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Sample records for boron doped graphite

  1. Structure and electrochemical applications of boron-doped graphitized carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Jae-Seong; Jang, Sang-Min; Miyawaki, Jin; An, Bai; Mochida, Isao; Rhee, Choong Kyun; Yoon, Seong-Ho

    2012-08-01

    Boron-doped graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by optimizing CNFs preparation, surface treatment, graphitization and boron-added graphitization. The interlayer spacing (d002) of the boron-doped graphitized CNFs reached 3.356 , similar to that of single-crystal graphite. Special platelet CNFs (PCNFs), for which d002 is less than 3.400 , were selected for further heat treatment. The first heat treatment of PCNFs at 2800?C yielded a d002 between 3.357 and 3.365 . Successive nitric acid treatment and a second heat treatment with boric acid reduced d002 to 3.356 . The resulting boron-doped PCNFs exhibited a high discharge capacity of 338 mAh g-1 between 0 and 0.5 V versus Li/Li+ and 368 mAh g-1 between 0 and 1.5 V versus Li/Li+. The first-cycle Coulombic efficiency was also enhanced to 71-80%. Such capacity is comparable to that of natural graphite under the same charge/discharge conditions. The boron-doped PCNFs also exhibited improved rate performance with twice the capacity of boron-doped natural graphite at a discharge rate of 5 C.

  2. Comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite crucibles for boron doped silicon epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Dyan; Richardson, Christopher J. K.

    2012-11-15

    This article reports on the comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite as crucible liners in a high-temperature effusion cell used for boron doping in silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis indicates decomposition of the beryllium oxide liner, leading to significant incorporation of beryllium and oxygen in the grown films. The resulting films are of poor crystal quality with rough surfaces and broad x-ray diffraction peaks. Alternatively, the use of pyrolytic graphite crucible liners results in higher quality films.

  3. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Radhika, R.; Kozakov, A. T.; Pandian, R.; Chakravarty, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1-0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2-0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.

  4. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  5. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

    1998-06-09

    A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

  6. Low temperature boron doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hongjun; Arumugam, Prabhu U.; Siddiqui, Shabnam; Carlisle, John A.

    2013-06-01

    Low temperature boron doped diamond (LT-BDD) film deposited under 600 C (460 C minimum) has been reported. Study reveals that the deposition temperature and boron dopant cause nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) instead of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Unlike conventional NCD, LT-BDD has faster renucleation rate, which ensures a low surface roughness (approximately 10 nm at 0.6 ?m thickness). The overall characteristics of LT-BDD are mixed with the characteristics of conventional NCD and UNCD. Raman spectrum and electrochemical characterization prove that the quality of LT-BDD is similar to those grown under 650-900 C. LT-BDD enables diamond applications on microelectromechanical systems, bio- and optical technologies.

  7. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  8. Method for wetting a boron alloy to graphite

    DOEpatents

    Storms, E.K.

    1987-08-21

    A method is provided for wetting a graphite substrate and spreading a a boron alloy over the substrate. The wetted substrate may be in the form of a needle for an effective ion emission source. The method may also be used to wet a graphite substrate for subsequent joining with another graphite substrate or other metal, or to form a protective coating over a graphite substrate. A noneutectic alloy of boron is formed with a metal selected from the group consisting of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt) with excess boron, i.e., and atomic percentage of boron effective to precipitate boron at a wetting temperature of less than the liquid-phase boundary temperature of the alloy. The alloy is applied to the substrate and the graphite substrate is then heated to the wetting temperature and maintained at the wetting temperature for a time effective for the alloy to wet and spread over the substrate. The excess boron is evenly dispersed in the alloy and is readily available to promote the wetting and spreading action of the alloy. 1 fig.

  9. Characterisation of graphite using boron as a marker element

    SciTech Connect

    Kamble, Granthali S.; Pandey, Shailaja; Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Venkatesh, K.; Kumar, Sangita D.; Kameswaran, R.; Reddy, A. V. R.

    2013-06-12

    Graphite has many industrial applications. Two of the most important applications are as electrodes in industries and as moderator in nuclear industry. Determination of the Boron Equivalent of the impurity elements in graphite is the most important parameter for certifying the grade of graphite electrode [1]. The use of a suitable method with low limits of determination of boron is therefore necessary. A method has been standardised in Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC for determining trace amounts of boron in graphite electrodes. It involves controlled dissolution of graphite sample powder and measurement of boron by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) using matrix matched standards. The method detection limit is 1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The method Relative Standard Deviation was 5%. The method was verified by spike recovery experiments. Recoveries were found to be within 100{+-}2% in the concentration range of 1 to 100 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The developed method has been adopted for the compositional characterization of several graphite electrode samples.

  10. Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A. F.; Cao Chao; Cheng, H. P.

    2013-04-28

    First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different bromine concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and bromine atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, bromine is stable in the molecular form (Br{sub 2}). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br{sub 2} molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, bromine is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br{sub 2} molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.

  11. Ground-state properties of boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Zarechnaya, E. Yu. Isaev, E. I. Simak, S. I.; Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.; Dubrovinskaia, N. A.; Abrikosov, I. A.

    2008-04-15

    Boron-doped diamond undergoes an insulator-metal or even a superconducting transition at some critical value of the dopant concentration. We study the equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk modulus of boron-doped diamond experimentally and in the framework of the density functional method for different levels of boron doping. We theoretically consider the possibility for the boron atoms to occupy both substitutional and interstitial positions and investigate their influence on the electronic structure of the material. The data suggest that boron softens the lattice, but softening due to substitutions of carbon with boron is much weaker than due to incorporation of boron into interstitial positions. Theoretical results obtained for substitution of carbon are in very good agreement with our experiment. We present a concentration dependence of the lattice parameter in boron-doped diamond, which can be used for to identify the levels of boron doping in future experiments.

  12. Boron Doping Carbon Structures Using Decaborane? A Theoretical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Carlos; Connolly, Matthew; Beckner, Matthew; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Boron-doped carbon materials have been shown to improve hydrogen storage. Boron-doped activated carbons have been produced using a novel process involving the pyrolysis of a boron containing compound and subsequent high-temperature annealing. A model for the boron doping process based on a Langmuir isotherm is presented. A theoretical study of the interaction of the boron containing compound with the undoped carbon precursor will be presented. Ab-initio calculations of the potential energy surface and the Langmuir isotherm parameters derived from them are also presented. The theoretical study outlines the unique capabilities and limits of this doping procedure.

  13. Energetics of Boron Doping of Carbon Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Carlos; St. John, Alexander; Connolly, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Carbon-based materials show promise, given their light weight, large surface areas and low cost for storage of hydrogen and other gases, e.g., for energy applications. Alas, the interaction of H2 and carbon, 4-5kJ/mol, is insufficient for room-temperature operation. Boron doping of carbon materials could raise the binding energy of H2 to 12-15kJ/mol. The nature of the incorporation of boron into a carbon structure has not been studied so far. In this talk we will address the energetics of boron incorporation into a carbon matrix via adsorption and decomposition of decaborane by first principles calculations. These demonstrate: (a) A strong adsorption of decaborane to carbon (70-80kJ/mol) resulting in easy incorporation of decaborane, sufficient for up to 10-20% B:C at low decaborane vapour pressures. (b) Identification that boron acts as an electron acceptor when incorporated substitutionally into a graphene-like material, as expected due to its valence. (c) The electrostatic field near the molecule is responsible for ca. 2/3 of the enhancement of the H2-adsorbent interaction in aromatic compounds such as pyrene, coronene and ovalene. Supported by DOE DE-FG36-08GO18142, ACS-PRF 52696-ND5, and NSF 1069091.

  14. Boron-Doped Carbon Nanotube Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao Ming; Romero, H. E.; Gutierrez, H. R.; Eklund, P. C.

    2008-03-01

    Here we report room temperature optical and resistivity studies on transparent thin films of bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes exposed to B2O3 at 1000^oC. This reaction is proposed to B-dope the films. They are stable in air. At 300K the four-probe sheet resistance and the optical transmission in the NIR-UV range are used to evaluate the effects of this chemical exposure. Our preliminary results show that for films with a visible optical transmittance around 80% (550nm), the sheet resistance in the pristine film is lowered from 2K? to 300? via B2O3 exposure, a factor of five decrease. We find that the magnitude of the decrease in the sheet resistance increases in samples with higher transmission. Our results suggest that boron-doped SWNT may provide a better approach to touch-screen technology, as well as for transparent contacts in solar cells.

  15. Homoepitaxial deposition of boron-doped single crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Sunil Kumar Lal

    The boron-doped single crystal diamond films were grown homoepitaxially on synthetic (100) Type Ib diamond substrates using a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. The optical transmittance of the films was observed to change with the increasing boron content in the film. The effect of boron and nitrogen on the surface morphology of the film has been studied using atomic force microscopy. Use of nitrogen in process gas during boron doping improves the surface topography as well as gives rise to an increase in growth rate of diamond film. However, presence of nitrogen in the process gas significantly lowers the electrical conductivity of the film. Raman spectra showed a few additional bands at the lower wavenumber regions along with the zone center optical phonon mode for doped diamond. The change in the peak profile of the zone center optical phonon mode and its downshift were observed with the increasing boron content in the film. The sharpening and increase in intensity of the Raman line has been also observed in boron doped diamond film when grown in the presence of nitrogen. Temperature dependent electrical measurement between 90 to 680 K indicates two different conduction mechanisms were responsible for the semiconducting behavior of the film. The observed growth rate for homoepitaxial boron-doped diamond films were in the range of 5-16 microm / hour. Various level of boron doping (1018 to 1020 cm-3) was achieved during this study. The lowest resistivity of one of the boron doped samples at room temperature was calculated to be 0.12 ?cm. The potential of boron-doped single crystal diamond in electronic devices is discussed.

  16. Conductivity of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films: influence of specific boron defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcheulov, P.; ebera, J.; Kovalenko, A.; Petrk, V.; Fendrych, F.; Nesldek, M.; Taylor, A.; Vl?kov ivcov, Z.; Frank, O.; Kavan, L.; Dra?nsk, M.; Hubk, P.; Vack, J.; Kraus, I.; Kratochvlov, I.

    2013-10-01

    The resistivity of boron doped polycrystalline diamond films changes with boron content in a very complex way with many unclear factors. From the large number of parameters affecting boron doped polycrystalline diamond film's conductivity we focused on the role of boron atoms inside diamond grains in terms of boron contribution to the continuum of diamond electronic states. Using a combination of theoretical and experimental techniques (plane-wave Density Functional Theory, Neutron Depth Profiling, resistivity and Hall effect measurements, Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy) we studied a wide range of B defect parameters - the boron concentration, location, structure, free hole concentration and mobility. The main goal and novelty of our work was to find the influence of B defects (structure, interactions, charge localisation and spins) in highly B-doped diamonds - close or above the metal-insulator transition - on the complex material charge transport mechanisms.

  17. Measured Enthalpies of Adsorption of Boron-Doped Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckner, M.; Romanos, J.; Dohnke, E.; Singh, A.; Schaeperkoetter, J.; Stalla, D.; Burress, J.; Jalisatgi, S.; Suppes, G.; Hawthorne, M. F.; Yu, P.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.

    2012-02-01

    There is significant interest in the properties of boron-doped activated carbons for their potential to improve hydrogen storage.ootnotetextMultiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage, P. Pfeifer et al. DOE Hydrogen Program 2011 Annual Progress Report, IV.C.3, 444-449 (2011). Boron-doped activated carbons have been produced using a process involving the pyrolysis of decaborane (B10H14) and subsequent high-temperature annealing. In this talk, we will present a systematic study of the effect of different boron doping processes on the samples' structure, hydrogen sorption, and surface chemistry. Initial room temperature experiments show a 20% increase in the hydrogen excess adsorption per surface area compared to the undoped material. Experimental enthalpies of adsorption will be presented for comparison to theoretical predictions for boron-doped carbon materials. Additionally, results from a modified version of the doping process will be presented.

  18. Green synthesis of boron doped graphene and its application as high performance anode material in Li ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sreena, K.P.; Vinayan, B.P.; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Boron doped graphene (B-G), synthesized by simple hydrogen induced reduction technique using boric acid as boron precursor, have more uneven surface as a result of smaller bonding distance of boron compared to carbon, showed high capacity and high rate capability compared to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery application. - Abstract: The present work demonstrates a facile route for the large-scale, catalyst free, and green synthesis approach of boron doped graphene (B-G) and its use as high performance anode material for Li ion battery (LIB) application. Boron atoms were doped into graphene framework with an atomic percentage of 5.93% via hydrogen induced thermal reduction technique using graphite oxide and boric acid as precursors. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm the boron doping in graphene sheets. B-G as anode material shows a discharge capacity of 548 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} after 30th cycles. At high current density value of 1 A g{sup −1}, B-G as anode material enhances the specific capacity by about 1.7 times compared to pristine graphene. The present study shows a simplistic way of boron doping in graphene leading to an enhanced Li ion adsorption due to the change in electronic states.

  19. Characteristics of deposited boron doping diamond on tungsten carbide insert by MPECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Seok; Park, Yeong Min; Kim, Jeong Wan; Tulugan, Kelimu; Kim, Tae Gyu

    2015-03-01

    Diamond-coated cutting tools are used primarily for machining non-ferrous materials such as aluminum-silicon alloys, copper alloys, fiber-reinforced polymers, green ceramics and graphite. Because the tool life of cemented carbide cutting tool is greatly improved by diamond coating, and typically more than 10 times of the tool life is obtained. However, research of boron-doped diamond (BDD) coating tool has not been fully researched yet. In this study, we have succeeded to make boron-doped microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond-coated Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) inserts. Microcrystalline BDD thin film is deposited on WC-Co insert by using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the as-deposited diamond films.1,2

  20. Flexible Boron-Doped Laser-Induced Graphene Microsupercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Ye, Ruquan; Mann, Jason A; Zakhidov, Dante; Li, Yilun; Smalley, Preston R; Lin, Jian; Tour, James M

    2015-06-23

    Heteroatom-doped graphene materials have been intensely studied as active electrodes in energy storage devices. Here, we demonstrate that boron-doped porous graphene can be prepared in ambient air using a facile laser induction process from boric acid containing polyimide sheets. At the same time, active electrodes can be patterned for flexible microsupercapacitors. As a result of boron doping, the highest areal capacitance of as-prepared devices reaches 16.5 mF/cm(2), 3 times higher than nondoped devices, with concomitant energy density increases of 5-10 times at various power densities. The superb cyclability and mechanical flexibility of the device are well-maintained, showing great potential for future microelectronics made from this boron-doped laser-induced graphene material. PMID:25978090

  1. Boron-doped back-surface fields using an aluminum-alloy process

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.; Bode, M.D.; Silva, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Boron-doped back-surface fields (BSF`s) have potentially superior performance compared to aluminum-doped BSF`s due to the higher solid solubility of boron compared to aluminum. However, conventional boron diffusions require a long, high temperature step that is both costly and incompatible with many photovoltaic-grade crystalline-silicon materials. We examined a process that uses a relatively low-temperature aluminum-alloy process to obtain a boron-doped BSF by doping the aluminum with boron. In agreement with theoretical expectations, we found that thicker aluminum layers and higher boron doping levels improved the performance of aluminum-alloyed BSF`s.

  2. Boron doped polycrystalline diamond films for strain sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wur, D.; Davidson, J.L.; Kang, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    It has been recently established in our work and others that boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films (PDF) have piezoresistivity (PZR). This property opens PDF to the field of sensor applications using strain sensing. Polycrystalline diamond films have been prepared with microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and boron-doped to p-type semiconductors. In addition, by combining the piezoresistive effect in doped PDF and the insulating property of undoped PDF, whereby doped diamond resistors reside on a dielectric diamond substrate diaphragm, a monolithic all-diamond microstructure for examining the strain response of patterned p-doped diamond PZRs was fabricated and characterized. This work examines some critical issues of diamond for strain sensing applications such as its rupture stress and edge stress of diamond diaphragm and the high temperature responses of a diamond strain sensor.

  3. Boron-doped superlattices and Bragg mirrors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, A.; Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Omns, F.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Bustarret, E.

    2014-08-01

    A periodic modulation of the boron doping level of single crystal diamond multilayers over more than three orders of magnitude during epitaxial growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is shown to yield Bragg mirrors in the visible. The thicknesses and doping level of the individual layers were controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, enabling to tune the reflectance peak to the wavelength range of diamond color centers, such as NV0 or NV-. The crystalline quality, periodicity, and sharpness of the doping transitions in these doping superlattices over tens of periods were confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction.

  4. Boron-doped superlattices and Bragg mirrors in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Fiori, A.; Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E.; Bellet-Amalric, E.

    2014-08-25

    A periodic modulation of the boron doping level of single crystal diamond multilayers over more than three orders of magnitude during epitaxial growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is shown to yield Bragg mirrors in the visible. The thicknesses and doping level of the individual layers were controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, enabling to tune the reflectance peak to the wavelength range of diamond color centers, such as NV{sup 0} or NV{sup −}. The crystalline quality, periodicity, and sharpness of the doping transitions in these doping superlattices over tens of periods were confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction.

  5. Temperature admittance spectroscopy of boron doped chemical vapor deposition diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, V. I.; Kucherova, O. V.; Bogdanov, S. A.; Zubkova, A. V.; Butler, J. E.; Ilyin, V. A.; Afanas'ev, A. V.; Vikharev, A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Precision admittance spectroscopy measurements over wide temperature and frequency ranges were carried out for chemical vapor deposition epitaxial diamond samples doped with various concentrations of boron. It was found that the experimentally detected boron activation energy in the samples decreased from 314 meV down to 101 meV with an increase of B/C ratio from 600 to 18000 ppm in the gas reactants. For the heavily doped samples, a transition from thermally activated valence band conduction to hopping within the impurity band (with apparent activation energy 20 meV) was detected at temperatures 120-150 K. Numerical simulation was used to estimate the impurity DOS broadening. Accurate determination of continuously altering activation energy, which takes place during the transformation of conduction mechanisms, was proposed by numerical differentiation of the Arrhenius plot. With increase of boron doping level the gradual decreasing of capture cross section from 3 × 10-13 down to 2 × 10-17 cm2 was noticed. Moreover, for the hopping conduction the capture cross section becomes 4 orders of magnitude less (˜2 × 10-20 cm2). At T > Troom in doped samples the birth of the second conductance peak was observed. We attribute it to a defect, related to the boron doping of the material.

  6. Fabrication of boron-doped carbon fibers by the decomposition of B4C and its excellent rate performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqi; Ma, Canliang; Yang, Xueteng; Han, Tao; Tao, Zechao; Song, Yan; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui; Liu, Lang

    2015-03-01

    A facile route, for the first time, was developed to fabricate boron-doped carbon fibers (BDCFs). Boron was doped into mesosphere pitch-based carbon fibers (CFs) by exposing the CFs in a vapor of boron by the decomposition of boron carbide. The microstructure of BDCFs was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. When used as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, BDCFs electrode exhibits an improved performance. Concretely, the specific capacity of BDCFs still had a value of over 400 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. Moreover, BDCFs exhibits better rate capability and less hysteresis in comparison to the pristine CFs. Such enhanced lithium storage capability can be attributed to the improvement of graphitization properties and the high amount of defects induced by boron.

  7. Superconductivity of hexagonal heavily-boron doped silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriener, M.; Muranaka, T.; Ren, Z.-A.; Kato, J.; Akimitsu, J.; Maeno, Y.

    2009-03-01

    In 2004 the discovery of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond (C:B) led to an increasing interest in the superconducting phases of wide-gap semiconductors. Subsequently superconductivity was found in heavily boron-doped cubic silicon (Si:B) and recently in the stochiometric "mixture" of heavily boron-doped silicon carbide (SiC:B). The latter system surprisingly exhibits type-I superconductivity in contrast to the type-II superconductors C:B and Si:B. Here we will focus on the specific heat of two different superconducting samples of boron-doped SiC. One of them contains cubic and hexagonal SiC whereas the other consists mainly of hexagonal SiC without any detectable cubic phase fraction. The electronic specific heat in the superconducting state of both samples SiC:B can be described by either assuming a BCS-type exponentional temperature dependence or a power-law behavior.

  8. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of thermomechanically processed sulfur and boron doped amorphous carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Lonnie

    Small scale, high power density, reliable, and long-life power supplies would be useful or even critical for space missions or the growing number of microdetectors, microsensors, and miniature vehicles. Alpha or beta particle voltaic devices could satisfy these requirements but have been shown to degrade quickly due to radiation damage. Amorphous carbon (a-C) PN junctions or PIN devices could provide radiation hardness and sufficiently high efficiency. As the range of alpha and beta particles in a-C is 20-120microm, much thicker films than are typical are needed to maximize collection of the particle energy. In this work, the fabrication of thermomechanically processed p- and n-type doped a-C films were investigated as a first step in the future development of radiation hard voltaic devices. Boron carbide (B4C) powder was mixed with a-C nanopowders as a possible p-type dopant with sulfur powder utilized as a possible n-type dopant. Doping levels of 2.5at%, 5.0at%, and 10.0at% were investigated for both dopants with films pressed at 109C over a pressure range of 0.3-5.0GPa. Initial attempts to fabricate rectifying PN junctions and PIN devices was unsuccessful. Bonding properties were characterized using Raman spectroscopy with electronic properties primarily assessed using the van der Pauw method. Undoped a-C and boron-doped films were found to be slightly p-type with sulfur-doped films converting to n-type. All films were found to consist almost entirely of nano-graphitic sp2 rings with only slight changes in disorder at different pressures. Sulfur doped films were less brittle which is indicative of crosslinking. Boron doping did not significantly change the film electronic properties and is not an effective dopant at these temperatures and pressures. Sulfur doping had a greater effect and could likely be utilized as basis for an n-type material in a device. Initial irradiation studies using alpha particles showed that boron and undoped films became more p-type with sulfur films converting to p-type. The sulfur doped films returned to n-type after isothermal annealing.

  10. Influence of Si Co-doping on electrical transport properties of magnesium-doped boron nanoswords

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Yuan; Lu Hongliang; Tian Jifa; Li Chen; Hui Chao; Shi Xuezhao; Huang Yuan; Shen Chengmin; Gao Hongjun

    2012-03-05

    Magnesium-doped boron nanoswords were synthesized via a thermoreduction method. The as-prepared nanoswords are single crystalline and {beta}-rhombohedral ({beta}-rh) phase. Electrical transport measurements show that variable range hopping conductivity increases with temperature, and carrier mobility has a greater influence than carrier concentration. These results are consistent with the three dimensional Mott's model (M. Cutler and N. F. Mott, Phys. Rev. 181, 1336 (1969)) besides a high density of localized states at the Fermi level compared with bulk {beta}-rh boron. Conductivity of Mg-doped boron nanoswords is significantly lower than that of ''pure'' (free of magnesium) boron nanoswords. Electron energy loss spectroscopy studies confirm that the poorer conductivity arises from silicon against magnesium doping.

  11. Theoretical buckling loads of boron/aluminum and graphite/resin fiber composite anisotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical results are presented for the buckling of anisotropic plates. The plates are subjected to simple and combined in-plane loading. The plates are made from fiber composite material of boron/aluminum or high-modulus graphite/resin. The results are presented in nondimensional form as buckling load against fiber orientation angle for various plate aspect ratios. The results indicate that buckling loads of boron/aluminum plates are independent of fiber direction if the plate aspect ratios are greater than about 1, and moderately dependent when this ratio is less than about 1. In addition, the results indicate that the buckling loads are independent of aspect ratio for plates with aspect ratios greater than about 2. Boron/ aluminum composite plates can resist buckling loads more efficiently than graphite/resin composites on a specific buckling stress basis. The numerical algorithm and a listing of the computer code used to obtain the results are included.

  12. Effects of Boron Doping on the Properties of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wen-Xiang; WU, Q. X.; Luo, Z. K.; Wu, H. S.

    2014-04-01

    Boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were fabricated on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. UNCD films containing different concentrations of boron were prepared by using trimethylboron (B(CH3)3, TMB) as boron doping source and varying the amount of boron in the gas mixture from 0 ppm to 1000 ppm. The effects of boron doping on morphology, lattice parameter, phase composition, crystal size, and residual stress of UNCD films were investigated. No obvious change of the morphology was observed on doping with boron, and all the films had the UNCD crystal grains. Boron doping enhanced (111) growth. The preferred growth direction of the UNCD films was . Residual tensile stress was present in all the films, and increased with increasing the amount of boron in the gas mixture.

  13. Phase transformations of nano-sized cubic boron nitride to white graphene and white graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Wenhua; Anderson, Ryan S.; Sewell, Cody R.; Xue, Sha; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Shen, Yaogen; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-03

    We report quantum-mechanical investigations that predict the formation of white graphene and nano-sized white graphite from the first-order phase transformations of nano-sized boron nitride thin-films. The phase transformations from the nano-sized diamond-like structure, when the thickness d > 1.4 nm, to the energetically more stable nano-sized white graphite involve low activation energies of less than 1.0 eV. On the other hand, the diamond-like structure transforms spontaneously to white graphite when d ≤ 1.4 nm. In particular, the two-dimensional structure with single-layer boron nitride, the so-called white graphene, could be formed as a result of such transformation.

  14. Phase transformations of nano-sized cubic boron nitride to white graphene and white graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Wenhua; Anderson, Ryan S.; Sewell, Cody R.; Xue, Sha; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Shen, Yaogen; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-01

    We report quantum-mechanical investigations that predict the formation of white graphene and nano-sized white graphite from the first-order phase transformations of nano-sized boron nitride thin-films. The phase transformations from the nano-sized diamond-like structure, when the thickness d > 1.4 nm, to the energetically more stable nano-sized white graphite involve low activation energies of less than 1.0 eV. On the other hand, the diamond-like structure transforms spontaneously to white graphite when d ? 1.4 nm. In particular, the two-dimensional structure with single-layer boron nitride, the so-called white graphene, could be formed as a result of such transformation.

  15. Investigation of the boron-doped CVD diamond films for use in sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shenzhong; Zhu, Jianzhong; Yao, Youfang; Lu, Xingen; Zhang, Xikang

    1994-10-01

    Boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films may have some use in electroanalysis since the doped diamond films are electrically conductive and chemically inert. In order to use the boron doped diamond thin films as an active electrode in sensors, we have investigated properties of the boron doped diamond thin films grown on silicon substrates by hot-filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a gas mixture of methane and hydrogen. As-deposited films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy for their chemical nature and morphology, respectively. In situ doping of boron was achieved by heating H3BO3 powder during the deposition. The electrochemical behavior of the boron doped diamond thin film electrodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry. A reduction peak of Fe3+ was observed. Our results show that the boron doped diamond thin films possess suitable properties of an electrode material for use in sensors.

  16. Annealing studies of highly doped boron superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Jackman, T. E.; Houghton, D. C.; Jackman, J. A.; Denhoff, M. W.; Kechang, S.; McCaffrey, J.; Rockett, A.

    1989-09-01

    Coevaporation of B/sub 2/ O/sub 3/ during silicon molecular-beam epitaxy at growth temperatures (/ital T//sub /ital G// ) varying from 540 to 800 /degree/C has been used to prepare superlattice structures (/ital pipi/'s) of varying boron concentration (3/times/10/sup 18/ --3/times/10/sup 20/ B cm/sup /minus/3/). The superlattices were subsequently subjected to various annealing procedures and the layers were examined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, electrochemical profiling, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. A significant redistribution of boron was observed even before annealing for /ital T//sub /ital G// /gt/700 /degree/C and high boron concentrations. In addition, significant oxygen was incorporated for /ital T//sub /ital G// /le/700 /degree/C, with a growth rate of 0.5 nm s/sup /minus/1/ and a B/sub 2/ O/sub 3/ flux of 2/times/10/sup 13/ cm/sup /minus/2/ s/sup /minus/1/. After annealing, the boron diffusion coefficients were determined for the layers and found to vary significantly with /ital T//sub /ital G//.

  17. Peculiarities of boron distribution in as-grown boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, V. D.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Terentiev, S. A.; Nosukhin, S. A.; Kuznetsov, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) single crystals have been grown under conditions of high isostatic pressure by the temperature gradient method. Numerous equilateral triangles were found on the fluorescence images of {111}-diamond facets. Structural peculiarities of BDD were investigated by JEM-2010 transmission electron microscope with GIF Quantum attachment for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). High resolution image of diamond lattice revealed some distorted {111}-layers. EELS testifies the presence of boron in distorted regions of diamond lattice. The crystallographic features of BDD and their connection with the superconductivity are discussed.

  18. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Aluminum Doped Boron Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Li; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Anionic boron clusters have been shown to be planar or quasi-planar up to B21- from a series of combined photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies. All these boron clusters consist of a peripheral ring characterized by strong two-center-two-electron (2c-2e) B-B bonds and one or more interior atoms. The propensity for planarity is due to ? - and ? -electron delocalizations throughout the molecular plane, giving rise to concepts of ? - and ? -aromaticity. The quasi-planarity, on the other hand, can be mechanical in nature - the circumference of the cluster is too small to fit the inner atoms - even for doubly aromatic clusters. Two questions arise: firstly, can isoelectronic substitution by a single aluminum atom on the outer ring enhance the planarity of quasi-planar structures, and, secondly, can the interior boron atoms be replaced by aluminum? A series of aluminum isoelectronic substitution of boron clusters have been investigated ranging from B7- to B12-. Aluminum turns out to avoid the central position in the all these clusters and enhance the planarity of AlB6- and AlB11- clusters by expanding the peripheral ring. References: [1] C. Romanescu, A. P. Sergeeva, W. L. Li, A. I. Boldyrev and L. S. Wang, {J. Am. Chem. Soc}. {133} (22), 8646-8653 (2011) [2] T. R. Galeev, C. Romanescu, W. L. Li, L. S. Wang and A. I. Boldyrev, {J. Chem. Phys.} {135}, (8) 104301 (2011) [3] W. L. Li, C. Romanescu, T. R. Galeev, L. S. Wang and A. I. Boldyrev, {J. Phys. Chem. A} {115} (38), 10391-10397 (2011)

  19. Hydrogen adsorption on nitrogen and boron doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzochero, Michele; Leenaerts, Ortwin; Partoens, Bart; Martinazzo, Rocco; Peeters, Franois M.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen adsorption on boron and nitrogen doped graphene is investigated in detail by means of first-principles calculations. A comprehensive study is performed of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms and atom pairs near the dopant sites. The main effect of the substitutional atoms is charge doping which is found to greatly affect the adsorption process by increasing the binding energy at the sites closest to the substitutional species. It is also found that doping does not induce magnetism despite the odd number of electrons per atom introduced by the foreign species, and that it quenches the paramagnetic response of chemisorbed H atoms on graphene. Overall, the effects are similar for B and N doping, with only minor differences in the adsorption energetics due to different sizes of the dopant atoms and the accompanying lattice distortions.

  20. Electrochemical hydrogen termination of boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Rene; Kriele, Armin; Obloh, Harald; Hees, Jakob; Wolfer, Marco; Smirnov, Waldemar; Yang Nianjun; Nebel, Christoph E.

    2010-08-02

    Boron-doped diamond is a promising transducer material for numerous devices which are designed for contact with electrolytes. For optimized electron transfer the surface of diamond needs to be hydrogen terminated. Up to now H-termination of diamond is done by plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. In this paper, we show that boron-doped diamond can be H-terminated electrochemically by applying negative voltages in acidic solutions. Electrochemical H-termination generates a clean surface with virtually no carbon-oxygen bonds (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), a reduced electron affinity (scanning electron microscopy), a highly hydrophobic surface (water contact angle), and a fast electron exchange with Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup -3/-4} (cyclic voltammetry).

  1. Electrochemical hydrogen termination of boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Ren; Kriele, Armin; Obloh, Harald; Hees, Jakob; Wolfer, Marco; Smirnov, Waldemar; Yang, Nianjun; Nebel, Christoph E.

    2010-08-01

    Boron-doped diamond is a promising transducer material for numerous devices which are designed for contact with electrolytes. For optimized electron transfer the surface of diamond needs to be hydrogen terminated. Up to now H-termination of diamond is done by plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. In this paper, we show that boron-doped diamond can be H-terminated electrochemically by applying negative voltages in acidic solutions. Electrochemical H-termination generates a clean surface with virtually no carbon-oxygen bonds (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), a reduced electron affinity (scanning electron microscopy), a highly hydrophobic surface (water contact angle), and a fast electron exchange with Fe(CN)6-3/-4 (cyclic voltammetry).

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of nitrogen- and boron-doped graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoi, Susumu; Kim, Jung Gon; Hasuike, Noriyuki; Kisoda, Kenji; Harima, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen- and boron-doped graphene layers were grown on copper substrates by alcoholic chemical vapor deposition and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical transport measurements. The growth of high-quality monolayer graphene was confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The G and 2D peaks showed systematic frequency shift and broadening with the impurity concentration. The G peaks showed Fano-like asymmetric line shapes. These behaviors suggested the generation of free carriers by doping. XPS and electrical transport measurements also supported the systematic incorporation of impurities in graphene layers.

  3. Atomically controlled substitutional boron-doping of graphene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Shigeki; Saito, Shohei; Osumi, Shinichiro; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro; Foster, Adam S.; Spijker, Peter; Meyer, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Boron is a unique element in terms of electron deficiency and Lewis acidity. Incorporation of boron atoms into an aromatic carbon framework offers a wide variety of functionality. However, the intrinsic instability of organoboron compounds against moisture and oxygen has delayed the development. Here, we present boron-doped graphene nanoribbons (B-GNRs) of widths of N=7, 14 and 21 by on-surface chemical reactions with an employed organoboron precursor. The location of the boron dopant is well defined in the centre of the B-GNR, corresponding to 4.8 atom%, as programmed. The chemical reactivity of B-GNRs is probed by the adsorption of nitric oxide (NO), which is most effectively trapped by the boron sites, demonstrating the Lewis acid character. Structural properties and the chemical nature of the NO-reacted B-GNR are determined by a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy, high-resolution atomic force microscopy with a CO tip, and density functional and classical computations. PMID:26302943

  4. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  5. Nitrogen-Doped Graphitic Nanoribbons: Synthesis, Characterization and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Xiaoting; Dresselhaus, M; Cruz Silva, Eduardo; Munoz-Sandoval, E; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Lopez, Florentino

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic nanoribbons (Nx-GNRs), synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using pyrazine as a nitrogen precursor, are reported for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveal that the synthesized materials are formed by multi-layered corrugated graphitic nanoribbons (GNRs) which in most cases exhibit the formation of curved graphene edges (loops). This suggests that during growth, nitrogen atoms promote loop formation; undoped GNRs do not form loops at their edges. Transport measurements on individual pure carbon GNRs exhibit a linear I-V (current-voltage) behavior, whereas Nx-GNRs show reduced current responses following a semiconducting-like behavior, which becomes more prominent for high nitrogen concentrations. To better understand the experimental findings, electron density of states (DOS), quantum conductance for nitrogen doped zigzag and armchair single-layer GNRs are calculated for different N doping concentrations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green functions. These calculations confirm the crucial role of nitrogen atoms in the transport properties, confirming that the nonlinear I-V curves are due to the presence of nitrogen atoms within the Nx-GNRs lattice that act as scattering sites. These characteristic Nx-GNRs transport could be advantageous in the fabrication of electronic devices including sensors in which metal-like undoped GNRs are unsuitable.

  6. Superconductivity in Li-doped {alpha}-rhombohedral boron

    SciTech Connect

    Nagatochi, T.; Sumiyoshi, A.; Kimura, K.; Hyodo, H.; Soga, K.; Sato, Y.; Terauchi, M.; Esaka, F.

    2011-05-01

    Metal transition and superconductivity were observed in Li-doped {alpha}-rhombohedral boron ({alpha}-B{sub 12}). The authors have established a purification method and obtained a large amount of high-purity {alpha}-B{sub 12} powder. Li doping into purified {alpha}-B{sub 12} was attempted by vapor diffusion processing (VDP) in a Mo or Ta tube. Li-doped {alpha}-B{sub 12} contained metallic glittering particles. Meissner effects were observed in such a compound with the nominal composition Li{sub x}B{sub 12} (x = 1.0, 1.4, 1.5, 1.7, or 2.5) (T{sub c} = 3.2-7 K). As for Li{sub 2.5}B{sub 12}, the temperature dependence of its electrical conductivity indicates a metallic character and its electrical resistivity drop is detected near the Meissner temperature. The existence of Li and Fermi edges in Li-doped {alpha}-B{sub 12} crystals was verified by transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). Lattice expansion, which is a well-known indicator of metal doping into a crystal, was also observed. Thus, Li doping into {alpha}-B{sub 12} was successfully achieved. Our work also suggests that it is possible to dope a larger amount of Li into {alpha}-B{sub 12} and to increase its T{sub c}.

  7. Laser doping of boron-doped Si paste for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomizawa, Yuka; Imamura, Tetsuya; Soeda, Masaya; Ikeda, Yoshinori; Shiro, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Boron laser doping (LD) is a promising technology for high-efficiency solar cells such as p-type passivated locally diffused solar cells and n-type Si-wafer-based solar cells. We produced a printable phosphorus- or boron-doped Si paste (NanoGram Si paste/ink) for use as a diffuser in the LD process. We used the boron LD process to fabricate high-efficiency passivated emitter and rear locally diffused (PERL) solar cells. PERL solar cells on Czochralski Si (Cz-Si) wafers yielded a maximum efficiency of 19.7%, whereas the efficiency of a reference cell was 18.5%. Fill factors above 79% and open circuit voltages above 655 mV were measured. We found that the boron-doped area effectively performs as a local boron back surface field (BSF). The characteristics of the solar cell formed using NanoGram Si paste/ink were better than those of the reference cell.

  8. ESR and Microwave Absorption in Boron Doped Diamond Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Superconductivity has been reportedly found in boron-doped diamond. Most research to date has only studied superconductivity in polycrystalline and thin film boron-diamonds, as opposed to a single crystal. In fact, only one other group has examined a macro scale boron-doped diamond crystal. Our group has successfully grown large single crystals by using the High Temperature High Pressure method (HTHP) and observed a transition to metallic and superconducting states for high B concentrations. For the present, we are studying BDD crystal using Electron Spin Resonance. We conducted our ESR analysis over a range of temperatures (2K to 300K) and found several types of signals, proving the existence of charge carriers with spin 1/2 in BDD. Moreover, we have found that with increasing B concentrations, from n ~ 1018 cm-3 to n of over 1020 cm-3, the ESR signal changes from that of localized spins to the Dysonian shape of free carriers. The low magnetic field microwave absorption has also been studied in BDD samples at various B concentrations and the clear transition to superconducting state has been found below Tc that ranges from 2K to 4 K depending on concentration and quality of crystal. Sergey Polyakov, Victor Denisov, Vladimir Blank, Ray Baughman, Anvar Zakhidov.

  9. Evidence of superconductivity in doped graphite and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkins, Grover; Vlasov, Yuriy; Holland, Kiar

    2016-01-01

    We have observed evidence of superconductivity at temperatures in the vicinity of 260 K in phosphorus-doped graphite and graphene. This evidence includes transport current, magnetic susceptibility, Hall effect and (pancake) vortex state measurements. All of these measurements indicate a transition which is that of a type II superconductor with no type I phase until below the limits of our measurement capabilities. Vortex states are inferred from periodically repeated steps in the resistance versus temperature characteristics of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and exfoliated doped multilayer graphene. Magnetic susceptibility measurements have shown results qualitatively similar to those expected (and experimentally observed by others) for ultra-thin (thickness ≪λ L) films. The magnetization is negative for field-cooled and zero-field-cooled measurements. The magnetization for field cooled and zero-field-cooled measurements begin to diverge at approximately 260 K. Hall effect measurements show a sign reversal in the Hall voltage as the temperature is reduced from 300 K to 78 K.

  10. Growth and characterization of boron doped graphene by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique (HFCVD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Salar Elahi, A.

    2016-03-01

    Large-area boron doped graphene was synthesized on Cu foil (as a catalyst) by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) using boron oxide powder and ethanol vapor. To investigate the effect of different boron percentages, grow time and the growth mechanism of boron-doped graphene, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied. Also in this experiment, the I-V characteristic carried out for study of electrical property of graphene with keithley 2361 system. Nucleation of graphene domains with an average domain size of ~20 μm was observed when the growth time is 9 min that has full covered on the Cu surface. The Raman spectroscopy show that the frequency of the 2D band down-shifts with B doping, consistent with the increase of the in-plane lattice constant, and a weakening of the B-C in-plane bond strength relative to that of C-C bond. Also the shifts of the G-band frequencies can be interpreted in terms of the size of the C-C ring and the changes in the electronic structure of graphene in the presence of boron atoms. The study of electrical property shows that by increasing the grow time the conductance increases which this result in agree with SEM images and graphene grain boundary. Also by increasing the boron percentage in gas mixer the conductance decreases since doping graphene with boron creates a band-gap in graphene band structure. The XPS results of B doped graphene confirm the existence of boron in doped graphene, which indicates the boron atoms doped in the graphene lattice are mainly in the form of BC3. The results showed that boron-doped graphene can be successfully synthesized using boron oxide powder and ethanol vapor via a HFCVD method and also chemical boron doping can be change the electrical conductivity of the graphene.

  11. Degenerate crystalline silicon films by aluminum-induced crystallization of boron-doped amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. D.; Luo, L. C.; Hsueh, T. J.; Hwang, S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Degenerate p-type crystalline silicon film with a hole concentration of 4 1021 cm-3 was investigated using aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) of boron-doped amorphous silicon (a-Si). The AIC mechanism is different from that in the undoped AIC-Si. Boron atoms accumulate at Al layer forming a boron bump and segregate the Al atoms into Si layer, resulting to the formation of AlSi alloy. The degeneracy is not attributed to boron doping but instead to the AlSi alloy. Observations show that Al and Si layer transfer occurs not at original interface of Al and Si, but at the boron bump.

  12. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Phosphorous- and Boron-Doped Graphene Using Phenyl-Containing Molecules.

    PubMed

    Mekan Ovezmyradov; Magedov, Igor V; Frolova, Liliya V; Chandler, Gary; Garcia, Jill; Bethke, Donald; Shaner, Eric A; Kalugin, Nikolai G

    2015-07-01

    Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene and "in-situ" phosphorous or boron doping of graphene was accomplished using Triphenylphosphine (TPP) and 4-Methoxyphenylboronic acid (4-MPBA). The TPP and 4-MPBA molecules were sublimated and supplied along with CH4 molecules during graphene growth at atmospheric pressure. The grown graphene samples were characterized using Raman spectroscopy. Phosphorous and boron presence in phosphorous and boron doped graphene was confirmed with Auger electron spectroscopy. The possibility of obtaining phosphorous and boron doped graphene using solid-source molecule precursors via CVD can lead to an easy and rapid production of modified large area graphene. PMID:26373051

  13. The boron doping of single crystal diamond for high power diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicley, Shannon Singer

    Diamond has the potential to revolutionize the field of high power and high frequency electronic devices as a superlative electronic material. The realization of diamond electronics depends on the control of the growth process of both lightly and heavily boron doped diamond. This dissertation work is focused on furthering the state of the art of boron doped diamond (BDD) growth toward the realization of high power diamond Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). The achievements of this work include the fabrication of a new dedicated reactor for lightly boron doped diamond deposition, the optimization of growth processes for both heavily and lightly boron doped single crystal diamond (SCD), and the proposal and realization of the corner architecture SBD. Boron doped SCD is grown in microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) plasma disc bell-jar reactors, with feedgas mixtures including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and diborane. Characterization methods for the analysis of BDD are described, including Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and temperature-dependent four point probe conductivity for activation energy. The effect of adding carbon dioxide to the plasma feedgas for lightly boron doped diamond is investigated. The effect of diborane levels and other growth parameters on the incorporated boron levels are reported, and the doping efficiency is calculated over a range of boron concentrations. The presence of defects is shown to affect the doping uniformity. The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in heavily boron doped SCD deposition is investigated. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron concentration in the gas phase to the flux of carbon incorporated into the solid diamond phase is shown to be a more predictive measure of the resulting boron concentration than the gas phase boron to carbon ratio that is more commonly reported. The corner architecture SBD structure is proposed as an alternative vertical architecture for the realization of high power, high temperature single crystal diamond diodes. The lightly doped layer of the diode is grown in a direction perpendicular to the previous epitaxial growth of the heavily doped layer, to reduce the threading type dislocations in the active region of the fabricated diodes. The first ever corner architecture SBD is fabricated and evaluated for diode performance, using the regimes identified for high quality boron doped diamond deposition at light and heavy doping levels.

  14. Effect of Catalytic Graphitization on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Isotropic Graphite Doped with Metallic Carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OrdA~s, N.; GarcA~-Rosales, C.; Lindig, S.; Balden, M.; Wang, H.

    The influence of several graphitization parameters (temperature, dwell time, HIPing subsequent to graphitization) on the final properties of doped isotropic graphite has been investigated. The aim of this work is to obtain doped isotropic graphite with reduced chemical erosion by hydrogen bombardment, high thermal conductivity and large thermal shock resistance. As starting material, a self-sintering mesophase carbon powder and different metallic carbides (TiC, VC, ZrC and WC) as dopants has been used. Longer dwell time results in a remarkable increase of thermal conductivity, depending on the dopant and on the graphitization temperature. However, it leads also to carbide coarsening and local carbide agglomeration and thus to degradation of the mechanical properties. HIPing subsequent to graphitization leads to a significant reduction of porosity for the materials doped with VC and WC and thus to an improvement of their mechanical properties. A solid–liquid–solid model for metal catalysts can be applied to our experimental observations of graphitization in the presence of metallic carbides.

  15. Surface nanostructuring of boron-doped diamond films and their electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Zou, Y S; Yang, Y; Zhou, Y L; Li, Z X; Yang, H; He, B; Bello, I; Zhang, W J

    2011-09-01

    Uniform and vertically aligned nanocone and nanopillar arrays were successfully constructed on heavily boron-doped nanocrysatlline diamond films by carrying out bias-assisted reactive ion etching in hydrogen/argon plasmas. The electrochemical properties of the nanostructured boron-doped diamond films were investigated by cyclic voltammetry using 1 mM [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) as redox couple. Compared to the planar boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond film electrode, the surface nanostructuring of boron-doped diamond film electrodes demonstrate enhanced sensitivity due to their enlarged electro-active surface areas. The results indicated that boron-doped diamond nanocones and nanopillars are promising electrode materials which benefit to improve the efficiency, sensitivity and reproducibility of biomedical and chemical sensors. PMID:22097505

  16. Percolation exponents and thresholds obtained from the nearly ideal continuum percolation system graphite-boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; McLachlan, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Compressed disks made from graphite and, its mechanical but not electrical isomorph, boron nitride as well as graphite-boron nitride powders, undergoing compression, are nearly ideal continuum percolation systems, as the ratio of their conductivities is nearly 10{sup {minus}18} and the scatter of the experimental points near the critical volume fraction {phi}{sub c} is very small. The following measurements, with the characteristic exponent(s) in brackets, are made on some or all of the samples in (axial) and at right angles (radial) to the direction of compression, as a function of the volume fraction of graphite ({phi}); dc conductivity (s and t), dielectric constant (s), magnetoresistivity (t{sub {perpendicular}}), and noise power (K). The noise power is also measured as function of resistance (w) and volume (b{sup {prime}}). The {phi}{sub c}{close_quote}s obtained for all measurements are consistent and explicable. The results for the exponents are less well understood but, where possible, these results are compared with theoretical predictions and previous experiments. The reasons for the nonuniversality of t are clarified. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Topological conduction of Sb films on boron-doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Kai; Lee, Chi-Hsuan

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that thin antimony films can have topological surface states by adsorption of non-magnetic impurity atoms. Using density functional calculations, we show that Sb films placed on boron-doped graphene also have Dirac cones and can provide spin-polarized transport. The calculated binding energy indicates that it is a robust structure and thus a viable conduit for topological conduction. Supported by the National Science Council of the Republic of China under Grant No. NSC 101-2112-M-004-004-MY3.

  18. Boron doped diamond microelectrodes arrays for electrochemical detection in HPLC.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eric; Devilliers, Didier; Dardoize, Franois

    2015-01-01

    Boron doped diamond microelectrodes arrays (MEA) have been prepared in order to be used as new amperometric sensors in electrochemical cells for HPLC detectors. The following parameters were studied: number and diameter (15-40 m) of the electrodes, distance between them (50-240 m), and effect of the flow rate (0.1-3 mL/min). It was thus possible to find the optimum value of the parameters which give a good signal/noise ratio in the chronoamperometric responses, with a size of the electrochemical sensors as small as possible. PMID:25476357

  19. Doping Level of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes Controls the Grafting Density of Functional Groups for DNA Assays.

    PubMed

    vorc, ?ubomr; Jambrec, Daliborka; Vojs, Marian; Barwe, Stefan; Clausmeyer, Jan; Michniak, Pavol; Marton, Marin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    The impact of different doping levels of boron-doped diamond on the surface functionalization was investigated by means of electrochemical reduction of aryldiazonium salts. The grafting efficiency of 4-nitrophenyl groups increased with the boron levels (B/C ratio from 0 to 20,000 ppm). Controlled grafting of nitrophenyldiazonium was used to adjust the amount of immobilized single-stranded DNA strands at the surface and further on the hybridization yield in dependence on the boron doping level. The grafted nitro functions were electrochemically reduced to the amine moieties. Subsequent functionalization with a succinic acid introduced carboxyl groups for subsequent binding of an amino-terminated DNA probe. DNA hybridization significantly depends on the probe density which is in turn dependent on the boron doping level. The proposed approach opens new insights for the design and control of doped diamond surface functionalization for the construction of DNA hybridization assays. PMID:26285076

  20. Bimolecular porous supramolecular networks deposited from solution on layered materials: graphite, boron nitride and molybdenum disulphide.

    PubMed

    Korolkov, Vladimir V; Svatek, Simon A; Allen, Stephanie; Roberts, Clive J; Tendler, Saul J B; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Champness, Neil R; Beton, Peter H

    2014-08-18

    A two-dimensional porous network formed from perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and melamine may be deposited from solution on the surfaces of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2). Images acquired using high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating under ambient conditions have revealed that the network forms extended ordered monolayers (>1 ?m(2)) on HOPG and hBN whereas on MoS2 much smaller islands are observed. PMID:24969532

  1. Metallographic evaluation of the reactions between boronated graphite and Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Mayotte, J.R.; Henson, T.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The compatibility of boronated graphite with alloy 800H and type 316 stainless steel was evaluated metallographically after exposures at 700 and 810/sup 0/C for up to 10,000 h. At 700/sup 0/C, the principal reaction with both alloys was limited oxidation. At 810/sup 0/C, three types of reactions were observed: localized reactions at sites where the B/sub 4/C particles were in contact with the alloys' surfaces, intergranular penetration (much more prevalent for alloy 800H), and carburization.

  2. Magnetic and electrical characterization of heavily boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Manivannan, A.; Underwood, S.; Morales, Erie H.; Seehra, M.S

    2003-12-15

    For a heavily boron-doped diamond (BDD) film, temperature variations of the electrical conductivity {sigma} and magnetic susceptibility {chi} are reported. The room temperature {sigma} {approx_equal}143 ({omega}-cm){sup -1} corresponds to a carrier concentration {approx_equal}10{sup 3} ppm, and its temperature variation yields an activation energy E{sub a} {approx_equal}28 meV from 140 to 300 K and E{sub a}{approx_equal}0.88 meV from 40 to 80 K. It is argued that larger boron doping leads to lower magnitudes of E{sub a}. The {chi} vs. T data (1.8-350 K) fits the Curie-Weiss law, with the concentration of paramagnetic species {approx_equal}120 ppm and a diamagnetic susceptibility {approx_equal}-0.4x10{sup -6} emu/g Oe. The results obtained from the measurements of {sigma} and {chi} are discussed and compared.

  3. Structural, spectroscopic, and electrochemical characterization of boron-doped diamond films from different provenances

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.F.; Totir, D.A.; Vinokur, N.; Miller, B.; Chottiner, G.; Evans, E.A.; Angus, J.C.; Scherson, D.A.

    1998-05-01

    Morphological, spectroscopic, and electrochemical aspects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) films grown on silicon surfaces originating from three different laboratories have been examined by atomic force microscopy (AF), Raman scattering, Auger electron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry in polyethylene oxide LiClO{sub 4} electrolytes in ultrahigh vacuum. All specimens displayed AFM images characteristic of diamond and Raman spectra consistent with a wide range of boron concentrations (10{sup 19} to 10{sup 21} B atom/cm{sup 3}), with no evidence for the presence of gross graphitic impurities. The cyclic voltammetry of two of the specimens (denoted as GV2 and CWRU), however, showed features at potentials positive to lithium bulk deposition attributed to lithium-ion intercalation/deintercalation phenomena in non-diamond carbon present as a surface impurity, perhaps at the grain boundaries. This finding is consistent with earlier results for a specimen of type GV2 in aqueous electrolytes for which rates of heterogeneous electron transfer for certain redox couples were found higher than those for nominally clean BDD surfaces.

  4. Structural and elastic properties characterization of Be and Mg doped boron nitride nanotubes using DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Malakpour, S.

    2015-06-01

    Through doping boron nitride nanotubes, their band gaps could be controlled which results in extending the range of their applications particularly in nanosensors. In this article, the structural and elastic properties of Be and Mg doped boron nitride nanotubes with various chiralities are studied based on ab initio density functional calculations. In order to perform the density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the exchange correlation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) framework is employed. It is observed that doping Be and Mg atoms increases the equilibrium strain energy of boron nitride nanotubes. Furthermore, it is found that among all of the considered nanotubes, an increase in the value of Young's modulus of (4, 4) armchair boron nitride nanotube through doping Be atom instead of boron atom is so considerable.

  5. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Kozo

    2014-11-21

    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at temperatures from 750 °C to 950 °C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  6. B and N isolate-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins for enhanced oxygen reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Lu; Tian, Chungui; Zhao, Dongdong; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Jie; Wang, Ruihong; Fu, Honggang

    2014-01-01

    B,N-codoped carbon nanostructures (BNCS) can serve as alternative low-cost metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). However, the compensation effect between the p- (B atoms) and n-type (N atoms) dopants would make the covalent boron-nitride (BN) easily formed during the synthesis of BNCS, leading to a unsatisfactory ORR activity. Therefore, it has been challenging to develop facile and rapid synthetic strategies for highly active BNCS without forming the direct covalent BN. Here, a facile method is developed to prepare B and N isolate-doped graphitic nanosheets (BNGS) by using iron species for saving N element and simultaneous doping the B element from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins (NR). The resulting BNGS exhibits much more onset potential (Eonset) compared with the B-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (BGS), N-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (NGS), as well as B,N-codoped disorder carbon (BNC). Moreover, the BNGS shows well methanol tolerance propery and excellent stability (a minimal loss of activity after 5,000 potential cycles) compared to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The goog performance for BNGS towards ORR is attributed to the synergistic effect between B and N, and the well electrons transport property of graphitic carbon in BNGS. PMID:24898033

  7. B and N isolate-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins for enhanced oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Lu; Tian, Chungui; Zhao, Dongdong; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Jie; Wang, Ruihong; Fu, Honggang

    2014-06-01

    B,N-codoped carbon nanostructures (BNCS) can serve as alternative low-cost metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). However, the compensation effect between the p- (B atoms) and n-type (N atoms) dopants would make the covalent boron-nitride (BN) easily formed during the synthesis of BNCS, leading to a unsatisfactory ORR activity. Therefore, it has been challenging to develop facile and rapid synthetic strategies for highly active BNCS without forming the direct covalent BN. Here, a facile method is developed to prepare B and N isolate-doped graphitic nanosheets (BNGS) by using iron species for saving N element and simultaneous doping the B element from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins (NR). The resulting BNGS exhibits much more onset potential (Eonset) compared with the B-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (BGS), N-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (NGS), as well as B,N-codoped disorder carbon (BNC). Moreover, the BNGS shows well methanol tolerance propery and excellent stability (a minimal loss of activity after 5,000 potential cycles) compared to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The goog performance for BNGS towards ORR is attributed to the synergistic effect between B and N, and the well electrons transport property of graphitic carbon in BNGS.

  8. Magnetic field dependent electro-conductivity of the graphite doped magnetorheological plastomers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Haoming; Xuan, Shouhu; Liu, Taixiang; Gong, Xinglong

    2015-09-14

    In this work we reported a novel graphite doped conductive magnetorheological plastomer (GMRP) with magnetic field dependent electro-conductivity. The conductivity of the GMRPs increased by increasing the content of the graphite particles, while it decreased with the graphite size. When the graphite content reached 15 wt%, the conductivity of GMRPs is approximately 10 000 times higher than the non-doped MRP. Because the iron particles in the GMRPs were magnetic, the conductivity of the GMRPs was magnetically sensitive. Upon applying a 780 mT magnetic field, the electric conductivity could increase about 1000 times larger than the one under zero magnetic field. A particle-particle resistance model was developed to investigate the influence of the magnetic field and graphite doping on the conductivity, and the fitting curve matched the experimental results very well. Finally, a magnetically controllable on-off switch based on GMRPs was proposed and its working mechanism was discussed. PMID:26235530

  9. The fabrication, testing and delivery of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of the boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards which were fabricated, tested and delivered to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Detailed design drawings of the standards are included to show the general structures and the types and location of simulated defects built into the panels. The panels were laminates with plies laid up in the 0 deg, + or - 45 deg, and 90 deg orientations and containing either titanium substrates or interlayered titanium perforated shims. Panel thickness was incrementally stepped from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 12.7 mm (0.500 in.) for the graphite/epoxy standards, and from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) for the boron/epoxy standards except for the panels with interlayered shims which were 2.9 mm (0.113 in.) maximum thickness. The panel internal conditions included defect free regions, resin variations, density/porosity variations, cure variations, delaminations/disbonds at substrate bondlines and between layers, inclusions, and interlayered shims. Ultrasonic pulse echo C-scan and low-kilovoltage X-ray techniques were used to evaluate and verify the internal conditions of the panels.

  10. Boron carbide-based coatings on graphite for plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, P.G.; Trester, P.W.; Winter, J.; Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Wallura, E.; Philipps, V.

    1994-01-01

    In the effort to evaluate boron-rich coatings as plasma facing surfaces in fusion devices, a new process for applying boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) coatings to graphite was developed. The process entails eutectic melting of the carbon (C) substrate surface with a precursor layer of B{sub 4}C particles. Adherent coatings were achieved which consisted of two layers: a surface layer and a graded penetration zone in the outer portion of the substrate. The surface-layer microstructure was multiphase and ranged from reaction-sintered structures of sintered B{sub 4}C particles in an eutectic-formed matrix to that of hypereutectic carbon particles in a B{sub 4}C-C eutectic matrix. Because of high surface energy, the coating generally developed a nonuniform thickness. Quantitative evaluations of the coating were performed with limiters in the TEXTOR fusion device and with coupons in electron beam tests. Test results revealed the following: good adherence of the coating even after remelting; and, during remelting, diagnostics detected a corresponding interaction of boron with the plasma.

  11. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  12. Effect of the doping level on the biological stability of hydrogenated boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Trouillon, Raphal; O'Hare, Danny; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2011-03-28

    Fouling of electrode surfaces by electrode reaction products or by biological spectator species is known to inactivate electrochemical sensors and thus limit their use in biological conditions. Here we present an investigation on the stability of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with different levels of doping. Three different doping levels were used (0.1, 1 and 5% in the carbon phase). The highly doped (5%) BDD is of particular interest as it is here used for the first time for biological applications. Three different redox reactions were examined based on their electrode reaction characteristics: ruthenium(III) hexaammine (outer sphere), ferrocyanide (surface dependent), dopamine (adsorption mediated). The effect of albumin at blood concentration was studied. All results were compared with glassy carbon. There were no significant differences for the outer sphere electrochemistry, but all the BDDs showed improved resistance to fouling for the ferrocyanide oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of BBD towards dopamine oxidation increased with increased boron content. However, this appears to be due to a larger number of defect sites which also increases the vulnerability to fouling by albumin and by electrode reaction products and the 5% BDD had similar properties to glassy carbon in this regard. These results suggest that it is possible to optimise the BDD performance for specific applications and that the large potential window for BDD may be due, at least in part, to its relatively poor electrocatalytic activity. PMID:21380425

  13. Dirac cones in transition metal doped boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Min; Cao, Xuewei; Shao, Bin; Zuo, Xu

    2015-05-07

    The transition metal (TM) doped zinc blende boron nitride (c-BN) is studied by using the first principle calculation. TM atoms fill in the interstitials in c-BN and form two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. The generalized gradient approximation and projector augmented wave method are used. The calculated density of states and band structures show that d electrons of TM atoms form impurity bands in the gap of c-BN. When the TM-BN system is in ferromagnetic or non-magnetic state, Dirac cones emerge at the K point in Brillouin zone. When TM is Ti and Co, the Dirac cones are spin polarized and very close to the Fermi level, which makes them promising candidates of Dirac half-metal [H. Ishizuka and Y. Motome, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 237207 (2012)]. While TM is Ni and Cu, the system is non-magnetic and Dirac cones located above the Fermi level.

  14. Boron doped diamond biotechnology: from sensors to neurointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Hbert, C; Scorsone, E; Bendali, A; Kiran, R; Cottance, M; Girard, H A; Degardin, J; Dubus, E; Lissorgues, G; Rousseau, L; Mailley, P; Picaud, S; Bergonzo, P

    2014-01-01

    Boron doped nanocrystalline diamond is known as a remarkable material for the fabrication of sensors, taking advantage of its biocompatibility, electrochemical properties, and stability. Sensors can be fabricated to directly probe physiological species from biofluids (e.g. blood or urine), as will be presented. In collaboration with electrophysiologists and biologists, the technology was adapted to enable structured diamond devices such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs), i.e. common electrophysiology tools, to probe neuronal activity distributed over large populations of neurons or embryonic organs. Specific MEAs can also be used to build neural prostheses or implants to compensate function losses due to lesions or degeneration of parts of the central nervous system, such as retinal implants, which exhibit real promise as biocompatible neuroprostheses for in vivo neuronal stimulations. New electrode geometries enable high performance electrodes to surpass more conventional materials for such applications. PMID:25259508

  15. Controlling the Bandgap of Boron Nitride Nanotubes with Carbon Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Hamze; Bagheri, Mehran

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the effects of doping by carbon (C) atoms on electronic properties of (10,10) and (16,0) boron nitride (BN) nanotubes (NTs). We exploit the random tight-binding model with Green's function technique and coherent potential approximation to show that the C dopant causes a decrease in the bandgap of the BN NTs, and their matching Van Hove singularities (VHS) in the density of states (DOS) are broadened. When the impurity concentration is large enough, the form of the DOS of the BN NTs becomes similar to that of metallic (10,10) and semiconducting (16,0) C NTs and their VHS get sharpened. This work might provide opportunities for creating new optoelectronic devices based on BN honeycomb nanosystems.

  16. The crystal structure of aluminum doped ?-rhombohedral boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykova, Elena; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2012-10-01

    A crystal structure of aluminum doped ?-rhombohedral boron was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 80 K. The crystals were synthesized using high-pressure high temperature technique at 3 GPa and 2100 K. The structure is based on three-dimensional framework made of B12 icosahedra with voids occupied by the B28-B-B28 units, it has the R-3m space group with a=10.9014(3), c=23.7225(7) lattice dimensions in hexagonal setting. Aluminum atoms are located in A1 and D special positions of the ?-B structure with occupancies of 82.7(6)% and 11.3(4)%, respectively. Additional boron atoms are located near the D-site. Their possible distribution is discussed. Finally we have found two appropriate structural models whose refinement suggests two possible chemical compositions, AlB44.8(5) and AlB37.8(5), which are in a good agreement with the chemical analysis data obtained from EDX. The crystal structure of AlB44.8(5) is described in detail.

  17. Effect of Boron doping on the electronic properties of the fullerenes of different sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Deepak; Sharma, Hitesh

    2011-12-12

    We report the results of the effect of Boron doping in C{sub n}; n = 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 50 and 60 using the first principle calculation based on density functional theory. The HOMO-LUMO gap changes significantly with the decreasing fullerene size below C{sub 60}, with maximum gap observed for C{sub 32}. The HOMO-LUMO gap of Boron doped fullerenes varies significantly w.r.t. pure fullerenes. Also, the gap decreases for C{sub n-m}B{sub m}X, the boron doped fullerenes with exohedral alkali metals for n = 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 50 and 60; m = 1 to 4; X = Li, Na and K. The Mulliken charge transfer from the exohedral alkali metals towards the various fullerene cages is altered marginally by the boron doping in fullerenes and follows the order K>Na>Li.

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of graphitic carbon nanomaterials doped with heteroatoms

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Thomas; Ayala, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Summary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the best tools for studying the chemical modification of surfaces, and in particular the distribution and bonding of heteroatom dopants in carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although these materials have superb intrinsic properties, these often need to be modified in a controlled way for specific applications. Towards this aim, the most studied dopants are neighbors to carbon in the periodic table, nitrogen and boron, with phosphorus starting to emerge as an interesting new alternative. Hundreds of studies have used XPS for analyzing the concentration and bonding of dopants in various materials. Although the majority of works has concentrated on nitrogen, important work is still ongoing to identify its precise atomic bonding configurations. In general, care should be taken in the preparation of a suitable sample, consideration of the intrinsic photoemission response of the material in question, and the appropriate spectral analysis. If this is not the case, incorrect conclusions can easily be drawn, especially in the assignment of measured binding energies into specific atomic configurations. Starting from the characteristics of pristine materials, this review provides a practical guide for interpreting X-ray photoelectron spectra of doped graphitic carbon nanomaterials, and a reference for their binding energies that are vital for compositional analysis via XPS. PMID:25671162

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of graphitic carbon nanomaterials doped with heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Susi, Toma; Pichler, Thomas; Ayala, Paola

    2015-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the best tools for studying the chemical modification of surfaces, and in particular the distribution and bonding of heteroatom dopants in carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although these materials have superb intrinsic properties, these often need to be modified in a controlled way for specific applications. Towards this aim, the most studied dopants are neighbors to carbon in the periodic table, nitrogen and boron, with phosphorus starting to emerge as an interesting new alternative. Hundreds of studies have used XPS for analyzing the concentration and bonding of dopants in various materials. Although the majority of works has concentrated on nitrogen, important work is still ongoing to identify its precise atomic bonding configurations. In general, care should be taken in the preparation of a suitable sample, consideration of the intrinsic photoemission response of the material in question, and the appropriate spectral analysis. If this is not the case, incorrect conclusions can easily be drawn, especially in the assignment of measured binding energies into specific atomic configurations. Starting from the characteristics of pristine materials, this review provides a practical guide for interpreting X-ray photoelectron spectra of doped graphitic carbon nanomaterials, and a reference for their binding energies that are vital for compositional analysis via XPS. PMID:25671162

  20. Laser annealing of neutron irradiated boron-10 isotope doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K.; Butler, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    10B isotope doped p-type diamond epilayer grown by chemical vapor deposition on (110) oriented type IIa diamond single crystal substrate was subjected to neutron transmutation at a fluence of 2.4 9 1020 thermal and 2.4 9 1020 fast neutrons. After neutron irradiation, the epilayer and the diamond substrate were laser annealed using Nd YAG laser irradiation with wave length, 266 nm and energy, 150 mJ per pulse. The neutron irradiated diamond epilayer and the substrate were characterized before and after laser annealing using different techniques. The characterization techniques include optical microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and electrical sheet conductance measurement. The results indicate that the structure of the irradiation induced amorphous epilayer changes to disordered graphite upon laser annealing. The irradiated substrate retains the (110) crystalline structure with neutron irradiation induced defects.

  1. Phase change in terahertz waves emitted from differently doped graphite: The role of carrier drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Yim, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Changyoung; Wook Lee, Sang; Jho, Young-Dahl

    2013-11-01

    We investigate characteristics of THz waves radiated from differently doped graphite samples excited by femtosecond laser pulses. Between n-type single-crystalline graphite and p-type polycrystalline graphite films, we observe the phase reversal of THz waves regardless of excitation energy variations around K-valley. In addition, variations in other parameters such as excitation fluence and azimuthal angle produce no changes in the phase of THz waves, which correlate well with the opposite dipole polarization between differently doped samples rather than unidirectional diffusive transport.

  2. Cytotoxicity of Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Films Prepared by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Gou, Li; Ran, Junguo; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) exhibits extraordinary mechanical properties and chemical stability, making it highly suitable for biomedical applications. For implant materials, the impact of boron-doped NCD films on the character of cell growth (i.e., adhesion, proliferation) is very important. Boron-doped NCD films with resistivity of 10-2 ?cm were grown on Si substrates by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) process with H2 bubbled B2O3. The crystal structure, diamond character, surface morphology, and surface roughness of the boron-doped NCD films were analyzed using different characterization methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact potential difference and possible boron distribution within the film were studied with a scanning kelvin force microscope (SKFM). The cytotoxicity of films was studied by in vitro tests, including fluorescence microscopy, SEM and MTT assay. Results indicated that the surface roughness value of NCD films was 56.6 nm and boron was probably accumulated at the boundaries between diamond agglomerates. MG-63 cells adhered well and exhibited a significant growth on the surface of films, suggesting that the boron-doped NCD films were non-toxic to cells. supported by the Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China) (No. KFJJ201313)

  3. Electrical Characterization of Diamond/Boron Doped Diamond Nanostructures for Use in Harsh Environment Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołuński, Ł.; Zwolski, K.; Płotka, P.

    2016-01-01

    The polycrystalline boron doped diamond (BDD) shows stable electrical properties and high tolerance for harsh environments (e.g. high temperature or aggressive chemical compounds) comparing to other materials used in semiconductor devices. In this study authors have designed electronic devices fabricated from non-intentionally (NiD) films and highly boron doped diamond structures. Presented semiconductor devices consist of highly boron doped structures grown on NiD diamond films. Fabricated structures were analyzed by electrical measurements for use in harsh environment applications. Moreover, the boron-doping level and influence of oxygen content on chemical composition of diamond films were particularly investigated. Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (MW PE CVD) has been used for thin diamond films growth. Non-intentionally doped diamond (0 ppm [B]/[C]) films have been deposited on the Si/SiO2 wafers with different content of carbon, boron and oxygen in the gas phase. Then, the shape of the highly doped diamond structures were obtained by pyrolysis of SiO2 on NiD film and standard lithography process. The highly doped structures were obtained for different growth time and [B]/[C] ratio (4000 - 10000 ppm). The narrowest distance between two highly doped structures was 5pm. The standard Ti/Au ohmic contacts were deposited using physical vapour deposition for electrical characterization of NiD/BDD devices. The influence of diffusion boron from highly doped diamond into non-doped/low-doped diamond film was investigated. Surface morphology of designed structures was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope and optical microscope. The resistivity of the NiD and film was studied using four-point probe measurements also DC studies were done.

  4. Properties of boron-doped thin films of polycrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Merabet, Souad

    2013-12-16

    The properties of polycrystalline-silicon films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and doped heavily in situ boron-doped with concentration level of around 2×10{sup 20}cm{sup −3} has been studied. Their properties are analyzed using electrical and structural characterization means by four points probe resistivity measurements and X-ray diffraction spectra. The thermal-oxidation process are performed on sub-micron layers of 200nm/c-Si and 200nm/SiO{sub 2} deposited at temperatures T{sub d} ranged between 520°C and 605°C and thermally-oxidized in dry oxygen ambient at 945°C. Compared to the as-grown resistivity with silicon wafers is known to be in the following sequence <ρ{sub 200nm/c−Si}> < <ρ{sub 200nm/SiO2}> and <ρ{sub 520}> < <ρ{sub 605}>. The measure X-ray spectra is shown, that the Bragg peaks are marked according to the crystal orientation in the film deposited on bare substrates (poly/c-Si), for the second series of films deposited on bare oxidized substrates (poly/SiO{sub 2}) are clearly different.

  5. Diffusion-induced dislocations in highly boron-doped silicon layers used for bulk micromachining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiseanu, Florin; Esteve, Jaume; Kissinger, Gudrun; Kruger, D.

    1998-08-01

    Boron-doped silicon layers with sufficiently high doping levels become effective stop-layers during the chemical etching of silicon in alkaline type solutions (KOH, NaOH, LiOH) or in EDP (ethylene-diamine-pyrocatechol). An advantageous chemical solution consisting in tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) with isopropyl alcohol (IPA), showing similar etching properties was also proposed. The property as a stop layer of the boron-doped silicon is currently used as the most convenient etch-stop technique, because it is easy to define the thickness of the structure by the depth of boron diffusion in silicon. However, the boron diffusion profile in silicon is not a step-like distribution, but it presents a continuous decrease of the concentration from the silicon surface to the bulk, that depending on the diffusion conditions, i.e. diffusion time, temperature and doping technique. It is therefore expected that such a decrease will result to a continuous variation of the etching rate and a consequently variation of the etching time with the diffusion depth. In this paper we present firstly the doping properties of the silicon layers doped by the termo-chemical method using chemical sources. It is shown that the doping properties vary within the boron-doped layers. Boron diffusion profiles determined by SIMS method and electrical method are presented in order show the specific behavior of the concentration distribution in the silicon bulk. Misfit dislocations are induced by the boron diffusion in silicon at high concentrations. The conditions of the generation of the misfit dislocations in the boron-doped layers depends on the processing conditions, especially on the diffusion time and temperature. We show that the density distribution of the misfit dislocations in the silicon bulk is not uniform after the boron prediffusion and diffusion processes. From the point of view of the micromechanical applications, the inhomogeneity of the structural and doping properties of the silicon layer can influence the stress properties of such silicon-doped layers. Therefore, in order to reduce the stress gradient in the silicon membranes and micromechanical elements, it is necessary to obtain layers with uniform material properties. Both the doping and structural properties of the boron doped layers are to be therefore better knowledged and controlled. However, the doping properties obtained after the boron doping by termo-chemical method or by implantation doping technique cannot provide uniformly doped silicon layers. Therefore, a careful chemical etching during the self-limitation process of the boron-doped silicon layers offers such a possibility, as it will be presented in the paper. In order to eliminate from the silicon doped layers the regions were the properties of the silicon layers are not uniform, it is necessary to control the chemical etching process which is the next important step in the bulk micromachining technology useful to prepare the micromechanical elements. These key parameters of the chemical etching process are the chemical etching rate and the chemical etching time. It is shown that it is possible to calculate the chemical etching rate and the chemical etching time for some specified etching conditions. Such a possibility allows to control the thickness of the micromechanical elements and to eliminate the stress gradient induced by the non-uniform doping and by the misfit dislocations in the silicon micromechanical elements.

  6. Experimental studies of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle ply laminates in shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, T.

    1977-01-01

    The nonlinear/inelastic response under inplane shear of a large variety of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle-ply laminates was tested. Their strength allowables were obtained and the mechanisms which govern their mode of failure were determined. Two types of specimens for the program were chosen, tested, and evaluated: shear panels stabilized by an aluminum honeycomb core and shear tubes. A modified biaxially compression/tension loaded picture frame was designed and utilized in the test program with the shear panels. The results obtained with this test technique categorically prefer the shear panels, rather than the tubes, for adequate and satisfactory experimental definition of the objectives. Test results indicate the existence of a so-called core-effect which ought to be considered when reducing experimental data for weak in shear laminates.

  7. Nitrogen-doped graphene by ball-milling graphite with melamine for energy conversion and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yuhua; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Dai, Liming

    2015-12-01

    N-doped graphene was prepared by ball milling of graphite with melamine. It was found that ball-milling reduced the size of graphite particles from 30 to 1 μm and facilitated the exfoliation of the resultant small particles into few-layer N-doped graphene nanosheets under ultrasonication. The as-prepared N-doped graphene nanoplatelets (NGnPs) exhibited a nitrogen content as high as 11.4 at.%, making them attractive as efficient electrode materials in supercapacitors for energy storage and as highly-active metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction in fuel cells for energy conversion.

  8. Pressure effect of superconducting transition temperature for boron-doped (111) diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, N.; Kagayama, T.; Shimizu, K.; Kawarada, H.

    2010-03-01

    Many studies on superconductivity of boron-doped diamond (BDD) have been done, and it is well known that the superconducting transition temperature Tc of BDD films depend on the boron concentration and the growth direction. Uniaxial like pressure along (111) direction was applied on boron-doped (111) diamond films synthesized by CVD method using a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) up to 18.5 GPa. The Tc was decreased as previous report, however the changing rate is smaller than other experiments with hydrostatic pressures and a theoretical prediction.

  9. Graphitic electrodes modified with boron and nitrogen for electrochemical energy storage enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoping; Paul, Rajib; Reifenberger, Ron; Fisher, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Electrodes based on carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes or graphitic nanopetals) have been modified with boron (B) and nitrogen (N) through a facile microwave heating cycle. During the microwave heating, the electrodes are immersed in a precursor solution consisting of urea and boric acid dissolved in either water or methanol. After microwave heating and overnight vacuum drying, the electrodes are again heated in nitrogen to remove unreacted chemicals and to form CxBN. Hydrogen plasma was then used to remove any residual boron oxide from the surface of the electrodes. Carbon nanotubes modified with B and N exhibited higher lithium storage capacity as compared to pure carbon nanotube electrodes. We note that the modification appears to produce a highly unexpected and substantial cycle-to-cycle improvement in battery capacity as the electrode cycles through hundreds of charge-discharge iterations. This process can be applied to other carbon-based electrodes, which themselves are recognized for their high performance, to add further improvements. AFOSR MURI No. 105800

  10. Structure and superconductivity of isotope-enriched boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Joe D; Ekimov, E A; Sidorov, V A; Zoteev, A; Lebed, Y; Stishov, S M

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting boron-doped diamond samples were synthesized with isotopes of {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup 13}C and {sup 12}C. We claim the presence of a carbon isotope effect on the superconducting transition temperature, which supports the 'diamond-carbon'-related nature of superconductivity and the importance of the electron-phonon interaction as the mechanism of superconductivity in diamond. Isotope substitution permits us to relate almost all bands in the Raman spectra of heavily boron-doped diamond to the vibrations of carbon atoms. The 500 cm{sup 01} Raman band shifts with either carbon or boron isotope substitution and may be associated with vibrations of paired or clustered boron. The absence of a superconducting transition (down to 1.6 K) in diamonds synthesized in the Co-C-B system at 1900 K correlates with the small boron concentration deduced from lattice parameters.

  11. The influence of boron doping level on quality and stability of diamond film on Ti substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. J.; Li, Ch. M.; Gao, X. H.; Hei, L. F.; Lvun, F. X.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we investigate the influence of boron doping level on film quality and stability of boron doped diamond (BDD) film deposited on titanium substrate (Ti/BDD) using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. The results demonstrate that high boron concentration will improve the film conductivity, whereas the diamond film quality and adhesion are deteriorated obviously. The increase of total internal stress in the film and the variation of components within the interlayer will weaken the coating adhesion. According to the analysis of electrode inactivation mechanism, high boron doping level will be harmful to the electrode stability in the view of diamond quality and adhesion deterioration. In this study, 5000 ppm B/C ratio in the reaction gas is optimized for Ti/BDD electrode preparation.

  12. Thermodynamic Studies of Decane on Boron Nitride and Graphite Substrates Using Synchrotron Radiation and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, Nicholas; Arnold, Thomas; Forster, Matthew; Parker, Julia; Larese, J. Z.; Diamond Light Source Collaboration; University of Tennessee Team

    2014-03-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has a lattice structure similar to that of graphite with a slightly larger lattice parameter in the basal plane. This, among other properties, makes it an excellent substrate in place of graphite, eliciting some important differences. This work is part of a larger effort to examine the interaction of alkanes with magnesium oxide, graphite, and boron nitride surfaces. In our current presentation, we will discuss the interaction of decane with these surfaces. Decane exhibits a fully commensurate structure on graphite and hBN at monolayer coverages. In this particular experiment, we have examined the monolayer structure of decane adsorbed on the basal plane of hBN using synchrotron x-ray radiation at Diamond Light Source. Additionally, we have examined the system experimentally with volumetric isotherms as well as computationally using molecular dynamics simulations. The volumetric isotherms allow us to calculate properties which provide important information about the adsorbate's interaction with not only neighboring molecules, but also the interaction with the adsorbent boron nitride.

  13. High-Pressure Synthesis of Boron-Doped Ultrasmall Diamonds from an Organic Compound.

    PubMed

    Ekimov, Evgeny A; Kudryavtsev, Oleg S; Khomich, Andrey A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Dolenko, Tatiana A; Vlasov, Igor I

    2015-10-01

    The first application of the high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) technique for direct production of doped ultrasmall diamonds starting from a one-component organic precursor is reported. Heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles with a size below 10 nm are produced by HPHT treatment of 9-borabicyclo [3,3,1]nonane dimer molecules. PMID:26283646

  14. The effect of substrate temperature and growth rate on the doping efficiency of single crystal boron doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Demlow, SN; Rechenberg, R; Grotjohn, T

    2014-10-01

    The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in single crystal, boron doped diamond (BDD) deposition is investigated. Single crystal diamond (SCD) is grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) on high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) type Ib substrates. Samples are grown at substrate temperatures of 850-950 degrees C for each of five doping concentration levels, to determine the effect of the growth temperature on the doping efficiency and defect morphology. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron concentration in the gas phase to the flux of carbon incorporated into the solid diamond phase is shown to be a more predictive measure of the resulting boron concentration than the gas phase boron to carbon ratio that is more commonly reported. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mineralization of paracetamol in aqueous medium by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Brillas, Enric; Sirs, Ignasi; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Llus; Centellas, Francesc; Rodrguez, Rosa Mara; Garrido, Jos Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of 100ml of solutions with paracetamol (N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide) up to 1 g l(-1) in the pH range 2.0-12.0 has been studied by anodic oxidation in a cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a graphite cathode, both of 3-cm2 area, by applying a current of 100, 300 and 450 mA between 25 and 45 degrees C. Complete mineralization is always achieved due to the great concentration of hydroxyl radical (*OH) generated at the BDD surface, with release of NH4+ and NO3- ions. The mineralization rate is pH-independent, increases with increasing applied current and temperature, but decreases when drug concentration raises from 315 mg l(-1). Reversed-phase chromatography revealed a similar complex paracetamol decay in acid and alkaline media. Ion-exclusion chromatography allowed the detection of oxalic and oxamic acids as ultimate carboxylic acids. When the same solutions have been comparatively treated with a Pt anode, a quite poor mineralization is found because of the production of much lower *OH concentration. Under these conditions, the degradation rate is enhanced in alkaline medium and polymerization of intermediates is favored in concentrated solutions. Paracetamol can be completely destroyed with Pt and its kinetics follows a pseudo-first-order reaction with a constant rate independent of pH. PMID:15620731

  16. Suppression of boron-oxygen defects in Czochralski silicon by carbon co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yichao; Yu, Xuegong He, Hang; Chen, Peng; Yang, Deren

    2015-03-09

    We have investigated the influence of carbon co-doping on the formation of boron-oxygen defects in Czochralski silicon. It is found that carbon can effectively suppress the formation of boron-oxygen defects. Based on our experiments and first-principle theoretical calculations, it is believed that this effect is attributed to the formation of more energetically favorable carbon-oxygen complexes. Moreover, the diffusion of oxygen dimers in carbon co-doped silicon also becomes more difficult. All these phenomena should be associated with the tensile stress field induced by carbon doping in silicon.

  17. Boron- and phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by silver-induced layer exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Antesberger, T.; Wassner, T. A.; Jaeger, C.; Algasinger, M.; Kashani, M.; Scholz, M.; Matich, S.; Stutzmann, M.

    2013-05-27

    Intentional boron and phosphorus doping of polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass prepared by the silver-induced layer exchange is presented. A silver/(titanium) oxide/amorphous silicon stack is annealed at temperatures below the eutectic temperature of the Ag/Si system, leading to a complete layer exchange and simultaneous crystallization of the amorphous silicon. Intentional doping of the amorphous silicon prior to the exchange process results in boron- or phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon. Hall effect measurements show carrier concentrations between 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} for phosphorus and 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} for boron-doped layers, with carrier mobilities up to 90 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  18. Polyoxometalate-Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Yuichi; Yuasa, Makoto; Kawai, Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Polyoxometalates were immobilized on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) surface modified by a photochemical modification method. The BDD surface was first modified with allyltriethylammonium bromide (ATAB) to form surface quaternary ammonium groups. The ATAB-BDD was then immersed in a phosphomolybdic acid (H3PMo12O40, denoted as PMo12) solution to fabricate PMo12-adsorbed ATAB-BDD (PMo12-ATAB-BDD). The electrostatic interaction between PMo12 and the quaternary ammonium group on ATAB-BDD is considered to be critical to the stable immobilization. Polyoxometalate-modified BDD was also fabricated from phosphonic-acid-terminated BDD. BDD was first modified with vinylphosphonic acid (VPA), followed by the reaction of the surface phosphonic acid groups with ammonium molybdate to generate a lacunary phosphomolybdic acid (PMox) group. Although the coverage of the PMox group on PMox-BDD was less than that of PMo12-ATAB-BDD, PMox-BDD was found to be more stable to potential cycling than PMo12-ATAB-BDD, indicating that covalent modification methods are effective for creating stable functional groups on diamond.

  19. Crystallinity, morphology, and conductivity of boron-doped microcrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rajeswaran, G.; Tafto, J.; Sabatini, R.L.; Vanier, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Boron-doped microcrystalline (..mu..c) silicon films produced by rf glow discharge from dilute (1%) mixtures of SiH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ show a critical dependence of conductivity on deposition conditions. The dark conductivity was related to the microscopic features using electron microscopy. The ..mu..c-Si:H films contain clusters of crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix. The size of the crystalline clusters is typically 0.2 ..mu..m in diameter, and the size of the individual crystallites is about 2.5 nm. Electron micrographs of samples prepared at substrate temperatures T/sub s/=135/sup 0/C, 150/sup 0/C, 165/sup 0/C, and 180/sup 0/C show that the number of crystalline clusters increases with T/sub s/ up to 165/sup 0/C. At T/sub s/=180/sup 0/C, the crystallites completely disappear. When the concentration of SiH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ is decreased to 0.25%, the microstructure shows a high density of crystallites with no apparent clustering.

  20. pH sensing using boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Stphane; Mitani, Naoko; Comninellis, Christos; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2011-10-01

    The boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode is presented as an appropriate candidate for next generation glass-free, highly stable and accurate pH sensors. The method used in this study is based on the potential change related to the hydrogen evolution reaction following a current step, which is pH dependent. Alkali cations in the solution have no influence on the accuracy of the pH calibration curve, which provides an advantage with respect to the conventional pH glass electrode. The unwanted influence of electrochemically active compounds in solution can be avoided by adjusting the current density applied during chronopotentiometric measurements. The accuracy of the pH measurements is due to the excellent stability as well as the wide potential window and low background current of BDD electrodes. This faculty was not observed when using conventional electrode materials. The efficacy of this new type of pH sensor has been tested using tap water as a typical real sample. PMID:21858362

  1. Submicron-sized boron carbide particles encapsulated in turbostratic graphite prepared by laser fragmentation in liquid medium.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshie; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2010-08-01

    Submicron-sized B4C spherical particles were obtained by laser fragmentation of large B4C particles dispersed in ethyl acetate. The irradiated surface of large B4C raw particles was heated and melted by laser energy absorption. B4C droplets were then cooled down, and finally B4C spherical particles were obtained. Moreover, each B4C particle obtained was encapsulated in a graphitic layer that is useful for medical functionalization of particles. Thus, obtained B4C particles encapsulated in graphitic layer may have potential uses in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:21125920

  2. Boron doped defective graphene as a potential anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hardikar, Rahul P; Das, Deya; Han, Sang Soo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek K

    2014-08-21

    Graphene with large surface area and robust structure has been proposed as a high storage capacity anode material for Li ion batteries. While the inertness of pristine graphene leads to better Li kinetics, poor adsorption leads to Li clustering, significantly affecting the performance of the battery. Here, we show the role of defects and doping in achieving enhanced adsorption without compromising on the high diffusivity of Li. Using first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we carry out a comprehensive study of diffusion kinetics of Li over the plane of the defective structures and calculate the change in the number of Li atoms in the vicinity of defects, with respect to pristine graphene. Our results show that the Li-C interaction, storage capacity and the energy barriers depend sensitively on the type of defects. The un-doped and boron doped mono-vacancy, doped di-vacancy up to two boron, one nitrogen doped di-vacancy, and Stone-Wales defects show low energy barriers that are comparable to pristine graphene. Furthermore, boron doping at mono-vacancy enhances the adsorption of Li. In particular, the two boron doped mono-vacancy graphene shows both a low energy barrier of 0.31 eV and better adsorption, and hence can be considered as a potential candidate for anode material. PMID:24986702

  3. Measurements of Increased Enthalpies of Adsorption for Boron-Doped Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Andrew; Beckner, Matthew; Chada, Nagaraju; Schaeperkoetter, Joseph; Singh, Anupam; Lee, Mark; Wexler, Carlos; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Boron-doping of activated carbons has been shown to increase the enthalpies of adsorption for hydrogen as compared to their respective undoped precursors (>10kJ/mol compared to ca. 5kJ/mol). This has brought significant interest to boron-doped carbons for their potential to improve hydrogen storage. Boron-doped activated carbons have been produced using a process involving the deposition of decaborane (B10H14) and high-temperature annealing resulting in boron contents up to 15%. In this talk, we will present a systematic study of the effect that boron content has on the samples' structure, hydrogen sorption, and surface chemistry. Measurements have shown a significant increase in the areal hydrogen excess adsorption and binding energy. Experimental enthalpies of adsorption will be presented for comparison to theoretical predictions. Additionally, samples have been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TGA and GC-MS results investigated the decomposition of the decaborane in the carbon. Boron-carbon bonds are shown in the FTIR and XPS spectra, indicating that boron has been incorporated into the carbon matrix. Work supported by DOE-EERE, Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18142

  4. High-concentration boron doping of graphene nanoplatelets by simple thermal annealing and their supercapacitive properties.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Da-Young; Jeon, Woojin; Tu, Nguyen Dien Kha; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sung, Bong June; Chang, Hyejung; Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Heesuk

    2015-01-01

    For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000?C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04??1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448?F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment. PMID:25940534

  5. High-concentration boron doping of graphene nanoplatelets by simple thermal annealing and their supercapacitive properties

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Da-Young; Jeon, Woojin; Tu, Nguyen Dien Kha; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sung, Bong June; Chang, Hyejung; Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Heesuk

    2015-01-01

    For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000 °C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04 ± 1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448 F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment. PMID:25940534

  6. High-concentration boron doping of graphene nanoplatelets by simple thermal annealing and their supercapacitive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Da-Young; Jeon, Woojin; Tu, Nguyen Dien Kha; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sung, Bong June; Chang, Hyejung; Lim, Jung Ah; Kim, Heesuk

    2015-05-01

    For the utilization of graphene in various energy storage and conversion applications, it must be synthesized in bulk with reliable and controllable electrical properties. Although nitrogen-doped graphene shows a high doping efficiency, its electrical properties can be easily affected by oxygen and water impurities from the environment. We here report that boron-doped graphene nanoplatelets with desirable electrical properties can be prepared by the simultaneous reduction and boron-doping of graphene oxide (GO) at a high annealing temperature. B-doped graphene nanoplatelets prepared at 1000?C show a maximum boron concentration of 6.04??1.44 at %, which is the highest value among B-doped graphenes prepared using various methods. With well-mixed GO and g-B2O3 as the dopant, highly uniform doping is achieved for potentially gram-scale production. In addition, as a proof-of-concept, highly B-doped graphene nanoplatelets were used as an electrode of an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) and showed an excellent specific capacitance value of 448?F/g in an aqueous electrolyte without additional conductive additives. We believe that B-doped graphene nanoplatelets can also be used in other applications such as electrocatalyst and nano-electronics because of their reliable and controllable electrical properties regardless of the outer environment.

  7. Impact resistance of composite fan blades. [fiber reinforced graphite and boron epoxy blades for STOL operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premont, E. J.; Stubenrauch, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    The resistance of current-design Pratt and Whitney Aircraft low aspect ratio advanced fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite fan blades to foreign object damage (FOD) at STOL operating conditions was investigated. Five graphite/epoxy and five boron/epoxy wide chord fan blades with nickel plated stainless steel leading edge sheath protection were fabricated and impact tested. The fan blades were individually tested in a vacuum whirlpit under FOD environments. The FOD environments were typical of those encountered in service operations. The impact objects were ice balls, gravel, stralings and gelatin simulated birds. Results of the damage sustained from each FOD impact are presented for both the graphite boron reinforced blades. Tests showed that the present design composite fan blades, with wrap around leading edge protection have inadequate FOD impact resistance at 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) tip speed, a possible STOL operating condition.

  8. Tribological properties of undoped and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Stanishevsky, Andrei; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2009-11-28

    Undoped and boron-doped nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films were deposited on mirror polished Ti-6Al-4V substrates in a Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition system. Sliding wear tests were conducted in ambient air with a nanotribometer. A systematic study of the tribological properties for both undoped and boron-doped NCD films were carried out. It was found for diamond/diamond sliding, coefficient of friction decreases with increasing normal loads. It was also found that the wear rate of boron-doped NCD films is about 10 times higher than that of undoped films. A wear rate of ~5.210(-9) mm(3)/Nm was found for undoped NCD films. This value is comparable to the best known value of that of polished polycrystalline diamond films. Although no surface deformation, film delamination or micro-cracking were observed for undoped films, boron-doped NCD film undergoes a critical failure at a normal stress of 2.2 GPa, above which surface deformation is evident. Combined with high hardness and modulus, tunable conductivity and improved open air thermal stability, boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond film has tremendous potentials for applications such as Atomic Force Microscope probes, Micro-Electro-Mechanical System devices and biomedical sensors. PMID:19946362

  9. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chao; Lu, Yunhao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2014-01-01

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300-500 C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600-800 C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B2I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300-500 C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600-800 C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition.

  10. The crystal structure of aluminum doped {beta}-rhombohedral boron

    SciTech Connect

    Bykova, Elena; Materialphysik und Technologie, Lehrstuhl fuer Kristallographie, Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, D-95440 Bayreuth ; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; Materialphysik und Technologie, Lehrstuhl fuer Kristallographie, Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, D-95440 Bayreuth ; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2012-10-15

    A crystal structure of aluminum doped {beta}-rhombohedral boron was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 80 K. The crystals were synthesized using high-pressure high temperature technique at 3 GPa and 2100 K. The structure is based on three-dimensional framework made of B{sub 12} icosahedra with voids occupied by the B{sub 28}-B-B{sub 28} units, it has the R-3m space group with a=10.9014(3), c=23.7225(7) A lattice dimensions in hexagonal setting. Aluminum atoms are located in A1 and D special positions of the {beta}-B structure with occupancies of 82.7(6)% and 11.3(4)%, respectively. Additional boron atoms are located near the D-site. Their possible distribution is discussed. Finally we have found two appropriate structural models whose refinement suggests two possible chemical compositions, AlB{sub 44.8(5)} and AlB{sub 37.8(5)}, which are in a good agreement with the chemical analysis data obtained from EDX. The crystal structure of AlB{sub 44.8(5)} is described in detail. - Graphical abstract: The atomic distribution near the B(15) atom (non-labeled atom in the center of the picture) shown along the c axis. Anisotropic displacement ellipses for Al(2) (D-site) and B(15) are shown with 50 % probability level. The mirror plane with Miller indices (1 1 0) and related to it (-1 2 0) and (-2 1 0) generated by the 3-fold rotation-inversion axis parallel to the c axis splits the position of B(16) over two sites. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure of the AlB{sub 44.8(5)} has been refined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum atoms partially fill certain types of voids (the A1- and D-sites). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have got two possible models of atomic distribution near the D-site.

  11. Multiple delta doping of single crystal cubic boron nitride films heteroepitaxially grown on (001)diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, H.; Ziemann, P.

    2014-06-23

    Phase pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films have been epitaxially grown on (001) diamond substrates at 900 °C. The n-type doping of c-BN epitaxial films relies on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p-) and Si doped (n-) layers with well-controlled thickness (down to several nanometer range) in the concept of multiple delta doping. The existence of nominally undoped c-BN overgrowth separates the Si doped layers, preventing Si dopant segregation that was observed for continuously doped epitaxial c-BN films. This strategy allows doping of c-BN films can be scaled up to multiple numbers of doped layers through atomic level control of the interface in the future electronic devices. Enhanced electronic transport properties with higher hall mobility (10{sup 2} cm{sup 2}/V s) have been demonstrated at room temperature as compared to the normally continuously Si doped c-BN films.

  12. Atomic Scale Visualization of Dopant-Induced Unconventional Kondo Effect in Boron-doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Minghu; Li, Qing; Liang, Liangbo; Lv, Ruitao; Lin, Wenzhi; Costa Giro, Eduardo; Botello-Mndez, Andrs R.; Elas, Ana Laura; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Charlier, Jean Christophe; Terrones, Mauricio; Meunier, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    We describe the synthesis of large-area, highly-crystalline monolayer Boron-doped graphene (BG) sheets via atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition, yielding unique and diverse B-doping site composed of substitutional Boron atoms and carbon vacancies. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS) of BG reveal the presence of localized states in both the conduction and valence bands induced by Boron pz orbitals, confirmed by ab initio calculations. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that atomic-resolved spin-polarization in a graphene sublattice via spectroscopic imaging of zero-energy states, induced by Boron incorporation. BG acts as a Kondo system with magnetic dopants embedded in C lattices, fully described by using the non-equilibrium Green's function method within the slave-boson mean-field approximation. The research was conducted at CNMS, which is sponsored at ORNL by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of BES, U. S. DOE.

  13. Electronic structure of boron doped diamond: An x-ray spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glans, P.-A.; Learmonth, T.; Smith, K. E.; Ferro, S.; De Battisti, A.; Mattesini, M.; Ahuja, R.; Guo, J.-H.

    2013-04-01

    The valence and conduction band electronic structure of boron-doped diamond has been measured using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy. The experimental results reveal p-type doping in the diamond film through the appearance of states in the band-gap. Structure distortion was observed around the doping center, while the long range order of the diamond structure remains. A chemically shifted C 1s level explains why one of the absorption features seems to appear below the valence band maximum. An excitonic feature was observed in the boron-doped diamond, similar to that observed in pure diamond, indicating that the exciton binding energy remains the same upon B-doping.

  14. Formation of Boron-Carbon Nanosheets and Bilayers in Boron-Doped Diamond: Origin of Metallicity and Superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, S N; Denisov, V N; Mavrin, B N; Kirichenko, A N; Kuznetsov, M S; Martyushov, S Yu; Terentiev, S A; Blank, V D

    2016-12-01

    The insufficient data on a structure of the boron-doped diamond (BDD) has frustrated efforts to fully understand the fascinating electronic properties of this material and how they evolve with doping. We have employed X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering for detailed study of the large-sized BDD single crystals. We demonstrate a formation of boron-carbon (B-C) nanosheets and bilayers in BDD with increasing boron concentration. An incorporation of two boron atoms in the diamond unit cell plays a key role for the B-C nanosheets and bilayer formation. Evidence for these B-C bilayers which are parallel to {111} planes is provided by the observation of high-order, super-lattice reflections in X-ray diffraction and Laue patterns. B-C nanosheets and bilayers minimize the strain energy and affect the electronic structure of BDD. A new shallow acceptor level associated with B-C nanosheets at ~37 meV and the spin-orbit splitting of the valence band of ~6 meV are observed in electronic Raman scattering. We identified that the superconducting transitions occur in the (111) BDD surfaces only. We believe that the origin of Mott and superconducting transitions is associated with the two-dimensional (2D) misfit layer structure of BDD. A model for the BDD crystal structure, based on X-ray and Raman data, is proposed and confirmed by density functional theoretical calculation. PMID:26754937

  15. Formation of Boron-Carbon Nanosheets and Bilayers in Boron-Doped Diamond: Origin of Metallicity and Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, S. N.; Denisov, V. N.; Mavrin, B. N.; Kirichenko, A. N.; Kuznetsov, M. S.; Martyushov, S. Yu; Terentiev, S. A.; Blank, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    The insufficient data on a structure of the boron-doped diamond (BDD) has frustrated efforts to fully understand the fascinating electronic properties of this material and how they evolve with doping. We have employed X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering for detailed study of the large-sized BDD single crystals. We demonstrate a formation of boron-carbon (B-C) nanosheets and bilayers in BDD with increasing boron concentration. An incorporation of two boron atoms in the diamond unit cell plays a key role for the B-C nanosheets and bilayer formation. Evidence for these B-C bilayers which are parallel to {111} planes is provided by the observation of high-order, super-lattice reflections in X-ray diffraction and Laue patterns. B-C nanosheets and bilayers minimize the strain energy and affect the electronic structure of BDD. A new shallow acceptor level associated with B-C nanosheets at 37 meV and the spin-orbit splitting of the valence band of 6 meV are observed in electronic Raman scattering. We identified that the superconducting transitions occur in the (111) BDD surfaces only. We believe that the origin of Mott and superconducting transitions is associated with the two-dimensional (2D) misfit layer structure of BDD. A model for the BDD crystal structure, based on X-ray and Raman data, is proposed and confirmed by density functional theoretical calculation.

  16. Properties and electrochemical characteristics of boron-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsierkezos, Nikos G.; Ritter, Uwe; Nugraha Thaha, Yudi; Krischok, Stefan; Himmerlich, Marcel; Downing, Clive

    2015-10-01

    Boron-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized upon decomposition of ethyl alcohol and boric acid via chemical vapor deposition. The boron-doped nanotubes were treated with hydrochloric acid and were characterized by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemistry of ferrocyanide/ferricyanide on boron-doped nanotubes was studied in temperature range of 283.15-303.15 K. The findings exhibit an improvement of films' current response and kinetics of electron transfer with the rise in temperature. The kinetics for electron transfer enhances and the redox process occurs slightly more spontaneously upon acid treatment.

  17. Boron doping effects in electrochromic properties of NiO films prepared by sol-gel

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Xianchun; Zhao, Xiujian; He, Xin

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, NiO films doped with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} were first prepared by sol-gel. The effects of boron content on the structure and electrochromic properties of NiO films were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetric (CV) and UV-vis spectrophotometer, respectively. In addition, the roughness and phase of the bleached/colored were studied by atom force microscopy (AFM). B-doped prevent the crystallization of the films. The colored state transmittance could be significantly lowered when the boron added. The NiO film doped with boron exhibited a noticeable electrochromism with a variation of transmittance up to {proportional_to}60% at the wavelength range of 300-500 nm. (author)

  18. Critical boron-doping levels for generation of dislocations in synthetic diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Alegre, M. P. Araújo, D.; Pinero, J. C.; Lloret, F.; Villar, M. P.; Fiori, A.; Achatz, P.; Chicot, G.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2014-10-27

    Defects induced by boron doping in diamond layers were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The existence of a critical boron doping level above which defects are generated is reported. This level is found to be dependent on the CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} molar ratios and on growth directions. The critical boron concentration lied in the 6.5–17.0 × 10{sup 20}at/cm{sup 3} range in the 〈111〉 direction and at 3.2 × 10{sup 21 }at/cm{sup 3} for the 〈001〉 one. Strain related effects induced by the doping are shown not to be responsible. From the location of dislocations and their Burger vectors, a model is proposed, together with their generation mechanism.

  19. Raman scattering in boron-doped single-crystal diamond used to fabricate Schottky diode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggio, G.; Messina, G.; Santangelo, S.; Prestopino, G.; Ciancaglioni, I.; Marinelli, M.

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to its exceptional physical and electronic properties, diamond is an attractive material for electronic devices working at high temperature and in harsh chemical environment. Its use as a semiconducting material for electronics is related to the possibility of doping it in order to control its conductivity. Semiconducting p-type diamond films can be grown when boron is introduced into the film. In this work, boron-doped (B-doped) homoepitaxial diamond films are grown by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. Raman and electrical characterizations are carried out on the films as a function of boron doping level. As the boron content increases, we observe systematic modifications in the Raman spectra of single-crystal diamonds. A significant change in the lineshape of the first-order Raman peak, as well as a wide and structured signal at lower wavenumbers, appears simultaneously in samples grown with higher boron content. A single crystal diamond Schottky diode based on a metal/intrinsic/p-type diamond junction is analysed.

  20. Atomistic boron-doped graphene field-effect transistors: a route toward unipolar characteristics.

    PubMed

    Marconcini, Paolo; Cresti, Alessandro; Triozon, Franois; Fiori, Gianluca; Biel, Blanca; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Macucci, Massimo; Roche, Stephan

    2012-09-25

    We report fully quantum simulations of realistic models of boron-doped graphene-based field-effect transistors, including atomistic details based on DFT calculations. We show that the self-consistent solution of the three-dimensional (3D) Poisson and Schrdinger equations with a representation in terms of a tight-binding Hamiltonian manages to accurately reproduce the DFT results for an isolated boron-doped graphene nanoribbon. Using a 3D Poisson/Schrdinger solver within the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism, self-consistent calculations of the gate-screened scattering potentials induced by the boron impurities have been performed, allowing the theoretical exploration of the tunability of transistor characteristics. The boron-doped graphene transistors are found to approach unipolar behavior as the boron concentration is increased and, by tuning the density of chemical dopants, the electron-hole transport asymmetry can be finely adjusted. Correspondingly, the onset of a mobility gap in the device is observed. Although the computed asymmetries are not sufficient to warrant proper device operation, our results represent an initial step in the direction of improved transfer characteristics and, in particular, the developed simulation strategy is a powerful new tool for modeling doped graphene nanostructures. PMID:22876866

  1. Growth of boron-doped diamond nanoclusters using the HFCVD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadfar, P.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Elahi, S. M.; Farhadyar, N.; Salar Elahi, A.

    2015-04-01

    Boron-doped diamond nanocrystals were grown on Si wafers through introduction of the gas mixture of B2O3 dissolved in ethanol and hydrogen by a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. Boron level in diamond films were controlled in the range from 100 to 500 ppm by adjusting the B/C ratios of gas mixtures in order to synthesize and improve the conductivity and quality of HFCVD diamond films with cluster size of nanometer. To investigate the effect of different boron percentage in the chamber on deposited films, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and four point probe techniques were applied to characterize the properties of diamond films. Experimental results indicated that higher boron incorporation in the diamond films introduced bigger crystal clusters, better crystal quality and smaller film resistivity when the level of boron increased from 100 to 300 ppm, while they showed an opposite trend with a further increase of boron level from 300 to 500 ppm. However, in any case the higher boron-doping level led to a decrease of the non-diamond phase in the nanodiamond films.

  2. Thermal shock resistance of thick boron-doped diamond under extreme heat loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Temmerman, G.; Dodson, J.; Linke, J.; Lisgo, S.; Pintsuk, G.; Porro, S.; Scarsbrook, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thick free-standing boron-doped diamonds were prepared by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition. Samples with a final thickness close to 5 mm and with lateral dimensions 25 × 25 mm were produced. The thermal shock resistance of the material was tested by exposure in the JUDITH electron gun to reproduce the conditions expected in a fusion reactor during plasma instabilities. Boron-doped diamond is shown to exhibit thermal shock resistance far better than current material of choice for a fusion reactor like tungsten, with no surface damage after exposure to 100 cycles at 2.5 GW m-2 for 5 ms.

  3. Boron-Doped Silicon Diatom Frustules as a Photocathode for Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Macdonald, Thomas J; Gerson, Andrea R; Nann, Thomas; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-08-12

    An effective solar-powered silicon device for hydrogen production from water splitting is a priority in light of diminishing fossil fuel vectors. There is increasing demand for nanostructuring in silicon to improve its antireflective properties for efficient solar energy conversion. Diatom frustules are naturally occurring biosilica nanostructures formed by biomineralizing microalgae. Here, we demonstrate magnesiothermic conversion of boron-doped silica diatom frustules from Aulacoseira sp. into nanostructured silicon with retention of the original shape. Hydrogen production was achieved for boron-doped silicon diatom frustules coated with indium phosphide nanocrystal layers and an iron sulfur carbonyl electrocatalyst. PMID:26192101

  4. Dynamics of formation of Ru, Os, Ir and Au metal nanocrystals on doped graphitic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pitto-Barry, Anas; Sadler, Peter J; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2016-03-11

    The fabrication of precious metal (ruthenium, osmium, gold, and iridium) nanocrystals from single atoms has been studied in real-time. The dynamics of the first stage of the metal nanocrystallisation on a doped (B,S)-graphitic surface are identified, captured, and reported. PMID:26698913

  5. Boron

    MedlinePLUS

    Boron is a mineral that is found in food and the environment. People take boron supplements as medicine. Boron is used for building ... to affect the way the body handles other minerals such as magnesium and phosphorus. It also seems ...

  6. Controlled in situ boron doping of diamond thin films using solution phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Dua, A. K.; Nuwad, J.; Girija, K. G.; Tyagi, A. K.; Kulshreshtha, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    Controlled boron doping of diamond film using nontoxic reagents is a challenge in itself. During the present study, attempts have been made to dope diamond films in situ with boron from a solution of boric acid (H3BO3) in methanol (CH3OH) using a specially designed bubbler that ensured continuous and controlled flow of vapors of boron precursors during deposition. The samples are thoroughly characterized using a host of techniques comprising of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman, x-ray diffraction, and current-voltage measurements (I-V). Cross-sectional micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used to obtain depth profile of boron in diamond films. Boron concentration ([B]) in the films is found to vary linearly on a semilog scale with molarity (M) of H3BO3 in CH3OH. Lattice constant of our samples is smaller than the reported American society for testing and materials (ASTM) values due to oxygen incorporation and it increases with [B] in the diamond samples. Heavily boron doped samples exhibit Fano deformation of the Raman line shape and negative and/zero activation barrier in temperature dependent I-V measurements that indicate the formation of metallic phase in the samples. The present study illustrates the feasibility of safe and controlled boron doping of diamond films using a solution of H3BO3 in CH3OH over a significant range of [B] from semiconductor to metallic regime but with a little adverse effect due to unintentional but unavoidable incorporation of oxygen.

  7. Facile Synthesis of Pre-Doping Lithium-Ion Into Nitrogen-Doped Graphite Negative Electrode for Lithium-Ion Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Kim, Ji-Il; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Park, Soo-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphite, prepared via the thermal decomposition of melamine into a carbon matrix for use as the negative electrode in lithium-ion capacitors (LICs), was evaluated by electrochemical measurements. Furthermore, in order to study the performance of pre-doped lithium components as a function of nitrogen-doped material, the pre-doped lithium graphite was allowed to react with a lithium salt solution. The results showed that the nitrogen functional groups in the graphite largely influenced the pre-doped lithium components, thereby contributing to the discharge capacity and cycling performance. We confirmed that the large initial irreversible capacity could be significantly decreased by using pre-doped lithium components obtained through the nitrogen-doping method. PMID:26716292

  8. Study of the roles of chemical modifiers in determining boron using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and optimization of the temperature profile during atomization.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuhei; Shirasaki, Toshihiro; Yonetani, Akira; Imai, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The measurement conditions for determining boron using graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) were investigated. Differences in the boron absorbance profiles were found using three different commercially available GF-AAS instruments when the graphite atomizers in them were not tuned. The boron absorbances found with and without adjusting the graphite atomizers suggested that achieving an adequate absorbance for the determination of boron requires a sharp temperature profile that overshoots the target temperature during the atomization process. Chemical modifiers that could improve the boron absorbance without the need for using coating agents were tested. Calcium carbonate improved the boron absorbance but did not suppress variability in the peak height. Improvement of boron absorbance was comparatively less using iron nitrate or copper nitrate than using calcium carbonate, but variability in the peak height was clearly suppressed using iron nitrate or copper nitrate. The limit of detection was 0.0026 mg L(-1) when iron nitrate was used. It appears that iron nitrate is a useful new chemical modifier for the quick and simple determination of boron using GF-AAS. PMID:25958863

  9. New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Peter; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Lee, Mark W.; Jalistegi, Satish S.

    2014-08-14

    This project, since its start in 2007—entitled “Networks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storage” (2007-10) and “New pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospaces” (2010-13)—is in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program’s comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007—metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storage—sorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (“5.5 wt%”) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have demonstrated the predicted increase in binding energy experimentally, currently at ~10 kJ/mol. The synthetic route for incorporation of boron at the outset is to create appropriately designed copoly- mers, with a boron-free and a boron-carrying monomer, followed by pyrolysis of the polymer, yielding a bo- ron-substituted carbon scaffold in which boron atoms are bonded to carbon atoms by synthesis. This is in contrast to a second route (funded by DE-FG36-08GO18142) in which first high-surface area carbon is cre- ated and doped by surface vapor deposition of boron, with incorporation of the boron into the lattice the final step of the fabrication. The challenge in the first route is to create high surface areas without compromising sp2 boron-carbon bonds. The challenge in the second route is to create sp2 boron-carbon bonds without com- promising high surface areas.

  10. Cat-doping: Novel method for phosphorus and boron shallow doping in crystalline silicon at 80 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Taro; Ohta, Tatsunori; Nakashima, Yuki; Miyamoto, Motoharu; Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2014-09-01

    Phosphorus (P) or boron (B) atoms can be doped at temperatures as low as 80 to 350 C, when crystalline silicon (c-Si) is exposed only for a few minutes to species generated by catalytic cracking reaction of phosphine (PH3) or diborane (B2H6) with heated tungsten (W) catalyzer. This paper is to investigate systematically this novel doping method, "Cat-doping", in detail. The electrical properties of P or B doped layers are studied by the Van der Pauw method based on the Hall effects measurement. The profiles of P or B atoms in c-Si are observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry mainly from back side of samples to eliminate knock-on effects. It is confirmed that the surface of p-type c-Si is converted to n-type by P Cat-doping at 80 C, and similarly, that of n-type c-Si is to p-type by B Cat-doping. The doping depth is as shallow as 5 nm or less and the electrically activated doping concentration is 1018 to 1019 cm-3 for both P and B doping. It is also found that the surface potential of c-Si is controlled by the shallow Cat-doping and that the surface recombination velocity of minority carriers in c-Si can be enormously lowered by this potential control.

  11. Resonance of graphene nanoribbons doped with nitrogen and boron: a molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ye; Zhan, Haifei; Xia, Kang; Zhang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    Summary Based on its enticing properties, graphene has been envisioned with applications in the area of electronics, photonics, sensors, bio-applications and others. To facilitate various applications, doping has been frequently used to manipulate the properties of graphene. Despite a number of studies conducted on doped graphene regarding its electrical and chemical properties, the impact of doping on the mechanical properties of graphene has been rarely discussed. A systematic study of the vibrational properties of graphene doped with nitrogen and boron is performed by means of a molecular dynamics simulation. The influence from different density or species of dopants has been assessed. It is found that the impacts on the quality factor, Q, resulting from different densities of dopants vary greatly, while the influence on the resonance frequency is insignificant. The reduction of the resonance frequency caused by doping with boron only is larger than the reduction caused by doping with both boron and nitrogen. This study gives a fundamental understanding of the resonance of graphene with different dopants, which may benefit their application as resonators. PMID:24991509

  12. Biocompatibility of nanostructured boron doped diamond for the attachment and proliferation of human neural stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alice C.; Vagaska, Barbora; Edgington, Robert; Hébert, Clément; Ferretti, Patrizia; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. We quantitatively investigate the biocompatibility of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) after the inclusion of boron, with and without nanostructuring. The nanostructuring method involves a novel approach of growing NCD over carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that act as a 3D scaffold. This nanostructuring of BNCD leads to a material with increased capacitance, and this along with wide electrochemical window makes BNCD an ideal material for neural interface applications, and thus it is essential that their biocompatibility is investigated. Approach. Biocompatibility was assessed by observing the interaction of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) with a variety of NCD substrates including un-doped ones, and NCD doped with boron, which are both planar, and nanostructured. hNSCs were chosen due to their sensitivity, and various methods including cell population and confluency were used to quantify biocompatibility. Main results. Boron inclusion into NCD film was shown to have no observable effect on hNSC attachment, proliferation and viability. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of nanostructured boron-doped NCD is increased upon nanostructuring, potentially due to the increased surface area. Significance. Diamond is an attractive material for supporting the attachment and development of cells as it can show exceptional biocompatibility. When boron is used as a dopant within diamond it becomes a p-type semiconductor, and at high concentrations the diamond becomes quasi-metallic, offering the prospect of a direct electrical device-cell interfacing system.

  13. Ultrasensitive gas detection of large-area boron-doped graphene

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ruitao; Chen, Gugang; Li, Qing; McCreary, Amber; Botello-Mndez, Andrs; Morozov, S. V.; Declerck, Xavier; Perea-Lpez, Nestor; Cullen, David A.; Feng, Simin; Elas, Ana Laura; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Endo, Morinobu; Kang, Feiyu; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Meunier, Vincent; Pan, Minghu; Harutyunyan, Avetik R.; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Heteroatom doping is an efficient way to modify the chemical and electronic properties of graphene. In particular, boron doping is expected to induce a p-type (boron)-conducting behavior to pristine (nondoped) graphene, which could lead to diverse applications. However, the experimental progress on atomic scale visualization and sensing properties of large-area boron-doped graphene (BG) sheets is still very scarce. This work describes the controlled growth of centimeter size, high-crystallinity BG sheets. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are used to visualize the atomic structure and the local density of states around boron dopants. It is confirmed that BG behaves as a p-type conductor and a unique croissant-like feature is frequently observed within the BG lattice, which is caused by the presence of boron-carbon trimers embedded within the hexagonal lattice. More interestingly, it is demonstrated for the first time that BG exhibits unique sensing capabilities when detecting toxic gases, such as NO2 and NH3, being able to detect extremely low concentrations (e.g., parts per trillion, parts per billion). This work envisions that other attractive applications could now be explored based on as-synthesized BG. PMID:26575621

  14. Ultrasensitive gas detection of large-area boron-doped graphene.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ruitao; Chen, Gugang; Li, Qing; McCreary, Amber; Botello-Mndez, Andrs; Morozov, S V; Liang, Liangbo; Declerck, Xavier; Perea-Lpez, Nestor; Cullen, David A; Feng, Simin; Elas, Ana Laura; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Endo, Morinobu; Kang, Feiyu; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Meunier, Vincent; Pan, Minghu; Harutyunyan, Avetik R; Novoselov, Konstantin S; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-11-24

    Heteroatom doping is an efficient way to modify the chemical and electronic properties of graphene. In particular, boron doping is expected to induce a p-type (boron)-conducting behavior to pristine (nondoped) graphene, which could lead to diverse applications. However, the experimental progress on atomic scale visualization and sensing properties of large-area boron-doped graphene (BG) sheets is still very scarce. This work describes the controlled growth of centimeter size, high-crystallinity BG sheets. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are used to visualize the atomic structure and the local density of states around boron dopants. It is confirmed that BG behaves as a p-type conductor and a unique croissant-like feature is frequently observed within the BG lattice, which is caused by the presence of boron-carbon trimers embedded within the hexagonal lattice. More interestingly, it is demonstrated for the first time that BG exhibits unique sensing capabilities when detecting toxic gases, such as NO2 and NH3, being able to detect extremely low concentrations (e.g., parts per trillion, parts per billion). This work envisions that other attractive applications could now be explored based on as-synthesized BG. PMID:26575621

  15. Delta-doping of boron atoms by photoexcited chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Akazawa, Housei

    2012-03-15

    Boron delta-doped structures in Si crystals were fabricated by means of photoexcited chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Core electronic excitation with high-energy photons ranging from vacuum ultraviolet to soft x rays decomposes B{sub 2}H{sub 6} molecules into fragments. Combined with in situ monitoring by spectroscopic ellipsometry, limited number of boron hydrides can be delivered onto a Si(100) surface by using the incubation period before the formation of a solid boron film. The boron-covered surface is subsequently embedded in a Si cap layer by Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} photo-excited CVD. The crystallinity of the Si cap layer depended on its thickness and the substrate temperature. The evaluation of the boron depth profile by secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed that boron atoms were confined within the delta-doped layer at a concentration of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} with a full width at half maximum of less than 9 nm, while the epitaxial growth of a 130-nm-thick Si cap layer was sustained at 420 deg. C.

  16. Molecular dynamics study on the thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in graphene with geometric variations of doped boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qi; Wei, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Thermal conductivity and thermal rectification of graphene with geometric variations have been investigated by using classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, and analyzed theoretically the cause of the changes of thermal conductivity and thermal rectification. Two different structural models, triangular single-boron-doped graphene (SBDG) and parallel various-boron-doped graphene (VBDG), were considered. The results indicated that the thermal conductivities of two different models are about 54-63% lower than pristine graphene. And it was also found that the structure of parallel various-boron-doped graphene is inhibited more strongly on the heat transfer than that of triangular single-boron-doped graphene. The reduction in the thermal conductivities of two different models gradually decreases as the temperature rises. The thermal conductivities of triangular boron-doped graphene have a large difference in both directions, and the thermal rectification of this structure shows the downward trend with increasing temperature. However, the thermal conductivities of parallel various-boron-doped graphene are similar in both directions, and the thermal rectification effect is not obvious in this structure. The phenomenon of thermal rectification exits in SBDG. It implies that the SBDG might be a potential promising structure for thermal rectifier by controlling the boron-doped model.

  17. Weak superconductivity in the surface layer of a bulk single-crystal boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Vladimir; Buga, Sergei; Bormashov, Vitaly; Denisov, Victor; Kirichenko, Alexei; Kulbachinskii, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Michail; Kytin, Vladimir; Kytin, Gennadii; Tarelkin, Sergei; Terentiev, Sergei

    2014-12-01

    We have grown and investigated bulk single-crystal heavily boron-doped diamonds possessing superconductivity with TC{onset} =1.7\\text-3.5 \\text{K} . Only the surface layer with the thickness less than 1 ? \\text{m} showed the degenerate semiconductor behavior with transition to the superconducting state, while the bulk of the crystal was a typical doped semiconductor. The morphology of the surface layer is dendritic polycrystalline with an average boron content of 2.5-2.9 at.%. The typical Josephson junction current-voltage characteristic was observed. The degenerate semiconductor-superconductor transition as in single-crystal high-temperature superconductors and the structural data analysis of the surface layer indicate the two-dimensional character of superconductivity, and the actual superconducting structure is a set of few-nanometer thick boron carbide layers embedded in a diamond structure.

  18. Growth and electrical characterisation of {delta}-doped boron layers on (111) diamond surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Edgington, Robert; Jackman, Richard B.; Sato, Syunsuke; Ishiyama, Yuichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi; Morris, Richard

    2012-02-01

    A plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition protocol for the growth of {delta}-doping of boron in diamond is presented, using the (111) diamond plane as a substrate for diamond growth. AC Hall effect measurements have been performed on oxygen terminated {delta}-layers and desirable sheet carrier densities ({approx}10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}) for field-effect transistor application are reported with mobilities in excess of what would expected for equivalent but thicker heavily boron-doped diamond films. Temperature-dependent impedance spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show that the grown layers have metallic-like electrical properties with high cut-off frequencies and low thermal impedance activation energies with estimated boron concentrations of approximately 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}.

  19. Visible and Infra-red Light Emission in Boron-Doped Wurtzite Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rotunno, Enzo; Lazzarini, Laura; Fukata, Naoki; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Silicon, the mainstay semiconductor in microelectronic circuitry, is considered unsuitable for optoelectronic applications owing to its indirect electronic band gap, which limits its efficiency as a light emitter. Here we show the light emission properties of boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires measured by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. A visible emission, peaked above 1.5 eV, and a near infra-red emission at 0.8 eV correlate respectively to the direct transition at the Γ point and to the indirect band-gap of wurtzite silicon. We find additional intense emissions due to boron intra-gap states in the short wavelength infra-red range. We present the evolution of the light emission properties as function of the boron doping concentration and the growth temperature. PMID:24398782

  20. Boosting activation of oxygen molecules on C60 fullerene by boron doping.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao-Zhi; Zheng, Jia-Jia; Dang, Jing-Shuang; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    The activation of oxygen molecules on boron-doped C60 fullerene (C59 B) and the subsequent water formation reaction are systematically investigated by using hybrid density functional calculations. Results indicate that C59 B shows a favorable ability to activate oxygen molecules both kinetically and thermodynamically. The oxygen molecule is first adsorbed on the boron atom, which is identified to be the most reactive site in C59 B for O2 adsorption because of its high positive charge and spin density. The adsorption structure C59 B?O2 can further isomerize to form two products with small reaction barriers. Water formation reactions upon these two structures are energetically favorable and suggest a four-electron mechanism for the oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by C59 B. This work provides a reliable theoretical insight into the catalytic properties of boron-doped fullerene, which is believed to be helpful to explore fullerene catalysts. PMID:25399745

  1. Cerium and boron chemistry in doped borosilicate glasses examined by EELS.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Mbus, G; Hand, R J

    2006-01-01

    Spatially resolved measurements of boron coordination and cerium valency in a doped borosilicate glass with crystalline nano-precipitates are described. The fine structure of the boron K-edge and the white-line ratio of the cerium M-edge doublet were evaluated from EELS line scans. Due to high beam sensitivity it was found that reliable boron-coordination measurements in some of the glasses studied required extrapolation of results acquired after different periods of irradiation back to a zero-irradiation. However, borosilicates that contained heavy alkali atoms were found to suffer very little structural change. The Ce valency of a 4% (molar) doped alkali-borosilicate glass was found to be mixed +III/+IV in the glass matrix and purely +IV (indicative of CeO2) in the precipitates. A significant dependency of the valence results on the data processing method was found and explained. PMID:16481178

  2. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    2002-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  3. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    1999-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  4. Mechanism of the electrochemical dehydrogenation of hexahydropyrimidine on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenyapina, M. D.; Simakova, A. P.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Makhova, N. N.; Vedenyapin, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of hexahydropyrimidine (HHP) on a boron-doped diamond electrode was studied. The obtained data were compared with the results of previous studies on the electrooxidation of HHP on platinum and gold electrodes. It was shown that different products can be obtained from one organic substance using different electrode materials.

  5. Influence of Surface Termination of Boron-Doped Diamond on Superconducting Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsui, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Takeshi; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2012-02-01

    In 2004, a heavily boron-doped diamond was found to be a superconductor Since then, a superconducting diamond has attracted considerable attention, mainly explored for fundamental properties and a theoretical basis. Meanwhile, it is known that the surface of diamond is easily modified by a chemical treatment, and the physical properties, such as surface conductivity, could be modulated through the surface modification. Here, we report modulation of superconducting properties of a heavily boron-doped diamond by tuning the surface electronic state. A heavily boron-doped diamond was prepared onto a silicon wafer substrate by a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. The surface of a boron-doped diamond was changed between hydrogen- and oxygen-termination by thermal and electrochemical reactions, respectively. As a result, the critical current and the diamagnetic magnetization value could be modulated in a reversible manner between the hydrogen- and oxygen-terminated diamonds with maintenance of the superconducting transition temperature. It is assumed that the carrier density at grain boundaries would change due to the induced dipole moment via surface modification, resulting in modulation of the magnetic flux pinning effect at grain boundaries.

  6. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    SciTech Connect

    Corman, G.S.; Luthra, K.L.

    1999-09-14

    A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  7. The atomic and electronic structure of nitrogen- and boron-doped phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Boukhvalov, Danil W

    2015-10-28

    First principles modeling of nitrogen- and boron-doped phosphorene demonstrates the tendency toward the formation of highly ordered structures. Nitrogen doping leads to the formation of -N-P-P-P-N- lines. Further transformation into -P-N-P-N- lines across the chains of phosphorene occurs with increasing band gap and increasing nitrogen concentration, which coincides with the decreasing chemical activity of N-doped phosphorene. In contrast to the case of nitrogen, boron atoms prefer to form -B-B- pairs with the further formation of -P-P-B-B-P-P- patterns along the phosphorene chains. The low concentration of boron dopants converts the phosphorene from a semiconductor into a semimetal with the simultaneous enhancement of its chemical activity. Co-doping of phosphorene by both boron and nitrogen starts from the formation of -B-N- pairs, which provides flat bands and further transformation of these pairs into hexagonal BN lines and ribbons across the phosphorene chains. PMID:26417893

  8. Heavily boron-doped Si layers grown below 700 C by molecular beam epitaxy using a HBO2 source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Fathauer, R. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Boron doping in Si layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at 500-700 C using an HBO2 source has been studied. The maximum boron concentration without detectable oxygen incorporation for a given substrate temperature and Si growth rate has been determined using secondary-ion mass spectrometry analysis. Boron present in the Si MBE layers grown at 550-700 C was found to be electrically active, independent of the amount of oxygen incorporation. By reducing the Si growth rate, highly boron-doped layers have been grown at 600 C without detectable oxygen incorporation.

  9. The investigation of boron-doped silicon using atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blavette, D.; Cadel, E.; Cojocaru-Mirdin, O.; Deconihout, B.

    2010-02-01

    Three-dimensional atom-probe (3DAP) is the only analytical microscope able to map out the distribution of elements in 3D at the atomic scale. 3DAP provides quantitative measurements of local chemical composition in a small selected volume. A new generation of instrument, namely, a laser assisted tomographic atom probe (laser assisted wide angle atom probe LaWaTAP) has recently been designed in order to open the instrument to bad electric conductors. The use of ultra-fast laser pulses rather than of high-voltage pulses to field evaporate surface atoms makes the analysis of semiconductors or oxides that are key materials in microelectronics possible. This article is focussed on methodology and applications to boron-doped silicon. Depth profiles related to boron in various samples (boron deltas, SiGe Maya layers, boron-implanted silicon, ...) will be discussed and compared to SIMS results. Spatial resolution and sensitivities will be compared.

  10. Cat-doping: Novel method for phosphorus and boron shallow doping in crystalline silicon at 80 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Taro; Ohta, Tatsunori; Nakashima, Yuki; Miyamoto, Motoharu; Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2014-09-21

    Phosphorus (P) or boron (B) atoms can be doped at temperatures as low as 80 to 350 °C, when crystalline silicon (c-Si) is exposed only for a few minutes to species generated by catalytic cracking reaction of phosphine (PH₃) or diborane (B₂H₆) with heated tungsten (W) catalyzer. This paper is to investigate systematically this novel doping method, “Cat-doping”, in detail. The electrical properties of P or B doped layers are studied by the Van der Pauw method based on the Hall effects measurement. The profiles of P or B atoms in c-Si are observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry mainly from back side of samples to eliminate knock-on effects. It is confirmed that the surface of p-type c-Si is converted to n-type by P Cat-doping at 80 °C, and similarly, that of n-type c-Si is to p-type by B Cat-doping. The doping depth is as shallow as 5 nm or less and the electrically activated doping concentration is 10¹⁸ to 10¹⁹cm⁻³ for both P and B doping. It is also found that the surface potential of c-Si is controlled by the shallow Cat-doping and that the surface recombination velocity of minority carriers in c-Si can be enormously lowered by this potential control.

  11. Boosting the Boron Dopant Level in Monolayer Doping by Carboranes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liang; Gonzlez-Campo, Arntzazu; Nez, Rosario; de Jong, Michel P; Kudernac, Tibor; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2015-12-16

    Monolayer doping (MLD) presents an alternative method to achieve silicon doping without causing crystal damage, and it has the capability of ultrashallow doping and the doping of nonplanar surfaces. MLD utilizes dopant-containing alkene molecules that form a monolayer on the silicon surface using the well-established hydrosilylation process. Here, we demonstrate that MLD can be extended to high doping levels by designing alkenes with a high content of dopant atoms. Concretely, carborane derivatives, which have 10 B atoms per molecule, were functionalized with an alkene group. MLD using a monolayer of such a derivative yielded up to ten times higher doping levels, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic secondary mass spectroscopy, compared to an alkene with a single B atom. Sheet resistance measurements showed comparably increased conductivities of the Si substrates. Thermal budget analyses indicate that the doping level can be further optimized by changing the annealing conditions. PMID:26595856

  12. π-Ring currents in doped coronenes with nitrogen and boron: diatropic-paratropic duality.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Pownall, Barnaby; Pelloni, Stefano; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M

    2015-10-14

    The change in the electronic structure of coronene upon doping with nitrogen or boron has been theoretically studied by means of its magnetic properties and magnetic field induced current density maps. The addition of two atoms of nitrogen or boron to the central ring of coronene causes a drastic variation in the delocalization of π-electrons, which does not depend on its nature but instead on its position. Then, doping in the para position makes coronene more aromatic while doping in the meta position makes it to become antiaromatic. The magnetic behavior of the pristine molecule is characterized by two concentric currents flowing in opposite senses that are converted into hemi-perimetric currents in the ortho and meta isomers, so dividing the molecule into aromatic and antiaromatic regions. The paratropic and diatropic ring currents of the coronene moiety may, therefore, be modulated through the position of the heteroatom and, consequently, also the localized/delocalized behavior. PMID:26343535

  13. Transition-Metal Strings Templated on Boron-Doped Carbon Nanotubes: A DFT Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    An, Wei; Turner, C. H.

    2009-08-27

    The binding nature, magnetic, and electronic properties of transition-metal (TM) monatomic chains anchored on boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWCNTs) are studied using density-functional theory. The TM systems studied here include Au, Pt, Ru, Pd, Ag, Co, Ni, Cu, W, and Ti, which are well-known for their technical importance. In conjunction, prototype semiconducting SWCNT(8,0) and metallic SWCNT(6,6) were chosen to model the general features of B-doped SWCNTs. It is found that the TM-strings exhibit well-defined covalent bonds with the boron-doped SWCNTs, in contrast to the pristine SWCNTs. The TMstring/ B-SWCNT composites exhibit high stability and unexpected electronic properties, which are relevant to applications in nanoelectronics, spintronics, nanocatalysis, and sensor devices.

  14. A new plasma-surface interactions research facility: PISCES-B and first materials erosion experiments on boronized graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Sketchley, T.; Leung, W.K.; Doerner, R.; Elverum, J.; Gunner, G.; Khandagle, M.; Lehmer, R.; Luong, P.; Ra, Y.; Schmitz, L.; Tynan, G.

    1989-08-01

    A new plasma-surface interactions research facility: PISCES-B has been designed and constructed at University of California, Los Angeles. The entire vacuum chamber is bakable and a base pressure of the order of 10{sup {minus}8} Torr is attainable using two turbo molecular pumps with a total pumping speed of 6000 l/s. The PISCES-B facility can generate continuous plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, deuterium and nitrogen. The density of these plasmas ranges from 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup {minus}3} and the electron temperature ranges from 3 to 51 eV. The plasma bombardment flux to a target surface inserted in the plasma column can be varied from 1 {times} 10{sup 17} to 8 {times} 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Due to the high pumping speed, the neutral pressure of the working gas during plasma generation is controllable in the wide range from 3 {times} 10{sup -5} to 1 {times} 10{sup -3} Torr. These conditions are similar to those seen at the limiter and divertor areas in toroidal fusion devices. Using the PISCES-B facility, first materials erosion experiments have been conducted on 3% boronized graphites and iso-graphites as the reference materials. The chemical sputtering yield due to hydrogen plasma bombardment at 300 eV for 3% boronized graphite has been found to be about 30% smaller than that for iso-graphites at temperatures from room temperature to 900{degree}C. Also, radiation enhanced sublimation due to hydrogen plasma bombardment at 400 eV is found to be suppressed by 20-30% for 3% boronized graphite at temperatures up to 1300{degree}C. No significant surface composition change is observed after hydrogen plasma bombardment to a fluence of the order of 10{sup 22} ions cm{sup {minus}2}. 30 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Nitrogen-doped, boron-doped and undoped multiwalled carbon nanotube/polymer composites in WORM memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamo, Messai A.; Sustaita, Alan O.; Tetana, Zikhona N.; Coville, Neil J.; Hmmelgen, Ivo A.

    2013-03-01

    We report the preparation of write-once-read-many times memory devices using composites of carbon nanotubes and poly(vinyl phenol) sandwiched between Al electrodes. Three types of nanotubes (undoped multiwalled carbon nanotubes, nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes and boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes) are investigated for this application. The OFF to ON state switching threshold is only slightly dependent on nanotube type, but the ON/OFF current ratio depends on both nanotube type and concentration and varies up to 106, decreasing for nanotube concentrations larger than 0.50 wt% in the composite.

  16. Potential rare earth free permanent magnet: interstitial boron doped FeCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2014-10-01

    Using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, we investigated the structural and the magnetic properties of boron doped FeCo. After fully relaxing the lattice structure, the interatomic distances between boron and Fe atoms were found to be greatly enhanced and the tetragonal distortion was realized due to this increased interatomic distance. Nonetheless, both the unit cell volume and the total magnetic moment of the tetragonally distorted FeCo structure were weakly suppressed compared with those of ideal bulk FeCo. We found a magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant of 0.8 MJ m-3 and this was mainly due to the tetragonal distortion induced by boron impurity, not from the hybridization effect with Fe or Co, because no essential change in the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant was found even without boron impurity in the lattice distorted system. Additionally, the estimated maximum energy product and coercive field were 100 MGOe and 745 kA m-1, respectively. These results may imply that the interstitial boron doped FeCo can be used for a potential rare earth free permanent magnet although those values are likely to be suppressed in real samples due to micromagnetic factors.

  17. Boron-Doped Strontium-Stabilized Bismuth Cobalt Oxide Thermoelectric Nanocrystalline Ceramic Powders Synthesized via Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyi?it, Serhat; Aytimur, Arda; ?nar, Emre; Uslu, ?brahim; Akdemir, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Boron-doped strontium-stabilized bismuth cobalt oxide thermoelectric nanocrystalline ceramic powders were produced by using a polymeric precursor technique. The powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and physical properties measurement system (PPMS) techniques. The XRD results showed that these patterns have a two-phase mixture. The phases are face-centered cubic (fcc) and body-centered cubic (bcc). Values of the crystallite size, dislocation density, and microstrain were calculated by using the Scherrer equation. The lattice parameters were calculated for fcc and bcc phases. The SEM results showed that needle-like grains are formed in boron-undoped composite materials, but the needle-like grains changed to the plate-like grains with the addition of boron. The distribution of the nanofiber diameters was calculated and the average diameter of the boron-doped sample is smaller than the boron-undoped one. PPMS values showed that the electrical resistivity values decreased, but the thermal conductivity values, the Seebeck coefficients, and figure of merit ( ZT) increased with increasing temperature for the two samples.

  18. Photo-induced Modulation Doping in Graphene/Boron nitride Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Jairo, Jr.; Ju, Long; Hwang, Edwin; Kahn, Salman; Nosiglia, Casey; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guangyu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Zhang, Yuanbo; Crommie, Michael; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures (VDH) provide an exciting new platform for materials engineering, where a variety of layered materials with different electrical, optical and mechanical responses can be stacked together to enable new physics and novel functionalities. We report an emerging optoelectronic phenomenon (i.e. photo-induced modulation doping) in the graphene-boron nitride VDH (G/BN heterostructure). We find it enables flexible and repeatable writing and erasing of charge doping in graphene with optical light. We show that the photo-induced modulation doping maintains the remarkable carrier mobility of the G/BN heterostructure, and it can be used to generate spatially varying doping profiles like pn junctions. Our work contributes towards understanding light matter interactions in VDHs, and introduces a simple technique for creating inhomogeneous doping in high mobility graphene devices. J. Velasco Jr. acknowledges support from UC President's Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  19. Observation of Landau levels on nitrogen-doped flat graphite surfaces without external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Takahiro; Guo, Donghui; Shikano, Taishi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Masataka; Okada, Susumu; Nakamura, Junji

    2015-11-01

    Under perpendicular external magnetic fields, two-dimensional carriers exhibit Landau levels (LLs). However, it has recently been reported that LLs have been observed on graphene and graphite surfaces without external magnetic fields being applied. These anomalous LLs have been ascribed primarily to a strain of graphene sheets, leading to in-plane hopping modulation of electrons. Here, we report the observation of the LLs of massive Dirac fermions on atomically flat areas of a nitrogen-doped graphite surface in the absence of external magnetic fields. The corresponding magnetic fields were estimated to be as much as approximately 100?T. The generation of the LLs at the area with negligible strain can be explained by inequivalent hopping of ? electrons that takes place at the perimeter of high-potential domains surrounded by positively charged substituted graphitic-nitrogen atoms.

  20. Observation of Landau levels on nitrogen-doped flat graphite surfaces without external magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takahiro; Guo, Donghui; Shikano, Taishi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Masataka; Okada, Susumu; Nakamura, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Under perpendicular external magnetic fields, two-dimensional carriers exhibit Landau levels (LLs). However, it has recently been reported that LLs have been observed on graphene and graphite surfaces without external magnetic fields being applied. These anomalous LLs have been ascribed primarily to a strain of graphene sheets, leading to in-plane hopping modulation of electrons. Here, we report the observation of the LLs of massive Dirac fermions on atomically flat areas of a nitrogen-doped graphite surface in the absence of external magnetic fields. The corresponding magnetic fields were estimated to be as much as approximately 100 T. The generation of the LLs at the area with negligible strain can be explained by inequivalent hopping of π electrons that takes place at the perimeter of high-potential domains surrounded by positively charged substituted graphitic-nitrogen atoms. PMID:26549618

  1. Effects of hole doping by neutron irradiation of magnetic field induced electronic phase transitions in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, John; Yaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated effects of hole doping by fast-neutron irradiation on the magnetic-field induced phase transitions in graphite using specimens irradiated with fast neutrons. Resistance measurements have been done in magnetic fields of up to above 50 T and at temperatures down to about 1.5 K. The neutron irradiation creates lattice defects acting as acceptors, affecting the imbalance of the electron and hole densities and the Fermi level. We have found that the reentrant field from the field induced state back to the normal state shifts towards a lower field with hole doping, suggestive of the participation of electron subbands in the magnetic-field induced state.

  2. Boron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  3. Spatial Variation of Tunneling Spectra in (111)-ORIENTED Films of Boron-Doped Diamond Probed by Stm/sts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizaki, Terukazu; Sasaki, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Norio; Takano, Yoshihiko; Nagao, Masanori; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    We report on scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) experiments on boron-doped diamond films. The tunneling conductance dI/dV spectra measured on the (111)-oriented surface show spatial variations which distribute irrespective of the surface morphology. The spatial variations are discussed in terms of characteristic features of the superconductivity under the condition of the considerable disorder by the boron doping.

  4. Catalytic doping of phosphorus and boron atoms on hydrogenated amorphous silicon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Junichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the low-temperature doping of phosphorus (P) and boron (B) atoms on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films by catalytic doping (Cat-doping). The conductivity of a-Si:H films increases as catalyzer temperature (T cat) increases, and the increase in conductivity is accompanied by a significant reduction in activation energy obtained from the Arrhenius plot of the conductivity. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurement reveals that Cat-doped P and B atoms exist within ∼10–15 nm from the a-Si:H film surface, indicating that the shallow doping of P and B atoms is realized on a-Si:H films similarly to the case of Cat-doping on crystalline Si (c-Si) wafers. We also confirm no additional film deposition during Cat-doping. These results suggest that decomposed species are effectively doped on a-Si:H films similarly to the case of Cat-doping on c-Si.

  5. Effects of Oxidation on Oxidation-Resistant Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Windes, William; Smith, Rebecca; Carroll, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades that exhibit oxidation resistance through the formation of protective oxides on the surface of the graphite material. In the unlikely event of an oxygen ingress accident, graphite components within the VHTR core region are anticipated to oxidize so long as the oxygen continues to enter the hot core region and the core temperatures remain above 400°C. For the most serious air-ingress accident which persists over several hours or days the continued oxidation can result in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material during any air-ingress accident would mitigate the structural effects and keep the core intact. Previous air oxidation testing of nuclear-grade graphite doped with varying levels of boron-carbide (B4C) at a nominal 739°C was conducted for a limited number of doped specimens demonstrating a dramatic reduction in oxidation rate for the boronated graphite grade. This report summarizes the conclusions from this small scoping study by determining the effects of oxidation on the mechanical strength resulting from oxidation of boronated and unboronated graphite to a 10% mass loss level. While the B4C additive did reduce mechanical strength loss during oxidation, adding B4C dopants to a level of 3.5% or more reduced the as-fabricated compressive strength nearly 50%. This effectively minimized any benefits realized from the protective film formed on the boronated grades. Future work to infuse different graphite grades with silicon- and boron-doped material as a post-machining conditioning step for nuclear components is discussed as a potential solution for these challenges in this report.

  6. Controlled electrochemical intercalation, exfoliation and in situ nitrogen doping of graphite in nitrate-based protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xunyu; Zhao, Chuan

    2013-12-14

    Few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene has been prepared via fast and controlled electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in a protic ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate. The method presents a potentially scalable approach for preparation of metal-free, N-doped graphene for use as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. PMID:24169792

  7. Forming mechanism of nitrogen doped graphene prepared by thermal solid-state reaction of graphite oxide and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Zhigang; Chen, Xiaoye; Du, Yukou; Wang, Xiaomei; Yang, Ping; Wang, Suidong

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen doped graphene was synthesized from graphite oxide and urea by thermal solid-state reaction. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectra, element analysis, and electrical conductivity measurement. The results reveal that there is a gradual thermal transformation of nitrogen bonding configurations from amide form nitrogen to pyrrolic, then to pyridinic, and finally to "graphitic" nitrogen in graphene sheets with increasing annealing temperature from 200 to 700 C. The products prepared at 600 C and 700 C show that the quantity of nitrogen incorporated into graphene lattice is 10 at.% with simultaneous reduction of graphite oxide. Oxygen-containing functional groups in graphite oxide are responsible for the doping reaction to produce nitrogen doped graphene.

  8. Effect of boron doping on optical properties of sol-gel based nanostructured zinc oxide films on glass

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Sunirmal; Vuk, Angela Surca; Mallick, Aparajita; Orel, Boris; Biswas, Prasanta Kumar

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Room temperature fine structured UV-vis PL emissions (a) as phonon replicas in 1 at.% boron doped film originated from LO phonon evidenced from Near Grazing Incidence Angle (NGIA) IR spectral study (b). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel based boron doped nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on pure silica glass using crystalline boric acid as boron source. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Observed first time, room temperature fine structured PL emissions in 1 at.% doped film as phonon replicas originated from LO phonon (both IR and Raman active). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron doping controls the LO phonon energy in addition to visible reflection, band gap and grain size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films possessed mixed crystal phases with hexagonal as major phase. -- Abstract: Boron doped zinc oxide thin films ({approx}80 nm) were deposited onto pure silica glass by sol-gel dip coating technique from the precursor sol/solution of 4.0 wt.% equivalent oxide content. The boron concentration was varied from 0 to 2 at.% w.r.t. Zn using crystalline boric acid. The nanostructured feature of the films was visualized by FESEM images and the largest cluster size of ZnO was found in 1 at.% boron doped film (B1ZO). The presence of mixed crystal phases with hexagonal as major phase was identified from XRD reflections of the films. Particle size, optical band gap, visible specular reflection, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) emissions (3.24-2.28 eV), infra-red (IR) and Raman active longitudinal optical (LO) phonon vibration were found to be dependent on dopant concentration. For the first time, we report the room temperature fine structured PL emissions as phonon replicas originated from the LO phonon (both IR and Raman active) in 1 at.% boron doped zinc oxide film.

  9. The location and doping effect of boron in Si nanocrystals embedded silicon oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Min; Li, Dongsheng; Chen, Le; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Deren

    2013-03-25

    Electrically activated doping of boron (B) atoms into the Si-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded silicon oxide film is achieved by co-sputtering technique following with the annealing treatment. The evolution of the size, the shape, and the density of Si-NCs with the doping of B atoms is investigated. The observation of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of Si 2p and B 1s and the decrease in lattice spacing of Si (111) plane suggest that B atoms are doped into Si-NCs. The activated doping is confirmed by the Fano effect of the micro-Raman spectra for Si-NCs and the drastic decrease of the sheet resistance.

  10. Light-induced enhancement of the minority carrier lifetime in boron-doped Czochralski silicon passivated by doped silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongzhe; Chen, Chao; Pan, Miao; Sun, Yiling; Yang, Xi

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a doubling of the effective minority carrier lifetime under light soaking conditions, observed in a boron-doped p-type Czochralski grown silicon wafer passivated by a phosphorus-doped silicon nitride thin film. The analysis of capacitance-voltage curves revealed that the fixed charge in this phosphorus-doped silicon nitride film was negative, which was unlike the well-known positive fixed charges observed in traditional undoped silicon nitride. The analysis results revealed that the enhancement phenomenon of minority carrier lifetime was caused by the abrupt increase in the density of negative fixed charge (from 7.2 1011 to 1.2 1012 cm-2) after light soaking.

  11. Electrochemical mineralization pathway of quinoline by boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunrong; Ma, Keke; Wu, Tingting; Ye, Min; Tan, Peng; Yan, Kecheng

    2016-04-01

    Boron-doped diamond anodes were selected for quinoline mineralization, and the resulting intermediates, phenylpropyl aldehyde, phenylpropionic acid, and nonanal were identified and followed during quinoline oxidation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The evolutions of formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, NO2(-), NO3(-), and NH4(+) were quantified. A new reaction pathway for quinoline mineralization by boron-doped diamond anodes has been proposed, where the pyridine ring in quinoline is cleaved by a hydroxyl radical giving phenylpropyl aldehyde and NH4(+). Phenylpropyl aldehyde is quickly oxidized into phenylpropionic acid, and the benzene ring is cleaved giving nonanal. This is further oxidized to formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid. Finally, these organic intermediates are mineralized to CO2 and H2O. NH4(+) is also oxidized to NO2(-) and on to NO3(-). The results will help to gain basic reference for clearing intermediates and their toxicity. PMID:26855227

  12. Detection of Several Carbohydrates Using Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes Modified with Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Milena E; Sedenho, Graziela C; Stradiotto, Nelson R

    2015-01-01

    In this work the electrooxidations of glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, xylose and arabinose are studied at a nickel hydroxide nanoparticle modified boron-doped diamond electrode and compared to an unmodified electrode. These carbohydrates are very important in the second-generation ethanol production process. Nickel hydroxide modified boron-doped diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to study the interface properties of surface-modified electrodes in the absence and presence of the carbohydrates. Limits of detection were 5.3 10(-5), 6.8 10(-5), 2.7 10(-4), 6.9 10(-5), 8.8 10(-5) and 2.6 10(-5) mol L(-1) for glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, respectively. PMID:26256600

  13. Characterization of boron doped diamond-like carbon film by HRTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. J.; He, L. L.; Li, Y. S.; Yang, Q.; Hirose, A.

    2015-12-01

    Boron doped diamond-like carbon (B-DLC) film was synthesized on silicon (1 0 0) wafer by biased target ion beam deposition. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is employed to investigate the microstructure of the B-DLC thin film in cross-sectional observation. Many crystalline nanoparticles randomly dispersed and embedded in the amorphous matrix film are observed. Through chemical compositional analysis of the B-DLC film, some amount of O element is confirmed to be contained. And also, some nanoparticles with near zone axes are indexed, which are accordance with B2O phase. Therefore, the contained O element causing the B element oxidized is proposed, resulting in the formation of the nanoparticles. Our work indicates that in the B-DLC film a significant amount of the doped B element exists as boron suboxide nanoparticles.

  14. Local impedance imaging of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieli?ski, A.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Ryl, J.; Burczyk, L.; Darowicki, K.

    2014-09-01

    Local impedance imaging (LII) was used to visualise surficial deviations of AC impedances in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD). The BDD thin film electrodes were deposited onto the highly doped silicon substrates via microwave plasma-enhanced CVD. The studied boron dopant concentrations, controlled by the [B]/[C] ratio in plasma, ranged from 1 1016 to 2 1021 atoms cm-3. The BDD films displayed microcrystalline structure, while the average size of crystallites decreased from 1 to 0.7 ?m with increasing [B]/[C] ratios. The application of LII enabled a direct and high-resolution investigation of local distribution of impedance characteristics within the individual grains of BDD. Such an approach resulted in greater understanding of the microstructural control of properties at the grain level. We propose that the obtained surficial variation of impedance is correlated to the areas of high conductance which have been observed at the grain boundaries by using LII. We also postulate that the origin of high conductivity is due to either preferential boron accumulation, the presence of defects, or sp2 regions in the intragrain regions. The impedance modulus recorded by LII was in full agreement with the bulk impedance measurements. Both variables showed a decreasing trend with increasing [B]/[C] ratios, which is consistent with higher boron incorporation into BDD film.

  15. Synthesis of boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon from asphaltene for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Dao-Long; Wang, Chun-Lei; Jin, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Jie-Shan

    2014-08-01

    Oxidized asphaltene (OA), a thermosetting material with plenty of functional groups, is synthesized from asphaltene (A) using HNO3/H2SO4 as the oxidizing agent. Boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (BNC—OA) is prepared by carbonization of the mixture of boric acid and OA at 1173 K in an argon atmosphere. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization reveals that the BNC—OA has a nitrogen content of 3.26 at.% and a boron content of 1.31 at.%, while its oxidation-free counterpart (BNC—SA) has a nitrogen content of 1.61 at.% and a boron content of 3.02 at.%. The specific surface area and total pore volume of BNC—OA are 1103 m2·g-1 and 0.921 cm3·g-1, respectively. At a current density of 0.1 A·g-1, the specific capacitance of BNC-OA is 335 F·g-1 and the capacitance retention can still reach 83% at 1 A·g-1. The analysis shows that the superior electrochemical performance of the BNC—OA is attributed to the pseudocapacitance behavior of surface heteroatom functional groups and an abundant pore-structure. Boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  16. Local impedance imaging of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zieliński, A.; Ryl, J.; Burczyk, L.; Darowicki, K.

    2014-09-29

    Local impedance imaging (LII) was used to visualise surficial deviations of AC impedances in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD). The BDD thin film electrodes were deposited onto the highly doped silicon substrates via microwave plasma-enhanced CVD. The studied boron dopant concentrations, controlled by the [B]/[C] ratio in plasma, ranged from 1 × 10{sup 16} to 2 × 10{sup 21} atoms cm{sup −3}. The BDD films displayed microcrystalline structure, while the average size of crystallites decreased from 1 to 0.7 μm with increasing [B]/[C] ratios. The application of LII enabled a direct and high-resolution investigation of local distribution of impedance characteristics within the individual grains of BDD. Such an approach resulted in greater understanding of the microstructural control of properties at the grain level. We propose that the obtained surficial variation of impedance is correlated to the areas of high conductance which have been observed at the grain boundaries by using LII. We also postulate that the origin of high conductivity is due to either preferential boron accumulation, the presence of defects, or sp{sup 2} regions in the intragrain regions. The impedance modulus recorded by LII was in full agreement with the bulk impedance measurements. Both variables showed a decreasing trend with increasing [B]/[C] ratios, which is consistent with higher boron incorporation into BDD film.

  17. Electrochemical properties of boron-doped ordered mesoporous carbon as electrocatalyst and Pt catalyst support.

    PubMed

    Nsabimana, Anaclet; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhang, Yufan; Li, Mian; Han, Ce; Guo, Liping

    2014-08-15

    The electrochemical properties of boron-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (BOMC) as an electrode material and Pt catalyst support were investigated. The BOMC was synthesized and its structure was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). More defective sites were introduced into OMC by the doping of boron. Six electroactive compounds were employed to investigate their electrochemical responses on BOMC and OMC modified glassy carbon electrodes. The BOMC, with more defective sites, exhibited high activity toward the electroactive compounds. The property of BOMC of supporting platinum nanoparticle catalyst was examined. Pt nanoparticles were loaded onto BOMC and OMC, and this was confirmed by TEM, XPS and thermogravimetric analysis. Pt nanoparticles with an average diameter of 2.62 nm were deposited on BOMC. The doping of boron into OMC facilitates the dispersion of Pt nanoparticles. Pt nanoparticles supported on BOMC (Pt-BOMC) and Pt nanoparticles supported on OMC (Pt-OMC) were electrochemically characterized. The electrocatalytic activity of Pt-BOMC toward methanol oxidation reaction was compared with that of Pt-OMC and commercial Pt-C catalyst. The results show that the electrocatalytic activity of BOMC is significantly higher than that of other used catalysts. PMID:24910045

  18. Boron-doped diamond nanograss array for electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Terashima, Chiaki; Lv, Mei; Fujishima, Akira; Gu, Zhong-Ze

    2009-06-28

    A novel BDD nanograss array has been prepared simply on a heavily doped BDD film by reactive ion etching for use as an electrochemical sensor, which improved the reactive site, promoted the electrocatalytic activity, accelerated the electron transfer, and enhanced the selectivity. PMID:19521629

  19. Critical role of intercalated water for electrocatalytically active nitrogen-doped graphitic systems

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ulises; Dumont, Joseph H.; Holby, Edward F.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Purdy, Geraldine M.; Singh, Akhilesh; Mack, Nathan H.; Atanassov, Plamen; Cullen, David A.; More, Karren L.; Chhowalla, Manish; Zelenay, Piotr; Dattelbaum, Andrew M.; Mohite, Aditya D.; Gupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Graphitic materials are essential in energy conversion and storage because of their excellent chemical and electrical properties. The strategy for obtaining functional graphitic materials involves graphite oxidation and subsequent dissolution in aqueous media, forming graphene-oxide nanosheets (GNs). Restacked GNs contain substantial intercalated water that can react with heteroatom dopants or the graphene lattice during reduction. We demonstrate that removal of intercalated water using simple solvent treatments causes significant structural reorganization, substantially affecting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability of nitrogen-doped graphitic systems. Amid contrasting reports describing the ORR activity of GN-based catalysts in alkaline electrolytes, we demonstrate superior activity in an acidic electrolyte with an onset potential of ~0.9 V, a half-wave potential (E½) of 0.71 V, and a selectivity for four-electron reduction of >95%. Further, durability testing showed E½ retention >95% in N2- and O2-saturated solutions after 2000 cycles, demonstrating the highest ORR activity and stability reported to date for GN-based electrocatalysts in acidic media.

  20. Boron-doped cadmium oxide composite structures and their electrochemical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhande, B.J.; Ambare, R.C.; Mane, R.S.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: Conducting nano-fibrous 3% boron doped cadmium oxide thin films were prepared by SILAR and its super capacitive properties were studied. - Highlights: Samples are of nanofibrous nature. All samples shows pseudocapacitive behavior. 3% B doped CdO shows good specific capacitance. 3% B doped CdO shows maximum 74.93% efficiency at 14 mA/cm{sup 2}. 3% B doped CdO shows 0.8 ? internal resistance. - Abstract: Boron-doped and undoped cadmium oxide composite nanostructures in thin film form were prepared onto stainless steel substrates by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method using aqueous solutions of cadmium nitrate, boric acid and 1% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. As-deposited films were annealed at 623 K for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction study shows crystalline behavior for both doped and undoped films with a porous topography and nano-wires type architecture, as observed in SEM image. Wettability test confirms the hydrophilic surface with 58 contact angle value. Estimated band gap energy is around 1.9 eV. Electrochemical behavior of the deposited films is attempted in 1 M KOH electrolyte using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic chargedischarge tests. Maximum values of the specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power obtained for 3% B doped CdO film at 2 mV/s scan rate are 20.05 F/g, 1.22 Wh/kg and 3.25 kW/kg, respectively.

  1. Lewis Basicity of Nitrogen-Doped Graphite Observed by CO2 Chemisorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Hisao; Shibuya, Riku; Kondo, Takahiro; Nakamura, Junji; Niwa, Hideharu; Miyawaki, Jun; Kawai, Maki; Oshima, Masaharu; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics of CO2 adsorption sites on a nitrogen-doped graphite model system (N-HOPG) were investigated by X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. Adsorbed CO2 was observed lying flat on N-HOPG, stabilized by a charge transfer from the substrate. This demonstrated that Lewis base sites were formed by the incorporation of nitrogen via low-energy nitrogen-ion sputtering. The possible roles of twofold coordinated pyridinic N and threefold coordinated valley N (graphitic N) sites in Lewis base site formation on N-HOPG are discussed. The presence of these nitrogen species focused on the appropriate interaction strength of CO2 indicates the potential to fine-tune the Lewis basicity of carbon-based catalysts.

  2. Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2013-01-01

    A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6?V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors. PMID:24113335

  3. Lewis Basicity of Nitrogen-Doped Graphite Observed by CO2 Chemisorption.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Hisao; Shibuya, Riku; Kondo, Takahiro; Nakamura, Junji; Niwa, Hideharu; Miyawaki, Jun; Kawai, Maki; Oshima, Masaharu; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2016-12-01

    The characteristics of CO2 adsorption sites on a nitrogen-doped graphite model system (N-HOPG) were investigated by X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. Adsorbed CO2 was observed lying flat on N-HOPG, stabilized by a charge transfer from the substrate. This demonstrated that Lewis base sites were formed by the incorporation of nitrogen via low-energy nitrogen-ion sputtering. The possible roles of twofold coordinated pyridinic N and threefold coordinated valley N (graphitic N) sites in Lewis base site formation on N-HOPG are discussed. The presence of these nitrogen species focused on the appropriate interaction strength of CO2 indicates the potential to fine-tune the Lewis basicity of carbon-based catalysts. PMID:26951127

  4. Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2013-10-01

    A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6 V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors.

  5. Surface damages in diamond by Ar/O{sub 2} plasma and their effect on the electrical and electrochemical characteristics of boron-doped layers

    SciTech Connect

    Denisenko, A.; Pietzka, C.; Scharpf, J.; Kohn, E.; Romanyuk, A.

    2010-10-15

    Epitaxial single crystal and boron-doped diamond layers were exposed to reactive ion etching in Ar/O{sub 2} plasma (rf power of 25 W and self-bias of 100 V); and the electrical, structural, and electrochemical characteristics of the exposed surface were investigated. Angle-resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed a nonuniform layer of amorphous carbon at the exposed surface with an average thickness of approximately 4 nm, as confirmed also by atomic force microscopy profiling of selectively etched areas. On highly boron-doped diamond, the plasma-induced damages resulted also in a nonconductive surface layer. This damaged and insulating surface layer remained resistant to graphite-etching chemicals and to rf oxygen plasma but it was removed completely in microwave hydrogen plasma at 700 deg. C. The surface characteristics after the H-plasma process followed by wet chemical oxidation were restored back to the initial state, as confirmed by XPS. Such ''recovery'' treatment had been applied to an all-diamond submicrometer electrode array initially patterned by an Ar/O{sub 2} plasma etching. The electrochemical characteristics of this electrode array were improved by more than two orders of magnitude, approaching theoretical limit for the given geometrical configuration.

  6. Surface damages in diamond by Ar/O2 plasma and their effect on the electrical and electrochemical characteristics of boron-doped layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, A.; Romanyuk, A.; Pietzka, C.; Scharpf, J.; Kohn, E.

    2010-10-01

    Epitaxial single crystal and boron-doped diamond layers were exposed to reactive ion etching in Ar/O2 plasma (rf power of 25 W and self-bias of 100 V); and the electrical, structural, and electrochemical characteristics of the exposed surface were investigated. Angle-resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed a nonuniform layer of amorphous carbon at the exposed surface with an average thickness of approximately 4 nm, as confirmed also by atomic force microscopy profiling of selectively etched areas. On highly boron-doped diamond, the plasma-induced damages resulted also in a nonconductive surface layer. This damaged and insulating surface layer remained resistant to graphite-etching chemicals and to rf oxygen plasma but it was removed completely in microwave hydrogen plasma at 700 C. The surface characteristics after the H-plasma process followed by wet chemical oxidation were restored back to the initial state, as confirmed by XPS. Such "recovery" treatment had been applied to an all-diamond submicrometer electrode array initially patterned by an Ar/O2 plasma etching. The electrochemical characteristics of this electrode array were improved by more than two orders of magnitude, approaching theoretical limit for the given geometrical configuration.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of heavily boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Yuji; Xie, Jun; Miyazaki, Yoshinobu; Aikebaier, Yusufu; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Uchida, Noriyuki; Tada, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, nanostructured thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention. However, despite this increasing attention, available information on the thermoelectric properties of single-crystal Si is quite limited, especially for high doping concentrations at high temperatures. In this study, the thermoelectric properties of heavily doped (1018-1020 cm-3) n- and p-type single-crystal Si were studied from room temperature to above 1000 K. The figures of merit, ZT, were calculated from the measured data of electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity. The maximum ZT values were 0.015 for n-type and 0.008 for p-type Si at room temperature. To better understand the carrier and phonon transport and to predict the thermoelectric properties of Si, we have developed a simple theoretical model based on the Boltzmann transport equation with the relaxation-time approximation.

  8. Radiation tolerance of boron doped dendritic web silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of dendritic web silicon for giving radiation hard solar cells is compared with the float zone silicon material. Solar cells with n(+)-p-P(+) structure and approximately 15% (AMl) efficiency were subjected to 1 MeV electron irradiation. Radiation tolerance of web cell efficiency was found to be at least as good as that of the float zone silicon cell. A study of the annealing behavior of radiation-induced defects via deep level transient spectroscopy revealed that E sub v + 0.31 eV defect, attributed to boron-oxygen-vacancy complex, is responsible for the reverse annealing of the irradiated cells in the temperature range of 150 to 350 C.

  9. Growth and nucleation regimes in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Will, J. Grschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Weier, M.; Magerl, A.

    2014-09-15

    The oxygen precipitation of highly (17.5 m? cm) and moderately (4.5 ? cm) boron (B) doped silicon (Si) crystals at 780?C is investigated by following in-situ the evolution of diffraction Pendellsung oscillations. All samples show an initial diffusion-driven growth process which may change over into Ostwald ripening. For the highly doped sample and involving a nucleation step at 450?C for 30?h, the precipitate density ? is enhanced by a factor of 8 as compared to the moderately doped sample. The influence of a high B concentration on ? is dramatically higher for the samples directly heated to 780?C, where an enhancement factor of 80 is found. Considering Ostwald ripening as a second growth regime reveals consistent ripening rates and surface energies ? with those found at 900?C in a previous publication.

  10. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays monitor cardiac action potentials.

    PubMed

    Maybeck, Vanessa; Edgington, Robert; Bongrain, Alexandre; Welch, Joseph O; Scorsone, Emanuel; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B; Offenhusser, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of diamond-based electronics in the area of biological interfacing has not been as thoroughly explored as applications in electrochemical sensing. However, the biocompatibility of diamond, large safe electrochemical window, stability, and tunable electronic properties provide opportunities to develop new devices for interfacing with electrogenic cells. Here, the fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrodes and their interfacing with cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells to detect cardiac action potentials are presented. A nonreductive means of structuring doped and undoped diamond on the same substrate is shown. The resulting BNCD electrodes show high stability under mechanical stress generated by the cells. It is shown that by fabricating the entire surface of the MEA with NCD, in patterns of conductive doped, and isolating undoped regions, signal detection may be improved up to four-fold over BNCD electrodes passivated with traditional isolators. PMID:23949946

  11. Electrocatalytic oxygen activation by carbanion intermediates of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiqi; Noffke, Benjamin W; Wang, Yilun; Menezes, Bruna; Peters, Dennis G; Raghavachari, Krishnan; Li, Liang-shi

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon has been intensively studied for potential use as an electrocatalyst in fuel cells for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, the lack of a mechanistic understanding on the carbon catalysis has severely hindered the progress of the catalyst development. Herein we use a well-defined graphene nanostructure as a model system and, for the first time, reveal an oxygen activation mechanism that involves carbanion intermediates in these materials. Our work shows that the overpotential of the electrocatalytic ORR is determined by the generation of the carbanion intermediates, and the current by the rate the intermediates activate oxygen. PMID:24533901

  12. Novel band gap-tunable K-Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride prepared by molten salt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiannan; Ma, Lin; Wang, Haoying; Zhao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Shaozheng

    2015-03-01

    Novel band gap-tunable K-Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride was prepared by molten salt method using melamine, KCl, and NaCl as precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The CB and VB potentials of graphitic carbon nitride could be tuned from -1.09 and +1.55 eV to -0.29 and +2.25 eV by controlling the weight ratio of eutectic salts to melamine. Besides, ions doping inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride, enhanced the surface area, and increased the separation rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. The visible-light-driven Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation and mineralization performances were significantly improved after K-Na co-doping.

  13. Study on depth profiles of hydrogen in boron-doped diamond films by elastic recoil detection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Changgeng, Liao; Shengsheng, Yang; Ximeng, Chen; Yongqiang, Wang

    1999-06-10

    Depth profiles of hydrogen in a set of boron-doped diamond films were studied by a convolution method to simulate the recoil proton spectra induced by {sup 4}He ions of 3 MeV. Results show that the hydrogen depth profiles in these varying-level boron-doped diamond films exhibit a similar three-layer structure: the surface absorption layer, the diffusion region, and the uniform hydrogen-containing matrix. Hydrogen concentrations at all the layers, especially in the surface layer, are found to increase significantly with the boron-doping concentration, implying that more dangling-bonds and/or CH-bonds were introduced by the boron-doping process. While the increased dangling-bonds and/or CH-bonds degrade the microstructure of the diamond films as observed by Raman Shift, the boron-doping significantly reduces the specific resistance and makes semiconducting diamond films possible. Hydrogen mobility (or hydrogen loss) in these films as a result of the {sup 4}He beam irradiation was also observed and discussed.

  14. Photodegradation of aniline by goethite doped with boron under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guanglong; Liao, Shuijiao; College of Basic Sciences of Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 ; Zhu, Duanwei; Liu, Linghua; Cheng, Dongsheng; Zhou, Huaidong

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Goethite modified by boron was prepared by sol-gel method in presence of boron acid at the low temperature. {yields} B-goethite has slight red shift in the band gap transition beside their stronger light absorption compared with pristine goethite. {yields} The results showed that semiconductor photocatalytic reaction mechanism should exist in the process of aniline degradation with goethite and B-goethite as photocatalyst. -- Abstract: In the present study, goethite and goethite doped with boron (B-goethite) were employed to detect the presence or absence of semiconductor photocatalytic reaction mechanism in the reaction systems. B-goethite was prepared by sol-gel method in presence of boron acid in order to improve its photocatalystic efficiency under the ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The optical properties of goethite and B-goethite were characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra and the result indicated that B-goethite has slight red shift in the band gap transition beside their stronger light absorption compared with pristine goethite. Degradation of aniline was investigated in presence of goethite and B-goethite in aqueous solution. It was found that the B-goethite photocatalyst exhibited enhanced ultraviolet and visible light photocatalytic activity in degradation of aniline compared with the pristine goethite. The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of B-goethite was discussed.

  15. The effect of boron doping on the thermal conductivity of zigzag carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezania, Hamed

    2015-11-01

    The temperature behavior of thermal conductivity of zigzag carbon nanotube (CNT) doped with boron atoms, as acceptor impurities, has been investigated in the context of tight binding model hamiltonian. A local energy term is added to the hamiltonian of the original clean system in order to obtain the effect of scattering of the electrons from impurities on the electronic spectrum. Green's function approach has been implemented to find the behavior of thermal conductivity of CNTs within linear response theory. Depending on the temperature regions, thermal conductivity shows two different behaviors. Thermal transport is found to be decreasing with dopant concentration at low temperatures. It is not the case of higher temperatures where thermal conductivity rises due to increase of boron concentration.

  16. Large rectification ratio induced by nitrogen (boron) doping in graphene nanoribbon electrodes for OPE junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Dong-Qing; Song, Yang; Xie, Zhen; Li, Zong-Liang; Wang, Chuan-Kui

    2015-09-01

    Using nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with density functional theory, we present electronic transport properties for a molecular device constructed by an oligomeric phenylene ethynylenes (OPE) molecule between two zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbon (zGNR) electrodes. Nitrogen and boron dopants are introduced into one electrode, which makes the molecular junctions to have obvious rectifying behaviors. The conductance properties are closely related to the position and the kind of impurity atoms in electrodes. Moreover, the I- V curve of the junction, which is boron doping at the edge, displays unidirectional features in the studied bias region, and large rectification ratios up to 103 are obtained. The mechanism of the performance is analyzed in terms of transmission spectra combined with molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian and electrode band structures under different bias voltages. Symmetry analyses of the Bloch wave functions of the corresponding subbands and the frontier molecular orbitals are also applied to reveal the rectifying behavior.

  17. Macroscopically Aligned Graphite Films Prepared from Iodine-Doped Stretchable Polyacetylene Films Using Morphology-Retaining Carbonization.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo

    2015-07-22

    We prepared graphite films using typical Shirakawa-type and stretchable polyacetylene (PA) films as precursors through a morphology-retaining carbonization. A macroscopically aligned PA film was prepared from the drawable PA film using a mechanical-stretching procedure. The degree of orientation of the aligned PA film was evaluated by measuring polarized infrared absorption spectra and an azimuthal-angle profile of a Laue X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The carbonization was performed from the iodine-doped PA films as precursors at 800 °C. The carbon films were subsequently graphitized at 1400-3000 °C, yielding graphite films with almost the same surface morphology as that of the original PA films and that of the carbon films as precursors. The typical PA film graphitized at 2600 °C exhibited tensile strengths of up to 224 MPa, moduli of up to 10 GPa, and an average electrical conductivity of 2.5 × 10(2) S/cm. In contrast, the graphite film prepared from the stretched PA film presented a Laue XRD pattern in which graphitic crystal structures are aligned parallel to the direction of stretching of the PA film. The anisotropic graphite film showed an enhanced conductivity of up to 1.5 × 10(3) S/cm along the stretching direction. We demonstrated that an iodine-doped PA film is a highly efficient carbon source for producing graphite films with good mechanical and electrical properties. The total yield of a graphite film is as high as 61-74% at up to 3000 °C, which is considerably higher than that of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber and polyimide-based graphite film. PMID:26102247

  18. Unraveling the formation mechanism of graphitic nitrogen-doping in thermally treated graphene with ammonia.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Lian, Ke-Yan; Liu, Lingling; Wu, Yingchao; Qiu, Qi; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Mingsen; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) has attractive properties that has been widely studied over the years. However, its possible formation process still remains unclear. Here, we propose a highly feasible formation mechanism of the graphitic-N doing in thermally treated graphene with ammonia by performing ab initio molecular dynamic simulations at experimental conditions. Results show that among the commonly native point defects in graphene, only the single vacancy 5-9 and divacancy 555-777 have the desirable electronic structures to trap N-containing groups and to mediate the subsequent dehydrogenation processes. The local structure of the defective graphene in combining with the thermodynamic and kinetic effect plays a crucial role in dominating the complex atomic rearrangement to form graphitic-N which heals the corresponding defect perfectly. The importance of the symmetry, the localized force field, the interaction of multiple trapped N-containing groups, as well as the catalytic effect of the temporarily formed bridge-N are emphasized, and the predicted doping configuration agrees well with the experimental observation. Hence, the revealed mechanism will be helpful for realizing the targeted synthesis of N-graphene with reduced defects and desired properties. PMID:27002190

  19. Unraveling the formation mechanism of graphitic nitrogen-doping in thermally treated graphene with ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Lian, Ke-Yan; Liu, Lingling; Wu, Yingchao; Qiu, Qi; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Mingsen; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) has attractive properties that has been widely studied over the years. However, its possible formation process still remains unclear. Here, we propose a highly feasible formation mechanism of the graphitic-N doing in thermally treated graphene with ammonia by performing ab initio molecular dynamic simulations at experimental conditions. Results show that among the commonly native point defects in graphene, only the single vacancy 5–9 and divacancy 555–777 have the desirable electronic structures to trap N-containing groups and to mediate the subsequent dehydrogenation processes. The local structure of the defective graphene in combining with the thermodynamic and kinetic effect plays a crucial role in dominating the complex atomic rearrangement to form graphitic-N which heals the corresponding defect perfectly. The importance of the symmetry, the localized force field, the interaction of multiple trapped N-containing groups, as well as the catalytic effect of the temporarily formed bridge-N are emphasized, and the predicted doping configuration agrees well with the experimental observation. Hence, the revealed mechanism will be helpful for realizing the targeted synthesis of N-graphene with reduced defects and desired properties. PMID:27002190

  20. Boron, graphite, glass, metal and aramid fiber reinforced plastics. January, 1973-May, 1981 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association Data Base). Report for January 1973-May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The citations cover information about advanced reinforced composites such as boron, graphite, glass, metal, and aramid. Topics include applications, fabrication processes, proerties, nondestructive testing, and economics of composite materials. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  1. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of laser thermal processing of heavily boron-doped amorphous silicon using molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liguo; Clancy, Paulette; Thompson, Michael O.; Murthy, Cheruvu S.

    2002-09-01

    Laser thermal processing (LTP) has been proposed as a means to avoid unwanted transient enhanced diffusion and deactivation of dopants, especially boron and arsenic, during the formation of ultrashallow junctions. Although experimental studies have been carried out to determine the efficacy of LTP for pure Si and lightly B-doped junctions, the effects of high concentrations of dopants (above 2% B) on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the regrown film are unknown. In this study, a classical interatomic potential model [Stillinger-Weber (SW)] is used with a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulation technique to study the laser thermal processing of heavily B-doped Si in the range 2-10 at. % B. We observe only a small effect of boron concentration on the congruent melting temperature of the B:Si alloy, and thus the narrowing of the "process window" for LTP is predicted to be small. No significant tendency for boron to segregate was observed at either the regrowth front or the buried c-Si interface during fast regrowth. The B-doped region regrew as defect-free crystal with full activation of the boron atoms at low boron concentrations (2%), in good agreement with experiments. As the concentration of boron increased, the number of intrinsic Si defects and boron interstitials in the regrown materials increased, with a minor amount of boron atoms in clusters (<2%). An instability limit for crystal regrowth was observed at around 8%-10% boron atoms during fast regrowth; systems with 10% B showed partial amorphization during regrowth. Comparison with tight-binding quantum mechanical calculations showed that the SW model gives similar diffusivities in the liquid and tendency to cluster, but the lifetimes of the SW clusters are considerably too long (>150 ps, compared to 5 ps in tight binding). The importance of adequate system size is discussed.

  2. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT. PMID:26295765

  3. The chemical durability of glass and graphite-glass composite doped with cesium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamodi, Nasir H.; Abram, Timothy J.; Lowe, Tristan; Cernik, Robert J.; Lpez-Honorato, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    The role of temperature in determining the chemical stability of a waste form, as well as its leach rate, is very complex. This is because the dissolution kinetics is dependent both on temperature and possibility of different rate-controlling mechanisms that appear at different temperature regions. The chemical durability of Alumina-Borosilicate Glass (ABG) and Glass-Graphite Composite (GGC), bearing Tristructural Isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles impregnated with cesium oxide, were compared using a static leach test. The purpose of this study is to examine the chemical durability of glass-graphite composite to encapsulate coated fuel particles, and as a possible alternative for recycling of irradiated graphite. The test was based on the ASTM C1220-98 methodology, where the leaching condition was set at a temperature varying from 298 K to 363 K for 28 days. The release of cesium from ABG was in the permissible limit and followed the Arrhenius's law of a surface controlled reaction; its activation energy (Ea) was 65.6 0.5 kJ/mol. Similar values of Ea were obtained for Boron (64.3 0.5) and Silicon (69.6 0.5 kJ/mol) as the main glass network formers. In contrast, the dissolution mechanism of cesium from GGC was a rapid release, with increasing temperature, and the activation energy of Cs (91.0 5 kJ/mol) did not follow any model related to carbon kinetic dissolution in water. Microstructure analysis confirmed the formation of Crystobalite SiO2 as a gel layer and Cs+1 valence state on the ABG surface.

  4. Plasma Synthesized Doped Boron Nanopowder for MgB2 Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Marzik

    2012-03-26

    Under this program, a process to synthesize nano-sized doped boron powder by a plasma synthesis process was developed and scaled up from 20 gram batches at program start to over 200 grams by program end. Over 75 batches of boron nanopowder were made by RF plasma synthesis. Particle sizes were typically in the 20-200 nm range. The powder was synthesized by the reductive pyrolysis of BCl{sub 3} in hydrogen in an RF plasma. A wide range of process parameters were investigated including plasma power, torch geometry, gas flow rates, and process pressure. The powder-in-tube technique was used to make monofilament and multifilament superconducting wires. MgB{sub 2} wire made with Specialty Materials plasma synthesized boron nanopowder exhibited superconducting properties that significantly exceeded the program goals. Superconducting critical currents, J{sub c}, in excess of 10{sup 5} A cm{sup -2} at magnetic fields of 8 tesla were reproducibly achieved. The upper critical magnetic field in wires fabricated with program boron powder were H{sub c2}(0) = 37 tesla, demonstrating the potential of these materials for high field magnet applications. T{sub c} in carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} powder showed a systematic decrease with increasing carbon precursor gas flows, indicating the plasma synthesis process can give precise control over dopant concentrations. Synthesis rates increased by a factor of 400% over the course of the program, demonstrating the scalability of the powder synthesis process. The plasma synthesis equipment at Specialty Materials has successfully and reproducibly made high quality boron nanopowder for MgB{sub 2} superconductors. Research and development from this program enabled Specialty Materials to successfully scale up the powder synthesis process by a factor of ten and to double the size of its powder pilot plant. Thus far the program has been a technical success. It is anticipated that continued systematic development of plasma processing parameters, dopant chemistry and concentration, wire processing technology, and collection technology will lead to the commercialization of boron nanopowder as a precursor for MgB{sub 2} superconductors. Potential commercial applications include magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fault current limiters, wind turbine generators.

  5. Density functional theory study on boron- and phosphorus-doped hydrogen-passivated silicene.

    PubMed

    Pi, Xiaodong; Ni, Zhenyi; Liu, Yong; Ruan, Zhichao; Xu, Mingsheng; Yang, Deren

    2015-02-14

    When silicene is passivated by hydrogen, a bandgap occurs so that it becomes a semiconductor. Analogous to all the other semiconductors, doping is highly desired to realize the potential of hydrogen-passivated silicene (H-silicene). In the framework of density functional theory (DFT), we have studied the doping of H-silicene with boron (B) and phosphorus (P). The concentration of B or P ranges from 1.4% to 12.5%. It is found that the doping of B or P enables the indirect-bandgap H-silicene to be a semiconductor with a direct bandgap. With the increase of the concentration of B or P, both the valence band and the conduction band shift to lower energies, while the bandgap decreases. Both B- and P-doping lead to the decrease of the effective mass of holes and electrons in H-silicene. For both B- and P-doped H-silicene a subband absorption peak may appear, which blueshifts with the increase of the dopant concentration. PMID:25564050

  6. Nanoscale Control of Rewriteable Doping Patterns in Pristine Graphene/Boron Nitride Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Jairo; Ju, Long; Wong, Dillon; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Germany, Chad; Wickenburg, Sebastian; Lu, Jiong; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Nanoscale control of charge doping in two-dimensional (2D) materials permits the realization of electronic analogs of optical phenomena, relativistic physics at low energies, and technologically promising nanoelectronics. Electrostatic gating and chemical doping are the two most common methods to achieve local control of such doping. However, these approaches suffer from complicated fabrication processes that introduce contamination, change material properties irreversibly, and lack flexible pattern control. Here we demonstrate a clean, simple, and reversible technique that permits writing, reading, and erasing of doping patterns for 2D materials at the nanometer scale. We accomplish this by employing a graphene/boron nitride heterostructure that is equipped with a bottom gate electrode. By using electron transport and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we demonstrate that spatial control of charge doping can be realized with the application of either light or STM tip voltage excitations in conjunction with a gate electric field. Our straightforward and novel technique provides a new path toward on-demand graphene p-n junctions and ultrathin memory devices. PMID:26852622

  7. Self-compensation property of ?-rhombohedral boron doped with high Li concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, H.; Nezu, A.; Soga, K.; Kimura, K.

    2012-11-01

    A high concentration of Li (up to LiB5.8; 18 Li/cell) was doped into ?-rhombohedral boron (?-B), which has a crystalline structure built up from B12 icosahedral clusters, by sealing the raw materials in a stainless-steel tube. The relation between the structure and the electronic properties was clarified and a self-compensation property of Li- or Mg-doped ?-B was discussed. The Li concentration was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The changes in the structure and the electronic properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction using the Rietveld method and by electrical conductivity measurements, respectively. Li occupies the A1, D, E and F sites, and the occupancies of the B sites (B13, B16 and B4) decrease with increasing Li doping. In Li- or Mg-doped ?-B, electron doping is compensated by the removal of interstitial B atoms at the B16 site and by the generation of vacancies at the B13 and B4 sites. There have been no reports of self-compensation in other crystalline elemental semiconductors.

  8. Visible-light sensitization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond through non-covalent surface modification.

    PubMed

    Krysova, Hana; Vlckova-Zivcova, Zuzana; Barton, Jan; Petrak, Vaclav; Nesladek, Milos; Cigler, Petr; Kavan, Ladislav

    2015-01-14

    A novel simple and versatile synthetic strategy is developed for the surface modification of boron-doped diamond. In a two-step procedure, polyethyleneimine is adsorbed on the hydrogenated diamond surface and subsequently modified with a model light-harvesting donor-?-bridge-acceptor molecule (coded P1). The sensitized diamond exhibits stable cathodic photocurrents under visible-light illumination in aqueous electrolyte solution with dimethylviologen serving as an electron mediator. In spite of the simplicity of the surface sensitization protocol, the photoelectrochemical performance is similar to or better than that of other sensitized diamond electrodes which were reported in previous studies (2008-2014). PMID:25418375

  9. Electrochemical "read-write" microscale patterning of boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Patten, Hollie V; Hutton, Laura A; Webb, Jennifer R; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical cell microscopy is utilised as a read-write pipette-based probe to both electrochemically modify the local surface chemistry of boron doped diamond and "read" the resulting modification, at the micron scale. In this specific application, localised electrochemical oxidation results in conversion of the H-terminated surface to -O, electrochemically visualised by monitoring the current change for reduction of Ru(NH3)6(3+). This methodology, in general, provides a platform for read-write analysis of electrodes, opening up new analytical avenues, particularly as the pipette can be viewed as a microfluidic device. PMID:25387408

  10. Electrochemical analysis of nucleic acids at boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Prado, Csar; Flechsig, Gerd-Uwe; Grndler, Peter; Foord, John S; Markenc, Frank; Compton, Richard G

    2002-03-01

    Highly conductive boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes are well suited for performing electrochemical measurements of nucleic acids in aqueous solution under diffusion-only control. The advantageous properties of this electrodic material in this context include reproducibility and the small background currents observed at very positive potentials, along with its robustness under extreme conditions so offering promising capabilities in future applications involving thermal heating or ultrasonic treatment. tRNA, single and double stranded DNA and 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate (dGMP) have been studied and well defined peaks were observed in all cases, directly assignable to the electro-oxidation of deoxyguanosine monophosphate. PMID:11996354

  11. Raman and conductivity studies of boron doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond and cauliflower diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, P. W.; Ludlow, W. J.; Hannaway, M.; Heard, P. J.; Smith, J. A.; Rosser, K. N.

    2007-09-01

    We present data showing how the electrical conductivity and Raman spectra of boron-doped CVD diamond films vary with both B content and crystallite size, for microcrystalline diamond (MCD), facetted nanocrystalline diamond (f-NCD) and 'cauliflower' diamond (c-NCD). The position of the Lorentzian contribution to the 500 cm -1 Raman feature was used to estimate the B content. This underestimated the SIMS concentration of B by a factor of 5 for the f-NCD and c-NCD films, but remained reasonably accurate for MCD films. One explanation for this is that most of the B incorporates at the grain boundaries and not in substitutional sites.

  12. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on recombination centres in boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, D. C. Lim, B.; Bothe, K.; Schmidt, J.; Voronkov, V. V.; Falster, R.

    2014-01-27

    Rapid thermal annealing in a belt furnace results in a dramatic change of the recombination properties of boron-doped Czochralski silicon: (1) the lifetime degraded by applying a prolonged illumination at room temperature was significantly improved, (2) after subsequent dark recovery, the lifetime has a remarkably high value, and (3) the permanent recovery, by annealing at 185?C under illumination, is enormously accelerated, and the finally achieved stable lifetime acquires a record value of 1.5 ms, as compared to 110??s after permanent recovery of not-annealed reference samples.

  13. Boron- and Nitrogen-Doped Phenalenyls: Unexpected 2e/ and 4e/all-sites pi-pi Covalency and Genuine Pancake Double Bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yong-Hui; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2015-06-18

    Phenalenyl is an important neutral pi-radical due to its capability to form unconventional pancake pi-pi bonding interactions, whereas its analogues with graphitic boron (B) or nitrogen (N)-doping have been regarded as closed-shell systems and therefore received much less attention. By using high-level quantum chemistry calculations, we show that the B- and N-doped closed-shell phenalenyls unexpectedly form open-shell singlet pi-dimers with diradicaloid character featuring 2e/all-sites double pi-pi bonding. Moreover, by proper substitutions, the doped phenalenyl derivatives can be made open-shell species that form closed shell singlet pi-dimers bound by stronger 4e/all-sites double pi-pi bonding. The covalent pi-pi bonding overlap is distributed on all of the atomic sites giving robust and genuine pancake-shaped pi-dimers which, depending on the number of electrons available in the bonding interactions, are equally or more stable than the pi-dimers of the pristine phenalenyl.

  14. Effect of Boron-Doping on the Graphene Aerogel Used as Cathode for the Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Meng, Zhen; Cai, Tingwei; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-18

    A porous interconnected 3D boron-doped graphene aerogel (BGA) was prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal treatment. The BGA material was first loaded with sulfur to serve as cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries. Boron was positively polarized on the graphene framework, allowing for chemical adsorption of negative polysufide species. Compared with nitrogen-doped and undoped graphene aerogel, the BGA-S cathode could deliver a higher capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 100 cycles, as well as an outstanding rate capability, which indicated the BGA was an ideal cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. PMID:26544917

  15. The effects of channel boron-doping on the performance and hot electron reliability of N-channel trench UMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliman, S. A.; Awadelkarim, O. O.; Fonash, S. J.; Dolny, G. M.; Hao, J.; Ridley, R. S.; Knoedler, C. M.

    2001-05-01

    We report on the effects of channel doping on the performance and hot electron stress (HES) reliability of U-shaped trench gate metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistors (UMOSFETs). The boron-doped n-channel UMOSFETs are examined using transistor parameters and charge pumping current measurements. It is shown that increasing boron doping of the channel degrades UMOSFETs performance via decreasing the effective electron mobility in the channel and increasing the electron drift resistance in the drain region of the device. It is shown that increasing the boron doping of the channel does not increase interface trap density, which is a major cause for mobility reduction in MOSFETs: instead, ionized impurity scattering in the channel as well as the electric field transverse to the device channel, both of enhanced by doping, are argued to primarily cause the observed degradation in the electron mobility. The UMOSFETs response to HES is observed to be dependent on the doping level of the channel and is discussed in terms of the hot electron energy and its influence by channel doping.

  16. Chemisorption of Transition-Metal Atoms on Boron- and Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes: Energetics and Geometric and Electronic Structures

    SciTech Connect

    An, Wei; Turner, C. H.

    2009-04-30

    The well-defined binding between transition-metals (TM) and the sidewall of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) plays a key role in the performance of CNT-based anoelectronics, as well as the stability of catalysts used in either heterogeneous catalysis or fuel-cell electrocatalysis. Spin-polarized density functional theory calculations demonstrate that either boron or nitrogen doping can increase the binding strength of TM atoms with singlewall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and comparatively, boron doping is more effective. The binding nature can be identified as chemisorption, based on the magnitude of the binding energy and the formation of multiple bonds. The chemisorbed TM atoms can modify the electronic structure of the doped nanotubes in various ways, depending upon the TM and helicity of the CNT, rendering the TM/doped-SWCNT composite viable for a wide range of applications. A total of 11 technologically relevant TMs adsorbed on two distinct and stable doped-SWCNT models have been investigated in this study. The doping sites are arranged in either a locally concentrated or uniform fashion within semiconducting SWCNT(8,0) and metallic SWCNT(6,6). The results serve as a starting point for studying larger, more complex TM nanostructures anchored on the sidewall of boron- or nitrogen-doped CNTs.

  17. Electro-oxidative nanopatterning of silane monolayers on boron-doped diamond electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pust, Sascha E.; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Wittstock, Gunther

    2009-02-01

    Oxidized boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were coated with a monolayer of n-octadecyltrichlorosilane as well as of other silanes. Scanning force microscopy was applied to pattern these monolayers, utilizing doped diamond-coated conductive probes. Patterns were generated on the nanometer scale, and conditions for the patterning process were quantified with regard to humidity and potential bias. It was observed that a sample bias of 3-3.5 V and a relative humidity >70% are necessary to generate reproducible and stable patterns. At potentials and relative humidities below these values, no or incomplete removal of the monolayer occurred. The results show that electro-oxidative patterning is an expedient way for the generation of nanostructures on chemically modified BDD.

  18. Structural and electronic properties of cubic boron nitride doped with zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yubo; Cheng, Tianyuan; Wang, Xiao; Jiang, Huaxing; Yang, Hangsheng; Nose, Kenji

    2014-07-28

    Structural and electronic properties of Zn-doped cubic boron nitride (cBN) were investigated via first principle calculation based on density functional theory. Our simulation suggests that Zn can substitute for both B (Zn{sub B}) and N (Zn{sub N}) atom; Zn{sub B} is energetically favorable, and Zn{sub N} can only be prepared under B-rich conditions. Zn{sub B} induced a shallow acceptor level; however, the large difference in electronegativity between Zn and N makes the acceptor level strongly localized, which reduces effective carrier density. In the case of Zn{sub N}, both deep acceptor levels within band gap and shallow acceptor levels at the top of valence band were induced, which produced more free carriers than Zn{sub B}. The calculated results account for experimental results of enhanced electric conductivity of Zn-doped cBN films prepared under B-rich conditions.

  19. Prediction of low-energy boron doping profile for ultrashallow junction formation by hybrid molecular dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuhara, Hidehiko; Miyamoto, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Our original hybrid method combining tight-binding quantum chemical and classical molecular dynamics was first applied to the low-energy doping process of boron into a silicon substrate, which has a depth of more than 10 nm that is needed to evaluate an ultrashallow junction position. Tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics calculation was used for an injected boron atom and surrounding silicon atoms within a sphere with a radius of 0.5 nm centered at the boron atom. This method is advantageous in treating the many-body collision effect and electronelectron interaction, which are more important in low-energy doping, compared with the Monte Carlo method with binary collision approximation. A comparison with a plasma doping experiment was also carried out. The junction positions were 6.2 nm for boron doping at an initial kinetic energy of 200 eV in the simulation results and 6.4 nm for 200 eV in the experimental results. Good agreement between simulation and experimental results indicates that our hybrid molecular dynamics method is applicable to doping profile prediction in a silicon structure with a depth of more than 10 nm that is needed to evaluate ultrashallow junction formation.

  20. Complex Boron Redistribution in P+ Doped-polysilicon / Nitrogen Doped Silicon Bi-layers during Activation Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadli, S.; Mansour, F.; Perrera, E. Bedel

    We have investigated and modeled the complex phenomenon of boron (B) redistribution process in strongly doped silicon bilayers structure. A one-dimensional two stream transfer model well adapted to the particular structure of bi- layers and to the effects of strong-concentrations has been developed. This model takes into account the instantaneous kinetics of B transfer, trapping, clustering and segregation during the thermal B activation annealing. The used silicon bi-layers have been obtained by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method, using in-situ nitrogen- doped-silicon (NiDoS) layer and strongly B doped polycrystalline-silicon (P+) layer. To avoid long redistributions, thermal annealing was carried out at relatively lowtemperatures (600 C and 700 C) for various times ranging between 30 minutes and 2 hours. The good adjustment of the simulated profiles with the experimental secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) profiles allowed a fundamental understanding about the instantaneous physical phenomena giving and disturbing the complex B redistribution profiles-shoulders kinetics.

  1. Defect charge states in Si doped hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapasha, R. E.; Molepo, M. P.; Andrew, R. C.; Chetty, N.

    2016-02-01

    We perform ab initio density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetics, electronic and magnetic properties of isolated stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric substitutional Si complexes in a hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer. The Si impurity atoms substituting the boron atom sites SiB giving non-stoichiometric complexes are found to be the most energetically favourable, and are half-metallic and order ferromagnetically in the neutral charge state. We find that the magnetic moments and magnetization energies increase monotonically when Si defects form a cluster. Partial density of states and standard Mulliken population analysis indicate that the half-metallic character and magnetic moments mainly arise from the Si 3p impurity states. The stoichiometric Si complexes are energetically unfavorable and non-magnetic. When charging the energetically favourable non-stoichiometric Si complexes, we find that the formation energies strongly depend on the impurity charge states and Fermi level position. We also find that the magnetic moments and orderings are tunable by charge state modulation q  =  ‑2, ‑1, 0, +1, +2. The induced half-metallic character is lost (retained) when charging isolated (clustered) Si defect(s). This underlines the potential of a Si doped hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer for novel spin-based applications.

  2. Optoelectronic surface-related properties in boron-doped and irradiated diamond thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nemashkalo, A.; Chapagain, P. R.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.; Peters, R. M.; Farmer, J.; Gupta, S.

    2012-01-15

    Elucidation of microscopic properties of synthetic diamond films, such as formation and evolution of bulk and surface defects, chemistry of dopants, is necessary for a reliable quality control and reproducibility in applications. Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were employed to study diamond thin films grown on silicon by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with different levels of boron doping in conjunction with gamma irradiation. SPV experiments showed that while the increase of boron concentration leads to a semiconductor-metal transition, subsequent gamma irradiation reverts quasi-metallic samples back to a semiconducting state by compensating electrical activity of boron possibly via hydrogen. One of the most pronounced common transitions observed at {approx}3.1-3.2 eV in the SPV spectra was also present in all of the PL spectra. It is likely that this is a signature of the sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon clusters in or in the vicinity of grain boundaries.

  3. Optoelectronic surface-related properties in boron-doped and irradiated diamond thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemashkalo, A.; Chapagain, P. R.; Peters, R. M.; Farmer, J.; Gupta, S.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of microscopic properties of synthetic diamond films, such as formation and evolution of bulk and surface defects, chemistry of dopants, is necessary for a reliable quality control and reproducibility in applications. Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were employed to study diamond thin films grown on silicon by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with different levels of boron doping in conjunction with gamma irradiation. SPV experiments showed that while the increase of boron concentration leads to a semiconductor-metal transition, subsequent gamma irradiation reverts quasi-metallic samples back to a semiconducting state by compensating electrical activity of boron possibly via hydrogen. One of the most pronounced common transitions observed at 3.1-3.2 eV in the SPV spectra was also present in all of the PL spectra. It is likely that this is a signature of the sp2-hybridized carbon clusters in or in the vicinity of grain boundaries.

  4. Defect charge states in Si doped hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer.

    PubMed

    Mapasha, R E; Molepo, M P; Andrew, R C; Chetty, N

    2016-02-10

    We perform ab initio density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetics, electronic and magnetic properties of isolated stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric substitutional Si complexes in a hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer. The Si impurity atoms substituting the boron atom sites SiB giving non-stoichiometric complexes are found to be the most energetically favourable, and are half-metallic and order ferromagnetically in the neutral charge state. We find that the magnetic moments and magnetization energies increase monotonically when Si defects form a cluster. Partial density of states and standard Mulliken population analysis indicate that the half-metallic character and magnetic moments mainly arise from the Si 3p impurity states. The stoichiometric Si complexes are energetically unfavorable and non-magnetic. When charging the energetically favourable non-stoichiometric Si complexes, we find that the formation energies strongly depend on the impurity charge states and Fermi level position. We also find that the magnetic moments and orderings are tunable by charge state modulation q  =  -2, -1, 0, +1, +2. The induced half-metallic character is lost (retained) when charging isolated (clustered) Si defect(s). This underlines the potential of a Si doped hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer for novel spin-based applications. PMID:26760785

  5. The structural and mechanical behaviours of Boron-doped ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senol, Abdulkadir; Demirozu Senol, Sevim; Ozturk, Ozgur; Asikuzun, Elif; Tasci, Ahmet Tolga; Terzioglu, Cabir

    2015-03-01

    Undoped and Boron (B)-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanopowders were synthesized by Hydrothermal method. The structural and mechanical behaviours of B doped ZnO (Zn1-xBx O, x =0, 0.05, 0.07, 0.11) were systematically examined. The crystal structure, phases, sizes and microstructure of Zn1-xBx O powder samples characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Microhardness values of all B doped ZnO powders were measured with different loads (0.245, 0.490, 0.980, 1.960 ve 2.940 N) using a digital Vickers microhardness tester. The experimental microhardness data were used to determine elastic modules, yield strength, and fracture toughness value of the samples. Additionally, the experimental results were analyzed using the various theoretical models namely, Kick's Law, Elastic/Plastic Deformation (EPD) models, Proportional Specimen Resistance (PSR), and Hays-Kendall (HK) approach. The Vickers microhardness measurements revealed that hardness of Zn1-xBx O powder samples increased with B doping. This research partially supported by Abant Izzet Baysal University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department under the Grant No. BAP-2013.03.02.609.

  6. Implications of boron doping on electrocatalytic activities of graphyne and graphdiyne families: a first principles study.

    PubMed

    Das, Bikram Kumar; Sen, Dipayan; Chattopadhyay, K K

    2016-01-20

    Dispersive force corrected density functional theory is used to map the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics of six kinds of graphyne (Gy) and graphdiyne (Gdy) systems (namely ?Gy, ?Gy, ?Gy, ?Gy, 6,6,12Gy, RGy and Gdy) with substitutional boron (B) atom doping. To this end, the most favorable sites for B doping of each structures are determined by comparing their formation energies and then the best configuration for di-oxygen (O2) adsorption is computed by analyzing the corresponding adsorption energies. Even though oxygen adsorption is found to be energetically favorable on all of these and all Gys and Gdy are found to distinctly favor the four electron pathways for ORR, a reaction scheme with monotonically exothermic ?G is observed only for B doped RGy. Further computations performed by varying electrode potential indicated this monotonically exothermic nature of the ?G of B doped RGy to persist in the range 0-0.22 V and also indicated the first (H(+) + e) transfer step to be the rate limiting step. PMID:26735306

  7. Bipolar doping of double-layer graphene vertical heterostructures with hydrogenated boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhun; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Liu, Li-Min; Lau, Woon-Ming; Yan, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we examined the bipolar doping of double-layer graphene vertical heterostructures, which are constructed by hydrogenated boron nitride (BN) sheets sandwiched into two parallel graphene monolayers. The built-in potential difference in hydrogenated BN breaks the interlayer symmetry, resulting in the p- and n-type doping of two graphene layers at 0.83 and -0.8 eV, respectively. By tuning the interlayer spacing between the graphene and hydrogenated BN, the interfacial dipole and screening charge distribution can be significantly affected, which produces large modulations in band alignments, doping levels and tunnel barriers. Furthermore, we present an analytical model to predicate the doping level as a function of the average interlayer spacing. With large interlayer spacings, the "pillow effect" (Pauli repulsion at the highly charge overlapped interface) is diminished and the calculated Dirac point shifts are in good accordance with our prediction models. Our investigations suggest that this double-layer graphene heterostructures constructed using two-dimensional Janus anisotropic materials offer exciting opportunities for developing novel nanoscale optoelectronic and electronic devices. PMID:25866036

  8. Ab Initio Search for Global Minimum Structures of Pure and Boron Doped Silver Clusters.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Tian, Yonghong; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Chuanzhao; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Jingjing; Lv, Jian; Ding, Liping; Ju, Meng

    2015-06-25

    The global minimum structures of pure and boron doped silver clusters up to 16 atoms are determined through ab initio calculations and unbiased structure searching methods. The structural and electronic properties of neutral, anionic, and cationic Ag(n)B (n ? 15) and Ag(n)B2 (n ? 14) clusters are much distinct from those of the corresponding pure silver. Considering that Ag and B possess one and three valence electrons, respectively, both the single and the double boron-atom doped silver clusters with even number of valence electrons are more stable than those with odd number of electrons, a feature also observed in the pure silver clusters. We demonstrate that the species with a valence count of 8 and 14 appear to be magic numbers with enhanced stability irrespective of component or the charged state. A new putative global minimum structure of Ag13(-) cluster, with high symmetry of C(2v), is unexpectedly observed as the ground state, which is lower in energy than the previous suggested bilayer structure. PMID:26046686

  9. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion-Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chinvongamorn, Chakorn; Pinwattana, Kulwadee; Praphairaksit, Narong; Imato, Toshihiko; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2008-01-01

    A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gas diffusion unit (GDU) was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for the electrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generate gaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. The sulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 8)/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of the GDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell and detected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V (versus Ag/AgCl). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to prevent electrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mg SO32?/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 mg SO32?/L was achieved. This method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical results agreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations for the analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was 65 h?1.

  10. Moessbauer spectroscopy and electrical conductivity of Fe-doped {beta}-rhombohedral boron

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Takahiro; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Kimura, Kaoru; Ino, Hiromitsu

    1997-10-01

    Iron and/or aluminum are doped to {beta}-rhombohedral boron, and the electrical conductivity and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer effect are measured. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity is explained as a variable range hopping type. The conductivity increases with an increase in Fe concentration, but it is insensitive to Al concentration. The Moessbauer spectra measured at room temperature are resolved into three kinds of doublets and a sextet due to ferromagnetic FeB. One doublet, {gamma}{sub 0}, is attributed to Fe{sup 3+} ions at A{sub 1} sites, while the others, {gamma}{sub 1} and {gamma}{sub 2}, occur from Fe{sup 2+} ions at D sites. When Fe and Al atoms are simultaneously doped into {beta}-boron, the intensity of the {gamma}{sub 0} doublet decreases and, hence, those of the {gamma}{sub 1} and {gamma}{sub 2} doublets relatively increase. The results shows that Fe atoms are moved from A{sub 1} corresponds to Fe{sup 2+} (D)-Fe{sup 2+}(D) and the {gamma}{sub 2} doublet to Fe{sup 2+}(D) and that a part of Fe{sup 2+}(D) is in the magnetic state at 4.2 K.

  11. Improving performance of armchair graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors via boron nitride doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goharrizi, A. Yazdanpanah; Sanaeepur, M.; Sharifi, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    Device performance of 10 nm length armchair graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors with 1.5 nm and 4 nm width (13 and 33 atoms in width respectively) are compared in terms of Ion /Ioff , trans-conductance, and sub-threshold swing. While narrow devices suffer from edge roughness wider devices are subject to more substrate surface roughness and reduced bandgap. Boron Nitride doping is employed to compensate reduced bandgap in wider devices. Simultaneous effects of edge and substrate surface roughness are considered. Results show that in the presence of both the edge and substrate surface roughness the 4 nm wide device with boron nitride doping shows improved performance with respect to the 1.5 nm one (both of which incorporate the same bandgap AGNR as channel material). Electronic simulations are performed via NEGF method along with tight-binding Hamiltonian. Edge and surface roughness are created by means of one and two dimensional auto correlation functions respectively. Electronic characteristics are averaged over a large number of devices due to statistic nature of both the edge and surface roughness.

  12. Boron-doped diamond electrode: synthesis, characterization, functionalization and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Luong, John H T; Male, Keith B; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, conductive diamond electrodes for electrochemical applications have been a major focus of research and development. The impetus behind such endeavors could be attributed to their wide potential window, low background current, chemical inertness, and mechanical durability. Several analytes can be oxidized by conducting diamond compared to other carbon-based materials before the breakdown of water in aqueous electrolytes. This is important for detecting and/or identifying species in solution since oxygen and hydrogen evolution do not interfere with the analysis. Thus, conductive diamond electrodes take electrochemical detection into new areas and extend their usefulness to analytes which are not feasible with conventional electrode materials. Different types of diamond electrodes, polycrystalline, microcrystalline, nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline, have been synthesized and characterized. Of particular interest is the synthesis of boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by chemical vapor deposition on various substrates. In the tetrahedral diamond lattice, each carbon atom is covalently bonded to its neighbors forming an extremely robust crystalline structure. Some carbon atoms in the lattice are substituted with boron to provide electrical conductivity. Modification strategies of doped diamond electrodes with metallic nanoparticles and/or electropolymerized films are of importance to impart novel characteristics or to improve the performance of diamond electrodes. Biofunctionalization of diamond films is also feasible to foster several useful bioanalytical applications. A plethora of opportunities for nanoscale analytical devices based on conducting diamond is anticipated in the very near future. PMID:19768202

  13. The electronic surface barrier of boron-doped diamond by anodic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, A.; Pietzka, C.; Romanyuk, A.; El-Hajj, H.; Kohn, E.

    2008-01-01

    It was shown that a strong anodic oxidation of 100-oriented diamond induces the electronic surface states, which pin the surface Fermi level at about 3.6 eV above the valence-band maximum. The characteristics of the electronic surface barrier were evaluated from the analysis of boron-doped diamond electrodes and correlated with the four-point probe measurements of an oxidized diamond resistor with a boron delta-doped channel. The same evaluation procedure applied to the case of a wet chemical oxidation yielded a surface barrier of 1.9 eV, which is consistent with the data in the literature. The characteristics of the 3.6 eV barrier by the anodic oxidation remained stable after subsequent chemical treatments even at elevated temperatures, and were also not degraded in air for a long time. The x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study showed that the anodic oxidation generates complex oxygen functionalities, like polycarbonate groups, and also C-O-C bridging bond structures with possible contribution of an additional chemisorbed layer.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of N-Type Zinc Oxide/P-Type Boron Doped Diamond Heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Marin; Mikolek, Miroslav; Bruncko, Jaroslav; Novotn, Ivan; Ik, Tibor; Vojs, Marian; Kozak, Halyna; Varga, Marin; Artemenko, Anna; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Diamond and ZnO are very promising wide-bandgap materials for electronic, photovoltaic and sensor applications because of their excellent electrical, optical, physical and electrochemical properties and biocompatibility. In this contribution we show that the combination of these two materials opens up the potential for fabrication of bipolar heterojunctions. Semiconducting boron doped diamond (BDD) thin films were grown on Si and UV grade silica glass substrates by HFCVD method with various boron concentration in the gas mixture. Doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, ZnO:Ge) thin layers were deposited by diode sputtering and pulsed lased deposition as the second semiconducting layer on the diamond films. The amount of dopants within the films was varied to obtain optimal semiconducting properties to form a bipolar p-n junction. Finally, different ZnO/BDD heterostructures were prepared and analyzed. Raman spectroscopy, SEM, Hall constant and I-V measurements were used to investigate the quality, structural and electrical properties of deposited heterostructures, respectively. I-V measurements of ZnO/BDD diodes show a rectifying ratio of 55 at 4 V. We found that only very low dopant concentrations for both semiconducting materials enabled us to fabricate a functional p-n junction. Obtained results are promising for fabrication of optically transparent ZnO/BDD bipolar heterojunction.

  15. Simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in highly boron-doped nanocrystalline Si.

    PubMed

    Neophytou, Neophytos; Zianni, Xanthippi; Kosina, Hans; Frabboni, Stefano; Lorenzi, Bruno; Narducci, Dario

    2013-05-24

    A large thermoelectric power factor in heavily boron-doped p-type nanograined Si with grain sizes ?30nm and grain boundary regions of ?2nm is reported. The reported power factor is ?5 times higher than in bulk Si. It originates from the surprising observation that for a specific range of carrier concentrations, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient increase simultaneously. The two essential ingredients for this observation are nanocrystallinity and extremely high boron doping levels. This experimental finding is interpreted within a theoretical model that considers both electron and phonon transport within the semiclassical Boltzmann approach. It is shown that transport takes place through two phases so that high conductivity is achieved in the grains, and high Seebeck coefficient by the grain boundaries. This together with the drastic reduction in the thermal conductivity due to boundary scattering could lead to a significant increase of the figure of merit ZT. This is one of the rare observations of a simultaneous increase in the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, resulting in enhanced thermoelectric power factor. PMID:23598565

  16. Iron-boron pairing kinetics in illuminated p-type and in boron/phosphorus co-doped n-type silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Möller, Christian; Bartel, Til; Gibaja, Fabien; Lauer, Kevin

    2014-07-14

    Iron-boron (FeB) pairing is observed in the n-type region of a boron and phosphorus co-doped silicon sample which is unexpected from the FeB pair model of Kimerling and Benton. To explain the experimental data, the existing FeB pair model is extended by taking into account the electronic capture and emission rates at the interstitial iron (Fe{sub i}) trap level as a function of the charge carrier densities. According to this model, the charge state of the Fe{sub i} may be charged in n-type making FeB association possible. Further, FeB pair formation during illumination in p-type silicon is investigated. This permits the determination of the charge carrier density dependent FeB dissociation rate and in consequence allows to determine the acceptor concentration in the co-doped n-type silicon by lifetime measurement.

  17. A practical guide to using boron doped diamond in electrochemical research.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-02-01

    Conducting, boron doped diamond (BDD), in addition to its superior material properties, offers several notable attributes to the electrochemist making it an intriguing material for electrochemical research. These include the widest solvent window of all electrode materials; low background and capacitive currents; reduced fouling compared to other electrodes and; the ability to withstand extreme potentials, corrosive and high temperature/pressure environments. However, BDD is not your typical electrode material, it is a semi-conductor doped degenerately with boron to present semi-metallic characteristics. Input from materials scientists, chemists and physicists has been required to aid understanding of how to work with this material from an electrochemical viewpoint and improve electrode quality. Importantly, depending on how the BDD has been grown and then subsequently treated, prior to electrochemical measurement, the resulting material properties can vary quite significantly from one electrode to the next. This likely explains the variability seen by different researchers working on the same experimental systems. The aim of this "protocols" article is not to provide a state-of-the-art review of diamond electrochemistry, suitable references are provided to the interested reader, but instead serves as a reference point for any researcher wishing to commence work with diamond electrodes and interpret electrochemical data. It provides information on how best to characterise the material properties of the electrode before use and outlines the interplay between boron dopant density, non-diamond-carbon content, grain morphology, surface chemistry and redox couple identity. All should ideally be considered when interpretating electrochemical data arising from the diamond electrode. This will aid the reader in making meaningful comparisons between data obtained by different researchers using different diamond electrodes. The guide also aims to help educate the researcher in choosing which form of BDD is best suited to their research application. PMID:25518988

  18. Structural and physical properties of boron doped ZnO films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerli, S.; Alver, U.; Tanriverdi, A.; Avar, B.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) thin films were produced by chemical spray pyrolysis method. ZnO and ZnO:B films were obtained onto glass substrates at 450C by spray pyrolysis method and the physical properties of those films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UV) and four probe technique. XRD measurements show that all films have hexagonal wurtzite structure and all films grow preferentially along (002) direction. Morphologies of the films were examined by using a scanning electron microscopy and it was observed that almost all films were quite intense with a regular structure. Optical measurements showed that the band gap energies of the films increased with boron concentrations. The resistances of the B-doped ZnO films were measured by four probe method and resistances of films initially decreased to its minimum 1 at% boron doping and then it increased again with increasing B concentration. It was also observed that that boron doping increased the activation energies of the films.

  19. Electroanalysis of tetracycline using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode applied to flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Treetepvijit, Surudee; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Rika; Chailapakult, Orawon

    2005-05-01

    The electrochemical analysis of tetracycline was investigated using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with a flow injection system. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical oxidation of tetracycline. Comparison experiments were carried out using as-deposited boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (BDD). Nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (Ni-DIA) provided well-resolved oxidation irreversible cyclic voltammograms. The current signals were higher than those obtained using the as-deposited BDD electrode. Results using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode in flow injection system coupled with amperometric detection are presented. The optimum potential for tetracycline was 1.55 V versus Ag/AgCl. The linear range of 1.0 to 100 microM and the detection limit of 10 nM were obtained. In addition, the application for drug formulation was also investigated. PMID:15913142

  20. Boron-doped graphene as promising support for platinum catalyst with superior activity towards the methanol electrooxidation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongrong; Du, Chunyu; An, Meichen; Du, Lei; Tan, Qiang; Liu, Chuntao; Gao, Yunzhi; Yin, Geping

    2015-12-01

    We report the synthesis of boron-doped graphene by thermally annealing the mixture of graphene oxide and boric acid, and its usage as the support of Pt catalyst towards the methanol oxidation reaction. The composition, structure and morphology of boron-doped graphene and its supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/BG) are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is revealed that boron atoms are doped into graphene network in the form of BC2O and BCO2 bonds, which lead to the increase in defect sites and facilitate the subsequent deposition of Pt nanoparticles. Therefore, the Pt/BG catalyst presents smaller particle size and narrower size distribution than the graphene supported Pt (Pt/G) catalyst. When evaluated as the electrocatalyst for the methanol oxidation reaction, the Pt/BG catalyst exhibits excellent electrochemical activity and stability demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests. The enhanced activity is mainly ascribed to the electronic interaction between boron-doped graphene and Pt nanoparticles, which lowers the d-band center of Pt and thus weakens the absorption of the poisoning intermediate CO. Our work provides an alternative approach of improving the reaction kinetics for the oxidation of small organic molecules.

  1. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial δ-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  2. Effects of boron and glass hybrid epoxy-composites on graphite-fiber release in an aircraft fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Brewer, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the benefits gained by using graphite-epoxy composite structures may not be realized without some risk. The graphite fibers are very good electrical conductors and fibers released into the environment during a fire create a possible hazard to electrical equipment. Several graphite-epoxy hybrids were exposed to a fire and simulated explosion and their graphite fiber retention characteristics were examined. Several low melting-temperature glasses which wet and clump graphite-fibers and a glass/graphite fabric which reduced impact damage were identified as promising hybridizing components to minimize graphite fiber release.

  3. The effect of surface treatment on the electrical properties of metal contacts to boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, S.A.; Gildenblat, G.S.; Hatfield, C.W.; Wronski, C.R. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Badzian, A.R.; Badzian, T.; Messier, R. . Materials Research Lab.)

    1990-02-01

    Both doped and undoped homoepitaxial diamond films were fabricated using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The conductivity of the diamond film is strongly affected by the surface treatment. In particular, exposure of film surface to a hydrogen plasma results in the formation of a conductive layer which can be used to obtain linear (ohmic) {ital I-V} characteristics of the Au/diamond contacts, regardless of the doping level. The proper chemical cleaning of the boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond surface allows the fabrication of Au-gate Schottky diodes with excellent rectifying characteristics at temperatures of at least 400{degrees}C.

  4. Electronic and physico-chemical properties of nanometric boron delta-doped diamond structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chicot, G. Fiori, A.; Tran Thi, T. N.; Bousquet, J.; Delahaye, J.; Grenet, T.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E.; Volpe, P. N.; Tranchant, N.; Mer-Calfati, C.; Arnault, J. C.; Gerbedoen, J. C.; Soltani, A.; De Jaeger, J. C.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Araújo, D.; Jomard, F.; and others

    2014-08-28

    Heavily boron doped diamond epilayers with thicknesses ranging from 40 to less than 2 nm and buried between nominally undoped thicker layers have been grown in two different reactors. Two types of [100]-oriented single crystal diamond substrates were used after being characterized by X-ray white beam topography. The chemical composition and thickness of these so-called delta-doped structures have been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Temperature-dependent Hall effect and four probe resistivity measurements have been performed on mesa-patterned Hall bars. The temperature dependence of the hole sheet carrier density and mobility has been investigated over a broad temperature range (6 K < T < 450 K). Depending on the sample, metallic or non-metallic behavior was observed. A hopping conduction mechanism with an anomalous hopping exponent was detected in the non-metallic samples. All metallic delta-doped layers exhibited the same mobility value, around 3.6 ± 0.8 cm{sup 2}/Vs, independently of the layer thickness and the substrate type. Comparison with previously published data and theoretical calculations showed that scattering by ionized impurities explained only partially this low common value. None of the delta-layers showed any sign of confinement-induced mobility enhancement, even for thicknesses lower than 2 nm.

  5. Boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2/graphene nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Ping; Wu, Dongqing; Huang, Yanshan; Tang, Yanping; Su, Yuezeng; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-03-27

    Heteroatom doping is an effective method to adjust the electrochemical behavior of carbonaceous materials. In this work, boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2 /graphene hybrids (BCTGs) were fabricated by hydrothermal carbonization of sucrose in the presence of SnO2/graphene nanosheets and phenylboronic acid or boric acid as dopant source and subsequent thermal treatment. Owing to their unique 2D core-shell architecture and B-doped carbon shells, BCTGs have enhanced conductivity and extra active sites for lithium storage. With phenylboronic acid as B source, the resulting hybrid shows outstanding electrochemical performance as the anode in lithium-ion batteries with a highly stable capacity of 1165?mA?h?g(-1) at 0.1?A?g(-1) after 360 cycles and an excellent rate capability of 600?mA?h?g(-1) at 3.2?A?g(-1), and thus outperforms most of the previously reported SnO2-based anode materials. PMID:25694249

  6. Evaluation of freestanding boron-doped diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition as substrates for vertical power electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, R.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.; Silva, F.; Gicquel, A.; Bisaro, R.; Servet, B.; Garry, G.; Barjon, J.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, 4 4 mm2 freestanding boron-doped diamond single crystals with thickness up to 260 ?m have been fabricated by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition. The boron concentrations measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy were 1018 to 1020 cm-3 which is in a good agreement with the values calculated from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, thus indicating that almost all incorporated boron is electrically active. The dependence of lattice parameters and crystal mosaicity on boron concentrations have also been extracted from high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments on (004) planes. The widths of x-ray rocking curves have globally shown the high quality of the material despite a substantial broadening of the peak, indicating a decrease of structural quality with increasing boron doping levels. Finally, the suitability of these crystals for the development of vertical power electronic devices has been confirmed by four-point probe measurements from which electrical resistivities as low as 0.26 ? cm have been obtained.

  7. Evaluation of freestanding boron-doped diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition as substrates for vertical power electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Issaoui, R.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.; Silva, F.; Gicquel, A.; Bisaro, R.; Servet, B.; Garry, G.; Barjon, J.

    2012-03-19

    In this study, 4 x 4 mm{sup 2} freestanding boron-doped diamond single crystals with thickness up to 260 {mu}m have been fabricated by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition. The boron concentrations measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy were 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} which is in a good agreement with the values calculated from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, thus indicating that almost all incorporated boron is electrically active. The dependence of lattice parameters and crystal mosaicity on boron concentrations have also been extracted from high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments on (004) planes. The widths of x-ray rocking curves have globally shown the high quality of the material despite a substantial broadening of the peak, indicating a decrease of structural quality with increasing boron doping levels. Finally, the suitability of these crystals for the development of vertical power electronic devices has been confirmed by four-point probe measurements from which electrical resistivities as low as 0.26 {Omega} cm have been obtained.

  8. Observation of conduction electron spin resonance in boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szirmai, Pter; Fbin, Gbor; Koltai, Jnos; Nfrdi, Blint; Forr, Lszl; Pichler, Thomas; Williams, Oliver A.; Mandal, Soumen; Buerle, Christopher; Simon, Ferenc

    2013-05-01

    We observe the electron spin resonance of conduction electrons in boron-doped (6400 ppm) superconducting diamond (Tc=3.8K). We clearly identify the benchmarks of conduction electron spin resonance (CESR): the nearly temperature independent electron spin resonance signal intensity and its magnitude, which is in good agreement with that expected from the density of states through the Pauli spin susceptibility. The temperature dependent CESR linewidth weakly increases with increasing temperature, which can be understood in the framework of the Elliott-Yafet theory of spin relaxation. An anomalous and yet unexplained relation is observed between the g-factor, CESR linewidth, and the resistivity using the empirical Elliott-Yafet relation.

  9. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-10-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500?mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  10. Magnetic Enzymatic Platform for Organophosphate Pesticide Detection Using Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pino, Flavio; Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Nakata, Kazuya; Fujishima, Akira; Merkoi, Arben; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reliable enzymatic system for organophosporus pesticide detection was successfully developed, by exploiting the synergy between the magnetic beads collection capacity and the outstanding electrochemistry property of boron-doped diamond electrodes. The determination of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), was performed based on the inhibition system of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase bonded to magnetic beads through a biotin-streptavidin complex system. A better sensitivity was found for a system with magnetic beads in the concentration range of 10(-9) to 10(-5) M. The estimated limits of detection based on IC10 (10% acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition) have been detected and optimized to be 5.7 10(-10) M CPF. Spiked samples of water of Yokohama (Japan) have been measured to validate the efficiency of the enzymatic system. The results suggested that the use of magnetic beads to immobilize biomolecules or biosensing agents is suitable to maintain the superiority of BDD electrodes. PMID:26460372

  11. Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Electrodes for Neural Interfaces: In vivo Biocompatibility Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, María; Taylor, Andrew; Fjorback, Morten; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian P.

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDD) electrodes have recently attracted attention as materials for neural electrodes due to their superior physical and electrochemical properties, however their biocompatibility remains largely unexplored. In this work, we aim to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of BDD electrodes in relation to conventional titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. High quality BDD films were synthesized on electrodes intended for use as an implantable neurostimulation device. After implantation for 2 and 4 weeks, tissue sections adjacent to the electrodes were obtained for histological analysis. Both types of implants were contained in a thin fibrous encapsulation layer, the thickness of which decreased with time. Although the level of neovascularization around the implants was similar, BDD electrodes elicited significantly thinner fibrous capsules and a milder inflammatory reaction at both time points. These results suggest that BDD films may constitute an appropriate material to support stable performance of implantable neural electrodes over time. PMID:27013949

  12. Electrochemical behavior of nitrogen gas species adsorbed onto boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes.

    PubMed

    Manzo-Robledo, A; Lvy-Clment, C; Alonso-Vante, N

    2007-11-01

    The adsorption of nitrogen species, in neutral electrolyte solutions, onto boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode surfaces from dissolved NO2, NO, and N2O gases was induced at 0 V/SCE. Modified BDD electrode surfaces showed a different electrochemical response toward the hydrogen evolution reaction than did a nonmodified electrode surface in electrolyte base solution. The formation of molecular hydrogen and nitrogen gaseous species was confirmed by the online differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) technique. Among the three nitrogen oxides gases, NO2 substantially modifies the electrolyte via hydrolysis leading to the formation of NO3- and its adsorption on the BDD electrode surface. The BDD/(NO3-) interface was the only N2O and N2 species generating system. PMID:17929845

  13. Fabrication of cone-shaped boron doped diamond and gold nanoelectrodes for AFM-SECM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdic, A.; Lugstein, A.; Wu, M.; Gollas, B.; Pobelov, I.; Wandlowski, T.; Leonhardt, K.; Denuault, G.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate a reliable microfabrication process for a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) measurement tool. Integrated cone-shaped sensors with boron doped diamond (BDD) or gold (Au) electrodes were fabricated from commercially available AFM probes. The sensor formation process is based on mature semiconductor processing techniques, including focused ion beam (FIB) machining, and highly selective reactive ion etching (RIE). The fabrication approach preserves the geometry of the original AFM tips resulting in well reproducible nanoscaled sensors. The feasibility and functionality of the fully featured tips are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, showing good agreement between the measured and calculated currents of the cone-shaped AFM-SECM electrodes.

  14. Preparation and characterization of vertically columnar boron doped diamond array electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Yu, Hongtao; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2014-06-01

    A vertically columnar boron doped diamond (BDD) array electrode was fabricated by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. Observed by scanning electron microscopy, the fabricated samples were structured with aligned columns whose diameter and height was 8 ?m and 12 ?m, respectively, and the minimum interval of neighboring columns was 2 ?m. The results of electrochemistry measurement showed that the columnar BDD array electrode possessed high oxygen evolution potential and low background current. Besides that, comparing with flat BDD electrode, the columnar BDD array electrode showed higher electrochemical activity (due to its inner active surface being up to 4.25 cm2), lower impedance of electric double layer, and especially enhanced electrical response signal (2.12 ?A/?M, 4 times of flat BDD in glucose detection as a sample). These excellent performances may open the door for the BDD materials to be applied in wide areas including electrochemical detection, electrochemistry degradation, electrochemical synthesis, and so on.

  15. Domestic and Industrial Water Disinfection Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychen, Philippe; Provent, Christophe; Pupunat, Laurent; Hermant, Nicolas

    This chapter first describes main properties and manufacturing process (production using HF-CVD, quality-control measurements, etc.) of diamond electrodes and more specifically boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Their exceptional properties make such electrodes particularly suited for many disinfection applications as thanks to their wide working potential window and their high anodic potential, they allow generating a mixture of powerful oxidizing species mainly based on active oxygen and peroxides. Such mixture of disinfecting agents is far more efficient than conventional chemical or physical known techniques. Their efficiency was tested against numerous microorganisms and then proved to be greater than conventional methods. All bacteria and viruses tested up to date were inactivated 3-5 times faster with a treatment based on with BDD electrodes and the DiaCell? technology than with other techniques. Several applications, either industrial or private (wellness and home use), are discussed with a focus on the dedicated products and the main technology advantages.

  16. Excitonic luminescence of SiGe/Si quantum wells ?-doped with boron

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaev, V. S.; Nikolaev, S. N.; Onishchenko, E. E.; Pruchkina, A. A.; Krivobok, V. S.; Novikov, A. V.

    2015-05-14

    Low-temperature photoluminescence of undoped and moderately ?-doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x}/Si (x?boron ?-layer on the excitonic luminescence and the luminescence caused by a dense electron plasma was demonstrated. The conditions under which the luminescence spectra of quantum wells are dominated by impurity-bound excitons (BE) have been established. Some unusual properties of these BE are explained in terms of type II band-offset in Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x}/Si (x?

  17. Pulsed-laser crystallized highly conductive boron-doped microcrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nebel, C.E.; Dahlheimer, B.; Karrer, U.; Stutzmann, M.

    1997-07-01

    The preparation of seed lattices, using three interfering beams (TIB) from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser in a-Si layers of 100 to 400 nm thickness is introduced and applied for seeded laser or thermally induced crystallization of a-Si on Corning 7059 glass. The structural and electronic properties of the {micro}c-Si layers are investigated by X-ray, electron- and atomic force microscopy, Hall and conductivity measurements. In highly boron-doped {micro}c-Si, grains up to 1.3 {micro}m in diameter are detected, giving rise to conductivities of {approx}2,000 S/cm and hole mobilities of {approx}10 cm{sup 2}/Vs.

  18. Fabrication of cone-shaped boron doped diamond and gold nanoelectrodes for AFM-SECM.

    PubMed

    Avdic, A; Lugstein, A; Wu, M; Gollas, B; Pobelov, I; Wandlowski, T; Leonhardt, K; Denuault, G; Bertagnolli, E

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate a reliable microfabrication process for a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) measurement tool. Integrated cone-shaped sensors with boron doped diamond (BDD) or gold (Au) electrodes were fabricated from commercially available AFM probes. The sensor formation process is based on mature semiconductor processing techniques, including focused ion beam (FIB) machining, and highly selective reactive ion etching (RIE). The fabrication approach preserves the geometry of the original AFM tips resulting in well reproducible nanoscaled sensors. The feasibility and functionality of the fully featured tips are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, showing good agreement between the measured and calculated currents of the cone-shaped AFM-SECM electrodes. PMID:21368355

  19. Electrodeposition of metal adlayers on boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Awada, M.; Strojek, J.W.; Swain, G.M.

    1995-03-01

    A preliminary investigation of the electrochemical deposition of Pt, Pb, and Hg adlayers on conductive diamond thin-film surfaces ha been made using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. The diamond thin films employed were polycrystalline, grown on conductive Si substrates (1 cm{sup 2}) to a thickness of ca. 14 {mu}m, and doped with boron at a nominal atomic concentration ranging between 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}. The cyclic volammetric measurements were performed both in a conventional glass electrochemical cell and in thin-layer flow cell. The results demonstrate that metallization of diamond film surfaces electrochemically is feasible, opening the door of the development of novel catalytic electrodes, sensors, and detectors using this advanced material.

  20. Conductive polymer-modified boron-doped diamond for DNA hybridization analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Huiru; Su, Xiaodi; Loh, Kian Ping

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, we study the immobilization of DNA on boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films for DNA hybridization analysis. Taking advantage of the conducting nature of the BDD film, a thin layer of polyaniline/poly (acrylic acid) (PANI/PAA) composite polymer film could be readily electropolymerized onto the diamond surface. The carboxylic acid residues in the polymer film act as the binding sites for DNA attachment, whilst the conductive polymer matrix enhances the electron-transfer between DNA and the diamond surface. Fluorescence microscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that the polymer-modified BDD has minimal non-specific DNA adsorption, and provides a stable transduction platform for DNA sensing.

  1. Surface Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond with Microcrystalline Copper Phthalocyanine: Oxygen Reduction Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Patrick; Foord, John S; Compton, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of boron-doped diamond (BDD) with copper phthalocyanine was achieved using a simple and convenient dropcast deposition, giving rise to a microcrystalline structure. Both unmodified and modified BDD electrodes of different surface terminations (namely hydrogen and oxygen) were compared via the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in aqueous solution. A significant lowering of the cathodic overpotential by about 500 mV was observed after modification of hydrogen-terminated (hydrophobic) diamond, while no voltammetric peak was seen on modified oxidised (hydrophilic) diamond, signifying greater interaction between copper phthalocyanine and the hydrogen-terminated BDD. Oxygen reduction was found to undergo a two-electron process on the modified hydrogen-terminated diamond, which was shown to be also active for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The lack of a further conversion of the peroxide was attributed to its rapid diffusion away from the triple phase boundary at which the reaction is expected to exclusively occur. PMID:26491640

  2. Relaxation of the resistive superconducting state in boron-doped diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardakova, A.; Shishkin, A.; Semenov, A.; Goltsman, G. N.; Ryabchun, S.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Sacépé, B.; Klein, Th.; Bustarret, E.

    2016-02-01

    We report a study of the relaxation time of the restoration of the resistive superconducting state in single crystalline boron-doped diamond using amplitude-modulated absorption of (sub-)THz radiation (AMAR). The films grown on an insulating diamond substrate have a low carrier density of about 2.5 ×1021cm-3 and a critical temperature of about 2 K . By changing the modulation frequency we find a high-frequency rolloff which we associate with the characteristic time of energy relaxation between the electron and the phonon systems or the relaxation time for nonequilibrium superconductivity. Our main result is that the electron-phonon scattering time varies clearly as T-2, over the accessible temperature range of 1.7 to 2.2 K. In addition, we find, upon approaching the critical temperature Tc, evidence for an increasing relaxation time on both sides of Tc.

  3. Simultaneous detection of iodine and iodide on boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Stphane; Comninellis, Christos; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-15

    Individual and simultaneous electrochemical detection of iodide and iodine has been performed via cyclic voltammetry on boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in a 1M NaClO(4) (pH 8) solution, representative of typical environmental water conditions. It is feasible to compute accurate calibration curve for both compounds using cyclic voltammetry measurements by determining the peak current intensities as a function of the concentration. A lower detection limit of about 20 ?M was obtained for iodide and 10 ?M for iodine. Based on the comparison between the peak current intensities reported during the oxidation of KI, it is probable that iodide (I(-)) is first oxidized in a single step to yield iodine (I(2)). The latter is further oxidized to obtain IO(3)(-). This technique, however, did not allow for a reasonably accurate detection of iodate (IO(3)(-)) on a BDD electrode. PMID:23200355

  4. Optically detected cyclotron resonance in heavily boron-doped silicon nanostructures on n-Si (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Bagraev, N. T. Kuzmin, R. V.; Gurin, A. S.; Klyachkin, L. E.; Malyarenko, A. M.; Mashkov, V. A.

    2014-12-15

    Electron and hole cyclotron resonance at a frequency of 94 GHz is detected by a change in the intensity of photoluminescence lines whose positions are identical to those of dislocation luminescence lines D1 and D2 in single-crystal silicon and in heavily boron-doped silicon nanostructures on the Si (100) surface. The angular dependence of the spectrum of the optically detected cyclotron resonance corresponds to the tensor of the electron and hole effective mass in single-crystal silicon, and the resonance-line width indicates long carrier free-path times close to 100 ps. The results obtained are discussed within the framework of the interrelation of the electron-vibration coupling to charge and spin correlations in quasi-one-dimensional chains of dangling bonds in silicon.

  5. In vivo assessment of cancerous tumors using boron doped diamond microelectrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, Stphane; Yoshikawa, Momoko; Nagano, Osamu; Yoshimi, Kenji; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2012-11-01

    The in vitro and in vivo electrochemical detection of the reduced form of glutathione (L-?-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH) using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode for potential application in the assessment of cancerous tumors is presented. Accurate calibration curve for the determination of GSH could be obtained by the in vitro electrochemical measurements. Additionally, it was shown that it was possible to separate the detection of GSH from the oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) using chronoamperometry measurements. In vivo GSH detection measurements have been performed in human cancer cells inoculated in immunodeficient mice. These measurements have shown that the difference of GSH level between cancerous and normal tissues can be detected. Moreover, GSH detection measurements carried out before and after X-ray irradiation have proved that it is possible to assess in vivo the decrease in GSH concentration in the tumor after a specific treatment.

  6. Label-free detection of lectins on carbohydrate-modified boron-doped diamond surfaces.

    PubMed

    Szunerits, Sabine; Niedzio?ka-Jnsson, Joanna; Boukherroub, Rabah; Woisel, Patrice; Baumann, Jean-Sbastien; Siriwardena, Aloysius

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the label-free detection of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. The sensor consists of a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode terminated with alkynyl surface groups, which have been functionalized via the CuACC (copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition) "click" reaction with carbohydrate analogues bearing an azido-terminating arm. In this work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used as an effective technique to probe the specific interactions of the surface-bound carbohydrates with their complementary lectin partners, and the response was found to be dependent on the relative density of sugar units immobilized on the BDD surface. A BDD interface with 60% surface-bound mannose showed a detection limit of ?5 0.5 nM for Lens culinaris lectin, with an affinity constant of K(A) = (2.63 0.5) 10(6) M(-1). PMID:20828205

  7. Light-induced degradation in n-type Czochralski silicon by boron-doping and thermal donor compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Yu, Xuegong; Wu, Yichao; Zhao, Jianjiang; Yang, Deren

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, the behaviors of boron-oxygen complexes related to the light-induced degradation (LID) have been studied in n-type boron-doped Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) with different levels of thermal donors (TDs) compensation. The degradation is found to have two stages, a fast- and a slow-process, similar to that in p-type boron-doped Cz-Si. In order to compare with the properties of LID in p-type Si, we systematically investigate the dependence of the saturated defect concentration (Nt*) and the defect generation rate constant (Rgen) in our TD-compensated n-type Cz-Si on the carrier concentrations, i.e., the net electron concentration (n0) and the excess hole concentration (?p). Moreover, we determine the activation energy for the slow-process to be 0.4 eV. Based on our results, we suggest that the LID effect in boron-doped Si, either in p-type case or in n-type case by compensation, should be attributed to the same defects.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of aluminum–boron co-doped ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Vinod; Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar 249404 ; Singh, R.G.; Singh, Neetu; Kapoor, Avinashi; Mehra, R.M.; Purohit, L.P.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we have reported the development of aluminum boron co-doped ZnO (AZB) nanostructures deposited by sol–gel method using spin coating technique. The structure of AZB nanostructure films has been found to exhibit the hexagonal wurtzite structure. The shape of nanostructures has been changed from seed structure to tetra-pods, tetra-pods to nanorods and finally nanorods to nanofiber with variation in Al concentration. The structural, electrical and optical properties of AZB nanostructures are tuned with shape and size of the nanostructures. The effect of Al concentration on the resistivity (ρ), carrier concentration (n) and mobility (μ) of nanostructure films is shown in graph below. A minimum resistivity of 6.8 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm is obtained in AZB films at doping concentration of B 0.6 at.% and Al 0.4 at.% with a sheet resistance of 24 Ω/□ and transmittance of ∼88% for nanorods structure. These nanostructures could be applicable for a various nano-regime devices such as photovolatics, gas sensing and field emission device. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of Al and B co-doped ZnO (AZB) nanostructures. ► Minimum resistivity (ρ) of 6.8 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm in AZB films. ► Minimum sheet resistance (R{sub s}) 24 Ω/□ in nanorods (NRs). ► Maximum transmittance ∼88% in NRs. ► Application in nano-electronic devices. -- Abstract: In this paper, we have reported the development of aluminum boron co-doped ZnO (AZB) nanostructures deposited by sol–gel method using spin coating technique. The structure of AZB nanostructure films has been found to exhibit the hexagonal wurtzite structure. The shape of AZB nanostructures has changed from seed structure to tetra-pods, tetra-pods to nanorods and finally to nanofibers with increase in aluminum concentration. The structural, electrical and optical properties of AZB films are tuned with shape and size of the nanostructures. These AZB nanostructures could be applicable for various nano-regime devices such as photovoltaic cells, gas sensors and field emission devices.

  9. Enhanced electrical conductivity in a substitutionally doped spiro-bis(phenalenyl)boron radical molecular solid.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sushanta K; Bag, Pradip; Itkis, Mikhail E; Tham, Fook S; Haddon, Robert C

    2014-10-22

    We report the crystallization of a subsitutionally doped organic conductor based on a host lattice composed of spiro-bis(phenalenyl)boron radicals. Co-crystallization of solutions of spiro-bis(9-oxidophenalenone)boron radical [PLY(O,O)]2B mixed with selected amounts of spiro-bis(9-oxidophenalenone)beryllium [PLY(O,O)]2Be leads to the formation of a series of solid-state solutions of composition [PLY(O,O)]2B(1-x)Be(x). The dopant molecules [PLY(O,O)]2Be serve to introduce holes into the lattice of spins provided by the [PLY(O,O)]2B radicals and lead to a systematic increase in the conductivity while decreasing the activation energy of the conduction process and leaving the solid-state structure relatively unperturbed. While the energies of the hole sites are expected to be high, the results are consistent with the interpretation of the electronic structure of [PLY(O,O)]2B in terms of the resonating valence bond model. PMID:25271884

  10. Batch fabrication of mesoporous boron-doped nickel oxide nanoflowers for electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jing-He; Yu, Qingtao; Li, Yamin; Mao, Liqun; Ma, Ding

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A new facile liquid-phase method has been employed for synthesis boron-doped NiO nanoflowers. • The specific surface area of NiO is as high as 200 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. • NiO nanoflowers exhibit a high specific capacitance of ∼1309 F g{sup −1} at a charge and discharge current density of 3 A g{sup −1}. • NiO nanoflowers have excellent cycling ability and even after 2500 cycles there is no significant reduction in specific capacitance. - Abstract: Boron-doped nickel oxide (B-NiO) nanoflowers are prepared by simple thermal decomposition of nickel hydroxide. B-NiO is porous sphere with a diameter of about 400 nm. B-NiO nanoflowers are composed of approximately 30 nm nanoplates and the thickness of the nanosheets is approximately 3 nm. The specific surface area of the material is as high as 200 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and the pore size distribution curves of B-NiO has three typical peaks in the range of mesoporous (5 nm, 13 nm and 18 nm). As an electrode for supercapacitors, the crystalline B-NiO nanoflowers have favorable characteristics, for instance, a specific capacitance of 1309 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 3 A g{sup −1} and no significant reduction in Coulombic efficiency after 2500 cycles at 37.5 A g{sup −1}. This remarkable electrochemical performance will make B-NiO nanoflowers a promising electrode material for high performance supercapacitors.

  11. Development of neuraminidase detection using gold nanoparticles boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wahyuni, Wulan T; Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Saepudin, Endang; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-03-15

    Gold nanoparticles-modified boron-doped diamond (AuNPs-BDD) electrodes, which were prepared with a self-assembly deposition of AuNPs at amine-terminated boron-doped diamond, were examined for voltammetric detection of neuraminidase (NA). The detection method was performed based on the difference of electrochemical responses of zanamivir at gold surface before and after the reaction with NA in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 5.5). A linear calibration curve for zanamivir in 0.1 M PBS in the absence of NA was achieved in the concentration range of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-5) M (R(2) = 0.99) with an estimated limit of detection (LOD) of 2.29 × 10(-6) M. Furthermore, using its reaction with 1.00 × 10(-5) M zanamivir, a linear calibration curve of NA can be obtained in the concentration range of 0-12mU (R(2) = 0.99) with an estimated LOD of 0.12mU. High reproducibility was shown with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.14% (n = 30). These performances could be maintained when the detection was performed in mucin matrix. Comparison performed using gold-modified BDD (Au-BDD) electrodes suggested that the good performance of the detection method is due to the stability of the gold particles position at the BDD surface. PMID:26717895

  12. Electroanalytical determination of estriol hormone using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Santos, Keliana D; Braga, Otoniel C; Vieira, Iolanda C; Spinelli, Almir

    2010-03-15

    A boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was used for the electroanalytical determination of estriol hormone in a pharmaceutical product and a urine sample taken during pregnancy by square-wave voltammetry. The optimized experimental conditions were: (1) a supporting electrolyte solution of NaOH at a pH of 12.0, and (2) a frequency of 20 Hz, a pulse height of 30 mV and a scan increment of 2 mV (for the square-wave parameters). The analytical curve was linear in the concentration range of 2.0 x 10(-7) to 2.0 x 10(-5) mol L(-1) (r=0.9994), with a detection limit of 1.7 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) and quantification limit of 8.5 x 10(-7) mol L(-1). Recoveries of estriol were in the range of 98.6-101.0%, for the pharmaceutical sample, and 100.2-103.4% for the urine sample, indicating no significant matrix interference effects on the analytical results. The accuracy of the electroanalytical methodology proposed was compared to that of the radioimmunoassay method. The values for the relative error between the proposed and standard methods were -7.29% for the determination of estriol in the commercial product and -4.98% in a urine sample taken during pregnancy. The results obtained suggest a reliable and interesting alternative method for electroanalytical determination of estriol in pharmaceutical products and urine samples taken during pregnancy using a boron-doped diamond electrode. PMID:20152445

  13. Friction and wear performance of boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinchang; Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong

    2015-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have attracted more attentions due to their excellent mechanical properties. Whereas as-fabricated traditional diamond films in the previous studies don't have enough adhesion or surface smoothness, which seriously impact their friction and wear performance, and thus limit their applications under extremely harsh conditions. A boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond (BD-UM-FGCD) film is fabricated by a three-step method adopting hot filament CVD (HFCVD) method in the present study, presenting outstanding comprehensive performance, including the good adhesion between the substrate and the underlying boron doped diamond (BDD) layer, the extremely high hardness of the middle undoped microcrystalline diamond (UMCD) layer, as well as the low surface roughness and favorable polished convenience of the surface fine grained diamond (FGD) layer. The friction and wear behavior of this composite film sliding against low-carbon steel and silicon nitride balls are studied on a ball-on-plate rotational friction tester. Besides, its wear rate is further evaluated under a severer condition using an inner-hole polishing apparatus, with low-carbon steel wire as the counterpart. The test results show that the BD-UM-FGCD film performs very small friction coefficient and great friction behavior owing to its high surface smoothness, and meanwhile it also has excellent wear resistance because of the relatively high hardness of the surface FGD film and the extremely high hardness of the middle UMCD film. Moreover, under the industrial conditions for producing low-carbon steel wires, this composite film can sufficiently prolong the working lifetime of the drawing dies and improve their application effects. This research develops a novel composite diamond films owning great comprehensive properties, which have great potentials as protecting coatings on working surfaces of the wear-resistant and anti-frictional components.

  14. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200 nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti3+ self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene. PMID:24974890

  15. Local bond length variations in boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond measured by spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ying-Gang; Turner, Stuart; Verbeeck, Johan; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Haenen, Ken; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2013-07-01

    Variations in local bond length and coordination in boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films have been studied through changes in the fine structure of boron and carbon K-edges in electron energy-loss spectra, acquired in a scanning transmission electron microscope. The presence of high concentrations of B in pristine diamond regions and enrichment of B at defects in single NCD grains is demonstrated. Local bond length variations are evidenced through an energy shift of the carbon 1s ? ?* edge at B-rich defective regions within single diamond grains, indicating an expansion of the diamond bond length at sites with local high B content.

  16. Interaction between hydrogen and the Fe-B pair in boron-doped p-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C. K.; Vines, L.; Svensson, B. G.; Monakhov, E. V.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of hydrogen incorporation into iron-contaminated boron-doped Cz-Si has been investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy. In-diffusion of hydrogen by wet chemical etching followed by reverse bias annealing of Al, Schottky diodes result in the appearance of the defect level characteristic to interstitial iron (Fei), and the concentration of iron-boron pairs (Fe-B) decreases correspondingly. Quantitative observations from various defect concentration versus depth profiles imply strongly that H promotes dissociation of Fe-B releasing Fei whereas no detectable passivation of Fe-B or Fei by H occurs.

  17. Resistance to protein adsorption and adhesion of fibroblasts on nanocrystalline diamond films: the role of topography and boron doping.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, María; Papaioannou, Stavros; Taylor, Andrew; Fekete, Ladislav; Gurevich, Leonid; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) films exhibit outstanding electrochemical properties that make them very attractive for the fabrication of electrodes for novel neural interfaces and prosthetics. In these devices, the physicochemical properties of the electrode materials are critical to ensure an efficient long-term performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of topography and doping to the biological performance of BNCD films. For this purpose, undoped and boron-doped NCD films were deposited on low roughness (LR) and high roughness (HR) substrates, which were studied in vitro by means of protein adsorption and fibroblast growth assays. Our results show that BNCD films significantly reduce the adsorption of serum proteins, mostly on the LR substrates. As compared to fibroblasts cultured on LR BNCD films, cells grown on the HR BNCD films showed significantly reduced adhesion and lower growth rates. The mean length of fibronectin fibrils deposited by the cells was significantly increased in the BNCD coated substrates, mainly in the LR surfaces. Overall, the largest influence on protein adsorption, cell adhesion, proliferation, and fibronectin deposition was due to the underlying sub-micron topography, with little or no influence of boron doping. In perspective, BNCD films displaying surface roughness in the submicron range may be used as a strategy to reduce the fibroblast growth on the surface of neural electrodes. PMID:26975747

  18. A low-cost cementite (Fe3C) nanocrystal@N-doped graphitic carbon electrocatalyst for efficient oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianxing; Zhang, Haimin; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Yunxia; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, chitosan whiskers (CWs) were first extracted using low-cost and earth-abundant crab shells as materials by a series of chemical processes, and then assembled into chitosan whisker microspheres (CWMs) via a simple photochemical polymerization approach. Subsequently, a cementite (Fe3C) nanocrystal@N-doped graphitic carbon (Fe3C@NGC) nanocomposite was successfully fabricated by high temperature pyrolysis of CWMs adsorbed with ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3) at 900 C. It was found that a suitable growth atmosphere generated inside CWMs during high temperature pyrolysis is critically important to form Fe3C nanocrystal cores, concurrently accompanying a structural transformation from chitosan whiskers to mesoporous graphitic carbon shells with natural nitrogen (N) doping properties, resulting in the formation of a core-shell structure Fe3C@NGC nanocomposite. The resulting samples were evaluated as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In comparison with sole N-doped graphitic carbon without Fe3C nanocrystals obtained by direct pyrolysis of chitosan whisker microspheres at 900 C (CWMs-900), Fe3C@NGC showed significantly improved ORR catalytic activity. The tolerance to fuel cell molecules (e.g., methanol) and the durability of Fe3C@NGC are obviously superior to commercial Pt/C catalysts in alkaline media. The high ORR performance of Fe3C@NGC could be due to its large surface area (313.7 m(2) g(-1)), a synergistic role of Fe3C nanocrystals, N doping in graphitic carbon creating more catalytic active sites, and a porous structure of the nanocomposite facilitating mass transfer to efficiently improve the utilization of these catalytic active sites. PMID:26426862

  19. Metal-Bosonic Insulator-Superconductor Transition in Boron-Doped Granular Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gufei; Zeleznik, Monika; Vanacken, Johan; May, Paul W.; Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    2013-02-01

    In a variety of superconductors, mostly in two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) systems, the resistive superconducting transition R(T) demonstrates in many cases an anomalous narrow R(T) peak just preceding the onset of the superconducting state R=0 at Tc. The amplitude of this R(T) peak in 1D and 2D systems ranges from a few up to several hundred percent. In three-dimensional (3D) systems, however, the R(T) peak close to Tc is rarely observed, and it reaches only a few percent in amplitude. Here we report on the observation of a giant (1600%) and very narrow (1K) resistance peak preceding the onset of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond. This anomalous R(T) peak in a 3D system is interpreted in the framework of an empirical model based on the metal-bosonic insulator-superconductor transitions induced by a granularity-correlated disorder in heavily doped diamond.

  20. Dibenzothiophene adsorption at boron doped carbon nanoribbons studied within density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    López-Albarrán, P.; Navarro-Santos, P.; Garcia-Ramirez, M. A.; Ricardo-Chávez, J. L.

    2015-06-21

    The adsorption of dibenzothiophene (DBT) on bare and boron-doped armchair carbon nanoribbons (ACNRs) is being investigated in the framework of the density functional theory by implementing periodic boundary conditions that include corrections from dispersion interactions. The reactivity of the ACNRs is characterized by using the Fukui functions as well as the electrostatic potential as local descriptors. Non-covalent adsorption mechanism is found when using the local Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof functional, regardless of the DBT orientation and adsorption location. The dispersion interactions addition is a milestone to describe the adsorption process. The charge defects introduced in small number (i.e., by doping with B atoms), within the ACNRs increases the selectivity towards sulfur mainly due to the charge depletion at B sites. The DBT magnitude in the adsorption energy shows non-covalent interactions. As a consequence, the configurations where the DBT is adsorbed on a BC{sub 3} island increase the adsorption energy compared to random B arrangements. The stability of these configurations can be explained satisfactorily in terms of dipole interactions. Nevertheless, from the charge-density difference analysis and the weak Bader charge-distribution interactions cannot be ruled out completely. This is why the electronic properties of the ribbons are analyzed in order to elucidate the key role played by the B and DBT states in the adsorbed configurations.

  1. Self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Ian D.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Nicols, Samuel P.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, John L.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Haller, Eugene E.

    2002-04-01

    Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. {sup 30}Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched {sup 28}Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850 C and 1100 C. A specially designed ion- implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.

  2. Boron doped g-C3N4 with enhanced photocatalytic UO22+ reduction performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Changhai; Chen, Rongyue; Wu, Xi; Fan, Meifeng; Liu, Yunhai; Le, Zhanggao; Jiang, Shujuan; Song, Shaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Tuning the band gap and absorption intensity of visible-light by element doping is an attractive strategy to enhance the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor materials. Here we doped boron into g-C3N4 to construct highly efficient photocatalysts (B-g-C3N4) for the photocatalytic reduction of UO22+. Characterization and photocatalysis tests showed the band gap of B-g-C3N4 was narrowed, and the absorption intensity of visible-light was enhanced with increasing the formed N-B-C (BCN) of B-g-C3N4, which is consistent with the trend of the photocatalytic performance of B-g-C3N4. The optimized B-g-C3N4 photocatalyst with BCN content of 1.01 at.% exhibited excellent removal efficiency of UO22+ and good photocatalytic stability. Therefore, these results may lead to a new strategy for exploring the advanced photocatalysts based on the carbon nanomaterials with abundant BCN for the photocatalytic reduction of U(VI) pollutant.

  3. Homoepitaxial Boron Doped Diamond Anvils as Heating Elements in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jeffrey; Samudrala, Gopi; Smith, Spencer; Tsoi, Georgiy; Vohra, Yogesh; Weir, Samuel

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in designer-diamond technology have allowed for the use of electrically and thermally conducting homoepitaxially-grown layers of boron-doped diamond (grown at 1200 °C with a 2% mixture of CH4 in H, resulting in extremely high doping levels ~ 1020/cm3) to be used as heating elements in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). These diamonds allow for precise control of the temperature inside of the diamond anvil itself, particularly when coupled with a cryostat. Furthermore, the unmatched thermally conducting nature of diamond ensures that no significant lateral gradient in temperature occurs across the culet area. Since a thermocouple can easily be attached anywhere on the diamond surface, we can also measure diamond temperatures directly. With two such heaters, one can raise sample temperatures uniformly, or with any desired gradient along the pressure axis while preserving optical access. In our continuing set of benchmark experiments, we use two newly created matching heater anvils with 500 μm culets to analyze the various fluorescence emission lines of ruby microspheres, which show more complicated behavior than traditional ruby chips. We also report on the temperature dependence of the high-pressure Raman modes of paracetamol (C8H9NO2) up to 20 GPa.

  4. Sulfur doping effects on the electronic and geometric structures of graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst: insights from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolbov, Sergey; Zuluaga, Sebastian

    2013-02-01

    We present here results of our first-principles studies of the sulfur doping effects on the electronic and geometric structures of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). Using the ab initio thermodynamics approach combined with some kinetic analysis, we reveal the favorable S-doping configurations. By analyzing the valence charge densities of the doped and undoped systems, we find that sulfur partially donates its px- and py- electrons to the system with some back donation to the S pz-states. To obtain an accurate description of the excited electronic states, we calculate the electronic structure of the systems using the GW method. The band gap width calculated for g-C3N4 is found to be equal to 2.7 eV, which is in agreement with experiment. We find the S doping causes a significant narrowing of the gap. Furthermore, the electronic states just above the gap become occupied upon doping, making the material a conductor. Analysis of the projected local density of states provides an insight into the mechanism underlying such changes in the electronic structure of g-C3N4 upon S doping. Based on our results, we propose a possible explanation for the S-doping effect on the photocatalytic properties of g-C3N4 observed in experiments.

  5. Influence of boron concentration on growth characteristic and electro-catalytic performance of boron-doped diamond electrodes prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yujie; Lv, Jiangwei; Liu, Junfeng; Gao, Na; Peng, Hongyan; Chen, Yuqiang

    2011-02-01

    A series of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition (DC-PCVD) with different compositions of CH4/H2/B(OCH3)3 gas mixture. A maximum growth rate of 0.65 mg cm-2 h-1 was obtained with CH4/H2/B(OCH3)3 radio of 4/190/10 and this growth condition was also a turning point for discharge plasma stability which arose from the addition of B(OCH3)3 that changed electron energy distribution and influenced the plasma reaction. The surface coating structure and electro-catalytic performance of the BDD electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Hall test, and electrochemical measurement and electro-catalytic oxidation in phenol solution. It is suggested that the boron doping level and the thermal stress in the films are the main factors affecting the electro-catalytic characteristics of the electrodes. Low boron doping level with CH4/H2/B(OCH3)3 ratio of 4/199/1 decreased the films electrical conductivity and its electro-catalytic activity. When the carrier concentration in the films reached around 1020 cm-3 with CH4/H2/B(OCH3)3 ratio over a range of 4/195/5-4/185/15, the thermal stress in the films was the key reason that influenced the electro-catalytic activity of the electrodes for its effect on diamond lattice expansion. Therefore, the BDD electrode with modest CH4/H2/B(OCH3)3 ratio of 4/190/10 possessed the best phenol removal efficiency.

  6. Binary and ternary doping of nitrogen, boron, and phosphorus into carbon for enhancing electrochemical oxygen reduction activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Hyuck; Park, Sung Hyeon; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2012-08-28

    N-doped carbon, a promising alternative to Pt catalyst for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) in acidic media, is modified in order to increase its catalytic activity through the additional doping of B and P at the carbon growth step. This additional doping alters the electrical, physical, and morphological properties of the carbon. The B-doping reinforces the sp(2)-structure of graphite and increases the portion of pyridinic-N sites in the carbon lattice, whereas P-doping enhances the charge delocalization of the carbon atoms and produces carbon structures with many edge sites. These electrical and physical alternations of the N-doped carbon are more favorable for the reduction of the oxygen on the carbon surface. Compared with N-doped carbon, B,N-doped or P,N-doped carbon shows 1.2 or 2.1 times higher ORR activity at 0.6 V (vs RHE) in acidic media. The most active catalyst in the reaction is the ternary-doped carbon (B,P,N-doped carbon), which records -6.0 mA/mg of mass activity at 0.6 V (vs RHE), and it is 2.3 times higher than that of the N-doped carbon. These results imply that the binary or ternary doping of B and P with N into carbon induces remarkable performance enhancements, and the charge delocalization of the carbon atoms or number of edge sites of the carbon is a significant factor in deciding the oxygen reduction activity in carbon-based catalysts. PMID:22769428

  7. Hard magnetic property enhancement of Co7Hf-based ribbons by boron doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. W.; Liao, M. C.; Shih, C. W.; Chang, W. C.; Yang, C. C.; Hsiao, C. H.; Ouyang, H.

    2014-11-01

    Hard magnetic property enhancement of melt spun Co88Hf12 ribbons by boron doping is demonstrated. B-doping could not only remarkably enhance the magnetic properties from energy product ((BH)max) of 2.6 MGOe and intrinsic coercivity (iHc) of 1.5 kOe for B-free Co88Hf12 ribbons to (BH)max = 7.7 MGOe and iHc = 3.1 kOe for Co85Hf12B3 ribbons but also improve the Curie temperature (TC) of 7:1 phase. The (BH)max value achieved in Co85Hf12B3 ribbons is the highest in Co-Hf alloy ribbons ever reported, which is about 15% higher than that of Co11Hf2B ribbons spun at 16 m/s [M. A. McGuire, O. Rios, N. J. Ghimire, and M. Koehler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 202401 (2012)]. The structural analysis confirms that B enters the orthorhombic Co7Hf (7:1) crystal structure as interstitial atoms, forming Co7HfBx, in the as-spun state. Yet B may diffuse out from the 7:1 phase after post-annealing, leading to the reduction of Curie temperature and the magnetic properties. The uniformly refined microstructure with B-doping results in high remanence (Br) and improves the squareness of demagnetization curve. The formation of interstitial-atom-modified Co7HfBx phase and the microstructure refinement are the main reasons to give rise to the enhancement of hard magnetic properties in the B-containing Co7Hf-based ribbons.

  8. Osmium Atoms and Os2 Molecules Move Faster on Selenium-Doped Compared to Sulfur-Doped Boronic Graphenic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We deposited Os atoms on S- and Se-doped boronic graphenic surfaces by electron bombardment of micelles containing 16e complexes [Os(p-cymene)(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecarborane-1,2-diselenate/dithiolate)] encapsulated in a triblock copolymer. The surfaces were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and electron energy loss spectroscopy of energy filtered TEM (EFTEM). Os atoms moved ca. 26 faster on the B/Se surface compared to the B/S surface (233 34 pms1versus 8.9 1.9 pms1). Os atoms formed dimers with an average OsOs distance of 0.284 0.077 nm on the B/Se surface and 0.243 0.059 nm on B/S, close to that in metallic Os. The Os2 molecules moved 0.83 and 0.65 more slowly than single Os atoms on B/S and B/Se surfaces, respectively, and again markedly faster (ca. 20) on the B/Se surface (151 45 pms1 versus 7.4 2.8 pms1). Os atom motion did not follow Brownian motion and appears to involve anchoring sites, probably S and Se atoms. The ability to control the atomic motion of metal atoms and molecules on surfaces has potential for exploitation in nanodevices of the future. PMID:26525180

  9. A first principles study of pristine and Al-doped boron nitride nanotubes interacting with platinum-based anticancer drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerzadeh, Ehsan; Noorizadeh, Siamak

    2014-03-01

    Interaction of cis-platin and neda-platin, two conventional platinum-based anticancer drugs, with pristine [8,8] and Al-doped [8,0] boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The obtained results indicate that cis-platin and neda-platin weakly interact with pristine zig zag or armchair BNNTs with a little dependency on the adsorbing positions; while both cis-platin and neda-platin are preferentially adsorbed onto the Al atom of the Al-doped BNNT with considerable adsorption energies. Therefore the Al-doped-BNNT might be an efficient carrier for delivery of these drugs in nanomedicine domain. The electronic structures of the stable configurations are also investigated through both DOS and PDOS spectra. The obtained results introduce the Al-doped-BNNT as an efficient carrier for delivery of cis-platin and neda-platin in nanomedicine domain.

  10. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  11. Highly-dispersed Boron-doped Graphene Nanosheets Loaded with TiO2 Nanoparticles for Enhancing CO2 Photoreduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Mingyang; Shen, Fan; Qiu, Bocheng; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-09-01

    Boron doped graphene nanosheets (B-GR) as a p-type semiconductor, provides much more edges to facilitate the loading of TiO2 nanoparticles (P25). Highly-dispersed P25/B-GR nanosheets with the size of 20-50 nm, are successfully synthesized by the vacuum activation and ultraphonic method. The nanosized morphology can decrease the local density of defects which are induced by the boron substitutional doping, and make the B-GR keeping excellent conductivity and p-type transport property. Ti-O-C bonds are formed during the mixing process, which could efficiently transfer the electrons from TiO2 to B-GR and the holes from B-GR to TiO2. The tunable bandgap of B-GR determines the large potential application of P25/B-GR in the photoreduction of CO2 and other gaseous organic pollutants.

  12. Boron/nitrogen co-doped helically unzipped multiwalled carbon nanotubes as efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Zehtab Yazdi, Alireza; Fei, Huilong; Ye, Ruquan; Wang, Gunuk; Tour, James; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-04-15

    Bamboo structured nitrogen doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been helically unzipped, and nitrogen doped graphene oxide nanoribbons (CNx-GONRs) with a multifaceted microstructure have been obtained. CNx-GONRs have then been codoped with nitrogen and boron by simultaneous thermal annealing in ammonia and boron oxide atmospheres, respectively. The effects of the codoping time and temperature on the concentration of the dopants and their functional groups have been extensively investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that pyridinic and BC3 are the main nitrogen and boron functional groups, respectively, in the codoped samples. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) properties of the samples have been measured in an alkaline electrolyte and compared with the state-of-the-art Pt/C (20%) electrocatalyst. The results show that the nitrogen/boron codoped graphene nanoribbons with helically unzipped structures (CNx/CBx-GNRs) can compete with the Pt/C (20%) electrocatalyst in all of the key ORR properties: onset potential, exchange current density, four electron pathway selectivity, kinetic current density, and stability. The development of such graphene nanoribbon-based electrocatalyst could be a harbinger of precious metal-free carbon-based nanomaterials for ORR applications. PMID:25793636

  13. Feedback-amplified electrochemical dual-plate boron-doped diamond microtrench detector for flow injection analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Grace E M; Gross, Andrew J; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Lubben, Anneke T; Marken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical flow cell with a boron-doped diamond dual-plate microtrench electrode has been developed and demonstrated for hydroquinone flow injection electroanalysis in phosphate buffer pH 7. Using the electrochemical generator-collector feedback detector improves the sensitivity by one order of magnitude (when compared to a single working electrode detector). The diffusion process is switched from an analyte consuming external process to an analyte regenerating internal process with benefits in selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:25735831

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of the deep electrochemical oxidation of sodium diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenyapina, M. D.; Borisova, D. A.; Rosenwinkel, K.-H.; Weichgrebe, D.; Stopp, P.; Vedenyapin, A. A.

    2013-08-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the deep oxidation of sodium diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode are studied to develop a technique for purifying wastewater from pharmaceutical products. The products of sodium diclofenac electrolysis are analyzed using cyclic voltammetry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. It is shown that the toxicity of the drug and products of its electrolysis decreases upon its deep oxidation.

  15. Cathodic reductive coupling of methyl cinnamate on boron-doped diamond electrodes and synthesis of new neolignan-type products

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Taiki; Obata, Rika; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The electroreduction reaction of methyl cinnamate on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was investigated. The hydrodimer, dimethyl 3,4-diphenylhexanedioate (racemate/meso = 74:26), was obtained in 85% yield as the major product, along with small amounts of cyclic methyl 5-oxo-2,3-diphenylcyclopentane-1-carboxylate. Two new neolignan-type products were synthesized from the hydrodimer. PMID:25815070

  16. Cathodic reductive coupling of methyl cinnamate on boron-doped diamond electrodes and synthesis of new neolignan-type products.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Taiki; Obata, Rika; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Einaga, Yasuaki; Nishiyama, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The electroreduction reaction of methyl cinnamate on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was investigated. The hydrodimer, dimethyl 3,4-diphenylhexanedioate (racemate/meso = 74:26), was obtained in 85% yield as the major product, along with small amounts of cyclic methyl 5-oxo-2,3-diphenylcyclopentane-1-carboxylate. Two new neolignan-type products were synthesized from the hydrodimer. PMID:25815070

  17. Feedback-amplified electrochemical dual-plate boron-doped diamond microtrench detector for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Grace E M; Gross, Andrew J; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Lubben, Anneke T; Marken, Frank

    2015-08-01

    An electrochemical flow cell with a boron-doped diamond dual-plate microtrench electrode has been developed and demonstrated for hydroquinone flow injection electroanalysis in phosphate buffer pH 7. Using the electrochemical generator-collector feedback detector improves the sensitivity by one order of magnitude (when compared to a single working electrode detector). The diffusion process is switched from an analyte consuming "external" process to an analyte regenerating "internal" process with benefits in selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:25735831

  18. In vivo biocompatibility of boron doped and nitrogen included conductive-diamond for use in medical implants.

    PubMed

    Garrett, David J; Saunders, Alexia L; McGowan, Ceara; Specks, Joscha; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Meffin, Hamish; Williams, Richard A; Nayagam, David A X

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been interest in investigating diamond as a material for use in biomedical implants. Diamond can be rendered electrically conducting by doping with boron or nitrogen. This has led to inclusion of boron doped and nitrogen included diamond elements as electrodes and/or feedthroughs for medical implants. As these conductive device elements are not encapsulated, there is a need to establish their clinical safety for use in implants. This article compares the biocompatibility of electrically conducting boron doped diamond (BDD) and nitrogen included diamond films and electrically insulating poly crystalline diamond films against a silicone negative control and a BDD sample treated with stannous octoate as a positive control. Samples were surgically implanted into the back muscle of a guinea pig for a period of 4-15 weeks, excised and the implant site sectioned and submitted for histological analysis. All forms of diamond exhibited a similar or lower thickness of fibrotic tissue encapsulating compared to the silicone negative control samples. All forms of diamond exhibited similar or lower levels of acute, chronic inflammatory, and foreign body responses compared to the silicone negative control indicating that the materials are well tolerated in vivo. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 19-26, 2016. PMID:25611731

  19. Low temperature boron and phosphorous doped SiGe for recessed and raised sources and drains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J. M.; Py, M.; Barnes, J. P.; Prévitali, B.; Batude, P.; Billon, T.

    2011-07-01

    We have first of all studied the growth kinetics of boron and phosphorous doped, 20-30 nm thick Si 0.65Ge 0.35 layers, the aim being their integration in recessed and raised sources and drains. Those layers have been grown at low pressure (20 Torr) and low temperature (650 °C) with a heavily chlorinated chemistry (in order to be selective versus SiO 2 (isolation) and Si 3N 4 (sidewall spacers)). We have quantified the impact of the diborane and phosphine flow on (i) the SiGe crystalline quality and strain state, (ii) the amount of boron or phosphorous atoms incorporated in it and (iii) the SiGe:B or SiGe:P growth kinetics. As the diborane flow increases, the SiGe:B growth rate definitely increases, while the real Ge concentration (from Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry) is more or less steady. B atoms, being much smaller than Si or Ge, partially compensate the compressive strain in the SiGe:B layers, leading to a decrease in the apparent Ge concentration (from X-ray diffraction). Opposite trends are observed for SiGe:P. There is indeed a definite decrease in the SiGe:P growth rate together with a definite increase in both the apparent and real Ge concentration as the phosphine flow increases. The Boron atomic concentration increases linearly with the diborane flow, with however a practical limit around 3.5×10 20 cm -3 in order to stay monocrystalline. Meanwhile, the phosphorous atomic concentration saturates quite rapidly at values close to 8-9×10 19 cm -3 as the phosphine flow increases (most likely due to surface segregation). In the second part we have highlighted some of the difficulties encountered when trying to selectively grow intrinsic SiGe raised S/Ds at 650 °C on patterned, extra-thin Silicon-On-Insulator wafers and some of the solutions identified in order to obtain 2D thick films. Amongst those, we can mention the 750 °C deposition of a thin Si buffer or the in-situ high HCl partial pressure etch at 650 °C of a few nm of Si prior to SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth (SEG), the drastic reduction of the incoming HCl flow during SiGe SEG, etc.

  20. Determination of trace impurities in boron nitride by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using solid sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, P.; Hassler, J.; Kudrik, I.; Krivan, V.

    2007-09-01

    Two digestion-free methods for trace analysis of boron nitride based on graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma spectrometry optical emission (ETV-ICP-OES) using direct solid sampling have been developed and applied to the determination of Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr in four boron nitride materials in concentration intervals of 1-23, 54-735, 0.05-21, 0.005-1.3, 1.6-112, 4.5-20, 0.03-1.8, 6-46, 38-170 and 0.4-2.3 μg g - 1 , respectively. At optimized experimental conditions, with both methods, effective in-situ analyte/matrix separation was achieved and calibration could be performed using calibration curves measured with aqueous standard solutions. In solid sampling GFAAS, before sampling, the platform was covered with graphite powder and, for determination of Si, also the Pd/Mg(NO 3) 2 modifier was used. In the determination of all analyte elements by solid sampling ETV-ICP-OES, Freon R12 was added to argon carrier gas. For solid sampling GFAAS and ETV-ICP-OES, the achievable limits of detection were within 5 (Cu)-130 (Si) ng g - 1 and 8 (Cu)-200 (Si) ng g - 1 , respectively. The results obtained by these two methods for four boron nitride materials of different purity grades are compared each with the other and with those obtained in analysis of digests by ICP-OES. The performance of the two solid sampling methods is compared and discussed.

  1. Boron doped nanostructure ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, Seniye; Ozbas, Omer

    2015-02-01

    ZnO is an II-VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Doped with group III elements (B, Al or Ga), it becomes an attractive candidate to replace tin oxide (SnO2) or indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cell devices and flat panel display due to competitive electrical and optical properties. In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) films have been deposited onto glass substrates at 350 ± 5 °C by a cost-efficient ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanostructure undoped and ZnO:B films have been investigated. Electrical resistivity of films has been analyzed by four-probe technique. Optical properties and thicknesses of the films have been examined in the wavelength range 1200-1600 nm by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. The optical constants (refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)) and the thicknesses of the films have been fitted according to Cauchy model. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Transmission spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer. It is found that both ZnO and ZnO:B films have high average optical transmission (≥80%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the obtained ZnO has a hexagonal wurtzite type structure. The morphological properties of the films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the nanostructure films is found to depend on the concentration of B. As a result, ZnO:B films are promising contender for their potential use as transparent window layer and electrodes in solar cells.

  2. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li+Cl–), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li+Cl– catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  3. Preparation and Characterization of P-Type and N-Type Doped Expanded Graphite Polymer Composites for Thermoelectric Applications.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Reza; Choi, Pyung Ho; Park, Hyoung Sun; Choi, Byoung Deog

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that expanded graphite can be sufficiently dispersed in polymer solution to form suspensions. Thin composite films were prepared by casting and drying the suspensions. The thermoelectric properties of expanded graphite (ExG)-polymer composites were easily modified by chemical doping. Electrically and thermally insulating polymers of PC, PS, and PMMA served as matrix materials. ExG composite films in PC, PMMA, and PS were prepared using thionyl chloride as the p-type dopant and PEI as the n-type dopant. By comparing the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient values of the composite films, we observed that use of an electron acceptor material (thionyl chloride) in composites enhanced electrical conductivity and reduced the value of the positive Seebeck coefficient, which are p-type doping effects. In contrast, when the donor material PEI was used, there was an increase in electrical conductivity and changes in the value and sign of the Seebeck coefficient from positive to negative, confirming n-type doping. PMID:26726653

  4. Optical and electrical properties of ultrathin transparent nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobaszek, M.; Skowro?ski, ?.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Siuzdak, K.; Cirocka, A.; Zi?ba, P.; Gnyba, M.; Naparty, M.; Go?u?ski, ?.; P?otka, P.

    2015-04-01

    The optical properties of ultrathin (less than 100 nm) boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) film were investigated in a wavelength range of 200-20,000 nm. The B-NCD refractive index showed values close to that of monocrystalline diamond (n = 2.45) in a broad wavelength range (450-4000 nm). A transmittance up to 70% and the average film thickness of 70 nm were achieved. A special cone-shaped shim was used in the deposition process. Ultrathin nanocrystalline films were deposited on silicon substrates using the Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (MW PA CVD) method. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements in aqueous media consisting of 5 mM K3[Fe(CN)6] in 0.1 M Na2SO4 demonstrated a width of the electrochemical window up to 2.5 V. The evolution of the surface morphology was analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The chemical composition of B-NCD films was examined with micro-Raman Spectroscopy. The Raman spectra included a diamond peak and a nanocrystalline diamond band at 1330-1333 cm-1 and 1126-1143 cm-1, respectively. The thickness and optical properties of ultrathin B-NCD film in UV-MIR wavelength range were investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  5. Comparison of electrocatalytic characterization of boron-doped diamond and SnO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiangwei; Feng, Yujie; Liu, Junfeng; Qu, Youpeng; Cui, Fuyi

    2013-10-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) and SnO2 electrodes were prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition (DC-PCVD) and sol-gel method, respectively. Electrochemical characterization of the two electrodes were investigated by phenol electrochemical degradation, accelerated service life test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) in phenol solution, polarization curves in H2SO4. The surface morphology and crystal structure of two electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed a considerable difference between the two electrodes in their electrocatalytic activity, electrochemical stability and surface properties. Phenol was readily mineralized to CO2 at BDD electrode, favoring electrochemical combustion, but its degradation was much slower at SnO2 electrode. The service life of BDD electrode was 10 times longer than that of SnO2. Higher electrocatalytic activity and electrochemical stability of BDD electrode arise from its high oxygen evolution potential and the physically absorbed hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on electrode surface.

  6. Anodic oxidation of textile wastewaters on boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Abdessamad, NourElHouda; Akrout, Hanene; Bousselmi, Latifa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential application of the anodic oxidation (AO) on two electrolytic cells (monopolar (Cell 1) and bipolar (Cell 2)) containing boron-doped diamond electrodes on the treatment of real textile effluents to study the reuse possibility of treated wastewater in the textile industry process. AO is applied in the flocculation coagulation pretreatment of both upstream (BH) and downstream (BS) effluents. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) results show that the final COD removal obtained for the BH effluent in the case of Cell 1 and Cell 2 is 800 and 150?mg O?L? after 5 and 6?h of electrolysis, respectively. The treatments of the BS effluent allow for obtaining a final COD of 76?mg?L? for Cell 1 and a total mineralization for Cell 2. The obtained results demonstrate that the apparent mineralization kinetics of both effluents when using Cell 2 are about four times faster than the one obtained by Cell 1 and highlight the important contribution of the bipolar cell. Besides, the energy consumption values show that the treatment of the BH effluent by Cell 1 consumes 865?kWh?kg?COD? against 411?kWh?kg?COD(-1) by Cell 2. Therefore, the use of Cell 2 decreases the energy cost by 2.1-6.65 times when compared to Cell 1 in the case of the BH and BS effluent treatment, respectively. PMID:26020517

  7. Energy consumption of electrooxidation systems with boron-doped diamond electrodes in the pulse current mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-jun; Gao, Xu-hui; Hei, Li-fu; Askari, Jawaid; Li, Cheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A pulse current technique was conducted in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system for electrochemical wastewater treatment. Due to the strong generation and weak absorption of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface, the BDD electrode possesses a powerful capability of electrochemical oxidation of organic compounds, especially in the pulse current mode. The influences of pulse current parameters such as current density, pulse duty cycle, and frequency were investigated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, average current efficiency, and specific energy consumption. The results demonstrated that the relatively high COD removal and low specific energy consumption were obtained simultaneously only if the current density or pulse duty cycle was adjusted to a reasonable value. Increasing the frequency slightly enhanced the COD removal and average current efficiency. A pulse-BDD anode system showed a stronger energy saving ability than a constant-BDD anode system when the electrochemical oxidation of phenol of the two systems was compared. The results prove that the pulse current technique is more cost-effective and more suitable for a BDD anode system for real wastewater treatment. A kinetic analysis was presented to explain the above results.

  8. Rapid Electroanalytical Method for Determination of Nebivolol at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode.

    PubMed

    Nigovi?, Biljana; Mornar, Ana; Zavrki, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A boron-doped diamond electrode provided a sensitive and cost-effective sensing platform for detection and quantitative determination of novel beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist nebivolol. The net square-wave voltammetric response at 1.31 V related to the oxidation of nebivolol was obtained in Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 8. It increased linearly with the drug concentration in the range of 2.510(-7) to 1.510(-5) M. The LOD attained was 3.210(-8) M. The practical analytical approach was illustrated by high speed quantification of nebivolol in a commercial pharmaceutical formulation. The RP-HPLC was selected as a comparative method for evaluating the proposed electroanalytical method. The newly developed method at the unmodified electrode surface was faster and simpler in comparison with HPLC (the retention time was 17.6 min), and only 6 s was necessary for direct voltammetric measurement in the potential range from 0.5 to 1.7 V with a 2 mV potential step and pulse frequency of 100 Hz. PMID:26651565

  9. TDAB-induced DNA plasmid condensation on the surface of a reconstructed boron doped silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougin, Antoine; Babak, Valry G.; Palmino, Frank; Bche, Eric; Baros, Francis; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Lon; Fromm, Michel

    Our study aims at a better control and understanding of the transfer of a complex [DNA supercoiled plasmid - dodecyltrimethylammonium surfactant] layer from a liquid-vapour water interface onto a silicon surface without any additional cross-linker. The production of the complexed layer and its transfer from the aqueous subphase to the substrate is achieved with a Langmuir-Blodgett device. The substrate consists of a reconstructed boron doped silicon substrate with a nanometer-scale roughness. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements, it is shown that the DNA complexes are stretched in a disorderly manner throughout a 2-4 nm high net-like structure. This architecture is composed of tilted cationic surfactant molecules bound electrostatically to DNA, which exhibits a characteristic network arrangement with a measured average fiber diameter of about 45 15 nm covering the entire surface. The mechanism of transfer of this layer onto the planar surface of the semi-conductor and the parameters of the process are analysed and illustrated by atomic force microscopy snapshots. The molecular layer exhibits the typical characteristics of a spinodal decomposition pattern or dewetting features. Plasmid molecules appear like long flattened fibers covering the surface, forming holes of various shapes and areas. The cluster-cluster aggregation of the complex structure gets very much denser on the substrate edge. The supercoiled DNA plasmids undergo conformational changes and a high degree of condensation and aggregation is observed. Perspectives and potential applications are considered.

  10. Preparation of boron doped silicon films for its application in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chao; Wang, Xiang; Guo, Yanqing; Song, Jie; Huang, Rui

    2015-08-01

    Boron-doped a-Si:H thin films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. As-deposited samples were thermally annealed at different temperatures from 450 C to 1000 C. The microstructures and electrical properties have been evaluated for the amorphous and nano-crystalline structures. It was found that thermal annealing can efficiently activate the dopant in films accompanying with formation of nc-Si grains. During the transition process from amorphous to nano-crystalline structures, the room temperature dark conductivity is increased from 6.610-4 S cm-1 to 2.8102 S cm-1. Based on the properties of p-type silicon films, the P-N junction solar cells were prepared on n-type nc-Si substrate. It was shown that the conversion efficiency is increased monotonously as increasing the annealing temperature. Form the results, it can be implied that the solar cells with higher conversion efficiency can be obtained by using the method of thermal annealing.

  11. Boron-doped diamond anodic treatment of olive mill wastewaters: statistical analysis, kinetic modeling and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Xekoukoulotakis, Nikolaos P; Diamadopoulos, Evan; Katsaounis, Alexandros; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2009-09-01

    The electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) over boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes was investigated. A factorial design methodology was implemented to evaluate the statistically important operating parameters, amongst initial COD load (1000-5000 mg/L), treatment time (1-4h), current intensity (10-20A), initial pH (4-6) and the use of 500 mg/L H(2)O(2) as an additional oxidant, on treatment efficiency; the latter was assessed in terms of COD, phenols, aromatics and color removal. Of the five parameters tested, the first two had a considerable effect on COD removal. Hence, analysis was repeated at more intense conditions, i.e. initial COD values up to 10,000 mg/L and reaction times up to 7h and a simple model was developed and validated to predict COD evolution profiles. The model suggests that the rate of COD degradation is zero order regarding its concentration and agrees well with an electrochemical model for the anodic oxidation of organics over BDD developed elsewhere. The treatability of the undiluted effluent (40,000 mg/L COD) was tested at 20A for 15h yielding 19% COD and 36% phenols' removal respectively with a specific energy consumption of 96 kWh/kg COD removed. Aerobic biodegradability and ecotoxicity assays were also performed to assess the respective effects of electrochemical treatment. PMID:19423147

  12. Microfluidic platform for environmental contaminants sensing and degradation based on boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Medina-Snchez, Mariana; Mayorga-Martinez, CarmenC; Watanabe, Takeshi; Ivandini, TribidasariA; Honda, Yuki; Pino, Flavio; Nakata, Kazuya; Fujishima, Akira; Einaga, Yasuaki; Merkoi, Arben

    2016-01-15

    We have developed a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for electrochemical detection and degradation of the pesticide atrazine (Atz). It is based on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes and a competitive magneto-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that enables high sensitivity. To detect the enzymatic reaction, we employed a BDD electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs), as a highly conductive catalytic transducer. Chronoamperometry revealed a limit of detection (LOD) of 3.5 pM for atrazine, which, to the best of our knowledge, is one of the lowest value published to date. Finally, we degraded Atz in the same platform, using a bare BDD electrode that features remarkable corrosion stability, a wide potential window, and much higher O2 overvoltage as compared to conventional electrodes. These characteristics enable the electrode to produce a greater amount of HO on the anode surface than do conventional electrodes and consequently, to destroy the pollutant more rapidly. Our new LOC platform might prove interesting as a smart system for detection and remediation of diverse pesticides and other contaminants. PMID:26339934

  13. Electrochemical treatment of cork boiling wastewater with a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Annabel; Santos, Diana; Pacheco, Maria José; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Simões, Rogério; Gomes, Arlindo C; Lopes, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anodic oxidation at a boron-doped diamond anode of cork boiling wastewater was successfully used for mineralization and biodegradability enhancement required for effluent discharge or subsequent biological treatment, respectively. The influence of the applied current density (30-70 mA/cm2) and the background electrolyte concentration (0-1.5 g/L Na2SO4) on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. The supporting electrolyte was required to achieve conductivities that enabled anodic oxidation at the highest current intensities applied. The results indicated that pollutant removal increased with the applied current density, and after 8 h, reductions greater than 90% were achieved for COD, dissolved organic carbon, total phenols and colour. The biodegradability enhancement was from 0.13 to 0.59 and from 0.23 to 0.72 for the BOD/COD ratios with BOD of 5 and 20 days' incubation period, respectively. The tests without added electrolyte were performed at lower applied electrical charges (15 mA/cm2 or 30 V) with good organic load removal (up to 80%). For an applied current density of 30 mA/cm2, there was a minimum of electric conductivity of 1.9 mS/cm (corresponding to 0.75 g/L of Na2SO4), which minimized the specific energy consumption. PMID:25409580

  14. Bioelectrochemical degradation of urea at platinized boron doped diamond electrodes for bioregenerative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, Eduardo; Gonzlez-Gonzlez, Ileana; Flynn, Michael; Griebenow, Kai; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2009-10-01

    The recovery of potable water from space mission wastewater is critical for the life support and environmental health of crew members in long-term missions. NASA estimates reveal that at manned space missions 1.91 kg/person day of urine is produced, with urea and various salts as its main components. In this research we explore the utilization of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, 15,000 U/g) along with a platinized boron doped diamond electrode (Pt-BDD) to degrade urea. Urea is directly degraded to nitrogen by the in situ utilization of the reaction products as a strategy to increase the amount of clean water in future space expeditions. The biochemical reaction of urease produces ammonia and carbon dioxide from urea. Thereafter, ammonia is electrooxidized at the interface of the Pt-BDD producing molecular nitrogen. The herein presented system has been proven to have 20% urea conversion efficiency. This research has potential applications for future long-term space missions since the reaction byproducts could be used for a biomass subsystem (in situ resource recovery), while generating electricity from the same process.

  15. Simultaneous hydrogen production and electrochemical oxidation of organics using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juyuan; Chang, Ming; Pan, Peng

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents advantages of using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for hydrogen production and wastewater treatment in a single electrochemical cell. Results indicated that the BDD electrode possessed the widest known electrochemical window, allowing new possibilities for both anodic and cathodic reactions to simultaneously take place. The BDD electrode exhibited high anodic potential, generating high oxidation state radicals that facilitated oxidation of toxic waste organic compounds such as 4-nitrophenols. In contrast, because of widening of potential windows, the rate of hydrogen evolution at the cathode was significantly increased. Time-on-stream concentrations of reaction intermediates were monitored to elucidate mechanism involved in 4-nitrophenol oxidation. Spalling, fouling, or reduction in the thickness of thin-film diamond coating was not observed. Overall, the BDD electrode exhibits unique properties including chemical inertness, anticorrosion, and extended service life. These properties are especially important in wastewater treatment. Economic advantages were attributed to the low cost and long duration BDD electrode and the valuable hydrogen byproduct produced. Analysis has shown that technology associated with the BDD electrode could be effectively implemented with minimum energy input and capital requirements. When combined with solar energy and fuel cells, electrochemical wastewater processing can become energy efficient and cost-effective. PMID:18497166

  16. Crystallinity, morphology, and conductivity of boron-doped microcrystal-line silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rajeswaran, G.; Tafto, J.; Sabatini, R.L.; Vanier, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Boron-doped microcrystalline (..mu..c) silicon films produced by rf glow discharge from dilute (1%) mixtures of SiH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ show a critical dependence of conductivity on deposition conditions. The dark conductivity was related to the microscopic features using electron microscopy. The ..mu..c-Si:H films contain clusters of crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix. The size of the crystalline clusters is typically 0.2 ..mu..m in diameter, and the size of the individual crystallites is about 2.5 nm. Electron micrographs of samples prepared at substrate temperatures T/sub s/ = 135/sup 0/C, 150/sup 0/C, 165/sup 0/C, and 180/sup 0/C show that the number of crystalline clusters increases with T/sub s/ up to 165/sup 0/C. At T/sub s/ = 180/sup 0/C, the crystallites completely disappear. When the concentration of SiH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ is decreased to 0.25%, the microstructure shows a high density of crystallites with no apparent clustering. 6 references, 7 figures.

  17. Effect of ultraviolet light exposure to boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungsin; Iftiquar, S. M.; Jang, Juyeon; Lee, Sunhwa; Kim, Minbum; Jung, Junhee; Park, Hyeongsik; Park, Jinjoo; Kim, Youngkuk; Shin, Chonghoon; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2012-11-01

    We have investigated the effect of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure to boron doped (p-type) hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (p-a-SiO:H) thin semiconductor films by measuring changes in its structural, electrical and optical properties. After a 50 h of UV light soaking (LS) of the films, that have 1.2, 6.9, 15.2, 25.3 at.% oxygen content (C(O)) and optical gap (E04) of 1.897, 2.080, 2.146 and 2.033 eV, show a relative increase in the C(O) by 28.0%, 9.8%, 2.0%, 3.1%, a relative increase in the Urbach energy (Eu) by 42%, 24%, 8%, 0%, decrease in the E04 by 66, 2, 12, 19 meV and the gap state defect density (Nd) show an increase by 6.5%, 3.4%, 0.7%, 0.1%. At higher oxygen content the observed UV light induced degradation (LID) is relatively less than that for films with lower oxygen content, indicating that higher oxides face less changes under the UV light.

  18. Effect of nitro substituent on electrochemical oxidation of phenols at boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Zhu, Xiuping; Li, Hongna; Ni, Jinren

    2010-02-01

    In order to investigate nitro-substitutent's effect on degradation of phenols at boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes, cyclic voltammetries of three nitrophenol isomers: 2-nitrophenol (2NP), 3-nitrophenol (3NP) and 4-nitrophenol (4NP) were studied, and their bulk electrolysis results were compared with phenol's (Ph) under alkaline condition. The voltammetric study showed nitrophenols could be attacked by hydroxyl radicals and nitro-group was released from the aromatic ring. Results of bulk electrolysis showed degradation of all phenols were fit to a pseudo first-order equation and followed in this order: 2NP>4NP>3NP>Ph. Molecular structures, especially carbon atom charge, significantly influenced the electrochemical oxidation of these isomers. Intermediates were analyzed during the electrolysis process, and were mainly catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, and carboxylic acids, such as acetic acid and oxalic acid. A simple degradation pathway was proposed. Moreover, a linear increasing relationship between degradation rates and Hammett constants of the studied phenols was observed, which demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of these phenols was mainly initiated by electrophilic attack of hydroxyl radicals at BDD anodes. PMID:20060999

  19. Anodic oxidation of textile dyehouse effluents on boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Tsantaki, Eleni; Velegraki, Theodora; Katsaounis, Alexandros; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2012-03-15

    The electrochemical oxidation of textile effluents over a boron-doped diamond anode was investigated in the present study. Experiments were conducted with a multi-component synthetic solution containing seventeen dyes and other auxiliary inorganics, as well as an actual effluent from a textile dyeing process. The effect of varying operating parameters, such as current density (4-50 mA/cm2), electrolyte concentration (0.1-0.5 M HClO4), initial solution pH (1-12.3) and temperature (22-43 C), on process efficiency was investigated following changes in total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color. Complete decolorization accompanied by significant mineralization (up to 85% depending on the conditions) could be achieved after 180 min of treatment. Performance was improved at higher electrolyte concentrations and lower pH values, while the effect of temperature was marginal. Energy consumption per unit mass of COD removed was favored at lower current densities, since energy was unnecessarily wasted to side reactions at higher densities. PMID:21530081

  20. Structural modification of boron-doped ZnO layers caused by hydrogen outgassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovics, R.; Csik, A.; Takáts, V.; Hakl, J.; Vad, K.

    2015-07-01

    Results of annealing experiments of boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) layers prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition method on polished Si, soda-lime glass for windows, and AF45 Schott alkali free thin glass substrates are presented. It is shown that short annealing of samples at 150 °C and 300 °C in air causes serious surface degradation of samples prepared on Si and soda-lime glass substrate. The characteristic feature of degradation is the creation of bubbles and craters on the sample surface which fully destroy the continuity of zinc oxide layers. The results of depth distribution mapping of elements indicate that the formation of bubbles is linked to increase in hydrogen concentration in the layer. The surface degradation was not noticed on samples deposited on AF45 Schott alkali free thin glass which has a SiO2 diffusion barrier layer on the surface, only much fewer and smaller bubbles were visible. The results indicate the important role of hydrogen outgassing from the substrate induced by a thermal shock.

  1. Electrochemical inactivation kinetics of boron-doped diamond electrode on waterborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yanyan; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Taketoshi; Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Fujishima, Akira

    2011-09-01

    A boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was constructed as a water disinfector for the inactivation of water borne pathogens. The bactericidal effect of the disinfector was evaluated on artificially contaminated waters containing, respectively, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila at high density. By treating the bacterial suspensions with 4 V of constant voltage between the BDD and the counter-electrode for 50 min, the population of E. coli and P. aeruginosa decreased from (10E + 7-8 colony-forming unit mL(-1)) to below the detection limits of the colony-formation method. Meanwhile, L. pneumophila were reduced to virtually zero when analyzed by fluorescence-based staining. The influences of production parameters (voltage, NaCl concentration and flow rate) on the disinfection kinetics of the BDD disinfector were examined with respect to operational conditions. Voltage was the most significant factor for adjusting the extent of electrolysis, followed by NaCl concentration and flow rate, to influence the disinfection efficiency. The disinfection of natural river water samples containing numerous microbes was performed for a practicability investigation of the BDD electrode. Approximately 99.99% bactericidal efficiency was confirmed by viability detection for E. coli and common germs in treated water. The results showed that the BDD electrode is a promising tool for various wastewater disinfections to combat waterborne diseases. PMID:21976200

  2. Non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of glycerol on boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Pop, Aniela; Manea, Florica; Radovan, Ciprian; Dascalu, Dana; Vaszilcsin, Nicolae; Schoonman, Joop

    2012-02-01

    A non-enzymatic direct electrochemical glycerol detection method at a commercial boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode in 0.1 M NaOH supporting electrolyte was developed. All the used electrochemical techniques proved useful features for the oxidation and direct amperometric determination of glycerol at a BDD electrode in 0.1 M NaOH aqueous solution. It was found that the direct electrooxidation of glycerol on the BDD electrode requires both adsorbed glycerol and hydroxyls at the electrode surface. Also, the sp(2) carbon did not allow enhancement of the glycerol oxidation process. The electronalytical sensitivity for the determination of glycerol at the BDD electrode ranged from 0.040 to 0.226 ?A mM(-1) as a function of the technique used. The highest electroanalytical sensitivity for the determination of glycerol at the BDD electrode was reached in batch system amperometric quantification under stirring conditions. Performed recovery studies indicated that it is possible to determine glycerol in real samples, and the proposed batch system analysis-based methodology can be a valuable tool for practical glycerol analysis. PMID:22159176

  3. Multichannel boron doped nanocrystalline diamond ultramicroelectrode arrays: design, fabrication and characterization.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Raphael; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Galle; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Bongrain, Alexandre; Yvert, Blaise; Picaud, Serge; Mailley, Pascal; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of an 8 8 multichannel Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicro-electrode array (UMEA). The device combines both the assets of microelectrodes, resulting from conditions in mass transport from the bulk solution toward the electrode, and of BDD's remarkable intrinsic electrochemical properties. The UMEAs were fabricated using an original approach relying on the selective growth of diamond over pre-processed 4 inches silicon substrates. The prepared UMEAs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrated that the electrodes have exhibited a very fast electrode transfer rate (k(0)) up to 0.05 cms(-1) (in a fast redox couple) and on average, a steady state limiting current (in a 0.5 M potassium chloride aqueous solution containing 1 mM Fe(CN)(6)(4-) ion at 100 mVs(-1)) of 1.8 nA. The UMEAs are targeted for electrophysiological as well as analytical applications. PMID:22969367

  4. Amperometric oxygen sensor based on a platinum nanoparticle-modified polycrystalline boron doped diamond disk electrode.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Laura; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2009-02-01

    Pt nanoparticle (NP)-modified polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (pBDD) disk electrodes have been fabricated and employed as amperometric sensors for the determination of dissolved oxygen concentration in aqueous solution. pBDD columns were cut using laser micromachining techniques and sealed in glass, in order to make disk electrodes which were then characterized electrochemically. Electrodeposition of Pt onto the diamond electrodes was optimized so as to give the maximum oxygen reduction peak current with the lowest background signal. Pt NPs, >0-10 nm diameter, were found to deposit randomly across the pBDD electrode, with no preference for grain boundaries. The more conductive grains were found to promote the formation of smaller nanoparticles at higher density. With the use of potential step chronoamperometry, in which the potential was stepped to a diffusion-limited value, a four electron oxygen reduction process was found to occur at the Pt NP-modified pBDD electrode. Furthermore the chronoamperometric response scaled linearly with dissolved oxygen concentration, varied by changing the oxygen/nitrogen ratio of gas flowed into solution. The sensor was used to detect dissolved oxygen concentrations with high precision over the pH range 4-10. PMID:19117391

  5. Development of electrolyte-free ozone sensors using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yuya; Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Murata, Kazutaka; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-05-01

    The electrochemical detection of dissolved ozone in water was examined using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. A well-defined reduction peak was observed at ~380 mV for H-terminated BDD, whereas it was observed at ~200 mV in the case of O-terminated BDD for an ozone solution in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The peak potential for ozone reduction was selective with respect to oxygen reduction at both H- and O-terminated BDD electrodes, whereas it occurred at approximately the same potential as oxygen reduction at other types of solid electrodes, including glassy-carbon, platinum, and gold electrodes. Interference from chlorine was not observed in lower concentration than 300 ?M ClO(-). Furthermore, in order to apply the detection technique to electrolyte-free media, BDD microelectrodes were also used. A linear calibration curve for dissolved ozone in water could be achieved between concentrations of 0.49 and 740 ?M, with an estimated detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.185 ?M (S/N = 3). Excellent stability was demonstrated for repetitions of these calibration curves performed in 3 consecutive days. PMID:23544430

  6. Electrochemical Oxidation of NADH at Highly Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rao, T N; Yagi, I; Miwa, T; Tryk, D A; Fujishima, A

    1999-07-01

    Conductive boron-doped chemical vapor-deposited diamond thin films, already known to have superior properties for general electroanalysis, including low background current and a wide potential window, are here shown to have additional advantages with respect to electrochemical oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), including high resistance to deactivation and insensitivity to dissolved oxygen. Cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and the rotating disk electrode technique were used to study the reaction in neutral pH solution. Highly reproducible cyclic voltammograms for NADH oxidation were obtained at as-deposited diamond electrodes. The response was stable over several months of storage in ambient air, in contrast to glassy carbon electrodes, which deactivated within 1 h. The diamond electrode exhibited very high sensitivity for NADH, with an amperometric detection limit of 10 nM (S/N = 7). The response remained stable, even in the very low concentration range, for several months. In addition, interference effects due to ascorbic acid were minimal when the concentrations of NADH and ascorbic acid were comparable. An NADH-mediated dehydrogenese-based ethanol biosensor incorporating an unmodified diamond electrode is demonstrated. The present results indicate that diamond is a useful electrode material for the analytical detection of NADH, making it attractive for use in sensors based on enzyme-catalyzed reactions involving NADH as a cofactor. PMID:21662795

  7. Yeast-based Biochemical Oxygen Demand Sensors Using Gold-modified Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Harmesa; Saepudin, Endang; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-01-01

    A gold nanoparticle modified boron-doped diamond electrode was developed as a transducer for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurements. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UICC Y-181 was immobilized in a sodium alginate matrix, and used as a biosensing agent. Cyclic voltammetry was applied to study the oxygen reduction reaction at the electrode, while amperometry was employed to detect oxygen, which was not consumed by the microorganisms. The optimum waiting time of 25 min was observed using 1-mm thickness of yeast film. A comparison against the system with free yeast cells shows less sensitivity of the current responses with a linear dynamic range (R(2) = 0.99) of from 0.10 mM to 0.90 mM glucose (equivalent to 10 - 90 mg/L BOD) with an estimated limit of detection of 1.90 mg/L BOD. However, a better stability of the current responses could be achieved with an RSD of 3.35%. Moreover, less influence from the presence of copper ions was observed. The results indicate that the yeast-immobilized BOD sensors is more suitable to be applied in a real condition. PMID:26179128

  8. Electrochemical detection of peroxynitrite using hemin-PEDOT functionalized boron-doped diamond microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Peteu, Serban F; Whitman, Brandon W; Galligan, James J; Swain, Greg M

    2016-02-15

    Peroxynitrite is a potent nitroxidation agent and highly reactive metabolite, clinically correlated with a rich pathophysiology. Its sensitive and selective detection is challenging due to its high reactivity and short sub-second lifetime. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrodes have attracted interest because of their outstanding electroanalytical properties that include a wide working potential window and enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Herein, we report on the modification of a BDD microelectrode with an electro-polymerized film of hemin and polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) for the purpose of selectively quantifying peroxynitrite. The nanostructured modified polymer layer was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical response to peroxynitrite was studied by voltammetry and time-based amperometry. The measured detection limit was 10 0.5 nM (S/N = 3), the sensitivity was 4.5 0.5 nA nM(-1) and the response time was 3.5 1 s. The hemin-PEDOT BDD sensors exhibited a response variability of 5% or less (RSD). The stability of the sensors after a 20-day storage in 0.1 M PB (pH 7.4) at 4 C was excellent as at least 93% of the initial response to 50 nM PON was maintained. The presence of PEDOT was correlated with a sensitivity increase. PMID:26862713

  9. Hydrogen passivation of interstitial iron in boron-doped multicrystalline silicon during annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, AnYao; Sun, Chang; Macdonald, Daniel

    2014-11-21

    Effective hydrogenation of interstitial iron in boron-doped multicrystalline silicon wafers is reported. The multicrystalline silicon wafers were annealed with plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride films, at temperatures of 400 °C – 900 °C and for times from minutes to hours. At low temperatures where a combined effect of hydrogenation and precipitation of dissolved Fe is expected, results show that the hydrogenation process dominates the effect of precipitation. The concentrations of dissolved interstitial iron reduce by more than 90% after a 30-min anneal at temperatures between 600 and 900 °C. The most effective reduction occurs at 700 °C, where 99% of the initial dissolved iron is hydrogenated after 30 min. The results show that the observed reductions in interstitial Fe concentrations are not caused by the internal gettering of Fe at structural defects or by an enhanced diffusivity of Fe due to the presence of hydrogen. The hydrogenation process is conjectured to be the pairing of positively charged iron with negatively charged hydrogen, forming less recombination active Fe-H complexes in silicon.

  10. Ordering mechanisms of periodic stripe arrays on boron-doped Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellogg, Gary; Bartelt, Norman

    2009-03-01

    We have used low energy electron microscopy to determine the factors that control the degree of order in self-assembled periodic stripe arrays on the atomically flat Si(100) with high boron doping. The stripes consist of extremely elongated vacancy islands of single atomic height, formed at ˜900C, confined in micrometer-sized pits. ``Perfect'' arrays of parallel stripes (in pits of up to ˜10um in size) were formed by allowing various defects to heal over relatively long periods of time. Sublimation was compensated for by an external Si doser, allowing observation of stripe evolution over the course of hours, with no net loss or gain of Si from the area of interest. Stripe formation and ordering mechanisms include spontaneous nucleation and growth of new islands, longitudinal splitting, as well as coarsening due to surface diffusion. Stripe periodicity depends on temperature, allowing for control of this property. Stripes are stable in a range of ˜100C, outside of which they assume the familiar shape of elongated islands, shaped by the anisotropy in step energy. Stripe order can be preserved to room temperature by quenching. References: [1] J.-F. Nielsen et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 (2001) 3857

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN FLUE GAS EMISSION USING BORON-DOPED DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Manivannan; M.S. Seehra

    2003-08-19

    In this project, we have attempted to develop a new technique utilizing Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films to electrochemically detect mercury dissolved in solution via the initial deposition of metallic mercury, followed by anodic linear sweep voltammetry in the range from 10-10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -5} M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were employed. The extremely low background current for BDD electrodes compared to glassy carbon (GC) provides a strong advantage in trace metal detection. CV peak currents showed good linearity in the micromolar range. A detection level of 6.8 x 10{sup -10} M was achieved with DPV in 0.1 M KNO{sub 3} (pH = 1) for a deposition time of 20 minutes. Reproducible stripping peaks were obtained, even for the low concentration range. A comparison with GC shows that BDD is superior. Linear behavior was also obtained in the mercury concentration range from 10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -9} M.

  12. Boron-doped diamond nano/microelectrodes for bio-sensing and in vitro measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hua; Wang, Shihua; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the fabrication of the first diamond electrode in the mid 1980s, repid progress has been made on the development and application of this new type of electrode material. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes exhibit outstanding properties compared to oxygen-containing sp2 carbon electrodes. These properties make BDD electrodes an ideal choice for use in complex samples. In recent years, BDD microelectrodes have been applied to in vitro and in vivo measurements of biological molecules in animals, tissues and cells. This review will summarize recent progress in the development and applications of BDD electrodes in bio-sensing and in vitro measurements of biomolecules. In the first section, the methods for BDD nanocrystalline diamond film deposition and BDD microelectrodes preparation are described. This is followed by a description and discussion of several approaches for characterization of the BDD electrode surface structure, morphology, and electrochemical activity. Further, application of BDD microelectrodes for use in the in vitro analysis of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), nitric oxide (NO), histamine, and adenosine from tissues are summarized and finally some of the remaining challenges are discussed. PMID:21196394

  13. Anodic voltammetry of zolmitriptan at boron-doped diamond electrode and its analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Uslu, B; Canbaz, D

    2010-04-01

    The electrooxidative behavior and determination of zolmitriptan at a boron-doped diamond electrode were investigated using cyclic, linear sweep, differential pulse and square wave voltammetric techniques. Zolmitriptan undergoes irreversible oxidation at a peak potential of about +0.9 V (vs Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl). DPV and SWV techniques are proposed for the determination of zolmitriptan in phosphate buffer at pH 3.03, which allows quantitation over the two different ranges (8 x 10(-7) - 8 x 10(-6) M and 1 x 10(-5) - 1 x 10(-4) M) in supporting electrolyte for both methods. A linear response was obtained in phosphate buffer over two different ranges (6 x 10(-7) - 8 x 10(-6) M and 1 x 10(-5) - 1 x 10(-4) M) for spiked serum samples at pH 3.03 for both techniques. The repeatability and reproducibility of the methods for all media were determined. The standard addition method was used in serum. Precision and accuracy were also checked in all media. No electroactive interferences from the excipients and endegenous substances were found in the pharmaceutical dosage form and the biological sample, respectively. PMID:20432618

  14. 3D-nanostructured boron-doped diamond for microelectrode array neural interfacing.

    PubMed

    Piret, Gaëlle; Hébert, Clément; Mazellier, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Lionel; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Cottance, Myline; Lissorgues, Gaelle; Heuschkel, Marc O; Picaud, Serge; Bergonzo, Philippe; Yvert, Blaise

    2015-06-01

    The electrode material is a key element in the design of long-term neural implants and neuroprostheses. To date, the ideal electrode material offering high longevity, biocompatibility, low-noise recording and high stimulation capabilities remains to be found. We show that 3D-nanostructured boron doped diamond (BDD), an innovative material consisting in a chemically stable material with a high aspect ratio structure obtained by encapsulation of a carbon nanotube template within two BDD nanolayers, allows neural cell attachment, survival and neurite extension. Further, we developed arrays of 20-μm-diameter 3D-nanostructured BDD microelectrodes for neural interfacing. These microelectrodes exhibited low impedances and low intrinsic recording noise levels. In particular, they allowed the detection of low amplitude (10-20 μV) local-field potentials, single units and multiunit bursts neural activity in both acute whole embryonic hindbrain-spinal cord preparations and long-term hippocampal cell cultures. Also, cyclic voltammetry measurements showed a wide potential window of about 3 V and a charge storage capacity of 10 mC.cm(-2), showing high potentiality of this material for neural stimulation. These results demonstrate the attractiveness of 3D-nanostructured BDD as a novel material for neural interfacing, with potential applications for the design of biocompatible neural implants for the exploration and rehabilitation of the nervous system. PMID:25890717

  15. Multichannel Boron Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Ultramicroelectrode Arrays: Design, Fabrication and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Raphael; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaëlle; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Bongrain, Alexandre; Yvert, Blaise; Picaud, Serge; Mailley, Pascal; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of an 8 × 8 multichannel Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicro-electrode array (UMEA). The device combines both the assets of microelectrodes, resulting from conditions in mass transport from the bulk solution toward the electrode, and of BDD's remarkable intrinsic electrochemical properties. The UMEAs were fabricated using an original approach relying on the selective growth of diamond over pre-processed 4 inches silicon substrates. The prepared UMEAs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrated that the electrodes have exhibited a very fast electrode transfer rate (k0) up to 0.05 cm·s−1 (in a fast redox couple) and on average, a steady state limiting current (in a 0.5 M potassium chloride aqueous solution containing 1 mM Fe(CN)64− ion at 100 mV·s−1) of 1.8 nA. The UMEAs are targeted for electrophysiological as well as analytical applications. PMID:22969367

  16. Simultaneous Chronoamperometric Sensing of Ascorbic Acid and Acetaminophen at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Cofan, Codru?a; Radovan, Ciprian

    2008-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) have been used to sense and determine simultaneously L-ascorbic acid (AA) and acetaminophen (AC) at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution. The calibration plots of anodic current peak versus concentration obtained from CV and CA data for both investigated compounds in single and di-component solutions over the concentration range 0.01 mM 0.1 mM proved to be linear, with very good correlation parameters. Sensitivity values and RSD of 2-3% were obtained for various situations, involving both individual and simultaneous presence of AA and AC. The chronoamperometric technique associated with standard addition in sequential one step and/or two successive and continuous chronoamperograms at two characteristic potential levels represented a feasible option for the simultaneous determination of AA and AC in real sample systems such as pharmaceutical formulations. The average values indicated by the supplier were confirmed to a very close approximation from chronoamperomgrams by using several additions with the application of suitable current correction factors.

  17. Thin layer of ordered boron-doped TiO2 nanotubes fabricated in a novel type of electrolyte and characterized by remarkably improved photoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Szkoda, Mariusz; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Karczewski, Jakub; Ryl, Jacek

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a novel method of boron doped titania nanotube arrays preparation by electrochemical anodization in electrolyte containing boron precursor - boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3 C4H10O), simultaneously acting as an anodizing agent. A pure, ordered TiO2 nanotubes array, as a reference sample, was also prepared in solution containing a standard etching compound: ammonium fluoride. The doped and pure titania were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and by means of electrochemical methods. The B-doping decidedly shifts the absorption edge of TiO2 nanotubes towards the visible light region and significantly inhibits the radiative recombination processes. Despite the fact that the doped sample is characterized by 4.6 lower real surface area when compared to pure titania, it leads to the decomposition of methylene blue in 93%, that is over 2.3 times higher than the degradation efficiency exhibited by the undoped material. The formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) upon illumination significantly favours boron doped titania as a photocatalytic material. Moreover, the simple doping of TiO2 nanotubes array results in the enhancement of generated photocurrent from 120 μA/cm2 to 350 μA/cm2 registered for undoped and doped electrode, respectively.

  18. Hard magnetic property enhancement of Co{sub 7}Hf-based ribbons by boron doping

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H. W.; Liao, M. C.; Shih, C. W.; Chang, W. C.; Yang, C. C.; Hsiao, C. H.; Ouyang, H.

    2014-11-10

    Hard magnetic property enhancement of melt spun Co{sub 88}Hf{sub 12} ribbons by boron doping is demonstrated. B-doping could not only remarkably enhance the magnetic properties from energy product ((BH){sub max}) of 2.6 MGOe and intrinsic coercivity ({sub i}H{sub c}) of 1.5 kOe for B-free Co{sub 88}Hf{sub 12} ribbons to (BH){sub max} = 7.7 MGOe and {sub i}H{sub c} = 3.1 kOe for Co{sub 85}Hf{sub 12}B{sub 3} ribbons but also improve the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of 7:1 phase. The (BH){sub max} value achieved in Co{sub 85}Hf{sub 12}B{sub 3} ribbons is the highest in Co-Hf alloy ribbons ever reported, which is about 15% higher than that of Co{sub 11}Hf{sub 2}B ribbons spun at 16 m/s [M. A. McGuire, O. Rios, N. J. Ghimire, and M. Koehler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 202401 (2012)]. The structural analysis confirms that B enters the orthorhombic Co{sub 7}Hf (7:1) crystal structure as interstitial atoms, forming Co{sub 7}HfB{sub x}, in the as-spun state. Yet B may diffuse out from the 7:1 phase after post-annealing, leading to the reduction of Curie temperature and the magnetic properties. The uniformly refined microstructure with B-doping results in high remanence (B{sub r}) and improves the squareness of demagnetization curve. The formation of interstitial-atom-modified Co{sub 7}HfB{sub x} phase and the microstructure refinement are the main reasons to give rise to the enhancement of hard magnetic properties in the B-containing Co{sub 7}Hf-based ribbons.

  19. Diamond-modified AFM probes: from diamond nanowires to atomic force microscopy-integrated boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Waldemar; Kriele, Armin; Hoffmann, Ren; Sillero, Eugenio; Hees, Jakob; Williams, Oliver A; Yang, Nianjun; Kranz, Christine; Nebel, Christoph E

    2011-06-15

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM), sharp and wear-resistant tips are a critical issue. Regarding scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), electrodes are required to be mechanically and chemically stable. Diamond is the perfect candidate for both AFM probes as well as for electrode materials if doped, due to diamond's unrivaled mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical properties. In this study, standard AFM tips were overgrown with typically 300 nm thick nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers and modified to obtain ultra sharp diamond nanowire-based AFM probes and probes that were used for combined AFM-SECM measurements based on integrated boron-doped conductive diamond electrodes. Analysis of the resonance properties of the diamond overgrown AFM cantilevers showed increasing resonance frequencies with increasing diamond coating thicknesses (i.e., from 160 to 260 kHz). The measured data were compared to performed simulations and show excellent correlation. A strong enhancement of the quality factor upon overgrowth was also observed (120 to 710). AFM tips with integrated diamond nanowires are shown to have apex radii as small as 5 nm and where fabricated by selectively etching diamond in a plasma etching process using self-organized metal nanomasks. These scanning tips showed superior imaging performance as compared to standard Si-tips or commercially available diamond-coated tips. The high imaging resolution and low tip wear are demonstrated using tapping and contact mode AFM measurements by imaging ultra hard substrates and DNA. Furthermore, AFM probes were coated with conductive boron-doped and insulating diamond layers to achieve bifunctional AFM-SECM probes. For this, focused ion beam (FIB) technology was used to expose the boron-doped diamond as a recessed electrode near the apex of the scanning tip. Such a modified probe was used to perform proof-of-concept AFM-SECM measurements. The results show that high-quality diamond probes can be fabricated, which are suitable for probing, manipulating, sculpting, and sensing at single digit nanoscale. PMID:21534601

  20. Investigation of Boron-doping Effect on Photoluminescence Properties of CdNb2O6: Eu(3+) Phosphors.

    PubMed

    Ba?ak, Ali Sadi; Ekmeki, Mete Kaan; Erdem, Murat; Ilhan, Mustafa; Mergen, Ayhan

    2016-03-01

    Pure, Eu(3+)-doped and Eu(3+),B(3+) co-doped CdNb2O6 powders have been prepared by a molten salt synthesis method using Li2SO4/Na2SO4 salt mixture as a flux at a relatively low temperatures as compared to solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction patterns of pure CdNb2O6 samples indicated orthorhombic single phase. Photoluminescence investigations of CdNb2O6 samples showed a strong blue emission band centered at 460nm. For Eu-doped CdNb2O6 samples, the luminescence of Eu(3+) was observed with the host red emission varying with the Eu-doping concentrations. This PL characteristic of the doped samples may be attributed to the energy transfer between Eu(3+) and niobate groups (NbO6). Boron incorporation has remarkably increased the luminescence of Eu(3+)-doped CdNb2O6. PMID:26753755

  1. Empirical determination of the energy band gap narrowing in p{sup +} silicon heavily doped with boron

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Di Cuevas, Andres

    2014-11-21

    In the analysis of highly doped silicon, energy band gap narrowing (BGN) and degeneracy effects may be accounted for separately, as a net BGN in conjunction with Fermi-Dirac statistics, or lumped together in an apparent BGN used with Boltzmann statistics. This paper presents an experimental study of silicon highly doped with boron, with the aim of evaluating the applicability of previously reported BGN models. Different boron diffusions covering a broad range of dopant densities were prepared, and their characteristic recombination current parameters J{sub 0} were measured using a contactless photoconductance technique. The BGN was subsequently extracted by matching theoretical simulations of carrier transport and recombination in each of the boron diffused regions and the measured J{sub 0} values. An evaluation of two different minority carrier mobility models indicates that their impact on the extraction of the BGN is relatively small. After considering possible uncertainties, it can be concluded that the BGN is slightly larger in p{sup +} silicon than in n{sup +} silicon, in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions by Schenk. Nevertheless, in quantitative terms that theoretical model is found to slightly underestimate the BGN in p{sup +} silicon. With the two different parameterizations derived in this paper for the BGN in p{sup +} silicon, both statistical approaches, Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac, provide a good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Influence of Ball-Milling Treatment of B Original Powder on the Phase Formation and Critical Current Density of Graphite Doped MgB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaocheng; Jiang, Qingguo; Zuo, Anying

    2014-10-01

    In present work, the sintering process and superconducting properties of graphite doped MgB prepared with milled B original powder were investigated. It is found that ball milling treatment of B original powder obviously suppresses the solid-solid reaction between Mg and B, whereas it enhances their liquid-solid reaction during the subsequent sintering process of these graphite doped MgB bulks. Ball milling treatment of B original powder can also promote C substitution for B sites in MgB crystal lattice in the graphite-doped samples, and thus obviously increase their values of at high fields. Moreover, ball milling also refines MgB grains, enhancing grain boundary pinning and at high fields.

  3. Boron Substitution in Disordered Graphene-like Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeperkoetter, Joe; Gillespie, Andrew; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter; Materials Research Institute-Missouri S&T Collaboration; Paul Rulis Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine both the elemental composition of boron doped carbons as well as gain insight into the arrangement of atoms in the material. The hypothesized arrangement of atoms is a direct substitution of boron for carbon into a graphene like sheet, maintaining the hexagonal honeycomb lattice of sp2 sigma bonds. Such a boron atom would have an electronic configuration of 1s2(sp2)3 . With a graphitic carbon atom, the pz orbitals are maintained and participate in mobile pi bonds with neighboring carbon atoms, as understood in the aromatic model. Boron, however, would require a charge donation to fill its pz orbital. Thus, three possible models are proposed for the out of plane electron density: (1) the orbital remains unoccupied and the boron is a free radical, (2) charge is donated from a neighboring atom and the boron atom is ionic, (3) the delocalization of charge in the aromatic system results in a partial charge transfer with an effective charge somewhere between neutral and anionic. Our results suggest that boron is not in an anionic state, and, by doing a quantitative and simultaneous analysis from multiple elemental spectra, we conclude that no more than 2 wt% of boron is being substitutionally doped into the system.

  4. Diffusion-driven precipitate growth and ripening of oxygen precipitates in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Will, J. Grschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Magerl, A.; Spiecker, E.

    2014-03-28

    X-ray Pendellsung fringes from three silicon single crystals measured at 900?C are analyzed with respect to density and size of oxygen precipitates within a diffusion-driven growth model and compared with TEM investigations. It appears that boron doped (p+) material shows a higher precipitate density and a higher strain than moderately (p-) boron crystals. In-situ diffraction reveals a diffusion-driven precipitate growth followed by a second growth regime in both materials. An interpretation of the second growth regime in terms of Ostwald ripening yields surface energy values (around 70?erg/cm{sup 2}) similar to published data. Further, an increased nucleation rate by a factor of ?13 is found in the p+ sample as compared to a p- sample at a nucleation temperature of 450?C.

  5. Reagentless polyol detection by conductivity increase in the course of self-doping of boronate-substituted polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, Egor A; Komkova, Maria A; Nikitina, Vita N; Zaryanov, Nikolay V; Voronin, Oleg G; Karyakina, Elena E; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K; Karyakin, Arkady A

    2014-12-01

    We report on the novel reagentless and label-free detection principle based on electroactive (conducting) polymers considering sensors for polyols, particularly, saccharides and hydroxy acids. Unlike the majority of impedimetric and conductometric (bio)sensors, which specific and unspecific signals are directed in the same way (resistance increase), making doubtful their real applications, the response of the reported system results in resistance decrease, which is directed oppositely to the background. The mechanism of the resistance decrease is the polyaniline self-doping, i.e., as an alternative to proton doping, an appearance of the negatively charged aromatic ring substituents in polymer chain. Negative charge "freezing" at the boron atom is indeed a result of complex formation with di- and polyols, specific binding. Changes in Raman spectra of boronate-substituted polyaniline after addition of glucose are similar to those caused by proton doping of the polymer. Thermodynamic data on interaction of the electropolymerized 3-aminophenylboronic acid with saccharides and hydroxy acids also confirm that the observed resistance decrease is due to polymer interaction with polyols. The first reported conductivity increase as a specific signal opens new horizons for reagentless affinity sensors, allowing the discrimination of specific affinity bindings from nonspecific interactions. PMID:25363870

  6. Improved electrochemical performance of boron-doped SiO negative electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jihoon; Baek, Seong-Ho; Park, Jung-Soo; Jeong, Young-Min; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a one-step process that consists of thermal disproportionation and impurity doping to enhance the reversible capacity and electrical conductivity of silicon monoxide (SiO)-based negative electrode materials in Li-ion batteries. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results reveal that thermally treated SiO at 900 °C (H-SiO) consists of uniformly dispersed nano-crystalline Si (nc-Si) in an amorphous silicon oxide (SiOx) matrix. Compared to that of prinstine SiO, the electrochemical performance of H-SiO shows improved specific capacity, due mainly to the increased reversible capacity by nc-Si and to the reduced volume expansion by thermally disproportionated SiOx matrix. Further electrochemical improvements can be obtained by boron-doping on SiO (HB-SiO) using solution dopant during thermal disproportionation. HB-SiO electrode without carbon coating exhibits significantly enhanced specific capacity superior to that of undoped H-SiO electrode, having 947 mAh g-1 at 0.5C rate and excellent capacity retention of 93.3% over 100 cycles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement reveals that the internal resistance of the HB-SiO electrode is significantly reduced by boron doping.

  7. In Situ Activation of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Anchored on Graphite Foam for a High-Capacity Anode.

    PubMed

    Ji, Junyi; Liu, Jilei; Lai, Linfei; Zhao, Xin; Zhen, Yongda; Lin, Jianyi; Zhu, Yanwu; Ji, Hengxing; Zhang, Li Li; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2015-08-25

    We report the fabrication of a three-dimensional free-standing nitrogen-doped porous graphene/graphite foam by in situ activation of nitrogen-doped graphene on highly conductive graphite foam (GF). After in situ activation, intimate "sheet contact" was observed between the graphene sheets and the GF. The sheet contact produced by in situ activation is found to be superior to the "point contact" obtained by the traditional drop-casting method and facilitates electron transfer. Due to the intimate contact as well as the use of an ultralight GF current collector, the composite electrode delivers a gravimetric capacity of 642 mAh g(-1) and a volumetric capacity of 602 mAh cm(-3) with respect to the whole electrode mass and volume (including the active materials and the GF current collector). When normalized based on the mass of the active material, the composite electrode delivers a high specific capacity of up to 1687 mAh g(-1), which is superior to that of most graphene-based electrodes. Also, after ?90 s charging, the anode delivers a capacity of about 100 mAh g(-1) (with respect to the total mass of the electrode), indicating its potential use in high-rate lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26258909

  8. Graphite nanosheets doped with Fe, Ni, and N, synthesized in one step, and their unique magnetic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhanwei; Li, Hejun; Luo, Huijuan; Sun, Huihui; Zhang, Qinglin; Cao, Gaoxiang; Li, Kezhi

    2011-04-01

    Graphite nanosheets (GNs) doped with N, Fe, or Ni were synthesized by pyrolysis of metal tetrapyridinoporphyrazine (MPTpz, M=Fe 2+, and Ni 2+) and a mixture of MPTpzs in a chemical vapor deposition furnace. The products obtained were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of the GNs obtained were investigated at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer with an applied field of -10 000-10 000 Gs. The results show the GNs obtained are terrace-like and ultra-thin, with very high aspect ratio. Fe, Ni and N atoms have been doped to the GNs successfully. There are two types of N atom that are introduced into pure carbon systems: pyrinidic and graphitic N atoms. The GNs obtained exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. Sample S1, obtained by pyrolysis of a mixture of MPTpzs (M=Fe 2+ and Ni 2+), have the highest coercivity force. The saturation magnetization ( Ms), remanent magnetization ( Mr), and coercivity ( Hc) values of sample S1 are 24.51 emu g -1, 3.95 emu g -1, and 207.34 Gs, respectively.

  9. Enhanced capacitance of composite TiO2 nanotube/boron-doped diamond electrodes studied by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, K.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Sawczak, M.; Sobaszek, M.

    2014-12-01

    We report on novel composite nanostructures based on boron-doped diamond thin films grown on top of TiO2 nanotubes. The nanostructures made of BDD-modified titania nanotubes showed an increase in activity and performance when used as electrodes in electrochemical environments. The BDD thin films (~200-500 nm) were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW PA CVD) onto anodically fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays. The influence of boron-doping level, methane admixture and growth time on the performance of the Ti/TiO2/BDD electrode was studied in detail. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate the surface morphology and grain size distribution. Moreover, the chemical composition of TiO2/BDD electrodes was investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The composite electrodes TiO2/BDD are characterized by a significantly higher capacitive current compared to BDD films deposited directly onto a Ti substrate. The novel composite electrode of TiO2 nanotube arrays overgrown by boron-doped diamond (BDD) immersed in 0.1 M NaNO3 can deliver a specific capacitance of 2.10, 4.79, and 7.46 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 for a [B]/[C] ratio of 2k, 5k and 10k, respectively. The substantial improvement of electrochemical performance and the excellent rate capability could be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 treatment in CH4 : H2 plasma and the high electrical conductivity of BDD layers. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra using an electric equivalent circuit allowed us to determine the surface area on the basis of the value of constant phase element.

  10. Enhanced capacitance of composite TiO2 nanotube/boron-doped diamond electrodes studied by impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Siuzdak, K; Bogdanowicz, R; Sawczak, M; Sobaszek, M

    2015-01-14

    We report on novel composite nanostructures based on boron-doped diamond thin films grown on top of TiO2 nanotubes. The nanostructures made of BDD-modified titania nanotubes showed an increase in activity and performance when used as electrodes in electrochemical environments. The BDD thin films (?200-500 nm) were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW PA CVD) onto anodically fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays. The influence of boron-doping level, methane admixture and growth time on the performance of the Ti/TiO2/BDD electrode was studied in detail. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate the surface morphology and grain size distribution. Moreover, the chemical composition of TiO2/BDD electrodes was investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The composite electrodes TiO2/BDD are characterized by a significantly higher capacitive current compared to BDD films deposited directly onto a Ti substrate. The novel composite electrode of TiO2 nanotube arrays overgrown by boron-doped diamond (BDD) immersed in 0.1 M NaNO3 can deliver a specific capacitance of 2.10, 4.79, and 7.46 mF cm(-2) at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1) for a [B]/[C] ratio of 2k, 5k and 10k, respectively. The substantial improvement of electrochemical performance and the excellent rate capability could be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 treatment in CH4?:?H2 plasma and the high electrical conductivity of BDD layers. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra using an electric equivalent circuit allowed us to determine the surface area on the basis of the value of constant phase element. PMID:25413987

  11. Toward a Boron-Doped Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Electrode-Based Dielectrophoretic Preconcentrator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenli; Radadia, Adarsh D

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results on immunobeads-based isolation of rare bacteria and their capture at a boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (BD-UNCD) electrode in a microfluidic dielectrophoretic preconcentrator. We systematically vary the bead surface chemistry and the BD-UNCD surface chemistry and apply dielectrophoresis to improve the specific and the nonspecific capture of bacteria or beads. Immunobeads were synthesized by conjugating antibodies to epoxy-/sulfate, aldehyde-/sulfate, or carboxylate-modified beads with or without poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coimmobilization. The carboxylate-modified beads with PEG provided the highest capture efficiency (∼65%) and selectivity (∼95%) in isolating live Escherichia coli O157:H7 from cultures containing 1000 E. coli O157:H7 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL, or ∼500 E. coli O157:H7 and ∼500 E. coli K12 cfu/mL. Higher specificity was achieved with the addition of PEG to the antibody-functionalized bead surface, highest with epoxy-/sulfate beads (85-86%), followed by carboxylate-modified beads (76-78%) and aldehyde-/sulfate beads (74-76%). The bare BD-UNCD electrodes of the preconcentrator successfully withstood 240 kV/m for 100 min that was required for the microfluidic dielectrophoresis of 1 mL of sample. As expected, the application of dielectrophoresis increased the specific and the nonspecific capture of immunobeads at the BD-UNCD electrodes; however, the capture specificity remained unaltered. The addition of PEG to the antibody-functionalized BD-UNCD surface had little effect on the specificity in immunobeads capture. These results warrant the fabrication of electrical biosensors with BD-UNCD so that dielectrophoretic preconcentration can be performed directly at the biosensing electrodes. PMID:26829879

  12. Kinetics of the electrochemical mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid on ultrananocrystalline boron doped conductive diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Urtiaga, Ane; Fernández-González, Carolina; Gómez-Lavín, Sonia; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2015-06-01

    This work deals with the electrochemical degradation and mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Model aqueous solutions of PFOA (100mg/L) were electro-oxidized under galvanostatic conditions in a flow-by undivided cell provided with a tungsten cathode and an anode formed by a commercial ultrananocrystalline boron doped diamond (BDD) coating on a niobium substrate. A systematic experimental study was conducted in order to analyze the influence of the following operation variables: (i) the supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 (1.4 and 8.4g/L) and Na2SO4 (5g/L); (ii) the applied current density, japp, in the range 50-200 A/m(2) and (iii) the hydrodynamic conditions, in terms of flowrate in the range 0.4×10(-4)-1.7×10(-4)m(3)/s and temperature in the range 293-313K. After 6h of treatment and at japp 200A/m(2), PFOA removal was higher than 93% and the mineralization ratio, obtained from the decrease of the total organic carbon (TOC) was 95%. The electrochemical generation of hydroxyl radicals in the supporting electrolyte was experimentally measured based on their reaction with dimethyl sulfoxide. The enhanced formation of hydroxyl radicals at higher japp was related to the faster kinetics of PFOA removal. The fitting of experimental data to the proposed kinetic model provided the first order rate constants of PFOA degradation, kc(1) that moved from 2.06×10(-4) to 15.58×10(-4)s(-1), when japp varied from 50 to 200A/m(2). PMID:24981910

  13. Bioelectrochemical degradation of urea at platinized boron doped diamond electrodes for bioregenerative applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ileana; Nicolau, Eduardo; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    The recovery of potable water from space mission wastewater is critical for the life support and environmental health of crew members in long-term missions. NASA estimates reveal that at manned space missions 0.06 kg/personday of urine is produced, with urea and various salts as its main components. Current spacecraft water reclamation strategies include the utilization of not only multifiltration systems (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO), but also biological components to deal with crew urine streams. In this research we explore the utilization of urease (EC 3.5.1.5) to convert urea directly to nitrogen by the in-situ utilization of the reaction products, to increase the amount of clean water in future space expeditions. First of all, platinum was electrodeposited on boron doped diamond electrodes by cycling the potential between -0.2 V and 1.0 V in metal/0.5 M H2SO4 solution. SEM images of the electrodes showed a distribution of platinum nanoparticles ranging between 50 nm and 300 nm. The biochemical reaction of urease in nature produces ammonia and carbon dioxide from urea. Based on this, Cyclic Voltammetry experiments of an ammonium acetate solution at pH 10 were performed showing an anodic peak at -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl due to the ammonia oxidation. Then, a urease solution (Jack Bean) was poured into the electrochemical cell and subsequent additions of urea were performed with the potential held at -0.3 V in order to promote ammonia oxidation. Chronoamperometry data shows that with more than five urea additions the enzyme still responding by producing ammonia, which is being subsequently oxidized at the electrode surface and producing molecular nitrogen. This research has tremendous applications for future long-term space missions since the reaction byproducts could be used for a biomass subsystem (in-situ resource recovery), while generating electricity from the same process.

  14. Microchip capillary electrophoresis with a boron-doped diamond electrochemical detector for analysis of aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongchan; Tryk, Donald A; Fujishima, Akira; Muck, Alexander; Chen, Gang; Wang, Joseph

    2004-09-01

    The attractive features of a boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin-film detector for microchip capillary electrophoretic (CE) separations of dye-related amino-substituted aromatic compounds are described. The diamond electrode was employed in the end-column amperometric detection of 4-aminophenol (4-AP), 1,2-phenylenediamine (1,2-PDA), 2-aminonaphthalene (2-AN), 2-chloroaniline (2-CA), and o-aminobenzoic acid (o-ABA), and its attractive behavior was compared to commonly used screen-printed carbon and glassy-carbon electrodes. These conventional electrode materials exhibit a significant degree of passivation and low sensitivity to the above-mentioned environmental pollutants. The diamond-based electrochemical detection system displayed a favorable analytical performance, including lower noise levels, higher peak resolution with enhanced sensitivity, and improved resistance against electrode passivation. Factors influencing the on-chip analysis were assessed and optimized. The diamond detector displayed detection limits of 2.0 and 1.3 microM for 4-AP and 2-AN, respectively, and a wide linear response for these compounds over the 2-50 microM range. The enhanced stability was demonstrated by relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.4% and 4.7% for 100 microM 1,2-PDA and 200 microM 2-CA, respectively, for repetitive detections (n = 7). Besides, the simultaneously observed current decrease was 2.4 and 9.1% for 1,2-PDA and 2-CA, respectively (compared to 21.8 and 41.0% at the screen-printed carbon electrode and 28.3 and 34.1% at the glassy carbon electrode, respectively). The favorable properties of the diamond electrode indicate great promise for environmental applications in CE and other microchip devices. PMID:15349943

  15. Use of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition for shallow boron doping in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkofen, Bodo Amusan, Akinwumi A.; Bukhari, Muhammad S. K.; Burte, Edmund P.; Garke, Bernd; Lisker, Marco; Gargouri, Hassan

    2015-05-15

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PALD) was carried for growing thin boron oxide films onto silicon aiming at the formation of dopant sources for shallow boron doping of silicon by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). A remote capacitively coupled plasma source powered by GaN microwave oscillators was used for generating oxygen plasma in the PALD process with tris(dimethylamido)borane as boron containing precursor. ALD type growth was obtained; growth per cycle was highest with 0.13 nm at room temperature and decreased with higher temperature. The as-deposited films were highly unstable in ambient air and could be protected by capping with in-situ PALD grown antimony oxide films. After 16 weeks of storage in air, degradation of the film stack was observed in an electron microscope. The instability of the boron oxide, caused by moisture uptake, suggests the application of this film for testing moisture barrier properties of capping materials particularly for those grown by ALD. Boron doping of silicon was demonstrated using the uncapped PALD B{sub 2}O{sub 3} films for RTA processes without exposing them to air. The boron concentration in the silicon could be varied depending on the source layer thickness for very thin films, which favors the application of ALD for semiconductor doping processes.

  16. Gas-assisted growth of boron-doped nickel nanotube arrays: rapid synthesis, growth mechanisms, tunable magnetic properties, and super-efficient reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Zi; Wu, Kong-Lin; Ye, Yin; Wei, Xian-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Highly ordered noncrystalline boron-doped nickel nanotube arrays are rapidly synthesized within 150 s by template-based electroless deposition. The as-prepared nanotubes have tunable magnetic properties and exhibit super efficient catalytic activity (~70 s) for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.Highly ordered noncrystalline boron-doped nickel nanotube arrays are rapidly synthesized within 150 s by template-based electroless deposition. The as-prepared nanotubes have tunable magnetic properties and exhibit super efficient catalytic activity (~70 s) for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00411b

  17. Insight into the effect of boron doping on sulfur/carbon cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Peng; Yin, Ya-Xia; Ye, Huan; Jiang, Ke-Cheng; Zhang, Juan; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2014-06-11

    To exploit the high energy density of lithium-sulfur batteries, porous carbon materials have been widely used as the host materials of the S cathode. Current studies about carbon hosts are more frequently focused on the design of carbon structures rather than modification of its properties. In this study, we use boron-doped porous carbon materials as the host material of the S cathode to get an insightful investigation of the effect of B dopant on the S/C cathode. Powder electronic conductivity shows that the B-doped carbon materials exhibit higher conductivity than the pure analogous porous carbon. Moreover, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we prove that doping with B leads to a positively polarized surface of carbon substrates and allows chemisorption of S and its polysulfides. Thus, the B-doped carbons can ensure a more stable S/C cathode with satisfactory conductivity, which is demonstrated by the electrochemical performance evaluation. The S/B-doped carbon cathode was found to deliver much higher initial capacity (1300 mA h g(-1) at 0.25 C), improved cyclic stability, and rate capability when compared with the cathode based on pure porous carbon. Electrochemical impedance spectra also indicate the low resistance of the S/B-doped C cathode and the chemisorption of polysulfide anions because of the presence of B. These features of B doping can play the positive role in the electrochemical performance of S cathodes and help to build better Li-S batteries. PMID:24764111

  18. Oxidative synthesis of highly fluorescent boron/nitrogen co-doped carbon nanodots enabling detection of photosensitizer and carcinogenic dye.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Shanaz; Mansoor, Farrukh; Naz, Shagufta; Lei, Jianping; Kanwal, Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Current research efforts have demonstrated the facile hydrothermal oxidative synthetic route to develop highly fluorescent boron/nitrogen co-doped carbon nanodots (CNDs). During this process, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)glycine served as a source of N doping and a carbon precursor as well, while boric acid H3BO3 is used as an oxidizing agent in the N2 environment. Surface passivation through ultrasonic treatment of CNDs was performed to induce modifications by using various surface passivating agents. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) remarkably enhanced the fluorescence performance and monodispersity of polymerized carbon nanodots (P-CNDs) in aqueous phase with an enhanced quantum yield of 23.71%, along with an increase in size from ~3 nm to ~200 nm. For characterization of CNDs and P-CNDs, UV, infrared, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectra, and atomic force microscopy techniques were utilized. Application potentials of synthesized P-CNDs were developed via introduction of protoporphyrin (PPD, a photosensitizer) which has great doping affinity with polymer PEI to switch-off the fluorescence of P-CNDs, leading to the production of dye-doped nanoprobes. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was also observed during dye-doping, and PPD was detected with a limit of detection (LOD, 3σ) of 15 pM. The fluorescence recovery of this switched-off nanoprobe was made possible by using Sudan red III (carcinogenic dye), which was oxidized by PPD doped in P-CNDs. Sudan red III was detected in the concentration range of 9.9 pM-0.37 nM. Meanwhile, it was also confirmed that the dye-doped nanoprobe is highly selective and exceptionally sensitive to detect this carcinogenic agent in commercial products with a LOD (3σ) of 90 fM. PMID:24083490

  19. Strain-induced programmable half-metal and spin-gapless semiconductor in an edge-doped boron nitride nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shuze; Li, Teng

    2016-03-01

    The search for half-metals and spin-gapless semiconductors has attracted extensive attention in material design for spintronics. Existing progress in such a search often requires peculiar atomistic lattice configuration and also lacks active control of the resulting electronic properties. Here we reveal that a boron nitride nanoribbon with a carbon-doped edge can be made a half-metal or a spin-gapless semiconductor in a programmable fashion. The mechanical strain serves as the on/off switches for functions of half-metal and spin-gapless semiconductor to occur. Our findings shed light on how the edge doping combined with strain engineering can affect electronic properties of two-dimensional materials.

  20. Boron-doped bismuth oxybromide microspheres with enhanced surface hydroxyl groups: Synthesis, characterization and dramatic photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, ZhangSheng; Liu, JinLong; Wang, HaiYang; Cao, Gang; Niu, JiNan

    2016-02-01

    B-doped BiOBr photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method with boric acid used as boron source. As-obtained products consist of novel hierarchical microspheres, whose nanosheet building units were formed by nanoparticles splicing. They showed dramatic photocatalytic efficiency toward the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under the visible-light irradiation and the highest activity was achieved by 0.075B-BiOBr. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the enriched surface hydroxyl groups on B-doped BiOBr samples, which not only improved the adsorption of pollutant on the photocatalyst but also promoted the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. In addition, it was found that the main reactive species responsible for the degradation of organic pollutant were h(+) and O2(-) radicals, instead of OH radicals. PMID:26590875

  1. A Drude model analysis of conductivity and free carriers in boron-doped diamond films and investigations of their internal stress and strain

    PubMed Central

    Manciu, Marian; Durrer, William G.; Salazar, Jessica G.; Lee, Kendall H.; Bennet, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) has seen a substantial increase in interest for use as electrode coating material for electrochemistry and studies of deep brain stimulation mechanism. In this study, we present an alternative method for determining important characteristics, including conductivity, carrier concentration, and time constant, of such material by the signature of Drude-like metallic behavior in the far-infrared (IR) spectral range. Unlike the direct determination of conductivity from the four-point probe method, using far-IR transmittance provides additional information, such as whether the incorporation of boron results in a large concentration of carriers or in inducing defects in the diamond lattice. The slightly doped to medium-doped BDD samples that were produced using chemical vapor deposition and analyzed in this work show conductivities ranging between 5.5 and 11 (? cm)?1. Different growth conditions demonstrate that increasing boron concentration results in an increase in the carrier concentration, with values between 7.2 1016 and 2.5 1017 carriers/cm3. Addition of boron, besides leading to a decrease in the resistivity, also resulted in a decrease in the time constant, limiting BDD conductivity. Investigations, by confocal Raman mapping, of the induced stress in the material due to interaction with the substrate or to the amount of doping are also presented and discussed. The induced tensile stress, which was distributed closer to the film-substrate interface decreased slightly with doping. PMID:25328245

  2. High density and taper-free boron doped Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} nanowire via two-step growth process

    SciTech Connect

    Periwal, Priyanka; Salem, Bassem; Bassani, Franck; Baron, Thierry; Barnes, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-01

    The authors study Au catalyzed chemical vapor growth of Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} alloyed nanowires in the presence of diborane, serving as a dopant precursor. Our experiments reveal that introduction of diborane has a significant effect on doping and morphology. Boron exposure poisons the Au catalyst surface, suppresses catalyst activity, and causes significantly tapered wires, as a result of conformal growth. The authors develop here a two-step method to obtain high density and taper-free boron doped Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires. The two-step process consists of: (1) growth of a small undoped Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} section and (2) introduction of diborane to form a boron doped Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} section. The catalyst preparation step remarkably influences wire yield, quality and morphology. The authors show that dopant-ratio influences wire resistivity and morphology. Resistivity for high boron doped Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} nanowire is 6 mΩ-cm. Four probe measurements show that it is possible to dope Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires with diborane.

  3. Dissolution Mediated Boron and Carbon Storage during Exhumation of HP Metapelites: Examples from New Hampshire Tourmaline-Graphite Intergrowths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, M.; Rumble, D.; Cody, G. D.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamic of light elements (e.g. C,B) in subduction zones is a complex process ultimately governed by variables such as P, T, fH2 and pH. Interface phenomena at scales from the outcrop to intergranular surfaces play key chemical and mechanical roles on this dynamic (e.g. Galvez et al. 2013). We report here a petrological study of hydrated borosilicate tourmaline intergrown with graphite formed at the contact between igneous intrusives and high grade micaschists in New Hampshire graphite deposits (Rumble and Hoering, 1986). Our study includes Raman scattering, SEM, microprobe analysis and thermodynamic modeling, focusing on the Franklin Pierce and Walpole outcrops. Both localities experienced HP-HT metamorphism during the Acadian orogeny as well as complex metasomatic process during exhumation. The tourmaline-graphite intergrowths are structurally localized at and around contacts between an aplite sill and micaschists - biotite-muscovite-garnet-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz-ilmenite - (Franklin Pierce), or along shear zones (Walpole) in veins. Tourmalines are dravitic in composition (i.e. Na, Mg rich with minor vacancy and Li content 0.2/0.1 a.p.f.u) and contain multiple primary tubular mixed fluid-solid inclusions containing graphite, quartz and gaseous CO2 and CH4. Sharp optical and compositional radial zonations are observed from core to rim in sections along and perpendicular to the c-axis. Blue-green cores are enriched in Mg and Ca (1.5/0.1 a.p.f.u respectively) whereas rims are enriched in Fe, Na and Ti (0.9/0.6/0.1 a.p.f.u respectively). Alternative interpretations in terms of sector zoning or compositional variability of the mineralizing fluid will be discussed. The carbonaceous material (CM) occurs primarily as flakes directly replacing biotite present in wall rocks. The structural ordering of CM, of unambiguous abiotic origin, reveals a material possessing the 3 dimensional structure of hexagonal graphite. Our results are critically compared to measurements done on other metasomatic or biogenic graphite displaying high structural ordering. Other textural habit of graphite are radiating crystals of graphite preferentially growing along crystalline planes of wall rock minerals (e.g. plagioclases) and at the interface between grain edge. We test whether a C and B(OH)3° (×As, Cu) rich acidic vapor unmixing from a salt-rich aqueous fluid exsolved from crystallizing igneous bodies can account for some geochemical and textural greisen-type metasomatic features of these outcrops. Other mechanical and geochemical processes participating in the process will be discussed. This work is direct evidence that respeciation and/or fluid-rock interaction at varying P,T,fH2,pH conditions of fluids during exhumation, as well as interaction between magmatic bodies and metasedimentary units play a key role in the cycling of light elements during exhumation. Rumble, D., III, and Hoering, T.C., 1986, Carbon isotope geochemistry of graphite vein deposits from New Hampshire, U.S.A: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 50, p. 1239-1247. Galvez ME, Beyssac O, Martinez I, Benzerara K, Chaduteau C, Malvoisin B, Malavieille J (2013) Graphite formation by carbonate reduction during subduction. Nature Geoscience 6 (6):473-477

  4. Pure and carbon-doped boron phosphide (6,0) zigzag nanotube: Acomputational NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshadi, S.; Bekhradnia, A. R.; Alipour, F.; Abedini, S.

    2015-11-01

    Calculations were performed for investigation of the properties of the electronic structure of Carbon- Doped Boron Phosphide Nanotube (CDBPNT). Pristine and three models of C-doped structures of (6,0) zigzag BPNT were studied at density functional theory (DFT) in combination with 6-311G* basis set using Gaussian package of program. The calculated parameters reveal that various 11B and 31P nuclei are divided into some layers with equivalent electrostatic properties. The electronic structure properties are highly influenced by replacement of 11B and 31P atoms by 12C atoms in pristine model. Furthermore, the HOMO-LUMO gap energy for suggested doped models (I), (II) and (III) were lower than pure BPNT pristine systems. The dipole moment values of models (II) and (III) were decreased to 1.788and 1.789, respectively while the dipole moments of model (I) were enhanced to 4.373, in compare to pure pristine one (2.586). The magnitude of changes in Chemical Shielding (CS) tensor parameters revealed that the electron density at the site of 31P was higher than that at the site of 11B due to carbon doping.

  5. Assessment of Electrodes Prepared from Wafers of Boron-doped Diamond for the Electrochemical Oxidation of Waste Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.T.; Sullivan, I.A.; Newey, A.W.E.

    2006-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes is being investigated as a treatment process for radioactively contaminated oily wastes. Previously, it was shown that electrodes coated with a thin film of diamond were able to oxidise a cutting oil but not a mineral oil. These tests were inconclusive, because the electrodes lost their diamond coating during operation. Accordingly, an electrode prepared from a 'solid' wafer of boron-doped diamond is being investigated to determine whether it will oxidise mineral oils. The electrode has been tested with sucrose, a cutting oil and an emulsified mineral oil. Before and after each test, the state of the electrode was assessed by cyclic voltammetry with the ferro/ferricyanide redox couple. Analysis of the cyclic voltammogram suggested that material accumulated on the surface of the electrode during the tests. The magnitude of the effect was in the order: - emulsified mineral oil > cutting oil > sucrose. Despite this, the results indicated that the electrode was capable of oxidising the emulsified mineral oil. Confirmatory tests were undertaken in the presence of alkali to trap the carbon dioxide, but they had to be abandoned when the adhesive holding the diamond in the electrode was attacked by the alkali. Etching of the diamond wafer was also observed at the end of the tests. Surface corrosion is now regarded as an intrinsic part of the electrochemical oxidation on diamond, and it is expected that the rate of attack will determine the service life of the electrodes. (authors)

  6. In situ DNA oxidative damage by electrochemically generated hydroxyl free radicals on a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S Carlos B; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2012-03-13

    In situ DNA oxidative damage by electrochemically generated hydroxyl free radicals has been directly demonstrated on a boron-doped diamond electrode. The DNA-electrochemical biosensor incorporates immobilized double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) as molecular recognition element on the electrode surface, and measures in situ specific binding processes with dsDNA, as it is a complementary tool for the study of bimolecular interaction mechanisms of compounds binding to DNA and enabling the screening and evaluation of the effect caused to DNA by radicals and health hazardous compounds. Oxidants, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS), play an important role in dsDNA oxidative damage which is strongly related to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, autoimmune inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. The hydroxyl radical is considered the main contributing ROS to endogenous oxidation of cellular dsDNA causing double-stranded and single-stranded breaks, free bases, and 8-oxoguanine occurrence. The dsDNA-electrochemical biosensor was used to study the interaction between dsDNA immobilized on a boron-doped diamond electrode surface and in situ electrochemically generate hydroxyl radicals. Non-denaturing agarose gel-electrophoresis of the dsDNA films on the electrode surface after interaction with the electrochemically generated hydroxyl radicals clearly showed the occurrence of in situ dsDNA oxidative damage. The importance of the dsDNA-electrochemical biosensor in the evaluation of the dsDNA-hydroxyl radical interactions is clearly demonstrated. PMID:22335175

  7. Boron-doped diamond microelectrodes for use in capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Cvacka, Josef; Quaiserov, Veronika; Park, JinWoo; Show, Yoshiyuki; Muck, Alexander; Swain, Greg M

    2003-06-01

    The fabrication and characterization of boron-doped diamond microelectrodes for use in electrochemical detection coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE-EC) is discussed. The microelectrodes were prepared by coating thin films of polycrystalline diamond on electrochemically sharpened platinum wires (76-, 25-, and 10-microm diameter), using microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The diamond-coated wires were attached to copper wires (current collectors), and several methods were explored to insulate the cylindrical portion of the electrode: nail polish, epoxy, polyimide, and polypropylene coatings. The microelectrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. They exhibited low and stable background currents and sigmoidally shaped voltammetric curves for Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) and Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) at low scan rates. The microelectrodes formed with the large diameter Pt and sealed in polypropylene pipet tips were employed for end-column detection in CE. Evaluation of the CE-EC system and the electrode performance were accomplished using a 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.0, run buffer, and a 30-cm-long fused-silica capillary (75-microm i.d.) with dopamine, catechol, and ascorbic acid serving as test analytes. The background current (approximately 100 pA) and noise (approximately 3 pA) were measured at different detection potentials and found to be very stable with time. Reproducible separation (elution time) and detection (peak current or area) of dopamine, catechol, and ascorbic acid were observed with response precisions of 4.1% or less. Calibration curves constructed from the peak area were linear over 4 orders of magnitude, up to a concentration between 0.1 and 1 mM. Mass limits of detection for dopamine and catechol were 1.7 and 2.6 fmol, respectively (S/N = 3). The separation efficiency was approximately 33,000, 56,000, and 98,000 plates/m for dopamine, catechol, and ascorbic acid, respectively. In addition, the separation and detection of 1- and 2-naphthol in 160 mM borate buffer, pH 9.2, was investigated. Separation of these two analytes was achieved with efficiencies of 118,000 and 126,000 plates/m, respectively. PMID:12948136

  8. Laser heated boron doped diamond electrodes: effect of temperature on outer sphere electron transfer processes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingcong; Iacobini, James G; Joseph, Maxim B; Macpherson, Julie V; Newton, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectrochemical experiments can reveal significant information about electrochemical processes compared to ambient only measurements. Typical thermoelectrochemistry is performed using resistively heated wires or laser heated electrodes, both of which can suffer drawbacks associated with the electrode material employed. Boron doped diamond (BDD) is ideal for thermoelectrochemical investigations due to its extremely high thermal conductivity and diffusivity, extreme resistance to thermal ablation (can withstand laser power densities, Pd, of GW cm(-2) for nanosecond pulses) and excellent electrochemical properties (low background currents and wide potential window). In this paper we describe the use of a pulsed laser technique to heat the rear of a 1 mm diameter conducting BDD disc electrode, which drives electrochemical solution reactions at the front face. Maximum electrode temperatures of 90.0 °C were recorded experimentally and confirmed by finite element modelling (FEM). The effect of laser pulsed heating (maximum 3.8 kW cm(-2); 10 ms on and 90 ms off) on the cyclic voltammetric response of two fast (reversible) outer sphere electron transfer redox mediators (Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) and IrCl6(2-/3-)) are investigated. In particular, we observe pulsed increases in the current, which increase with increasing Pd. The potential of the peak current is shifted positively for the Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) couple (in accordance with a positive temperature coefficient, β, +0.68 mV K(-1)) and negatively for the IrCl6(3-/2-) couple (β = -0.48 mV K(-1)). Scanning backwards, in contrast to that observed for a macrodisc electrode in ambient solution, a cathodic peak is again observed for Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) and an anodic peak for IrCl6(3-/2-) couple. We attribute this response to the entropy of the redox reaction and the time-dependant change in mass transport due to the induced thermal gradients at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The observed responses are in qualitative agreement with FEM simulations. PMID:25427195

  9. Gas-assisted growth of boron-doped nickel nanotube arrays: rapid synthesis, growth mechanisms, tunable magnetic properties, and super-efficient reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Zi; Wu, Kong-Lin; Ye, Yin; Wei, Xian-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Highly ordered noncrystalline boron-doped nickel nanotube arrays are rapidly synthesized within 150 s by template-based electroless deposition. The as-prepared nanotubes have tunable magnetic properties and exhibit super efficient catalytic activity (?70 s) for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. PMID:23546439

  10. Application of a boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode as an anode for the electrolytic reduction of UO2 in Li2O-LiCl-KCl molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Wooshin; Kim, Jong-Kook; Hur, Jin-Mok; Choi, Eun-Young; Im, Hun Suk; Hong, Sun-Seok

    2013-01-01

    A boron doped diamond thin film electrode was employed as an inert anode to replace a platinum electrode in a conventional electrolytic reduction process for UO2 reduction in Li2O-LiCl molten salt at 650 C. The molten salt was changed into Li2O-LiCl-KCl to decrease the operation temperature to 550 C at which the boron doped diamond was chemically stable. The potential for oxygen evolution on the boron doped diamond electrode was determined to be approximately 2.2 V vs. a Li-Pb reference electrode whereas that for Li deposition was around -0.58 V. The density of the anodic current was low compared to that of the cathodic current. Thus the potential of the cathode might not reach the potential for Li deposition if the surface area of the cathode is too wide compared to that of the anode. Therefore, the ratio of the surface areas of the cathode and anode should be precisely controlled. Because the reduction of UO2 is dependent on the reaction with Li, the deposition of Li is a prerequisite in the reduction process. In a consecutive reduction run, it was proved that the boron doped diamond could be employed as an inert anode.

  11. In vitro evaluation of the tribological response of Mo-doped graphite-like carbon film in different biological media.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinxia; Wang, Liping; Liu, Bin; Wan, Shanhong; Xue, Qunji

    2015-02-01

    Complicated tribochemical reactions with the surrounding media often occur at the prosthesis material, which is a dominant factor causing the premature failure in revision surgery. Graphite-like carbon (GLC) film has been proven to be an excellent tribological adaption to water-based media, and this work focused on the friction and wear behavior of Mo-doped GLC (Mo-GLC)-coated poly(aryl ether ether ketone) sliding against Al2O3 counterpart in physiological saline, simulated body fluid, and fetal bovine serum (FBS), which mainly emphasized the interface interactions of the prosthetic materials/lubricant. Results showed different tribological responses of Mo-GLC/Al2O3 pairs strongly correlated with the interfacial reactions of the contacting area. Particularly, a transfer layer was believed to be responsible for the excellent wear reduction of Mo-GLC/Al2O3 pair in FBS medium, in which graphitic carbon and protein species were contained. The wear mechanisms are tentatively discussed according to the morphologies and chemical compositions of the worn surfaces examined by scanning electron microscope as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:25580834

  12. Influence of Boron doping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdO thin films by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Velusamy, P. Babu, R. Ramesh; Ramamurthi, K.

    2014-04-24

    Cadmium oxide and Boron (B) doped Cadmium oxide thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of undoped and B doped CdO films are analyzed by varying the dopant concentration in the solution. The structural study shows the polycrystalline nature and cubic structure of undoped and B doped CdO thin films. Surface morphological study reveals that the grains are spherical in shape. Optical and electrical studies showed n-type semiconducting nature and optical band gap of 2.44 eV of deposited thin films.

  13. Facile synthesis of phosphorus doped graphitic carbon nitride polymers with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ligang; Chen, Xiufang; Guan, Jing; Jiang, Yijun; Hou, Tonggang; Mu, Xindong

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • P-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} has been prepared by a one-pot green synthetic approach. • The incorporation of P resulted in favorable textural and electronic properties. • Doping with P enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • A postannealing treatment further enhanced the activity of P-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Photogenerated holes were the main species responsible for the activity. - Abstract: Phosphorus-doped carbon nitride materials were prepared by a one-pot green synthetic approach using dicyandiamide monomer and a phosphorus containing ionic liquid as precursors. The as-prepared materials were subjected to several characterizations and investigated as metal-free photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants (dyes like Rhodamine B, Methyl orange) in aqueous solution under visible light. Results revealed that phosphorus-doped carbon nitride have a higher photocatalytic activity for decomposing Rhodamine B and Methyl orange in aqueous solution than undoped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which was attributed to the favorable textural, optical and electronic properties caused by doping with phosphorus heteroatoms into carbon nitride host. A facile postannealing treatment further improved the activity of the photocatalytic system, due to the higher surface area and smaller structural size in the postcalcined catalysts. The phosphorus-doped carbon nitride showed high visible-light photocatalytic activity, making them promising materials for a wide range of potential applications in photochemistry.

  14. Direct Transformation from Graphitic C3N4 to Nitrogen-Doped Graphene: An Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajie; Zhang, Yumin; Zhang, Xinghong; Han, Jiecai; Wang, Yi; Gu, Lin; Zhang, Zhihua; Wang, Xianjie; Jian, Jikang; Xu, Ping; Song, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials provide an attractive perspective to replace precious Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to enhance the practical applications of fuel cells. Herein, we demonstrate a one-pot direct transformation from graphitic-phase C3N4 (g-C3N4) to nitrogen-doped graphene. g-C3N4, containing only C and N elements, acts as a self-sacrificing template to construct the framework of nitrogen-doped graphene. The relative contents of graphitic and pyridinic-N can be well-tuned by the controlled annealing process. The resulting nitrogen-doped graphene materials show excellent electrocatalytic activity toward ORR, and much enhanced durability and tolerance to methanol in contrast to the conventional Pt/C electrocatalyst in alkaline medium. It is determined that a higher content of N does not necessarily lead to enhanced electrocatalytic activity; rather, at a relatively low N content and a high ratio of graphitic-N/pyridinic-N, the nitrogen-doped graphene obtained by annealing at 900 C (NGA900) provides the most promising activity for ORR. This study may provide further useful insights on the nature of ORR catalysis of carbon-based materials. PMID:26305578

  15. Enhanced Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells on Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Grausova, Lubica; Kromka, Alexander; Burdikova, Zuzana; Eckhardt, Adam; Rezek, Bohuslav; Vacik, Jiri; Haenen, Ken; Lisa, Vera; Bacakova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films have been proven to be promising substrates for the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of bone-derived cells. To understand the role of various degrees of doping (semiconducting to metallic-like), the NCD films were deposited on silicon substrates by a microwave plasma-enhanced CVD process and their boron doping was achieved by adding trimethylboron to the CH4:H2 gas mixture, the B?C ratio was 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm. The room temperature electrical resistivity of the films decreased from >10 M? (undoped films) to 55 k?, 0.6 k?, and 0.3 k? (doped films with 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm of B, respectively). The increase in the number of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in 7-day-old cultures on NCD films was most apparent on the NCD films doped with 133 and 1000 ppm of B (153,00014,000 and 152,00010,000 cells/cm2, respectively, compared to 113,00010,000 cells/cm2 on undoped NCD films). As measured by ELISA per mg of total protein, the cells on NCD with 133 and 1000 ppm of B also contained the highest concentrations of collagen I and alkaline phosphatase, respectively. On the NCD films with 6700 ppm of B, the cells contained the highest concentration of focal adhesion protein vinculin, and the highest amount of collagen I was adsorbed. The concentration of osteocalcin also increased with increasing level of B doping. The cell viability on all tested NCD films was almost 100%. Measurements of the concentration of ICAM-1, i.e. an immunoglobuline adhesion molecule binding inflammatory cells, suggested that the cells on the NCD films did not undergo significant immune activation. Thus, the potential of NCD films for bone tissue regeneration can be further enhanced and tailored by B doping and that B doping up to metallic-like levels is not detrimental for cells. PMID:21695172

  16. Study of the Thermoelectric Properties of Lead Selenide Doped with Boron, Gallium, Indium, or Thallium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qian; Cao, Feng; Lukas, K; Liu, W S; Esfarjani, Keivan; Opeil, C; Broido, D; Parker, David; Singh, David J.; Chen, Gang; Ren, Z. F.

    2012-10-24

    Group IIIA elements (B, Ga, In, and Tl) have been doped into PbSe for enhancement of thermoelectric properties. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity were systematically studied. Room-temperature Hall measurements showed an effective increase in the electron concentration upon both Ga and In doping and the hole concentration upon Tl doping to 7 10{sup 19} cm{sup 3}. No resonant doping phenomenon was observed when PbSe was doped with B, Ga, or In. The highest room-temperature power factor 2.5 10{sup 3} W m{sup 1} K{sup 2} was obtained for PbSe doped with 2 atom % B. However, the power factor in B-doped samples decreased with increasing temperature, opposite to the trend for the other dopants. A figure of merit (ZT) of 1.2 at 873 K was achieved in PbSe doped with 0.5 atom % Ga or In. With Tl doping, modification of the band structure around the Fermi level helped to increase the Seebeck coefficient, and the lattice thermal conductivity decreased, probably as a result of effective phonon scattering by both the heavy Tl{sup 3+} ions and the increased grain boundary density after ball milling. The highest p-type ZT value was 1.0 at 723 K.

  17. Synthesis of Boron-Doped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Tandem Intramolecular Electrophilic Arene Borylation.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Fumiya; Nakatsuka, Soichiro; Yamada, Keitaro; Nakayama, Ken-Ichi; Hatakeyama, Takuji

    2015-12-18

    Tandem intramolecular electrophilic arene borylation was developed to facilitate access to B-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). DFT calculations revealed that electrophilic arene borylation occurred via a four-membered ring transition state, in which C-B and H-Br bonds formed in a concerted manner. An organic light-emitting diode employing the B-doped PAH as an emitter and a B-doped PAH-based field-effect transistor were successfully fabricated, demonstrating the potential of B-doped PAHs in materials science. PMID:26606580

  18. Study of the thermoelectric properties of lead selenide doped with boron, gallium, indium, or thallium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Cao, Feng; Lukas, Kevin; Liu, Weishu; Esfarjani, Keivan; Opeil, Cyril; Broido, David; Parker, David; Singh, David J; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2012-10-24

    Group IIIA elements (B, Ga, In, and Tl) have been doped into PbSe for enhancement of thermoelectric properties. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity were systematically studied. Room-temperature Hall measurements showed an effective increase in the electron concentration upon both Ga and In doping and the hole concentration upon Tl doping to ~7 10(19) cm(-3). No resonant doping phenomenon was observed when PbSe was doped with B, Ga, or In. The highest room-temperature power factor ~2.5 10(-3) W m(-1) K(-2) was obtained for PbSe doped with 2 atom % B. However, the power factor in B-doped samples decreased with increasing temperature, opposite to the trend for the other dopants. A figure of merit (ZT) of ~1.2 at ~873 K was achieved in PbSe doped with 0.5 atom % Ga or In. With Tl doping, modification of the band structure around the Fermi level helped to increase the Seebeck coefficient, and the lattice thermal conductivity decreased, probably as a result of effective phonon scattering by both the heavy Tl(3+) ions and the increased grain boundary density after ball milling. The highest p-type ZT value was ~1.0 at ~723 K. PMID:23025440

  19. Nitrogen- and boron-co-doped core-shell carbon nanoparticles as efficient metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reactions in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shengkui; Zhou, Lihua; Wu, Ling; Tang, Lianfeng; He, Qiyi; Ahmed, Jalal

    2014-12-01

    The most severe bottleneck hindering the widespread application of fuel cell technologies is the difficulty in obtaining an inexpensive and abundant oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The concept of a heteroatom-doped carbon-based metal-free catalyst has recently attracted interest. In this study, a metal-free carbon nanoparticles-based catalyst hybridized with dual nitrogen and boron components was synthesized to catalyze the ORR in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Multiple physical and chemical characterizations confirmed that the synthetic method enabled the incorporation of both nitrogen and boron dopants. The electrochemical measurements indicated that the co-existence of nitrogen and boron could enhance the ORR kinetics by reducing the overpotential and increasing the current density. The results from the kinetic studies indicated that the nitrogen and boron induced an oxygen adsorption mechanism and a four-electron-dominated reaction pathway for the as-prepared catalyst that was very similar to those induced by Pt/C. The MFC results showed that a maximum power density of ˜642 mW m-2 was obtained using the as-prepared catalyst, which is comparable to that obtained using expensive Pt catalyst. The prepared nitrogen- and boron-co-doped carbon nanoparticles might be an alternative cathode catalyst for MFC applications if large-scale applications and price are considered.

  20. Ultra-long zinc oxide nanowires and boron doping based on ionic liquid assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition growth.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas; Komin, Kris; Yang, Yang; Gder, Firat; Trouillet, Vanessa; Werner, Peter; Zacharias, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquid assisted growth of ultra-long ZnO nanowires from thermal chemical vapor deposition and the incorporation of dopants into the ZnO lattice have been investigated. We find that decomposed components of the ionic liquid at higher temperatures facilitate ultra-long vapor-liquid-solid ZnO nanowires that exhibit an unusual a-axis orientation. In particular, the ionic liquid BMImBF4 has been studied and the mechanism of the nanowire growth model in response to the use of the ionic liquid has been explained. We show that boron which is part of the investigated ionic liquid incorporates into the ZnO lattice and serves as a donor source. Electrical measurements were conducted and have shown an enhanced electrical conductivity (? = 0.09 ? cm) when using the ionic liquid assisted growth approach. This work represents a step towards the controlled doping for designing future nanowire devices. PMID:25407691

  1. Electrocatalytic and photocatalytic activity of Pt-TiO2 films on boron-doped diamond substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sp?taru, Tan?a; Marcu, Maria; Sp?taru, Nicolae

    2013-03-01

    In the present work boron-doped diamond (BDD) polycrystalline films were used as support for direct anodic deposition of hydrous titanium oxide, and continuous TiO2 coatings were obtained by appropriately adjusting the deposition charge. The photoelectrochemical activity of the TiO2/BDD electrodes was investigated and it was found that, in terms of charge carriers separation efficiency, conductive diamond is a much better support for TiO2, compared to traditional carbonaceous materials such as glassy carbon. Further electrochemical deposition of platinum particles on the oxide-coated conductive diamond enabled the formation of a composite with enhanced electrochemically active surface area. The electrocatalytic and photocatalytic properties of the Pt/TiO2/BDD electrodes thus obtained were also scrutinized and it appeared that these hybrid systems also exhibit promising features for methanol anodic oxidation.

  2. Adsorption of SO2 molecule on doped (8, 0) boron nitride nanotube: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zun-Yi; Zhang, Jian-Min; Xu, Ke-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Adsorptions of SO2 on Al-, Ca-, Co-, Cu-, Ge-, Ni-, and Si-doped (8, 0) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) have been studied using first-principles approach based on density functional theory in order to exploit their potential applications as SO2 gas sensors. The electronic properties of the BNNT-molecule adsorption adducts are strongly dependent on the dopants. The most stable adsorption geometries, adsorption energies, charge transfers, and density of states of these systems are thoroughly discussed. This work reveals that the sensitivity of (8, 0) BNNT based chemical gas sensors for SO2 can be drastically improved by introducing appropriate dopant. Si is found to be the best choice among all the dopants.

  3. Chemometric study on the electrochemical incineration of nitrilotriacetic acid using platinum and boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyong; He, Zhenzhu; Wu, Jingyu; Fu, Degang

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the electrochemical incineration of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and platinum (Pt) anodes. Trials were performed in the presence of sulfate electrolyte media under recirculation mode. The parameters that influence the degradation efficiency were investigated, including applied current density, flow rate, supporting electrolyte concentration and reaction time. To reduce the number of experiments, the system had been managed under chemometric technique named Doehlert matrix. As a consequence, the mineralization of NTA demonstrated similar behavior upon operating parameters on these two anodes. Further kinetic study indicated that the degradations followed pseudo-first-order reactions for both BDD and Pt anodes, and the reaction rate constant of the former was found to be higher than that of the latter. Such difference could be interpreted by results from fractal analysis. In addition, a reaction sequence for NTA mineralization considering all the detected intermediates was also proposed. PMID:25747300

  4. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: Application to stomach disorder diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, Stphane; Seishima, Ryo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the in vivo electrochemical monitoring of pH using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode and silver needles for potential application in medical diagnosis. Accurate calibration curve for pH determination were obtained through in vitro electrochemical measurements. The increase induced in stomach pH by treatment with pantoprazole was used to demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the pH in vivo using the simple and noninvasive system proposed herein. Using the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments, a quantitative analysis of the increase in stomach pH is also presented. It is proposed that the catheter-free pH monitoring system presented in this study could be potentially employed in any biological environment.

  5. Modification of the surface morphology of the silicon substrate for boron-doped diamond electrodes in electrochemical wastewater treatment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Kim, Jung-Do; Lim, Dae-Soon

    2016-01-01

    For electrochemical wastewater treatment applications, textured boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were fabricated by using a simple and cost-effective etching process. On the basis of the surface area measurement, the etching time was optimized in order to achieve higher electrochemical wastewater treatment performance. The surface structure, electrochemical properties, and electrochemical oxidation performance of the electrodes were characterized by using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, in addition to electrochemical techniques. The textured BDD electrode demonstrated a dense and large surface area with no change in the film's properties. The effective surface area of the textured BDD electrode was approximately twice as large as that of the planar BDD electrode. The electrochemical results clearly demonstrate that the enhanced surface area of the BDD electrode achieves a higher current efficiency and much lower energy consumption in the electrochemical oxidation of methyl-orange.

  6. Large deep-ultraviolet photocurrent in metal-semiconductor-metal structures fabricated on as-grown boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Jose; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo

    2005-09-01

    Metal-semiconductor-metal planar devices have been fabricated on as-grown boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond thin films. They consist of two Schottky barriers connected back to back. The metal employed was a thin titanium (Ti) layer (5nm) followed by a gold (Au) cap layer (50nm), respectively. The structure shows a high ultraviolet photocurrent at 220nm, which is seven orders of magnitude higher than the reverse dark current (<1pA) for at least an applied voltage of 0.4V. In addition, anomalous photoconductivity gain is observed. A plausible explanation could be the modification of the Schottky barrier under band-to-band illumination. The spectral photoresponse displays over six orders of magnitude discrimination between deep-ultraviolet (210nm) and visible light (630nm), and reveals a shoulder with an onset at 4.6eV.

  7. Photochromism-induced amplification of critical current density in superconducting boron-doped diamond with an azobenzene molecular layer.

    PubMed

    Natsui, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi; Akahori, Miku; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-01-14

    A key issue in molecular electronics is the control of electronic states by optical stimuli, which enables fast and high-density data storage and temporal-spatial control over molecular processes. In this article, we report preparation of a photoswitchable superconductor using a heavily boron-doped diamond (BDD) with a photochromic azobenzene (AZ) molecular layer. BDDs electrode properties allow for electrochemical immobilization, followed by copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (a "click" reaction). Superconducting properties were examined with magnetic and electrical transport measurements, such as field-dependent isothermal magnetization, temperature-dependent resistance, and the low-temperature voltage-current response. These measurements revealed reversible amplification of the critical current density by 55% upon photoisomerization. This effect is explained as the reversible photoisomerization of AZ inducing an inhomogeneous electron distribution along the BDD surface that renormalizes the surface pinning contribution to the critical current. PMID:25494096

  8. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of synthetic colorants in food using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Roberta A; Lourencao, Bruna C; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2012-08-15

    Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode were used to simultaneously determine two pairs of synthetic food colorants commonly found mixed in food products: tartrazine (TT) and sunset yellow (SY) or brilliant blue (BB) and sunset yellow (SY). In the DPV measurements using the BDD electrode, the reduction peak potentials of TT and SY or BB and SY were separated by about 150 mV. The detection limit values obtained for the simultaneous determination of TT and SY or BB and SY were 62.7 nmol L(-1) and 13.1 nmol L(-1) or 143 nmol L(-1) and 25.6 nmol L(-1), respectively. The novel proposed voltammetric method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of these synthetic colorants in food products, with results similar to those obtained using a HPLC method at 95% confidence level. PMID:22841082

  9. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: application to stomach disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Stphane; Seishima, Ryo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the in vivo electrochemical monitoring of pH using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode and silver needles for potential application in medical diagnosis. Accurate calibration curve for pH determination were obtained through in vitro electrochemical measurements. The increase induced in stomach pH by treatment with pantoprazole was used to demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the pH in vivo using the simple and noninvasive system proposed herein. Using the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments, a quantitative analysis of the increase in stomach pH is also presented. It is proposed that the catheter-free pH monitoring system presented in this study could be potentially employed in any biological environment. PMID:24247214

  10. Enhanced field emission characteristics of boron doped diamond films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koinkar, Pankaj M.; Patil, Sandip S.; Kim, Tae-Gyu; Yonekura, Daisuke; More, Mahendra A.; Joag, Dilip S.; Murakami, Ri-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Boron doped diamond films were synthesized on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) technique. The effect of B 2O 3 concentration varied from 1000 to 5000 ppm on the field emission characteristics was examined. The surface morphology and quality of films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology obtained by SEM showed variation from facetted microcrystal covered with nanometric grains to cauliflower of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) particles with increasing B 2O 3 concentration. The Raman spectra confirm the formation of NCD films. The field emission properties of NCD films were observed to improve upon increasing boron concentration. The values of the onset field and threshold field are observed to be as low as 0.36 and 0.08 V/?m, respectively. The field emission current stability investigated at the preset value of 1 ?A is observed to be good, in each case. The enhanced field emission properties are attributed to the better electrical conductivity coupled with the nanometric features of the diamond films.

  11. Ultra-long zinc oxide nanowires and boron doping based on ionic liquid assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Andreas; Komin, Kris; Yang, Yang; Gder, Firat; Trouillet, Vanessa; Werner, Peter; Zacharias, Margit

    2014-11-01

    Ionic liquid assisted growth of ultra-long ZnO nanowires from thermal chemical vapor deposition and the incorporation of dopants into the ZnO lattice have been investigated. We find that decomposed components of the ionic liquid at higher temperatures facilitate ultra-long vapor-liquid-solid ZnO nanowires that exhibit an unusual a-axis orientation. In particular, the ionic liquid BMImBF4 has been studied and the mechanism of the nanowire growth model in response to the use of the ionic liquid has been explained. We show that boron which is part of the investigated ionic liquid incorporates into the ZnO lattice and serves as a donor source. Electrical measurements were conducted and have shown an enhanced electrical conductivity (? = 0.09 ? cm) when using the ionic liquid assisted growth approach. This work represents a step towards the controlled doping for designing future nanowire devices.Ionic liquid assisted growth of ultra-long ZnO nanowires from thermal chemical vapor deposition and the incorporation of dopants into the ZnO lattice have been investigated. We find that decomposed components of the ionic liquid at higher temperatures facilitate ultra-long vapor-liquid-solid ZnO nanowires that exhibit an unusual a-axis orientation. In particular, the ionic liquid BMImBF4 has been studied and the mechanism of the nanowire growth model in response to the use of the ionic liquid has been explained. We show that boron which is part of the investigated ionic liquid incorporates into the ZnO lattice and serves as a donor source. Electrical measurements were conducted and have shown an enhanced electrical conductivity (? = 0.09 ? cm) when using the ionic liquid assisted growth approach. This work represents a step towards the controlled doping for designing future nanowire devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05426a

  12. Examination of the factors affecting the electrochemical performance of oxygen-terminated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Laura A; Iacobini, James G; Bitziou, Eleni; Channon, Robert B; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2013-08-01

    In order to produce polycrystalline oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes suitable for electroanalysis (i.e., widest solvent window, lowest capacitive currents, stable and reproducible current responses, and capable of demonstrating fast electron transfer) for outer sphere redox couples, the following factors must be considered. The material must contain enough boron that the electrode shows metal-like conductivity; electrical measurements demonstrate that this is achieved at [B] > 10(20) B atoms cm(-3). Even though BDD contains a lower density of states than a metal, it is not necessary to use extreme doping levels to achieve fast heterogeneous electron transfer (HET). An average [B] ~ 3 10(20) B atoms cm(-3) was found to be optimal; increasing [B] results in higher capacitive values and increases the likelihood of nondiamond carbon (NDC) incorporation. Hydrogen-termination causes a semiconducting BDD electrode to behave metal-like due to the additional surface conductivity hydrogen termination brings. Thus, unless [B] of the material is known, the electrical properties of the electrode may be incorrectly interpreted. Note, this layer (formed on a lapped electrode) is electrochemically unstable, an effect which is exacerbated at increased potentials. It is essential during growth that NDC is minimized as it acts to increase capacitive currents and decrease the solvent window. We found complete removal of NDC after growth using aggressive acid cleans, acid cycling, and diamond polishing impossible. Although hydrogen termination can mask the NDC signature in the solvent window and lower capacitive currents, this is not a practical procedure for improving sensitivity in electroanalysis. Finally, alumina polishing of lapped, NDC free, freestanding, BDD electrodes was found to be an effective way to produce well-defined, stable, and reproducible surfaces, which support fast (reversible) HET for Fe(CN)6(4-) electrolysis, the first time this has been reported at an oxygen-terminated surface. PMID:23790001

  13. Cathodic and anodic pre-treated boron doped diamond with different sp2 content: Morphological, structural, and impedance spectroscopy characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldan, M. R.; Azevedo, A. F.; Couto, A. B.; Ferreira, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the influence of cathodic (Red) and anodic (Ox) pre-treatment on boron doped diamond (BDD) films grown with different sp2/sp3 ratios was systematically studied. The sp2/sp3 ratios were controlled by the addition of CH4 of 1,3,5 and 7 sccm in the gas inlet during the growth process. The electrodes were treated in 0.5 mol L-1 H2SO4 at -3 and 3 V vs Ag/AgCl, respectively, for 30 min. The electrochemical response of BDD films was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky Plot (MSP) measurements. Four film sample sets were produced in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition reactor. During the growth process, an additional H2 line passing through a bubbler containing the B2O3 dissolved in methanol was used to carry the boron. The scanning electron microscopy morphology showed well faced films with a small decrease in their grain size as the CH4 concentration increased. The Raman spectra depicted a pronounced sp2 band, mainly for films with 5 and 7 sccm of CH4. MSP showed a decrease in the acceptor concentration as the CH4 increased indicating the CH4 influence on the doping process for Red-BDD and Ox-BDD samples. Nonetheless, an apparent increase in the acceptor concentrations for both Ox-BDD samples was observed compared to that for Red-BDD samples, mainly attributed to the surface conductive layer (SCL) formation after this strong oxidation process. The EIS Nyquist plots for Red-BDD showed a capacitance increase for the films with higher sp2 content (5 and 7 sccm). On the other hand, the Nyquist plots for Ox-BDD can be described as semicircles near the origin, at high frequencies, where their charge transfer resistance strongly varied with the sp2 increase in such films.

  14. Effect of reaction conditions on methyl red degradation mediated by boron and nitrogen doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galenda, A.; Crociani, L.; Habra, N. El; Favaro, M.; Natile, M. M.; Rossetto, G.

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays the employment of renewable and sustainable energy sources, and solar light as main option, becomes an urgent need. Photocatalytic processes received great attention in wastewater treatment due to their cheapness, environmental compatibility and optimal performances. Despite the general low selectivity of the photocatalysts, an accurate optimisation of the operational parameters needs to be carried out in order to maximise the process yield. Because of this reason, the present contribution aims to deepen either the knowledge in boron and/or nitrogen doped TiO2-based systems and their employment in methyl red removal from aqueous solutions. The samples were obtained by coprecipitation and characterised by XRD, SEM, BET specific surface area, UV-vis and XPS techniques. The catalytic activity was for the first time carefully evaluated with respect to methyl red photodegradation in different conditions as a function of working pH, counter-ions and pre-adsorption time. An ad-hoc study was performed on the importance of the pre-adsorption of the dye, suggesting that an extended adsorption is useless for the catalyst photoactivity, while a partial coverage is preferable. The photocatalytic tests demonstrate the positive influence of boron doping in photo-activated reactions and the great importance of the operational parameters with respect to the simple methyl red bleaching rather than the overall pollutant mineralisation. It is proved, indeed, that different working pH, acidifying means and substrate pre-adsorption time can enhance or limit the catalyst performances with respect to the complete pollutant degradation rather than its partial breakage.

  15. First-principles study on the adsorption properties of phenylalanine on carbon graphitic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seoung-Hun; Kwon, Dae-Gyeon; Park, Sora; Kwon, Young-Kyun

    2015-12-01

    Using ab-initio density functional theory, we investigate the binding properties of phenylalanine, an amino acid, on graphitic carbon structures, such as graphene, nanotubes, and their modified structures. We focus especially on the effect of the adsorbate on the geometrical and the electronic structures of the absorbents. The phenylalanine molecule is found to bind weakly on pristine graphitic structures with a binding energy of 40-70 meV and not to change the electronic configuration of the graphitic structures, implying that the phenylalanine molecule may not be detected on pristine graphitic structures. On the other hand, the phenylalanine molecule exhibits a substantial increase in its binding energy up to ~2.60 eV on the magnesium-decorated boron-doped graphitic structures. We discover that the Fermi level of the system, which was shifted below the Dirac point of the graphitic structures due to p-doping by boron substitution, can be completely restored to the Dirac point because of the amino acid adsorption. This behavior implies that such modified structures can be utilized to detect phenylalanine molecules.

  16. Molecular dynamics investigations of boron doping in a-Si:H

    SciTech Connect

    Fedders, P.A.; Drabold, D.A.

    1997-07-01

    The rather low doping efficiency of B in a-Si:H is almost always explained by the argument that almost all of the B is incorporated into three-fold coordinated sites and that B is inert or non-doping in this configuration. Using ab initio molecular dynamics, the authors have studied the energetics and doping (electronic structure) consequences of B incorporation into a-Si:H both with and without H passivation. Their results suggest that the conventional view is in error and that the low doping efficiency is primarily due to H passivation. These results are consistent with the low doping efficiency of B as well as NMR studies on the large electric field gradients experienced by the B atoms and on NMR double resonance studies of B-H neighboring distances.

  17. Boron-nitrogen doped carbon scaffolding: organic chemistry, self-assembly and materials applications of borazine and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, Davide; Fasano, Francesco; Lorenzo-Garcia, M Mercedes; Marinelli, Davide; Oubaha, Hamid; Tasseroul, Jonathan

    2015-10-25

    Discovered by Stock and Pohland in 1926, borazine is the isoelectronic and isostructural inorganic analogue of benzene, where the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bonds are substituted by B-N bonds. The strong polarity of such heteroatomic bonds widens the HOMO-LUMO gap of the molecule, imparting strong UV-emitting/absorption and electrical insulating properties. These properties make borazine and its derivatives valuable molecular scaffolds to be inserted as doping units in graphitic-based carbon materials to tailor their optoelectronic characteristics, and specifically their semiconducting properties. By guiding the reader through the most significant examples in the field, in this feature paper we describe the past and recent developments in the organic synthesis and functionalisation of borazine and its derivatives. These boosted the production of a large variety of tailored derivatives, broadening their use in optoelectronics, H2 storage and supramolecular functional architectures, to name a few. PMID:26411675

  18. Charge transfer, bonding conditioning and solvation effect in the activation of the oxygen reduction reaction on unclustered graphitic-nitrogen-doped graphene.

    PubMed

    Ferre-Vilaplana, Adolfo; Herrero, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    The monodentate associative chemisorption of molecular oxygen on unclustered graphitic-nitrogen-doped graphene requires two nitrogen dopants per activated molecule. Significant charge transfers from regions corresponding to distant nitrogen-dopants, the presence of a nitrogen-dopant adjacent to the carbon atom acting as an active site, which favours its transition from a sp(2) hybridization state to sp(3), and the solvation effect turn the investigated mechanism to a favourable process. PMID:26054255

  19. Fabrication route for the production of coplanar, diamond insulated, boron doped diamond macro- and microelectrodes of any geometry.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Maxim B; Bitziou, Eleni; Read, Tania L; Meng, Lingcong; Palmer, Nicola L; Mollart, Tim P; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2014-06-01

    Highly doped, boron doped diamond (BDD) is an electrode material with great potential, but the fabrication of suitable electrodes in a variety of different geometries both at the macro- and microscale, with an insulating material that does not compromise the material properties of the BDD, presents technical challenges. In this Technical Note, a novel solution to this problem is presented, resulting in the fabrication of coplanar macro- and microscale BDD electrodes, insulated by insulating diamond, at the single and multiple, individually addressable level. Using a laser micromachining approach, the required electrode(s) geometry is machined into an insulating diamond substrate, followed by overgrowth of high quality polycrystalline BDD (pBDD) and polishing to reveal approximately nanometer roughness, coplanar all-diamond structures. Electrical contacting is possible using both top and bottom contacts, where the latter are defined using the laser to produce non-diamond-carbon (NDC) in the vicinity of the back side of the BDD. We present the fabrication of individually addressable ring, band, and disk electrodes with minimum, reproducible controlled dimensions of 50 ?m (limited only by the laser system employed). The pBDD grown into the insulating diamond recesses is shown to be free from NDC and possesses excellent electrochemical properties, in terms of extended solvent windows, electrochemical reversibility, and capacitance. PMID:24814161

  20. Spin-unrestricted linear-scaling electronic structure theory and its application to magnetic carbon-doped boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, H. J.; Liang, W. Z.; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J. G.; Zhu, Qingshi

    2005-09-01

    We present an extension of the density-matrix-based linear-scaling electronic structure theory to incorporate spin degrees of freedom. When the spin multiplicity of the system can be predetermined, the generalization of the existing linear-scaling methods to spin-unrestricted cases is straightforward. However, without calculations it is hard to determine the spin multiplicity of some complex systems, such as many magnetic nanostuctures and some inorganic or bioinorganic molecules. Here we give a general prescription to obtain the spin-unrestricted ground state of open-shell systems. Our methods are implemented into the linear-scaling trace-correcting density-matrix purification algorithm. The numerical atomic-orbital basis, rather than the commonly adopted Gaussian basis functions, is used. The test systems include O2 molecule and magnetic carbon-doped boron nitride (BN)(5,5) and BN(7,6) nanotubes. Using the newly developed method, we find that the magnetic moments in carbon-doped BN nanotubes couple antiferromagnetically with each other. Our results suggest that the linear-scaling spin-unrestricted trace-correcting purification method is very powerful to treat large magnetic systems.

  1. Transition-metal dispersion on carbon-doped boron nitride nanostructures: Applications for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Liao, Ji-Hai; Yang, Xiao-Bao

    2012-07-01

    Using density-functional theory calculations, we investigated the adsorption of transition-metal (TM) atoms (TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) on carbon doped hexagonal boron nitride (BN) sheet and the corresponding cage (B12N12). With carbon substitution of nitrogen, Sc, V, Cr, and Mn atoms were energetically favorable to be dispersed on the BN nanostructures without clustering or the formation of TM dimers, due to the strong binding between TM atoms and substrate, which contains the half-filled levels above the valence bands maximum. The carbon doped BN nanostructures with dispersed Sc could store up to five and six H2, respectively, with the average binding energy of 0.3 0.4 eV, indicating the possibility of fabricating hydrogen storage media with high capacity. We also demonstrated that the geometrical effect is important for the hydrogen storage, leading to a modulation of the charge distributions of d levels, which dominates the binding between H2 and TM atoms.

  2. Evidence for substitutional boron in doped single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, P.; Pichler, T.; Reppert, J.; Rao, A. M.; Grobosch, M.; Knupfer, M.

    2010-05-03

    Precise determination of acceptors in the laser ablation grown B doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been elusive. Photoemission spectroscopy finds evidence for subpercent substitutional B in this material, which leads to superconductivity in thin film SWNT samples.

  3. Electrical properties and hyperfine interactions of boron doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Md; nal, B.; Geleri, M.; Gngne?, H.; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Baykal, A.

    2015-12-01

    The single spinel phase nano-structured particles of FeBxFe2-xO4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were synthesized by the glycothermal method and the effect of B3+ substitution on structural and dielectric properties of Fe3O4 were studied. From 57Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy data, the variation in line width, isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and hyperfine magnetic field values on B3+ substitution have been determined. The hyperfine field values at B- and A-sites gradually decrease with increasing B3+ ion concentration (x). The cation distributions obtained from Bertaut method are in line with Mssbauer results. Complex impedance analysis of boron-substituted spinel ferrites have been made extensively in order to investigate the significant changes in ac and dc conductivity as well as complex permittivity when the boron composition ratio varies from 0.1 to 0.5. It is found that both ac and dc conductivity are also dependent on the boron content in addition to both temperature and applied frequency. The dc conductivity tendency does not purely obey the Arrhenius plots. The dielectric constant and loss of complex permittivity, in general, show similar attitudes as seen in some nanocomposites containing spinel ferrites except for some fluctuations and shifts along the characteristics of the curves. Furthermore, their imaginary components of both permittivity and modulus are almost found to obey the power law with any exponent values varying between 0.5 and 2 in accordance with the level of boron concentrations.

  4. Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Amorphous Carbon Spheres@Graphitic Shells Derived from Pitch: New Structure Leads to Robust Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingtao; Wang, Luxiang; Xia, Wei; Jia, Dianzeng; Zhao, Zongbin

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous hollow carbon spheres (NHCS) consisting of hybridized amorphous and graphitic carbon were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition with pitch as raw material. Treatment with HNO3 vapor was performed to incorporate oxygen-containing groups on NHCS, and the resulting NHCS-O showed excellent rate capacity, high reversible capacity, and excellent cycling stability when tested as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries. The NHCS-O electrode maintained a reversible specific capacity of 616?mAh?g(-1) after 250 cycles at a current rate of 500?mA?g(-1) , which is an increase of 113?% compared to the pristine hollow carbon spheres. In addition, the NHCS-O electrode exhibited a reversible capacity of 503?mAh?g(-1) at a high current density of 1.5?A?g(-1) . The superior electrochemical performance of NHCS-O can be attributed to the hybrid structure, high N and O contents, and rich surface defects. PMID:26751009

  5. Adsorption of diazinon and hinosan molecules on the iron-doped boron nitride nanotubes surface in gas phase and aqueous solution: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood; Rezainejad, Hamid

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the geometric structures and electronic properties of two widely used organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon and hinosan, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and Fe doped boron nitride nanotubes (FeBNNTs) as adsorbents of these pesticides are studied by density functional theory calculation as well as dispersion correction by Grimme method. The results show that Fe doping in boron nitride nanotubes structures increases the potency of nanotubes to adsorb mentioned pesticides, especially when Fe atom located instead of N atom. Comparing the adsorption energies of diazinon on FeBNNTs with ones for hinosan demonstrate that the adsorption of hinosan is energetically more favorable by FeBNNTs. Assessment of adsorption energies in aqueous solution confirmed significant decrease in their values compared to ones in gaseous phase. However, the adsorption of diazinon and hinosan on both BNNTs and FeBNNTs are exothermic. So, BNNTs and FeBNNTs may be promising candidates as appropriate adsorbents for adsorbing diazinon and hinosan. Also, the results of calculations have revealed that van der Waals interaction energies are remarkably large in adsorption of diazinon and hinosan on all boron nitride nanotubes.

  6. Rules of boron-nitrogen doping in defect graphene sheets: a first-principles investigation of band-gap tuning and oxygen reduction reaction catalysis capabilities.

    PubMed

    Sen, Dipayan; Thapa, Ranjit; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-08-25

    Introduction of defects and nitrogen doping are two of the most pursued methods to tailor the properties of graphene for better suitability to applications such as catalysis and energy conversion. Doping nitrogen atoms at defect sites of graphene and codoping them along with boron atoms can further increase the efficiency of such systems due to better stability of nitrogen at defect sites and stabilization provided by B-N bonding. Systematic exploration of the possible doping/codoping configurations reflecting defect regions of graphene presents a prevalent doping site for nitrogen-rich BN clusters and they are also highly suitable for modulating (0.2-0.9 eV) the band gap of defect graphene. Such codoped systems perform significantly better than the platinum surface, undoped defect graphene, and the single nitrogen or boron atom doped defect graphene system for dioxygen adsorption. Significant stretching of the O-O bond indicates a lowering of the bond breakage barrier, which is advantageous for applications in the oxygen reduction reaction. PMID:24910355

  7. Effective visible light-active boron and europium co-doped BiVO4 synthesized by sol-gel method for photodegradion of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Che, Yinsheng; Niu, Chao; Dang, Mingyan; Dong, Duo

    2013-11-15

    Eu-B co-doped BiVO4 visible-light-driven photocatalysts have been synthesized using the sol-gel method. The resulting materials were characterized by a series of joint techniques, including XPS, XRD, SEM, BET, and UV-vis DRS analyses. Compared with BiVO4 and B-BiVO4 photocatalysts, the Eu-B-BiVO4 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity for methyl orange (MO) degradation under visible light irradiation. The optimal Eu doping content is 0.8 mol%. It was revealed that boron and europium were doped into the lattice of BiVO4 and this led to more surface oxygen vacancies, high specific surface areas, small crystallite size, a narrower band gap and intense light absorbance in the visible region. The doped Eu(III) cations can help in the separation of photogenerated electrons. The synergistic effects of boron and europium in doped BiVO4 were the main reason for improving visible light photocatalytic activity. PMID:24076480

  8. An intensified π-hole in beryllium-doped boron nitride meshes: its determinant role in CO2 conversion into hydrocarbon fuels.

    PubMed

    Azofra, Luis Miguel; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Sun, Chenghua

    2016-02-28

    DFT investigations on beryllium-doped boron nitride meshes or sheets (BNs) predict the existence of a very reactive kind of novel material capable of spontaneously reducing the first hydrogenation step in the CO2 conversion mechanism. This impressive behaviour appears as a result of the very deep π-hole generated by the beryllium moieties, and also determines its selectivity towards the production of CH4. PMID:26841973

  9. Improvement of epitaxial channel quality on heavily arsenic- and boron-doped Si surfaces and impact on performance of tunnel field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yukinori; Mori, Takahiro; Migita, Shinji; Mizubayashi, Wataru; Fukuda, Koichi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Endo, Kazuhiko; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Liu, Yongxun; Masahara, Meishoku; Ota, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    We evaluate the impact of tunnel junction quality on the performance of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). The interface between epitaxially grown channel and source surface was used as tunnel junctions. Performing a sequential surface cleaning procedure prior to epitaxial channel growth for heavily arsenic- and boron-doped Si surfaces improved the interface quality both for p- and n-TFETs. Simultaneously, the subthreshold swing (SS) values of the TFETs improved step-by-step with interface quality.

  10. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid using a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films.

    PubMed

    Tyszczuk-Rotko, Katarzyna; B?czkowska, Ilona; Wjciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and application of a novel sensor (a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films) for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid by differential pulse voltammetry. The main advantage of the lead film and polymer covered boron-doped diamond electrode is that the sensitivity of the stripping responses is increased and the separation of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved due to the modification of the boron-doped diamond surface by the lead layer. Additionally, the repeatability of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved by the application of the Nafion film coating. In the presence of oxygen, linear calibration curves were obtained in a wide concentration range from 510(-7) to 210(-4) mol L(-1) for paracetamol and from 110(-6) to 510(-4) mol L(-1) for ascorbic acid. The analytical utility of the differential pulse voltammetric method elaborated was tested in the assay of paracetamol and ascorbic acid in commercially available pharmaceutical formulations and the method was validated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. PMID:25127609

  11. Studies on distribution of element contents in transient layer at interface between boron-doped diamond film electrode and tantalum substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiachang; Gao, Chengyao; Zhang, Liping; Jiang, Lihui; Yang, Zhengquan; Wang, Zhiping; Ji, Chaohui; Le, Xiaoyun; Rong, Cuihua; Zhang, Jian

    2011-05-01

    The boron-doped diamond film (BDD) grown on tantalum (Ta) substrate as an electrode (BDD/Ta) was prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition method. The experimental results demonstrated that our BDD/Ta had high current efficiency, strong ability to degrade wastewater, good corrosion stability and long lifetime. These excellent characteristics of BDD/Ta have been explained in terms of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) experiments. RBS investigation revealed that the continuous transient layer at the interface between boron-doped diamond film and Ta-substrate was formed and the microstructure of the continuous transient layer given by the continuous distribution of all element contents at the interface was obtained. The thicknesses of boron-doped diamond film and the continuous transient layer were about equal to 8000 10 15 atoms/cm 2 and 5800 10 15 atoms/cm 2, respectively. The formation of the continuous transient layer at the interface can eliminate the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) at the interface and only lead to the slow change of TEC because of the continuous distribution of element contents of the film and substrate in the transient layer at the interface. Thus, there is no residual stress to concentrate on the interface and the stress-corrosion delamination of the film disappears. Therefore, the corrosion stability and lifetime of BDD/Ta increase and last well, that have been verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments.

  12. A new assisted molecular cycloaddition on boron doped silicon surfaces: a predictive DFT-D study.

    PubMed

    Boukari, Khaoula; Duverger, Eric; Stauffer, Louise; Sonnet, Philippe

    2014-06-28

    In the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT-D), we investigate the phthalocyanine (H2Pc) molecule adsorption on SiC(0001)3 3 and Si(111)?3 ?3R30-B (SiB) surfaces, and particularly compare the involved molecular adsorptions. In the H2Pc-SiC(0001)3 3 system, the molecular adsorption can be ascribed to a [10+2] cycloaddition. The H2Pc-SiB system is considered in three cases: defectless SiB surface (denoted SiB-0D) and SiB surfaces presenting one or two boron defects (denoted SiB-1D and SiB-2D respectively). The SiB-0D surface is passivated by a charge transfer from the Si adatoms to the boron atoms and therefore no chemical bond between the molecule and the substrate is observed. A similar molecular adsorption as already evidenced in the H2Pc-SiC(0001)3 3 system is involved in the SiB-2D case. In the case of the SiB-1D surface, two Si-N bonds (Si1-N1 and Si2-N2) are observed. One of them, Si1-N1, is nearly similar to that found in the H2Pc-SiB-2D system, but the Si2-N2 bond is unexpected. The Bader charge analysis suggests that, in the presence of the H2Pc molecule, the boron atoms behave like an electron reservoir whose availability varies following the involved molecular adsorption process. In the SiB-1D case, charges are transferred from the substrate to the molecule, allowing the Si2-N2 bond formation. Such a kind of molecular adsorption, not yet observed, could be designed by "assisted pseudo cycloaddition". PMID:24817040

  13. Ion blistering of boron-doped silicon: The critical role of defect passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Desrosiers, N.; Giguere, A.; Moutanabbir, O.; Terreault, B.

    2005-12-05

    The microscopic mechanism of hydrogen ion blistering of silicon was investigated using Raman scattering spectroscopy and thermal desorption spectrometry. The data in B-doped Si({approx}10{sup -3}/{omega} cm) are particularly worth noting, since B doping at this level strongly reduces both the ion dose and the thermal budget required for blistering. In that case the Si-H stretch mode is found to be shifted markedly towards higher frequencies characteristic of highly passivated vacancies and internal surfaces. It is deduced that the degree of defect passivation is a most critical factor for blistering.

  14. Layered structure of anodic SiO{sub 2} films doped with phosphorus or boron

    SciTech Connect

    Mileshko, L. P.

    2009-12-15

    It is shown that anodic silicon oxide films deposited by reanodization (repeated anodic oxidation) of p- and n-type silicon in phosphate (1.5 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}), borate (1.5 M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), and nitrate (0.04 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) electrolytes based on tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol have a three- or four-layer structure both before and after high-temperature annealing. It is assumed that this circumstance accounts for the nonuniform distribution of phosphorus and boron across the thickness of anodic SiO{sub 2}.

  15. Ab initio study of phase transition of boron nitride between zinc-blende and rhombohedral structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, S.; Funashima, H.; Sato, K.; Katayama-Yoshida, H.

    2013-12-04

    Boron nitride has polymorphs such as zinc-blende (c-BN), wurtzite (w-BN), rhombohedral (r-BN), and graphite-like (h-BN) forms. We simulate the direct conversion of r-BN to c-BN through electronic excitation. In our calculation, the conversion is made possible by increasing the hole concentration to over 0.06/atom. This conversion should be experimentally possible by hole-doping via an electric double layer transistor (EDLT) or capacitor.

  16. Brazing graphite to graphite

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, George R.

    1976-01-01

    Graphite is joined to graphite by employing both fine molybdenum powder as the brazing material and an annealing step that together produce a virtually metal-free joint exhibiting properties similar to those found in the parent graphite. Molybdenum powder is placed between the faying surfaces of two graphite parts and melted to form molybdenum carbide. The joint area is thereafter subjected to an annealing operation which diffuses the carbide away from the joint and into the graphite parts. Graphite dissolved by the dispersed molybdenum carbide precipitates into the joint area, replacing the molybdenum carbide to provide a joint of virtually graphite.

  17. Electron and photon degradation in aluminum, gallium and boron doped float zone silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahilly, W. P.; Scott-Monck, J.; Anspaugh, B.; Locker, D.

    1976-01-01

    Solar cells fabricated from Al, Ga and B doped Lopex silicon over a range of resistivities were tested under varying conditions of 1 MeV electron fluence, light exposures and thermal cycling. Results indicate that Al and Ga can replace B as a P type dopant to yield improved solar cell performance.

  18. Evidence of loss of active lithium in titanium-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höweling, Andres; Glatthaar, Sven; Nötzel, Dorit; Binder, Joachim R.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries require higher energy densities to meet with a broad acceptance in the fields of electric vehicles and grid storage solutions. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) can fulfill this goal due to its high operating voltage. Cycling of LNMO is known to be stable vs. lithium metal anode. Cycling in an LNMO/graphite configuration leads to severe capacity fade. Ti-doped LNMO (LNMTO)/graphite cells experience a lower, but still strong loss of capacity. In order to understand capacity fade, cycling tests of LNMTO vs. graphite and vs. lithium metal were carried out and additionally, three electrode tests were performed. Both cell configurations showed similar Coulombic efficiencies correlating with the applied C-rate. Experimental data and mathematical modeling indicated that loss of active lithium with a constant reaction rate of (3.76 ± 0.46) · 10-8 mol Li h-1 is responsible for capacity fade in LNMTO/graphite cells and that no degradation of the active material occurs. It was concluded that lithium loss also occurs when lithium metal anodes are used. Here, the lithium metal anode can compensate for lithium consumption, as a result of which the capacity is not influenced. Further support for lithium consumption is given by a three-electrode cell with a lithiated graphite anode. The lithium in the graphite anode can compensate the lithium loss for 120 cycles. During this time, the cell experienced hardly any capacity fade and the voltage profile was similar to that of a cell with LNMTO/Li configuration.

  19. A rapid and sensitive method for hydroxyl radical detection on a microfluidic chip using an N-doped porous carbon nanofiber modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jun; Li, Zhong-Qiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Chen; Wang, Jiong; Xia, Xing-Hua; Zhou, Guo-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Hydroxyl radicals (?OH) play an important role in human diseases. Traditional detection methods are time consuming and require expensive instruments. Here, we present a simple and sensitive method for the detection of hydroxyl radicals on a microfluidic chip using an electrochemical technique. Aniline monomer is electrochemically polymerized on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode and carbonized at 800 C. The resulting N-doped porous carbon nanofiber-modified pencil graphite electrode is embedded into a microfluidic chip directly as a working electrode. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) is selected as the trapping agent owing to its unique 3,4-DHBA product and high trapping efficiency. A low detection limit of 1.0 10(-6) M is achieved on the microfluidic chip. As a demonstration, the microfluidic chip is successfully utilized for the detection of ?OH in cigarette smoke. The strong ?-? stacking and hydrophobic interactions between the nitrogen-doped carbon materials and the pencil graphite make the modified electrode well-suited for the microfluidic chip. PMID:24834984

  20. Effects of Doping Ratio and Thermal Annealing on Structural and Electrical Properties of Boron-Doped ZnO Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Cheng-Chang; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Lee, Shao-Yi; Lan, Wen-How; Kuo, Hsin-Hui; Shih, Ming-Chang; Jui-Yang Feng, David; Huang, Kai-Feng

    2013-06-01

    Boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) thin films have been fabricated by spray pyrolysis on a glass substrate. The morphology and electrical properties of the thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed. It was found that [B]/[Zn] ratio altered both the microstructure and concentration of the BZO thin films. The film grain size was reduced by increasing the [B]/[Zn] ratio. The highest Hall mobility was 3.65 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the undoped ZnO thin film, and the highest carrier concentration of 1.0×1019 cm-3 was achieved for the as-deposited BZO thin film with [B]/[Zn] = 1.5 at. %. Conductivity was determined at different measurement temperatures and shallow donors provided the dominate conduction mechanism for the as-deposited BZO thin films. After 600 °C annealing, shallow level reduction and donors with a high activation energy of 129+/-6 meV in the BZO thin films were characterized, and the shallow donors that dominate the carrier concentration for the as-deposited spray-pyrolized BZO thin film were eliminated.

  1. Optical Properties and Boron Doping-Induced Conduction-Type Change in SnO2 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quang-Phu; Fang, Jau-Shiung; Chin, Tsung-Shune

    2015-10-01

    Boron-doped tin oxide (BTO) films, 0-5 at.% B, were prepared by sol-gel dip coating on a glass substrate. Dried precursor films were post-annealed at a temperature between 400C and 750C for 2 h. The obtained BTO thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) spectrometry, a four-point probe, and Hall-effect and Seebeck-effect measurements. Optimal optical transmittance was achieved for post-annealed BTO thin film at 700C. XRD results show a rutile SnO2 structure with a preferred (110) orientation for all the films. The grain size is 47-21 nm, which reduces with increasing B contents. The optical transmittance is 84.6-88.5% at a wavelength of 550 nm and optical band gap of 3.52-3.75 eV. Electrical resistivity is (3.4-8.2) 10-3 ? cm, and figure of merit (0.9-4.3) 10-3 ?-1. Carrier concentration is (0.97-7.4) 1020 cm-3 and mobility (2.5-7.8) cm2 V-1 s-1. BTO film with 4 at.% B shows an optimal combination of properties. Conduction type changes from n- (undoped) to p- (1-4 at.% B), then to n-types (5 at.% B), as evidenced from Hall-effect and Seebeck-effect measurements. This is explained by doping-generated defects and phase separations of Sn3O4 and B2O3.

  2. Optical Properties and Boron Doping-Induced Conduction-Type Change in SnO2 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quang-Phu; Fang, Jau-Shiung; Chin, Tsung-Shune

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped tin oxide (BTO) films, 0-5 at.% B, were prepared by sol-gel dip coating on a glass substrate. Dried precursor films were post-annealed at a temperature between 400°C and 750°C for 2 h. The obtained BTO thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) spectrometry, a four-point probe, and Hall-effect and Seebeck-effect measurements. Optimal optical transmittance was achieved for post-annealed BTO thin film at 700°C. XRD results show a rutile SnO2 structure with a preferred (110) orientation for all the films. The grain size is 47-21 nm, which reduces with increasing B contents. The optical transmittance is 84.6-88.5% at a wavelength of 550 nm and optical band gap of 3.52-3.75 eV. Electrical resistivity is (3.4-8.2) × 10-3 Ω cm, and figure of merit (0.9-4.3) × 10-3 Ω-1. Carrier concentration is (0.97-7.4) × 1020 cm-3 and mobility (2.5-7.8) cm2 V-1 s-1. BTO film with 4 at.% B shows an optimal combination of properties. Conduction type changes from n- (undoped) to p- (1-4 at.% B), then to n-types (5 at.% B), as evidenced from Hall-effect and Seebeck-effect measurements. This is explained by doping-generated defects and phase separations of Sn3O4 and B2O3.

  3. Effect of Polishing on the Friction Behaviors and Cutting Performance of Boron-Doped Diamond Films on WC-Co Inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-04-01

    Boron doped (B-doped) diamond films are deposited onto WC-Co inserts by HFCVD with the mixture of acetone, trimethyl borate (C3H9BO3) and H2. The as-deposited B-doped diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, 3D surface topography based on white-light interferometry and Rockwell hardness tester. The effects of mechanical polishing on the friction behavior and cutting performance of B-doped diamond are evaluated by ball-on-plate type reciprocating tribometer and turning of aluminum alloy 7075 materials, respectively. For comparison, the same tests are also conducted for the bare WC-Co inserts with smooth surface. Friction tests suggest that the unpolished and polished B-doped diamond films possess relatively low fluctuation of friction coefficient than as-received bare WC-Co samples. The average stable friction coefficient for B-doped diamond films decreases apparently after mechanical polishing. The values for WC-Co sample, unpolished and polished B-doped diamond films are approximately 0.38, 0.25 and 0.11, respectively. The cutting results demonstrate that the low friction coefficient and high adhesive strength of B-doped diamond films play an essential role in the cutting performance enhancement of the WC-Co inserts. However, the mechanical polishing process may lower the adhesive strength of B-doped diamond films. Consequently, the polished B-doped diamond coated inserts show premature wear in the machining of adhesive aluminum alloy materials.

  4. Optically transparent boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films for spectroelectrochemical measurements on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobaszek, M.; Siuzdak, K.; Skowroński, Ł.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Pluciński, J.

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication process of optically transparent boron nanocrystalline diamond (B- NCD) electrode on silicon and quartz substrate was shown. The B-NCD films were deposited on the substrates using Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MWPACVD) at glass substrate temperature of 475 °C. A homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with high sp3 content in B-NCD films and film thickness depending from substrate in the range of 60-300 nm was obtained. The high refraction index and transparency in visible (VIS) wavelength range was achieved. Moreover, cyclic voltammograms (CV) were recorded to determine reaction reversibility at the B-NCD electrode. CV measurements in aqueous media consisting of 1 mM K3[Fe(CN)6] in 0.5 M Na2SO4 demonstrated relatively fast kinetics expressed by a redox peak splitting below 503 mV for B-NCD/silicon and 110 mv for B-NCD/quartz.

  5. Synthesis of Low-Density, Carbon-Doped, Porous Hexagonal Boron Nitride Solids.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Chandkiram; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Jose, Sujin; Brunetto, Gustavo; Ozden, Sehmus; Vinod, Soumya; Raghavan, Prasanth; Biradar, Santoshkumar; Galvao, Douglas Soares; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-12-22

    Here, we report the scalable synthesis and characterization of low-density, porous, three-dimensional (3D) solids consisting of two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheets. The structures are synthesized using bottom-up, low-temperature (∼300 °C), solid-state reaction of melamine and boric acid giving rise to porous and mechanically stable interconnected h-BN layers. A layered 3D structure forms due to the formation of h-BN, and significant improvements in the mechanical properties were observed over a range of temperatures, compared to graphene oxide or reduced graphene oxide foams. A theoretical model based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) is proposed for the formation of h-BN architectures. The material shows excellent, recyclable absorption capacity for oils and organic solvents. PMID:26580810

  6. Simultaneous detection of monoamine and purine molecules using high-performance liquid chromatography with a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Birbeck, Johnna A; Mathews, Tiffany A

    2013-08-01

    A recently available boron-doped diamond (BDD) working electrode has been developed for use with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to aid in the detection of molecules with high redox potentials. In this work, we developed a method using a commercially available BDD working electrode for detecting neurotransmitters from two different families with large oxidation potential differences, namely, dopamine (DA) and adenosine (Ado). Hydrodynamic voltammograms were constructed for DA and Ado, and the optimal potentials for the detection of DA and Ado were determined to be +740 and +1200 mV versus a palladium reference electrode, respectively. A working potential of +840 mV was chosen, and the detection range achieved with the BDD electrode for DA and Ado was from low nanomolar to high millimolar levels. To determine the practical function of the BDD electrode, tissue content was analyzed for seven monoamine and two purine molecules, which were resolved in a single run in less than 28 min. Our results demonstrate that the BDD electrode is sensitive and robust enough to detect monoamine and purine molecules from frontal cortex and striatal mouse samples. Using a BDD electrode opens the possibility of exploring multiple classes of neurotransmitters in a single run using electrochemical detection to probe their interactions. PMID:23815757

  7. Anodic stripping voltammetry of gold nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes and its application in immunochromatographic strip tests.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Wicaksono, Wiyogo P; Saepudin, Endang; Rismetov, Bakhadir; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-03-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of colloidal gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in 50 mM HClO4. A deposition time of 300 s at-0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was fixed as the condition for the ASV. The voltammograms showed oxidation peaks that could be attributed to the oxidation of gold. These oxidation peaks were then investigated for potential application in immunochromatographic strip tests for the selective and quantitative detection of melamine, in which AuNPs were used as the label for the antibody of melamine. Linear regression of the oxidation peak currents appeared in the concentration range from 0.05-0.6 ?g/mL melamine standard, with an estimated LOD of 0.069 ?g/mL and an average relative standard deviation of 8.0%. This indicated that the method could be considered as an alternative method for selective and quantitative immunochromatographic applications. The validity was examined by the measurements of melamine injected into milk samples, which showed good recovery percentages during the measurements. PMID:25618650

  8. [Comparative Study of Benzotriazole Electrochemical Oxidation at Boron-doped Diamond and PbO2 Anodes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan-li; Zhang, Jia-wei; Wang, Ting; Ni, Jin-ren

    2015-07-01

    Electrochemical systems were built to investigate the degradation of benzotriazole (BTA) on boron-doped diamond (BUU) and PbO2 anodes and give an insight into the mineralization ability of two electrodes in terms of the amount and activity of hydroxyl radicals. Results of bulk electrolysis showed that both BDD and PbO2 displayed perfect BTA degradation performance after 12 hours' electrolysis, with the removal percentages of 99. 48% and 98. 36%, respectively, while the mineralization ability of BDD was much stronger than that of PbO2, with the efficiency of 87. 69% for BDD and 35. 96% for PbO2. Less hydroxyl radical and hydrogen production in BDD system suggested the less amount of active sites on BDD surface, thus further verified that the generated hydroxyl radical amount was not the primary factor determining the mineralization ability of anodes. However, BDD displayed larger binding energy of adsorbed oxygen and thinner adsorption layer than those of PbO2, indicating that the BDD electrode surface was of greater catalytic activity, thus the generated hydroxyl radicals were more free, which was the key to its better mineralization ability. PMID:26489323

  9. Electrochemical oxidation of ampicillin antibiotic at boron-doped diamond electrodes and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Krbahti, Bahad?r K; Ta?yrek, Selin

    2015-03-01

    Electrochemical oxidation and process optimization of ampicillin antibiotic at boron-doped diamond electrodes (BDD) were investigated in a batch electrochemical reactor. The influence of operating parameters, such as ampicillin concentration, electrolyte concentration, current density, and reaction temperature, on ampicillin removal, COD removal, and energy consumption was analyzed in order to optimize the electrochemical oxidation process under specified cost-driven constraints using response surface methodology. Quadratic models for the responses satisfied the assumptions of the analysis of variance well according to normal probability, studentized residuals, and outlier t residual plots. Residual plots followed a normal distribution, and outlier t values indicated that the approximations of the fitted models to the quadratic response surfaces were very good. Optimum operating conditions were determined at 618 mg/L ampicillin concentration, 3.6 g/L electrolyte concentration, 13.4 mA/cm(2) current density, and 36 C reaction temperature. Under response surface optimized conditions, ampicillin removal, COD removal, and energy consumption were obtained as 97.1 %, 92.5 %, and 71.7 kWh/kg CODr, respectively. PMID:24906830

  10. Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, Carlee; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent hydroxyl radicals for these measurements; however, many of these approaches require use of radioactive sources or caustic oxidizing chemicals. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and optimize the use of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as a highly accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals as a means to induce a controllable level of oxidation on a range of intact proteins. These experiments utilize a relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber, along with a unique cell activation approach to improve control over the intact protein oxidation yield. Studies were conducted to evaluate the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface. This report demonstrates a robust protocol for the use of BDD electrochemistry and high performance LC-MS/MS as a high-throughput experimental pipeline for probing higher order protein structure, and illustrates how it is complementary to predictive computational modeling efforts.

  11. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-01-01

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electron-hole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems. PMID:25994309

  12. Mechanistic proposal for the electrochemical and sonoelectrochemical oxidation of thiram on a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Steter, Juliana R; Kossuga, Miriam H; Motheo, Artur J

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out of sonochemical (SCh), electrochemical (ECh) and sonoelectrochemical (SECh) strategies for the degradation of the fungicide thiram in dilute aqueous solution. The SCh and SECh studies were performed using a sonicator equipped with an 11 mm titanium-alloy probe and operated at 20 kHz with a power intensity of 523 W cm(-2). In the ECh and SECh investigations, galvanostatic electrolyses were implemented using a single compartment electrochemical cell with a boron-doped diamond electrode as anode and applied current densities in the range 10-50 mA cm(-2). For these processes, the decrease in concentration of thiram was monitored by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis and values of current efficiency and energy consumption were determined. The results showed that the rate of degradation of thiram and the amount of energy consumed were directly proportional to the applied current density, while current efficiency was inversely related to current density. The kinetics of thiram degradation followed a pseudo first order model with apparent rate constants in the region of 10(-3)min(-1). Thiram in aqueous solution was subjected to "exhaustive" degradation by ECh and SECh processes for 5h at applied current densities of 35 mA cm(-2) and the intermediates/byproducts so-formed were identified by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Mechanisms of the degradation reactions have been proposed on the basis of the results obtained. PMID:26384879

  13. Boron doped diamond sensor for sensitive determination of metronidazole: Mechanistic and analytical study by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Hafedh Belhadj; Brahim, Mabrouk Ben; Abdelhdi, Ridha; Samet, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    The performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the detection of metronidazole (MTZ) as the most important drug of the group of 5-nitroimidazole was proven using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. A comparison study between BDD, glassy carbon and silver electrodes on the electrochemical response was carried out. The process is pH-dependent. In neutral and alkaline media, one irreversible reduction peak related to the hydroxylamine derivative formation was registered, involving a total of four electrons. In acidic medium, a prepeak appears probably related to the adsorption affinity of hydroxylamine at the electrode surface. The BDD electrode showed higher sensitivity and reproducibility analytical response, compared with the other electrodes. The higher reduction peak current was registered at pH11. Under optimal conditions, a linear analytical curve was obtained for the MTZ concentration in the range of 0.2-4.2?molL(-1), with a detection limit of 0.065?molL(-1). PMID:26652413

  14. An aptasensor for ochratoxin A based on grafting of polyethylene glycol on a boron-doped diamond microcell.

    PubMed

    Chrouda, A; Sbartai, A; Baraket, A; Renaud, L; Maaref, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2015-11-01

    A novel strategy for the fabrication of an electrochemical label-free aptasensor for small-size molecules is proposed and demonstrated as an aptasensor for ochratoxin A (OTA). A long spacer chain of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was immobilized on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) microcell via electrochemical oxidation of its terminal amino groups. The amino-aptamer was then covalently linked to the carboxyl end of the immobilized PEG as a two-piece macromolecule, autoassembled at the BDD surface, forming a dense layer. Due to a change in conformation of the aptamer on the target analyte binding, a decrease of the electron transfer rate of the redox [Fe(CN)6](4-/3-) probe was observed. To quantify the amount of OTA, the decrease of the square wave voltammetry (SWV) peak maximum of this probe was monitored. The plot of the peak maximum against the logarithm of OTA concentration was linear along the range from 0.01 to 13.2ng/L, with a detection limit of 0.01ng/L. This concept was validated on spiked real samples of rice. PMID:26255699

  15. Electrochemical disinfection using boron-doped diamond electrode--the synergetic effects of in situ ozone and free chlorine generation.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Mohamad; Heim, Carolin; Letzel, Thomas; Drewes, Jrg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2015-02-01

    This work investigated the capability of using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for bacterial disinfection in different water matrices containing varying amounts of chloride. The feed water containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa was electrochemically treated while applying different electrode conditions. Depending on the applied current density and the exposure time, inactivation between 4- and 8-log of the targeted microorganisms could be achieved. The disinfection efficiency was driven by the generation of free chlorine as a function of chloride concentration in the water. A synergetic effect of generating both free chlorine and ozone in situ during the disinfection process resulted in an effective bactericidal impact. The formation of the undesired by-products chlorate and perchlorate depended on the water matrix, the applied current density and the desired target disinfection level. In case of synthetic water with a low chloride concentration (20 mg L(-1)) and an applied current density of 167 mA cm(-2), a 6-log inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be achieved after 5 min of exposure. The overall energy consumption ranged between 0.3 and 0.6 kW h m(-3) depending on the applied current density and water chemistry. Electrochemical water disinfection represents a suitable and efficient process for producing pathogen-free water without the use of any chemicals. PMID:25434271

  16. Sensitive and Rapid Voltammetric Determination of Phenothiazine and Azaphenothiazine Derivatives in Pharmaceuticals Using a Boron-doped Diamond Electrode.

    PubMed

    Mielech-?ukasiewicz, Katarzyna; Sta?kowska, El?bieta

    2015-01-01

    Novel, sensitive and rapid electrochemical methods for the determination of phenothiazine and azaphenothiazine derivatives were developed. A boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was used for electrochemical oxidation of levomepromazine, promazine and prothipendyl. The electrooxidation of these substances demonstrated reversible peaks of oxidation at the potential range 0.55 - 0.75 V vs. SCE. Examining the influence of scan rate allowed is to demonstrate that the currents registered typical of the diffusion-controlled process. Determinations of the studied analytes were carried out by means of a square wave voltammetry (SWV) method and a differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. Linear ranges of determination with the use of the BDD electrode and the SWV method were obtained in the ranges: from 4 10(-7) to 1.38 10(-4) mol L(-1) for levomepromazine, from 4 10(-7) to 1.17 10(-5) mol L(-1) for promazine and from 4.95 10(-7) to 4.54 10(-5) mol L(-1) for prothipendyl. The influence of interferences on the voltammetric signal of the studied analytes was also checked. The proposed procedures were used for quantitative determination of the studied compounds in pharmaceutical preparations. The measurements showed high accuracy. The recovery values obtained ranged from 98.52 to 99.57%. The developed procedures were compared with pharmacopoeial reference methods. PMID:26460359

  17. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-05-01

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electron-hole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems.

  18. Surface Transfer Doping of Cubic Boron Nitride Films by MoO3 and Tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ).

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lo, Ming-Fai; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun

    2015-05-13

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) has strong potential for the applications in high-temperature and high-power electronics and deep ultraviolet devices due to its outstanding combined physical and chemical properties. P-type surface transfer doping of heteroepitaxial cBN films was achieved by employing MoO3 and tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) as the surface dopants. The surface conductivities of hydrogenated cBN films increased by 3-6 orders after the deposition of surface dopants. The photoemission spectroscopy (PES) measurements revealed the variation of electronic structures at the interface regions, which suggested that the electron transfer from cBN films to the surface dopants induced hole accumulation at the cBN surface and the increase of surface conductivity. Based on the PES results, the energy level diagrams at MoO3/cBN and F4-TCNQ/cBN interfaces were determined. The achievement provided a potential approach for fabricating cBN-based electronic devices, especially on micrometer and nanometer scales. PMID:25915092

  19. Removal of organic contaminants from secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond anode as tertiary treatment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Keller, Jürg; Brillas, Enric; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have been widely investigated as promising technologies to remove trace organic contaminants from water, but have rarely been used for the treatment of real waste streams. Anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was applied for the treatment of secondary effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant containing 29 target pharmaceuticals and pesticides. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed from the contaminants decay, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of applied current and pH was evaluated. Almost complete mineralization of effluent organic matter and trace contaminants can be obtained by this EAOP primarily due to the action of hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface. The oxidation of Cl(-) ions present in the wastewater at the BDD anode gave rise to active chlorine species (Cl2/HClO/ClO(-)), which are competitive oxidizing agents yielding chloramines and organohalogen byproducts, quantified as adsorbable organic halogen. However, further anodic oxidation of HClO/ClO(-) species led to the production of ClO3(-) and ClO4(-) ions. The formation of these species hampers the application as a single-stage tertiary treatment, but posterior cathodic reduction of chlorate and perchlorate species may reduce the risks associated to their presence in the environment. PMID:25464295

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of tramadol in low-salinity reverse osmosis concentrates using boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Schulz, Manoj; Wagner, Manfred; Ternes, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical treatment of low-salinity reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates was investigated using tramadol (100 μM) as a model substance for persistent organic contaminants. Galvanostatic degradation experiments using boron-doped diamond electrodes at different applied currents were conducted in RO concentrates as well as in ultra-pure water containing either sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. Kinetic investigations revealed a significant influence of in-situ generated active chlorine besides direct anodic oxidation. Therefore, tramadol concentrations decreased more rapidly at elevated chloride content. Nevertheless, reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) was found to be comparatively low, demonstrating that transformation rather than mineralization was taking place. Early stage product formation could be attributed to both direct and indirect processes, including demethylation, hydroxylation, dehydration, oxidative aromatic ring cleavage and halogenation reactions. The latter led to various halogenated derivatives and resulted in AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) formation in the lower mg/L-range depending on the treatment conditions. Characterisation of transformation products (TPs) was achieved via MS(n) experiments and additional NMR measurements. Based on identification and quantification of the main TPs in different matrices and on additional potentiostatic electrolysis, a transformation pathway was proposed. PMID:25660808

  1. Comparative study of oxidation ability between boron-doped diamond (BDD) and lead oxide (PbO2) electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jun; Zhu, Xiu-Ping; L, Fan-Xiu; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2011-10-01

    The electrochemical oxidation capabilities of two high-performance electrodes, the boron-doped diamond film on Ti (Ti/BDD) and the lead oxide film on Ti (Ti/PbO2), were discussed. Hydroxyl radicals (HO) generated on the electrode surface were detected by using p-nitrosodimethylaniline (RNO) as the trapping reagent. Electrochemical oxidation measurements, including the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the current efficiency (CE), were carried out via the degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) under the galvanostatic condition. The results indicate that an indirect reaction, which is attributed to free hydroxyl radicals with high activation, conducts on the Ti/BDD electrode, while the absorbed hydroxyl radicals generated at the Ti/PbO2 surface results in low degradation efficiency. Due to quick mineralization which combusts PNP to CO2 and H2O absolutely by the active hydroxyl radical directly, the CE obtained on the Ti/BDD electrode is much higher than that on the Ti/PbO2 electrode, notwithstanding the number of hydroxyl radicals produced on PbO2 is higher than that on the BDD surface.

  2. Evidence for the role of hydrogen in the stabilization of minority carrier lifetime in boron-doped Czochralski silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nampalli, N. Hallam, B.; Chan, C.; Abbott, M.; Wenham, S.

    2015-04-27

    This study demonstrates that the presence of a hydrogen source during fast-firing is critical to the regeneration of B-O defects and that is it not a pure thermally based mechanism or due to plasma exposure. Boron-doped p-type wafers were fired with and without hydrogen-rich silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}:H) films present during the fast-firing process. After an initial light-induced degradation step, only wafers fired with the SiN{sub x}:H films present were found to undergo permanent and complete recovery of lifetime during subsequent illuminated annealing. In comparison, wafers fired bare, i.e., without SiN{sub x}:H films present during firing, were found to demonstrate no permanent recovery in lifetime. Further, prior exposure to hydrogen-rich plasma processing was found to have no impact on permanent lifetime recovery in bare-fired wafers. This lends weight to a hydrogen-based model for B-O defect passivation and casts doubt on the role of non-hydrogen species in the permanent passivation of B-O defects in commercial-grade p-type Czochralski silicon wafers.

  3. Electron-energy-loss investigation of hole-plasmon excitation due to thermal indiffusion boron doping of Si(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. J.; Rowe, J. E.; Yates, J. T., Jr.

    1994-12-01

    High-resolution electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy (HREELS) measurements have been performed on Si(111) surfaces heavily p-doped by the decomposition of adsorbed decaborane with subsequent diffusion more than ~1000 below the surface. After thermal decomposition of the decaborane to produce B atoms on the surface the low-energy-electron-diffraction pattern shows a ?3 ?3 periodicity due to 1/3 ML of boron in the second complete layer. The HREELS data have two strong features: (1) the B-Si dipole vibrational mode at 96 meV and a broad electronic surface-plasmon mode at ~100 meV loss energy due to the free carriers in the region below the B-reconstructed surface layer. We have investigated the energy dependence of the plasmon mode in order to determine the possibility of using HREELS to determine the depth profile of the free carriers due to B diffusion into the region ~50-500 below the surface. Unexpectedly, we find that kinematic factors play an important role in the energy range used, 1.5-28 eV, and thus limit the degree of quantitative information that can be obtained about the carrier depth profile from HREELS data in this low-energy range. An approximate depth profile is deduced from the well-established three-layer model (vacuum-surface-bulk layers) after correcting the plasmon peak position for the kinematic factors.

  4. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Viney; Li, Zhongrui; Bourdo, Shawn; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Trigwell, Steven; Couraud, Arthur; Rioux, Julien; Boyer, Cyril; Nteziyaremye, Valens; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Biris, Alexandru R.; Salamo, Gregory J.; Viswanathan, Tito; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  5. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Saini, Viney; Li, Zhongrui; Bourdo, Shawn; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Trigwell, Steven; Couraud, Arthur; Rioux, Julien; Boyer, Cyril; Nteziyaremye, Valens; Dervishi, Enkeleda; et al

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, whilemore » the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.« less

  6. The analysis of estrogenic compounds by flow injection analysis with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Brocenschi, Ricardo F; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Duran, Boris; Swain, Greg M

    2014-08-01

    We report on the use of flow injection analysis with amperometric detection (FIA-EC) to evaluate the potential of using diamond electrodes for the analysis of three estrogenic compounds: estrone, 17-?-estradiol, and estriol. Amperometric detection was performed using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode that offered low background current, relatively low limits of detection, and good response reproducibility and stability. For all three compounds, response linearity was observed over the concentration range tested, 0.10 to 3.0?mol L(-1), the sensitivity was ca. 10mA L mol(-1), and the minimum concentration detection (S/N?3) was 0.10?mol L(-1) (~27?g L(-1)). The response variability with multiple injections was ca. 10% (RSD) over 20 injections. For estrone, the oxidation reaction on diamond does not proceed through an adsorbed state like it does on glassy carbon. After an initial current attenuation, the diamond electrode exhibited a stable response (oxidation current) for 3 days of continuous use, indicative of minimal surface contamination or fouling by reaction intermediates and products. The method for estrone was assessed using spiked city tap and local river water. Estrone recoveries in spiked city and river water samples presented standard deviations of less than 10%. In summary, the FIA-EC method with a diamond electrode enables sensitive, reproducible, stable, quick, and inexpensive determination of estrogenic compounds in water samples. PMID:24881529

  7. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 510 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants. PMID:26512663

  8. XPS study of ruthenium tris-bipyridine electrografted from diazonium salt derivative on microcrystalline boron doped diamond.

    PubMed

    Agns, Charles; Arnault, Jean-Charles; Omns, Franck; Jousselme, Bruno; Billon, Martial; Bidan, Grard; Mailley, Pascal

    2009-12-28

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) functionalization has received an increasing interest during the last few years. Such an infatuation comes from the original properties of BDD, including chemical stability or an electrochemical window, that opens the way for the design of (bio)sensors or smart interfaces. In such a context, diazonium salts appear to be well suited for BDD functionalization as they enable covalent immobilization of functional entities such as enzymes or DNA. In this study we report microcrystalline BDD functionalization with a metallic complex, ruthenium tris(bipyridine), using the p-(tris(bipyridine)Ru(2+))phenyl diazonium salt. Electrografting using cyclic voltammetry (CV) allowed the formation of a ruthenium complex film that was finely characterized using electrochemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, we showed that chronopotentiometry (CP) is a convenient tool to monitor Ru complex film deposition through the control of the electrochemical pulse parameters (i.e. current density and pulse duration). Finally, such a control was demonstrated through the correlation between electrochemical and XPS characterizations. PMID:20024438

  9. Trace voltammetric detection of serotonin at carbon electrodes: comparison of glassy carbon, boron doped diamond and carbon nanotube network electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gell, Aleix G; Meadows, Katherine E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2010-09-14

    The characteristics of three different carbon electrodes, glassy carbon (GC), oxygen-terminated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (pBDD) and "pristine" carbon nanotube networks (CNTN) as voltammetric sensors for detection of the neurotransmitter serotonin have been investigated. For each electrode, detection sensitivity was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), a technique often used to provide information on chemical identity in electrochemical assays. The CNTN electrodes were found to exhibit background current densities ca. two orders of magnitude smaller than the GC electrode and ca. twenty times smaller than pBDD, as a consequence of their "pristine" low capacitance and low surface coverage. This was a major factor in determining serotonin detection limits from CV, of 10 nM for the CNTN electrode, 500 nM for pBDD and 2 microM for GC. The two most sensitive electrodes (CNTN and pBDD) were further investigated in terms of resistance to electrode fouling. CV analysis showed that fouling was less on the pBDD electrode compared to the CNTN and, furthermore, for the case of pBDD could be significantly minimised by careful selection of the CV potential limits, in particular by scanning the electrode potential to suitably cathodic values after oxidation of the serotonin. PMID:20689900

  10. Quasi-real time quantification of uric acid in urine using boron doped diamond microelectrode with in situ cleaning.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Raphael; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Mailley, Pascal; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    We report herein an innovative electrochemical (EC) technique based on boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrodes which enable the fast determination of uric acid (UA) concentrations in urine. On the basis of fast cyclic voltammetry (CV), the technique was assessed in human urine samples and compared successfully using routine spectrophotometric diagnosis. The approach relies on the use of BDD's superior properties such as low background current, low adsorption of species, long-term stability, and antifouling capabilities using electrochemical reactivation. Moreover, the article also describes an in situ activation technique, where the electrodes were reactivated within human urine, thereby opening the way toward automatic quantification of UA with in situ cleaning. The time taken to quantify UA concentration and cleaning remains below 0.5 s. Two analytic models were derived, based on different concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid, consisting of 2 s order calibration curves. Solving the second order equation enables the direct estimation of UA concentration, and values demonstrated good accuracy when compared with spectrophotometric measurements. PMID:23126450

  11. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5-10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants. PMID:26512663

  12. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-01-01

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electronhole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems. PMID:25994309

  13. Photocarrier Radiometry Investigation of Light-Induced Degradation of Boron-Doped Czochralski-Grown Silicon Without Surface Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng

    2016-04-01

    Light-induced degradation (LID) effects of boron-doped Cz silicon wafers without surface passivation are investigated in details by photocarrier radiometry (PCR). The resistivity of all samples is in the range of 0.006 Ω {\\cdot } {cm} to 38 Ω {\\cdot } {cm}. It is found that light-induced changes in surface state occupation have a great effect on LID under illumination. With the increasing contribution of light-induced changes in surface state occupation, the generation rate of the defect decreases. The light-induced changes in surface state occupation and light-induced degradation dominate the temporal behaviors of the excess carrier density of high- and low-resistivity Si wafers, respectively. Moreover, the temporal behaviors of PCR signals of these samples under laser illumination with different powers, energy of photons, and multiple illuminations were also analyzed to understand the light-induced change of material properties. Based on the nonlinear dependence of PCR signal on the excitation power, a theoretical model taking into account both light-induced changes in surface state occupation and LID processes was proposed to explain those temporal behaviors.

  14. Experimental approach to controllably vary protein oxidation while minimizing electrode adsorption for boron-doped diamond electrochemical surface mapping applications.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Carlee S; Hettich, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent (i.e., hydroxyl radicals) for these measurements; however, these approaches range significantly in their complexity and expense of operation. This research expands upon earlier work to enhance the controllability of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as an easily accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals in order to oxidize a range of intact proteins. Efforts to modulate the oxidation level while minimizing the adsorption of protein to the electrode involved the use of relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber. Additionally, a different cell activation approach using variable voltage to supply a controlled current allowed us to precisely tune the extent of oxidation in a protein-dependent manner. In order to gain perspective on the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface, studies were conducted to monitor protein concentration during electrolysis and gauge changes in the electrode surface between cell activation events. This report demonstrates the successful use of BDD electrochemistry for greater precision in generating a target number of oxidation events upon intact proteins. PMID:23210708

  15. Evidence for the role of hydrogen in the stabilization of minority carrier lifetime in boron-doped Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nampalli, N.; Hallam, B.; Chan, C.; Abbott, M.; Wenham, S.

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates that the presence of a hydrogen source during fast-firing is critical to the regeneration of B-O defects and that is it not a pure thermally based mechanism or due to plasma exposure. Boron-doped p-type wafers were fired with and without hydrogen-rich silicon nitride (SiNx:H) films present during the fast-firing process. After an initial light-induced degradation step, only wafers fired with the SiNx:H films present were found to undergo permanent and complete recovery of lifetime during subsequent illuminated annealing. In comparison, wafers fired bare, i.e., without SiNx:H films present during firing, were found to demonstrate no permanent recovery in lifetime. Further, prior exposure to hydrogen-rich plasma processing was found to have no impact on permanent lifetime recovery in bare-fired wafers. This lends weight to a hydrogen-based model for B-O defect passivation and casts doubt on the role of non-hydrogen species in the permanent passivation of B-O defects in commercial-grade p-type Czochralski silicon wafers.

  16. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro-Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Radovan, Ciprian; Cinghi??, Dan; Manea, Florica; Mincea, Manuela; Cofan, Codru?a; Ostafe, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998) and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an overall paraben index, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  17. Sensitive voltammetric determination of thymol in essential oil of Carum copticum seeds using boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Dalibor M

    2015-10-01

    Essential oil of Carum copticum seeds, obtained from a local shop, was extracted and content of thymol was analyzed using square-wave voltammetry at boron-doped diamond electrode. The effect of various parameters, such as pH of supporting electrolyte and square-wave voltammetric parameters (modulation amplitude and frequency), was examined. In Britton-Robinson buffer solution (pH 4), thymol provided a single and oval-shaped irreversible oxidation peak at +1.13 V versus silver/silver chloride potassium electrode (3M). Under optimal experimental conditions, a plot of peak height against concentration of thymol was found to be linear over the range of 4 to 100μM consisting of two linear ranges: from 4 to 20μM (R(2)=0.9964) and from 20 to 100μM (R(2)=0.9993). The effect of potential interferences such as p-cymene and γ-terpinene (major components in essential oil of C. copticum seeds) was evaluated. Thus, the proposed method displays a sufficient selectivity toward thymol with a detection limit of 3.9μM, and it was successfully applied for the determination of thymol in essential oil of C. copticum seeds. The Prussian blue method was used for validation of the proposed electroanalytical method. PMID:26119334

  18. Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Gargouri, Bochra; Trabelsi, Souhel Kallel; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm(-2)) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment. PMID:25129707

  19. Effects of glucose doping on the MgB2 superconductors using cheap crystalline boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parakkandy, Jafar Meethale; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Shah, M. Shahabuddin; Alzayed, Nasser S.; Qaid, Salem A. S.; Madhar, Niyaz Ahmad; Ramay, Shahid M.; Shar, Muhammad Ali

    2015-12-01

    We report the effect of glucose (C6H12O6) doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductor fabricated by dry mixing using planetary ball milling. Herein, as-prepared bulk polycrystalline Mg (B1-xCx) 2 samples with different doping levels (x = 0, 2, 4, and 6 at. %) were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction, magnetic and resistivity measurements, and microstructure analysis. When carbon doped, the reduction in critical transition temperature and shrinkage in a-lattice were obviously observed. This resulted in structural distortion of the MgB2 lattice, and thereby, enhanced an impurity scattering. In addition to these, upper critical field and high-field critical current densities were also enhanced. On the other hand, both pinning force and low-field critical current density are decreased. The high field enhancement and low field degradation are due to increase in impurity scattering and decrease in pinning force respectively.

  20. Surface Roughness and Critical Exponent Analyses of Boron-Doped Diamond Films Using Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging: Application of Autocorrelation and Power Spectral Density Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Vierkant, G. P.

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of the surface roughness of growing metal or semiconductor thin films provides much needed information about their growth kinetics and corresponding mechanism. While some systems show stages of nucleation, coalescence, and growth, others exhibit varying microstructures for different process conditions. In view of these classifications, we report herein detailed analyses based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization to extract the surface roughness and growth kinetics exponents of relatively low boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by utilizing the analytical power spectral density (PSD) and autocorrelation function (ACF) as mathematical tools. The machining industry has applied PSD for a number of years for tool design and analysis of wear and machined surface quality. Herein, we present similar analyses at the mesoscale to study the surface morphology as well as quality of BDD films grown using the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. PSD spectra as a function of boron concentration (in gaseous phase) are compared with those for samples grown without boron. We find that relatively higher boron concentration yields higher amplitudes of the longer-wavelength power spectral lines, with amplitudes decreasing in an exponential or power-law fashion towards shorter wavelengths, determining the roughness exponent ( α ≈ 0.16 ± 0.03) and growth exponent ( β ≈ 0.54), albeit indirectly. A unique application of the ACF, which is widely used in signal processing, was also applied to one-dimensional or line analyses (i.e., along the x- and y-axes) of AFM images, revealing surface topology datasets with varying boron concentration. Here, the ACF was used to cancel random surface "noise" and identify any spatial periodicity via repetitive ACF peaks or spatially correlated noise. Periodicity at shorter spatial wavelengths was observed for no doping and low doping levels, while smaller correlations were observed for relatively higher boron concentration. These semiquantitative spatial analyses may prove useful in comparing synthesis techniques and varying compositional makeups of diamond films and other technologically important electronic materials. These findings in terms of critical exponents are also correlated with traditional Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction structural properties, thus helping to provide insight into the growth kinetics, albeit in reverse manner.

  1. Ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets: a novel peroxidase mimetic, Fe doping-mediated catalytic performance enhancement and application to rapid, highly sensitive optical detection of glucose.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jingqi; Liu, Qian; Asiri, Abdullah M; Qusti, Abdullah H; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Sun, Xuping

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4) possess peroxidase activity. Fe doping of the nanosheets leads to peroxidase mimetics with greatly enhanced catalytic performance and the mechanism involved is proposed. We further demonstrate the novel use of such Fe-g-C3N4 as a cheap nanosensor for simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive optical detection of glucose with a pretty low detection limit of 0.5 μM. PMID:24121798

  2. Tensile properties of a boron/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubegraphene hybrid structure

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kang; Zhan, Haifei; Wei, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Summary Doping is an effective approach that allows for the intrinsic modification of the electrical and chemical properties of nanomaterials. Recently, a graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid structure (GNHS) has been reported, which extends the excellent properties of carbon-based materials to three dimensions. In this paper, we carried out a first-time investigation on the tensile properties of the hybrid structures with different dopants. It is found that with the presence of dopants, the hybrid structures usually exhibit lower yield strength, Youngs modulus, and earlier yielding compared to that of a pristine hybrid structure. For dopant concentrations below 2.5% no significant reduction of Youngs modulus or yield strength could be observed. For all considered samples, the failure is found to initiate at the region where the nanotubes and graphene sheets are connected. After failure, monatomic chains are normally observed around the failure region. Dangling graphene layers without the separation of a residual CNT wall are found to adhere to each other after failure with a distance of about 3.4 . This study provides a fundamental understanding of the tensile properties of the doped graphenenanotube hybrid structures, which will benefit the design and also the applications of graphene-based hybrid materials. PMID:24778956

  3. Doping inhomogeneity and staging of ultra-thin graphite intercalation compound flakes probed by visible and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Jiang-Bin; Li, Xiao-Li; Li, Qiao-Qiao; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2015-07-01

    When ultra-thin graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are deposited on the SiO2/Si substrate, it is found that their colors are dependent on the thickness of GIC flakes. The sample colors of ultrathin GIC flakes can no longer provide qualitative information on the stage index. Here, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy is thus applied to study the doping inhomogeneity and staging of ultra-thin GICs by FeCl3 intercalation. The G band intensity of stage-1 GIC flakes is strongly enhanced by 532-nm laser excitation, while that of stage-2 and stage-3 flakes exhibits strong intensity enhancement for 785-nm laser excitation. The near-infrared lasers are suggested to probe the doping inhomogeneity and staging of ultra-thin GIC flakes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11225421, 11474277, and 11434010).

  4. A novel method to make boron-doped microcrystalline silicon thin films with optimal crystalline volume fraction for thin films solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chonghoon; Park, Jinjoo; Kim, Sangho; Park, Hyeongsik; Jung, Junhee; Bong, Sungjae; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2014-12-01

    Highly conducting boron-doped microcrystalline silicon (p-type ?c-Si:H) thin films have been prepared by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (RF-PECVD). In this work, the effects of hydrogen dilution, doping ratio, plasma power, deposition pressure and substrate temperature on the growth and the properties of boron-doped microcrystalline silicon (p-type ?c-Si:H) thin films are investigated. The electrical, chemical and structural properties are improved with increasing crystallite, which depends on the plasma conditions. For various plasma parameters, the crystalline volume fraction (X(c)), dark conductivity (?(d)), activation energy (E(a)), hydrogen content (C(H)), surface roughness (S(r)), and micro void fraction (R*) were measured, and they were 0-72%, 4.17-10(-4) S/cm-1.1 S/cm, 0.041-0.113 eV, 3.8-11.5 at.%, 3.2 nm-12.2 nm, and 0.47-0.80, respectively. The film with R* of 0.47 and C(H) of about 5 at.% belonged to a region of low disorder, and acted as a good passivation layer. PMID:25971071

  5. Loss of electrical conductivity in boron-doped diamond due to ion-induced damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, R.; Uzan-Saguy, C.; Philosoph, B.; Richter, V.; Prawer, S.

    1997-02-01

    The response of B-ion-implanted type-IIa diamond to light ion (H, He) irradiation is investigated by monitoring the sample resistance as a function of dose. It is found that the resistivity of the layer increases rapidly with increasing dose, and reaches the resistivity of the undoped diamond for irradiation doses much less than those required for the onset of damage related electrical conductivity in pristine diamond. It is shown that defects created by the nuclear stopping process act as compensating centers for the B acceptors. The present findings are of importance for the design of radiation hard diamond based electronic devices and suggests a method for the isolation of B-doped devices on a diamond chip. The results of the present work also explain why the collection distance in intrinsic nondoped diamond radiation detectors actually increases with increasing ion dose. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Determination of parabens in shampoo using high performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection on a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isarita; Carreira, Franciely Cristiani; Canaes, Larissa S; de Souza Campos Junior, Francisco Alberto; da Silva Cruz, Letcia Maria; Rath, Susanne

    2011-07-15

    Methylparaben (MePa), ethylparaben (EtPa) and propylparaben (PrPa) have been widely used, among others, as chemical preservatives in cosmetics, drugs and foods. As these compounds are linked with allergies, dermatitis and estrogenic properties, it is necessary to control the concentration of these substances in different matrices. The aim of this paper are: to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of parabens on the boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and the development of a chromatographic method, with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED), for determination of parabens in shampoo. A BDD (8000 ppm) electrode was adapted in a thin layer mode analytical cell consisting of a stainless steel and a platinum wire as reference and auxiliary electrodes, respectively. Chromatographic separations were obtained with a reversed phase C8 analytical column and a mobile phase of 0.025 molL(-1) disodium phosphate, pH 7.0, and acetonitrile (40:60, v/v), delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Sample preparation was performed by solid phase extraction using C18 cartridges and acetonitrile for elution. Benzylparaben was employed as internal standard. The HPLC-ED method developed, using the BDD electrode, was validated for the determination of parabens in shampoos and presented adequate linearity (>0.999), in the range of 0.0125-0.500% (w/w), detectability 0.01% (w/w), precision (RSD of 2.3-9.8%) and accuracy (93.1-104.4%) and could be applied for routine quality control of shampoos containing MePa, EtPa and PrPa. PMID:21645663

  7. Electrochemical combustion of herbicide mecoprop in aqueous medium using a flow reactor with a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Flox, Cristina; Cabot, Pere Llus; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, Jos Antonio; Rodrguez, Rosa Mara; Arias, Conchita; Brillas, Enric

    2006-08-01

    The anodic oxidation of 1.8l of solutions with mecoprop (2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-propionic acid or MCPP) up to 0.64 g l(-1) in Na2SO4 as background electrolyte within the pH range 2.0-12.0 has been studied using a flow plant containing a one-compartment filter-press electrolytic reactor with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel cathode, both of 20-cm2 area. Electrolyses carried out in batch under steady conditions and operating at constant current density between 50 and 150 mA cm(-2) always yield complete mineralization due to the great concentration of hydroxyl radical generated at the BDD anode. The degradation rate is practically independent of pH and Na2SO4 concentration, but it becomes faster with increasing MCPP concentration, current density, temperature and liquid flow rate. The effect of these parameters on current efficiency and energy cost has also been investigated. Generated weak oxidants such as H2O2 and peroxodisulfate ion have little influence on the mineralization process. The kinetics for the herbicide decay follows a pseudo first-order reaction with a higher rate constant when current density increases. Aromatic products such as 4-chloro-o-cresol, 2-methylhydroquinone and 2-methyl-p-benzoquinone, and generated carboxylic acids such as maleic, fumaric, lactic, pyruvic, tartronic, acetic and oxalic, have been identified as intermediates by chromatographic techniques. The initial chlorine is completely released in the form of chloride ion, which is slowly oxidized to Cl2 at the BDD anode. A reaction pathway for MCPP mineralization involving all products detected is proposed. PMID:16516266

  8. Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase-boron doped diamond interface: a new solution for a classical problem.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan-Feng; Xu, Tai-Bin; Luong, John H T; Cui, Hui-Fang

    2014-05-20

    A planar boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was treated with KOH and functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to serve as a biosensing platform for biomolecule immobilization with glucose oxidase (GOx) as a test model. The free amino groups of GOx and APTES were cross-linked by glutaraldehyde (X), a bifunctional chemical to form a stable enzyme layer (GOx-X-APTES) on BDD. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy revealed that a mesoporous structure uniformly covered the BDD surface. Cyclic voltammetry of GOx immobilized showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks in neutral phosphate buffer solution, corresponding to the direct electron transfer of GOx. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of the immobilized GOx was estimated to be 8.85 0.47 s(-1), considerably higher than the literature reported values. The determination of glucose was carried out by amperometry at -0.40 V, and the developed biosensor showed good reproducibility and stability with a detection limit of 20 ?M. Both ascorbic and uric acids at normal physiological conditions did not provoke any signals. The dynamic range of glucose detection was further extended by covering the enzyme electrode with a thin Nafion layer. The Nafion/GOx-X-APTES/BDD biosensor showed excellent stability, a detection limit of 30 ?M, a linear range between 35 ?M and 8 mM, and a dynamic range up to 14 mM. Such analytical performances were compared favorably with other complicated sensing schemes using nanomaterials, redox polymers, and nanowires. The APTES-functionalized BDD could be easily extended to immobilize other redox enzymes or proteins of interests. PMID:24766419

  9. Simultaneous detection of purine and pyrimidine at highly boron-doped diamond electrodes by using liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Honda, Kensuke; Rao, Tata N; Fujishima, Akira; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2007-02-15

    Highly boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode, have been examined for simultaneous detection of purine and pyrimidine bases in mild acidic media by using HPLC with amperometric detection. Cyclic voltammetry at as-deposited (AD) and anodically oxidized (AO) BDD were used to study the electrochemistry and to optimize the condition for HPLC applications. At AO BDD electrode, due to its higher overpotential of oxygen evolution reaction, well-defined anodic peaks were observed for the oxidation of purine and pyrimidine bases in acid medium, whereas at AD BDD the oxidation peak of thymine was overlapped with the anodic current of oxygen evolution. The chromatograms of adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and 5-methylcytosine mixture were well resolved by using a silica-based column and a solution of 5% acetonitrile in 100mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.25) as the mobile phase. The detection was carried out at AO BDD electrode at an applied potential of 1.6V versus Ag/AgCl. Linear calibration curves were obtained within the concentration range from 0.1 to 10microM with the limits of detection (S/N=3) ranging from 26.3 to 162.1nM, resulting in an order of magnitude higher sensitivities than those at conventional electrodes. HPLC analysis with diamond amperometric detector was successfully applied for determination of 5-methylcytosine in real DNA samples with high reproducibility. No deactivation of the electrode was found during cyclic voltammetric and HPLC measurements, indicating the high stability for analysis of biological samples. PMID:19071355

  10. Electronic structures of B 2p levels in homo-epitaxial growth boron-doped diamond by soft X-rays absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Jin; Kabasawa, Eiki; Harada, Yoshihisa; Iriyama, Shingo; Kawano, Akihiro; Oguchi, Tamio; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Takano, Yoshihiko; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2010-12-01

    Four B-2p in-gap components are observed in B-K XAS spectra using single crystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) sample. From the polarization dependence of the spectra, the weak peak labeled 1 near the Fermi level is assigned to the hybridized state with C-2p hole state. For the BDD sample grown along <1 1 1> direction, B2 dimer is easily created along the growth direction and compensate carriers. A considerable amount of B-H complex and/or Bn cluster is also present. A growth of the peak-1 area intensity is most important to rise the superconducting transition temperature of BDD.

  11. Electronic structures of B 2 p levels in homo-epitaxial growth boron-doped diamond by soft X-rays absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Jin; Kabasawa, Eiki; Harada, Yoshihisa; Iriyama, Shingo; Kawano, Akihiro; Oguchi, Tamio; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Takano, Yoshihiko; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    Four B-2 p in-gap components are observed in B-K XAS spectra using single crystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) sample. From the polarization dependence of the spectra, the weak peak labeled 1 near the Fermi level is assigned to the hybridized state with C-2 p hole state. For the BDD sample grown along <1 1 1> direction, B 2 dimer is easily created along the growth direction and compensate carriers. A considerable amount of B-H complex and/or B n cluster is also present. A growth of the peak-1 area intensity is most important to rise the superconducting transition temperature of BDD.

  12. CO catalytic oxidation on Pt-doped single wall boron nitride nanotube: first-principles investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Aal, S.

    2016-02-01

    The catalytic oxidation of CO at Pt-doped BNNT (5,5) has been investigated theoretically using density functional theory. The electronic structures and thermochemical properties of CO and O2 that adsorbed on Pt embedded at the B- and N-vacancy sites of BNNTs are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the different BNNT substrates can modify the electronic structure of the Pt catalysts and cause different effects in the catalytic activities. With the N-vacancy (Pt(N)-BNNT), the Pt behaves as a Lewis acid for accepting an electron from the substrate, thus O2 binds stronger than CO molecules, thus alleviating the CO poisoning of the platinum catalysts. Coadsorption of CO and O2 on Pt(N)-BNNT results in additional charge transfer to O2. CO oxidation proceeds via the Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanism entails lower activation barrier and higher reaction rate than that of Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) mechanism suggesting the superiority of the ER mechanism for CO oxidation at Pt(N)-BNNT. Therefore, Pt(N)-BNNT might be a good candidate for low-cost, highly active, and stable catalysts for CO oxidation.

  13. A First Principles study on Boron-doped Graphene decorated by Ni-Ti-Mg atoms for Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance

    PubMed Central

    Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi; Lai, Po-Jung; Leggesse, Ermias Girma; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a new solid state material for hydrogen storage, which consists of a combination of both transition and alkaline earth metal atoms decorating a boron-doped graphene surface. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption on this material was investigated using density functional theory calculations. We find that the diffusion barriers for H atom migration and desorption energies are lower than for the previously designed mediums and the proposed medium can reach the gravimetric capacity of ~6.5 wt % hydrogen, which is much higher than the DOE target for the year 2015. Molecular Dynamics simulations show that metal atoms are stably adsorbed on the B doped graphene surface without clustering, which will enhance the hydrogen storage capacity. PMID:26577659

  14. A First Principles study on Boron-doped Graphene decorated by Ni-Ti-Mg atoms for Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance.

    PubMed

    Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi; Lai, Po-Jung; Leggesse, Ermias Girma; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a new solid state material for hydrogen storage, which consists of a combination of both transition and alkaline earth metal atoms decorating a boron-doped graphene surface. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption on this material was investigated using density functional theory calculations. We find that the diffusion barriers for H atom migration and desorption energies are lower than for the previously designed mediums and the proposed medium can reach the gravimetric capacity of ~6.5?wt % hydrogen, which is much higher than the DOE target for the year 2015. Molecular Dynamics simulations show that metal atoms are stably adsorbed on the B doped graphene surface without clustering, which will enhance the hydrogen storage capacity. PMID:26577659

  15. A First Principles study on Boron-doped Graphene decorated by Ni-Ti-Mg atoms for Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi; Lai, Po-Jung; Leggesse, Ermias Girma; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang

    2015-11-01

    We proposed a new solid state material for hydrogen storage, which consists of a combination of both transition and alkaline earth metal atoms decorating a boron-doped graphene surface. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption on this material was investigated using density functional theory calculations. We find that the diffusion barriers for H atom migration and desorption energies are lower than for the previously designed mediums and the proposed medium can reach the gravimetric capacity of ~6.5?wt % hydrogen, which is much higher than the DOE target for the year 2015. Molecular Dynamics simulations show that metal atoms are stably adsorbed on the B doped graphene surface without clustering, which will enhance the hydrogen storage capacity.

  16. Improved fiber retention by the use of fillers in graphite fiber/resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of matrix fillers were tested for their ability to prevent loss of fiber from graphite fiber/PMR polyimide and graphite fiber/epoxy composites in a fire. The fillers tested included powders of boron, boron carbide lime glass, lead glass, and aluminum. Boron was the most effective and prevented any loss of graphite fiber during burning. Mechanical properties of composites containing boron filler were measured and compared to those of composites containing no filler.

  17. Nitrogen-doped Co/Co9S8/partly-graphitized carbon as durable catalysts for oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Dai, Ying; Chen, Baibing; Zou, Jinlong; Jiang, BaoJiang; Fu, Honggang

    2016-03-01

    Durability of catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is the key factor for governing the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The cobalt (Co) chelated polyaniline (PANI) is used as the nitrogen and carbon sources to prepare the N-doped Co/Co9S8/partly-graphitized carbon (Co/Co9S8/NPGC) catalysts. Structure-activity correlations for Co/Co9S8/NPGC are explored by tuning the heating temperature (600-1000 °C) to investigate how the active components (Co/Co9S8) and N-doped functionalities (N-species) influence the ORR activity. As temperature increases, the gradual crystallization of Co originating from the reduction of Co9S8 is conducted to form the Co/Co9S8 heterojunction. MFCs with Co/Co9S8/NPGC (800 °C) cathode obtain the highest power density (1156 mW m-2) and the lowest charge transfer resistance (11.1 Ω) after 75 d running, which are better than commercial Pt/C (10 wt.%). Although the sole Co9S8 plays a limited role in ORR, the resulting Co/Co9S8 is found to be indispensable to achieve high activity and durability in MFCs cathodes. The dominant ORR pathways of Co/Co9S8/NPGC (800 and 900 °C) are the four-electron O2 reduction, which are attributed to the co-existence of pyridinic N, graphitic N and Co-Nx species. These new N-doped metal sulfide/PGC composites show promise for applications in MFCs.

  18. Carrier transport properties of the Group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x} with and without boron doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, Yoshisuke Wakabayashi, Yuki; Akiyama, Ryota; Nakane, Ryosho; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-09-15

    We have investigated the transport and magnetic properties of group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x} films (x = 1.0 and 2.3%) with and without boron doping grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In order to accurately measure the transport properties of 100-nm-thick Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x} films, (001)-oriented silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers with an ultra-thin Si body layer (?5 nm) were used as substrates. Owing to the low Fe content, the hole concentration and mobility in the Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x} films were exactly estimated by Hall measurements because the anomalous Hall effect in these films was found to be negligibly small. By boron doping, we increased the hole concentration in Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x} from ?10{sup 18} cm{sup ?3} to ?10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3} (x = 1.0%) and to ?10{sup 19} cm{sup ?3} (x = 2.3%), but no correlation was observed between the hole concentration and magnetic properties. This result presents a contrast to the hole-induced ferromagnetism in III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  19. Structure, electronic and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheets doped by 5d transition metal atoms: First-principles calculations and molecular orbital analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaofu; Geng, Zhaohui; Cai, Danyun; Pan, Tongxi; Chen, Yixin; Dong, Liyuan; Zhou, Tiege

    2015-01-01

    A first-principles calculation based on density functional theory is carried out to reveal the geometry, electronic structures and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheets (h-BNSs) doped by 5d transitional mental atoms (Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au and Hg) at boron-site (B5d) and nitrogen-site (N5d). Results of pure h-BNS, h-BNS with B vacancy (VB) and N vacancy (VN) are also given for comparison. It is shown that all the h-BNSs doped with 5d atoms possess a C3v local symmetry except for NLu and NHg which have a clear deviation. For the same 5d dopant, the binding energy of B5d is larger than that of N5d, which indicates the substitution of a 5d atom for B is preferred. The total densities of states are presented, where impurity energy levels exist. Besides, the total magnetic moments (TMMs) change regularly with the increment of the 5d atomic number. Theoretical analyses by molecular orbital under C3v symmetry explain the impurity energy levels and TMMs.

  20. The nitrogen-boron paramagnetic center in visible light sensitized N-B co-doped TiO(2). Experimental and theoretical characterization.

    PubMed

    Czoska, A M; Livraghi, S; Paganini, M C; Giamello, E; Di Valentin, C; Pacchioni, G

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen boron co-doped TiO(2) prepared via sol-gel synthesis and active under visible light, contains two types of paramagnetic extrinsic defects, both exhibiting a well resolved EPR spectrum. The first center is the well characterized [N(i)O]˙ species (i = interstitial) also present in N-doped TiO(2), while the second one involves both N and B. This latter center (labeled [NOB]˙) exhibits well resolved EPR spectra obtained using either (14)N or (15)N which show a high spin density in a N 2p orbital. The structure of the [NOB]˙ species is different from that previously proposed in the literature and is actually based on the presence of interstitial N and B atoms both bound to the same lattice oxygen ion. The interstitial B is also linked to two other lattice oxygen ions reproducing the trigonal planar structure typical of boron compounds. The energy level of the [NOB]˙ center lies near the edge of the valence band of TiO(2) and, as such, does not contribute to the visible light absorption. However, [NOB]˙ can easily trap one electron generating the [NOB](-) diamagnetic center which introduces a gap state at about 0.4 eV above the top of the valence band. This latter species can contribute to the visible light activity. PMID:21038048

  1. Chemical Erosion of Diamond-Coated Graphite under Low-Energy Hydrogen Atom Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeguchi, Yuji; Kyo, Masaaki; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Yasunori; Masuzaki, Suguru

    We experimentally investigate chemical erosion of polycrystalline graphite targets coated with boron-doped diamond (BDD) using an induction plasma containing low-energy, high-atomic-hydrogen flux. Chemical erosion is drastically suppressed by diamond coating the graphite target. The chemical sputtering yield for the BDD layer is about two orders of magnitude lower than that for the graphite target. After exposure in low-temperature hydrogen plasmas, however, the surface morphology of the BDD target is significantly modified. The polycrystalline diamond is eroded near the grain boundary, and many pits with diamond-like shapes are observed on the crystal surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the hydrogen atoms penetrate into the BDD target to a depth of at least 20 nm.

  2. Linear and spiral forms of longitudinal cuts in graphitized N-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (g-N-MWCNTs).

    PubMed

    Meier, Mark S; Selegue, John P; Cassity, Kelby B; Kaur, Aman Preet; Qian, Dali

    2010-08-25

    Nitrogen-containing multiwalled nanotubes (N-MWCNTs), formed by CVD from a nitrogen-containing feedstock have a 'bamboo' structure in which the axes of the graphene planes are not parallel to the axis of the nanotube and the core is periodically bridged. We find that thermal and chemical treatment of these materials can produce nanotubes that have been cut longitudinally in either a linear or in a spiral manner. In addition, these longitudinally cut nanotubes can be partially or fully unrolled by sonication in an aqueous surfactant, producing graphite platelets as well as narrow structures that could be thin graphite ribbons or very narrow, intact N-MWCNTs. These different morphologies of graphite, available from one source, suggest that there are multiple structures of N-MWCNTs present, few as simple as stacked cups or nested scrolls. PMID:21386509

  3. Undoped and boron doped diamond nanoparticles as platinum and platinum-ruthenium catalyst support for direct methanol fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Torre Riveros, Lyda

    Nanoparticular diamond is a promising material that can be used as a robust and chemically stable catalytic support. It has been studied and characterized physically and electrochemically, in its powder and thin film forms. This thesis work intends to demonstrate that undoped diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) and boron-doped diamond nanoparticles (BDDNPs) can be used as an electrode and a catalytic support material for platinum and ruthenium catalysts. The electrochemical properties of diamond nanoparticle electrodes, fabricated using the ink paste method, were investigated. As an initial step, we carried out chemical purification of commercially available undoped DNPs by refluxing in aqueous HNO3 as well as of BDDNPs which were doped through a collaborative work with the University of Missouri. The purified material was characterized by spectroscopic and surface science techniques. The reversibility of reactions such as ferricyanide/ferrocyanide (Fe(CN) 63-/Fe(CN)64-) and hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride complexes as redox probes were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry at the undoped DNPs and BDDNPs surface. These redox probes showed limited peak currents and presented linear relationships between current (i) and the square root of the potential scan rate (v1/2). However, compared to conventional electrodes, the peak currents were smaller. BDDNPs show an improvement in charge transfer currents when compared to undoped DNPs. Platinum and ruthenium nanoparticles were chemically deposited on undoped DNPs and BDDNPs through the use of the excess of a mild reducing agent such NaBH4. In order to improve the nanoparticle dispersion sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), a surfactant agent, was used. Percentages of platinum and ruthenium metals were varied as well as the stoichiometric amount of the reducing agent to determine adequate parameters for optimum performance in methanol oxidation. Both before and after the reducing process the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis (EDX), infrared spectroscopy (IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to demonstrate the utility of the catalyst obtained, the samples were tested in an electrochemical cell using methanol as a probe solution. As was performed with the undoped DNPs and BDDNPs, the ink paste method was used to prepare the electrodes with Pt/DNP, Pt-Ru/DNP, Pt/BDDNP and Pt-Ru/BDDNP catalytic systems, to perform the electrochemical experiments. The Pt and Pt-Ru modified diamond electrodes were tested with cyclic voltammetry in 0.5 M H2SO4 as electrolyte support showing hydrogen adsorption/desorption at platinum surfaces. CO gas adsorption/desorption experiments were also performed to determine the active surface area of Pt when Ru is present. Methanol oxidation current peaks were obtained when the electrodes were tested in a 1.0 M methanol/0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The experimental results demonstrated that diamond nanoparticles are useful as an electrode material. A fuel cell is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy. As previously mentioned, the aim of this research is to demonstrate the utility of undoped DNPs and BDDNPs as catalytic supports, which was performed by testing the catalytic systems obtained in a single fuel cell station at different temperatures to observe the cell performance.

  4. Fillers for improved graphite fiber retention by polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a program designed to determine the extent to which elemental boron and boron containing fillers added to the matrix resin of graphite/epoxy composites prevent the release of graphite fibers when the composites are exposed to fire and impact conditions are described. The fillers evaluated were boron, boron carbide and aluminum boride. The conditions evaluated were laboratory simulations of those that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation. The baseline (i.e., unfilled) laminates evaluated were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy. The baseline and filled laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, also were compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the baseline graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that the addition of boron and boron containing fillers to the resin matrix eliminated this fiber release. Mechanical properties of laminates containing the boron and boron containing fillers were lower than those of the baseline laminates. These property degradations for two systems: boron (5 micron) at 2.5 percent filler loading, and boron (5 micron) at 5.0 percent filler loading do not appear severe enough to preclude their use in structural composite applications.

  5. High Temperature, Electrically Conductive Graphite Composites For Space Nuclear Power.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, M. L.; Woollam, J. A.; Dillon, R. O.; Ahmed, A.; Brito, K. K.

    1988-04-01

    Space nuclear power systems require materials with low density, high thermal conductivity, and high electrical conductivity at elevated temperatures. Vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) is a novel material which is a good candidate for these structures. VGCF has been shown to have combined characteristics of thermal conductivity, strength and modulus which exceed values for PAN and pitch-based fibers, and has an electrical conductivity comparable to single crystal graphite. Major thrusts of the current research are to explore growth and processing of vapor grown fibers, and to study the effect of boron doping on the electrical properties of VGCF. Doping of graphite is known to change the distribution of electrons between energy levels in carbon, to enhance graphitization, and to modify the chemical composition of the surface of carbon fibers. Measurements of electrical resistivity as a function of temperature from 4 K to 2700 K have been obtained. The product of resistivity times density of annealed VGCF has been observed to be substantially lower than that of refractory metals at temperatures exceeding 1000 K, suggesting the utility of this unique material as an electrical conductor in space nuclear power thermionic conversion and other high temperature applications.

  6. A Simple Synthesis of an N-Doped Carbon ORR Catalyst: Hierarchical Micro/Meso/Macro Porosity and Graphitic Shells.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David; Stroek, Wowa; Geels, Norbert J; Sandu, Cosmin S; Heller, Adam; Yan, Ning; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2016-01-11

    Replacing platinum as an oxygen reduction catalyst is an important scientific and technological challenge. Herein we report a simple synthesis of a complex carbon with very good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity at pH?13. Pyrolysis of magnesium nitrilotriacetate yields a carbon with hierarchical micro/meso/macro porosity, resulting from in situ templating by spontaneously forming MgO nanoparticles and from etching by pyrolysis gases. The mesopores are lined with highly graphitic shells. The high ORR activity is attributed to a good balance between high specific surface area and mass transport through the hierarchical porosity, and to improved electronic conductivity through the graphitic shells. This novel carbon has a high surface area (1320?m(2) g(-1) ), and high nitrogen content for a single precursor synthesis (?6?%). Importantly, its synthesis is both cheap and easily scalable. PMID:26574917

  7. The sonication of graphite in various solvents and surfactants to synthesize high quality graphene as well as the nitrogen doping of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soden, Daniel R.; Bai, Jincheng; Dong, Lifeng

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of graphene in the scientific community has been the cause of much excitement among material scientists due to its unusual physical and photovoltaic properties. However, the much sought after monolayer graphene has proven to be difficult to produce in sufficient quantities This experiment aims to correct some of these problems, concerning itself with the synthesis of high quality graphene through continuous sonication with surfactant or solvent added throughout, as well as the issue of graphene quality as a function of sonication time. This was accomplished through the creation and addition of a solvent or surfactant solution to a graphite suspension during sonication lasting for 50, 80, 110,140, 170, and 200 minutes. The resulting suspension was then filtrated to separate out the graphene. Following this, the graphene was then doped through various methods with nitrogen to alter its properties. This completely physical method of graphene synthesis and doping provides a much simpler and more environmentally safe way to achieve the highly desired few layer graphene, and will hopefully allow for greater use of the substance in industry and its implementation into new technology. L. F. Dong acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation (DMR-1126375 and DMR-1126375), the Faculty Research Grant and the Sabbatical Leave Award from Missouri State University.

  8. Highly efficient and energy-saving sectional treatment of landfill leachate with a synergistic system of biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation on a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guohua; Pang, Yaning; Liu, Lei; Gao, Junxia; Lv, Baoying

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, a synergistic combination of the biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation (SBEO) of landfill leachate with sectional treatment on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode is proposed. The first stage involves the synergistic system of biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation. Then, the second stage is followed by individual biochemical treatment. Comparisons among the SBEO, electrochemical oxidation, biochemical treatment and biochemical treatment with the pretreatment of electrochemical oxidation are made systematically, which show that this method is both highly efficient and energy-saving. The higher TOC removal and low energy cost on the BDD electrode can be explained by the conversion of the bio-refractory pollutants to biodegradable organics in the electrochemical oxidation process, improving the current efficiency and reducing the energy cost. The treated wastewater is degraded only with biochemical treatment in the second stage, which further improves efficiency and reduced the energy cost. PMID:20413218

  9. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapilashrami, M.; Conti, G.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Nemk, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Trndahl, T.; Fjllstrm, V.; Lischner, J.; Louie, Steven G.; Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.-H.; Fadley, C. S.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO = VBMCIGS - VBMdiamond = 0.3 eV 0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV 0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  10. Sono-cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese at a polished boron-doped diamond electrode: application to the determination of manganese in instant tea.

    PubMed

    Saterlay, A J; Foord, J S; Compton, R G

    1999-12-01

    Ultrasonically assisted cathodic stripping voltammetry at a boron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the detection of manganese. Differential-pulse voltammetry was used to give the analytical signal from a cathodic strip of electrodeposited MnO2; linearity was observed from 10(-11) M to at least 3 x 10(-7) M, with 10(-11) M being the detection limit for a 2 min deposition. The procedure involves both ultrasonic-anodic deposition of MnO2 and ultrasonic-cathodic stripping. This novel analytical tool is robust, reproducible, mercury free, oxygen insensitive and highly specific towards manganese. The differential-pulse sono-cathodic stripping voltammetric technique was used to determine successfully the manganese content of two instant tea samples, giving excellent agreement with independent AAS analyses. PMID:10746310

  11. Thiol-yne reaction on boron-doped diamond electrodes: application for the electrochemical detection of DNA-DNA hybridization events.

    PubMed

    Meziane, Dalila; Barras, Alexandre; Kromka, Alexander; Houdkova, Jana; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) interfaces were chemically functionalized through the catalyst free thiol-yne reaction. Different thiolated precursors (e.g., perfluorodecanethiol, 6-(ferrocenyl)-hexanethiol, DNA) were successfully "clicked" to alkynyl-terminated BDD by irradiating the interface at 365 nm for 30 min. Thiolated oligonucleotide strands were immobilized using the optimized reaction conditions, and the surface concentration was tuned to obtain a surface coverage of 3.1 10(12) molecules cm(-2). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed to follow the kinetics of hybridization and dehybridization events. The sensitivity of the oligonucleotide modified BDD interface was assayed, and a detection limit of 1 nM was obtained. PMID:22022777

  12. Direct assessment of the mechanical modulus of graphene co-doped with low concentrations of boron-nitrogen by a non-contact approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shun-Hsien; Medina, Henry; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Chou, Li-Jen; Wang, Zhiming M.; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2014-07-01

    Boron and nitrogen co-doping has been shown to be an effective way to induce a band gap in graphene for electrical applications but only a few theoretical studies have been done to understand the elastic and mechanical properties of the modified graphene. Until now, no experimental assessment of the mechanical modulus of boron-nitrogen-doped graphene (BNG) has been reported in the literature. Here, we demonstrate a novel non-contact approach to determine the in-plane stiffness of BNG at low BN concentrations. The in-plane stiffness of BNG with 2 at% BN concentration was estimated to be about 309 N m-1, which is lower than that of pristine graphene, in good agreement with some theoretical studies. Moreover, we correlated the conductivity of BNG with induced strain and found the BNG to be more sensitive than pristine graphene in response to externally applied strain. This result indicates that BNG is a more suitable material than graphene for strain sensor applications.Boron and nitrogen co-doping has been shown to be an effective way to induce a band gap in graphene for electrical applications but only a few theoretical studies have been done to understand the elastic and mechanical properties of the modified graphene. Until now, no experimental assessment of the mechanical modulus of boron-nitrogen-doped graphene (BNG) has been reported in the literature. Here, we demonstrate a novel non-contact approach to determine the in-plane stiffness of BNG at low BN concentrations. The in-plane stiffness of BNG with 2 at% BN concentration was estimated to be about 309 N m-1, which is lower than that of pristine graphene, in good agreement with some theoretical studies. Moreover, we correlated the conductivity of BNG with induced strain and found the BNG to be more sensitive than pristine graphene in response to externally applied strain. This result indicates that BNG is a more suitable material than graphene for strain sensor applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Actual strain applied on pristine graphene and 2BNG; Raman spectra of CVD graphene and 2BNG transferred onto PDMS substrates; schematic of the atomic model; I2D/IG Raman ratio as a function of the PDMS strain for pristine graphene in the reversible deformation region; Raman information of the I2D/IG ratio for pristine graphene in the irreversible deformation region; Raman G band for graphene before and under applied strain; I2D/IG Raman ratio as a function of the PDMS strain for the 2BNG film in the reversible deformation region; Raman information of the I2D/IG ratio for 2BNG in the irreversible deformation region; Raman G band for 2BNG before and under applied strain; the schematic diagram of the deposition process for a strain sensor device; schematic diagram of the 2D stress applied to graphene and BNG films; actual strain on graphene and BNG measured by Raman versus PDMS strain; schematic diagrams of the strain distribution. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00495g

  13. Enhancement of the refrigerant capacity in low level boron doped La0.8Gd0.2Fe11.4Si1.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamba, P.; Zeng, R.; Wang, J. L.; Campbell, S. J.; Dou, S. X.

    2013-04-01

    The effects of boron doping on the itinerant-electron metamagnetic (IEM) transition and the magnetocaloric effects (MCEs) in the cubic NaZn13-type La0.8Gd0.2Fe11.4Si1.6 compound have been investigated. The Curie temperature, TC, of La0.8Gd0.2Fe11.4Si1.6Bx compounds with x=0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.2 and 0.3 was found to increase from 200 K to 222 K with increase in boron doping, x. The maximum values of the isothermal magnetic entropy change, ?SM, (derived using the Maxwell relation for a field change ?B=0-5 T) in La0.8Gd0.2Fe11.4Si1.6Bx with x=0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.2 and 0.3 are 14.8, 16, 15, 7.5 and 6.6 J kg-1 K-1 respectively, with corresponding values of the refrigerant capacity, RCP of 285, 361, 346, 222 and 245 J kg-1. The large ?SM values observed for the undoped sample, and the low level B doped La0.8Gd0.2Fe11.4Si1.6B0.03 and La0.8Gd0.2Fe11.4Si1.6B0.06 compounds are attributed to the first order nature of the IEM transition while the decrease of ?SM at x=0.2 and 0.3 is due to a change in the second order phase transition with increase in B doping. The nature of the magnetic phase transitions is also reflected by the magnetic hysteresis of 3.7, 9, 5.7, 0.4 and 0.3 J kg-1 for x=0.0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.2 and 0.30 respectively. The possibility of tuning the TC and the magnetocaloric properties at temperatures close to room temperature make this system interesting from the points of view of both fundamental aspects as well as applications.

  14. Low-Temperature Softening Due to Vacancy Orbital with Γ8 Quartet Ground State in Boron-Doped Floating Zone Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Shotaro; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Mitsumoto, Keisuke; Komatsu, Satoru; Horie, Kunihiko; Nemoto, Yuichi; Yamada-Kaneta, Hiroshi; Goto, Terutaka

    2013-08-01

    We have carried out low-temperature ultrasonic measurements using shear-mode ultrasound to clarify the quantum state of a vacancy orbital in boron-doped silicon grown by the floating zone (FZ) method. The elastic constants (C11-C12)/2 and C44 of the transverse mode exhibit considerable softening below 2 and 5 K down to the base temperature of 30 mK, respectively. The elastic constant C44 measured by the three ultrasonic modes (kx,uy), (kz,ux), and (kx,uz) shows the different magnetic field dependences among the configurations under applied magnetic fields along the z-axis. The elastic softening and the magnetic field dependence of the elastic constants are accounted for by the quadrupole susceptibility based on the energy level scheme of the vacancy orbital with a Γ8 quartet ground state and Γ7 doublet excited state located at an energy of 1 K. The difference in C44 between the two ultrasonic modes (kz,ux) and (kx,uz) at fields along the z-axis indicates that the Γ8 quartet ground state is slightly split by local strain in the silicon sample. The quantum state of the vacancy orbital is expected to be sensitive to strain because of the extremely large quadrupole-strain coupling energy of gΓ≈ 105 K due to the extensively spreading orbital radius of r≈ 1 nm. The differences in variation of the low-temperature softening and magnetic field dependence among eight samples cut out from different locations of the present boron-doped FZ silicon ingot evidence the inhomogeneous distribution of the vacancy concentration.

  15. Bulk-bronzied graphites for plasma-facing components in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Doerner, R.; Khandagle, M. . Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Causey, R.; Wilson, K. ); Croessmann, D.; Whitley, J. ); Holland, D.; Smolik, G. ); Matsuda, T.; Sogabe, T. (Toyo Tanso Co. Ltd., O

    1990-06-01

    Newly developed bulk-boronized graphites and boronized C-C composites with a total boron concentration ranging from 1 wt % to 30 wt % have been evaluated as plasma-facing component materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Bulk-boronized graphites have been bombarded with high-flux deuterium plasmas at temperatures between 200 and 1600{degree}C. Plasma interaction induced erosion of bulk-boronized graphites is observed to be a factor of 2--3 smaller than that of pyrolytic graphite, in regimes of physical sputtering, chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation. Postbombardment thermal desorption spectroscopy indicates that bulk-boronized graphites enhance recombinative desorption of deuterium, which leads to a suppression of the formation of deuterocarbon due to chemical sputtering. The tritium inventory in graphite has been found to decrease by an order of magnitude due to 10 wt % bulk-boronization at temperatures above 1000{degree}C. The critical heat flux to induce cracking for bulk-boronized graphites has been found to be essentially the same as that for non-boronized graphites. Also, 10 wt % bulk-boronization of graphite hinders air oxidation nearly completely at 800{degree}C and reduces the steam oxidation rate by a factor of 2--3 at around 1100 and 1350{degree}C. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Coatings for graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fibers released from composites during burning or an explosion caused shorting of electrical and electronic equipment. Silicon carbide, silica, silicon nitride and boron nitride were coated on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistances. Resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than uncoated fiber were attained without any significant degradation of the substrate fiber. An organo-silicone approach to produce coated fibers with high electrical resistance was also used. Celion 6000 graphite fibers were coated with an organo-silicone compound, followed by hydrolysis and pyrolysis of the coating to a silica-like material. The shear and flexural strengths of composites made from high electrically resistant fibers were considerably lower than the shear and flexural strengths of composites made from the lower electrically resistant fibers. The lower shear strengths of the composites indicated that the coatings on these fibers were weaker than the coating on the fibers which were pyrolyzed at higher temperature.

  17. Metal-doped graphene layers composed with boron nitride-graphene as an insulator: a nano-capacitor.

    PubMed

    Monajjemi, Majid

    2014-11-01

    A model of a nanoscale dielectric capacitor composed of a few dopants has been investigated in this study. This capacitor includes metallic graphene layers which are separated by an insulating medium containing a few h-BN layers. It has been observed that the elements from group IIIA of the periodic table are more suitable as dopants for hetero-structures of the {metallic graphene/hBN/metallic graphene} capacitors compared to those from groups IA or IIA. In this study, we have specifically focused on the dielectric properties of different graphene/h-BN/graphene including their hetero-structure counterparts, i.e., Boron-graphene/h-BN/Boron-graphene, Al-graphene/h-BN/Al-graphene, Mg-graphene/h-BN/Mg-graphene, and Be-graphene/h-BN/Be-graphene stacks for monolayer form of dielectrics. Moreover, we studied the multi dielectric properties of different (h-BN)n/graphene hetero-structures of Boron-graphene/(h-BN)n/Boron-graphene. PMID:25359456

  18. Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation from solid boronized probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; Von Goeler, S. )

    1994-07-01

    Boronization was performed by plasma ablation of two solid boronized target probes. Probe-1, in a mushroom shape, consisted of a 10.7% boronized two-dimensional carbon-carbon composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B[sub 4]C binder. Probe-2, in a rectangular shape, consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40-[mu]m boron particles. Probe-1 boronization deposited [approximately]26 monolayers of boron. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage in 1-MW neutral-beam-heated plasmas decreased 27%, and volt-second consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of [approximately]5. The central oxygen density decreased 15 to 20%. Carbon levels initially increased during boronization but were significantly reduced after boronization. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization deposited [approximately]70 monolayers. Probe-2 boronization exhibited similar improved plasma conditions, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred because of the previous boronization with Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front-face temperatures above the boron melting point. The results demonstrate the performance of two different boronized probe materials and the relative simplicity and effectiveness of solid target boronization as a convenient, real-time impurity control technique. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Miniaturized graphite sensors doped with metal-bathophenanthroline complexes for the selective potentiometric determination of uric acid in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S S; Rizk, N M

    1997-08-01

    Miniaturized poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membrane sensors in an all-solid-state graphite support, responsive to urate anion, were developed. The membranes incorporate lipophilic ion-pair complexes of urate anion with ruthenium(III), iron(II), nickel(II) and copper(I) bathophenanthroline (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) counter cations. The sensors demonstrate a near-Nernstian response to urate over the concentration range 1 x 10(-2)-1 x 10(-5) mol l-1 and have micromolar detection limits and good selectivity properties. The response is virtually unaffected by pH changes in the range 7-10 and the response times are 5-10 s in aqueous solutions and in human serum and urine samples. A flow injection detector incorporating an iron(II) bathophenanthroline-urate graphite sensor was used for continuous monitoring of uric acid. The minimum detectable concentration was approximately 8 micrograms ml-1 and the sample throughput was approximately 120 h-1. Direct potentiometric determination of uric acid in the static and hydrodynamic modes of operation over the range 15 micrograms ml-1-1.5 mg ml-1 showed average recoveries of 98.7 and 97.8% with RSDs of 0.6 and 0.7%, respectively. Application of the method to the determination of uric acid in human serum and urine gave results that compared favourably with those obtained by the standard spectrophotometric method. PMID:9338988

  20. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-07-07

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is sued to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.