The guide also aims to help educate the researcher in choosing which form of BDD is best suited to their research application. PMID:25518988

  14. Raman and conductivity studies of boron-doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond and cauliflower diamond films

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    diamond and cauliflower diamond films P.W. May a,, W.J. Ludlow a , M. Hannaway a , P.J. Heard b , J (MCD), faceted nanocrystalline diamond (f-NCD) and `cauliflower' diamond (c-NCD). For the same B spectroscopy; CVD diamond; nanodiamond; Cauliflower diamond; Boron doping 1. Introduction Diamond films

  15. Boron-doped graphene as promising support for platinum catalyst with superior activity towards the methanol electrooxidation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongrong; Du, Chunyu; An, Meichen; Du, Lei; Tan, Qiang; Liu, Chuntao; Gao, Yunzhi; Yin, Geping

    2015-12-01

    We report the synthesis of boron-doped graphene by thermally annealing the mixture of graphene oxide and boric acid, and its usage as the support of Pt catalyst towards the methanol oxidation reaction. The composition, structure and morphology of boron-doped graphene and its supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/BG) are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is revealed that boron atoms are doped into graphene network in the form of BC2O and BCO2 bonds, which lead to the increase in defect sites and facilitate the subsequent deposition of Pt nanoparticles. Therefore, the Pt/BG catalyst presents smaller particle size and narrower size distribution than the graphene supported Pt (Pt/G) catalyst. When evaluated as the electrocatalyst for the methanol oxidation reaction, the Pt/BG catalyst exhibits excellent electrochemical activity and stability demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests. The enhanced activity is mainly ascribed to the electronic interaction between boron-doped graphene and Pt nanoparticles, which lowers the d-band center of Pt and thus weakens the absorption of the poisoning intermediate CO. Our work provides an alternative approach of improving the reaction kinetics for the oxidation of small organic molecules.

  16. Determination of active doping in highly resistive boron doped silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by capacitance voltage measurement on inverted metal oxide semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tian; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurement to study the electrically active boron doping in Si nanocrystals (ncSi) embedded in SiO2. The ncSi thin films with high resistivity (200-400 ? cm) can be measured by using an inverted metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structure (Al/ncSi (B)/SiO2/Si). This device structure eliminates the complications from the effects of lateral current flow and the high sheet resistance in standard lateral MOS structures. The characteristic MOS CV curves observed are consistent with the effective p-type doping. The CV modeling method is presented and used to evaluate the electrically active doping concentration. We find that the highly boron doped ncSi films have electrically active doping of 1018-1019 cm-3 despite their high resistivity. The saturation of doping at about 1.4 × 1019 cm-3 and the low doping efficiency less than 5% are observed and discussed. The calculated effective mobility is in the order of 10-3 cm2/V s, indicating strong impurity/defect scattering effect that hinders carriers transport.

  17. Boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2/graphene nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Ping; Wu, Dongqing; Huang, Yanshan; Tang, Yanping; Su, Yuezeng; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-03-27

    Heteroatom doping is an effective method to adjust the electrochemical behavior of carbonaceous materials. In this work, boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2 /graphene hybrids (BCTGs) were fabricated by hydrothermal carbonization of sucrose in the presence of SnO2/graphene nanosheets and phenylboronic acid or boric acid as dopant source and subsequent thermal treatment. Owing to their unique 2D core-shell architecture and B-doped carbon shells, BCTGs have enhanced conductivity and extra active sites for lithium storage. With phenylboronic acid as B source, the resulting hybrid shows outstanding electrochemical performance as the anode in lithium-ion batteries with a highly stable capacity of 1165?mA?h?g(-1) at 0.1?A?g(-1) after 360 cycles and an excellent rate capability of 600?mA?h?g(-1) at 3.2?A?g(-1), and thus outperforms most of the previously reported SnO2-based anode materials. PMID:25694249

  18. Electronic and physico-chemical properties of nanometric boron delta-doped diamond structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chicot, G. Fiori, A.; Tran Thi, T. N.; Bousquet, J.; Delahaye, J.; Grenet, T.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E.; Volpe, P. N.; Tranchant, N.; Mer-Calfati, C.; Arnault, J. C.; Gerbedoen, J. C.; Soltani, A.; De Jaeger, J. C.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Araújo, D.; Jomard, F.; and others

    2014-08-28

    Heavily boron doped diamond epilayers with thicknesses ranging from 40 to less than 2?nm and buried between nominally undoped thicker layers have been grown in two different reactors. Two types of [100]-oriented single crystal diamond substrates were used after being characterized by X-ray white beam topography. The chemical composition and thickness of these so-called delta-doped structures have been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Temperature-dependent Hall effect and four probe resistivity measurements have been performed on mesa-patterned Hall bars. The temperature dependence of the hole sheet carrier density and mobility has been investigated over a broad temperature range (6?K?doped layers exhibited the same mobility value, around 3.6?±?0.8?cm{sup 2}/Vs, independently of the layer thickness and the substrate type. Comparison with previously published data and theoretical calculations showed that scattering by ionized impurities explained only partially this low common value. None of the delta-layers showed any sign of confinement-induced mobility enhancement, even for thicknesses lower than 2?nm.

  19. Investigation on cubic boron nitride crystals doped with Si by high temperature thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinlu; Feng, Shuang; Liu, Xiuhuan; Hou, Lixin; Gao, Yanjun; Wang, Qi; Liu, Nian; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Zhanguo; Zheng, Jie; Jia, Gang

    2014-07-01

    The method of high temperature thermal diffusion was successfully applied for doping Si impurities into cubic boron nitride (cBN) crystals. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics at different temperatures were respectively used for analyzing the chemical states and the activation energy of Si impurity in cBN. According to the XPS results, Si impurities mainly replace B atoms bonding with the adjacent N atoms and become donors in cBN. Without surface cleaning, there are a lot of C and O contaminations on the surface of cBN, so a small quantity of C-Si and Si-N-O bonds also exist at the surface of cBN. Most Si impurities distribute in the shallow layer underneath the surface of cBN. Based on the electric measurement, Si impurities in cBN usually have the activation energy beyond 0.4 eV, and they can only be slightly ionized at room temperature, therefore the resistivity of Si-doped cBN is still high, and the space charge limited current becomes the main conductive mechanism in cBN. However, the conductivity of Si-doped cBN can rapidly increase with the temperature. In addition, the activation energy and the concentration of Si impurity in cBN can be affected by the temperature and the time of thermal diffusion, which needs to be verified further.

  20. Electronic and physico-chemical properties of nanometric boron delta-doped diamond structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicot, G.; Fiori, A.; Volpe, P. N.; Tran Thi, T. N.; Gerbedoen, J. C.; Bousquet, J.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Araújo, D.; Jomard, F.; Soltani, A.; De Jaeger, J. C.; Morse, J.; Härtwig, J.; Tranchant, N.; Mer-Calfati, C.; Arnault, J. C.; Delahaye, J.; Grenet, T.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Pernot, J.; Bustarret, E.

    2014-08-01

    Heavily boron doped diamond epilayers with thicknesses ranging from 40 to less than 2 nm and buried between nominally undoped thicker layers have been grown in two different reactors. Two types of [100]-oriented single crystal diamond substrates were used after being characterized by X-ray white beam topography. The chemical composition and thickness of these so-called delta-doped structures have been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Temperature-dependent Hall effect and four probe resistivity measurements have been performed on mesa-patterned Hall bars. The temperature dependence of the hole sheet carrier density and mobility has been investigated over a broad temperature range (6 K < T < 450 K). Depending on the sample, metallic or non-metallic behavior was observed. A hopping conduction mechanism with an anomalous hopping exponent was detected in the non-metallic samples. All metallic delta-doped layers exhibited the same mobility value, around 3.6 ± 0.8 cm2/Vs, independently of the layer thickness and the substrate type. Comparison with previously published data and theoretical calculations showed that scattering by ionized impurities explained only partially this low common value. None of the delta-layers showed any sign of confinement-induced mobility enhancement, even for thicknesses lower than 2 nm.

  1. Effects of boron and glass hybrid epoxy-composites on graphite-fiber release in an aircraft fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Brewer, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the benefits gained by using graphite-epoxy composite structures may not be realized without some risk. The graphite fibers are very good electrical conductors and fibers released into the environment during a fire create a possible hazard to electrical equipment. Several graphite-epoxy hybrids were exposed to a fire and simulated explosion and their graphite fiber retention characteristics were examined. Several low melting-temperature glasses which wet and clump graphite-fibers and a glass/graphite fabric which reduced impact damage were identified as promising hybridizing components to minimize graphite fiber release.

  2. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200?nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti3+ self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene. PMID:24974890

  3. Pulsed-laser crystallized highly conductive boron-doped microcrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nebel, C.E.; Dahlheimer, B.; Karrer, U.; Stutzmann, M.

    1997-07-01

    The preparation of seed lattices, using three interfering beams (TIB) from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser in a-Si layers of 100 to 400 nm thickness is introduced and applied for seeded laser or thermally induced crystallization of a-Si on Corning 7059 glass. The structural and electronic properties of the {micro}c-Si layers are investigated by X-ray, electron- and atomic force microscopy, Hall and conductivity measurements. In highly boron-doped {micro}c-Si, grains up to 1.3 {micro}m in diameter are detected, giving rise to conductivities of {approx}2,000 S/cm and hole mobilities of {approx}10 cm{sup 2}/Vs.

  4. Excitonic luminescence of SiGe/Si quantum wells ?-doped with boron

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaev, V. S.; Nikolaev, S. N.; Onishchenko, E. E.; Pruchkina, A. A.; Krivobok, V. S.; Novikov, A. V.

    2015-05-14

    Low-temperature photoluminescence of undoped and moderately ?-doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x}/Si (x?boron ?-layer on the excitonic luminescence and the luminescence caused by a dense electron plasma was demonstrated. The conditions under which the luminescence spectra of quantum wells are dominated by impurity-bound excitons (BE) have been established. Some unusual properties of these BE are explained in terms of type II band-offset in Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x}/Si (x?

  5. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500?mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  6. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500?mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  7. Simultaneous detection of iodine and iodide on boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Stéphane; Comninellis, Christos; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-15

    Individual and simultaneous electrochemical detection of iodide and iodine has been performed via cyclic voltammetry on boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in a 1M NaClO(4) (pH 8) solution, representative of typical environmental water conditions. It is feasible to compute accurate calibration curve for both compounds using cyclic voltammetry measurements by determining the peak current intensities as a function of the concentration. A lower detection limit of about 20 ?M was obtained for iodide and 10 ?M for iodine. Based on the comparison between the peak current intensities reported during the oxidation of KI, it is probable that iodide (I(-)) is first oxidized in a single step to yield iodine (I(2)). The latter is further oxidized to obtain IO(3)(-). This technique, however, did not allow for a reasonably accurate detection of iodate (IO(3)(-)) on a BDD electrode. PMID:23200355

  8. Domestic and Industrial Water Disinfection Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychen, Philippe; Provent, Christophe; Pupunat, Laurent; Hermant, Nicolas

    This chapter first describes main properties and manufacturing process (production using HF-CVD, quality-control measurements, etc.) of diamond electrodes and more specifically boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Their exceptional properties make such electrodes particularly suited for many disinfection applications as thanks to their wide working potential window and their high anodic potential, they allow generating a mixture of powerful oxidizing species mainly based on active oxygen and peroxides. Such mixture of disinfecting agents is far more efficient than conventional chemical or physical known techniques. Their efficiency was tested against numerous microorganisms and then proved to be greater than conventional methods. All bacteria and viruses tested up to date were inactivated 3-5 times faster with a treatment based on with BDD electrodes and the DiaCell? technology than with other techniques. Several applications, either industrial or private (wellness and home use), are discussed with a focus on the dedicated products and the main technology advantages.

  9. Label-free detection of lectins on carbohydrate-modified boron-doped diamond surfaces.

    PubMed

    Szunerits, Sabine; Niedzio?ka-Jönsson, Joanna; Boukherroub, Rabah; Woisel, Patrice; Baumann, Jean-Sébastien; Siriwardena, Aloysius

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the label-free detection of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. The sensor consists of a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode terminated with alkynyl surface groups, which have been functionalized via the CuACC (copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition) "click" reaction with carbohydrate analogues bearing an azido-terminating arm. In this work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used as an effective technique to probe the specific interactions of the surface-bound carbohydrates with their complementary lectin partners, and the response was found to be dependent on the relative density of sugar units immobilized on the BDD surface. A BDD interface with 60% surface-bound mannose showed a detection limit of ?5 ± 0.5 nM for Lens culinaris lectin, with an affinity constant of K(A) = (2.63 ± 0.5) × 10(6) M(-1). PMID:20828205

  10. Magnetic Enzymatic Platform for Organophosphate Pesticide Detection Using Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pino, Flavio; Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Nakata, Kazuya; Fujishima, Akira; Merkoçi, Arben; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reliable enzymatic system for organophosporus pesticide detection was successfully developed, by exploiting the synergy between the magnetic beads collection capacity and the outstanding electrochemistry property of boron-doped diamond electrodes. The determination of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), was performed based on the inhibition system of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase bonded to magnetic beads through a biotin-streptavidin complex system. A better sensitivity was found for a system with magnetic beads in the concentration range of 10(-9) to 10(-5) M. The estimated limits of detection based on IC10 (10% acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition) have been detected and optimized to be 5.7 × 10(-10) M CPF. Spiked samples of water of Yokohama (Japan) have been measured to validate the efficiency of the enzymatic system. The results suggested that the use of magnetic beads to immobilize biomolecules or biosensing agents is suitable to maintain the superiority of BDD electrodes. PMID:26460372

  11. Preparation and characterization of vertically columnar boron doped diamond array electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Yu, Hongtao; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2014-06-01

    A vertically columnar boron doped diamond (BDD) array electrode was fabricated by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. Observed by scanning electron microscopy, the fabricated samples were structured with aligned columns whose diameter and height was 8 ?m and 12 ?m, respectively, and the minimum interval of neighboring columns was 2 ?m. The results of electrochemistry measurement showed that the columnar BDD array electrode possessed high oxygen evolution potential and low background current. Besides that, comparing with flat BDD electrode, the columnar BDD array electrode showed higher electrochemical activity (due to its inner active surface being up to 4.25 cm2), lower impedance of electric double layer, and especially enhanced electrical response signal (2.12 ?A/?M, 4 times of flat BDD in glucose detection as a sample). These excellent performances may open the door for the BDD materials to be applied in wide areas including electrochemical detection, electrochemistry degradation, electrochemical synthesis, and so on.

  12. In vivo assessment of cancerous tumors using boron doped diamond microelectrode

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, Stéphane; Yoshikawa, Momoko; Nagano, Osamu; Yoshimi, Kenji; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo electrochemical detection of the reduced form of glutathione (L-?-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH) using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode for potential application in the assessment of cancerous tumors is presented. Accurate calibration curve for the determination of GSH could be obtained by the in vitro electrochemical measurements. Additionally, it was shown that it was possible to separate the detection of GSH from the oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) using chronoamperometry measurements. In vivo GSH detection measurements have been performed in human cancer cells inoculated in immunodeficient mice. These measurements have shown that the difference of GSH level between cancerous and normal tissues can be detected. Moreover, GSH detection measurements carried out before and after X-ray irradiation have proved that it is possible to assess in vivo the decrease in GSH concentration in the tumor after a specific treatment. PMID:23198091

  13. Optically detected cyclotron resonance in heavily boron-doped silicon nanostructures on n-Si (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Bagraev, N. T. Kuzmin, R. V.; Gurin, A. S.; Klyachkin, L. E.; Malyarenko, A. M.; Mashkov, V. A.

    2014-12-15

    Electron and hole cyclotron resonance at a frequency of 94 GHz is detected by a change in the intensity of photoluminescence lines whose positions are identical to those of dislocation luminescence lines D1 and D2 in single-crystal silicon and in heavily boron-doped silicon nanostructures on the Si (100) surface. The angular dependence of the spectrum of the optically detected cyclotron resonance corresponds to the tensor of the electron and hole effective mass in single-crystal silicon, and the resonance-line width indicates long carrier free-path times close to 100 ps. The results obtained are discussed within the framework of the interrelation of the electron-vibration coupling to charge and spin correlations in quasi-one-dimensional chains of dangling bonds in silicon.

  14. Semiconducting properties of zinc-doped cubic boron nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nose, K.; Yoshida, T.

    2007-09-15

    We have examined the electronic properties of zinc-doped cubic boron nitride (cBN) thin films prepared by sputter deposition. The electric conductivity of films deposited in pure Ar increased as the concentration of zinc dopant increased, and hole conduction was identified by the measurement of thermoelectric currents. It was also found that the conductivity increment in such films was accompanied by a linear increase in the B/(B+N) ratio. At the same time, no modification of the composition and the conductivity by incorporated zinc was observed when film growth took place in presence of nitrogen gas. The effect of the excess boron on the conductivity emerged only when films show semi-insulating behavior. These results suggest that Zn substitution for nitrogen causes high electric conductivity of cBN. The electric contact between Ti electrode and semiconducting cBN was examined by the transfer length method, and Ohmic conduction was observed in the Ti/cBN contact. The specific contact resistance was affected by the specific resistance of cBN films, and it was reduced from 10{sup 5} to 100 {omega} cm{sup 2} by increasing the concentration of incorporated Zn.

  15. Friction and wear performance of boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinchang; Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong

    2015-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have attracted more attentions due to their excellent mechanical properties. Whereas as-fabricated traditional diamond films in the previous studies don't have enough adhesion or surface smoothness, which seriously impact their friction and wear performance, and thus limit their applications under extremely harsh conditions. A boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond (BD-UM-FGCD) film is fabricated by a three-step method adopting hot filament CVD (HFCVD) method in the present study, presenting outstanding comprehensive performance, including the good adhesion between the substrate and the underlying boron doped diamond (BDD) layer, the extremely high hardness of the middle undoped microcrystalline diamond (UMCD) layer, as well as the low surface roughness and favorable polished convenience of the surface fine grained diamond (FGD) layer. The friction and wear behavior of this composite film sliding against low-carbon steel and silicon nitride balls are studied on a ball-on-plate rotational friction tester. Besides, its wear rate is further evaluated under a severer condition using an inner-hole polishing apparatus, with low-carbon steel wire as the counterpart. The test results show that the BD-UM-FGCD film performs very small friction coefficient and great friction behavior owing to its high surface smoothness, and meanwhile it also has excellent wear resistance because of the relatively high hardness of the surface FGD film and the extremely high hardness of the middle UMCD film. Moreover, under the industrial conditions for producing low-carbon steel wires, this composite film can sufficiently prolong the working lifetime of the drawing dies and improve their application effects. This research develops a novel composite diamond films owning great comprehensive properties, which have great potentials as protecting coatings on working surfaces of the wear-resistant and anti-frictional components.

  16. A low-cost cementite (Fe3C) nanocrystal@N-doped graphitic carbon electrocatalyst for efficient oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianxing; Zhang, Haimin; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Yunxia; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong

    2015-10-14

    In this work, chitosan whiskers (CWs) were first extracted using low-cost and earth-abundant crab shells as materials by a series of chemical processes, and then assembled into chitosan whisker microspheres (CWMs) via a simple photochemical polymerization approach. Subsequently, a cementite (Fe3C) nanocrystal@N-doped graphitic carbon (Fe3C@NGC) nanocomposite was successfully fabricated by high temperature pyrolysis of CWMs adsorbed with ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3) at 900 °C. It was found that a suitable growth atmosphere generated inside CWMs during high temperature pyrolysis is critically important to form Fe3C nanocrystal cores, concurrently accompanying a structural transformation from chitosan whiskers to mesoporous graphitic carbon shells with natural nitrogen (N) doping properties, resulting in the formation of a core-shell structure Fe3C@NGC nanocomposite. The resulting samples were evaluated as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In comparison with sole N-doped graphitic carbon without Fe3C nanocrystals obtained by direct pyrolysis of chitosan whisker microspheres at 900 °C (CWMs-900), Fe3C@NGC showed significantly improved ORR catalytic activity. The tolerance to fuel cell molecules (e.g., methanol) and the durability of Fe3C@NGC are obviously superior to commercial Pt/C catalysts in alkaline media. The high ORR performance of Fe3C@NGC could be due to its large surface area (313.7 m(2) g(-1)), a synergistic role of Fe3C nanocrystals, N doping in graphitic carbon creating more catalytic active sites, and a porous structure of the nanocomposite facilitating mass transfer to efficiently improve the utilization of these catalytic active sites. PMID:26426862

  17. General scalable strategy toward heterogeneously doped hierarchical porous graphitic carbon bubbles for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Song, Huawei; Yang, Gongzheng; Wang, Chengxin

    2014-12-10

    Novel carbon nanostructures, e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, hierarchical porous graphitic carbon (HPGC), and ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3), have been significantly forwarding the progress of energy storage and conversion. Advanced electrodes or hybrid electrodes based on them are springing up one after another. To step further, a generic synthetic approach to large scale hierarchical porous graphitic carbon microbubbles (HPGCMBs) is developed by zinc powder templated organic precursor impregnation method. The facile technique features scalable (yield: once more than 200 mg), in situ heteroatom's doping (doping ratio: more than 26%) and hierarchical-pore-creating traits (pore volume: 1.01 cm(3) g(-1)). Adjustable graphitic content, doping species and amount are readily realized through varying the organic precursors. Rationally, good conductivity, fast kinetics, and abundant ion reservoirs are entirely achieved. To be applied in practice, state-of-the-art anodes for lithium-ion batteries are fabricated. Benefiting from the large specific surface area, rich heteroatoms, and hierarchical pores, the HPGCMBs electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical properties. Besides superior storage capability of more than 1000 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1), stable cycling and excellent retention of 370 mAh g(-1) at large rate of 10 A g(-1) are achieved in the meantime. PMID:25408550

  18. O2 Reduction on Graphite and Nitrogen-Doped Graphite: Experiment and Theory Reyimjan A. Sidik and Alfred B. Anderson*

    E-print Network

    Popov, Branko N.

    that carbon radical sites formed adjacent to substitutional N in graphite are active for O2 electroreduction active toward the electroreduction of oxygen. However, Wang et al. reported making nitrogenated carbon oxygen reduction. Carbon has a long history as a support in the heterogeneous catalysis literature,5

  19. Self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Ian D.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Nicols, Samuel P.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, John L.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Haller, Eugene E.

    2002-04-01

    Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. {sup 30}Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched {sup 28}Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850 C and 1100 C. A specially designed ion- implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.

  20. Dibenzothiophene adsorption at boron doped carbon nanoribbons studied within density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    López-Albarrán, P.; Navarro-Santos, P.; Garcia-Ramirez, M. A.; Ricardo-Chávez, J. L.

    2015-06-21

    The adsorption of dibenzothiophene (DBT) on bare and boron-doped armchair carbon nanoribbons (ACNRs) is being investigated in the framework of the density functional theory by implementing periodic boundary conditions that include corrections from dispersion interactions. The reactivity of the ACNRs is characterized by using the Fukui functions as well as the electrostatic potential as local descriptors. Non-covalent adsorption mechanism is found when using the local Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof functional, regardless of the DBT orientation and adsorption location. The dispersion interactions addition is a milestone to describe the adsorption process. The charge defects introduced in small number (i.e., by doping with B atoms), within the ACNRs increases the selectivity towards sulfur mainly due to the charge depletion at B sites. The DBT magnitude in the adsorption energy shows non-covalent interactions. As a consequence, the configurations where the DBT is adsorbed on a BC{sub 3} island increase the adsorption energy compared to random B arrangements. The stability of these configurations can be explained satisfactorily in terms of dipole interactions. Nevertheless, from the charge-density difference analysis and the weak Bader charge-distribution interactions cannot be ruled out completely. This is why the electronic properties of the ribbons are analyzed in order to elucidate the key role played by the B and DBT states in the adsorbed configurations.

  1. Homoepitaxial Boron Doped Diamond Anvil as Heating Element in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jeffrey; Samudrala, Gopi; Vohra, Yogesh

    2012-02-01

    Recent advances in designer-diamond technology have allowed for the use of electrically and thermally conducting homoepitaxially-grown layers of boron-doped diamond (grown at 1200 C with a 2% mixture of CH4 in H, resulting in extremely high doping levels ˜ 10^20/cm^3) to be used as heating elements in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). These diamonds allow for precise control of the temperature inside of the diamond anvil itself, particularly when coupled with a cryostat. Furthermore, the unmatched thermally conducting nature of diamond ensures that no significant spatial gradient in temperature occurs across the culet area. Since a thermocouple can easily be attached anywhere on the diamond surface, we can also measure diamond temperatures directly. With two such heaters, one can raise sample temperatures uniformly, or with any desired gradient along the pressure axis while preserving optical access. In our initial experiments with these diamond anvils we report on the measurement of the thermal conductivity of copper-beryllium using a single diamond heater and two thermocouples. We augment these measurements with measurements of sample pressure via ruby fluorescence and electrical resistance of the sample and diamond heater.

  2. Metal-bosonic insulator-superconductor transition in boron-doped granular diamond.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gufei; Zeleznik, Monika; Vanacken, Johan; May, Paul W; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2013-02-15

    In a variety of superconductors, mostly in two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) systems, the resistive superconducting transition R(T) demonstrates in many cases an anomalous narrow R(T) peak just preceding the onset of the superconducting state R=0 at T(c). The amplitude of this R(T) peak in 1D and 2D systems ranges from a few up to several hundred percent. In three-dimensional (3D) systems, however, the R(T) peak close to T(c) is rarely observed, and it reaches only a few percent in amplitude. Here we report on the observation of a giant (?1600%) and very narrow (?1??K) resistance peak preceding the onset of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond. This anomalous R(T) peak in a 3D system is interpreted in the framework of an empirical model based on the metal-bosonic insulator-superconductor transitions induced by a granularity-correlated disorder in heavily doped diamond. PMID:25166395

  3. Osmium Atoms and Os2 Molecules Move Faster on Selenium-Doped Compared to Sulfur-Doped Boronic Graphenic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barry, Nicolas P E; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Tran, Johanna; Spencer, Simon E F; Johansen, Adam M; Sanchez, Ana M; Dove, Andrew P; O'Reilly, Rachel K; Deeth, Robert J; Beanland, Richard; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-07-28

    We deposited Os atoms on S- and Se-doped boronic graphenic surfaces by electron bombardment of micelles containing 16e complexes [Os(p-cymene)(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecarborane-1,2-diselenate/dithiolate)] encapsulated in a triblock copolymer. The surfaces were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and electron energy loss spectroscopy of energy filtered TEM (EFTEM). Os atoms moved ca. 26× faster on the B/Se surface compared to the B/S surface (233 ± 34 pm·s(-1) versus 8.9 ± 1.9 pm·s(-1)). Os atoms formed dimers with an average Os-Os distance of 0.284 ± 0.077 nm on the B/Se surface and 0.243 ± 0.059 nm on B/S, close to that in metallic Os. The Os2 molecules moved 0.83× and 0.65× more slowly than single Os atoms on B/S and B/Se surfaces, respectively, and again markedly faster (ca. 20×) on the B/Se surface (151 ± 45 pm·s(-1) versus 7.4 ± 2.8 pm·s(-1)). Os atom motion did not follow Brownian motion and appears to involve anchoring sites, probably S and Se atoms. The ability to control the atomic motion of metal atoms and molecules on surfaces has potential for exploitation in nanodevices of the future. PMID:26525180

  4. Hard magnetic property enhancement of Co{sub 7}Hf-based ribbons by boron doping

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H. W.; Liao, M. C.; Shih, C. W.; Chang, W. C.; Yang, C. C.; Hsiao, C. H.; Ouyang, H.

    2014-11-10

    Hard magnetic property enhancement of melt spun Co{sub 88}Hf{sub 12} ribbons by boron doping is demonstrated. B-doping could not only remarkably enhance the magnetic properties from energy product ((BH){sub max}) of 2.6 MGOe and intrinsic coercivity ({sub i}H{sub c}) of 1.5 kOe for B-free Co{sub 88}Hf{sub 12} ribbons to (BH){sub max}?=?7.7 MGOe and {sub i}H{sub c}?=?3.1 kOe for Co{sub 85}Hf{sub 12}B{sub 3} ribbons but also improve the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of 7:1 phase. The (BH){sub max} value achieved in Co{sub 85}Hf{sub 12}B{sub 3} ribbons is the highest in Co-Hf alloy ribbons ever reported, which is about 15% higher than that of Co{sub 11}Hf{sub 2}B ribbons spun at 16?m/s [M. A. McGuire, O. Rios, N. J. Ghimire, and M. Koehler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 202401 (2012)]. The structural analysis confirms that B enters the orthorhombic Co{sub 7}Hf (7:1) crystal structure as interstitial atoms, forming Co{sub 7}HfB{sub x}, in the as-spun state. Yet B may diffuse out from the 7:1 phase after post-annealing, leading to the reduction of Curie temperature and the magnetic properties. The uniformly refined microstructure with B-doping results in high remanence (B{sub r}) and improves the squareness of demagnetization curve. The formation of interstitial-atom-modified Co{sub 7}HfB{sub x} phase and the microstructure refinement are the main reasons to give rise to the enhancement of hard magnetic properties in the B-containing Co{sub 7}Hf-based ribbons.

  5. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  6. Lead detection using micro/nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Tatiane M; Sardinha, André; Baldan, Mauricio R; Cristovan, Fernando H; Ferreira, Neidenei G

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring heavy metal ion levels in water is essential for human health and safety. Electroanalytical techniques have presented important features to detect toxic trace heavy metals in the environment due to their high sensitivity associated with their easy operational procedures. Square-wave voltammetry is a powerful electrochemical technique that may be applied to both electrokinetic and analytical measurements, and the analysis of the characteristic parameters of this technique also enables the mechanism and kinetic evaluation of the electrochemical process under study. In this work, we present a complete optimized study on the heavy metal detection using diamond electrodes. It was analyzed the influence of the morphology characteristics as well as the doping level on micro/nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond films by means of square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) technique. The SWASV parameters were optimized for all films, considering that their kinetic response is dependent on the morphology and/or doping level. The films presented reversible results for the Lead [Pb (II)] system studied. The Pb (II) analysis was performed in ammonium acetate buffer at pH 4.5, varying the lead concentration in the range from 1 to 10 ?g L(-1). The analytical responses were obtained for the four electrodes. However, the best low limit detection and reproducibility was found for boron doped nanocrystalline diamond electrodes (BDND) doped with 2000 mg L(-1) in B/C ratio. PMID:25059140

  7. Boron/nitrogen co-doped helically unzipped multiwalled carbon nanotubes as efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Zehtab Yazdi, Alireza; Fei, Huilong; Ye, Ruquan; Wang, Gunuk; Tour, James; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-04-15

    Bamboo structured nitrogen doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been helically unzipped, and nitrogen doped graphene oxide nanoribbons (CNx-GONRs) with a multifaceted microstructure have been obtained. CNx-GONRs have then been codoped with nitrogen and boron by simultaneous thermal annealing in ammonia and boron oxide atmospheres, respectively. The effects of the codoping time and temperature on the concentration of the dopants and their functional groups have been extensively investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that pyridinic and BC3 are the main nitrogen and boron functional groups, respectively, in the codoped samples. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) properties of the samples have been measured in an alkaline electrolyte and compared with the state-of-the-art Pt/C (20%) electrocatalyst. The results show that the nitrogen/boron codoped graphene nanoribbons with helically unzipped structures (CNx/CBx-GNRs) can compete with the Pt/C (20%) electrocatalyst in all of the key ORR properties: onset potential, exchange current density, four electron pathway selectivity, kinetic current density, and stability. The development of such graphene nanoribbon-based electrocatalyst could be a harbinger of precious metal-free carbon-based nanomaterials for ORR applications. PMID:25793636

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of the deep electrochemical oxidation of sodium diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenyapina, M. D.; Borisova, D. A.; Rosenwinkel, K.-H.; Weichgrebe, D.; Stopp, P.; Vedenyapin, A. A.

    2013-08-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the deep oxidation of sodium diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode are studied to develop a technique for purifying wastewater from pharmaceutical products. The products of sodium diclofenac electrolysis are analyzed using cyclic voltammetry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. It is shown that the toxicity of the drug and products of its electrolysis decreases upon its deep oxidation.

  9. Feedback-amplified electrochemical dual-plate boron-doped diamond microtrench detector for flow injection analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Grace E M; Gross, Andrew J; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Lubben, Anneke T; Marken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical flow cell with a boron-doped diamond dual-plate microtrench electrode has been developed and demonstrated for hydroquinone flow injection electroanalysis in phosphate buffer pH 7. Using the electrochemical generator-collector feedback detector improves the sensitivity by one order of magnitude (when compared to a single working electrode detector). The diffusion process is switched from an analyte consuming “external” process to an analyte regenerating “internal” process with benefits in selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:25735831

  10. Cathodic reductive coupling of methyl cinnamate on boron-doped diamond electrodes and synthesis of new neolignan-type products

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Taiki; Obata, Rika; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The electroreduction reaction of methyl cinnamate on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was investigated. The hydrodimer, dimethyl 3,4-diphenylhexanedioate (racemate/meso = 74:26), was obtained in 85% yield as the major product, along with small amounts of cyclic methyl 5-oxo-2,3-diphenylcyclopentane-1-carboxylate. Two new neolignan-type products were synthesized from the hydrodimer. PMID:25815070

  11. Feedback-amplified electrochemical dual-plate boron-doped diamond microtrench detector for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Grace E M; Gross, Andrew J; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Lubben, Anneke T; Marken, Frank

    2015-08-01

    An electrochemical flow cell with a boron-doped diamond dual-plate microtrench electrode has been developed and demonstrated for hydroquinone flow injection electroanalysis in phosphate buffer pH 7. Using the electrochemical generator-collector feedback detector improves the sensitivity by one order of magnitude (when compared to a single working electrode detector). The diffusion process is switched from an analyte consuming "external" process to an analyte regenerating "internal" process with benefits in selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:25735831

  12. Cathodic reductive coupling of methyl cinnamate on boron-doped diamond electrodes and synthesis of new neolignan-type products.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Taiki; Obata, Rika; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Einaga, Yasuaki; Nishiyama, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The electroreduction reaction of methyl cinnamate on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was investigated. The hydrodimer, dimethyl 3,4-diphenylhexanedioate (racemate/meso = 74:26), was obtained in 85% yield as the major product, along with small amounts of cyclic methyl 5-oxo-2,3-diphenylcyclopentane-1-carboxylate. Two new neolignan-type products were synthesized from the hydrodimer. PMID:25815070

  13. In vivo biocompatibility of boron doped and nitrogen included conductive-diamond for use in medical implants.

    PubMed

    Garrett, David J; Saunders, Alexia L; McGowan, Ceara; Specks, Joscha; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Meffin, Hamish; Williams, Richard A; Nayagam, David A X

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been interest in investigating diamond as a material for use in biomedical implants. Diamond can be rendered electrically conducting by doping with boron or nitrogen. This has led to inclusion of boron doped and nitrogen included diamond elements as electrodes and/or feedthroughs for medical implants. As these conductive device elements are not encapsulated, there is a need to establish their clinical safety for use in implants. This article compares the biocompatibility of electrically conducting boron doped diamond (BDD) and nitrogen included diamond films and electrically insulating poly crystalline diamond films against a silicone negative control and a BDD sample treated with stannous octoate as a positive control. Samples were surgically implanted into the back muscle of a guinea pig for a period of 4-15 weeks, excised and the implant site sectioned and submitted for histological analysis. All forms of diamond exhibited a similar or lower thickness of fibrotic tissue encapsulating compared to the silicone negative control samples. All forms of diamond exhibited similar or lower levels of acute, chronic inflammatory, and foreign body responses compared to the silicone negative control indicating that the materials are well tolerated in vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 19-26, 2016. PMID:25611731

  14. Improvements in the Formation of Boron-Doped Diamond Coatings on Platinum Wires Using the Novel Nucleation Process (NNP)

    PubMed Central

    Fhaner, Mathew; Zhao, Hong; Bian, Xiaochun; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the initial nucleation density for the growth of boron-doped diamond on platinum wires, we employed the novel nucleation process (NNP) originally developed by Rotter et al. and discussed by others [1–3]. This pretreatment method involves (i) the initial formation of a thin carbon layer over the substrate followed by (ii) ultrasonic seeding of this “soft” carbon layer with nanoscale particles of diamond. This two-step pretreatment is followed by the deposition of boron-doped diamond by microwave plasma-assisted CVD. Both the diamond seed particles and sites on the carbon layer itself function as the initial nucleation zones for diamond growth from an H2-rich source gas mixture. We report herein on the characterization of the pre-growth carbon layer formed on Pt as well as boron-doped films grown for 2, 4 and 6 h post NNP pretreatment. Results from scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical studies are reported. The NNP method increases the initial nucleation density on Pt and leads to the formation of a continuous diamond film in a shorter deposition time than is typical for wires pretreated by conventional ultrasonic seeding. The results indicate that the pregrowth layer itself consists of nanoscopic domains of diamond and functions well to enhance the initial nucleation of diamond without any diamond powder seeding. PMID:21617759

  15. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li+Cl–), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li+Cl– catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  16. Exploration of Boron Nitride By Louis Baum

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    Exploration of Boron Nitride By Louis Baum Department of Physics examples of these crystals are graphene and boron nitride. Graphene is a single, and graphite. Boron nitride, often called white graphene, has a similar structure

  17. Boron doped nanostructure ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, Seniye; Ozbas, Omer

    2015-02-01

    ZnO is an II-VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Doped with group III elements (B, Al or Ga), it becomes an attractive candidate to replace tin oxide (SnO2) or indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cell devices and flat panel display due to competitive electrical and optical properties. In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) films have been deposited onto glass substrates at 350 ± 5 °C by a cost-efficient ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanostructure undoped and ZnO:B films have been investigated. Electrical resistivity of films has been analyzed by four-probe technique. Optical properties and thicknesses of the films have been examined in the wavelength range 1200-1600 nm by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. The optical constants (refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)) and the thicknesses of the films have been fitted according to Cauchy model. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Transmission spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer. It is found that both ZnO and ZnO:B films have high average optical transmission (?80%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the obtained ZnO has a hexagonal wurtzite type structure. The morphological properties of the films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the nanostructure films is found to depend on the concentration of B. As a result, ZnO:B films are promising contender for their potential use as transparent window layer and electrodes in solar cells.

  18. Preparation of boron doped silicon films for its application in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chao; Wang, Xiang; Guo, Yanqing; Song, Jie; Huang, Rui

    2015-08-01

    Boron-doped a-Si:H thin films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. As-deposited samples were thermally annealed at different temperatures from 450 °C to 1000 °C. The microstructures and electrical properties have been evaluated for the amorphous and nano-crystalline structures. It was found that thermal annealing can efficiently activate the dopant in films accompanying with formation of nc-Si grains. During the transition process from amorphous to nano-crystalline structures, the room temperature dark conductivity is increased from 6.6×10-4 S cm-1 to 2.8×102 S cm-1. Based on the properties of p-type silicon films, the P-N junction solar cells were prepared on n-type nc-Si substrate. It was shown that the conversion efficiency is increased monotonously as increasing the annealing temperature. Form the results, it can be implied that the solar cells with higher conversion efficiency can be obtained by using the method of thermal annealing.

  19. Structural modification of boron-doped ZnO layers caused by hydrogen outgassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovics, R.; Csik, A.; Takáts, V.; Hakl, J.; Vad, K.

    2015-07-01

    Results of annealing experiments of boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) layers prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition method on polished Si, soda-lime glass for windows, and AF45 Schott alkali free thin glass substrates are presented. It is shown that short annealing of samples at 150 °C and 300 °C in air causes serious surface degradation of samples prepared on Si and soda-lime glass substrate. The characteristic feature of degradation is the creation of bubbles and craters on the sample surface which fully destroy the continuity of zinc oxide layers. The results of depth distribution mapping of elements indicate that the formation of bubbles is linked to increase in hydrogen concentration in the layer. The surface degradation was not noticed on samples deposited on AF45 Schott alkali free thin glass which has a SiO2 diffusion barrier layer on the surface, only much fewer and smaller bubbles were visible. The results indicate the important role of hydrogen outgassing from the substrate induced by a thermal shock.

  20. Simultaneous hydrogen production and electrochemical oxidation of organics using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juyuan; Chang, Ming; Pan, Peng

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents advantages of using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for hydrogen production and wastewater treatment in a single electrochemical cell. Results indicated that the BDD electrode possessed the widest known electrochemical window, allowing new possibilities for both anodic and cathodic reactions to simultaneously take place. The BDD electrode exhibited high anodic potential, generating high oxidation state radicals that facilitated oxidation of toxic waste organic compounds such as 4-nitrophenols. In contrast, because of widening of potential windows, the rate of hydrogen evolution at the cathode was significantly increased. Time-on-stream concentrations of reaction intermediates were monitored to elucidate mechanism involved in 4-nitrophenol oxidation. Spalling, fouling, or reduction in the thickness of thin-film diamond coating was not observed. Overall, the BDD electrode exhibits unique properties including chemical inertness, anticorrosion, and extended service life. These properties are especially important in wastewater treatment. Economic advantages were attributed to the low cost and long duration BDD electrode and the valuable hydrogen byproduct produced. Analysis has shown that technology associated with the BDD electrode could be effectively implemented with minimum energy input and capital requirements. When combined with solar energy and fuel cells, electrochemical wastewater processing can become energy efficient and cost-effective. PMID:18497166

  1. Rapid Electroanalytical Method for Determination of Nebivolol at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode.

    PubMed

    Nigovi?, Biljana; Mornar, Ana; Završki, Mario

    2015-12-01

    A boron-doped diamond electrode provided a sensitive and cost-effective sensing platform for detection and quantitative determination of novel beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist nebivolol. The net square-wave voltammetric response at 1.31 V related to the oxidation of nebivolol was obtained in Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 8. It increased linearly with the drug concentration in the range of 2.5 × 10(-7) to 1.5 × 10(-5) M. The LOD attained was 3.2 × 10(-8) M. The practical analytical approach was illustrated by high speed quantification of nebivolol in a commercial pharmaceutical formulation. The RP-HPLC was selected as a comparative method for evaluating the proposed electroanalytical method. The newly developed method at the unmodified electrode surface was faster and simpler in comparison with HPLC (the retention time was 17.6 min), and only 6 s was necessary for direct voltammetric measurement in the potential range from 0.5 to 1.7 V with a 2 mV potential step and pulse frequency of 100 Hz. PMID:26651565

  2. Anodic oxidation of textile wastewaters on boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Abdessamad, NourElHouda; Akrout, Hanene; Bousselmi, Latifa

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential application of the anodic oxidation (AO) on two electrolytic cells (monopolar (Cell 1) and bipolar (Cell 2)) containing boron-doped diamond electrodes on the treatment of real textile effluents to study the reuse possibility of treated wastewater in the textile industry process. AO is applied in the flocculation coagulation pretreatment of both upstream (BH) and downstream (BS) effluents. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) results show that the final COD removal obtained for the BH effluent in the case of Cell 1 and Cell 2 is 800 and 150?mg O2?L(-1) after 5 and 6?h of electrolysis, respectively. The treatments of the BS effluent allow for obtaining a final COD of 76?mg?L(-1)for Cell 1 and a total mineralization for Cell 2. The obtained results demonstrate that the apparent mineralization kinetics of both effluents when using Cell 2 are about four times faster than the one obtained by Cell 1 and highlight the important contribution of the bipolar cell. Besides, the energy consumption values show that the treatment of the BH effluent by Cell 1 consumes 865?kWh?kg?COD(-1) against 411?kWh?kg?COD(-1) by Cell 2. Therefore, the use of Cell 2 decreases the energy cost by 2.1-6.65 times when compared to Cell 1 in the case of the BH and BS effluent treatment, respectively. PMID:26020517

  3. Boron-doped diamond nano/microelectrodes for bio-sensing and in vitro measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hua; Wang, Shihua; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the fabrication of the first diamond electrode in the mid 1980s, repid progress has been made on the development and application of this new type of electrode material. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes exhibit outstanding properties compared to oxygen-containing sp2 carbon electrodes. These properties make BDD electrodes an ideal choice for use in complex samples. In recent years, BDD microelectrodes have been applied to in vitro and in vivo measurements of biological molecules in animals, tissues and cells. This review will summarize recent progress in the development and applications of BDD electrodes in bio-sensing and in vitro measurements of biomolecules. In the first section, the methods for BDD nanocrystalline diamond film deposition and BDD microelectrodes preparation are described. This is followed by a description and discussion of several approaches for characterization of the BDD electrode surface structure, morphology, and electrochemical activity. Further, application of BDD microelectrodes for use in the in vitro analysis of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), nitric oxide (NO), histamine, and adenosine from tissues are summarized and finally some of the remaining challenges are discussed. PMID:21196394

  4. Crystallinity, morphology, and conductivity of boron-doped microcrystal-line silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rajeswaran, G.; Tafto, J.; Sabatini, R.L.; Vanier, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Boron-doped microcrystalline (..mu..c) silicon films produced by rf glow discharge from dilute (1%) mixtures of SiH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ show a critical dependence of conductivity on deposition conditions. The dark conductivity was related to the microscopic features using electron microscopy. The ..mu..c-Si:H films contain clusters of crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix. The size of the crystalline clusters is typically 0.2 ..mu..m in diameter, and the size of the individual crystallites is about 2.5 nm. Electron micrographs of samples prepared at substrate temperatures T/sub s/ = 135/sup 0/C, 150/sup 0/C, 165/sup 0/C, and 180/sup 0/C show that the number of crystalline clusters increases with T/sub s/ up to 165/sup 0/C. At T/sub s/ = 180/sup 0/C, the crystallites completely disappear. When the concentration of SiH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ is decreased to 0.25%, the microstructure shows a high density of crystallites with no apparent clustering. 6 references, 7 figures.

  5. Interaction of copper impurity with radiation defects in silicon doped with boron

    SciTech Connect

    Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2010-08-15

    The spectrum of deep levels formed in boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon single crystals as a result of interaction of radiation defects with copper impurity is studied. It is shown that, irrespective of the order of introduction of defects (both in the case of low-temperature copper diffusion into crystals preliminarily irradiated with electrons and in the case of irradiation of the samples contaminated with copper), the same set of deep levels appears. In addition to conventional radiation defects, three types of levels have been detected in the band gap of copper-containing crystals. These levels include the level E{sub v} + 0.49 eV (already mentioned in available publications), the level E{sub v} + 0.51 eV (previously not related to copper), and a level close to the donor level of a vacancy. Based on the analysis of concentration profiles, the interstitial carbonoxygen pair is excluded from possible precursors of the copper-containing center with level E{sub v} + 0.49 eV.

  6. Microfluidic platform for environmental contaminants sensing and degradation based on boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Mayorga-Martinez, CarmenC; Watanabe, Takeshi; Ivandini, TribidasariA; Honda, Yuki; Pino, Flavio; Nakata, Kazuya; Fujishima, Akira; Einaga, Yasuaki; Merkoçi, Arben

    2016-01-15

    We have developed a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for electrochemical detection and degradation of the pesticide atrazine (Atz). It is based on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes and a competitive magneto-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that enables high sensitivity. To detect the enzymatic reaction, we employed a BDD electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs), as a highly conductive catalytic transducer. Chronoamperometry revealed a limit of detection (LOD) of 3.5 pM for atrazine, which, to the best of our knowledge, is one of the lowest value published to date. Finally, we degraded Atz in the same platform, using a bare BDD electrode that features remarkable corrosion stability, a wide potential window, and much higher O2 overvoltage as compared to conventional electrodes. These characteristics enable the electrode to produce a greater amount of HO• on the anode surface than do conventional electrodes and consequently, to destroy the pollutant more rapidly. Our new LOC platform might prove interesting as a smart system for detection and remediation of diverse pesticides and other contaminants. PMID:26339934

  7. TDAB-induced DNA plasmid condensation on the surface of a reconstructed boron doped silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougin, Antoine; Babak, Valéry G.; Palmino, Frank; Bêche, Eric; Baros, Francis; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Léon; Fromm, Michel

    Our study aims at a better control and understanding of the transfer of a complex [DNA supercoiled plasmid - dodecyltrimethylammonium surfactant] layer from a liquid-vapour water interface onto a silicon surface without any additional cross-linker. The production of the complexed layer and its transfer from the aqueous subphase to the substrate is achieved with a Langmuir-Blodgett device. The substrate consists of a reconstructed boron doped silicon substrate with a nanometer-scale roughness. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements, it is shown that the DNA complexes are stretched in a disorderly manner throughout a 2-4 nm high net-like structure. This architecture is composed of tilted cationic surfactant molecules bound electrostatically to DNA, which exhibits a characteristic network arrangement with a measured average fiber diameter of about 45 ± 15 nm covering the entire surface. The mechanism of transfer of this layer onto the planar surface of the semi-conductor and the parameters of the process are analysed and illustrated by atomic force microscopy snapshots. The molecular layer exhibits the typical characteristics of a spinodal decomposition pattern or dewetting features. Plasmid molecules appear like long flattened fibers covering the surface, forming holes of various shapes and areas. The cluster-cluster aggregation of the complex structure gets very much denser on the substrate edge. The supercoiled DNA plasmids undergo conformational changes and a high degree of condensation and aggregation is observed. Perspectives and potential applications are considered.

  8. Optical and electrical properties of ultrathin transparent nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobaszek, M.; Skowro?ski, ?.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Siuzdak, K.; Cirocka, A.; Zi?ba, P.; Gnyba, M.; Naparty, M.; Go?u?ski, ?.; P?otka, P.

    2015-04-01

    The optical properties of ultrathin (less than 100 nm) boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) film were investigated in a wavelength range of 200-20,000 nm. The B-NCD refractive index showed values close to that of monocrystalline diamond (n = 2.45) in a broad wavelength range (450-4000 nm). A transmittance up to 70% and the average film thickness of 70 nm were achieved. A special cone-shaped shim was used in the deposition process. Ultrathin nanocrystalline films were deposited on silicon substrates using the Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (MW PA CVD) method. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements in aqueous media consisting of 5 mM K3[Fe(CN)6] in 0.1 M Na2SO4 demonstrated a width of the electrochemical window up to 2.5 V. The evolution of the surface morphology was analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The chemical composition of B-NCD films was examined with micro-Raman Spectroscopy. The Raman spectra included a diamond peak and a nanocrystalline diamond band at 1330-1333 cm-1 and 1126-1143 cm-1, respectively. The thickness and optical properties of ultrathin B-NCD film in UV-MIR wavelength range were investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  9. Yeast-based Biochemical Oxygen Demand Sensors Using Gold-modified Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Harmesa; Saepudin, Endang; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-01-01

    A gold nanoparticle modified boron-doped diamond electrode was developed as a transducer for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurements. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UICC Y-181 was immobilized in a sodium alginate matrix, and used as a biosensing agent. Cyclic voltammetry was applied to study the oxygen reduction reaction at the electrode, while amperometry was employed to detect oxygen, which was not consumed by the microorganisms. The optimum waiting time of 25 min was observed using 1-mm thickness of yeast film. A comparison against the system with free yeast cells shows less sensitivity of the current responses with a linear dynamic range (R(2) = 0.99) of from 0.10 mM to 0.90 mM glucose (equivalent to 10 - 90 mg/L BOD) with an estimated limit of detection of 1.90 mg/L BOD. However, a better stability of the current responses could be achieved with an RSD of 3.35%. Moreover, less influence from the presence of copper ions was observed. The results indicate that the yeast-immobilized BOD sensors is more suitable to be applied in a real condition. PMID:26179128

  10. Functionalization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond with N3 dye molecules.

    PubMed

    Yeap, W S; Liu, X; Bevk, D; Pasquarelli, A; Lutsen, L; Fahlman, M; Maes, W; Haenen, K

    2014-07-01

    N3 dye molecules [cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II)] are covalently attached to boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B:NCD) thin films through a combination of coupling chemistries, i.e., diazonium, Suzuki, and EDC-NHS. X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy are used to verify the covalent bonding of the dye on the B:NCD surface (compared to a hydrogen-terminated reference). The spectroscopic results confirm the presence of a dense N3 chromophore layer, and the positions of the frontier orbitals of the dye relative to the band edge of the B:NCD thin film are inferred as well. Proof-of-concept photoelectrochemical measurements show a strong increase in the photocurrent compared to non-dye-functionalized B:NCD films. This study opens up the possibility of applying N3-sensitized B:NCD thin films as hole conductors in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:24915549

  11. Development of electrolyte-free ozone sensors using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yuya; Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Murata, Kazutaka; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-05-01

    The electrochemical detection of dissolved ozone in water was examined using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. A well-defined reduction peak was observed at ~380 mV for H-terminated BDD, whereas it was observed at ~200 mV in the case of O-terminated BDD for an ozone solution in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The peak potential for ozone reduction was selective with respect to oxygen reduction at both H- and O-terminated BDD electrodes, whereas it occurred at approximately the same potential as oxygen reduction at other types of solid electrodes, including glassy-carbon, platinum, and gold electrodes. Interference from chlorine was not observed in lower concentration than 300 ?M ClO(-). Furthermore, in order to apply the detection technique to electrolyte-free media, BDD microelectrodes were also used. A linear calibration curve for dissolved ozone in water could be achieved between concentrations of 0.49 and 740 ?M, with an estimated detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.185 ?M (S/N = 3). Excellent stability was demonstrated for repetitions of these calibration curves performed in 3 consecutive days. PMID:23544430

  12. Electrochemical treatment of cork boiling wastewater with a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Annabel; Santos, Diana; Pacheco, Maria José; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Simões, Rogério; Gomes, Arlindo C; Lopes, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anodic oxidation at a boron-doped diamond anode of cork boiling wastewater was successfully used for mineralization and biodegradability enhancement required for effluent discharge or subsequent biological treatment, respectively. The influence of the applied current density (30-70 mA/cm2) and the background electrolyte concentration (0-1.5 g/L Na2SO4) on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. The supporting electrolyte was required to achieve conductivities that enabled anodic oxidation at the highest current intensities applied. The results indicated that pollutant removal increased with the applied current density, and after 8 h, reductions greater than 90% were achieved for COD, dissolved organic carbon, total phenols and colour. The biodegradability enhancement was from 0.13 to 0.59 and from 0.23 to 0.72 for the BOD/COD ratios with BOD of 5 and 20 days' incubation period, respectively. The tests without added electrolyte were performed at lower applied electrical charges (15 mA/cm2 or 30 V) with good organic load removal (up to 80%). For an applied current density of 30 mA/cm2, there was a minimum of electric conductivity of 1.9 mS/cm (corresponding to 0.75 g/L of Na2SO4), which minimized the specific energy consumption. PMID:25409580

  13. Kinetic study of electro-Fenton oxidation of azo dyes on boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Almomani, Fares; Baranova, Elena A

    2013-01-01

    The present work compares electrochemical degradation of red and blue azo textile dyes in single- and two-compartment electrochemical cells in the presence of Fenton reagent (Fe2+) and using a boron-doped diamond anode. Degradation of both dyes was related to the concentration of dye, applied current density and the concentration of FeSO4 catalyst. Complete colour removal and approximately 91% of organic matter oxidation was achieved in a two-compartment electrochemical cell at an applied current density of 20 mA x cm(-2), pH of 3 and Fe(2+) ion concentration of 0.02 mM. Higher current density and reaction time were required to achieve the same removals in a one-compartment electrochemical cell. Dye degradation kinetics as well as chemical oxygen demand removal rate were successfully modelled to pseudo first-order kinetics. The apparent first-order rate constants (k(o)) for degradation of red dye with an initial concentration of 20, 40 and 60 ppm were found to be 2.67 +/- 0.16, 2.19 +/- 0.09 and 1.5 +/- 0.03 min(-1), and for blue dye at the same initial concentrations were 1.99 +/- 0.2, 0.95 +/- 0.02 and 0.71 +/- 0.030 min(-1), respectively. PMID:24191481

  14. Electrochemical degradation of PNP at boron-doped diamond and platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanrong; Yang, Nan; Murugananthan, Muthu; Yoshihara, Sachio

    2013-01-15

    The electrochemical degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and platinum (Pt) anodes was studied by varying the parameters such as Cl(-) concentration, pH of aqueous medium and applied current density. The results obtained were explained in terms of in situ concomitant generation of hydroxyl radicals and chloride based oxidant species. The degradation of PNP was highly promoted in low concentration of NaCl electrolyte (less than 0.10 M), on contrary, the mineralization efficiency was poor at both BDD and Pt anodes with the NaCl concentration up to 0.20 M, which was ascribed to the formation of refractory chlorinated organic compounds. A maximum of 100% and 70% of COD removal was achieved in 5h of electrolysis period using both BDD and Pt anodes under similar experimental conditions. Kinetic study indicated that the degradation of PNP at BDD and Pt anodes followed pseudo-first-order reactions, and the reaction rate constant (k(s)) of the former was observed to be higher than that of the latter. Besides COD, conversion of PNP into various intermediate compounds and their degradations were also monitored. The mechanisms for PNP degradation at BDD and Pt anodes were proposed separately by considering the nature of respective intermediate species and their concentrations. PMID:23270953

  15. Use of seawater for the boron-doped diamond electrochemical treatment of diluted vinasse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Daskalaki, V M; Marakas, H; Mantzavinos, D; Katsaounis, A; Gikas, P

    2013-01-01

    Vinasse wastewater of high organic content (COD = 131,000 mg/L) and low biodegradability (BOD5/COD = 0.11) cannot be easily managed and usually require several consecutive treatment steps. The objective of this work was to dilute vinasse wastewater with seawater and then subject them to electrochemical oxidation over boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The use of seawater is a rational and novel approach for plants close to the seashore since it may achieve the desirable levels of effluent concentration and conductivity without consuming other water resources and extra electrolytes. Experiments were conducted at initial COD values of 830-8,400 mg/L, NaCl concentrations of 34-200 mM and current densities of 70-200 mA/cm(2) for up to 5 hours. The effect of current density and NaCl concentration was marginal on the electrochemical treatment, while the single most important parameter was the initial COD concentration. The order of reaction for COD reduction appears to be 'first' at low effluent concentrations and it decreases to 'zero' at higher concentrations, denoting the importance of the ratio of organics to reactive radicals concentration. Based on COD and total organic carbon data, it is postulated that degradation occurs predominantly through total oxidation (i.e. mineralization) to carbon dioxide and water, which is characteristic of BDD anodes. PMID:24334881

  16. Simultaneous Chronoamperometric Sensing of Ascorbic Acid and Acetaminophen at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Cofan, Codru?a; Radovan, Ciprian

    2008-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) have been used to sense and determine simultaneously L-ascorbic acid (AA) and acetaminophen (AC) at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution. The calibration plots of anodic current peak versus concentration obtained from CV and CA data for both investigated compounds in single and di-component solutions over the concentration range 0.01 mM – 0.1 mM proved to be linear, with very good correlation parameters. Sensitivity values and RSD of 2-3% were obtained for various situations, involving both individual and simultaneous presence of AA and AC. The chronoamperometric technique associated with standard addition in sequential one step and/or two successive and continuous chronoamperograms at two characteristic potential levels represented a feasible option for the simultaneous determination of AA and AC in real sample systems such as pharmaceutical formulations. The average values indicated by the supplier were confirmed to a very close approximation from chronoamperomgrams by using several additions with the application of suitable current correction factors.

  17. Electrochemical oxidation and electroanalytical determination of xylitol at a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Anabel S; Sanches, Fátima A C; Magalhães, Renata R; Costa, Daniel J E; Ribeiro, Williame F; Bichinho, Kátia M; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Araújo, Mário C U

    2014-02-01

    Xylitol is a reduced sugar with anticariogenic properties used by insulin-dependent diabetics, and which has attracted great attention of the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and dental industries. The detection of xylitol in different matrices is generally based on separation techniques. Alternatively, in this paper, the application of a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode allied to differing voltammetric techniques is presented to study the electrochemical behavior of xylitol, and to develop an analytical methodology for its determination in mouthwash. Xylitol undergoes two oxidation steps in an irreversible diffusion-controlled process (D=5.05 × 10(-5)cm(2)s(-1)). Differential pulse voltammetry studies revealed that the oxidation mechanism for peaks P1 (3.4 ? pH ? 8.0), and P2 (6.0 ? pH ? 9.0) involves transfer of 1H(+)/1e(-), and 1e(-) alone, respectively. The oxidation process P1 is mediated by the (•)OH generated at the BDD hydrogen-terminated surface. The maximum peak current was obtained at a pH of 7.0, and the electroanalytical method developed, (employing square wave voltammetry) yielded low detection (1.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)), and quantification (4.5 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)) limits, associated with good levels of repeatability (4.7%), and reproducibility (5.3%); thus demonstrating the viability of the methodology for detection of xylitol in biological samples containing low concentrations. PMID:24401449

  18. Comparison of electrocatalytic characterization of boron-doped diamond and SnO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiangwei; Feng, Yujie; Liu, Junfeng; Qu, Youpeng; Cui, Fuyi

    2013-10-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) and SnO2 electrodes were prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition (DC-PCVD) and sol-gel method, respectively. Electrochemical characterization of the two electrodes were investigated by phenol electrochemical degradation, accelerated service life test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) in phenol solution, polarization curves in H2SO4. The surface morphology and crystal structure of two electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed a considerable difference between the two electrodes in their electrocatalytic activity, electrochemical stability and surface properties. Phenol was readily mineralized to CO2 at BDD electrode, favoring electrochemical combustion, but its degradation was much slower at SnO2 electrode. The service life of BDD electrode was 10 times longer than that of SnO2. Higher electrocatalytic activity and electrochemical stability of BDD electrode arise from its high oxygen evolution potential and the physically absorbed hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on electrode surface.

  19. Multichannel Boron Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Ultramicroelectrode Arrays: Design, Fabrication and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Raphael; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaëlle; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Bongrain, Alexandre; Yvert, Blaise; Picaud, Serge; Mailley, Pascal; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of an 8 × 8 multichannel Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicro-electrode array (UMEA). The device combines both the assets of microelectrodes, resulting from conditions in mass transport from the bulk solution toward the electrode, and of BDD's remarkable intrinsic electrochemical properties. The UMEAs were fabricated using an original approach relying on the selective growth of diamond over pre-processed 4 inches silicon substrates. The prepared UMEAs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrated that the electrodes have exhibited a very fast electrode transfer rate (k0) up to 0.05 cm·s?1 (in a fast redox couple) and on average, a steady state limiting current (in a 0.5 M potassium chloride aqueous solution containing 1 mM Fe(CN)64? ion at 100 mV·s?1) of 1.8 nA. The UMEAs are targeted for electrophysiological as well as analytical applications. PMID:22969367

  20. 3D-nanostructured boron-doped diamond for microelectrode array neural interfacing.

    PubMed

    Piret, Gaëlle; Hébert, Clément; Mazellier, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Lionel; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Cottance, Myline; Lissorgues, Gaelle; Heuschkel, Marc O; Picaud, Serge; Bergonzo, Philippe; Yvert, Blaise

    2015-06-01

    The electrode material is a key element in the design of long-term neural implants and neuroprostheses. To date, the ideal electrode material offering high longevity, biocompatibility, low-noise recording and high stimulation capabilities remains to be found. We show that 3D-nanostructured boron doped diamond (BDD), an innovative material consisting in a chemically stable material with a high aspect ratio structure obtained by encapsulation of a carbon nanotube template within two BDD nanolayers, allows neural cell attachment, survival and neurite extension. Further, we developed arrays of 20-?m-diameter 3D-nanostructured BDD microelectrodes for neural interfacing. These microelectrodes exhibited low impedances and low intrinsic recording noise levels. In particular, they allowed the detection of low amplitude (10-20 ?V) local-field potentials, single units and multiunit bursts neural activity in both acute whole embryonic hindbrain-spinal cord preparations and long-term hippocampal cell cultures. Also, cyclic voltammetry measurements showed a wide potential window of about 3 V and a charge storage capacity of 10 mC.cm(-2), showing high potentiality of this material for neural stimulation. These results demonstrate the attractiveness of 3D-nanostructured BDD as a novel material for neural interfacing, with potential applications for the design of biocompatible neural implants for the exploration and rehabilitation of the nervous system. PMID:25890717

  1. QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN FLUE GAS EMISSION USING BORON-DOPED DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Manivannan; M.S. Seehra

    2003-08-19

    In this project, we have attempted to develop a new technique utilizing Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films to electrochemically detect mercury dissolved in solution via the initial deposition of metallic mercury, followed by anodic linear sweep voltammetry in the range from 10-10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -5} M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were employed. The extremely low background current for BDD electrodes compared to glassy carbon (GC) provides a strong advantage in trace metal detection. CV peak currents showed good linearity in the micromolar range. A detection level of 6.8 x 10{sup -10} M was achieved with DPV in 0.1 M KNO{sub 3} (pH = 1) for a deposition time of 20 minutes. Reproducible stripping peaks were obtained, even for the low concentration range. A comparison with GC shows that BDD is superior. Linear behavior was also obtained in the mercury concentration range from 10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -9} M.

  2. Anodic oxidation of textile dyehouse effluents on boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Tsantaki, Eleni; Velegraki, Theodora; Katsaounis, Alexandros; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2012-03-15

    The electrochemical oxidation of textile effluents over a boron-doped diamond anode was investigated in the present study. Experiments were conducted with a multi-component synthetic solution containing seventeen dyes and other auxiliary inorganics, as well as an actual effluent from a textile dyeing process. The effect of varying operating parameters, such as current density (4-50 mA/cm2), electrolyte concentration (0.1-0.5 M HClO4), initial solution pH (1-12.3) and temperature (22-43 °C), on process efficiency was investigated following changes in total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color. Complete decolorization accompanied by significant mineralization (up to 85% depending on the conditions) could be achieved after 180 min of treatment. Performance was improved at higher electrolyte concentrations and lower pH values, while the effect of temperature was marginal. Energy consumption per unit mass of COD removed was favored at lower current densities, since energy was unnecessarily wasted to side reactions at higher densities. PMID:21530081

  3. Electrochemical degradation of an anionic surfactant on boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Louhichi, B; Ahmadi, M F; Bensalah, N; Gadri, A; Rodrigo, M A

    2008-10-30

    In this work, the electrochemical oxidation on boron-doped diamond of synthetic wastes polluted with surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) has been studied. Results show that SDBS can be successfully removed with this technology inside different current densities and concentration ranges. The oxidation of the SDBS seems to occur in two main sequential steps: the first is the rapid degradation of SDBS, and the final is the less efficient oxidation of aliphatic intermediates to carbon dioxide. The nature of supporting electrolyte (NaCl, Na(2)SO(4) and K(3)PO(4)) influences on the efficiency of the electrochemical oxidation process. The treatment of the NaCl solution seems to be more efficient in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, while the sulphate and specially the phosphate media improve the TOC removal. However, in spite of this observation, chemical oxidation of SDBS by different types of oxidants cannot explain alone the results of the electrochemical oxidation with diamond anodes. This suggests that the synergistic effect of the different oxidation mechanisms that occurs into the electrochemical cell (direct oxidation and mediated oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and by oxidants formed from the electrolyte) is the responsible of the great efficiencies obtained with this technology in the treatment of organics. PMID:18329797

  4. Hydrogen passivation of interstitial iron in boron-doped multicrystalline silicon during annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, AnYao; Sun, Chang; Macdonald, Daniel

    2014-11-21

    Effective hydrogenation of interstitial iron in boron-doped multicrystalline silicon wafers is reported. The multicrystalline silicon wafers were annealed with plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride films, at temperatures of 400?°C?–?900?°C and for times from minutes to hours. At low temperatures where a combined effect of hydrogenation and precipitation of dissolved Fe is expected, results show that the hydrogenation process dominates the effect of precipitation. The concentrations of dissolved interstitial iron reduce by more than 90% after a 30-min anneal at temperatures between 600 and 900?°C. The most effective reduction occurs at 700?°C, where 99% of the initial dissolved iron is hydrogenated after 30?min. The results show that the observed reductions in interstitial Fe concentrations are not caused by the internal gettering of Fe at structural defects or by an enhanced diffusivity of Fe due to the presence of hydrogen. The hydrogenation process is conjectured to be the pairing of positively charged iron with negatively charged hydrogen, forming less recombination active Fe-H complexes in silicon.

  5. Empirical determination of the energy band gap narrowing in p{sup +} silicon heavily doped with boron

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Di Cuevas, Andres

    2014-11-21

    In the analysis of highly doped silicon, energy band gap narrowing (BGN) and degeneracy effects may be accounted for separately, as a net BGN in conjunction with Fermi-Dirac statistics, or lumped together in an apparent BGN used with Boltzmann statistics. This paper presents an experimental study of silicon highly doped with boron, with the aim of evaluating the applicability of previously reported BGN models. Different boron diffusions covering a broad range of dopant densities were prepared, and their characteristic recombination current parameters J{sub 0} were measured using a contactless photoconductance technique. The BGN was subsequently extracted by matching theoretical simulations of carrier transport and recombination in each of the boron diffused regions and the measured J{sub 0} values. An evaluation of two different minority carrier mobility models indicates that their impact on the extraction of the BGN is relatively small. After considering possible uncertainties, it can be concluded that the BGN is slightly larger in p{sup +} silicon than in n{sup +} silicon, in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions by Schenk. Nevertheless, in quantitative terms that theoretical model is found to slightly underestimate the BGN in p{sup +} silicon. With the two different parameterizations derived in this paper for the BGN in p{sup +} silicon, both statistical approaches, Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac, provide a good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Diffusion-driven precipitate growth and ripening of oxygen precipitates in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Will, J. Gröschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Magerl, A.; Spiecker, E.

    2014-03-28

    X-ray Pendellösung fringes from three silicon single crystals measured at 900?°C are analyzed with respect to density and size of oxygen precipitates within a diffusion-driven growth model and compared with TEM investigations. It appears that boron doped (p+) material shows a higher precipitate density and a higher strain than moderately (p-) boron crystals. In-situ diffraction reveals a diffusion-driven precipitate growth followed by a second growth regime in both materials. An interpretation of the second growth regime in terms of Ostwald ripening yields surface energy values (around 70?erg/cm{sup 2}) similar to published data. Further, an increased nucleation rate by a factor of ?13 is found in the p+ sample as compared to a p- sample at a nucleation temperature of 450?°C.

  7. Oxidation resistance and compressive creep behavior of boron doped Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.K.; Akinc, M. |; Kramer, M.J.

    1995-10-01

    Use of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} in high temperature applications is limited by oxidation induced catastrophic failure above 800 C. Oxidation resistance of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} is substantially improved from 800--1,300 C by the addition of boron. The oxidation rate at 1,200 C was decreased by five orders of magnitude with less than 2 weight percent boron addition. The improvement in oxidation resistance of B doped Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} is due to formation of a protective scale layer due to viscous flow. The compressive creep rate of B doped Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} was measured at various temperature/stress levels and found to be similar to that of the undoped material. The creep rate of B doped Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} was measured as 1.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1} at 1,242 C and 138 MPa. Creep tests were conducted at 140--180 MPa and 1,220--1,320 C. Average creep activation energy and stress exponent in this range were found to be E{sub a} {approx} 400 kJ/mol and n = 4.3 respectively.

  8. Improved electrochemical performance of boron-doped SiO negative electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jihoon; Baek, Seong-Ho; Park, Jung-Soo; Jeong, Young-Min; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a one-step process that consists of thermal disproportionation and impurity doping to enhance the reversible capacity and electrical conductivity of silicon monoxide (SiO)-based negative electrode materials in Li-ion batteries. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results reveal that thermally treated SiO at 900 °C (H-SiO) consists of uniformly dispersed nano-crystalline Si (nc-Si) in an amorphous silicon oxide (SiOx) matrix. Compared to that of prinstine SiO, the electrochemical performance of H-SiO shows improved specific capacity, due mainly to the increased reversible capacity by nc-Si and to the reduced volume expansion by thermally disproportionated SiOx matrix. Further electrochemical improvements can be obtained by boron-doping on SiO (HB-SiO) using solution dopant during thermal disproportionation. HB-SiO electrode without carbon coating exhibits significantly enhanced specific capacity superior to that of undoped H-SiO electrode, having 947 mAh g-1 at 0.5C rate and excellent capacity retention of 93.3% over 100 cycles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement reveals that the internal resistance of the HB-SiO electrode is significantly reduced by boron doping.

  9. Strain relief via silicon self-interstitial emission in highly boron-doped silicon: A diffuse X-ray scattering study of oxygen precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Christoph; Gröschel, Alexander; Will, Johannes; Magerl, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Oxygen precipitation in highly boron-doped Czochralski silicon (5 m? cm resistivity) was studied, and a strain-relieving mechanism involving the emission of silicon interstitial atoms (ISi) was identified. Strain-sensitive X-ray diffraction was employed, and through a comparison with complementary electron microscopy measurements a linear misfit strain ?=0.01 was determined. Different behavior concerning strain relaxation was measured for wafer-type samples (760 ?m thickness) and thick samples (2 mm thickness), which was explained with out-diffusion of ISi in the thinner samples. Based on the experimental findings, a model was developed which invokes an increase in the solubility of interstitial silicon atoms upon boron doping. The model successfully accounts for different effects of boron doping on oxygen precipitation in silicon, which were reported on in literature such as preferential octahedral morphology of precipitates, enhanced nucleation, and relaxed accommodation of the precipitates with respect to the silicon lattice.

  10. Use of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition for shallow boron doping in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkofen, Bodo Amusan, Akinwumi A.; Bukhari, Muhammad S. K.; Burte, Edmund P.; Garke, Bernd; Lisker, Marco; Gargouri, Hassan

    2015-05-15

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PALD) was carried for growing thin boron oxide films onto silicon aiming at the formation of dopant sources for shallow boron doping of silicon by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). A remote capacitively coupled plasma source powered by GaN microwave oscillators was used for generating oxygen plasma in the PALD process with tris(dimethylamido)borane as boron containing precursor. ALD type growth was obtained; growth per cycle was highest with 0.13?nm at room temperature and decreased with higher temperature. The as-deposited films were highly unstable in ambient air and could be protected by capping with in-situ PALD grown antimony oxide films. After 16 weeks of storage in air, degradation of the film stack was observed in an electron microscope. The instability of the boron oxide, caused by moisture uptake, suggests the application of this film for testing moisture barrier properties of capping materials particularly for those grown by ALD. Boron doping of silicon was demonstrated using the uncapped PALD B{sub 2}O{sub 3} films for RTA processes without exposing them to air. The boron concentration in the silicon could be varied depending on the source layer thickness for very thin films, which favors the application of ALD for semiconductor doping processes.

  11. Enhanced capacitance of composite TiO2 nanotube/boron-doped diamond electrodes studied by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, K.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Sawczak, M.; Sobaszek, M.

    2014-12-01

    We report on novel composite nanostructures based on boron-doped diamond thin films grown on top of TiO2 nanotubes. The nanostructures made of BDD-modified titania nanotubes showed an increase in activity and performance when used as electrodes in electrochemical environments. The BDD thin films (~200-500 nm) were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW PA CVD) onto anodically fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays. The influence of boron-doping level, methane admixture and growth time on the performance of the Ti/TiO2/BDD electrode was studied in detail. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate the surface morphology and grain size distribution. Moreover, the chemical composition of TiO2/BDD electrodes was investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The composite electrodes TiO2/BDD are characterized by a significantly higher capacitive current compared to BDD films deposited directly onto a Ti substrate. The novel composite electrode of TiO2 nanotube arrays overgrown by boron-doped diamond (BDD) immersed in 0.1 M NaNO3 can deliver a specific capacitance of 2.10, 4.79, and 7.46 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 for a [B]/[C] ratio of 2k, 5k and 10k, respectively. The substantial improvement of electrochemical performance and the excellent rate capability could be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 treatment in CH4 : H2 plasma and the high electrical conductivity of BDD layers. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra using an electric equivalent circuit allowed us to determine the surface area on the basis of the value of constant phase element.

  12. Enhanced capacitance of composite TiO2 nanotube/boron-doped diamond electrodes studied by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Siuzdak, K; Bogdanowicz, R; Sawczak, M; Sobaszek, M

    2015-01-14

    We report on novel composite nanostructures based on boron-doped diamond thin films grown on top of TiO2 nanotubes. The nanostructures made of BDD-modified titania nanotubes showed an increase in activity and performance when used as electrodes in electrochemical environments. The BDD thin films (?200-500 nm) were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW PA CVD) onto anodically fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays. The influence of boron-doping level, methane admixture and growth time on the performance of the Ti/TiO2/BDD electrode was studied in detail. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate the surface morphology and grain size distribution. Moreover, the chemical composition of TiO2/BDD electrodes was investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The composite electrodes TiO2/BDD are characterized by a significantly higher capacitive current compared to BDD films deposited directly onto a Ti substrate. The novel composite electrode of TiO2 nanotube arrays overgrown by boron-doped diamond (BDD) immersed in 0.1 M NaNO3 can deliver a specific capacitance of 2.10, 4.79, and 7.46 mF cm(-2) at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1) for a [B]/[C] ratio of 2k, 5k and 10k, respectively. The substantial improvement of electrochemical performance and the excellent rate capability could be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 treatment in CH4?:?H2 plasma and the high electrical conductivity of BDD layers. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra using an electric equivalent circuit allowed us to determine the surface area on the basis of the value of constant phase element. PMID:25413987

  13. In Situ Activation of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Anchored on Graphite Foam for a High-Capacity Anode.

    PubMed

    Ji, Junyi; Liu, Jilei; Lai, Linfei; Zhao, Xin; Zhen, Yongda; Lin, Jianyi; Zhu, Yanwu; Ji, Hengxing; Zhang, Li Li; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2015-08-25

    We report the fabrication of a three-dimensional free-standing nitrogen-doped porous graphene/graphite foam by in situ activation of nitrogen-doped graphene on highly conductive graphite foam (GF). After in situ activation, intimate "sheet contact" was observed between the graphene sheets and the GF. The sheet contact produced by in situ activation is found to be superior to the "point contact" obtained by the traditional drop-casting method and facilitates electron transfer. Due to the intimate contact as well as the use of an ultralight GF current collector, the composite electrode delivers a gravimetric capacity of 642 mAh g(-1) and a volumetric capacity of 602 mAh cm(-3) with respect to the whole electrode mass and volume (including the active materials and the GF current collector). When normalized based on the mass of the active material, the composite electrode delivers a high specific capacity of up to 1687 mAh g(-1), which is superior to that of most graphene-based electrodes. Also, after ?90 s charging, the anode delivers a capacity of about 100 mAh g(-1) (with respect to the total mass of the electrode), indicating its potential use in high-rate lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26258909

  14. Boron-doped diamond electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation and cleavage of peptides.

    PubMed

    Roeser, Julien; Alting, Niels F A; Permentier, Hjalmar P; Bruins, Andries P; Bischoff, Rainer

    2013-07-16

    Electrochemical oxidation of peptides and proteins is traditionally performed on carbon-based electrodes. Adsorption caused by the affinity of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids toward these surfaces leads to electrode fouling. We compared the performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation and cleavage of peptides. An optimal working potential of 2000 mV was chosen to ensure oxidation of peptides on BDD by electron transfer processes only. Oxidation by electrogenerated OH radicals took place above 2500 mV on BDD, which is undesirable if cleavage of a peptide is to be achieved. BDD showed improved cleavage yield and reduced adsorption for a set of small peptides, some of which had been previously shown to undergo electrochemical cleavage C-terminal to tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) on porous carbon electrodes. Repeated oxidation with BDD electrodes resulted in progressively lower conversion yields due to a change in surface termination. Cathodic pretreatment of BDD at a negative potential in an acidic environment successfully regenerated the electrode surface and allowed for repeatable reactions over extended periods of time. BDD electrodes are a promising alternative to GC electrodes in terms of reduced adsorption and fouling and the possibility to regenerate them for consistent high-yield electrochemical cleavage of peptides. The fact that OH-radicals can be produced by anodic oxidation of water at elevated positive potentials is an additional advantage as they allow another set of oxidative reactions in analogy to the Fenton reaction, thus widening the scope of electrochemistry in protein and peptide chemistry and analytics. PMID:23763302

  15. Kinetics of the electrochemical mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid on ultrananocrystalline boron doped conductive diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Urtiaga, Ane; Fernández-González, Carolina; Gómez-Lavín, Sonia; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2015-06-01

    This work deals with the electrochemical degradation and mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Model aqueous solutions of PFOA (100mg/L) were electro-oxidized under galvanostatic conditions in a flow-by undivided cell provided with a tungsten cathode and an anode formed by a commercial ultrananocrystalline boron doped diamond (BDD) coating on a niobium substrate. A systematic experimental study was conducted in order to analyze the influence of the following operation variables: (i) the supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 (1.4 and 8.4g/L) and Na2SO4 (5g/L); (ii) the applied current density, japp, in the range 50-200 A/m(2) and (iii) the hydrodynamic conditions, in terms of flowrate in the range 0.4×10(-4)-1.7×10(-4)m(3)/s and temperature in the range 293-313K. After 6h of treatment and at japp 200A/m(2), PFOA removal was higher than 93% and the mineralization ratio, obtained from the decrease of the total organic carbon (TOC) was 95%. The electrochemical generation of hydroxyl radicals in the supporting electrolyte was experimentally measured based on their reaction with dimethyl sulfoxide. The enhanced formation of hydroxyl radicals at higher japp was related to the faster kinetics of PFOA removal. The fitting of experimental data to the proposed kinetic model provided the first order rate constants of PFOA degradation, kc(1) that moved from 2.06×10(-4) to 15.58×10(-4)s(-1), when japp varied from 50 to 200A/m(2). PMID:24981910

  16. Effect of select organic compounds on perchlorate formation at boron-doped diamond film anodes.

    PubMed

    Donaghue, Adrienne; Chaplin, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Rates of ClO4(-) formation from ClO3(-) oxidation were investigated in batch experiments as a function of organic compounds (p-nitrophenol, p-benzoquinone, p-methoxyphenol, and oxalic acid) and current density using boron-doped diamond film anodes. Excluding organics, ClO4(-) formation rates ranged from 359 to 687 ?moles m(-2) min(-1) for current densities of 1-10 mA cm(-2). The presence of p-substituted phenols inhibited ClO4(-) formation rates between 13.0 and 99.6%. Results from a reactive-transport model of the diffuse layer adjacent to the anode surface indicate that competition between organics and ClO3(•) for OH(•) within a reaction zone (0.02-0.96 ?m) adjacent to the anode controls ClO4(-) formation. Under kinetic-limited conditions (1.0 mA cm(-2)), organics reach the anode surface and substrates with higher OH(•) reaction rates demonstrate greater inhibition of perchlorate formation (IPF). At higher current densities (10 mA cm(-2)), organic compound oxidation becomes mass transfer-limited and compounds degrade a small distance from the anode surface (? 0.26 ?m for p-methoxyphenol). Therefore, OH(•) scavenging does not occur at the anode surface and IPF values decrease. Results provide evidence for the existence of desorbed OH(•) near the anode surface and highlight the importance of controlling reactor operating conditions to limit ClO4(-) production during anodic treatment of organic compounds. PMID:24066803

  17. Electrochemical treatment of wastewater polluted by nitrate: selective reduction to N2 on boron-doped diamond cathode.

    PubMed

    Georgeaud, V; Diamand, A; Borrut, D; Grange, D; Coste, M

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical tests of nitrate reduction on Boron-Doped Diamond cathode are investigated through a Design of Experiments (DOE) method. The results show good reduction of nitrate into almost exclusively N2. In the studied domain, the best experimental conditions are high initial nitrate content, low acidic pH values and low working current densities. The application of DOE conclusions on an agro-industrial wastewater gives really satisfying results: final nitrate contents lower than 50 mg/L without nitrite or ammonium formation, and with low energy consumption (under 25 kWh/kgNO3). PMID:21252421

  18. Gas-assisted growth of boron-doped nickel nanotube arrays: rapid synthesis, growth mechanisms, tunable magnetic properties, and super-efficient reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Zi; Wu, Kong-Lin; Ye, Yin; Wei, Xian-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Highly ordered noncrystalline boron-doped nickel nanotube arrays are rapidly synthesized within 150 s by template-based electroless deposition. The as-prepared nanotubes have tunable magnetic properties and exhibit super efficient catalytic activity (~70 s) for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.Highly ordered noncrystalline boron-doped nickel nanotube arrays are rapidly synthesized within 150 s by template-based electroless deposition. The as-prepared nanotubes have tunable magnetic properties and exhibit super efficient catalytic activity (~70 s) for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00411b

  19. High density and taper-free boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} nanowire via two-step growth process

    SciTech Connect

    Periwal, Priyanka; Salem, Bassem; Bassani, Franck; Baron, Thierry; Barnes, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-01

    The authors study Au catalyzed chemical vapor growth of Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloyed nanowires in the presence of diborane, serving as a dopant precursor. Our experiments reveal that introduction of diborane has a significant effect on doping and morphology. Boron exposure poisons the Au catalyst surface, suppresses catalyst activity, and causes significantly tapered wires, as a result of conformal growth. The authors develop here a two-step method to obtain high density and taper-free boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires. The two-step process consists of: (1) growth of a small undoped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} section and (2) introduction of diborane to form a boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} section. The catalyst preparation step remarkably influences wire yield, quality and morphology. The authors show that dopant-ratio influences wire resistivity and morphology. Resistivity for high boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} nanowire is 6 m?-cm. Four probe measurements show that it is possible to dope Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires with diborane.

  20. A Drude model analysis of conductivity and free carriers in boron-doped diamond films and investigations of their internal stress and strain.

    PubMed

    Manciu, Felicia S; Manciu, Marian; Durrer, William G; Salazar, Jessica G; Lee, Kendall H; Bennet, Kevin E

    2014-08-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) has seen a substantial increase in interest for use as electrode coating material for electrochemistry and studies of deep brain stimulation mechanism. In this study, we present an alternative method for determining important characteristics, including conductivity, carrier concentration, and time constant, of such material by the signature of Drude-like metallic behavior in the far-infrared (IR) spectral range. Unlike the direct determination of conductivity from the four-point probe method, using far-IR transmittance provides additional information, such as whether the incorporation of boron results in a large concentration of carriers or in inducing defects in the diamond lattice. The slightly doped to medium-doped BDD samples that were produced using chemical vapor deposition and analyzed in this work show conductivities ranging between 5.5 and 11 (? cm)(-1). Different growth conditions demonstrate that increasing boron concentration results in an increase in the carrier concentration, with values between 7.2 × 10(16) and 2.5 × 10(17) carriers/cm(3). Addition of boron, besides leading to a decrease in the resistivity, also resulted in a decrease in the time constant, limiting BDD conductivity. Investigations, by confocal Raman mapping, of the induced stress in the material due to interaction with the substrate or to the amount of doping are also presented and discussed. The induced tensile stress, which was distributed closer to the film-substrate interface decreased slightly with doping. PMID:25328245

  1. A Drude model analysis of conductivity and free carriers in boron-doped diamond films and investigations of their internal stress and strain

    PubMed Central

    Manciu, Marian; Durrer, William G.; Salazar, Jessica G.; Lee, Kendall H.; Bennet, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) has seen a substantial increase in interest for use as electrode coating material for electrochemistry and studies of deep brain stimulation mechanism. In this study, we present an alternative method for determining important characteristics, including conductivity, carrier concentration, and time constant, of such material by the signature of Drude-like metallic behavior in the far-infrared (IR) spectral range. Unlike the direct determination of conductivity from the four-point probe method, using far-IR transmittance provides additional information, such as whether the incorporation of boron results in a large concentration of carriers or in inducing defects in the diamond lattice. The slightly doped to medium-doped BDD samples that were produced using chemical vapor deposition and analyzed in this work show conductivities ranging between 5.5 and 11 (? cm)?1. Different growth conditions demonstrate that increasing boron concentration results in an increase in the carrier concentration, with values between 7.2 × 1016 and 2.5 × 1017 carriers/cm3. Addition of boron, besides leading to a decrease in the resistivity, also resulted in a decrease in the time constant, limiting BDD conductivity. Investigations, by confocal Raman mapping, of the induced stress in the material due to interaction with the substrate or to the amount of doping are also presented and discussed. The induced tensile stress, which was distributed closer to the film-substrate interface decreased slightly with doping. PMID:25328245

  2. Boron-doped bismuth oxybromide microspheres with enhanced surface hydroxyl groups: Synthesis, characterization and dramatic photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, ZhangSheng; Liu, JinLong; Wang, HaiYang; Cao, Gang; Niu, JiNan

    2016-02-01

    B-doped BiOBr photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method with boric acid used as boron source. As-obtained products consist of novel hierarchical microspheres, whose nanosheet building units were formed by nanoparticles splicing. They showed dramatic photocatalytic efficiency toward the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under the visible-light irradiation and the highest activity was achieved by 0.075B-BiOBr. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the enriched surface hydroxyl groups on B-doped BiOBr samples, which not only improved the adsorption of pollutant on the photocatalyst but also promoted the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. In addition, it was found that the main reactive species responsible for the degradation of organic pollutant were h(+) and O2(-) radicals, instead of OH radicals. PMID:26590875

  3. Pure and carbon-doped boron phosphide (6,0) zigzag nanotube: A computational NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshadi, S.; Bekhradnia, A. R.; Alipour, F.; Abedini, S.

    2015-11-01

    Calculations were performed for investigation of the properties of the electronic structure of Carbon- Doped Boron Phosphide Nanotube (CDBPNT). Pristine and three models of C-doped structures of (6,0) zigzag BPNT were studied at density functional theory (DFT) in combination with 6-311G* basis set using Gaussian package of program. The calculated parameters reveal that various 11B and 31P nuclei are divided into some layers with equivalent electrostatic properties. The electronic structure properties are highly influenced by replacement of 11B and 31P atoms by 12C atoms in pristine model. Furthermore, the HOMO-LUMO gap energy for suggested doped models (I), (II) and (III) were lower than pure BPNT pristine systems. The dipole moment values of models (II) and (III) were decreased to 1.788 and 1.789, respectively while the dipole moments of model (I) were enhanced to 4.373, in compare to pure pristine one (2.586). The magnitude of changes in Chemical Shielding (CS) tensor parameters revealed that the electron density at the site of 31P was higher than that at the site of 11B due to carbon doping.

  4. Assessment of Electrodes Prepared from Wafers of Boron-doped Diamond for the Electrochemical Oxidation of Waste Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.T.; Sullivan, I.A.; Newey, A.W.E.

    2006-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes is being investigated as a treatment process for radioactively contaminated oily wastes. Previously, it was shown that electrodes coated with a thin film of diamond were able to oxidise a cutting oil but not a mineral oil. These tests were inconclusive, because the electrodes lost their diamond coating during operation. Accordingly, an electrode prepared from a 'solid' wafer of boron-doped diamond is being investigated to determine whether it will oxidise mineral oils. The electrode has been tested with sucrose, a cutting oil and an emulsified mineral oil. Before and after each test, the state of the electrode was assessed by cyclic voltammetry with the ferro/ferricyanide redox couple. Analysis of the cyclic voltammogram suggested that material accumulated on the surface of the electrode during the tests. The magnitude of the effect was in the order: - emulsified mineral oil > cutting oil > sucrose. Despite this, the results indicated that the electrode was capable of oxidising the emulsified mineral oil. Confirmatory tests were undertaken in the presence of alkali to trap the carbon dioxide, but they had to be abandoned when the adhesive holding the diamond in the electrode was attacked by the alkali. Etching of the diamond wafer was also observed at the end of the tests. Surface corrosion is now regarded as an intrinsic part of the electrochemical oxidation on diamond, and it is expected that the rate of attack will determine the service life of the electrodes. (authors)

  5. Retention of enzyme activity with a boron-doped diamond electrode in the electro-oxidative nitration of lysozyme

    PubMed Central

    Iniesta, Jesús; Esclapez-Vicente, María Deseada; Heptinstall, John; Walton, David J.; Peterson, Ian R.; Mikhailov, Victor A.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report the successful use of a non-metallic electrode material, boron-doped diamond (BDD), for the anodic electro-oxidative modification of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). Platinum electrodes can give rise to loss of activity of HEWL in electrosynthetic studies, whereas activity is retained on boron-doped diamond which is proposed as an effective substitute material for this purpose. We also compare literature methods of electrode pre-treatment to determine the most effective in electrosynthesis. Our findings show a decrease in total nitroprotein yield with decreasing nitrite concentration and an increase with increasing solution pH, confirming that, at a BDD electrode, the controlling factor remains the concentration of tyrosine phenolate anion. Purification of mono- and bis-nitrated HEWL and assay of enzymic activity showed better retention of activity at BDD electrode surfaces when compared to platinum. The products from electro-oxidation of HEWL at BDD were confirmed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, which revealed unique mass increases of +45 and +90 Da for the mono- and bis-nitrated lysozyme, respectively, corresponding to nitration at tyrosine residues. The nitration sites were confirmed as Tyr23 and Tyr20. PMID:21760652

  6. CE with a boron-doped diamond electrode for trace detection of endocrine disruptors in water samples.

    PubMed

    Browne, Damien J; Zhou, Lin; Luong, John H T; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2013-07-01

    Off-line SPE and CE coupled with electrochemical detection have been used for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F, 4-ethylphenol, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether in bottled drinking water. The use of boron-doped diamond electrode as an electrochemical detector in amperometric mode that provides a favorable analytical performance for detecting these endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as lower noise levels, higher peak resolution with enhanced sensitivity, and improved resistance against electrode passivation. The oxidative electrochemical detection of the endocrine-disrupting compounds was accomplished by boron-doped diamond electrode poised at +1.4 V versus Ag/AgCl without electrode pretreatment. An off-line SPE procedure (Bond Elut® C18 SPE cartridge) was utilized to extract and preconcentrate the compounds prior to separation and detection. The minimum concentration detectable for all four compounds ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 ?M, having S/N equal to three. After exposing the plastic bottle water container under sunlight for 7 days, the estimated concentration of BPA in the bottled drinking water was estimated to be 0.03 ?M. This proposed approach has great potential for rapid and effective determination of BPA content present in water packaging of plastic bottles that have been exposed to sunlight for an extended period of time. PMID:23172695

  7. Laser heated boron doped diamond electrodes: effect of temperature on outer sphere electron transfer processes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingcong; Iacobini, James G; Joseph, Maxim B; Macpherson, Julie V; Newton, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectrochemical experiments can reveal significant information about electrochemical processes compared to ambient only measurements. Typical thermoelectrochemistry is performed using resistively heated wires or laser heated electrodes, both of which can suffer drawbacks associated with the electrode material employed. Boron doped diamond (BDD) is ideal for thermoelectrochemical investigations due to its extremely high thermal conductivity and diffusivity, extreme resistance to thermal ablation (can withstand laser power densities, Pd, of GW cm(-2) for nanosecond pulses) and excellent electrochemical properties (low background currents and wide potential window). In this paper we describe the use of a pulsed laser technique to heat the rear of a 1 mm diameter conducting BDD disc electrode, which drives electrochemical solution reactions at the front face. Maximum electrode temperatures of 90.0 °C were recorded experimentally and confirmed by finite element modelling (FEM). The effect of laser pulsed heating (maximum 3.8 kW cm(-2); 10 ms on and 90 ms off) on the cyclic voltammetric response of two fast (reversible) outer sphere electron transfer redox mediators (Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) and IrCl6(2-/3-)) are investigated. In particular, we observe pulsed increases in the current, which increase with increasing Pd. The potential of the peak current is shifted positively for the Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) couple (in accordance with a positive temperature coefficient, ?, +0.68 mV K(-1)) and negatively for the IrCl6(3-/2-) couple (? = -0.48 mV K(-1)). Scanning backwards, in contrast to that observed for a macrodisc electrode in ambient solution, a cathodic peak is again observed for Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) and an anodic peak for IrCl6(3-/2-) couple. We attribute this response to the entropy of the redox reaction and the time-dependant change in mass transport due to the induced thermal gradients at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The observed responses are in qualitative agreement with FEM simulations. PMID:25427195

  8. Gas-assisted growth of boron-doped nickel nanotube arrays: rapid synthesis, growth mechanisms, tunable magnetic properties, and super-efficient reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Zi; Wu, Kong-Lin; Ye, Yin; Wei, Xian-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Highly ordered noncrystalline boron-doped nickel nanotube arrays are rapidly synthesized within 150 s by template-based electroless deposition. The as-prepared nanotubes have tunable magnetic properties and exhibit super efficient catalytic activity (?70 s) for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. PMID:23546439

  9. LIGHT-INDUCED DEGRADATION OF THE CARRIER LIFETIME IN N-TYPE CZOCHRALSKI-GROWN SILICON DOPED WITH BORON AND PHOSPHORUS

    E-print Network

    LIGHT-INDUCED DEGRADATION OF THE CARRIER LIFETIME IN N-TYPE CZOCHRALSKI-GROWN SILICON DOPED as the fast forming recombination-center observed in p-Si. Keywords: Czochralski silicon, boron, phosphorus studies on compensated p-type Czochralski-grown silicon (Cz-Si) revealed that the dependence of the defect

  10. Dissolution Mediated Boron and Carbon Storage during Exhumation of HP Metapelites: Examples from New Hampshire Tourmaline-Graphite Intergrowths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, M.; Rumble, D.; Cody, G. D.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamic of light elements (e.g. C,B) in subduction zones is a complex process ultimately governed by variables such as P, T, fH2 and pH. Interface phenomena at scales from the outcrop to intergranular surfaces play key chemical and mechanical roles on this dynamic (e.g. Galvez et al. 2013). We report here a petrological study of hydrated borosilicate tourmaline intergrown with graphite formed at the contact between igneous intrusives and high grade micaschists in New Hampshire graphite deposits (Rumble and Hoering, 1986). Our study includes Raman scattering, SEM, microprobe analysis and thermodynamic modeling, focusing on the Franklin Pierce and Walpole outcrops. Both localities experienced HP-HT metamorphism during the Acadian orogeny as well as complex metasomatic process during exhumation. The tourmaline-graphite intergrowths are structurally localized at and around contacts between an aplite sill and micaschists - biotite-muscovite-garnet-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz-ilmenite - (Franklin Pierce), or along shear zones (Walpole) in veins. Tourmalines are dravitic in composition (i.e. Na, Mg rich with minor vacancy and Li content 0.2/0.1 a.p.f.u) and contain multiple primary tubular mixed fluid-solid inclusions containing graphite, quartz and gaseous CO2 and CH4. Sharp optical and compositional radial zonations are observed from core to rim in sections along and perpendicular to the c-axis. Blue-green cores are enriched in Mg and Ca (1.5/0.1 a.p.f.u respectively) whereas rims are enriched in Fe, Na and Ti (0.9/0.6/0.1 a.p.f.u respectively). Alternative interpretations in terms of sector zoning or compositional variability of the mineralizing fluid will be discussed. The carbonaceous material (CM) occurs primarily as flakes directly replacing biotite present in wall rocks. The structural ordering of CM, of unambiguous abiotic origin, reveals a material possessing the 3 dimensional structure of hexagonal graphite. Our results are critically compared to measurements done on other metasomatic or biogenic graphite displaying high structural ordering. Other textural habit of graphite are radiating crystals of graphite preferentially growing along crystalline planes of wall rock minerals (e.g. plagioclases) and at the interface between grain edge. We test whether a C and B(OH)3° (×As, Cu) rich acidic vapor unmixing from a salt-rich aqueous fluid exsolved from crystallizing igneous bodies can account for some geochemical and textural greisen-type metasomatic features of these outcrops. Other mechanical and geochemical processes participating in the process will be discussed. This work is direct evidence that respeciation and/or fluid-rock interaction at varying P,T,fH2,pH conditions of fluids during exhumation, as well as interaction between magmatic bodies and metasedimentary units play a key role in the cycling of light elements during exhumation. Rumble, D., III, and Hoering, T.C., 1986, Carbon isotope geochemistry of graphite vein deposits from New Hampshire, U.S.A: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 50, p. 1239-1247. Galvez ME, Beyssac O, Martinez I, Benzerara K, Chaduteau C, Malvoisin B, Malavieille J (2013) Graphite formation by carbonate reduction during subduction. Nature Geoscience 6 (6):473-477

  11. In vitro evaluation of the tribological response of Mo-doped graphite-like carbon film in different biological media.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinxia; Wang, Liping; Liu, Bin; Wan, Shanhong; Xue, Qunji

    2015-02-01

    Complicated tribochemical reactions with the surrounding media often occur at the prosthesis material, which is a dominant factor causing the premature failure in revision surgery. Graphite-like carbon (GLC) film has been proven to be an excellent tribological adaption to water-based media, and this work focused on the friction and wear behavior of Mo-doped GLC (Mo-GLC)-coated poly(aryl ether ether ketone) sliding against Al2O3 counterpart in physiological saline, simulated body fluid, and fetal bovine serum (FBS), which mainly emphasized the interface interactions of the prosthetic materials/lubricant. Results showed different tribological responses of Mo-GLC/Al2O3 pairs strongly correlated with the interfacial reactions of the contacting area. Particularly, a transfer layer was believed to be responsible for the excellent wear reduction of Mo-GLC/Al2O3 pair in FBS medium, in which graphitic carbon and protein species were contained. The wear mechanisms are tentatively discussed according to the morphologies and chemical compositions of the worn surfaces examined by scanning electron microscope as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:25580834

  12. Influence of Boron doping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdO thin films by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Velusamy, P. Babu, R. Ramesh; Ramamurthi, K.

    2014-04-24

    Cadmium oxide and Boron (B) doped Cadmium oxide thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of undoped and B doped CdO films are analyzed by varying the dopant concentration in the solution. The structural study shows the polycrystalline nature and cubic structure of undoped and B doped CdO thin films. Surface morphological study reveals that the grains are spherical in shape. Optical and electrical studies showed n-type semiconducting nature and optical band gap of 2.44 eV of deposited thin films.

  13. Facile synthesis of phosphorus doped graphitic carbon nitride polymers with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ligang; Chen, Xiufang; Guan, Jing; Jiang, Yijun; Hou, Tonggang; Mu, Xindong

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • P-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} has been prepared by a one-pot green synthetic approach. • The incorporation of P resulted in favorable textural and electronic properties. • Doping with P enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • A postannealing treatment further enhanced the activity of P-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Photogenerated holes were the main species responsible for the activity. - Abstract: Phosphorus-doped carbon nitride materials were prepared by a one-pot green synthetic approach using dicyandiamide monomer and a phosphorus containing ionic liquid as precursors. The as-prepared materials were subjected to several characterizations and investigated as metal-free photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants (dyes like Rhodamine B, Methyl orange) in aqueous solution under visible light. Results revealed that phosphorus-doped carbon nitride have a higher photocatalytic activity for decomposing Rhodamine B and Methyl orange in aqueous solution than undoped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which was attributed to the favorable textural, optical and electronic properties caused by doping with phosphorus heteroatoms into carbon nitride host. A facile postannealing treatment further improved the activity of the photocatalytic system, due to the higher surface area and smaller structural size in the postcalcined catalysts. The phosphorus-doped carbon nitride showed high visible-light photocatalytic activity, making them promising materials for a wide range of potential applications in photochemistry.

  14. Enhanced Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells on Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Grausova, Lubica; Kromka, Alexander; Burdikova, Zuzana; Eckhardt, Adam; Rezek, Bohuslav; Vacik, Jiri; Haenen, Ken; Lisa, Vera; Bacakova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films have been proven to be promising substrates for the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of bone-derived cells. To understand the role of various degrees of doping (semiconducting to metallic-like), the NCD films were deposited on silicon substrates by a microwave plasma-enhanced CVD process and their boron doping was achieved by adding trimethylboron to the CH4:H2 gas mixture, the B?C ratio was 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm. The room temperature electrical resistivity of the films decreased from >10 M? (undoped films) to 55 k?, 0.6 k?, and 0.3 k? (doped films with 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm of B, respectively). The increase in the number of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in 7-day-old cultures on NCD films was most apparent on the NCD films doped with 133 and 1000 ppm of B (153,000±14,000 and 152,000±10,000 cells/cm2, respectively, compared to 113,000±10,000 cells/cm2 on undoped NCD films). As measured by ELISA per mg of total protein, the cells on NCD with 133 and 1000 ppm of B also contained the highest concentrations of collagen I and alkaline phosphatase, respectively. On the NCD films with 6700 ppm of B, the cells contained the highest concentration of focal adhesion protein vinculin, and the highest amount of collagen I was adsorbed. The concentration of osteocalcin also increased with increasing level of B doping. The cell viability on all tested NCD films was almost 100%. Measurements of the concentration of ICAM-1, i.e. an immunoglobuline adhesion molecule binding inflammatory cells, suggested that the cells on the NCD films did not undergo significant immune activation. Thus, the potential of NCD films for bone tissue regeneration can be further enhanced and tailored by B doping and that B doping up to metallic-like levels is not detrimental for cells. PMID:21695172

  15. Nitrogen- and boron-co-doped core-shell carbon nanoparticles as efficient metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reactions in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shengkui; Zhou, Lihua; Wu, Ling; Tang, Lianfeng; He, Qiyi; Ahmed, Jalal

    2014-12-01

    The most severe bottleneck hindering the widespread application of fuel cell technologies is the difficulty in obtaining an inexpensive and abundant oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The concept of a heteroatom-doped carbon-based metal-free catalyst has recently attracted interest. In this study, a metal-free carbon nanoparticles-based catalyst hybridized with dual nitrogen and boron components was synthesized to catalyze the ORR in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Multiple physical and chemical characterizations confirmed that the synthetic method enabled the incorporation of both nitrogen and boron dopants. The electrochemical measurements indicated that the co-existence of nitrogen and boron could enhance the ORR kinetics by reducing the overpotential and increasing the current density. The results from the kinetic studies indicated that the nitrogen and boron induced an oxygen adsorption mechanism and a four-electron-dominated reaction pathway for the as-prepared catalyst that was very similar to those induced by Pt/C. The MFC results showed that a maximum power density of ˜642 mW m-2 was obtained using the as-prepared catalyst, which is comparable to that obtained using expensive Pt catalyst. The prepared nitrogen- and boron-co-doped carbon nanoparticles might be an alternative cathode catalyst for MFC applications if large-scale applications and price are considered.

  16. Study of the Thermoelectric Properties of Lead Selenide Doped with Boron, Gallium, Indium, or Thallium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qian; Cao, Feng; Lukas, K; Liu, W S; Esfarjani, Keivan; Opeil, C; Broido, D; Parker, David; Singh, David J.; Chen, Gang; Ren, Z. F.

    2012-10-24

    Group IIIA elements (B, Ga, In, and Tl) have been doped into PbSe for enhancement of thermoelectric properties. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity were systematically studied. Room-temperature Hall measurements showed an effective increase in the electron concentration upon both Ga and In doping and the hole concentration upon Tl doping to 7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}. No resonant doping phenomenon was observed when PbSe was doped with B, Ga, or In. The highest room-temperature power factor 2.5 × 10{sup –3} W m{sup –1} K{sup –2} was obtained for PbSe doped with 2 atom % B. However, the power factor in B-doped samples decreased with increasing temperature, opposite to the trend for the other dopants. A figure of merit (ZT) of 1.2 at 873 K was achieved in PbSe doped with 0.5 atom % Ga or In. With Tl doping, modification of the band structure around the Fermi level helped to increase the Seebeck coefficient, and the lattice thermal conductivity decreased, probably as a result of effective phonon scattering by both the heavy Tl{sup 3+} ions and the increased grain boundary density after ball milling. The highest p-type ZT value was 1.0 at 723 K.

  17. Synthesis of Boron-Doped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Tandem Intramolecular Electrophilic Arene Borylation.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Fumiya; Nakatsuka, Soichiro; Yamada, Keitaro; Nakayama, Ken-Ichi; Hatakeyama, Takuji

    2015-12-18

    Tandem intramolecular electrophilic arene borylation was developed to facilitate access to B-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). DFT calculations revealed that electrophilic arene borylation occurred via a four-membered ring transition state, in which C-B and H-Br bonds formed in a concerted manner. An organic light-emitting diode employing the B-doped PAH as an emitter and a B-doped PAH-based field-effect transistor were successfully fabricated, demonstrating the potential of B-doped PAHs in materials science. PMID:26606580

  18. Degradation of boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Adey, J; Jones, R; Palmer, D W; Briddon, P R; Oberg, S

    2004-07-30

    The formation mechanism and properties of the boron-oxygen center responsible for the degradation of Czochralski-grown Si(B) solar cells during operation is investigated using density functional calculations. We find that boron traps an oxygen dimer to form a bistable defect with a donor level in the upper half of the band gap. The activation energy for its dissociation is found to be 1.2 eV. The formation of the defect from mobile oxygen dimers, which are shown to migrate by a Bourgoin mechanism under minority carrier injection, has a calculated activation energy of 0.3 eV. These energies and the dependence of the generation rate of the recombination center on boron concentration are in good agreement with observations. PMID:15323707

  19. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: application to stomach disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Stéphane; Seishima, Ryo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the in vivo electrochemical monitoring of pH using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode and silver needles for potential application in medical diagnosis. Accurate calibration curve for pH determination were obtained through in vitro electrochemical measurements. The increase induced in stomach pH by treatment with pantoprazole was used to demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the pH in vivo using the simple and noninvasive system proposed herein. Using the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments, a quantitative analysis of the increase in stomach pH is also presented. It is proposed that the catheter-free pH monitoring system presented in this study could be potentially employed in any biological environment. PMID:24247214

  20. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: Application to stomach disorder diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, Stéphane; Seishima, Ryo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the in vivo electrochemical monitoring of pH using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode and silver needles for potential application in medical diagnosis. Accurate calibration curve for pH determination were obtained through in vitro electrochemical measurements. The increase induced in stomach pH by treatment with pantoprazole was used to demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the pH in vivo using the simple and noninvasive system proposed herein. Using the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments, a quantitative analysis of the increase in stomach pH is also presented. It is proposed that the catheter-free pH monitoring system presented in this study could be potentially employed in any biological environment. PMID:24247214

  1. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: Application to stomach disorder diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, Stéphane; Seishima, Ryo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the in vivo electrochemical monitoring of pH using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode and silver needles for potential application in medical diagnosis. Accurate calibration curve for pH determination were obtained through in vitro electrochemical measurements. The increase induced in stomach pH by treatment with pantoprazole was used to demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the pH in vivo using the simple and noninvasive system proposed herein. Using the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments, a quantitative analysis of the increase in stomach pH is also presented. It is proposed that the catheter-free pH monitoring system presented in this study could be potentially employed in any biological environment.

  2. Controlling the diffusion profile of electroactive species for selective anodic stripping voltammetry of cadmium at boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, Ai; Watanabe, Takeshi; Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Iguchi, Tatsuo; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-01

    Selective anodic stripping voltammetry of trace metal ions in a mixture solution with another interfering metal was developed based on Fick's law concerning the diffusion profile of interfering metals at the electrode surface after electrolysis treatment. A boron-doped diamond film was used as the sensing electrode, while a perforated carbon sheet was used for the interference-depleting electrode. The influence of the electrode distance and the time of electrolysis on the formation of the diffusion profile was studied. As a working model, the detection of cadmium with copper interference was investigated. The advantage of the method in comparison to general electrolysis was also discussed. The method offers a new perspective for improving the selective detection of metal ions by analyzing the diffusion profiles of the interfering species at the surface of electrodes. PMID:23147907

  3. Chemometric study on the electrochemical incineration of nitrilotriacetic acid using platinum and boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyong; He, Zhenzhu; Wu, Jingyu; Fu, Degang

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the electrochemical incineration of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and platinum (Pt) anodes. Trials were performed in the presence of sulfate electrolyte media under recirculation mode. The parameters that influence the degradation efficiency were investigated, including applied current density, flow rate, supporting electrolyte concentration and reaction time. To reduce the number of experiments, the system had been managed under chemometric technique named Doehlert matrix. As a consequence, the mineralization of NTA demonstrated similar behavior upon operating parameters on these two anodes. Further kinetic study indicated that the degradations followed pseudo-first-order reactions for both BDD and Pt anodes, and the reaction rate constant of the former was found to be higher than that of the latter. Such difference could be interpreted by results from fractal analysis. In addition, a reaction sequence for NTA mineralization considering all the detected intermediates was also proposed. PMID:25747300

  4. Voltammetric determination of mixtures of caffeine and chlorogenic acid in beverage samples using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Yard?m, Yavuz; Keskin, Ertugrul; ?entürk, Zühre

    2013-11-15

    Herein, a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode that is anodically pretreated was used for the simultaneous determination of caffeine (CAF) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) by cyclic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The dependence of peak current and potential on pH, scan rate, accumulation parameters and other experimental variables were studied. By using square-wave stripping mode after 60 s accumulation under open-circuit voltage, the BDD electrode was able to separate the oxidation peak potentials of CAF and CGA present in binary mixtures by about 0.4V in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 1.0. The limits of detection were 0.107 µg mL(-1) (5.51×10(-7) M) for CAF, and 0.448 µg mL(-1) (1.26×10(-6) M) for CGA. The practical applicability of this methodology was tested in commercially available beverage samples. PMID:24148509

  5. Photochromism-induced amplification of critical current density in superconducting boron-doped diamond with an azobenzene molecular layer.

    PubMed

    Natsui, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi; Akahori, Miku; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-01-14

    A key issue in molecular electronics is the control of electronic states by optical stimuli, which enables fast and high-density data storage and temporal-spatial control over molecular processes. In this article, we report preparation of a photoswitchable superconductor using a heavily boron-doped diamond (BDD) with a photochromic azobenzene (AZ) molecular layer. BDDs electrode properties allow for electrochemical immobilization, followed by copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (a "click" reaction). Superconducting properties were examined with magnetic and electrical transport measurements, such as field-dependent isothermal magnetization, temperature-dependent resistance, and the low-temperature voltage-current response. These measurements revealed reversible amplification of the critical current density by 55% upon photoisomerization. This effect is explained as the reversible photoisomerization of AZ inducing an inhomogeneous electron distribution along the BDD surface that renormalizes the surface pinning contribution to the critical current. PMID:25494096

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of phenol at boron-doped diamond electrode. Application to electro-organic synthesis and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Marco; Michaud, Pierre-Alain; Iniesta, Jesus; Comninellis, Christos; Cerisola, Giacomo

    2002-10-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of a synthetic boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (BDD) has been studied in acid media containing phenol using cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The results have shown that in the potential region of water stability direct electron transfers can occur on BDD surface resulting in electrode fouling due to the formation of a polymeric film on its surface. During electrolysis in the potential region of oxygen evolution, complex oxidation reactions can take place due to electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals. Electrode fouling is inhibited under these conditions. Depending on the experimental conditions, the electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals can lead to the combustion of phenol or to the selective oxidation of phenol to benzoquinone. The experimental results have also been compared to a theoretical model that permits the prediction of the evolution with time of phenol concentration, during its combustion, or during its selective oxidation to benzoquinone. PMID:12489265

  7. Enhanced field emission characteristics of boron doped diamond films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koinkar, Pankaj M.; Patil, Sandip S.; Kim, Tae-Gyu; Yonekura, Daisuke; More, Mahendra A.; Joag, Dilip S.; Murakami, Ri-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Boron doped diamond films were synthesized on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) technique. The effect of B 2O 3 concentration varied from 1000 to 5000 ppm on the field emission characteristics was examined. The surface morphology and quality of films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology obtained by SEM showed variation from facetted microcrystal covered with nanometric grains to cauliflower of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) particles with increasing B 2O 3 concentration. The Raman spectra confirm the formation of NCD films. The field emission properties of NCD films were observed to improve upon increasing boron concentration. The values of the onset field and threshold field are observed to be as low as 0.36 and 0.08 V/?m, respectively. The field emission current stability investigated at the preset value of ˜1 ?A is observed to be good, in each case. The enhanced field emission properties are attributed to the better electrical conductivity coupled with the nanometric features of the diamond films.

  8. Examination of the factors affecting the electrochemical performance of oxygen-terminated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Laura A; Iacobini, James G; Bitziou, Eleni; Channon, Robert B; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2013-08-01

    In order to produce polycrystalline oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes suitable for electroanalysis (i.e., widest solvent window, lowest capacitive currents, stable and reproducible current responses, and capable of demonstrating fast electron transfer) for outer sphere redox couples, the following factors must be considered. The material must contain enough boron that the electrode shows metal-like conductivity; electrical measurements demonstrate that this is achieved at [B] > 10(20) B atoms cm(-3). Even though BDD contains a lower density of states than a metal, it is not necessary to use extreme doping levels to achieve fast heterogeneous electron transfer (HET). An average [B] ~ 3 × 10(20) B atoms cm(-3) was found to be optimal; increasing [B] results in higher capacitive values and increases the likelihood of nondiamond carbon (NDC) incorporation. Hydrogen-termination causes a semiconducting BDD electrode to behave metal-like due to the additional surface conductivity hydrogen termination brings. Thus, unless [B] of the material is known, the electrical properties of the electrode may be incorrectly interpreted. Note, this layer (formed on a lapped electrode) is electrochemically unstable, an effect which is exacerbated at increased potentials. It is essential during growth that NDC is minimized as it acts to increase capacitive currents and decrease the solvent window. We found complete removal of NDC after growth using aggressive acid cleans, acid cycling, and diamond polishing impossible. Although hydrogen termination can mask the NDC signature in the solvent window and lower capacitive currents, this is not a practical procedure for improving sensitivity in electroanalysis. Finally, alumina polishing of lapped, NDC free, freestanding, BDD electrodes was found to be an effective way to produce well-defined, stable, and reproducible surfaces, which support fast (reversible) HET for Fe(CN)6(4-) electrolysis, the first time this has been reported at an oxygen-terminated surface. PMID:23790001

  9. Cathodic and anodic pre-treated boron doped diamond with different sp2 content: Morphological, structural, and impedance spectroscopy characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldan, M. R.; Azevedo, A. F.; Couto, A. B.; Ferreira, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the influence of cathodic (Red) and anodic (Ox) pre-treatment on boron doped diamond (BDD) films grown with different sp2/sp3 ratios was systematically studied. The sp2/sp3 ratios were controlled by the addition of CH4 of 1,3,5 and 7 sccm in the gas inlet during the growth process. The electrodes were treated in 0.5 mol L-1 H2SO4 at -3 and 3 V vs Ag/AgCl, respectively, for 30 min. The electrochemical response of BDD films was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky Plot (MSP) measurements. Four film sample sets were produced in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition reactor. During the growth process, an additional H2 line passing through a bubbler containing the B2O3 dissolved in methanol was used to carry the boron. The scanning electron microscopy morphology showed well faced films with a small decrease in their grain size as the CH4 concentration increased. The Raman spectra depicted a pronounced sp2 band, mainly for films with 5 and 7 sccm of CH4. MSP showed a decrease in the acceptor concentration as the CH4 increased indicating the CH4 influence on the doping process for Red-BDD and Ox-BDD samples. Nonetheless, an apparent increase in the acceptor concentrations for both Ox-BDD samples was observed compared to that for Red-BDD samples, mainly attributed to the surface conductive layer (SCL) formation after this strong oxidation process. The EIS Nyquist plots for Red-BDD showed a capacitance increase for the films with higher sp2 content (5 and 7 sccm). On the other hand, the Nyquist plots for Ox-BDD can be described as semicircles near the origin, at high frequencies, where their charge transfer resistance strongly varied with the sp2 increase in such films.

  10. Molecular dynamics investigations of boron doping in a-Si:H

    SciTech Connect

    Fedders, P.A.; Drabold, D.A.

    1997-07-01

    The rather low doping efficiency of B in a-Si:H is almost always explained by the argument that almost all of the B is incorporated into three-fold coordinated sites and that B is inert or non-doping in this configuration. Using ab initio molecular dynamics, the authors have studied the energetics and doping (electronic structure) consequences of B incorporation into a-Si:H both with and without H passivation. Their results suggest that the conventional view is in error and that the low doping efficiency is primarily due to H passivation. These results are consistent with the low doping efficiency of B as well as NMR studies on the large electric field gradients experienced by the B atoms and on NMR double resonance studies of B-H neighboring distances.

  11. Boron-nitrogen doped carbon scaffolding: organic chemistry, self-assembly and materials applications of borazine and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, Davide; Fasano, Francesco; Lorenzo-Garcia, M Mercedes; Marinelli, Davide; Oubaha, Hamid; Tasseroul, Jonathan

    2015-10-25

    Discovered by Stock and Pohland in 1926, borazine is the isoelectronic and isostructural inorganic analogue of benzene, where the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bonds are substituted by B-N bonds. The strong polarity of such heteroatomic bonds widens the HOMO-LUMO gap of the molecule, imparting strong UV-emitting/absorption and electrical insulating properties. These properties make borazine and its derivatives valuable molecular scaffolds to be inserted as doping units in graphitic-based carbon materials to tailor their optoelectronic characteristics, and specifically their semiconducting properties. By guiding the reader through the most significant examples in the field, in this feature paper we describe the past and recent developments in the organic synthesis and functionalisation of borazine and its derivatives. These boosted the production of a large variety of tailored derivatives, broadening their use in optoelectronics, H2 storage and supramolecular functional architectures, to name a few. PMID:26411675

  12. Charge transfer, bonding conditioning and solvation effect in the activation of the oxygen reduction reaction on unclustered graphitic-nitrogen-doped graphene.

    PubMed

    Ferre-Vilaplana, Adolfo; Herrero, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    The monodentate associative chemisorption of molecular oxygen on unclustered graphitic-nitrogen-doped graphene requires two nitrogen dopants per activated molecule. Significant charge transfers from regions corresponding to distant nitrogen-dopants, the presence of a nitrogen-dopant adjacent to the carbon atom acting as an active site, which favours its transition from a sp(2) hybridization state to sp(3), and the solvation effect turn the investigated mechanism to a favourable process. PMID:26054255

  13. Transition-metal dispersion on carbon-doped boron nitride nanostructures: Applications for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Liao, Ji-Hai; Yang, Xiao-Bao

    2012-07-01

    Using density-functional theory calculations, we investigated the adsorption of transition-metal (TM) atoms (TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) on carbon doped hexagonal boron nitride (BN) sheet and the corresponding cage (B12N12). With carbon substitution of nitrogen, Sc, V, Cr, and Mn atoms were energetically favorable to be dispersed on the BN nanostructures without clustering or the formation of TM dimers, due to the strong binding between TM atoms and substrate, which contains the half-filled levels above the valence bands maximum. The carbon doped BN nanostructures with dispersed Sc could store up to five and six H2, respectively, with the average binding energy of 0.3 ˜ 0.4 eV, indicating the possibility of fabricating hydrogen storage media with high capacity. We also demonstrated that the geometrical effect is important for the hydrogen storage, leading to a modulation of the charge distributions of d levels, which dominates the binding between H2 and TM atoms.

  14. Spin-unrestricted linear-scaling electronic structure theory and its application to magnetic carbon-doped boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, H. J.; Liang, W. Z.; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J. G.; Zhu, Qingshi

    2005-09-01

    We present an extension of the density-matrix-based linear-scaling electronic structure theory to incorporate spin degrees of freedom. When the spin multiplicity of the system can be predetermined, the generalization of the existing linear-scaling methods to spin-unrestricted cases is straightforward. However, without calculations it is hard to determine the spin multiplicity of some complex systems, such as many magnetic nanostuctures and some inorganic or bioinorganic molecules. Here we give a general prescription to obtain the spin-unrestricted ground state of open-shell systems. Our methods are implemented into the linear-scaling trace-correcting density-matrix purification algorithm. The numerical atomic-orbital basis, rather than the commonly adopted Gaussian basis functions, is used. The test systems include O2 molecule and magnetic carbon-doped boron nitride (BN)(5,5) and BN(7,6) nanotubes. Using the newly developed method, we find that the magnetic moments in carbon-doped BN nanotubes couple antiferromagnetically with each other. Our results suggest that the linear-scaling spin-unrestricted trace-correcting purification method is very powerful to treat large magnetic systems.

  15. Fabrication route for the production of coplanar, diamond insulated, boron doped diamond macro- and microelectrodes of any geometry.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Maxim B; Bitziou, Eleni; Read, Tania L; Meng, Lingcong; Palmer, Nicola L; Mollart, Tim P; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2014-06-01

    Highly doped, boron doped diamond (BDD) is an electrode material with great potential, but the fabrication of suitable electrodes in a variety of different geometries both at the macro- and microscale, with an insulating material that does not compromise the material properties of the BDD, presents technical challenges. In this Technical Note, a novel solution to this problem is presented, resulting in the fabrication of coplanar macro- and microscale BDD electrodes, insulated by insulating diamond, at the single and multiple, individually addressable level. Using a laser micromachining approach, the required electrode(s) geometry is machined into an insulating diamond substrate, followed by overgrowth of high quality polycrystalline BDD (pBDD) and polishing to reveal approximately nanometer roughness, coplanar all-diamond structures. Electrical contacting is possible using both top and bottom contacts, where the latter are defined using the laser to produce non-diamond-carbon (NDC) in the vicinity of the back side of the BDD. We present the fabrication of individually addressable ring, band, and disk electrodes with minimum, reproducible controlled dimensions of 50 ?m (limited only by the laser system employed). The pBDD grown into the insulating diamond recesses is shown to be free from NDC and possesses excellent electrochemical properties, in terms of extended solvent windows, electrochemical reversibility, and capacitance. PMID:24814161

  16. Investigation of film formation properties during electrochemical oxidation of serotonin (5-HT) at polycrystalline boron doped diamond.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha N; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2013-11-01

    The change in surface morphology of oxygen-terminated polycrystalline boron doped diamond (pBDD) during electrochemical oxidation of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), resulting in a corresponding deterioration of the current signal, is investigated for the first time using both high resolution ex situ and in situ microscopy under a range of different electrochemical conditions. In situ electrochemical-atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) reveals the formation of a granular film over the surface, which grows faster at higher-doped regions of the electrode surface and increases in thickness with repetitive potential cycles. The film properties were investigated using both cyclic voltammetry, with a range of redox species varying in charge, and conducting-AFM. These studies reveal the film to be positively charged and electrically insulating. The extent to which the film forms during 5-HT oxidation could be significantly minimised using different electrochemical procedures, as verified by voltammetry and in situ EC-AFM. Finally, even after extensive film formation, the original current signal could be recovered simply by leaving the electrode at open circuit potential for a short period of time, highlighting the suitability of BDD electrodes for neurotransmitter detection. PMID:24060971

  17. Study of the Thermoelectric Properties of Lead Selenide Doped with Boron, Gallium, Indium, or Thallium

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Qian

    Group IIIA elements (B, Ga, In, and Tl) have been doped into PbSe for enhancement of thermoelectric properties. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity were systematically studied. ...

  18. Boron Doped Nanocrystalline Film with Improved Work Function as a Buffer Layer in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinjoo; Shin, Chonghoon; Park, Hyeongsik; Jung, Junhee; Lee, Youn-Jung; Bong, Sungjae; Dao, Vinh Ai; Balaji, Nagarajan; Yi, Junsin

    2015-03-01

    We investigated thin film silicon solar cells with boron doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon/ hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide [p-type nc-Si:H/a-SiOx:H] layer. First, we researched the bandgap engineering of diborane (B2H6) doped wide bandgap hydrogenated nanocryslline silicon (p-type nc-Si:H) films, which have excellent electrical properties of high dark conductivity, and low activation energy. The films prepared with lower doping ratio and higher hydrogen dilution ratio had higher optical gap (Eg), with higher dark conductivity (?(d)), and lower activation energy (Ea). We controlled Eg from 2.10 eV to 1.75 eV, with ?(d) from 1.1 S/cm to 7.59 x 10(-3) S/cm, and Ea from 0.040 eV to 0.128 eV. Next, we focused on the fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells. By inserting p-type nc-Si:H film into the thin film silicon solar cells, we achieved a remarkable increase in the built-in potential from 0.803 eV to 0.901 eV. By forming p-type nc-Si:H film between SnO2:F/ZnO:Al (30 nm) and p-type a-SiOx:H layer, the solar cell properties of open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc), and efficiency (?) were improved by 3.7%, 9.2%, and 9.8%, respectively. PMID:26413646

  19. Structure and luminescence of gadolinium-doped cubic boron nitride powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonchik, S. V.; Karotki, A. V.

    2012-09-01

    The structural characteristics and chemical, morphological, and optical properties of cBN and cBN:Gd micropowders are studied by x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive electron probe microanalysis (x-ray spectral microanalysis), and photoluminescence techniques. Cubic boron nitride (cBN) micropowders were synthesized at high pressures and temperatures from hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) micropowder and Li3N catalyst. cBN:Gd micropowders were synthesized from mixtures of hBN, Li3N, and GdF3 micropowders. A lattice parameter of a~3.615 Å is calculated for both types of powder (cBN and cBN:Gd). The photoluminescence spectra of the cBN:Gd powder are found to contain emission lines attributable to intracenter optical transitions of Gd3+ ions.

  20. Improvement of epitaxial channel quality on heavily arsenic- and boron-doped Si surfaces and impact on performance of tunnel field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yukinori; Mori, Takahiro; Migita, Shinji; Mizubayashi, Wataru; Fukuda, Koichi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Endo, Kazuhiko; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Liu, Yongxun; Masahara, Meishoku; Ota, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    We evaluate the impact of tunnel junction quality on the performance of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). The interface between epitaxially grown channel and source surface was used as tunnel junctions. Performing a sequential surface cleaning procedure prior to epitaxial channel growth for heavily arsenic- and boron-doped Si surfaces improved the interface quality both for p- and n-TFETs. Simultaneously, the subthreshold swing (SS) values of the TFETs improved step-by-step with interface quality.

  1. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid using a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films.

    PubMed

    Tyszczuk-Rotko, Katarzyna; B?czkowska, Ilona; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and application of a novel sensor (a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films) for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid by differential pulse voltammetry. The main advantage of the lead film and polymer covered boron-doped diamond electrode is that the sensitivity of the stripping responses is increased and the separation of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved due to the modification of the boron-doped diamond surface by the lead layer. Additionally, the repeatability of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved by the application of the Nafion film coating. In the presence of oxygen, linear calibration curves were obtained in a wide concentration range from 5×10(-7) to 2×10(-4) mol L(-1) for paracetamol and from 1×10(-6) to 5×10(-4) mol L(-1) for ascorbic acid. The analytical utility of the differential pulse voltammetric method elaborated was tested in the assay of paracetamol and ascorbic acid in commercially available pharmaceutical formulations and the method was validated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. PMID:25127609

  2. Effects of glucose doping on the MgB2 superconductors using cheap crystalline boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parakkandy, Jafar Meethale; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Shah, M. Shahabuddin; Alzayed, Nasser S.; Qaid, Salem A. S.; Madhar, Niyaz Ahmad; Ramay, Shahid M.; Shar, Muhammad Ali

    2015-12-01

    We report the effect of glucose (C6H12O6) doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductor fabricated by dry mixing using planetary ball milling. Herein, as-prepared bulk polycrystalline Mg (B1-xCx) 2 samples with different doping levels (x = 0, 2, 4, and 6 at. %) were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction, magnetic and resistivity measurements, and microstructure analysis. When carbon doped, the reduction in critical transition temperature and shrinkage in a-lattice were obviously observed. This resulted in structural distortion of the MgB2 lattice, and thereby, enhanced an impurity scattering. In addition to these, upper critical field and high-field critical current densities were also enhanced. On the other hand, both pinning force and low-field critical current density are decreased. The high field enhancement and low field degradation are due to increase in impurity scattering and decrease in pinning force respectively.

  3. Layered structure of anodic SiO{sub 2} films doped with phosphorus or boron

    SciTech Connect

    Mileshko, L. P.

    2009-12-15

    It is shown that anodic silicon oxide films deposited by reanodization (repeated anodic oxidation) of p- and n-type silicon in phosphate (1.5 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}), borate (1.5 M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), and nitrate (0.04 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) electrolytes based on tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol have a three- or four-layer structure both before and after high-temperature annealing. It is assumed that this circumstance accounts for the nonuniform distribution of phosphorus and boron across the thickness of anodic SiO{sub 2}.

  4. Magnetic states and optical properties of single-layer carbon-doped hexagonal boron nitride

    E-print Network

    Wilkins, John

    Hyoungki Park, Amita Wadehra, John W. Wilkins, and Antonio H. Castro Neto Citation: Appl. Phys. Lett. 100. Related Articles Vacancy mediated room temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped Dy2O3 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 elements Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 252410 (2012) Effects of biaxial strains on the magnetic properties of Co

  5. Effect of Polishing on the Friction Behaviors and Cutting Performance of Boron-Doped Diamond Films on WC-Co Inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-04-01

    Boron doped (B-doped) diamond films are deposited onto WC-Co inserts by HFCVD with the mixture of acetone, trimethyl borate (C3H9BO3) and H2. The as-deposited B-doped diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, 3D surface topography based on white-light interferometry and Rockwell hardness tester. The effects of mechanical polishing on the friction behavior and cutting performance of B-doped diamond are evaluated by ball-on-plate type reciprocating tribometer and turning of aluminum alloy 7075 materials, respectively. For comparison, the same tests are also conducted for the bare WC-Co inserts with smooth surface. Friction tests suggest that the unpolished and polished B-doped diamond films possess relatively low fluctuation of friction coefficient than as-received bare WC-Co samples. The average stable friction coefficient for B-doped diamond films decreases apparently after mechanical polishing. The values for WC-Co sample, unpolished and polished B-doped diamond films are approximately 0.38, 0.25 and 0.11, respectively. The cutting results demonstrate that the low friction coefficient and high adhesive strength of B-doped diamond films play an essential role in the cutting performance enhancement of the WC-Co inserts. However, the mechanical polishing process may lower the adhesive strength of B-doped diamond films. Consequently, the polished B-doped diamond coated inserts show premature wear in the machining of adhesive aluminum alloy materials.

  6. Evidence of loss of active lithium in titanium-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höweling, Andres; Glatthaar, Sven; Nötzel, Dorit; Binder, Joachim R.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries require higher energy densities to meet with a broad acceptance in the fields of electric vehicles and grid storage solutions. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) can fulfill this goal due to its high operating voltage. Cycling of LNMO is known to be stable vs. lithium metal anode. Cycling in an LNMO/graphite configuration leads to severe capacity fade. Ti-doped LNMO (LNMTO)/graphite cells experience a lower, but still strong loss of capacity. In order to understand capacity fade, cycling tests of LNMTO vs. graphite and vs. lithium metal were carried out and additionally, three electrode tests were performed. Both cell configurations showed similar Coulombic efficiencies correlating with the applied C-rate. Experimental data and mathematical modeling indicated that loss of active lithium with a constant reaction rate of (3.76 ± 0.46) · 10-8 mol Li h-1 is responsible for capacity fade in LNMTO/graphite cells and that no degradation of the active material occurs. It was concluded that lithium loss also occurs when lithium metal anodes are used. Here, the lithium metal anode can compensate for lithium consumption, as a result of which the capacity is not influenced. Further support for lithium consumption is given by a three-electrode cell with a lithiated graphite anode. The lithium in the graphite anode can compensate the lithium loss for 120 cycles. During this time, the cell experienced hardly any capacity fade and the voltage profile was similar to that of a cell with LNMTO/Li configuration.

  7. Optical Properties and Boron Doping-Induced Conduction-Type Change in SnO2 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quang-Phu; Fang, Jau-Shiung; Chin, Tsung-Shune

    2015-10-01

    Boron-doped tin oxide (BTO) films, 0-5 at.% B, were prepared by sol-gel dip coating on a glass substrate. Dried precursor films were post-annealed at a temperature between 400°C and 750°C for 2 h. The obtained BTO thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) spectrometry, a four-point probe, and Hall-effect and Seebeck-effect measurements. Optimal optical transmittance was achieved for post-annealed BTO thin film at 700°C. XRD results show a rutile SnO2 structure with a preferred (110) orientation for all the films. The grain size is 47-21 nm, which reduces with increasing B contents. The optical transmittance is 84.6-88.5% at a wavelength of 550 nm and optical band gap of 3.52-3.75 eV. Electrical resistivity is (3.4-8.2) × 10-3 ? cm, and figure of merit (0.9-4.3) × 10-3 ?-1. Carrier concentration is (0.97-7.4) × 1020 cm-3 and mobility (2.5-7.8) cm2 V-1 s-1. BTO film with 4 at.% B shows an optimal combination of properties. Conduction type changes from n- (undoped) to p- (1-4 at.% B), then to n-types (5 at.% B), as evidenced from Hall-effect and Seebeck-effect measurements. This is explained by doping-generated defects and phase separations of Sn3O4 and B2O3.

  8. Electrochemical treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate on boron-doped electrodes in undivided and divided cell configurations.

    PubMed

    Bagastyo, Arseto Y; Batstone, Damien J; Kristiana, Ina; Escher, Beate I; Joll, Cynthia; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2014-08-30

    An undivided electrolytic cell may offer lower electrochlorination through reduction of chlorine/hypochlorite at the cathode. This study investigated the performance of electrooxidation of reverse osmosis concentrate using boron-doped diamond electrodes in membrane-divided and undivided cells. In both cell configurations, similar extents of chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal were obtained. Continuous formation of chlorinated organic compounds was observed regardless of the membrane presence. However, halogenation of the organic matter did not result in a corresponding increase in toxicity (Vibrio fischeri bioassay performed on extracted samples), with toxicity decreasing slightly until 10AhL(-1), and generally remaining near the initial baseline-toxicity equivalent concentration (TEQ) of the raw concentrate (i.e., ?2mgL(-1)). The exception was a high range toxicity measure in the undivided cell (i.e., TEQ=11mgL(-1) at 2.4AhL(-1)), which rapidly decreased to 4mgL(-1). The discrepancy between the halogenated organic matter and toxicity patterns may be a consequence of volatile and/or polar halogenated by-products formed in oxidation by OH electrogenerated at the anode. The undivided cell exhibited lower energy compared to the divided cell, 0.25kWhgCOD(-1) and 0.34kWhgCOD(-1), respectively, yet it did not demonstrate any improvement regarding by-products formation. PMID:25048621

  9. Properties of boron-doped ZnO thin films deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, B.; Liu, C. Q.; Wang, N.; Wang, H. L.; Liu, S. M.; Jiang, W. W.; Ding, W. Y.; Fei, W. D.; Chai, W. P.

    2015-11-01

    By pulsed DC magnetron sputtering, boron-doped ZnO (BZO) thin films were deposited on normal glass substrates at different substrate temperatures. The effect of substrate temperature on the properties of the BZO films was systematically investigated. Based on XRD data, the crystallization behaviors and the grain growth kinetics of the BZO films were analyzed. It was found that the substrate temperature of 300 °C is a critical temperature in the grain growth process of the BZO films. That is to say, the grain growth mechanism of the BZO films was different at the substrate temperature range of exceeding 300 °C or not. The morphological, electrical, and optical properties of the BZO films were studied by atomic force microscopy, Hall effect measurement system, and UV-Vis transmission spectroscopy, respectively. With increasing the substrate temperature, the carrier concentration and the carrier mobility increase, and the minimum resistivity (3.4 × 10-3 ? cm) is observed at the substrate temperature of 400 °C. Moreover, the transmittance for every film is over 90 % in the visible range, and the optical band edge of the BZO films exhibits blueshift with increasing the substrate temperature.

  10. Mechanistic proposal for the electrochemical and sonoelectrochemical oxidation of thiram on a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Steter, Juliana R; Kossuga, Miriam H; Motheo, Artur J

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out of sonochemical (SCh), electrochemical (ECh) and sonoelectrochemical (SECh) strategies for the degradation of the fungicide thiram in dilute aqueous solution. The SCh and SECh studies were performed using a sonicator equipped with an 11 mm titanium-alloy probe and operated at 20 kHz with a power intensity of 523 W cm(-2). In the ECh and SECh investigations, galvanostatic electrolyses were implemented using a single compartment electrochemical cell with a boron-doped diamond electrode as anode and applied current densities in the range 10-50 mA cm(-2). For these processes, the decrease in concentration of thiram was monitored by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis and values of current efficiency and energy consumption were determined. The results showed that the rate of degradation of thiram and the amount of energy consumed were directly proportional to the applied current density, while current efficiency was inversely related to current density. The kinetics of thiram degradation followed a pseudo first order model with apparent rate constants in the region of 10(-3)min(-1). Thiram in aqueous solution was subjected to "exhaustive" degradation by ECh and SECh processes for 5h at applied current densities of 35 mA cm(-2) and the intermediates/byproducts so-formed were identified by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Mechanisms of the degradation reactions have been proposed on the basis of the results obtained. PMID:26384879

  11. Boron doped diamond sensor for sensitive determination of metronidazole: Mechanistic and analytical study by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Hafedh Belhadj; Brahim, Mabrouk Ben; Abdelhédi, Ridha; Samet, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    The performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the detection of metronidazole (MTZ) as the most important drug of the group of 5-nitroimidazole was proven using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. A comparison study between BDD, glassy carbon and silver electrodes on the electrochemical response was carried out. The process is pH-dependent. In neutral and alkaline media, one irreversible reduction peak related to the hydroxylamine derivative formation was registered, involving a total of four electrons. In acidic medium, a prepeak appears probably related to the adsorption affinity of hydroxylamine at the electrode surface. The BDD electrode showed higher sensitivity and reproducibility analytical response, compared with the other electrodes. The higher reduction peak current was registered at pH11. Under optimal conditions, a linear analytical curve was obtained for the MTZ concentration in the range of 0.2-4.2?molL(-1), with a detection limit of 0.065?molL(-1). PMID:26652413

  12. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Viney; Li, Zhongrui; Bourdo, Shawn; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Trigwell, Steven; Couraud, Arthur; Rioux, Julien; Boyer, Cyril; Nteziyaremye, Valens; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Biris, Alexandru R.; Salamo, Gregory J.; Viswanathan, Tito; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  13. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Saini, Viney; Li, Zhongrui; Bourdo, Shawn; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Trigwell, Steven; Couraud, Arthur; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne; Rioux, Julien; Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne; Boyer, Cyril; et al

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, whilemore »the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.« less

  14. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5-10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants. PMID:26512663

  15. Sensitive voltammetric determination of thymol in essential oil of Carum copticum seeds using boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Stankovi?, Dalibor M

    2015-10-01

    Essential oil of Carum copticum seeds, obtained from a local shop, was extracted and content of thymol was analyzed using square-wave voltammetry at boron-doped diamond electrode. The effect of various parameters, such as pH of supporting electrolyte and square-wave voltammetric parameters (modulation amplitude and frequency), was examined. In Britton-Robinson buffer solution (pH 4), thymol provided a single and oval-shaped irreversible oxidation peak at +1.13 V versus silver/silver chloride potassium electrode (3M). Under optimal experimental conditions, a plot of peak height against concentration of thymol was found to be linear over the range of 4 to 100?M consisting of two linear ranges: from 4 to 20?M (R(2)=0.9964) and from 20 to 100?M (R(2)=0.9993). The effect of potential interferences such as p-cymene and ?-terpinene (major components in essential oil of C. copticum seeds) was evaluated. Thus, the proposed method displays a sufficient selectivity toward thymol with a detection limit of 3.9?M, and it was successfully applied for the determination of thymol in essential oil of C. copticum seeds. The Prussian blue method was used for validation of the proposed electroanalytical method. PMID:26119334

  16. An aptasensor for ochratoxin A based on grafting of polyethylene glycol on a boron-doped diamond microcell.

    PubMed

    Chrouda, A; Sbartai, A; Baraket, A; Renaud, L; Maaref, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2015-11-01

    A novel strategy for the fabrication of an electrochemical label-free aptasensor for small-size molecules is proposed and demonstrated as an aptasensor for ochratoxin A (OTA). A long spacer chain of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was immobilized on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) microcell via electrochemical oxidation of its terminal amino groups. The amino-aptamer was then covalently linked to the carboxyl end of the immobilized PEG as a two-piece macromolecule, autoassembled at the BDD surface, forming a dense layer. Due to a change in conformation of the aptamer on the target analyte binding, a decrease of the electron transfer rate of the redox [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) probe was observed. To quantify the amount of OTA, the decrease of the square wave voltammetry (SWV) peak maximum of this probe was monitored. The plot of the peak maximum against the logarithm of OTA concentration was linear along the range from 0.01 to 13.2 ng/L, with a detection limit of 0.01 ng/L. This concept was validated on spiked real samples of rice. PMID:26255699

  17. Evidence for the role of hydrogen in the stabilization of minority carrier lifetime in boron-doped Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nampalli, N.; Hallam, B.; Chan, C.; Abbott, M.; Wenham, S.

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates that the presence of a hydrogen source during fast-firing is critical to the regeneration of B-O defects and that is it not a pure thermally based mechanism or due to plasma exposure. Boron-doped p-type wafers were fired with and without hydrogen-rich silicon nitride (SiNx:H) films present during the fast-firing process. After an initial light-induced degradation step, only wafers fired with the SiNx:H films present were found to undergo permanent and complete recovery of lifetime during subsequent illuminated annealing. In comparison, wafers fired bare, i.e., without SiNx:H films present during firing, were found to demonstrate no permanent recovery in lifetime. Further, prior exposure to hydrogen-rich plasma processing was found to have no impact on permanent lifetime recovery in bare-fired wafers. This lends weight to a hydrogen-based model for B-O defect passivation and casts doubt on the role of non-hydrogen species in the permanent passivation of B-O defects in commercial-grade p-type Czochralski silicon wafers.

  18. Deposition temperature independent excellent passivation of highly boron doped silicon emitters by thermal atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Baochen; Stangl, Rolf; Ma, Fajun; Hameiri, Ziv; Mueller, Thomas; Chi, Dongzhi; Aberle, Armin G.; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Hoex, Bram

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that by using H2O based thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films, excellent passivation (emitter saturation current density of ˜28 fA/cm2) on industrial highly boron p+-doped silicon emitters (sheet resistance of ˜62 ?/sq) can be achieved. The surface passivation of the Al2O3 film is activated by a fast industrial high-temperature firing step identical to the one used for screen printed contact formation. Deposition temperatures in the range of 100-300 °C and peak firing temperatures of ˜800 °C (set temperature) are investigated, using commercial-grade 5? Cz silicon wafers (˜5 ? cm n-type). It is found that the level of surface passivation after activation is excellent for the whole investigated deposition temperature range. These results are explained by advanced computer simulations indicating that the obtained emitter saturation current densities are quite close to their intrinsic limit value where the emitter saturation current is solely ruled by Auger recombination. The process developed is industrially relevant and robust.

  19. Square-wave voltammetric determination of bezafibrate in pharmaceutical formulations using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Jorge Armando; Sartori, Elen Romão; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2013-01-15

    The determination of bezafibrate (BZF) using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode is proposed. Cyclic voltammetry results showed one irreversible oxidation peak for BZF at 1.20 V (vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L(-1) KCl)) in a 0.04 mol L(-1) Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution (pH 2.0). Under optimized SWV conditions, a linear analytical curve is obtained for the BZF concentration range 0.10-9.1 ?mol L(-1) in the BR buffer solution (pH 2.0), with a detection limit of 0.098 ?mol L(-1). The obtained recoveries range from 93.4 to 108%. The proposed novel method was successfully applied in the determination of the BZF content in several pharmaceutical formulations (tablets) and the results are in close agreement (at a 95% confidence level) with those obtained using a comparative spectrophotometric method. PMID:23200378

  20. Anodic stripping voltammetry of gold nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes and its application in immunochromatographic strip tests.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Wicaksono, Wiyogo P; Saepudin, Endang; Rismetov, Bakhadir; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-03-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of colloidal gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in 50 mM HClO4. A deposition time of 300 s at-0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was fixed as the condition for the ASV. The voltammograms showed oxidation peaks that could be attributed to the oxidation of gold. These oxidation peaks were then investigated for potential application in immunochromatographic strip tests for the selective and quantitative detection of melamine, in which AuNPs were used as the label for the antibody of melamine. Linear regression of the oxidation peak currents appeared in the concentration range from 0.05-0.6 ?g/mL melamine standard, with an estimated LOD of 0.069 ?g/mL and an average relative standard deviation of 8.0%. This indicated that the method could be considered as an alternative method for selective and quantitative immunochromatographic applications. The validity was examined by the measurements of melamine injected into milk samples, which showed good recovery percentages during the measurements. PMID:25618650

  1. Determination of vanillin in commercial food product by adsorptive stripping voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Yard?m, Yavuz; Gülcan, Mehmet; ?entürk, Zühre

    2013-12-01

    A method for the determination of food additive vanillin was developed by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Its determination was carried out at the anodically pre-treated boron-doped diamond electrode in aqueous solutions. Using square-wave stripping mode, the compound yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in phosphate buffer, pH 2.5 at +1.14 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) (a pre-concentration step being carried out at open-circuit condition for 60s). A linear calibration graph was obtained in the concentration range of 0.5-15.0 ?g mL(-1) (3.3×10(-6)-9.8×10(-5) mol L(-1)) with a detection limit of 0.024 ?g mL(-1) (1.6×10(-7) mol L(-1)). As an example, the practical applicability of the proposed method was tested for the determination of this flavouring agent in commercial pudding powder of Keshkule (Turkish milk pudding with almond flour). PMID:23870896

  2. [Comparative Study of Benzotriazole Electrochemical Oxidation at Boron-doped Diamond and PbO2 Anodes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan-li; Zhang, Jia-wei; Wang, Ting; Ni, Jin-ren

    2015-07-01

    Electrochemical systems were built to investigate the degradation of benzotriazole (BTA) on boron-doped diamond (BUU) and PbO2 anodes and give an insight into the mineralization ability of two electrodes in terms of the amount and activity of hydroxyl radicals. Results of bulk electrolysis showed that both BDD and PbO2 displayed perfect BTA degradation performance after 12 hours' electrolysis, with the removal percentages of 99. 48% and 98. 36%, respectively, while the mineralization ability of BDD was much stronger than that of PbO2, with the efficiency of 87. 69% for BDD and 35. 96% for PbO2. Less hydroxyl radical and hydrogen production in BDD system suggested the less amount of active sites on BDD surface, thus further verified that the generated hydroxyl radical amount was not the primary factor determining the mineralization ability of anodes. However, BDD displayed larger binding energy of adsorbed oxygen and thinner adsorption layer than those of PbO2, indicating that the BDD electrode surface was of greater catalytic activity, thus the generated hydroxyl radicals were more free, which was the key to its better mineralization ability. PMID:26489323

  3. Oxidation of carbon monoxide, hydrogen peroxide and water at a boron doped diamond electrode: the competition for hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Kisacik, Izzet; Stefanova, Ana; Ernst, Siegfried; Baltruschat, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes have an extremely high over-voltage for oxygen evolution from water, which favours its use in oxidation processes of other compounds at high potentials. We used a rotating ring disc (RRDE) assembly and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) in order to monitor the consumption or the production of species in the course of the electrode processes. By intercepting the intermediate of the electrochemical water oxidation with chemical reactions we demonstrate clearly, albeit indirectly, that in the water oxidation process at BDD above 2.5 V the first step is the formation of ?OH radicals. The electro-oxidation of CO to CO2 at BDD electrodes proceeds only via a first attack by ?OH radicals followed by a further electron transfer to the electrode. At potentials below the onset of oxygen evolution from water, H2O2 is oxidised by a direct electron transfer to the BDD electrode, while at higher potentials, two different reactions paths compete for the ?OH radicals formed in the first electron transfer from water: one, where these ?OH radicals react with each other followed by further electron transfers leading to O2 on the one hand and one, where ?OH radicals react with other species like H2O2 or CO with subsequent electron transfers on the other hand. PMID:23422949

  4. Electrochemical disinfection using boron-doped diamond electrode--the synergetic effects of in situ ozone and free chlorine generation.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Mohamad; Heim, Carolin; Letzel, Thomas; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2015-02-01

    This work investigated the capability of using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for bacterial disinfection in different water matrices containing varying amounts of chloride. The feed water containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa was electrochemically treated while applying different electrode conditions. Depending on the applied current density and the exposure time, inactivation between 4- and 8-log of the targeted microorganisms could be achieved. The disinfection efficiency was driven by the generation of free chlorine as a function of chloride concentration in the water. A synergetic effect of generating both free chlorine and ozone in situ during the disinfection process resulted in an effective bactericidal impact. The formation of the undesired by-products chlorate and perchlorate depended on the water matrix, the applied current density and the desired target disinfection level. In case of synthetic water with a low chloride concentration (20 mg L(-1)) and an applied current density of 167 mA cm(-2), a 6-log inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be achieved after 5 min of exposure. The overall energy consumption ranged between 0.3 and 0.6 kW h m(-3) depending on the applied current density and water chemistry. Electrochemical water disinfection represents a suitable and efficient process for producing pathogen-free water without the use of any chemicals. PMID:25434271

  5. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro-Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Radovan, Ciprian; Cinghi??, Dan; Manea, Florica; Mincea, Manuela; Cofan, Codru?a; Ostafe, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998) and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an “overall paraben index”, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  6. Sensitive and Rapid Voltammetric Determination of Phenothiazine and Azaphenothiazine Derivatives in Pharmaceuticals Using a Boron-doped Diamond Electrode.

    PubMed

    Mielech-Lukasiewicz, Katarzyna; Staskowska, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    Novel, sensitive and rapid electrochemical methods for the determination of phenothiazine and azaphenothiazine derivatives were developed. A boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was used for electrochemical oxidation of levomepromazine, promazine and prothipendyl. The electrooxidation of these substances demonstrated reversible peaks of oxidation at the potential range 0.55 - 0.75 V vs. SCE. Examining the influence of scan rate allowed is to demonstrate that the currents registered typical of the diffusion-controlled process. Determinations of the studied analytes were carried out by means of a square wave voltammetry (SWV) method and a differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. Linear ranges of determination with the use of the BDD electrode and the SWV method were obtained in the ranges: from 4 × 10(-7) to 1.38 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) for levomepromazine, from 4 × 10(-7) to 1.17 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) for promazine and from 4.95 × 10(-7) to 4.54 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) for prothipendyl. The influence of interferences on the voltammetric signal of the studied analytes was also checked. The proposed procedures were used for quantitative determination of the studied compounds in pharmaceutical preparations. The measurements showed high accuracy. The recovery values obtained ranged from 98.52 to 99.57%. The developed procedures were compared with pharmacopoeial reference methods. PMID:26460359

  7. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-05-01

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electron-hole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems.

  8. Electrochemical oxidation of ampicillin antibiotic at boron-doped diamond electrodes and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Körbahti, Bahad?r K; Ta?yürek, Selin

    2015-03-01

    Electrochemical oxidation and process optimization of ampicillin antibiotic at boron-doped diamond electrodes (BDD) were investigated in a batch electrochemical reactor. The influence of operating parameters, such as ampicillin concentration, electrolyte concentration, current density, and reaction temperature, on ampicillin removal, COD removal, and energy consumption was analyzed in order to optimize the electrochemical oxidation process under specified cost-driven constraints using response surface methodology. Quadratic models for the responses satisfied the assumptions of the analysis of variance well according to normal probability, studentized residuals, and outlier t residual plots. Residual plots followed a normal distribution, and outlier t values indicated that the approximations of the fitted models to the quadratic response surfaces were very good. Optimum operating conditions were determined at 618 mg/L ampicillin concentration, 3.6 g/L electrolyte concentration, 13.4 mA/cm(2) current density, and 36 °C reaction temperature. Under response surface optimized conditions, ampicillin removal, COD removal, and energy consumption were obtained as 97.1 %, 92.5 %, and 71.7 kWh/kg CODr, respectively. PMID:24906830

  9. The analysis of estrogenic compounds by flow injection analysis with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Brocenschi, Ricardo F; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Duran, Boris; Swain, Greg M

    2014-08-01

    We report on the use of flow injection analysis with amperometric detection (FIA-EC) to evaluate the potential of using diamond electrodes for the analysis of three estrogenic compounds: estrone, 17-?-estradiol, and estriol. Amperometric detection was performed using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode that offered low background current, relatively low limits of detection, and good response reproducibility and stability. For all three compounds, response linearity was observed over the concentration range tested, 0.10 to 3.0?mol L(-1), the sensitivity was ca. 10mA L mol(-1), and the minimum concentration detection (S/N?3) was 0.10?mol L(-1) (~27?g L(-1)). The response variability with multiple injections was ca. 10% (RSD) over 20 injections. For estrone, the oxidation reaction on diamond does not proceed through an adsorbed state like it does on glassy carbon. After an initial current attenuation, the diamond electrode exhibited a stable response (oxidation current) for 3 days of continuous use, indicative of minimal surface contamination or fouling by reaction intermediates and products. The method for estrone was assessed using spiked city tap and local river water. Estrone recoveries in spiked city and river water samples presented standard deviations of less than 10%. In summary, the FIA-EC method with a diamond electrode enables sensitive, reproducible, stable, quick, and inexpensive determination of estrogenic compounds in water samples. PMID:24881529

  10. Toward high-throughput screening of NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductases using boron-doped diamond microelectrodes and microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Oyobiki, Ryo; Kato, Taisuke; Katayama, Michinobu; Sugitani, Ai; Watanabe, Takeshi; Einaga, Yasuaki; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Horisawa, Kenichi; Doi, Nobuhide

    2014-10-01

    Although oxidoreductases are widely used in many applications, such as biosensors and biofuel cells, improvements in the function of existing oxidoreductases or the discovery of novel oxidoreductases with greater activities is desired. To increase the activity of oxidoreductases by directed evolution, a powerful screening technique for oxidoreductases is required. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrodes for quantitative and potentially high-throughput measurement of the activity of NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductases. We first confirmed that BDD microelectrodes can quantify the activity of low concentrations (10-100 pM) of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase with a measuring time of 1 ms per sample. In addition, we found that poisoning of BDD microelectrodes can be repressed by optimizing the pH and by adding l-arginine to the enzyme solution as an antiaggregation agent. Finally, we fabricated a microfluidic device containing a BDD electrode for the first time and observed the elevation of the oxidation current of NADH with increasing flow rate. These results imply that the combination of a BDD microelectrode and microfluidics can be used for high-throughput screening of an oxidoreductase library containing a large number (>10(6)) of samples, each with a small (nanoliter) sample volume. PMID:25211652

  11. Simultaneous detection of monoamine and purine molecules using high-performance liquid chromatography with a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Birbeck, Johnna A; Mathews, Tiffany A

    2013-08-01

    A recently available boron-doped diamond (BDD) working electrode has been developed for use with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to aid in the detection of molecules with high redox potentials. In this work, we developed a method using a commercially available BDD working electrode for detecting neurotransmitters from two different families with large oxidation potential differences, namely, dopamine (DA) and adenosine (Ado). Hydrodynamic voltammograms were constructed for DA and Ado, and the optimal potentials for the detection of DA and Ado were determined to be +740 and +1200 mV versus a palladium reference electrode, respectively. A working potential of +840 mV was chosen, and the detection range achieved with the BDD electrode for DA and Ado was from low nanomolar to high millimolar levels. To determine the practical function of the BDD electrode, tissue content was analyzed for seven monoamine and two purine molecules, which were resolved in a single run in less than 28 min. Our results demonstrate that the BDD electrode is sensitive and robust enough to detect monoamine and purine molecules from frontal cortex and striatal mouse samples. Using a BDD electrode opens the possibility of exploring multiple classes of neurotransmitters in a single run using electrochemical detection to probe their interactions. PMID:23815757

  12. Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Gargouri, Bochra; Trabelsi, Souhel Kallel; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm(-2)) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment. PMID:25129707

  13. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-01-01

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electron-hole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems. PMID:25994309

  14. Experimental approach to controllably vary protein oxidation while minimizing electrode adsorption for boron-doped diamond electrochemical surface mapping applications.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Carlee S; Hettich, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent (i.e., hydroxyl radicals) for these measurements; however, these approaches range significantly in their complexity and expense of operation. This research expands upon earlier work to enhance the controllability of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as an easily accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals in order to oxidize a range of intact proteins. Efforts to modulate the oxidation level while minimizing the adsorption of protein to the electrode involved the use of relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber. Additionally, a different cell activation approach using variable voltage to supply a controlled current allowed us to precisely tune the extent of oxidation in a protein-dependent manner. In order to gain perspective on the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface, studies were conducted to monitor protein concentration during electrolysis and gauge changes in the electrode surface between cell activation events. This report demonstrates the successful use of BDD electrochemistry for greater precision in generating a target number of oxidation events upon intact proteins. PMID:23210708

  15. Evidence for the role of hydrogen in the stabilization of minority carrier lifetime in boron-doped Czochralski silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nampalli, N. Hallam, B.; Chan, C.; Abbott, M.; Wenham, S.

    2015-04-27

    This study demonstrates that the presence of a hydrogen source during fast-firing is critical to the regeneration of B-O defects and that is it not a pure thermally based mechanism or due to plasma exposure. Boron-doped p-type wafers were fired with and without hydrogen-rich silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}:H) films present during the fast-firing process. After an initial light-induced degradation step, only wafers fired with the SiN{sub x}:H films present were found to undergo permanent and complete recovery of lifetime during subsequent illuminated annealing. In comparison, wafers fired bare, i.e., without SiN{sub x}:H films present during firing, were found to demonstrate no permanent recovery in lifetime. Further, prior exposure to hydrogen-rich plasma processing was found to have no impact on permanent lifetime recovery in bare-fired wafers. This lends weight to a hydrogen-based model for B-O defect passivation and casts doubt on the role of non-hydrogen species in the permanent passivation of B-O defects in commercial-grade p-type Czochralski silicon wafers.

  16. Removal of organic contaminants from secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond anode as tertiary treatment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Keller, Jürg; Brillas, Enric; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have been widely investigated as promising technologies to remove trace organic contaminants from water, but have rarely been used for the treatment of real waste streams. Anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was applied for the treatment of secondary effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant containing 29 target pharmaceuticals and pesticides. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed from the contaminants decay, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of applied current and pH was evaluated. Almost complete mineralization of effluent organic matter and trace contaminants can be obtained by this EAOP primarily due to the action of hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface. The oxidation of Cl(-) ions present in the wastewater at the BDD anode gave rise to active chlorine species (Cl2/HClO/ClO(-)), which are competitive oxidizing agents yielding chloramines and organohalogen byproducts, quantified as adsorbable organic halogen. However, further anodic oxidation of HClO/ClO(-) species led to the production of ClO3(-) and ClO4(-) ions. The formation of these species hampers the application as a single-stage tertiary treatment, but posterior cathodic reduction of chlorate and perchlorate species may reduce the risks associated to their presence in the environment. PMID:25464295

  17. Electrochemical oxidation of tramadol in low-salinity reverse osmosis concentrates using boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Schulz, Manoj; Wagner, Manfred; Ternes, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical treatment of low-salinity reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates was investigated using tramadol (100 ?M) as a model substance for persistent organic contaminants. Galvanostatic degradation experiments using boron-doped diamond electrodes at different applied currents were conducted in RO concentrates as well as in ultra-pure water containing either sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. Kinetic investigations revealed a significant influence of in-situ generated active chlorine besides direct anodic oxidation. Therefore, tramadol concentrations decreased more rapidly at elevated chloride content. Nevertheless, reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) was found to be comparatively low, demonstrating that transformation rather than mineralization was taking place. Early stage product formation could be attributed to both direct and indirect processes, including demethylation, hydroxylation, dehydration, oxidative aromatic ring cleavage and halogenation reactions. The latter led to various halogenated derivatives and resulted in AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) formation in the lower mg/L-range depending on the treatment conditions. Characterisation of transformation products (TPs) was achieved via MS(n) experiments and additional NMR measurements. Based on identification and quantification of the main TPs in different matrices and on additional potentiostatic electrolysis, a transformation pathway was proposed. PMID:25660808

  18. Pilot scale performance of the electro-oxidation of landfill leachate at boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Anglada, Angela; Urtiaga, Ane; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2009-03-15

    During the electrochemical oxidation of real wastewaters, the different species present in the effluent may interact creating complex scenarios making the prediction of the behavior of the whole system difficult. In this paper the different phenomena that occur during the electro-oxidation process of landfill leachate at a pilot plant scale with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes are elucidated. The total BDD anode area of the pilot plant was 1.05 m2. The evolution of the concentration of chloride ions, chlorate, and inorganic carbon and the value of pH and redox potential were found to be inter-related. In turn, the concentration of chloride affected the oxidation of ammonia, which took place through indirect oxidation by active chlorine. Moreover, chloride ions competed with organic matter to be oxidized at the anode. The effect of current density was also investigated. Organic matter and ammonia oxidation were highly influenced by the applied current density value. A change in the mechanism of organic matter oxidation was observed when high current densities were applied. Two mathematical models, previously applied to the oxidation of synthetic wastewaters in the literature, were able to predict the evolution of chemical oxygen demand and ammonia for low current density values. PMID:19368210

  19. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-01-01

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electron–hole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems. PMID:25994309

  20. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5–10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants. PMID:26512663

  1. Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, Carlee; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent hydroxyl radicals for these measurements; however, many of these approaches require use of radioactive sources or caustic oxidizing chemicals. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and optimize the use of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as a highly accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals as a means to induce a controllable level of oxidation on a range of intact proteins. These experiments utilize a relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber, along with a unique cell activation approach to improve control over the intact protein oxidation yield. Studies were conducted to evaluate the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface. This report demonstrates a robust protocol for the use of BDD electrochemistry and high performance LC-MS/MS as a high-throughput experimental pipeline for probing higher order protein structure, and illustrates how it is complementary to predictive computational modeling efforts.

  2. Synthesis of Low-Density, Carbon-Doped, Porous Hexagonal Boron Nitride Solids.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Chandkiram; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Jose, Sujin; Brunetto, Gustavo; Ozden, Sehmus; Vinod, Soumya; Raghavan, Prasanth; Biradar, Santoshkumar; Galvao, Douglas Soares; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-12-22

    Here, we report the scalable synthesis and characterization of low-density, porous, three-dimensional (3D) solids consisting of two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheets. The structures are synthesized using bottom-up, low-temperature (?300 °C), solid-state reaction of melamine and boric acid giving rise to porous and mechanically stable interconnected h-BN layers. A layered 3D structure forms due to the formation of h-BN, and significant improvements in the mechanical properties were observed over a range of temperatures, compared to graphene oxide or reduced graphene oxide foams. A theoretical model based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) is proposed for the formation of h-BN architectures. The material shows excellent, recyclable absorption capacity for oils and organic solvents. PMID:26580810

  3. Surface Roughness and Critical Exponent Analyses of Boron-Doped Diamond Films Using Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging: Application of Autocorrelation and Power Spectral Density Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Vierkant, G. P.

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of the surface roughness of growing metal or semiconductor thin films provides much needed information about their growth kinetics and corresponding mechanism. While some systems show stages of nucleation, coalescence, and growth, others exhibit varying microstructures for different process conditions. In view of these classifications, we report herein detailed analyses based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization to extract the surface roughness and growth kinetics exponents of relatively low boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by utilizing the analytical power spectral density (PSD) and autocorrelation function (ACF) as mathematical tools. The machining industry has applied PSD for a number of years for tool design and analysis of wear and machined surface quality. Herein, we present similar analyses at the mesoscale to study the surface morphology as well as quality of BDD films grown using the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. PSD spectra as a function of boron concentration (in gaseous phase) are compared with those for samples grown without boron. We find that relatively higher boron concentration yields higher amplitudes of the longer-wavelength power spectral lines, with amplitudes decreasing in an exponential or power-law fashion towards shorter wavelengths, determining the roughness exponent ( ? ? 0.16 ± 0.03) and growth exponent ( ? ? 0.54), albeit indirectly. A unique application of the ACF, which is widely used in signal processing, was also applied to one-dimensional or line analyses (i.e., along the x- and y-axes) of AFM images, revealing surface topology datasets with varying boron concentration. Here, the ACF was used to cancel random surface "noise" and identify any spatial periodicity via repetitive ACF peaks or spatially correlated noise. Periodicity at shorter spatial wavelengths was observed for no doping and low doping levels, while smaller correlations were observed for relatively higher boron concentration. These semiquantitative spatial analyses may prove useful in comparing synthesis techniques and varying compositional makeups of diamond films and other technologically important electronic materials. These findings in terms of critical exponents are also correlated with traditional Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction structural properties, thus helping to provide insight into the growth kinetics, albeit in reverse manner.

  4. HPHT synthesis of boron and nitrogen co-doped strip-shaped diamond using powder catalyst with additive h-BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shishuai; Jia, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Zhuangfei; Li, Yong; Yan, Bingmin; Liu, Xiaobing; Ma, Hong-an

    2013-08-01

    The unusual strip-shaped diamond crystals were successfully synthesized in the Fe3Ni3C systems with h-BN additive. Our results showed that the morphology and color of our obtained diamond changed significantly compared with the diamond that synthesized by using conventional catalysts, which was attributed to the presence of h-BN additive. The incorporation of B and N atoms into the diamond structure played an important role in the formation of strip-shaped diamonds. The complex bonds environment of the boron/nitrogen co-doped strip-shaped diamonds should be more attractive in future study on the new behaviors for electronic and optoelectronic devices. The simultaneous incorporation of boron and nitrogen could tend to enhance the quality of strip-shaped diamonds. This work would provide a new synthesis technique to enrich the shape of the diamond crystals and stimulated future experimental exploration for industrial needs.

  5. Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase-boron doped diamond interface: a new solution for a classical problem.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan-Feng; Xu, Tai-Bin; Luong, John H T; Cui, Hui-Fang

    2014-05-20

    A planar boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was treated with KOH and functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to serve as a biosensing platform for biomolecule immobilization with glucose oxidase (GOx) as a test model. The free amino groups of GOx and APTES were cross-linked by glutaraldehyde (X), a bifunctional chemical to form a stable enzyme layer (GOx-X-APTES) on BDD. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy revealed that a mesoporous structure uniformly covered the BDD surface. Cyclic voltammetry of GOx immobilized showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks in neutral phosphate buffer solution, corresponding to the direct electron transfer of GOx. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of the immobilized GOx was estimated to be 8.85 ± 0.47 s(-1), considerably higher than the literature reported values. The determination of glucose was carried out by amperometry at -0.40 V, and the developed biosensor showed good reproducibility and stability with a detection limit of 20 ?M. Both ascorbic and uric acids at normal physiological conditions did not provoke any signals. The dynamic range of glucose detection was further extended by covering the enzyme electrode with a thin Nafion layer. The Nafion/GOx-X-APTES/BDD biosensor showed excellent stability, a detection limit of 30 ?M, a linear range between 35 ?M and 8 mM, and a dynamic range up to 14 mM. Such analytical performances were compared favorably with other complicated sensing schemes using nanomaterials, redox polymers, and nanowires. The APTES-functionalized BDD could be easily extended to immobilize other redox enzymes or proteins of interests. PMID:24766419

  6. Comparing atrazine and cyanuric acid electro-oxidation on mixed oxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Malpass, Geoffroy R P; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Miwa, Douglas W; Machado, Sérgio A S; Motheo, Artur J

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of pesticides has been promoted by many methods for clean up of contaminated soil and wastewaters. The main goal is to decrease the toxicity of the parent compound to achieve non-toxic compounds or even, when complete mineralization occurs, carbon dioxide and water. Therefore, electrochemical degradation (potentiostatic and galvanostatic) of both the pesticide atrazine and cyanuric acid (CA) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes, in different supporting electrolytes (NaCl and Na2SO4), is presented with the aim of establishing the influence of the operational parameters on the process efficiency. The results demonstrate that both the electrode material and the supporting electrolyte have a strong influence on the rate of atrazine removal. In the chloride medium, the rate of atrazine removal is always greater than in sulfate under all conditions employed. Furthermore, in the sulfate medium, atrazine degradation was significant only at the BDD electrode. The total organic carbon (TOC) load decreased by 79% and 56% at the BDD and DSA electrodes, respectively, in the chloride medium. This trend was maintained in the sulfate medium but the TOC removal was lower (i.e. 33% and 13% at BDD and DSA electrodes, respectively). CA, a stable atrazine degradation intermediate, was also studied and it is efficiently removed using the BDD electrode in both media, mainly when high current densities are employed. The use of the BDD electrode in the chloride medium not only degrades atrazine but also mineralized cyanuric acid leading to the higher TOC removal. PMID:23837356

  7. A First Principles study on Boron-doped Graphene decorated by Ni-Ti-Mg atoms for Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi; Lai, Po-Jung; Leggesse, Ermias Girma; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang

    2015-11-01

    We proposed a new solid state material for hydrogen storage, which consists of a combination of both transition and alkaline earth metal atoms decorating a boron-doped graphene surface. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption on this material was investigated using density functional theory calculations. We find that the diffusion barriers for H atom migration and desorption energies are lower than for the previously designed mediums and the proposed medium can reach the gravimetric capacity of ~6.5?wt % hydrogen, which is much higher than the DOE target for the year 2015. Molecular Dynamics simulations show that metal atoms are stably adsorbed on the B doped graphene surface without clustering, which will enhance the hydrogen storage capacity.

  8. A First Principles study on Boron-doped Graphene decorated by Ni-Ti-Mg atoms for Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance.

    PubMed

    Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi; Lai, Po-Jung; Leggesse, Ermias Girma; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a new solid state material for hydrogen storage, which consists of a combination of both transition and alkaline earth metal atoms decorating a boron-doped graphene surface. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption on this material was investigated using density functional theory calculations. We find that the diffusion barriers for H atom migration and desorption energies are lower than for the previously designed mediums and the proposed medium can reach the gravimetric capacity of ~6.5?wt % hydrogen, which is much higher than the DOE target for the year 2015. Molecular Dynamics simulations show that metal atoms are stably adsorbed on the B doped graphene surface without clustering, which will enhance the hydrogen storage capacity. PMID:26577659

  9. A First Principles study on Boron-doped Graphene decorated by Ni-Ti-Mg atoms for Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance

    PubMed Central

    Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi; Lai, Po-Jung; Leggesse, Ermias Girma; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a new solid state material for hydrogen storage, which consists of a combination of both transition and alkaline earth metal atoms decorating a boron-doped graphene surface. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption on this material was investigated using density functional theory calculations. We find that the diffusion barriers for H atom migration and desorption energies are lower than for the previously designed mediums and the proposed medium can reach the gravimetric capacity of ~6.5?wt % hydrogen, which is much higher than the DOE target for the year 2015. Molecular Dynamics simulations show that metal atoms are stably adsorbed on the B doped graphene surface without clustering, which will enhance the hydrogen storage capacity. PMID:26577659

  10. Improved fiber retention by the use of fillers in graphite fiber/resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of matrix fillers were tested for their ability to prevent loss of fiber from graphite fiber/PMR polyimide and graphite fiber/epoxy composites in a fire. The fillers tested included powders of boron, boron carbide lime glass, lead glass, and aluminum. Boron was the most effective and prevented any loss of graphite fiber during burning. Mechanical properties of composites containing boron filler were measured and compared to those of composites containing no filler.

  11. Carrier transport properties of the Group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x} with and without boron doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, Yoshisuke Wakabayashi, Yuki; Akiyama, Ryota; Nakane, Ryosho; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-09-15

    We have investigated the transport and magnetic properties of group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x} films (x = 1.0 and 2.3%) with and without boron doping grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In order to accurately measure the transport properties of 100-nm-thick Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x} films, (001)-oriented silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers with an ultra-thin Si body layer (?5 nm) were used as substrates. Owing to the low Fe content, the hole concentration and mobility in the Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x} films were exactly estimated by Hall measurements because the anomalous Hall effect in these films was found to be negligibly small. By boron doping, we increased the hole concentration in Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x} from ?10{sup 18} cm{sup ?3} to ?10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3} (x = 1.0%) and to ?10{sup 19} cm{sup ?3} (x = 2.3%), but no correlation was observed between the hole concentration and magnetic properties. This result presents a contrast to the hole-induced ferromagnetism in III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  12. Structure, electronic and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheets doped by 5d transition metal atoms: First-principles calculations and molecular orbital analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaofu; Geng, Zhaohui; Cai, Danyun; Pan, Tongxi; Chen, Yixin; Dong, Liyuan; Zhou, Tiege

    2015-01-01

    A first-principles calculation based on density functional theory is carried out to reveal the geometry, electronic structures and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheets (h-BNSs) doped by 5d transitional mental atoms (Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au and Hg) at boron-site (B5d) and nitrogen-site (N5d). Results of pure h-BNS, h-BNS with B vacancy (VB) and N vacancy (VN) are also given for comparison. It is shown that all the h-BNSs doped with 5d atoms possess a C3v local symmetry except for NLu and NHg which have a clear deviation. For the same 5d dopant, the binding energy of B5d is larger than that of N5d, which indicates the substitution of a 5d atom for B is preferred. The total densities of states are presented, where impurity energy levels exist. Besides, the total magnetic moments (TMMs) change regularly with the increment of the 5d atomic number. Theoretical analyses by molecular orbital under C3v symmetry explain the impurity energy levels and TMMs.

  13. Boron-Doped Diamond Microelectrodes Reveal Reduced Serotonin Uptake Rates in Lymphocytes from Adult Rhesus Monkeys Carrying the Short Allele of the 5-HTTLPR

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Uptake resolved by high-speed chronoamperometry on a second-by-second basis has revealed important differences in brain serotonin transporter function associated with genetic variability. Here, we use chronoamperometry to investigate variations in serotonin transport in primary lymphocytes associated with the rhesus serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR), a promoter polymorphism whose orthologues occur only in higher order primates including humans. Serotonin clearance by lymphocytes is Na+-dependent and inhibited by the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (Paxil), indicative of active uptake by serotonin transporters. Moreover, reductions in serotonin uptake rates are evident in lymphocytes from monkeys with one or two copies of the short ‘s’ allele of the rh5-HTTLPR (s/s < s/l < l/l). These findings illustrate that rh5-HTTLPR-related alterations in serotonin uptake are present during adulthood in peripheral blood cells natively expressing serotonin transporters. Moreover, they suggest that lymphocytes can be used as peripheral biomarkers for investigating genetic or pharmacologic alterations in serotonin transporter function. Use of boron-doped diamond microelectrodes for measuring serotonin uptake, in contrast to carbon fiber microelectrodes used previously in the brain, enabled these high-sensitivity and high-resolution measurements. Boron-doped diamond microelectrodes show excellent signal-to-noise and signal-to-background ratios due mainly to low background currents and are highly resistant to fouling when exposed to lymphocytes or high concentrations of serotonin. PMID:20352073

  14. Very low temperature (450 °C) selective epitaxial growth of heavily in situ boron-doped SiGe layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, J.; Hartmann, J. M.; Veillerot, M.; Essa, Z.; Sermage, B.

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of selectively growing SiGe:B layers at 450 °C, 20 Torr in a 300 mm industrial reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition tool. A reduced H2 carrier gas mass-flow has been used in order to have acceptable growth rates at such a temperature, which is very low indeed. We have first of all studied on blanket Si wafers the in situ boron doping of SiGe with Si2H6, GeH4 and B2H6. A growth rate increase by a factor close to 7 together with a Ge concentration decrease from 53% down to 32% occurred as the diborane mass-flow increased. Very high B+ ion concentrations were obtained in layers that were single crystalline and smooth. Their concentration increased almost linearly with the B2H6 mass-flow, from 1.8 up to 8.3 × 1020 cm-3. The associated resistivity dropped from 0.43 down to 0.26 m? cm. We have then tested whether or not selectivity versus SiO2 could be achieved by adding various amounts of HCl to Si2H6 + GeH4 +B2H6. Single crystalline growth rates of intrinsic SiGe(:B) on Si were very similar to poly-crystalline growth rates on SiO2-covered substrates irrespective of the HCl flow. Straightforward selectivity was thus not feasible with a co-flow approach. As a consequence, a 450 °C deposition/etch (DE) process was evaluated. Growth occurred at 20 Torr with the above-mentioned chemistry, while the selective etch of poly-SiGe:B versus c-SiGe:B was conducted at 740 Torr with a medium HCl mass-flow (F(HCl)/F(H2) = 0.2) and a high H2 flow. A 2.2 etch selectivity was achieved while retaining single crystalline if slightly rough SiGe:B layers.

  15. Fillers for improved graphite fiber retention by polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a program designed to determine the extent to which elemental boron and boron containing fillers added to the matrix resin of graphite/epoxy composites prevent the release of graphite fibers when the composites are exposed to fire and impact conditions are described. The fillers evaluated were boron, boron carbide and aluminum boride. The conditions evaluated were laboratory simulations of those that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation. The baseline (i.e., unfilled) laminates evaluated were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy. The baseline and filled laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, also were compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the baseline graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that the addition of boron and boron containing fillers to the resin matrix eliminated this fiber release. Mechanical properties of laminates containing the boron and boron containing fillers were lower than those of the baseline laminates. These property degradations for two systems: boron (5 micron) at 2.5 percent filler loading, and boron (5 micron) at 5.0 percent filler loading do not appear severe enough to preclude their use in structural composite applications.

  16. A Simple Synthesis of an N-Doped Carbon ORR Catalyst: Hierarchical Micro/Meso/Macro Porosity and Graphitic Shells.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David; Stroek, Wowa; Geels, Norbert J; Sandu, Cosmin S; Heller, Adam; Yan, Ning; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2016-01-11

    Replacing platinum as an oxygen reduction catalyst is an important scientific and technological challenge. Herein we report a simple synthesis of a complex carbon with very good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity at pH?13. Pyrolysis of magnesium nitrilotriacetate yields a carbon with hierarchical micro/meso/macro porosity, resulting from in situ templating by spontaneously forming MgO nanoparticles and from etching by pyrolysis gases. The mesopores are lined with highly graphitic shells. The high ORR activity is attributed to a good balance between high specific surface area and mass transport through the hierarchical porosity, and to improved electronic conductivity through the graphitic shells. This novel carbon has a high surface area (1320?m(2) g(-1) ), and high nitrogen content for a single precursor synthesis (?6?%). Importantly, its synthesis is both cheap and easily scalable. PMID:26574917

  17. Thiol-yne reaction on boron-doped diamond electrodes: application for the electrochemical detection of DNA-DNA hybridization events.

    PubMed

    Meziane, Dalila; Barras, Alexandre; Kromka, Alexander; Houdkova, Jana; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) interfaces were chemically functionalized through the catalyst free thiol-yne reaction. Different thiolated precursors (e.g., perfluorodecanethiol, 6-(ferrocenyl)-hexanethiol, DNA) were successfully "clicked" to alkynyl-terminated BDD by irradiating the interface at 365 nm for 30 min. Thiolated oligonucleotide strands were immobilized using the optimized reaction conditions, and the surface concentration was tuned to obtain a surface coverage of 3.1 × 10(12) molecules cm(-2). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed to follow the kinetics of hybridization and dehybridization events. The sensitivity of the oligonucleotide modified BDD interface was assayed, and a detection limit of 1 nM was obtained. PMID:22022777

  18. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapilashrami, M.; Conti, G.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V.; Lischner, J.; Louie, Steven G.; Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.-H.; Fadley, C. S.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO = VBMCIGS - VBMdiamond = 0.3 eV ± 0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV ± 0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  19. Use of 'split waves' for the measurement of electrocatalytic kinetics: methyl viologen mediated oxygen reduction on a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianqi; Li, Qian; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Compton, Richard G

    2013-05-28

    The mediated reduction of oxygen via the reduced form of methyl viologen is studied voltammetrically. The investigation is facilitated through the use of a boron-doped diamond electrode, allowing the catalytic response to be clearly delineated from that of the direct oxygen reduction process at the electrode surface. From simulation a high homogeneous electron transfer rate (6 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)) is found for the one-electron reduction of oxygen to superoxide. This value is in close agreement with that found using non-electrochemical methods and is significantly higher than the values previously reported in electrochemical studies. In the latter case it is demonstrated that the underestimation of the electron transfer rate arises due to oversimplification of the reaction mechanism. PMID:23598364

  20. Bulk-bronzied graphites for plasma-facing components in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Doerner, R.; Khandagle, M. . Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Causey, R.; Wilson, K. ); Croessmann, D.; Whitley, J. ); Holland, D.; Smolik, G. ); Matsuda, T.; Sogabe, T. (Toyo Tanso Co. Ltd., O

    1990-06-01

    Newly developed bulk-boronized graphites and boronized C-C composites with a total boron concentration ranging from 1 wt % to 30 wt % have been evaluated as plasma-facing component materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Bulk-boronized graphites have been bombarded with high-flux deuterium plasmas at temperatures between 200 and 1600{degree}C. Plasma interaction induced erosion of bulk-boronized graphites is observed to be a factor of 2--3 smaller than that of pyrolytic graphite, in regimes of physical sputtering, chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation. Postbombardment thermal desorption spectroscopy indicates that bulk-boronized graphites enhance recombinative desorption of deuterium, which leads to a suppression of the formation of deuterocarbon due to chemical sputtering. The tritium inventory in graphite has been found to decrease by an order of magnitude due to 10 wt % bulk-boronization at temperatures above 1000{degree}C. The critical heat flux to induce cracking for bulk-boronized graphites has been found to be essentially the same as that for non-boronized graphites. Also, 10 wt % bulk-boronization of graphite hinders air oxidation nearly completely at 800{degree}C and reduces the steam oxidation rate by a factor of 2--3 at around 1100 and 1350{degree}C. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation from solid boronized probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; Von Goeler, S. )

    1994-07-01

    Boronization was performed by plasma ablation of two solid boronized target probes. Probe-1, in a mushroom shape, consisted of a 10.7% boronized two-dimensional carbon-carbon composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B[sub 4]C binder. Probe-2, in a rectangular shape, consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40-[mu]m boron particles. Probe-1 boronization deposited [approximately]26 monolayers of boron. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage in 1-MW neutral-beam-heated plasmas decreased 27%, and volt-second consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of [approximately]5. The central oxygen density decreased 15 to 20%. Carbon levels initially increased during boronization but were significantly reduced after boronization. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization deposited [approximately]70 monolayers. Probe-2 boronization exhibited similar improved plasma conditions, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred because of the previous boronization with Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front-face temperatures above the boron melting point. The results demonstrate the performance of two different boronized probe materials and the relative simplicity and effectiveness of solid target boronization as a convenient, real-time impurity control technique. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Nucleation Control for Large, Single Crystalline Domains of Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Si-Doped Fe Catalysts

    E-print Network

    Caneva, Sabina; Weatherup, Robert S.; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Brennan, Barry; Spencer, Steve J.; Mingard, Ken; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Baehtz, Carsten; Pollard, Andrew J.; Hofmann, Stephan

    2015-02-09

    The scalable chemical vapor deposition of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single crystals, with lateral dimensions of ?0.3 mm, and of continuous h-BN monolayer films with large domain sizes (>25 ?m) is demonstrated via an admixture of Si...

  3. Metal-doped graphene layers composed with boron nitride-graphene as an insulator: a nano-capacitor.

    PubMed

    Monajjemi, Majid

    2014-11-01

    A model of a nanoscale dielectric capacitor composed of a few dopants has been investigated in this study. This capacitor includes metallic graphene layers which are separated by an insulating medium containing a few h-BN layers. It has been observed that the elements from group IIIA of the periodic table are more suitable as dopants for hetero-structures of the {metallic graphene/hBN/metallic graphene} capacitors compared to those from groups IA or IIA. In this study, we have specifically focused on the dielectric properties of different graphene/h-BN/graphene including their hetero-structure counterparts, i.e., Boron-graphene/h-BN/Boron-graphene, Al-graphene/h-BN/Al-graphene, Mg-graphene/h-BN/Mg-graphene, and Be-graphene/h-BN/Be-graphene stacks for monolayer form of dielectrics. Moreover, we studied the multi dielectric properties of different (h-BN)n/graphene hetero-structures of Boron-graphene/(h-BN)n/Boron-graphene. PMID:25359456

  4. Coatings for graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fibers released from composites during burning or an explosion caused shorting of electrical and electronic equipment. Silicon carbide, silica, silicon nitride and boron nitride were coated on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistances. Resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than uncoated fiber were attained without any significant degradation of the substrate fiber. An organo-silicone approach to produce coated fibers with high electrical resistance was also used. Celion 6000 graphite fibers were coated with an organo-silicone compound, followed by hydrolysis and pyrolysis of the coating to a silica-like material. The shear and flexural strengths of composites made from high electrically resistant fibers were considerably lower than the shear and flexural strengths of composites made from the lower electrically resistant fibers. The lower shear strengths of the composites indicated that the coatings on these fibers were weaker than the coating on the fibers which were pyrolyzed at higher temperature.

  5. Precipitation control and activation enhancement in boron-doped p{sup +}-BaSi{sub 2} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M. Ajmal; Nakamura, K.; Du, W.; Toko, K.; Usami, N.; Suemasu, T.

    2014-06-23

    Precipitation free boron (B)-doped as-grown p{sup +}-BaSi{sub 2} layer is essential for the BaSi{sub 2} p-n junction solar cells. In this article, B-doped p-BaSi{sub 2} layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates, and the influence of substrate growth temperature (T{sub S}) and B temperature (T{sub B}) in the Knudsen cell crucible were investigated on the formation of B precipitates and the activation efficiency. The hole concentration, p, reached 1.0?×?10{sup 19?}cm{sup ?3} at room temperature for T{sub S}?=?600 and T{sub B}?=?1550?°C. However, the activation rate of B was only 0.1%. Furthermore, the B precipitates were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When the T{sub S} was raised to 650?°C and the T{sub B} was decreased to 1350?°C, the p reached 6.8?×?10{sup 19?}cm{sup ?3}, and the activation rate increased to more than 20%. No precipitation of B was also confirmed by TEM.

  6. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-07-07

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is sued to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  7. Substrate and method for the formation of continuous magnesium diboride and doped magnesium diboride wire

    DOEpatents

    Suplinskas, Raymond J. (Haverhill, MA); Finnemore, Douglas (Ames, IA); Bud'ko, Serquei (Ames, IA); Canfield, Paul (Ames, IA)

    2007-11-13

    A chemically doped boron coating is applied by chemical vapor deposition to a silicon carbide fiber and the coated fiber then is exposed to magnesium vapor to convert the doped boron to doped magnesium diboride and a resultant superconductor.

  8. Influence of boron doping on magnetic properties and microwave characteristics of MnIr/FeCoB multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed investigation of the influence of B doping on the magnetic properties and high frequency characteristics of FeCoB/MnIr multilayered thin films was carried out. Exchange bias was found to decrease monotonically with B doping possibly due to less favorable of AF phase of MnIr in the samples with rich B concentration. However, with small amount of doping up to 9% of B concentration, the MnIr fcc (111) peaks become more prominent and the real part of permeability enhanced. Our results suggest no correlation between the structural phase of MnIr and the exchange bias. Also, the influences of B doping on several static and dynamic parameters, such as rotational magnetic anisotropy field, coercivity, saturation magnetization, resonance frequency, and effective damping factor are presented and discussed. Our results support the claim that the coercivity enhancement and the arising of rotational anisotropy may have the same physical origin.

  9. First-principles study of SO2 molecule adsorption on the pristine and Mn-doped boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zun-Yi; Zhang, Jian-Min; Xu, Ke-Wei

    2015-08-01

    To exploit the potential application of nitride nanotube (BNNT), the adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on pristine and Mn-doped BNNT was theoretically studied using first-principles approach based on density functional theory (DFT). The most stable adsorption geometry, adsorption energy, magnetic moment, charge transfer and density of states of these systems are discussed. SO2 molecule is weakly adsorbed on the pristine BNNT. The Mn-doped BNNT show high reactivity toward SO2 regardless of the MnB site or MnN site adsorption. The larger formation energies and analysis of density of states show the SO2 molecules are chemically bonded to Mn-doped BNNT and the covalent interaction between the SO2 molecule and Mn atom can be formed. Therefore, the Mn-doped BNNT can be used as SO2 gas sensor manufacturing raw materials, and it may be a potential material for nanodevice applications.

  10. A Taiji-principle-designed magnetic porous C-doped graphitic carbon nitride for environment-friendly solid phase extraction of pollutants from water samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Yuan, Hao; Deng, Wenjing; Bi, Wentao; Yang, Xiaodi

    2015-09-18

    A new magnetic porous carbon-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposite and experimental strategies were environment-friendly designed for solid phase extraction of brominated flame retardants from water sample. The easily synthesized and low cost nanocomposite was characterized using techniques, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, elemental analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The large surface area and enhanced interactions of this nanocomposite with its adsorption behavior in Taiji principle (a balance of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) in aqueous phase benefit the extraction. Magnetic solid phase extraction has advantages such as low solvent consumption and reusability of the sorbent, and was therefore employed in this study. In addition, a quicker and less laborious statistical method, known as response surface methodology, was used to investigate and optimize some crucial factors that affected the adsorption. The combined use of this new nanocomposite and experimental strategy showed excellent precision (2.7-5.2%) and sensitivity (limits of detection (S/N=3): 0.1-0.2 ?g L(-1)). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of real water samples giving good spiked recoveries over the range of 92.4-99.8%. This research provides an environment-friendly strategy to prepare suitable sorbents for extraction or adsorption of various compounds within different matrices. PMID:26278354

  11. Boron-doped peroxo-zirconium oxide dielectric for high-performance, low-temperature, solution-processed indium oxide thin-film transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Ho; Yoo, Young Bum; Lee, Keun Ho; Jang, Woo Soon; Oh, Jin Young; Chae, Soo Sang; Lee, Hyun Woo; Han, Sun Woong; Baik, Hong Koo

    2013-08-28

    We developed a solution-processed indium oxide (In2O3) thin-film transistor (TFT) with a boron-doped peroxo-zirconium (ZrO2:B) dielectric on silicon as well as polyimide substrate at 200 °C, using water as the solvent for the In2O3 precursor. The formation of In2O3 and ZrO2:B films were intensively studied by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT IR), high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Boron was selected as a dopant to make a denser ZrO2 film. The ZrO2:B film effectively blocked the leakage current at 200 °C with high breakdown strength. To evaluate the ZrO2:B film as a gate dielectric, we fabricated In2O3 TFTs on the ZrO2:B dielectrics with silicon substrates and annealed the resulting samples at 200 and 250 °C. The resulting mobilities were 1.25 and 39.3 cm(2)/(V s), respectively. Finally, we realized a flexible In2O3 TFT with the ZrO2:B dielectric on a polyimide substrate at 200 °C, and it successfully operated a switching device with a mobility of 4.01 cm(2)/(V s). Our results suggest that aqueous solution-processed In2O3 TFTs on ZrO2:B dielectrics could potentially be used for low-cost, low-temperature, and high-performance flexible devices. PMID:23883390

  12. Process for producing electrodes from carbonaceous particles and a boron source

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, R.V.

    1988-09-13

    A method is described of making an electric arc furnace graphite electrode comprising: (a) calcining a carbonaceous material selected form the group consisting of anthracite coal, bituminous coal, lignites, and nos. 2 and 3 cokes; (b) mixing the calcined carbonaceous material with pitch, a lubricant, and a boron source selected from the group consisting of elemental boron, boron carbide, silicon tetraboride, and iron boride, in an amount such that the boron content is from about 0.1 to about 5.0 percent by weight of the graphite electrode to form a mixture; (c) extruding the mixture into an electrode form; (d) and graphitizing the electrode form to provide a graphite electrode.

  13. Tuneable anisotropic transport in nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline diamond films: Evidence of a graphite-diamond hybrid superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churochkin, Dmitry; Bhattacharyya, Somnath

    2012-12-01

    We show strong evidence of superlattice-like carbon layered structures in heavily nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films through the experimental demonstration of temperature-dependent anisotropic diffusive transport. The superlattice periodicity, in the range of several nanometers, is derived from the analysis of both magneto-resistance and the temperature-dependent conductivity based on the generalized diffusive Fermi surface model. The effect of quasi-two-dimensionality on the magneto-transport of these films yields a weak temperature dependence of the electron dephasing length. These results explain a reasonably strong coupling between the conducting carbon layers separated by the insulating nanodiamond grains producing the anisotropic transport in UNCD films controlled by the level of nitrogen incorporation.

  14. In situ control of local pH using a boron doped diamond ring disk electrode: optimizing heavy metal (mercury) detection.

    PubMed

    Read, Tania L; Bitziou, Eleni; Joseph, Maxim B; Macpherson, Julie V

    2014-01-01

    A novel electrochemical approach to modifying aqueous solution pH in the vicinity of a detector electrode in order to optimize the electrochemical measurement signal is described. A ring disk electrode was employed where electrochemical decomposition of water on the ring was used to generate a flux of protons which adjusts the local pH controllably and quantifiably at the disk. Boron doped diamond (BDD) functioned as the electrode material given the stability of this electrode surface especially when applying high potentials (to electrolyze water) for significant periods of time. A pH sensitive iridium oxide electrode electrodeposited on the disk electrode demonstrated that applied positive currents on the BDD ring, up to +50 ?A, resulted in a local pH decrease of over 4 orders of magnitude, which remained stable over the measurement time of 600 s. pH generation experiments were found to be in close agreement with finite element simulations. The dual electrode arrangement was used to significantly improve the stripping peak signature for Hg in close to neutral conditions by the generation of pH = 2.0, locally. With the ability to create a localized pH change electrochemically in the vicinity of the detector electrode, this system could provide a simple method for optimized analysis at the source, e.g., river and sea waters. PMID:24321045

  15. Study of degradation intermediates formed during electrochemical oxidation of pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) at boron doped diamond (BDD) and platinum-iridium anodes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Muff, Jens

    2014-08-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technique for degradation of otherwise recalcitrant organic micropollutants in waters. In this study, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation was investigated concerning the degradation of the groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) through the electrochemical oxygen transfer process with two anode materials: Ti/Pt90-Ir10 and boron doped diamond (Si/BDD). Besides the efficiency of the degradation of the main pollutant, it is also of outmost importance to control the formation and fate of stable degradation intermediates. These were investigated quantitatively with HPLC-MS and TOC measurements and qualitatively with a combined HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS protocol. 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide was found to be degraded most efficiently by the BDD cell, which also resulted in significantly lower amounts of intermediates formed during the process. The anodic degradation pathway was found to occur via substitution of hydroxyl groups until ring cleavage leading to carboxylic acids. For the BDD cell, there was a parallel cathodic degradation pathway that occurred via dechlorination. The combination of TOC with the combined HPLC-UV/MS was found to be a powerful method for determining the amount and nature of degradation intermediates. PMID:24873711

  16. Observation of a carbon-based protective layer on the sidewalls of boron doped ultrananocrystalline diamond-based MEMS during in situ tribotests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buja, Federico; Kokorian, Jaap; Gulotty, Richard; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Merlijn van Spengen, W.

    2015-12-01

    We have fabricated dedicated MEMS tribotesters made from boron doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (B-UNCD) as the structural material, and carried out comprehensive nano-tribological measurements when two B-UNCD sidewall surfaces underwent sliding interaction in a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) in a humid and dry atmosphere. We have investigated the evolution of tribological contacts during sliding interactions and corresponding surface modification under repeated cyclic sliding conditions, while measuring displacement and lateral force with 4?nm and 64 nN resolution, respectively. We have observed the formation of carbon-based ultra-thin protective layer at the sliding interface as characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the formation of this protective layer occurs in both a dry and wet atmosphere, albeit at different rates when the energy dissipated due to friction reaches a plateau, starting from 200?000 and 400?000 cycles, respectively. Once this layer is formed, we do not observe any measurable wear indicating stable operation for an extended time period. Our results demonstrate that B-UNCD is a very promising material to overcome the wear-related reliability problems in MEMS.

  17. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    SciTech Connect

    Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S.; Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V.; Lischner, J.; Louie, Steven G.; Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.-H.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2014-10-14

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se? (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO=VBM{sub CIGS} – VBM{sub diamond}=0.3 eV±0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV±0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  18. Simultaneous determination of eleven compounds related to metabolism of bioamines in rat cortex and hippocampus by HPLC-ECD with boron-doped diamond working electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Yang, Jun-Qing; Luo, Ying; Shang, Jing-Chuan; Jiang, Xin-Hui

    2016-01-25

    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with electrochemical detection employing boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was established for simultaneous determination of eleven bioamines with their precursor amino acids and metabolites, including two precursors (tyrosine and tryptophan), three catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine) and their four metabolites (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, homovanillic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol), as well as serotonin and its metabolite (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), in a single run of 20min using vanillic acid as internal standard. The separation was performed on an ODS2 column (250mm×4.6mm, 5.0?m) with column oven temperature of 30°C. Quantification was accomplished at an oxidation potential of 700mV vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode after a range of applied voltages were tested. Several parameters of this new chromatographic method were validated after optimizaton of the analytical conditions. The new method was successfully applied to test cortex and hippocampus samples from Sprague-Dawley rats with good separation. These eleven compounds in cortices and hippocampi were compared, which was used for monitoring their variations in neuroscience research. PMID:26512998

  19. Mineralization of Acid Yellow 36 azo dye by electro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton processes with a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Edgar J; Arias, Conchita; Brillas, Enric; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Peralta-Hernández, J M

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of the Acid Yellow 36 (AY36) azo dye is studied by electro-Fenton (EF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) using a recirculation flow plant with an undivided cell containing a boron-doped diamond anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H?O? electrogeneration, coupled with a solar photoreactor. A solution of 2.5L with 108 mg L?¹ of the dye and 0.5 mM Fe²(+) at pH 3.0 was comparatively treated at constant current. Hydroxyl radicals formed from Fenton's reaction and at the anode surface are the main oxidants. Total mineralization is almost achieved in SPEF, while EF yields poor TOC removal. Both processes are accelerated with increasing current. AY36 decays with similar rate in EF and SPEF following a pseudo first-order reaction, but the solution is more slowly decolorized because of the formation of conjugated byproducts. NH?(+) ion is released in SPEF, while NO?? ion is mainly lost in EF. Tartronic, maleic, fumaric, oxalic, formic and oxamic acids are detected as generated carboxylic acids. Fe(III)-oxalate complexes are largely accumulated in EF and their quick photodecomposition in SPEF explains its higher oxidation power. The SPEF method yields greater current efficiency and lower energy cost as current decreases, and then it is more viable at low currents. PMID:21112608

  20. Electrochemical Imprinted Polycrystalline Nickel-Nickel Oxide Half-Nanotube-Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode for the Detection of l-Serine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Li, Hongji; Li, Mingji; Li, Cuiping; Wu, Xiaoguo; Yang, Baohe

    2015-10-21

    This paper presents a novel and versatile method for the fabrication of half nanotubes (HNTs) using a flexible template-based nanofabrication method denoted as electrochemical imprinting. With use of this method, polycrystalline nickel and nickel(II) oxide (Ni-NiO) HNTs were synthesized using pulsed electrodeposition to transfer Ni, deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene template, onto a boron-doped diamond (BDD) film. The Ni-NiO HNTs exhibited semicircular profiles along their entire lengths, with outer diameters of 50-120 nm and inner diameters of 20-50 nm. The HNT walls were formed of Ni and NiO nanoparticles. A biosensor for the detection of L-serine was fabricated using a BDD electrode modified with Ni-NiO HNTs, and the device demonstrated satisfactory analytical performance with high sensitivity (0.33 ?A ?M(-1)) and a low limit of detection (0.1 ?M). The biosensor also exhibited very good reproducibility and stability, as well as a high anti-interference ability against amino acids such as L-leucine, L-tryptophan, L-cysteine, L-phenylalanine, L-arginine, and L-lysine. PMID:26421883

  1. Subcellular mechanism of Escherichia coli inactivation during electrochemical disinfection with boron-doped diamond anode: A comparative study of three electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren; Wang, Zuhui

    2015-11-01

    Although the identification of effective oxidant species has been extensively studied, yet the subcellular mechanism of bacterial inactivation has never been clearly elucidated in electrochemical disinfection processes. In this study, subcellular mechanism of Escherichia coli inactivation during electrochemical disinfection was revealed in terms of comprehensive factors such as cell morphology, total organic components, K(+) leakage, membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation, membrane potential, membrane proteins, intracellular enzyme, cellular ATP level and DNA. The electrolysis was conducted with boron-doped diamond anode in three electrolytes including chloride, sulfate and phosphate. Results demonstrated that cell inactivation was mainly attributed to damage to the intracellular enzymatic systems in chloride solution. In sulfate solution, certain essential membrane proteins like the K(+) ion transport systems were eliminated. Thus, the pronounced K(+) leakage from cytosol resulted in gradual collapse of the membrane potential, which would hinder the subcellular localization of cell division-related proteins as well as ATP synthesis and thereby lead to the bacterial inactivation. Remarkable lipid peroxidation was observed, while the intracellular damage was negligible. In phosphate solution, the cells sequentially underwent overall destruction as a whole cell with no captured intermediate state, during which the organic components of the cells were mostly subjected to mineralization. This study provided a thorough insight into the bacterial inactivation mechanism on the subcellular level. PMID:26233659

  2. Light-induced degradation and metastable-state recovery with reaction kinetics modeling in boron-doped Czochralski silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Min; Chun, Seungju; Bae, Suhyun; Park, Seungeun; Lee, Hae-seok Kim, Donghwan; Kang, Min Gu; Song, Hee-eun; Kang, Yoonmook

    2014-08-25

    Solar cells fabricated from boron-doped p-type Czochralski silicon suffer from light-induced degradation that can lower the conversion efficiency by up to 10% relative. When solar cells are exposed to temperatures between 100?°C and 200?°C under illumination, regeneration, in which the minority carrier lifetime is gradually recovered, occurs after the initial light-induced degradation. We studied the light-induced degradation and regeneration process using carrier injection within a design chamber and observed open-circuit voltage trends at various sample temperatures. We proposed a cyclic reaction kinetics model to more precisely analyze the degradation and recovery phenomenon. Our model incorporated the reaction paths that were not counted in the original model between the three states (annealed, degradation, and regeneration). We calculated a rate constant for each reaction path based on the proposed model, extracted an activation energy for each reaction using these rate constants at various temperatures, and calculated activation energies of redegradation and the stabilization reaction.

  3. A novel paper-based device coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond electrode for cholesterol detection.

    PubMed

    Nantaphol, Siriwan; Chailapakul, Orawon; Siangproh, Weena

    2015-09-01

    A novel paper-based analytical device (PAD) coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond (AgNP/BDD) electrode was first developed as a cholesterol sensor. The AgNP/BDD electrode was used as working electrode after modification by AgNPs using an electrodeposition method. Wax printing was used to define the hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas on filter paper, and then counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on the hydrophilic area by screen-printing in house. For the amperometric detection, cholesterol and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were directly drop-cast onto the hydrophilic area, and H2O2 produced from the enzymatic reaction was monitored. The fabricated device demonstrated a good linearity (0.39 mg dL(-1) to 270.69 mg dL(-1)), low detection limit (0.25 mg dL(-1)), and high sensitivity (49.61 ?A mM(-1) cm(-2)). The precision value for ten replicates was 3.76% RSD for 1 mM H2O2. In addition, this biosensor exhibited very high selectivity for cholesterol detection and excellent recoveries for bovine serum analysis (in the range of 99.6-100.8%). The results showed that this new sensing platform will be an alternative tool for cholesterol detection in routine diagnosis and offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption, low cost, portability, and short analysis time. PMID:26388372

  4. Electrochemical measurements of serotonin (5-HT) release from the guinea pig mucosa using continuous amperometry with a boron-doped diamond microelectrode

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Bian, Xiaochun; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by chronic abdominal discomfort, including pain, bloating and changes in bowel habits. The exact cause of IBS is not entirely understood. Recent studies have shown that IBS may be associated with altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels within the GI tract. About 90% of 5-HT in the human body is produced and stored in enterochromaffin (EC) cells that reside in the mucosal layer of the intestine. Measurements of serotonin availability locally in the mucosa can provide insight on the functionality of these cells and potentially the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study, we used continuous amperometry with a diamond microelectrode to record serotonin levels in vitro in the ileum mucosa as an oxidation current. The boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode is quite practical for these measurements because if its low background signal, low sensitivity to solution pH changes, and excellent resistance to fouling by adsorbed serotonin oxidation reaction products. In fact, the measurements are only possible because of the unique properties of diamond. We present electrochemical data that demonstrate the diamond microelectrode’s utility for assessment of enterochromaffin cell function. Confirmation that the oxidation current was associated with indogenous serotonin release came from pharmacological studies. We are hopeful that these types of in vitro electrochemical measurements will lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of IBS. PMID:20209031

  5. Degradation of tetracycline at a boron-doped diamond anode: influence of initial pH, applied current intensity and electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Brinzila, C I; Monteiro, N; Pacheco, M J; Ciríaco, L; Siminiceanu, I; Lopes, A

    2014-01-01

    The anodic oxidation of tetracycline was performed in an up-flow reactor, operating in batch mode with recirculation, using as anode a boron-doped diamond electrode. The influence on the degradation rate of solution initial pH (2 to 12), applied current intensity (25 to 300 A m(-2)) and type of electrolyte (sodium sulphate or sodium chloride) were investigated. For the assays run at equal current density, with sodium sulphate as electrolyte, the solution's initial pH of 2 presented the highest absorbance and chemical oxygen demand removals. Regarding the influence of current density, for equal charge passed, the organic load removal rate decreased with the increase in applied current. When sodium sulphate was used as an electrolyte, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results have shown an almost complete removal of tetracycline after a 2-h assay. HPLC results have also shown the presence of oxamic acid as one of the intermediates of tetracycline anodic oxidation. The complete removal of tetracycline was much faster in the presence of chloride ions that promoted the complete degradation of this antibiotic in 30 min. However, in the presence of chloride ions, the tetracycline mineralization is slower, as observed by the lower organic carbon removal rate when compared to that of the tetracycline degradation in the presence of sulphate. PMID:24664638

  6. An Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Carlee S; Hettich, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent – hydroxyl radicals – for these measurements; however, these approaches range significantly in their complexity and expense of operation. This research expands upon earlier work to enhance the controllability of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as an easily accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals in order to oxidize a range of intact proteins. Efforts to modulate oxidation level while minimizing the adsorption of protein to the electrode involved the use of relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber. Additionally, a different cell activation approach using variable voltage to supply a controlled current allowed us to precisely tune the extent of oxidation in a protein-dependent manner. In order to gain perspective on the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface, studies were conducted to monitor protein concentration during electrolysis and gauge changes in the electrode surface between cell activation events. This report demonstrates the successful use of BDD electrochemistry for greater precision in generating a target number of oxidation events upon intact proteins. PMID:23210708

  7. Investigation of the synergistic effects for p-nitrophenol mineralization by a combined process of ozonation and electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cuicui; Yuan, Shi; Li, Xiang; Wang, Huijiao; Bakheet, Belal; Komarneni, Sridhar; Wang, Yujue

    2014-09-15

    Electrolysis and ozonation are two commonly used technologies for treating wastewaters contaminated with nitrophenol pollutants. However, they are often handicapped by their slow kinetics and low yields of total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization. To improve TOC mineralization efficiency, we combined electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode with ozonation (electrolysis-O3) to treat a p-nitrophenol (PNP) aqueous solution. Up to 91% TOC was removed after 60 min of the electrolysis-O3 process. In comparison, only 20 and 44% TOC was respectively removed by individual electrolysis and ozonation treatment conducted under similar reaction conditions. The result indicates that when electrolysis and ozonation are applied simultaneously, they have a significant synergy for PNP mineralization. This synergy can be mainly attributed to (i) the rapid degradation of PNP to carboxylic acids (e.g., oxalic acid and acetic acid) by O3, which would otherwise take a much longer time by electrolysis alone, and (ii) the effective mineralization of the ozone-refractory carboxylic acids to CO2 by OH generated from multiple sources in the electrolysis-O3 system. The result suggests that combining electrolysis with ozonation can provide a simple and effective way to mutually compensate the limitations of the two processes for degradation of phenolic pollutants. PMID:25218262

  8. Serial coupling of RP and zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction LC-MS: suspects screening of diclofenac transformation products by oxidation with a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Mohamad; Greco, Giorgia; Heim, Carolin; Helmreich, Brigitte; Letzel, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pollutants and their transformation products (TPs) in the water system is a big concern because of possible adverse effects on the aquatic environment. Their identification is still a challenge that requires the combination of different chromatographic techniques. In the current research, serial coupling of RPLC and zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction LC with TOF-MS was investigated as a single separation technique for the screening of suspected TPs from electrochemical oxidation of diclofenac using a boron-doped diamond electrode. Diclofenac oxidation was performed in three water matrices in order to study its transformation in different chemical contexts. 47 TPs resulting from similar oxidation methods were selected from the literature. As in most cases standards were not available, an identification procedure based on accurate mass data and chromatographic behavior was proposed. According to this procedure, 11 suspected TPs, previously analyzed by LC, GC, or ion chromatography, were detected in a single injection. The method was proved to be reliable and versatile and it could be efficiently employed as a comprehensive analytical tool for the simultaneous analysis of compounds in a wide polarity range. PMID:23857646

  9. Label-free sequence-specific DNA sensing using copper-enhanced anodic stripping of purine bases at boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hason, Stanislav; Pivonkova, Hana; Vetterl, Vladimír; Fojta, Miroslav

    2008-04-01

    Stripping voltammetric determination of purine bases in the presence of copper ions at mercury, amalgam, or carbon-based electrodes has recently been utilized in analysis of DNA or synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). Here we report on copper-enhanced label-free anodic stripping detection of guanine and adenine bases in acid-hydrolyzed DNA at anodically oxidized boron-doped diamond electrode (AO-BDDE). The AO-BDDE was successfully applied in a three-electrode microcell in which an approximately 50 microL drop of the analyte solution can be efficiently stirred during the accumulation step by streaming of an inert gas. Accelerated mass transport due to the solution motion in the presence of copper resulted in enhancement of the guanine oxidation signal by about 2 orders of magnitude (compared to accumulation of the analyte from still solution not containing copper), allowing an easy detection of approximately 25 fmol of the ODNs. The proposed technique is shown to be suitable for a determination of purine (particularly guanine) content in DNA samples. Applications of the technique in magnetic bead-based DNA assays (such as hybridization with DNA sequences exhibiting asymmetrical distribution of purine/pyrimidine nucleotides between the complementary strands or monitoring of amplification of specific DNA fragments in a duplex polymerase chain reaction) are demonstrated. PMID:18321078

  10. Nucleation Control for Large, Single Crystalline Domains of Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Si-Doped Fe Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scalable chemical vapor deposition of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single crystals, with lateral dimensions of ?0.3 mm, and of continuous h-BN monolayer films with large domain sizes (>25 ?m) is demonstrated via an admixture of Si to Fe catalyst films. A simple thin-film Fe/SiO2/Si catalyst system is used to show that controlled Si diffusion into the Fe catalyst allows exclusive nucleation of monolayer h-BN with very low nucleation densities upon exposure to undiluted borazine. Our systematic in situ and ex situ characterization of this catalyst system establishes a basis for further rational catalyst design for compound 2D materials. PMID:25664483

  11. Pre-irradiation spatial distribution and stability of boride particles in rapidly solidified boron-doped stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kanani, N.; Arnberg, L.; Harling, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    The time temperature behavior of boride particles has been studied in rapidly solidified ultra low carbon and nitrogen modified 316 stainless steel with 0.088% boron and 0.45% zirconium. The results show that the as-splat-cooled specimens exhibit precipitates at the grain boundaries and triple junctions. For temperatures up to about 750/sup 0/C no significant microstructural changes occur for short heat treatment times. In the temperature range of 750 to 950/sup 0/C, however, particles typically 100 to 500 A in diameter containing Zr and B are formed within the grains. Higher temperatures enhance the formation of such particles and give rise to particle networks. The results show that a fine and uniform distribution of the boride particles almost exclusively within the grains can be achieved if proper annealing conditions are chosen. This type of distribution is an important requirement for the homogeneous production of helium during neutron irradiation in fast reactors.

  12. Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

    2013-10-01

    Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900°C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

  13. Boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon germanium alloy nanocrystals—Nonthermal plasma synthesis and gas-phase thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, David J. E-mail: kortshagen@umn.edu; Kortshagen, Uwe R. E-mail: kortshagen@umn.edu

    2014-02-01

    Alloyed silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures are the topic of renewed research due to applications in modern optoelectronics and high-temperature thermoelectric materials. However, common techniques for producing nanostructured SiGe focus on bulk processing; therefore little is known of the physical properties of SiGe nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized from molecular precursors. In this letter, we synthesize and deposit thin films of doped SiGe NCs using a single, flow-through nonthermal plasma reactor and inertial impaction. Using x-ray and vibrational analysis, we show that the SiGe NC structure appears truly alloyed for Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} for 0.16 < x < 0.24, and quantify the atomic dopant incorporation within the SiGe NC films.

  14. Preparation of TiO2/boron-doped diamond/Ta multilayer films and use as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chao; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Li, Mingji; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2015-12-01

    We report nanostructured TiO2/boron-doped diamond (BDD)/Ta multilayer films and their electrochemical performances as supercapacitor electrodes. The BDD films were grown on Ta substrates using electron-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Ti metal layers were deposited on the BDD surfaces by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, and nanostructured TiO2/BDD/Ta thin films were prepared by electrochemical etching and thermal annealing. The successful formation of TiO2 and Ta layered nanostructures was demonstrated using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies. The electrochemical responses of these electrodes were evaluated by examining their use as electrical double-layer capacitors, using cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance measurements. When the TiO2/BDD/Ta film was used as the working electrode with 0.1 M Na2SO4 as the electrolyte, the capacitor had a specific capacitance of 5.23 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 for a B/C ratio of 0.1% w/w. Furthermore, the TiO2/BDD/Ta film had improved electrochemical stability, with a retention of 89.3% after 500 cycles. This electrochemical behavior is attributed to the quality of the BDD, the surface roughness and electrocatalytic activities of the TiO2 layer and Ta nanoporous structures, and the synergies between them. These results show that TiO2/BDD/Ta films are promising as capacitor electrodes for special applications.

  15. Controlled sp(2) Functionalization of Boron Doped Diamond as a Route for the Fabrication of Robust and Nernstian pH Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Zoë J; Borrill, Alexandra J; Newland, Jonathan C; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2016-01-01

    The development of a voltammetric boron doped diamond (BDD) pH sensor is described. To obtain pH sensitivity, laser micromachining (ablation) is utilized to introduce controlled regions of sp(2) carbon into a high quality polycrystalline BDD electrode. The resulting sp(2) carbon is activated to produce electrochemically reducible quinone groups using a high temperature acid treatment, followed by anodic polarization. Once activated, no further treatment is required. The quinone groups show a linear (R(2) = 0.999) and Nernstian (59 mV/(pH unit)) pH-dependent reductive current-voltage response over a large analyzable pH range, from pH 2 to pH 12. Using the laser approach, it is possible to optimize sp(2) coverage on the BDD surface, such that a measurable pH response is recorded, while minimizing background currents arising from oxygen reduction reactions on sp(2) carbon in the potential region of interest. This enables the sensor to be used in aerated solutions, boding well for in situ analysis. The voltammetric response of the electrode is not compromised by the presence of excess metal ions such as Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+). Furthermore, the pH sensor is stable over a 3 month period (the current time period of testing), can be stored in air between measurements, requires no reactivation of the surface between measurements, and can be reproducibly fabricated using the proposed approach. The efficacy of this pH sensor in a real-world sample is demonstrated with pH measurements in U.K. seawater. PMID:26638677

  16. Electrochemical incineration of omeprazole in neutral aqueous medium using a platinum or boron-doped diamond anode: degradation kinetics and oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Eliane Bezerra; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2013-04-01

    The electrochemical incineration of omeprazole, a widely prescribed gastrointestinal drug which is detected in natural waters, has been studied in a phosphate buffer of pH 7.0 by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H(2)O(2) (AO-H(2)O(2)) operating at constant current density (j). The experiments were carried out in a cell equipped with either a Pt or a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode to continuously produce H(2)O(2). In these systems, organics are mainly oxidized by hydroxyl radicals formed at the Pt or BDD surface from water oxidation. A partial total organic carbon (TOC) abatement close to 78% for omeprazole was achieved by AO-H(2)O(2) with a BDD anode after consumption of 18 Ah L(-1) at 100 mA cm(-2), whereas the alternative use of Pt did not allow mineralizing the drug. However, the drug was totally removed using both anodes, although it decayed more rapidly using BDD. In this latter system, increasing j accelerated the degradation process, but lowering the mineralization current efficiency. Greater drug content also enhanced the degradation rate with higher mineralization degree and current efficiency. The kinetics for omeprazole decay always followed a pseudo-first-order reaction and its rate constant increased with increasing j and with decreasing its concentration. Seven heteroaromatic intermediates and four hydroxylated derivatives were detected by LC-MS, while nine short-linear carboxylic acids were identified and quantified by ion-exclusion HPLC. These acids were largely accumulated using Pt and rapidly removed using BDD, thus explaining the partial mineralization of omeprazole achieved by AO-H(2)O(2) with the latter anode. The release of inorganic ions such as NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) was followed by ionic chromatography. A plausible reaction sequence for omeprazole mineralization involving all intermediates detected is proposed. PMID:23351432

  17. Diclofenac on boron-doped diamond electrode: from electroanalytical determination to prediction of the electrooxidation mechanism with HPLC-ESI/HRMS and computational simulations.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Francisco Willian de S; Mascaro, Lucia H; Fill, Taicia P; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Franco-Junior, Edison; Homem-de-Mello, Paula; de Lima-Neto, Pedro; Correia, Adriana N

    2014-05-20

    Using square-wave voltammetry coupled to the boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), it was possible to develop an analytical methodology for identification and quantification of diclofenac (DCL) in tablets and synthetic urine. The electroanalytical procedure was validated, with results being statistically equal to those obtained by chromatographic standard method, showing linear range of 4.94 × 10(-7) to 4.43 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), detection limit of 1.15 × 10(-7) mol L(-1), quantification limit of 3.85 × 10(-7) mol L(-1), repeatability of 3.05% (n = 10), and reproducibility of 1.27% (n = 5). The association of electrochemical techniques with UV-vis spectroscopy, computational simulations and HPLC-ESI/HRMS led us to conclude that the electrooxidation of DCL on the BDDE involved two electrons and two protons, where the products are colorful and easily hydrolyzable dimers. Density functional theory calculations allowed to evaluate the stability of dimers A, B, and C, suggesting dimer C was more stable than the other two proposed structures, ca. 4 kcal mol(-1). The comparison of the dimers stabilities with the stabilities of the molecular ions observed in the MS, the compounds that showed retention time (RT) of 15.53, 21.44, and 22.39 min were identified as the dimers B, C, and A, respectively. Corroborating the observed chromatographic profile, dimer B had a dipole moment almost twice higher than that of dimers A and C. As expected, dimer B has really shorter RT than dimers A and C. The majority dimer was the A (71%) and the C (19.8%) should be the minority dimer. However, the minority was the dimer B, which was formed in the proportion of 9.2%. This inversion between the formation proportion of dimer B and dimer C can be explained by preferential conformation of the intermediaries (cation-radicals) on the surface. PMID:24806390

  18. The effect of boron implant energy on transient enhanced diffusion J. Liu and V. Krishnamoorthy

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    The effect of boron implant energy on transient enhanced diffusion in silicon J. Liu and V 1996; accepted for publication 5 November 1996 Transient enhanced diffusion TED of boron in silica after low energy boron implantation and annealing was investigated using boron-doping superlattices DSLs

  19. Impact of dopant compensation on the deactivation of boron-oxygen recombination centers in crystalline silicon

    E-print Network

    center responsible for the light-induced degradation of Czochralski silicon solar cells can.1063/1.3272918 Recombination-active boron-oxygen complexes form in boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon Cz-Si under illu

  20. PERMANENT DEACTIVATION OF THE BORON-OXYGEN RECOMBINATION CENTER IN SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-print Network

    oxygen dimer, in boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon is demonstrated on low-resistivity lifetime.3 %. Keywords: Czochralski, Defects, High-Efficiency, Modelling 1 INTRODUCTION The energy conversion efficiency of solar cells made on oxygen-rich boron-doped silicon, such as B-doped Czochralski silicon (Cz

  1. Improved fiber retention by the use of fillers in graphite fiber/resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A potential problem in the use of graphite fiber reinforced resin matrix composites is the dispersal of graphite fiber during accidental fires. Airborne electrically conductive fibers originating from burning composites could enter and cause shorting in electrical equipment located in surrounding areas. A variety of matrix fillers have been tested for their ability to prevent loss of fiber from graphite fiber/PMR polyimide and graphite fiber/epoxy composites in a fire. The fillers tested included powders of boron, boron carbide (B4C), lime glass, lead glass, and aluminum. Of these fillers, boron was the most effective and prevented any loss of graphite fiber during burning. Mechanical properties of composites containing boron filler were measured and compared to those of composite containing no filler.

  2. Fillers for improved graphite fiber retention by polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Simpson, F. H.; House, E. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This program was designed to develop technology for fabrication of graphite/epoxy composites containing selected boron and boron-containing fillers, determine the effects of the fillers on physical and mechanical properties of composites, and evaluate the effectiveness of the boron fillers for fiber retention when the composites are exposed to fire conditions followed by impact. Fillers evaluated were crystalline and amorphous boron, boron carbide, and aluminum boride. The fillers were evaluated by mixing with Narmco 5208 resin matrix at quantities up to 5%. Graphite composites were fabricated and evaluated with respect to their mechanical properties, resistance to humidity, and burning characteristics. Also, the mechanism by which the fillers prevented fiber release was studied.

  3. Doped graphene supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-12-11

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed. PMID:26574192

  4. Doped graphene supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-12-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed.

  5. Proceedings of the conference on electrochemistry of carbon allotropes: Graphite, fullerenes and diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.; Scherson, D.

    1998-02-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for electrochemists, physicists, materials scientists and engineers to meet and exchange information on different carbon allotropes. The presentations and discussion among the participants provided a forum to develop recommendations on research and development which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes. The following topics which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes were addressed: Graphitized and disordered carbons, as Li-ion intercalation anodes for high-energy-density, high-power-density Li-based secondary batteries; Carbons as substrate materials for catalysis and electrocatalysis; Boron-doped diamond film electrodes; and Electrochemical characterization and electrosynthesis of fullerenes and fullerene-type materials. Abstracts of the presentations are presented.

  6. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  7. Antimony-doped graphene nanoplatelets

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, In-Yup; Choi, Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Sun-Min; Kim, Min-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Yoo, Seonyoung; Kim, Guntae; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Noejung; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Heteroatom doping into the graphitic frameworks have been intensively studied for the development of metal-free electrocatalysts. However, the choice of heteroatoms is limited to non-metallic elements and heteroatom-doped graphitic materials do not satisfy commercial demands in terms of cost and stability. Here we realize doping semimetal antimony (Sb) at the edges of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) via a simple mechanochemical reaction between pristine graphite and solid Sb. The covalent bonding of the metalloid Sb with the graphitic carbon is visualized using atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Sb-doped GnPs display zero loss of electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction even after 100,000 cycles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the multiple oxidation states (Sb3+ and Sb5+) of Sb are responsible for the unusual electrochemical stability. Sb-doped GnPs may provide new insights and practical methods for designing stable carbon-based electrocatalysts. PMID:25997811

  8. Highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for bisphenol A detection based on a diazonium-functionalized boron-doped diamond electrode modified with a multi-walled carbon nanotube-tyrosinase hybrid film.

    PubMed

    Zehani, Nedjla; Fortgang, Philippe; Saddek Lachgar, Mohamed; Baraket, Abdoullatif; Arab, Madjid; Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Kherrat, Rochdi; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for the detection of Bisphenol A (BPA) in water has been developed by immobilizing tyrosinase onto a diazonium-functionalized boron doped diamond electrode (BDD) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The fabricated biosensor exhibits excellent electroactivity towards o-quinone, a product of this enzymatic reaction of BPA oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase. The developed BPA biosensor displays a large linear range from 0.01 nM to 100 nM, with a detection limit (LOD) of 10 pM. The feasibility of the proposed biosensor has been demonstrated on BPA spiked water river samples. Therefore, it could be a promising and reliable analytical tool for on-site monitoring of BPA in waste water. PMID:26232678

  9. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S.; Ghosh, C.; Ravindran, T.R.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E.

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ? 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of carbon and boron carbide nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Sara

    Carbon is present in nature in a variety of allotropes and chemical compounds. Due to reduced dimensionality, nanostructured carbon materials, i.e. single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties. There is a potential for SWNTs use as biological probes and assists for tunable tissue growth in biomedical applications. However, the presumed cytotoxicity of SWNTs requires investigation of the risks of their incorporation into living systems. Boron is not found in nature in elementary form. Boron based materials are chemically complex and exist in various polymorphic forms, i.e. boron carbide (BC). Because BC is a lightweight material with exceptional mechanical and elastic properties, it is the ideal candidate for armor and ballistic applications. However, practical use of BC as armor material is limited because of its anomalous glass-like behaviour at high velocity impacts, which has been linked to stress-induced structural instability in one of BC polymorphs, B12(CCC). Theoretical calculations suggest that formation of B12(CCC) in BC could be suppressed by silicon doping. In the first part of this thesis, biocompatibility of SWNTs is investigated. It is shown that under normal cell implantation conditions, the electrical conductivity of the SWNTs decreases due to an increase in structural disorder. This research suggests that SWNTs can be functionalized by protein and biological cells reducing the risk of cytotoxicity. In the second part of this thesis, boron carbide nanostructured materials are synthesized and investigated. Radio frequency sputtering deposition technique is employed for fabrication of BC (Si free) and BC:Si thin films. Variation of plasma conditions and temperature are found to affect chemical composition, adhesion to the substrate and morphology of the films. It is shown that BC films are predominantly amorphous and a small addition of Si largely improves their mechanical properties. In addition, nanostructured BC compounds are fabricated by arc discharge technique using graphite or boron carbide electrodes submerged in liquid nitrogen, de-ionised water, or argon gas. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of the synthesized material confirms formation of various BC and carbon nanostructures. Specifically, arc discharge initiated in inert environment by applying low current leads to the formation of nanostructured BC without contaminants.

  11. Influence of crystalline boron powders on superconducting properties of C-doped internal Mg diffusion processed MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Xianping; Tang, Shaopu; Xu, Da; Yao, Chao; Dong, Chiheng; Xu, Zhongtang; Ma, Yanwei; Oguro, Hidetoshi; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Monofilament MgB2/Fe wires or tapes were fabricated with two different purity crystalline boron powders, using internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) and in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) processes. To evaluate which method was more insensitive to the purity of the boron powders, a sensitivity factor was used. It was found that the IMD process was less sensitive to the purity of the boron powders, compared to the PIT method. Furthermore, J c values of the IMD-processed wires were higher than those of the PIT-processed samples. The reduced porosity and hence the increased density in the IMD-processed samples was thought to be the main reason. Although a number of B-rich particles remained in the MgB2 region, a layer J c as high as 4.8 × 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 10 T was still obtained in the IMD-processed wire, which was comparable to that of IMD-processed wires fabricated using amorphous boron powders.

  12. Boron mullite: Formation and basic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lührs, Hanna; Fischer, Reinhard X.; Schneider, Hartmut; Universität Köln, Institut für Kristallographie, Greinstraße 6, D-50939 Kölm

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Decrease of B-mullite formation temperature with increasing boron content. ? Decrease of lattice parameters b and c with increasing boron content. ? Significant reduction of thermal expansion (?15%) due to incorporation of boron. ? Decomposition of B-mullite at 1400 °C, long-term stability at 800 °C. -- Abstract: A series of boron doped mullites (B-mullite) was prepared from single-phase gels with initial compositions based on a 1:1 isomorphous substitution of Si by B, starting from a 3:2 mullite composition (Al{sub 4.5}Si{sub 1.5}O{sub 9.75}). A high amount of boron (>10 mol.%) can be incorporated into the crystal structure of mullite where it most likely replaces Si. In situ phase formation of B-mullites was studied with high temperature X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. A decrease of the formation temperature for B-mullite with increasing boron content was observed. With increasing boron content lattice parameters b and c significantly decrease, while no systematic evolution of a is observed. Long annealing at 1400 °C results in decomposition of B-mullite to boron free mullite and ?-alumina. At 800 °C B-mullite appears to be stable over a period of at least 12 days. The mean thermal expansion coefficient was reduced by 15% upon incorporation of boron which makes the material technologically interesting.

  13. Development and fabrication of a graphite polyimide box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, M. A.; Darms, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of graphite/polyimide structures was evaluated and key design and fabrication issues to be considered in future hardware programs are defined. The fabrication and testing at 500 F of a graphite/polyimide center wing box beam using OV-10A aircraft criteria was accomplished. The baseline design of this box was developed in a series of studies of other advanced composite materials: glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and boron/polyimide. The use of this basic design permits ready comparison of the performance of graphite/polyimide with these materials. Modifications to the baseline composite design were made only in those areas effected by the change of materials. Processing studies of graphite fiber polyimide resins systems resulted in the selection of a Modmor II/Gemon L material.

  14. BORON-OXYGEN DEFECTS IN COMPENSATED P-TYPE CZOCHRALSKI SILICON D. Macdonald1

    E-print Network

    BORON-OXYGEN DEFECTS IN COMPENSATED P-TYPE CZOCHRALSKI SILICON D. Macdonald1 , A. Liu1 , F: The extent of formation of the well-known boron-oxygen defect has been measured in deliberately compensated p showing that the amount of boron-oxygen defects formed is determined by the net doping p0=NA-ND, rather

  15. Light-induced boron-oxygen defect generation in compensated p-type Czochralski silicon

    E-print Network

    Light-induced boron-oxygen defect generation in compensated p-type Czochralski silicon D. Macdonald; published online 1 May 2009 The concentration of boron-oxygen defects generated in compensated p the concentration and the rate were found to depend on the net doping rather than the total boron concentration

  16. GUM Analysis for TIMS and SIMS Isotopic Ratios in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Gerlach, David C.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Steven L.

    2007-04-01

    This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

  17. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  18. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    Amorphous graphite was mined domestically in 1989. Graphite supplies, particularly of fine crystalline flake, lagged behind industrial demand, which increased substantially from the previous year. Prices of the major imported graphites generally increased from those of 1988. Production of manufactured graphite and graphite fibers decreased slightly and increased by 21% respectively.

  19. Effect of boron doping on the rectification effect and photovoltaic performance of CdS/Si heterostructure based on Si nanoporous pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ling Ling; Wang, Xiao Bo; Liu, Wei Kang; Li, Xin Jian

    2015-07-01

    A series of CdS/Si heterostructures were prepared through growing B-doped CdS thin films on silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The experimental data show that B-doping concentration of CdS thin films could be tuned effectively through controlling the mole ratio of [B]/[Cd] of the initial CBD solution without causing obvious variation of the crystal phase and surface morphology of CdS/Si-NPA. Both the electrical rectification and photovoltaic parameters of CdS/Si-NPA show strong dependence upon B-doping concentration, and the optimal characteristics are achieved for the samples prepared with [B]/[Cd] = 0.01. Compared with CdS/Si-NPA solar cells without B-doping, an increment over 300 times for energy conversion efficiency is realized. The mechanism for the efficiency increment is analyzed based on the effect of B-doping on the band structure of CdS/Si-NPA. These results indicate that B-doping might be an effective path for promoting the device performance of solar cells based on CdS/Si-NPA.

  20. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  1. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Boron and Nitrogen co-doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Protection of Electromagnetic Radiation in Ku-Band.

    PubMed

    Umrao, Sima; Gupta, Tejendra K; Kumar, Shiv; Singh, Vijay K; Sultania, Manish K; Jung, Jung Hwan; Oh, Il-Kwon; Srivastava, Anchal

    2015-09-01

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding of reduced graphene oxide (MRG), B-doped MRG (B-MRG), N-doped MRG (N-MRG), and B-N co-doped MRG (B-N-MRG) have been studied in the Ku-band frequency range (12.8-18 GHz). We have developed a green, fast, and cost-effective microwave assisted route for synthesis of doped MRG. B-N-MRG shows high electrical conductivity in comparison to MRG, B-MRG and N-MRG, which results better electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding ability. The co-doping of B and N significantly enhances the electrical conductivity of MRG from 21.4 to 124.4 Sm(-1) because N introduces electrons and B provides holes in the system and may form a nanojunction inside the material. Their temperature-dependent electrical conductivity follows 2D-variable range hopping (2D-VRH) and Efros-Shklovskii-VRH (ES-VRH) conduction model in a low temperature range (T<50 K). The spatial configuration of MRG after doping of B and N enhances the space charge polarization, natural resonance, dielectric polarization, and trapping of EM waves by internal reflection leading to a high EMI shielding of -42 dB (?99.99% attenuation) compared to undoped MRG (-28 dB) at a critical thickness of 1.2 mm. Results suggest that the B-N-MRG has great potential as a candidate for a new type of EMI shielding material useful in aircraft, defense industries, communication systems, and stealth technology. PMID:26287816

  2. Characterization of nitrogen species incorporated into graphite using low energy nitrogen ion sputtering.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Hisao; Kondo, Takahiro; Sakurai, Masataka; Guo, Donghui; Nakamura, Junji; Niwa, Hideharu; Miyawaki, Jun; Kawai, Maki; Oshima, Masaharu; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The electronic structures of nitrogen species incorporated into highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), prepared by low energy (200 eV) nitrogen ion sputtering and subsequent annealing at 1000 K, were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), angle-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and Raman spectroscopy. An additional peak was observed at higher binding energy of 401.9 eV than 400.9 eV for graphitic1 N (graphitic N in the basal plane) in N 1s XPS, where graphitic2 N (graphitic N in the zigzag edge and/or vacancy sites) has been theoretically expected to appear. N 1s XPS showed that graphitic1 N and graphitic2 N were preferably incorporated under low nitrogen content doping conditions (8 × 10(13) ions cm(-2)), while pyridinic N and graphitic1 N were dominantly observed under high nitrogen content doping conditions. In addition, angle-dependent N 1s XAS showed that the graphitic N and pyridinic N atoms were incorporated into the basal plane of HOPG and thus were highly oriented. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy revealed that low energy sputtering resulted in almost no fraction of the disturbed graphite surface layers under the lowest nitrogen doping condition. The suitable nitrogen doping condition was discovered for realizing the well-controlled nitrogen doped HOPG. The electrochemical properties for the oxygen reduction reaction of these samples in acidic solution were examined and discussed. PMID:26615959

  3. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

    1994-12-13

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

  4. Method for sputtering a PIN microcrystalline/amorphous silicon semiconductor device with the P and N-layers sputtered from boron and phosphorous heavily doped targets

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Annandale, NJ); Maruska, H. Paul (Annandale, NJ)

    1985-04-02

    A silicon PIN microcrystalline/amorphous silicon semiconductor device is constructed by the sputtering of N, and P layers of silicon from silicon doped targets and the I layer from an undoped target, and at least one semi-transparent ohmic electrode.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and fuel cell performance tests of boric acid and boron phosphate doped, sulphonated and phosphonated poly(vinyl alcohol) based composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ahin, Alpay; Ar, ?rfan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize a composite membrane having high proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. In order to achieve this aim, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite membranes are synthesized by using classic sol-gel method. Boric acid (H3BO3) and boron phosphate (BPO4) are added to the membrane matrix in different ratios in order to enhance the membrane properties. Characterization tests, i.e; FT-IR analysis, mechanical strength tests, water hold-up capacities, swelling properties, ion exchange capacities, proton conductivities and fuel cell performance tests of synthesized membranes are carried out. As a result of performance experiments highest performance values are obtained for the membrane containing 15% boron phosphate at 0.6 V and 750 mA/cm2. Water hold-up capacity, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of this membrane are found as 56%, 8%, 1.36 meq/g and 0.37 S/cm, respectively. These values are close to the values obtained ones for perfluorosulphonic acid membranes. Therefore this membrane can be regarded as a promising candidate for usage in fuel cells.

  6. Preparation of graphitic articles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Nemer, Martin; Weigle, John C.

    2010-05-11

    Graphitic structures have been prepared by exposing templates (metal, metal-coated ceramic, graphite, for example) to a gaseous mixture that includes hydrocarbons and oxygen. When the template is metal, subsequent acid treatment removes the metal to yield monoliths, hollow graphitic structures, and other products. The shapes of the coated and hollow graphitic structures mimic the shapes of the templates.

  7. III 1 BORON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron chemistry, analysis, environmental exposure, metabolism, anthropomorphic sources, beneficial physiological effects, and toxicity are reviewed. Boron is widely distributed in nature and always occurs bound to oxygen. Boron biochemistry is essentially that of boric acid, which forms ester comple...

  8. Role of electrode materials for the anodic oxidation of a real landfill leachate--comparison between Ti-Ru-Sn ternary oxide, PbO(2) and boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Marco; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the electrocatalytic properties of Ti-Ru-Sn ternary oxide (TiRuSnO(2)), PbO(2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes have been compared for the electrochemical oxidation of a real landfill leachate from an old municipal solid waste landfill (average values of COD 780 mg dm(-3) and NH(4)(+)-N266 mg dm(-3)). The experiments have been performed using an undivided flow cell equipped with a stainless steel cathode, under constant current of 2 A and flow-rate of 420 dm(3) h(-1). The performance of the electrodes has been compared measuring the time evolution of aromatic compounds, COD, ammonium, colour removal, current efficiency and energy consumption. The experimental results indicated that after 8 h of electrolyses TiRuSnO(2) anode yields only 35% COD, 52% colour and 65% ammonium removal. Using PbO(2) ammonium and colour were completely removed but a residual COD (i.e. 115 mg dm(-3)) was present. On the contrary BDD enables complete COD, colour and ammonium removal due to the electrogeneration of hydroxyl radicals from water discharge and active chlorine from chloride ions oxidation. BDD also exhibits greater current efficiency along with a significantly lower energy cost than other electrodes. These results indicated that the electrochemical oxidation with BDD anode is an effective process for the treatment of landfill leachate. PMID:23026163

  9. Boron induced charge traps near the interface of Si/SiO2 probed by second harmonic generation

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Sharon

    Boron induced charge traps near the interface of Si/SiO2 probed by second harmonic generation for highly boron-doped Si/SiO2 systems. Using electric field sensitive time-dependent SHG (TD-SHG), we determined that the direction of the initial DC electric field at the interface induced by boron induced

  10. Friction and wear of carbon-graphite materials for high energy brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Caliper-type brakes simulation experiments were conducted on seven different carbon-graphite material formulations against a steel disk material and against a carbon-graphite disk material. The effects of binder level, boron carbide (B4C) additions, graphite fiber additions, and graphite cloth reinforcement on friction and wear behavior were investigated. Reductions in binder level and additions of B4C each resulted in increased wear. The wear rate was not affected by the addition of graphite fibers. Transition to severe wear and high friction was observed in the case of graphite-cloth-reinforced carbon sliding against a disk of similar composition. This transition was related to the disruption of a continuous graphite shear film that must form on the sliding surfaces if low wear is to occur. The exposure of the fiber structure of the cloth constituent is believed to play a role in the shear film disruption.

  11. Friction and wear of carbon-graphite materials for high-energy brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Caliper type brake simulation experiments were conducted on seven different carbon graphite materials formulations against a steel disk material and against a carbon graphite disk material. The effects of binder level, boron carbide (B4C) additions, SiC additions, graphite fiber additions, and graphite cloth reinforcement on friction and wear behavior were investigated. Reductions in binder level, additions of B4C, and additions of SiC each resulted in increased wear. The wear rate was not affected by the addition of graphite fibers. Transition to severe wear and high friction was observed in the case of graphite-cloth-reinforced carbon sliding against a disk of similar composition. The transition was related to the disruption of a continuous graphite shear film that must form on the sliding surfaces if low wear is to occur.

  12. Chapter 20: Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Graphite is truly a unique material. Its structure, from the nano- to the millimeter scale give it remarkable properties that lead to numerous and diverse applications. Graphite bond anisotropy, with strong in-plane covalent bonds and weak van der Waals type bonding between the planes, gives graphite its unique combination of properties. Easy shear of the crystal, facilitated by weak interplaner bonds allows graphite to be used as a dry lubricant, and is responsible for the substances name! The word graphite is derived from the Greek to write because of graphites ability to mark writing surfaces. Moreover, synthetic graphite contains within its structure, porosity spanning many orders of magnitude in size. The thermal closure of these pores profoundly affects the properties for example, graphite strength increases with temperature to temperatures in excess of 2200 C. Consequently, graphite is utilized in many high temperature applications. The basic physical properties of graphite are reviewed here. Graphite applications include metallurgical; (aluminum and steel production), single crystal silicon production, and metal casting; electrical (motor brushes and commutators); mechanical (seals, bearings and bushings); and nuclear applications, (see Chapter 91, Nuclear Graphite). Here we discuss the structure, manufacture, properties, and applications of Graphite.

  13. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  14. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W. (Newport News, VA); Jordan, Kevin (Newport News, VA); Park, Cheol (Yorktown, VA)

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  15. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; M.Carroll

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. This development has resulted in graphite being established as a viable structural material for HTGRs. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermomechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. This Technology Development Plan outlines the research and development (R&D) activities and associated rationale necessary to qualify nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor.

  16. Dimerization of boron dopant in diamond (100) epitaxy induced by strong pair correlation on the surface.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaolong; Feng, Yexin; Hu, Zhenpeng; Zhang, Lixin; Wang, E G

    2013-01-30

    Experiments have shown that boron incorporation in diamond epitaxies is orientation dependent. Our first-principles calculations reveal that at a (100) surface, the formation of the boron dimer is more favored than that of the monomer, indicating a high density of ineffective boron formed under heavy doping. The reconstructed surface layer of carbon dimers in which the electrons are strongly pair correlated provides the mechanism. Hydrogen adsorption affects the correlation and thus the favorability of boron dimer formation, while at a (111) surface, the formation of boron monomer is more favored due to the less correlated surface electrons and hydrogen adsorption has no effect on the favorability. PMID:23264460

  17. Mutual relation among lattice distortion, Hall effect property and band edge cathodoluminescence of heavily-boron-doped microwave-plasma CVD diamond films homoepitaxially grown on vicinal (001) high-pressure/high-temperature-synthesized Ib substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Reona; Maida, Osamu; Ito, Toshimichi

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated properties of heavily-B-doped diamond (HBD) films homoepitaxially grown with boron-to-carbon (B/C) mole ratios ranging from 1000 to 5000 ppm in the source gas mainly by using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), cathodoluminescence (CL), and Hall effect measurements. Each HBD layer was deposited on a vicinal (001) substrate of high-pressure/high-temperature synthesized Ib-type diamond with 5° misorientation angle by means of high-power-density microwave-plasma chemical-vapor-deposition method with a source gas composed of 4% CH4 in H2 and H2-diluted B(CH3)3. XRD data indicated that the lattice constant of the B-doped layer slightly decreased for the B/C ratios?3000 ppm while slightly increasing for that of 5000 ppm, suggesting that for the latter HBD sample a part of the incorporated B atoms behaved differently from the remaining other B atoms. By contrast the Hall data indicated that all the HBD samples had a degenerate feature only at temperatures well below room temperature (RT), above which a semiconducting feature was evident, and that the density of the degenerate holes steeply increased from 1.3×1019 to 1.2×1021 cm-3 with increases in the incorporated B density, [B], from 1.2×1020 to 5.9×1020 cm-3. This drastic change in the hole density strongly suggested the presence of a [B]-dependent impurity band. Their evident near-band-edge CL spectra taken at RT and 85 K demonstrated that radiative transition features in the HBD layers considerably varied for the B/C ratios studied. The CL peaks were consistently assigned by assuming both the presence of an impurity band and a slight bandgap shrinkage. These observed features are discussed in relation to the energy separation between the low-mobility impurity band assumed and the valence band in the high-quality HBD layer which are not merged in energy.

  18. Reversible surface two-electron transfer reactions in square wave voltcoulommetry: application to the study of the reduction of polyoxometalate [PMo12O40]3- immobilized at a boron doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Joaquin; Molina, Angela; Lopez-Tenes, Manuela; Karimian, Fereshteh

    2013-09-17

    Reversible surface two-electrons transfer reactions (stepwise processes) are analyzed using square wave voltcoulommetry (SWVC), which is a variety of square wave techniques based on the measurement of the transferred charge. Such reversible surface redox processes are exhibited by many two-redox center and multicenter biomolecules (proteins, enzymes, ...) and inorganic molecules like polyoxometalates (POMs), which have very interesting applications, mainly as electrocatalysts. Because of the stationary character of the response obtained, the key parameters that govern the cooperativity degree of the two reversible electron transfers (ETs) are the difference between their formal potentials, ?E(0), and the square wave amplitude, |E(SW)|, whose combined effect sets the two peaks ? one peak transition in the response. Working curves based on the variation of the peak parameters (peak potentials, half-peak widths, and peak heights) with ?E(0) and |E(SW)| are given, from which the formal potentials and the total surface excess can be accurately determined. SWVC has been applied to the study of the reduction of polyoxometalate [PMo12O40](3-) adsorbed at a boron doped diamond electrode (BDD), for which three stable and well-defined reversible charge peaks, corresponding to three cooperative EE processes, are obtained in the interval (0.6, -0.2) V by using low square wave frequencies. From the analysis of these peaks, the values of the total surface excess and the formal potentials of the six ETs have been obtained in aqueous media for two electrolytes: HClO4 and LiClO4. PMID:23980575

  19. Pulsed laser evaporation of boron/carbon pellets: Infrared spectra and quantum chemical structures and frequencies for BCp

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jan M.L.

    Pulsed laser evaporation of boron/carbon pellets: Infrared spectra and quantum chemical structures March 1993) Pulsed laser evaporation of pellets pressed from boron and graphite powder gave a new 1 by pulsed laser evaporation3 and the formation of small carbon clusters including C3, Cs , Cg, and C

  20. Methods of forming boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  1. Polarization control of an infrared silicon light-emitting diode by dressed photons and analyses of the spatial distribution of doped boron atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazoe, Tadashi; Nishioka, Katsuhiro; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of a polarization-controlled infrared LED fabricated by dressed-photon-phonon (DPP)-assisted annealing of a bulk Si crystal. For the DPP-assisted annealing, linearly polarized infrared light with a wavelength of 1.342 ?m was made normally incident on the top surface of the crystal. The photon energy at the peak of the emitted light spectrum of the fabricated LED was close to that of the light irradiated during the DPP-assisted annealing. A degree of polarization of as large as 0.07 was obtained. The spatial distribution of the doped B atoms in the fabricated LED was measured, and the following findings were obtained: (1) B atoms formed pairs in which the separation between the two B atoms was three times the lattice constant of the Si crystal; and (2) the B atom pairs were apt to orient along the direction perpendicular to the propagation direction and to the polarization direction of the light irradiated during the DPP-assisted annealing. Based on these findings (1) and (2), photon breeding was confirmed with respect to photon energy and spin, respectively.

  2. Study of high resistance inorganic coatings on graphite fibers. [for graphite-epoxy composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Veltri, R. D.; Scola, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Coatings made of boron, silicon carbide, silica, and silica-like materials were studied to determine their ability to increase resistance of graphite fibers. The most promising results were attained by chemical vapor depositing silicon carbide on graphite fiber followed by oxidation, and drawing graphite fiber through ethyl silicate followed by appropriate heat treatments. In the silicon carbide coating studies, no degradation of the graphite fibers was observed and resistance values as high as three orders of magnitude higher than that of the uncoated fiber was attained. The strength of a composite fabricated from the coated fiber had a strength which compared favorably with those of composites prepared from uncoated fiber. For the silica-like coated fiber prepared by drawing the graphite fiber through an ethyl silicate solution followed by heating, coated fiber resistances about an order of magnitude greater than that of the uncoated fiber were attained. Composites prepared using these fibers had flexural strengths comparable with those prepared using uncoated fibers, but the shear strengths were lower.

  3. Burning characteristics and fiber retention of graphite/resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fiber reinforced resin matrix composites were subjected to controlled burning conditions to determine their burning characteristics and fiber retention properties. Two types of burning equipment were used. Small samples were burned with a natural gas fired torch to study the effects of fiber orientation and structural flaws such as holes and slits that were machined into the laminates. Larger laminate samples were burned in a Heat Release Rate Calorimeter. Unidirectional epoxy/graphite and polyimide/graphite composites and boron powder filled samples of each of the two composite systems were burn tested and exposed to a thermal radiation. The effects of fiber orientation, flaws, and boron filler additives to the resins were evaluated. A high char forming polyimide resin was no more effective in retaining graphite fibers than a low char forming epoxy resin when burning in air.

  4. Boron Ion Implantation into Silicon by Use of the Boron Vacuum-Arc Plasma Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.; Moschella, J. J.; Keitz, M. D.

    2006-11-13

    This paper continues with presentation of experimental work pertaining to use of the boron vacuum arc (a.k.a. cathodic arc) plasma generator for boron doping in semiconductor silicon, particularly with a view to the problems associated with shallow junction doping. Progress includes development of an excellent and novel macroparticle filter and subsequent ion implantations. An important perceived issue for vacuum arc generators is the production of copious macroparticles from cathode material. This issue is more important for cathodes of materials such as carbon or boron, for which the particles are not molten or plastic, but instead are elastic, and tend to recoil from baffles used in particle filters. The present design starts with two vanes of special orientation, so as to back reflect the particles, while steering the plasma between the vanes by use of high countercurrents in the vanes. Secondly, behind and surrounding the vanes is a complex system of baffles that has been designed by a computer-based strategy to ultimately trap the particles for multiple bounces. The statistical transmittance of particles is less than 5 per coulomb of boron ions transmitted at a position just a few centimeters outside the filter. This value appears adequate for the silicon wafer application, but improvement is easily visualized as wafers will be situated much further away when they are treated in systems. A total of 11 silicon samples, comprising an area of 250 cm2, have been implanted. Particles were not detected. Sample biases ranged from 60 to 500 V. Boron doses ranged from 5 x 1014 to 5 x 1015/cm2. Exposure times ranged from 20 to 200 ms for average transmitted boron current values of about 125 mA. SIMS concentration profiles from crystalline material are presented. The results appear broadly favorable in relation to competitive techniques and will be discussed. It is concluded that doubly charged boron ions are not present in the plume.

  5. Producing graphite with desired properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, J. M.; Imprescia, R. J.; Reiswig, R. D.; Smith, M. C.

    1971-01-01

    Isotropic or anisotropic graphite is synthesized with precise control of particle size, distribution, and shape. The isotropic graphites are nearly perfectly isotropic, with thermal expansion coefficients two or three times those of ordinary graphites. The anisotropic graphites approach the anisotropy of pyrolytic graphite.

  6. Radiation Effects in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The requirements for a solid moderator are reviewed and the reasons that graphite has become the solid moderator of choice discussed. The manufacture and properties of some currently available near-isotropic and isotropic grades are described. The major features of a graphite moderated reactors are briefly outlined. Displacement damage and the induced structural and dimensional changes in graphite are described. Recent characterization work on nano-carbons and oriented pyrolytic graphites that have shed new light on graphite defect structures are reviewed, and the effect of irradiation temperature on the defect structures is highlighted. Changes in the physical properties of nuclear graphite caused by neutron irradiation are reported. Finally, the importance of irradiation induced creep is presented, along with current models and their deficiencies.

  7. Raman spectroscopic characterization of the core-rim structure in reaction bonded boron carbide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Jannotti, Phillip; Subhash, Ghatu; Zheng, James Q.; Halls, Virginia; Karandikar, Prashant G.; Salamone, S.; Aghajanian, Michael K.

    2015-01-26

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of reaction bonded boron carbide ceramics. Compositional and structural gradation in the silicon-doped boron carbide phase (rim), which develops around the parent boron carbide region (core) due to the reaction between silicon and boron carbide, was evaluated using changes in Raman peak position and intensity. Peak shifting and intensity variation from the core to the rim region was attributed to changes in the boron carbide crystal structure based on experimental Raman observations and ab initio calculations reported in literature. The results were consistent with compositional analysis determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The Raman analysis revealed the substitution of silicon atoms first into the linear 3-atom chain, and then into icosahedral units of the boron carbide structure. Thus, micro-Raman spectroscopy provided a non-destructive means of identifying the preferential positions of Si atoms in the boron carbide lattice.

  8. Effective mechanical properties of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrin, L.; Scarpa, F.; Chowdhury, R.; Adhikari, S.

    2011-12-01

    We propose an analytical formulation to extract from energy equivalence principles the equivalent thickness and in-plane mechanical properties (tensile and shear rigidity, and Poisson's ratio) of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets. The model developed provides not only very good agreement with existing data available in the open literature from experimental, density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, but also highlights the specific deformation mechanisms existing in boron nitride sheets, and their difference with carbon-based graphitic systems.

  9. Boron and Boron Carbide Materials: Nanostructures and Crystalline Solids

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Ravi

    Boron and Boron Carbide Materials: Nanostructures and Crystalline Solids Kah Chun Lau, Yoke Khin popularity between the boron and carbon in the scientific literature. Carbon-based structures are well studied compared with boron-based structures. Consequently, understanding of the role played by boron

  10. Growth of crystals of several boron-carbon compositions by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kevill, D. N.; Rissmann, T. J.; Brewe, D.; Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Boron-carbon compounds have been deposited by the flow of carbon tetrachloride and boron trichloride, in the presence of a large excess of hydrogen, over a graphite surface maintained at 1000-1300 C. Deposits were formed on either an RF-heated disc or a tube or insert heated by a resistance furnace. Crystalline materials ranging in composition from B2C to B17C have been obtained.

  11. Macroscopic Properties of Restacked, Redox-Liquid Exfoliated Graphite and Graphite Mimics Produced in Bulk Quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Vikram K; Quinlan, Ronald; Agapov, Alexander L; Dunlap, John R; Nelson, Kimberly M; Duranty, Edward R; Sokolov, Alexei P; Bhat, Gajanan; Mays, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    The excellent properties exhibited by monolayer graphene have spurred the development of exfoliation techniques using bulk graphite to produce large quantities of pristine monolayer sheets. Development of simple chemistry to exfoliate and intercalate graphite and graphite mimics in large quantities is required for numerous applications. To determine the macroscopic behavior of restacked, exfoliated bulk materials, a systematic approach is presented using a simple, redox-liquid sonication process along to obtain large quantities of 2D and 3D hexagonally layered graphite, molybdenum disulfi de, and boron nitride, which are subsequently characterized to observe chemical and structural changes. For MoS 2 sonicated with the antioxidant sodium bisulfi te, results from Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy indicate the presence of distorted phases from different polymorphs, and apparent nanotube structures in the bulk, restacked powder. Furthermore, using thermograviemtric analysis, the antioxidant enhances the resistance to oxidative degradation of MoS 2 , upon thermal treatment up to 900 C. The addition of the ionic antioxidant decreased dispersion stability in non-polar solvent, suggesting decreased compatibility with non-polar systems. Using simple chemical methods, the ability to generate tailored multidimensional layered materials with unique macroscopic properties is critical for numerous applications, including electrical devices, reinforced polymer composites, lithium ion capacitors, and chemical sensing.

  12. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines

    DOEpatents

    Pappano, Peter J (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael R (Clinton, TN)

    2012-05-08

    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  13. Graphite targets at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Rotating polycrystalline and stationary pyrolytic graphite target designs for the LAMPF experimental area are described. Examples of finite element calculations of temperatures and stresses are presented. Some results of a metallographic investigation of irradiated pyrolytic graphite target plates are included, together with a brief description of high temperature bearings for the rotating targets.

  14. Performance of a diamond x-ray sensor fabricated with metal-less graphitic contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, P.J.; Galbiati, A.

    2005-08-29

    We report the x-ray photocurrent response of a coplanar chemical vapor deposition diamond detector fabricated using a metal-less graphitic ohmic contact. Ion implantation of 70 keV boron ions to a dose of 2x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} was performed through a patterned photoresist to produce a coplanar graphitic contact structure. The device photocurrent showed a fast response to pulsed x-ray irradiation, and showed no evidence of photocurrent persistence that is observed in devices fabricated using metal Schottky contacts. The graphite-contact device also showed no extrinsic photoconductivity when illuminated with white light.

  15. Annealing kinetics of boron-containing centers in electron-irradiated silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Feklisova, O. V. Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2013-02-15

    The annealing kinetics of B{sub i}O{sub i} pairs created by fast-electron irradiation in Si wafers is studied. The wafers are grown by the Czochralski method and doped with boron to different levels. It is found that, at a particular temperature, the annealing rate steadily increases with increasing boron concentration. The results are described with a simple model that takes into consideration the interaction of interstitial boron atoms with oxygen atoms and substitutional boron atoms. In the context of the model, the temperature dependence of the dissociation rate of the B{sub i}O{sub i} complex is calculated.

  16. Spin-polarized electronic current induced by sublattice engineering of graphene sheets with boron/nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoungki; Wadehra, Amita; Wilkins, John W.; Castro Neto, Antonio H.

    2013-02-01

    We show that spin-polarized electron transport can be achieved by the substitutional doping of only one sublattice of graphene by nitrogen or boron atoms. The bipartite character via two sublattices remains persistent in the electronic structures of graphene doped with low concentrations of nitrogens (borons). The delocalized spin-densities induced by the unpaired electrons at substitutional sites permeate only through the sublattice where the nitrogen (boron) atoms belong. For interacting nitrogen (boron) atoms located along the “zigzag” direction and in the same sublattice, the ferromagnetic spin-ordering is favorable, and substitution-induced localized impurity states selectively disturb the spin-polarized ? orbital of that same sublattice. The bipartite character of graphene lattice governs the unique properties of two-dimensional hybrid graphene-boron nitride nanostructures.

  17. The role of boron in ductilizing Ni3Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedula, K.; Shabel, B. S.; Khadkikar, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    Ductilization of Ni3Al at room temperature by microalloying with boron has been primarily attributed to the increased grain boundary cohesion in the presence of boron. However, another aspect of the role played by boron in ductilizing Ni3Al is revealed when the Hall-Petch relationships for Ni3Al and B-doped Ni3Al are compared. A shallower slope for the B-doped Ni3Al compared to that for Ni3Al indicates a reduced resistance to slip propagation across grain boundaries, and therefore reduced stress concentration at boundaries, in the presence of boron. This comparison of Hall-Petch relationships was carried out by generating data for powder processed B-doped Ni3Al at various grain sizes and by compiling data for Ni3Al from the literature. In addition, the room temperature fracture of B-doped Ni3Al has been shown to initiate along certain grain boundaries. The fracture eventually occurs by transgranular ductile tearing.

  18. Deuterium-induced passivation of boron acceptors in polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habka, N.; Chikoidze, E.; Jomard, F.; Dumont, Y.; Chevallier, J.; Barjon, J.; Mer, C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2010-12-01

    In monocrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD), the diffusion of deuterium induces an electrical passivation of acceptors by the formation of (B,D) complexes. However, device applications based on this process are presently limited by the small size of available monocrystalline substrates. In this work, we show that the grain size of polycrystalline diamond is a key parameter in order to achieve efficient deuterium diffusion by trapping on boron atoms. As a result, we present the first clear evidences of the electrical passivation of boron acceptors in the case of polycrystalline diamond layers with an average grain size of 50 ?m. We show that, for a boron concentration of 2×1019 cm-3, the room temperature hole mobility increases from 70 to 120 cm2 V-1 s-1 after deuteration. More surprisingly, the compensation ratio keeps the same order of magnitude which suggests a passivation effect on both acceptors and donors.

  19. Boron: elementary challenge for experimenters and theoreticians.

    PubMed

    Albert, Barbara; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Many of the fundamental questions regarding the solid-state chemistry of boron are still unsolved, more than 200 years after its discovery. Recently, theoretical work on the existence and stability of known and new modifications of the element combined with high-pressure and high-temperature experiments have revealed new aspects. A lot has also happened over the last few years in the field of reactions between boron and main group elements. Binary compounds such as B(6)O, MgB(2), LiB(1-x), Na(3)B(20), and CaB(6) have caused much excitement, but the electron-precise, colorless boride carbides Li(2)B(12)C(2), LiB(13)C(2), and MgB(12)C(2) as well as the graphite analogue BeB(2)C(2) also deserve special attention. Physical properties such as hardness, superconductivity, neutron scattering length, and thermoelectricity have also made boron-rich compounds attractive to materials research and for applications. The greatest challenges to boron chemistry, however, are still the synthesis of monophasic products in macroscopic quantities and in the form of single crystals, the unequivocal identification and determination of crystal structures, and a thorough understanding of their electronic situation. Linked polyhedra are the dominating structural elements of the boron-rich compounds of the main group elements. In many cases, their structures can be derived from those that have been assigned to modifications of the element. Again, even these require a critical revision and discussion. PMID:19830749

  20. Electron oxidation of graphite by fluorospecies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, G.L.

    1984-09-01

    The fluoride-ion affinity (A/sub F/sup -//) of phosphorus pentafluoride was determined to be 100 kcal/mole from the heats of reaction of the Lewis bases SF/sub 4/ and ClO/sub 2/F with PF/sub 5/ near room temperature. The fluoride-ion affinity of boron trifluoride was determined to be 92 kcal/mole from the heat of reaction of ClO/sub 2/F with BF/sub 3/. The crystal structure of ClO/sub 2/BF/sub 4/ was determined and a precise lattice energy was calculated from this structure and used to determined A/sub F/sup -//. Both PF/sub 5/ and BF/sub 3/ were found to react with graphite in the presence of fluorine gas to yield a variety of non-stoichiometric compounds. The fluoride-ion affinity of silicon tetrafluoride is not known, but it does not react with graphite and F/sub 2/ except at high pressures. These and previous results suggested a threshold in oxidizing power of intercalating species below which the oxidative intercalation reaction would not occur. The reduction of C/sub x/PF/sub 6/ by PF/sub 3/ proved that the reaction is thermodynamically controlled to some extent. The displacement of PF/sub 5/ in C/sub x/PF/sub 6/ by BF/sub 3/ (with a smaller A/sub F/sup -//) suggested that two BF/sub 3/ molecules may have a larger fluoride-ion affinity than one PF/sub 5/ and that B/sub 2/F/sub 7//sup -/ may be a stable anion in graphite. Conductivity studies of PF/sub x/ and BF/sub y/ salts showed that a large drop in conductivity when the reaction reaches first stage is due in the most part to direct fluorination of carbon in graphite.

  1. First-principles determination of ultrahigh thermal conductivity of boron arsenide: a competitor for diamond?

    PubMed

    Lindsay, L; Broido, D A; Reinecke, T L

    2013-07-12

    We have calculated the thermal conductivities (?) of cubic III-V boron compounds using a predictive first principles approach. Boron arsenide is found to have a remarkable room temperature ? over 2000 W m(-1) K(-1); this is comparable to those in diamond and graphite, which are the highest bulk values known. We trace this behavior in boron arsenide to an interplay of certain basic vibrational properties that lie outside of the conventional guidelines in searching for high ? materials, and to relatively weak phonon-isotope scattering. We also find that cubic boron nitride and boron antimonide will have high ? with isotopic purification. This work provides new insight into the nature of thermal transport at a quantitative level and predicts a new ultrahigh ? material of potential interest for passive cooling applications. PMID:23889420

  2. First-Principles Determination of Ultrahigh Thermal Conductivity of Boron Arsenide: A Competitor for Diamond?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Reinecke, T. L.

    2013-07-01

    We have calculated the thermal conductivities (?) of cubic III-V boron compounds using a predictive first principles approach. Boron arsenide is found to have a remarkable room temperature ? over 2000Wm-1K-1; this is comparable to those in diamond and graphite, which are the highest bulk values known. We trace this behavior in boron arsenide to an interplay of certain basic vibrational properties that lie outside of the conventional guidelines in searching for high ? materials, and to relatively weak phonon-isotope scattering. We also find that cubic boron nitride and boron antimonide will have high ? with isotopic purification. This work provides new insight into the nature of thermal transport at a quantitative level and predicts a new ultrahigh ? material of potential interest for passive cooling applications.

  3. Boron arsenide thin film solar cell development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, J.L.; Van Doren, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    Pyrolytic decomposition of diborane and arsine has been used in attempts to grow polycrystalline BAs films. This method, however, produced only amorphous films for deposition temperatures below 920/sup 0/C and polycrystalline boron subarsenide (B/sub 12/As/sub 2/) flms for deposition temperatures above this value. The amorphous films have been determined to have a significant arsenic content but the actual stoichiometry was not obtained. The films were adherent on single crystal sapphire (0001), (111) silicon, (0001) SiC, and polycrystalline SiC but were found not to be adherent to substrates of fused quartz, tungsten, and molybdenum. It was also found that all films deposited above 650/sup 0/C were p-type while those deposited below 600/sup 0/C were usually n-type. Polycrystalline BAs and B/sub 12/As/sub 2/ was produced by reaction of the elements in a closed tube. The amorphous films showed an indirect or non-direct optical bandgap from 1.0 to 1.7 eV with the most probable values between 1.2 to 1.4 eV. The crystalline BAs powder shows a bandgap near 1.0 eV. Photoconductance time constants have been measured for films deposited on (0001) sapphire and (0001) SiC. Attempts at doping the amorphous films were generally unsuccessful. A polycrystalline powder sample was successfully doped with sulfur. Attempts were made to produce a Schottky barrier diode by evaporating Al dots onto an amorphous film on graphite without a post-evaporation anneal. An MIS structure was also attempted by baking an amorphous film in air at 280/sup 0/C before evaporation of aluminum. Although nonlinear characteristics were obtained, none of the devices showed any photovoltaic response. A p-type amorphous film was deposited on an n-type silicon substrate to form a p-n heterojunction. This device did exhibit a photovoltaic response but it is believed that the photogeneration was occurring primarily in the silicon substrate.

  4. Intercalated graphite electrical conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    For years NASA has wanted to reduce the weight of spacecraft and aircraft. Experiments are conducted to find a lightweight synthetic metal to replace copper. The subject of this paper, intercalated graphite, is such a material. Intercalated graphite is made by heating petroleum or coal to remove the hydrogen and to form more covalent bonds, thus increasing the molecular weight. The coal or petroleum eventually turns to pitch, which can then be drawn into a fiber. With continued heating the pitch-based fiber releases hydrogen and forms a carbon fiber. The carbon fiber, if heated sufficiently, becomes more organized in parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms in the form of graphite. A conductor of intercalated graphite is potentially useful for spacecraft or aircraft applications because of its low weight.

  5. Passivation effects in B doped self-assembled Si nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Puthen Veettil, B. Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Zhang, Tian; Yang, Terry; Johnson, Craig; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Würfl, Ivan; McCamey, Dane

    2014-12-01

    Doping of semiconductor nanocrystals has enabled their widespread technological application in optoelectronics and micro/nano-electronics. In this work, boron-doped self-assembled silicon nanocrystal samples have been grown and characterised using Electron Spin Resonance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The passivation effects of boron on the interface dangling bonds have been investigated. Addition of boron dopants is found to compensate the active dangling bonds at the interface, and this is confirmed by an increase in photoluminescence intensity. Further addition of dopants is found to reduce the photoluminescence intensity by decreasing the minority carrier lifetime as a result of the increased number of non-radiative processes.

  6. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; R. Bratton

    2007-09-01

    This technology development plan is designed to provide a clear understanding of the research and development direction necessary for the qualification of nuclear grade graphite for use within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor. The NGNP will be a helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Considerable effort will be required to ensure that the graphite performance is not compromised during operation. Based upon the perceived requirements the major data needs are outlined and justified from the perspective of reactor design, reatcor performance, or the reactor safety case. The path forward for technology development can then be easily determined for each data need. How the data will be obtained and the inter-relationships between the experimental and modeling activities will define the technology development for graphite R&D. Finally, the variables affecting this R&D program are discussed from a general perspective. Factors that can significantly affect the R&D program such as funding, schedules, available resources, multiple reactor designs, and graphite acquisition are analyzed.

  7. Effect of electric field on the band structure of graphene/boron nitride and boron nitride/boron nitride bilayers

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Ravi

    Effect of electric field on the band structure of graphene/boron nitride and boron nitride/boron of electric field on the band structure of graphene/boron nitride and boron nitride/boron nitride bilayers of electric field on the band structures of graphene/boron nitride (BN) and BN/BN bilayers is investigated

  8. Structure, Mechanics and Synthesis of Nanoscale Carbon and Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, Steven G.

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In Part I, we examine the properties of thin sheets of carbon and boron nitride. We begin with an introduction to the theory of elastic sheets, where the stretching and bending modes are considered in detail. The coupling between stretching and bending modes is thought to play a crucial role in the thermodynamic stability of atomically-thin 2D sheets such as graphene. In Chapter 2, we begin by looking at the fabrication of suspended, atomically thin sheets of graphene. We then study their mechanical resonances which are read via an optical transduction technique. The frequency of the resonators was found to depend on their temperature, as was their quality factor. We conclude by offering some interpretations of the data in terms of the stretching and bending modes of graphene. In Chapter 3, we look briefly at the fabrication of thin sheets of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes. We examine the structure of the sheets using transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, respectively). We then show a technique by which one can make sheets suspended over a trench with adjustable supports. Finally, DC measurements of the resistivity of the sheets in the temperature range 600 -- 1400 C are presented. In Chapter 4, we study the folding of few-layer graphene oxide, graphene and boron nitride into 3D aerogel monoliths. The properties of graphene oxide are first considered, after which the structure of graphene and boron nitride aerogels is examined using TEM and SEM. Some models for their structure are proposed. In Part II, we look at synthesis techniques for boron nitride (BN). In Chapter 5, we study the conversion of carbon structures of boron nitride via the application of carbothermal reduction of boron oxide followed by nitridation. We apply the conversion to a wide variety of morphologies, including aerogels, carbon fibers and nanotubes, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In the latter chapters, we look at the formation of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In Chapter 6, we look at various methods of producing BNNTs from boron droplets, and introduce a new method involving injection of boron powder into an induction furnace. In Chapter 7 we consider another useful process, where ammonia is reacted with boron vapor generated in situ, either through the reaction of boron with metal oxides or through the decomposition of metal borides.

  9. Oxygen hole doping of nanodiamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Tristan; Arnault, Jean-Charles; Girard, Hugues A.; Sennour, Mohamed; Kang, Tsai-Yang; Cheng, Chia-Liang; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Surface-graphitized nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising hybrid nanomaterials which appear to combine core properties of diamond with surface properties of graphene-based materials. Here we demonstrate that NDs covered by graphene islands, so-called Fullerene-Like Reconstructions (FLRs), are sensitive to hole doping by molecular oxygen in water. NDs covered by FLRs (NDs-FLRs) are prepared by annealing under vacuum of detonation NDs at 750 °C. We propose that oxygen hole doping is promoted on FLRs due to a unique electronic interaction between the diamond core and the outer graphene layer. As a consequence, NDs-FLRs exhibit positive zeta potential in water, unlike NDs surrounded by several graphitic layers. Surface hole-doped NDs may be promising nanomaterials for new electronic and biomedical applications.Surface-graphitized nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising hybrid nanomaterials which appear to combine core properties of diamond with surface properties of graphene-based materials. Here we demonstrate that NDs covered by graphene islands, so-called Fullerene-Like Reconstructions (FLRs), are sensitive to hole doping by molecular oxygen in water. NDs covered by FLRs (NDs-FLRs) are prepared by annealing under vacuum of detonation NDs at 750 °C. We propose that oxygen hole doping is promoted on FLRs due to a unique electronic interaction between the diamond core and the outer graphene layer. As a consequence, NDs-FLRs exhibit positive zeta potential in water, unlike NDs surrounded by several graphitic layers. Surface hole-doped NDs may be promising nanomaterials for new electronic and biomedical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Size distribution of annealed NDs and additional XPS data. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31655b

  10. Charge Transfer Chemical Doping of Few Layer Graphenes: Charge

    E-print Network

    . There is no evidence for chemical reaction disrupting the basal plane electron conjugation. Adsorption of bromine on 1 stoichiometric "stage" compounds (termed graphite intercalation compounds GICs). Bromine creates a stage 2 bulk. The bromine GIC Raman spectrum shows that the graphite G band is energy upshifted by hole doping, from 1580 cm

  11. Control of work function of graphene by plasma assisted nitrogen doping

    SciTech Connect

    Akada, Keishi; Terasawa, Tomo-o; Imamura, Gaku; Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro

    2014-03-31

    Nitrogen doping is expected to provide several intriguing properties to graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment to defect-free and defective highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples causes doping of nitrogen atom into the graphene layer. Nitrogen atoms are initially doped at a graphitic site (inside the graphene) for the defect-free HOPG, while doping to a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site (edge of the graphene) is dominant for the defective HOPG. The work function of graphene correlates strongly with the site and amount of doped nitrogen. Nitrogen atoms doped at a graphitic site lower the work function, while nitrogen atoms at a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site increase the work function. Control of plasma treatment time and the amount of initial defect could change the work function of graphite from 4.3?eV to 5.4?eV, which would open a way to tailor the nature of graphene for various industrial applications.

  12. The structure of boron in boron fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, J.; Krawitz, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of noncrystalline, chemically vapour-deposited boron fibres was investigated by computer modelling the experimentally obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. The diffraction patterns from the models were computed using the Debye scattering equation. The modelling was done utilizing the minimum nearest-neighbour distance, the density of the model, and the broadening and relative intensity of the various peaks as boundary conditions. The results suggest that the fibres consist of a continuous network of randomly oriented regions of local atomic order, about 2 nm in diameter, containing boron atoms arranged in icosahedra. Approximately half of these regions have a tetragonal structure and the remaining half a distorted rhombohedral structure. The model also indicates the presence of many partial icosahedra and loose atoms not associated with any icosahedra. The partial icosahedra and loose atoms indicated in the present model are in agreement with the relaxing sub-units which have been suggested to explain the anelastic behavior of fibre boron and the loosely bound boron atoms which have been postulated to explain the strengthening mechanism in boron fibres during thermal treatment.

  13. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  14. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  15. Electrical Characterization of Boron-Carbon Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Manuel; Adenwalla, Shireen

    2004-03-01

    P-N junction diodes of boron-carbide and silicon have been previously fabricated and used in thermal neutron detection [1, 2]. However, the relation between the structure and electronic behavior of the boron-carbon layer are not fully understood. Thin films of p-type boron-carbon were deposited on Al2O3 substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), approximately 300 nm thick. The precursor compound used was Orthocarborane (closo-1,2-dicarbadodecaborane; C_2B_10H_12). Transport measurements of boron-carbon films on Al_2O3 were performed over a wide range of temperatures (20 K to 500 K). The resistivity at room temperature was found to be approximately 10000 ohm cm, and the temperature dependence showed a linear increase with temperature Analysis of the resistivity revealed the boron-carbon films to be a highly-doped degenerate semiconductor [2]. We discuss the relationship between structure and doping levels in this semiconducting material. [1] Adenwalla, S; Welsch, P; Harken A; Brand, JI; Sezer, A; Robertson, BW; Applied Physics Letters 79(26): 4357-4359 (2001) [2] Robertson, BW; Adenwalla, S; Harken A; Welsch, P; Brand, JI; Dowben, PA; Claasen, JP; Applied Physics Letters 80(19): 3644-3646 (2002) [3] Ashcroft, Neil W., & Mermin, N. David 1976, in Solid State Physics, ed. Thomson (New York: Thomson), 561-585

  16. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  17. Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

  18. Graphite Gamma Scan Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mark W. Drigert

    2014-04-01

    This report documents the measurement and data analysis of the radio isotopic content for a series of graphite specimens irradiated in the first Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, AGC-1. This is the first of a series of six capsules planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphites. The AGC-1 capsule was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INL at approximately 700 degrees C and to a peak dose of 7 dpa (displacements per atom). Details of the irradiation conditions and other characterization measurements performed on specimens in the AGC-1 capsule can be found in “AGC-1 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Report” ORNL/TM 2013/242. Two specimens from six different graphite types are analyzed here. Each specimen is 12.7 mm in diameter by 25.4 mm long. The isotope with the highest activity was 60Co. Graphite type NBG-18 had the highest content of 60Co with an activity of 142.89 µCi at a measurement distance of 47 cm.

  19. Using Graphite to Visualize Network Data

    E-print Network

    Using Graphite to Visualize Network Data Jon Dugan Summer ESCC 2010, Columbus, OH Statistics Overview ESxSNMP (Data Collection) ESxSNMP (Data Collection) Graphite (Visualization) Graphite is Graphite? "Enterprise scalable realtime graphing" · Developed by Orbitz for visualizing internal

  20. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.