Sample records for boron doped graphite

  1. Atomic structure of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite doped with boron

    E-print Network

    Kwak, Juhyoun

    substitute for the carbon atom in the graphite structure and promote the graphitization of pyrolytic graphiteAtomic structure of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite doped with boron Eunkyung Kim, Ilwhan Oh 3 September 2001; accepted 3 September 2001 Abstract Boron-doped carbon was prepared by the high

  2. Comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite crucibles for boron doped silicon epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Dyan; Richardson, Christopher J. K. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This article reports on the comparison of beryllium oxide and pyrolytic graphite as crucible liners in a high-temperature effusion cell used for boron doping in silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis indicates decomposition of the beryllium oxide liner, leading to significant incorporation of beryllium and oxygen in the grown films. The resulting films are of poor crystal quality with rough surfaces and broad x-ray diffraction peaks. Alternatively, the use of pyrolytic graphite crucible liners results in higher quality films.

  3. First-principles investigations of the magnetic properties of graphite boron nitride sheet induced by Fe doping.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenwei; Zhang, Dengyu; Lu, Wei; Fan, Bingbing

    2010-05-26

    The first-principles spin polarization method is used to investigate the magnetic properties of graphite boron nitride (g-BN) sheet induced by Fe doping. We find that a nitrogen or boron atom substituted by Fe can induce a magnetic moment. From standard Mulliken population analysis, we also find that the magnetic moment is mainly dominated by Fe 3d states. Using Heisenberg exchange coupling theory, we study the exchange coupling mechanisms by constructing two-Fe centers in g-BN. The results show the presence of relatively strong exchange coupling for two-Fe substituted two-B atoms and the coupling is ferromagnetic. For the case of two-Fe substituted two-N atoms, the coupling is antiferromagnetic and the exchange coupling is very weak. The paper enriches recent molecular magnetic investigations. PMID:21393706

  4. Synthesis, characterization and oxidation of boron-doped carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermignani, William

    The goal of this study was to gain a fundamental understanding of the role of boron in carbon oxidation. Boron-doped carbons were synthesized via CVD, ion implantation and high temperature doping and subsequently characterized. It was found that high temperature doped HOPG carbons were ideal for oxidation studies because their surface could be reproduced, their surface structures were determined and they were able to be characterized by XPS, AFM and SEM. The direct analysis of the chemical structures and atomic arrangements in boron-doped carbon or carbon surfaces by these techniques was critical in determining the effect of boron on carbon oxidation. XPS was utilized in this work to determine the local bonding environment of boron in carbon before and after oxidation. It was necessary to obtain an accurate calibration of the B1s binding energy scale which was accomplished by obtaining photoemission spectra of boron-doped carbons with known structures (local boron bonding environments), such as boron oxide, boron carbide, triphenylboroxine, tourmaline, boric acid, danburite and high temperature boron-doped graphite. All of the aforementioned standards contain boron in a unique bonding environment and thus their spectra formulated a complete conversion of B1s binding energies to boron chemical environments which had not been reported in the past. It was clearly established that a chemical shift for substitutional boron in graphite exists at 186.5 eV with a FWHM of 1.2. The chemical structures of the boron in the standards were related to the binding energy using a Pauling charge distribution model and a modification of the Sanderson electronegativity method. This approach was used to determine whether the B1s binding energy would change depending upon the specific location of boron in the graphite or graphite surface. This model was used, along with XPS, TEM and Raman results, to show that edge sites are preferred lattice sites in graphite for boron substitution. The oxidation behaviors of the synthesized high temperature doped samples were studied with TGA, SEM, XPS and AFM. It was found that boron caused the gasification rates of the carbons to decrease. The SEM and AFM results showed that the pits that were formed in the undoped and doped carbons were different in size, depth and orientation. A semi-empirical Molecular Orbital Package method and experimental results were used to show that the reactivity of the zig-zag edge sites of a pit wall could be reduced by the replacement of carbon atoms with boron atoms at these sites; hence, the oxidation would be inhibited in the a-direction of a graphene layer. Conversely, boron doping on an armchair edge surface of a pit wall results in increased reactivity at these sites and the subsequent formation of boron oxide during oxidation, which does not prevent oxidation in the a-direction of a graphene layer. Rather, the build-up of boron oxide clusters prevented oxidation in the c-direction. A model was proposed for the oxidation inhibition mechanism in boron-doped graphite based upon the stability of pits with boron substitution on the zig-zag sites.

  5. Stabilization of boron carbide via silicon doping.

    PubMed

    Proctor, J E; Bhakhri, V; Hao, R; Prior, T J; Scheler, T; Gregoryanz, E; Chhowalla, M; Giulani, F

    2015-01-14

    Boron carbide is one of the lightest and hardest ceramics, but its applications are limited by its poor stability against a partial phase separation into separate boron and carbon. Phase separation is observed under high non-hydrostatic stress (both static and dynamic), resulting in amorphization. The phase separation is thought to occur in just one of the many naturally occurring polytypes in the material, and this raises the possibility of doping the boron carbide to eliminate this polytype. In this work, we have synthesized boron carbide doped with silicon. We have conducted a series of characterizations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction) on pure and silicon-doped boron carbide following static compression to 50 GPa non-hydrostatic pressure. We find that the level of amorphization under static non-hydrostatic pressure is drastically reduced by the silicon doping. PMID:25427850

  6. Stabilization of boron carbide via silicon doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, J. E.; Bhakhri, V.; Hao, R.; Prior, T. J.; Scheler, T.; Gregoryanz, E.; Chhowalla, M.; Giulani, F.

    2015-01-01

    Boron carbide is one of the lightest and hardest ceramics, but its applications are limited by its poor stability against a partial phase separation into separate boron and carbon. Phase separation is observed under high non-hydrostatic stress (both static and dynamic), resulting in amorphization. The phase separation is thought to occur in just one of the many naturally occurring polytypes in the material, and this raises the possibility of doping the boron carbide to eliminate this polytype. In this work, we have synthesized boron carbide doped with silicon. We have conducted a series of characterizations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction) on pure and silicon-doped boron carbide following static compression to 50 GPa non-hydrostatic pressure. We find that the level of amorphization under static non-hydrostatic pressure is drastically reduced by the silicon doping.

  7. Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A. F.; Cao Chao; Cheng, H. P. [Department of Physics and Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2013-04-28

    First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different bromine concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and bromine atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, bromine is stable in the molecular form (Br{sub 2}). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br{sub 2} molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, bromine is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br{sub 2} molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.

  8. Self-doping in Boron Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2009-03-01

    Boron nanotubes have attracted much attention since their first fabrication in experiments. Boron nanotubes with large radii (R >= 10 å) are predicted to be metallic with large densities of states at their Fermi energies, which may provide excellent conducting systems for one-dimensional electronics. In previous work [1], we have shown a class of stable boron sheets, composed of mixtures of triangular and hexagonal motifs, that are likely to be the precursors of boron nanotubes. These sheets are stabilized by a balance of 2-center and 3-center bonding. Here, using density functional theory and Maximally Localized Wannier Functions, we show that adding a boron atom to a boron sheet is equivalent to doping the boron sheet with all three valence electrons of the added atom. Based on this self-doping picture, we propose a simple counting scheme to construct stable boron nanostructures, e.g. from corresponding carbon ones. We also apply this knowledge to study Mg-doped boron sheets and discuss the possible stable structures of MgB2 nanotubes. [1] H. Tang, and S. Ismail-Beigi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 115501 (2007).

  9. Catalyst-free synthesis of crumpled boron and nitrogen co-doped graphite layers with tunable bond structure for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jutao; Pan, Fuping; Jiang, Luhua; Fu, Xiaogang; Liang, Aiming; Wei, Zhiyang; Zhang, Junyan; Sun, Gongquan

    2014-04-22

    Two-dimensional materials based on ternary system of B, C and N are useful ranging from electric devices to catalysis. The bonding arrangement within these BCN nanosheets largely determines their electronic structure and thus chemical and (or) physical properties, yet it remains a challenge to manipulate their bond structures in a convenient and controlled manner. Recently, we developed a synthetic protocol for the synthesis of crumpled BCN nanosheets with tunable B and N bond structure using urea, boric acid and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as precursors. By carefully selecting the synthesis condition, we can tune the structure of BCN sheets from s-BCN with B and N bond together to h-BCN with B and N homogenously dispersed in BCN sheets. Detailed experiments suggest that the final bond structure of B and N in graphene depends on the preferentially doped N structure in BCN nanosheets. When N substituted the in-plane carbon atom with all its electrons configured into the ? electron system of graphene, it facilitates the formation of h-BCN with B and N in separated state. On the contrary, when nitrogen substituted the edge-plane carbon with the nitrogen dopant surrounded with the lone electron pairs, it benefits for the formation of B-N structure. Specially, the compound riched with h-BCN shows excellent ORR performance in alkaline solution due to the synergistic effect between B and N, while s-BCN dominant BCN shows graphite-like activity for ORR, suggesting the intrinsic properties differences of BCN nanosheets with different dopants bond arrangement. PMID:24601550

  10. Influence of Si Co-doping on electrical transport properties of magnesium-doped boron nanoswords

    E-print Network

    Gao, Hongjun

    Influence of Si Co-doping on electrical transport properties of magnesium- doped boron nanoswords://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Influence of Si Co-doping on electrical transport properties of magnesium-doped boron nanoswords; published online 9 March 2012) Magnesium-doped boron nanoswords were synthesized via a thermoreduction

  11. Interaction of boron suboxide with compacted graphite cast iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Freemantle; O. T. Johnson; I. Sigalas; M. Herrmann

    2011-01-01

    The chemical interaction of boron suboxide (B6O) with compacted graphite cast iron (CGI) was investigated using static interaction diffusion couples between B6O and CGI at 700°C, 900°C and 1100°C for 1h. This interaction offers the possibility to evaluate the potential of B6O as a cutting tool. The microstructures and phase compositions of the interaction zones were investigated. At 700°C and

  12. Synthesis and characterization of boron-doped carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Cermignani; Thomas E. Paulson; Carina Onneby; Carlo G. Pantano

    1995-01-01

    Two methods have been employed to prepare boron-doped carbon materials. One method utilized ion implantation to dope the surface region of vitreous carbon with up to 12 atomic % boron. The other method used CVD to prepare ~ 1–2 micron thick carbon coatings with various boron contents (0 to 15 atomic %). The quantitative compositional analysis of these materials was

  13. Transformations of graphite and boron nitride in shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlodarchik, E.; Trebinski, R.

    Peculiarities of shock adiabat of graphite are attributed to the graphite-diamond transformation. However only a very small amount of diamond can be recovered from pure shocked graphite with a density approaching the theoretical value. In order to interpret this fact, accessible data concerning the behaviour of graphite under static and dynamic load have been analysed. An additional peculiarity of the shock adiabat of graphite has been found at 12 GPa by analysing compressibility data. It has been attributed to shearing in the basal planes that paves the way for deformation of the planes. An isotherm of cold compression of graphite can be constructed on the basis of the results from theoretical modelling published in the literature. Another isotherm, fitting experimental data, has been proposed. An isotherm for graphitic boron nitride has been also proposed. The isotherms have been used in the interpretation of the peculiarities of shock adiabats. It has been shown that the so-called ``mixed-phase'' region is an apparent compressibility curve. Energy evaluations based on the isotherms have proved that the peculiarities of the shock adiabat of graphite correspond to the formation of hexagonal instead of cubic diamond. Similarly the formation of the wurtzite modification of BN is responsible for the peculiarities of the shock adiabat of ? BN. Literature data concerning the mechanism of the polymorphous transformations of graphite and ? BN in shock waves have been reviewed. On the basis of proposed isotherms of cold compression, the activation energy has been appraised and an equation of kinetics proposed. The equation has been analysed by comparing results of theoretical modelling and accessible experimental data.

  14. Transparent Boron-Doped Nanotube Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Romero, Hugo; Gutierrez, Humberto; Eklund, Peter

    2009-03-01

    We report results of FTIR transmission and temperature-dependent resistance measurements on transparent thin films of bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes exposed to B2O3 at 1000C. This reaction is proposed to B-dope the films. Doping is observed to lower the T=300 K dc sheet resistance by a factor of five without changing the optical transmittance in the visible range and suggests that boron-doped SWNT provide a better approach to transparent electrodes. The optical transmission (T=300K) of SWNT and B- doped SWNT films measured in the range 50-7000 cm-1 show that the doped films have a greater optical density in the mid to far IR, consistent with the B-doping creating new free carriers. This optical result shows that the DC conductivity of the doped tubes is indeed higher, with the interpretation not being entangled with changes in the tube-tube contact resistance within the film, as would be the case in a dc conductivity measurement. Also the dc resistance of both B-doped and annealed SWNT films were measured over 10doped films the metallic term (linear in T) is ˜10 times greater than for the annealed and undoped films. Work supported by NSF NIRT ECS 06-09243.

  15. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of Ni doped boron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Nina; Langell, M. A.; Adenwalla, S.

    2009-03-01

    Ni acts as an n-type dopant for semiconducting boron carbide (BC). A series of samples with increased Ni doping were grown on Si substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and characterized using IV measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Increased Ni doping leads to a linear increase in Ni concentration as evidenced by the intensity of the Ni 2p photoemission peak relative to that of the B 1s peak; concomitantly, the IV curves indicate that the BC becomes increasingly n doped. B1s peak shapes shows B-C and B-B bonding structure, and the C1s peak shows B11C icosahedra bonds and C-B-C chain bonds in all samples. The overall binding energies for B and C agree with the results from sputter deposited stoichiometric B4C [1]; in these PECVD grown samples, however, the graphite peak commonly seen in the sputter deposited B4C is absent. [1] I. Jimenez, L. J. Terminello, et al. J. Elect. Spec. Relat. Phenom., 101-103, 611-615 (1999).

  16. Percolation exponents and thresholds obtained from the nearly ideal continuum percolation system graphite-boron nitride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junjie Wu; D. S. McLachlan

    1997-01-01

    Compressed disks made from graphite and, its mechanical but not electrical isomorph, boron nitride as well as graphite-boron nitride powders, undergoing compression, are nearly ideal continuum percolation systems, as the ratio of their conductivities is nearly 10-18 and the scatter of the experimental points near the critical volume fraction phic is very small. The following measurements, with the characteristic exponent(s)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of boron doped alumina stabilized zirconia fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?. Uslu; T. Tunç; S. Keskin; M. K. Öztürk

    2011-01-01

    Boron doped PVA\\/Zr-Al acetate nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning using PVA as a precursor. The effect of calcination\\u000a temperature on morphology and crystal structure was investigated at 250, 500, and 800 °C. The study also establishes the effect\\u000a of boron doping on the morphology of PVA\\/Zr-Al acetate nanofibers at various calcination temperatures. The measurements showed\\u000a that the conductivity, pH, viscosity

  18. Boron-doped carbon prepared from PFO as a lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Gu; Liu, Fei; Lee, Chul-Wee; Lee, Young-Seak; Im, Ji Sun

    2014-08-01

    A petroleum-based Li-ion battery anode was prepared by thermal condensation of pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) and a subsequent carbonization process. H3BO3 was used as a catalyst for efficient thermal condensation, carbonization and battery performance. The influence of the carbonization temperature on the carbon structure and battery performance was also investigated. Notably, H3BO3 promoted thermal condensation and formation of a graphitic carbon structure and acted as a boron doping agent. Boron-doping attenuated the highly active sites in carbon and effectively controlled formation of the SEI layer, which resulted in an increase in the initial efficiency of the anode. For the sample carbonized at 900 °C, a reversible capacity of 301 mAh/g and an initial efficiency of 78.6% were obtained. In addition, the samples obtained at different carbonization temperatures were all highly stable over 50 cycles, with capacity retentions greater than 90%.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen-doped graphitic nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Josue; Garcia, M. Luisa; Jia, Xiaoting; Martinez, Rafael; Pelagio, Miguel A.; Swanson, David; Elias, A. Laura; Gutierrez, Humberto; Rodriguez, Fernando; Munoz, Emilio; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    Nitrogen doping of carbon nanostructures such as nanotubes and graphene is a practical approach for tailoring their electronic and chemical properties. However, the doping of graphene nanoribbons still remains to be a challenge. Here we discuss a novel synthetic route to N-doped graphitic nanoribbons using chemical vapor deposition. The morphology of the new nanomaterial resembles the observed for the undoped graphitic nanoribbons, with particular differences specially at the ribbons' edges. We performed scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies in order to confirm the nitrogen presence within the nanoribbons. In addition, the electrical response for individual nanoribbons was obtained. We observed that N-doped nanoribbons exhibit a clear semiconductor-like behavior depending on the amount of nitrogen embedded in the hexagonal carbon network (undoped nanoribbons always showed a metallic response). These doped nanostructures could find applications in the fabrication of electronic devices.

  20. Cathodoluminescence of boron nitride nanotubes doped by ytterbium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Chen; Ying Chen; Yun Liu

    2010-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are wide band gap semiconducting material with super thermal and chemical stabilities, which make them an ideal nano-sized host for luminescent ions. In this work, we report an in situ synthesis of Ytterbium (Yb) doped BNNTs using a ball milling and annealing approach. Yb doped BNNTs show more red-light emissions in the cathodoluminescent (CL) spectrum in

  1. Femtosecond-laser-induced destruction of boron-nitride nanotubes and boron-nitride doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerhenne, Bernd; Eschstruth, Nils; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S.; Garcia, Martin E.

    2013-11-01

    By means of first principles calculations we studied the intense femtosecond-laser excitation of several boron­ nitride nanotubes and a boron-nitride doped graphene layer up to irradiation levels where these structures disintegrate. We performed molecular dynamics simulations using our in-house Code for Highly excited Valence Electron Systems (CHIVES). For different boron-nitride nanotubes we determined the damage threshold in terms of the electronic temperature and the absorbed energy per atom. We found that all nanotubes studied were destroyed in the first 200 fs after an ultrafast laser excitation heating the electrons to 108 mHa (34103 K). Some tubes also disintegrated at lower electronic temperatures. For the boron-nitride doped graphene we found that at a laser-induced electronic temperature of 100 mHa (31577 K) bonds break and the boron-nitride dimer leaves the structure.

  2. The local structure of transition metal doped semiconducting boron carbides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Liu; Guangfu Luo; Wai-Ning Mei; Orhan Kizilkaya; Eric D. Shepherd; Peter A. Dowben

    2010-01-01

    Transition metal doped boron carbides produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of orthocarborane (closo-1,2-C2B10H12) and 3d metal metallocenes were investigated by performing K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements. The 3d transition metal atom occupies one of the icosahedral boron or carbon atomic sites within the icosahedral cage. Good agreement was obtained between

  3. Boron-doped superlattices and Bragg mirrors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, A.; Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Bustarret, E.

    2014-08-01

    A periodic modulation of the boron doping level of single crystal diamond multilayers over more than three orders of magnitude during epitaxial growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is shown to yield Bragg mirrors in the visible. The thicknesses and doping level of the individual layers were controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, enabling to tune the reflectance peak to the wavelength range of diamond color centers, such as NV0 or NV-. The crystalline quality, periodicity, and sharpness of the doping transitions in these doping superlattices over tens of periods were confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction.

  4. Boron-doped superlattices and Bragg mirrors in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Fiori, A. [University of Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Bousquet, J.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr [University of Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Bellet-Amalric, E. [University of Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-08-25

    A periodic modulation of the boron doping level of single crystal diamond multilayers over more than three orders of magnitude during epitaxial growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is shown to yield Bragg mirrors in the visible. The thicknesses and doping level of the individual layers were controlled by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, enabling to tune the reflectance peak to the wavelength range of diamond color centers, such as NV{sup 0} or NV{sup ?}. The crystalline quality, periodicity, and sharpness of the doping transitions in these doping superlattices over tens of periods were confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction.

  5. Fabrication of boron-doped carbon fibers by the decomposition of B4C and its excellent rate performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqi; Ma, Canliang; Yang, Xueteng; Han, Tao; Tao, Zechao; Song, Yan; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui; Liu, Lang

    2015-03-01

    A facile route, for the first time, was developed to fabricate boron-doped carbon fibers (BDCFs). Boron was doped into mesosphere pitch-based carbon fibers (CFs) by exposing the CFs in a vapor of boron by the decomposition of boron carbide. The microstructure of BDCFs was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. When used as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, BDCFs electrode exhibits an improved performance. Concretely, the specific capacity of BDCFs still had a value of over 400 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. Moreover, BDCFs exhibits better rate capability and less hysteresis in comparison to the pristine CFs. Such enhanced lithium storage capability can be attributed to the improvement of graphitization properties and the high amount of defects induced by boron.

  6. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  7. Hydrogen adsorption on carbon-doped boron nitride nanotube.

    PubMed

    Baierle, Rogério J; Piquini, Paulo; Schmidt, Tomé M; Fazzio, Adalberto

    2006-10-26

    The adsorption of atomic and molecular hydrogen on carbon-doped boron nitride nanotubes is investigated within the ab initio density functional theory. The binding energy of adsorbed hydrogen on carbon-doped boron nitride nanotube is substantially increased when compared with hydrogen on nondoped nanotube. These results are in agreement with experimental results for boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) where dangling bonds are present. The atomic hydrogen makes a chemical covalent bond with carbon substitution, while a physisorption occurs for the molecular hydrogen. For the H(2) molecule adsorbed on the top of a carbon atom in a boron site (BNNT + C(B)-H(2)), a donor defect level is present, while for the H(2) molecule adsorbed on the top of a carbon atom in a nitrogen site (BNNT + C(N)-H(2)), an acceptor defect level is present. The binding energies of H(2) molecules absorbed on carbon-doped boron nitride nanotubes are in the optimal range to work as a hydrogen storage medium. PMID:17048943

  8. Influence of Si Co-doping on electrical transport properties of magnesium-doped boron nanoswords

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Yuan; Lu Hongliang; Tian Jifa; Li Chen; Hui Chao; Shi Xuezhao; Huang Yuan; Shen Chengmin; Gao Hongjun [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-03-05

    Magnesium-doped boron nanoswords were synthesized via a thermoreduction method. The as-prepared nanoswords are single crystalline and {beta}-rhombohedral ({beta}-rh) phase. Electrical transport measurements show that variable range hopping conductivity increases with temperature, and carrier mobility has a greater influence than carrier concentration. These results are consistent with the three dimensional Mott's model (M. Cutler and N. F. Mott, Phys. Rev. 181, 1336 (1969)) besides a high density of localized states at the Fermi level compared with bulk {beta}-rh boron. Conductivity of Mg-doped boron nanoswords is significantly lower than that of ''pure'' (free of magnesium) boron nanoswords. Electron energy loss spectroscopy studies confirm that the poorer conductivity arises from silicon against magnesium doping.

  9. Mechanisms of Postsynthesis Doping of Boron Nitride Nanostructures with Carbon from First-Principles Simulations

    E-print Network

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Mechanisms of Postsynthesis Doping of Boron Nitride Nanostructures with Carbon from First May 2011; published 11 July 2011) Electron-beam-mediated postsynthesis doping of boron-nitride in nanoelectronics. Concurrently with the studies of gra- phene, individual flakes of hexagonal boron-nitride (h

  10. Irradiated solar cells fabricated from gallium-doped/boron-doped FZ and CZ silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Minahan, J.A.; Dionne, N.N.D.; Taylor, W.E.; Trumble, T.M.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the tolerance to various fluence levels of 1 MeV electrons of solar cells fabricated from: gallium-doped multipass FZ silicon, boron-doped multipass FZ silicon, gallium doped CZ silicon and boron doped CZ silicon. The FZ materials used for the study were of ultra high purity with low levels of oxygen and carbon. Bulk analysis of gallium doped cold crucible (C/sup 3/Z) silicon is included and compared with gallium doped FZ silicon. Bulk analysis of selected wafers in the various crystals was performed by low temperature FTIR and surface photovoltage. Measurement of AMO electrical characteristics and spectral response of solar cells fabricated from these silicon materials before and after 1 MeV electron irradiation are used to compare radiation tolerance of the materials.

  11. Direct determination of boron in a cobalt-based alloy by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gong, B; Liu, Y; Xu, Y; Li, Z; Lin, T

    1995-10-01

    A matrix modifier composed of nickel and zirconium, and a graphite tube treated with zirconium solution were proposed for the determination of boron in cobalt-based alloys by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of this matrix modifier and the treated graphite tube were studied, and the combination of 60 mug of nickel and 20 mug of zirconium as matrix modifier, and a graphite tube soaked with 10 g 1(-1) of zirconium solution were found to give the highest analytical sensitivity. The interference effects of major components (cobalt) and eight minor components (chromium, nickel, tungsten, iron, tantalum, molybdenum, titanium, aluminium and manganese) were studied. Boron in four cobalt-based alloys was determined by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry employing the proposed matrix modifier and the treated graphite tube, without the preseparation of matrix. The relative standard deviation was 3.3% for 0.048% of boron. A characteristic mass was 500 pg. PMID:18966371

  12. Chemical mechanical polishing of boron-doped polycrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirayesh, Hamidreza; Cadien, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a technique which helps to print a smaller depth of focus and smoother surface in micro fabrication industry. In this project, boron doped polysilicon is used as a fill material for Through Silicon Vias (TSV) creating a 3D package. It is shown that the presence of boron as dopant suppresses the polysilicon polish rate. To increase the polish rate, understanding the mechanism of polish rate retardation is essential. We believe that the electrical effects play the major role in this phenomenon and by reducing this effect we are able to increase the polish rate.

  13. Peculiarities of boron distribution in as-grown boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, V. D.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Terentiev, S. A.; Nosukhin, S. A.; Kuznetsov, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) single crystals have been grown under conditions of high isostatic pressure by the temperature gradient method. Numerous equilateral triangles were found on the fluorescence images of {111}-diamond facets. Structural peculiarities of BDD were investigated by JEM-2010 transmission electron microscope with GIF Quantum attachment for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). High resolution image of diamond lattice revealed some distorted {111}-layers. EELS testifies the presence of boron in distorted regions of diamond lattice. The crystallographic features of BDD and their connection with the superconductivity are discussed.

  14. Can doping graphite trigger room temperature superconductivity? Evidence for granular high-temperature superconductivity in water-treated graphite powder.

    PubMed

    Scheike, T; Böhlmann, W; Esquinazi, P; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Ballestar, A; Setzer, A

    2012-11-14

    Granular superconductivity in powders of small graphite grains (several tens of micrometers) is demonstrated after treatment with pure water. The temperature, magnetic field and time dependence of the magnetic moment of the treated graphite powder provides evidence for the existence of superconducting vortices with some similarities to high-temperature granular superconducting oxides but even at temperatures above 300 K. Room temperature superconductivity in doped graphite or at its interfaces appears to be possible. PMID:22949348

  15. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Aluminum Doped Boron Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Li; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Anionic boron clusters have been shown to be planar or quasi-planar up to B21- from a series of combined photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies. All these boron clusters consist of a peripheral ring characterized by strong two-center-two-electron (2c-2e) B-B bonds and one or more interior atoms. The propensity for planarity is due to ? - and ? -electron delocalizations throughout the molecular plane, giving rise to concepts of ? - and ? -aromaticity. The quasi-planarity, on the other hand, can be mechanical in nature - the circumference of the cluster is too small to fit the inner atoms - even for doubly aromatic clusters. Two questions arise: firstly, can isoelectronic substitution by a single aluminum atom on the outer ring enhance the planarity of quasi-planar structures, and, secondly, can the interior boron atoms be replaced by aluminum? A series of aluminum isoelectronic substitution of boron clusters have been investigated ranging from B7- to B12-. Aluminum turns out to avoid the central position in the all these clusters and enhance the planarity of AlB6- and AlB11- clusters by expanding the peripheral ring. References: [1] C. Romanescu, A. P. Sergeeva, W. L. Li, A. I. Boldyrev and L. S. Wang, {J. Am. Chem. Soc}. {133} (22), 8646-8653 (2011) [2] T. R. Galeev, C. Romanescu, W. L. Li, L. S. Wang and A. I. Boldyrev, {J. Chem. Phys.} {135}, (8) 104301 (2011) [3] W. L. Li, C. Romanescu, T. R. Galeev, L. S. Wang and A. I. Boldyrev, {J. Phys. Chem. A} {115} (38), 10391-10397 (2011)

  16. Electrochemical hydrogen termination of boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Rene; Kriele, Armin; Obloh, Harald; Hees, Jakob; Wolfer, Marco; Smirnov, Waldemar; Yang Nianjun; Nebel, Christoph E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF), Tullastrasse 72, Freiburg 79108 (Germany)

    2010-08-02

    Boron-doped diamond is a promising transducer material for numerous devices which are designed for contact with electrolytes. For optimized electron transfer the surface of diamond needs to be hydrogen terminated. Up to now H-termination of diamond is done by plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. In this paper, we show that boron-doped diamond can be H-terminated electrochemically by applying negative voltages in acidic solutions. Electrochemical H-termination generates a clean surface with virtually no carbon-oxygen bonds (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), a reduced electron affinity (scanning electron microscopy), a highly hydrophobic surface (water contact angle), and a fast electron exchange with Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup -3/-4} (cyclic voltammetry).

  17. Nitrogen-Doped Graphitic Nanoribbons: Synthesis, Characterization and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Xiaoting [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Dresselhaus, M [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Munoz-Sandoval, E [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Lopez, Florentino [IPICyT

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic nanoribbons (Nx-GNRs), synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using pyrazine as a nitrogen precursor, are reported for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveal that the synthesized materials are formed by multi-layered corrugated graphitic nanoribbons (GNRs) which in most cases exhibit the formation of curved graphene edges (loops). This suggests that during growth, nitrogen atoms promote loop formation; undoped GNRs do not form loops at their edges. Transport measurements on individual pure carbon GNRs exhibit a linear I-V (current-voltage) behavior, whereas Nx-GNRs show reduced current responses following a semiconducting-like behavior, which becomes more prominent for high nitrogen concentrations. To better understand the experimental findings, electron density of states (DOS), quantum conductance for nitrogen doped zigzag and armchair single-layer GNRs are calculated for different N doping concentrations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green functions. These calculations confirm the crucial role of nitrogen atoms in the transport properties, confirming that the nonlinear I-V curves are due to the presence of nitrogen atoms within the Nx-GNRs lattice that act as scattering sites. These characteristic Nx-GNRs transport could be advantageous in the fabrication of electronic devices including sensors in which metal-like undoped GNRs are unsuitable.

  18. Experimental studies of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle-ply laminates in shear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weller

    1977-01-01

    The nonlinear\\/inelastic response under in-plane shear of a large variety of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle-ply laminates was tested. Their strength allowables were obtained and the mechanisms which govern their mode of failure were determined. Two types of specimens for the program were chosen, tested, and evaluated: shear panels stabilized by an aluminum honeycomb core and shear tubes. A modified biaxially

  19. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 87, 035404 (2013) Electronic structure of boron nitride sheets doped with carbon from first-principles calculations

    E-print Network

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 87, 035404 (2013) Electronic structure of boron nitride sheets doped with carbon quasiparticle (GW) approach, we study the electronic structure of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheets, both and doped h-BN and should further help to optimize the postsynthesis doping of boron nitride nanostructures

  20. QSPR Study of Passivation by Phenolic Compounds at Platinum and Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    QSPR Study of Passivation by Phenolic Compounds at Platinum and Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes Campinas, 13083-852 Campinas, SP, Brazil Blocking polycrystalline platinum Pt and boron-doped diamond BDD,8,9 In electrochemical processes, the electro-oxidation of phenolic compounds begins with the formation of the phenoxyl

  1. Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots J. L. Liu,a)

    E-print Network

    Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots J. L. Liu,a) W. G. Wu, A. Balandin; accepted for publication 3 November 1998 The intersubband absorption in self-assembled boron-doped multiple and undoped Si barriers. The infrared absorption as a function of wavelength is measured by Fourier transform

  2. FIELD EMISSION FROM BORON-DOPING POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND FILMS ON SILICON

    E-print Network

    FIELD EMISSION FROM BORON-DOPING POLYCRYSTALLINE DIAMOND FILMS ON SILICON J. A. N. Gonçalves, G. M Campos, SP, Brazi Abstract This work deals with the study and development of the boron-doped diamond electron affinity (NEA) of diamond surface is interesting from both fundamental and applied perspectives

  3. Preparation of Gadolina Stabilized Bismuth Oxide Doped with Boron via Electrospinning Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuncay Tunç; ?brahim Uslu; ?enol Durmu?o?lu; Selda Keskin; Arda Aytimur; Ahmet Akdemir

    In this study, boron doped and undoped poly (vinyl) alcohol\\/bismuth–gadolina acetate (PVA\\/Bi–Gd) nanofibers were prepared\\u000a using electrospinning technique then calcinated at 800 °C for 2 h. The originality of this study is the addition of boron\\u000a to metal acetates. The effects of boron doping were investigated in terms of solution properties, morphological changes and\\u000a thermal characteristics. The characteristics of the fibers were

  4. High heat flux test of SiC coated doped graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q. G.; Liu, Zh. J.; Li, J. G.; Noda, N.; Kubota, Y.; Liu, L.

    2007-06-01

    Doped graphites containing B, Si and Ti dopants with improved mechanical and thermal properties are developed as divertor plates in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) device. SiC coatings with a grading distribution along the depth up to 100 ?m from the surface were applied on the doped graphites by chemical vapor reaction (CVR) method in order to reduce the carbon impurities emitted from the surface of doped graphites during long pulse plasma discharge. High heat flux test on SiC coated graphites were carried out with an active cooling test (ACT) facility. Results show that SiC coated doped graphites can handle heat flux up to 6 MW/m 2 while keeping structural integrity. The abrupt increase of surface temperature and the eroded pot on the surface implied that SiC coatings acted as a heat transfer barrier when irradiated with heat flux of 6 MW/m 2.

  5. Boron doped diamond microelectrodes arrays for electrochemical detection in HPLC.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Eric; Devilliers, Didier; Dardoize, François

    2015-01-01

    Boron doped diamond microelectrodes arrays (MEA) have been prepared in order to be used as new amperometric sensors in electrochemical cells for HPLC detectors. The following parameters were studied: number and diameter (15-40 µm) of the electrodes, distance between them (50-240 µm), and effect of the flow rate (0.1-3 mL/min). It was thus possible to find the optimum value of the parameters which give a good signal/noise ratio in the chronoamperometric responses, with a size of the electrochemical sensors as small as possible. PMID:25476357

  6. Boron-doped ZnO for infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-wei; Zhao, Song-qing; Zhao, Kun; Sun, Wei; Wang, Ai-jun; Zhou, Yue-liang

    2009-07-01

    Boron-doped ZnO thin film was fabricated on fused quartz substrate using the pulse laser deposition method. The infrared photovoltaic properties were studied using Nd:YAG 1.064?m pulse laser and 10.6?m carbon dioxide continuous laser. When the film was irradiated by the10.6?m laser, the photovoltage depends on the laser spot and undergoes a sign reversal as the laser spot travels from one electrode to another. The changeover in sign occurs at the middle of two electrodes. When the laser spot irradiated nearly on the electrode, the largest photovoltage of ~3 mV with a rise time of several seconds was observed. When the film was illuminated by the1.064?m pulse laser, the peak photovoltage reaches ~2.8 mV and the rise time and full width at half-maximum are ~1.5 ns and ~3 ns, respectively. The present results suggest that the Boron-doped ZnO thin film can be utilized in an infrared sensitive detector at room temperature.

  7. B and N isolate-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins for enhanced oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Lu; Tian, Chungui; Zhao, Dongdong; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Jie; Wang, Ruihong; Fu, Honggang

    2014-06-01

    B,N-codoped carbon nanostructures (BNCS) can serve as alternative low-cost metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). However, the compensation effect between the p- (B atoms) and n-type (N atoms) dopants would make the covalent boron-nitride (BN) easily formed during the synthesis of BNCS, leading to a unsatisfactory ORR activity. Therefore, it has been challenging to develop facile and rapid synthetic strategies for highly active BNCS without forming the direct covalent BN. Here, a facile method is developed to prepare B and N isolate-doped graphitic nanosheets (BNGS) by using iron species for saving N element and simultaneous doping the B element from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins (NR). The resulting BNGS exhibits much more onset potential (Eonset) compared with the B-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (BGS), N-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (NGS), as well as B,N-codoped disorder carbon (BNC). Moreover, the BNGS shows well methanol tolerance propery and excellent stability (a minimal loss of activity after 5,000 potential cycles) compared to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The goog performance for BNGS towards ORR is attributed to the synergistic effect between B and N, and the well electrons transport property of graphitic carbon in BNGS.

  8. B and N isolate-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins for enhanced oxygen reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Lu; Tian, Chungui; Zhao, Dongdong; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Jie; Wang, Ruihong; Fu, Honggang

    2014-01-01

    B,N-codoped carbon nanostructures (BNCS) can serve as alternative low-cost metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). However, the compensation effect between the p- (B atoms) and n-type (N atoms) dopants would make the covalent boron-nitride (BN) easily formed during the synthesis of BNCS, leading to a unsatisfactory ORR activity. Therefore, it has been challenging to develop facile and rapid synthetic strategies for highly active BNCS without forming the direct covalent BN. Here, a facile method is developed to prepare B and N isolate-doped graphitic nanosheets (BNGS) by using iron species for saving N element and simultaneous doping the B element from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins (NR). The resulting BNGS exhibits much more onset potential (Eonset) compared with the B-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (BGS), N-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (NGS), as well as B,N-codoped disorder carbon (BNC). Moreover, the BNGS shows well methanol tolerance propery and excellent stability (a minimal loss of activity after 5,000 potential cycles) compared to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The goog performance for BNGS towards ORR is attributed to the synergistic effect between B and N, and the well electrons transport property of graphitic carbon in BNGS. PMID:24898033

  9. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  10. The fabrication, testing and delivery of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of the boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards which were fabricated, tested and delivered to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Detailed design drawings of the standards are included to show the general structures and the types and location of simulated defects built into the panels. The panels were laminates with plies laid up in the 0 deg, + or - 45 deg, and 90 deg orientations and containing either titanium substrates or interlayered titanium perforated shims. Panel thickness was incrementally stepped from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 12.7 mm (0.500 in.) for the graphite/epoxy standards, and from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) for the boron/epoxy standards except for the panels with interlayered shims which were 2.9 mm (0.113 in.) maximum thickness. The panel internal conditions included defect free regions, resin variations, density/porosity variations, cure variations, delaminations/disbonds at substrate bondlines and between layers, inclusions, and interlayered shims. Ultrasonic pulse echo C-scan and low-kilovoltage X-ray techniques were used to evaluate and verify the internal conditions of the panels.

  11. Determination of boron in silicon-doped gallium arsenide by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Taddia, Marco; Cerroni, Maria Grazia; Morelli, Elio; Musiani, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Two methods have been developed for the determination of boron impurities in silicon-doped gallium arsenide (GaAs) for electronics. The first method employs the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), the second, the UV-Vis molecular absorption spectrophotomety. In both cases the GaAs sample is decomposed with aqua regia (1+1). To prevent Ga(III) interference on the ETAAS determination of boron, a double extraction of the chlorogallic acid (HGaCl4) in diethyl ether is performed. To improve the overall ETAAS performance, the graphite tubes were pre-treated with iridium(III) and tungsten(IV). A mixed chemical modifier containing Ni(II), Sr(II) and citric acid was also used. The characteristic mass (m0) is 301 +/- 47 pg and the detection limit (3sB) is 2.4 microg g(-1). The classic UV-Vis spectrophotometric procedure using curcumin was also extended to the determination of boron in GaAs. By masking Ga(III) with EDTA and a preliminary extraction of boron with 2-ethyl-hexane 1,3-diol, performed on a semi-micro scale, a detection limit of 0.6 microg g(-1) was achieved. Both methods were applied to the analysis of two Si-doped GaAs samples which were suspected of being boron-contaminated. Results are compared with those obtained by direct analysis of the decomposed sample solution using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). PMID:12556028

  12. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of graphitic carbon nanomaterials doped with heteroatoms

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Thomas; Ayala, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Summary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the best tools for studying the chemical modification of surfaces, and in particular the distribution and bonding of heteroatom dopants in carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although these materials have superb intrinsic properties, these often need to be modified in a controlled way for specific applications. Towards this aim, the most studied dopants are neighbors to carbon in the periodic table, nitrogen and boron, with phosphorus starting to emerge as an interesting new alternative. Hundreds of studies have used XPS for analyzing the concentration and bonding of dopants in various materials. Although the majority of works has concentrated on nitrogen, important work is still ongoing to identify its precise atomic bonding configurations. In general, care should be taken in the preparation of a suitable sample, consideration of the intrinsic photoemission response of the material in question, and the appropriate spectral analysis. If this is not the case, incorrect conclusions can easily be drawn, especially in the assignment of measured binding energies into specific atomic configurations. Starting from the characteristics of pristine materials, this review provides a practical guide for interpreting X-ray photoelectron spectra of doped graphitic carbon nanomaterials, and a reference for their binding energies that are vital for compositional analysis via XPS. PMID:25671162

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of graphitic carbon nanomaterials doped with heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Susi, Toma; Pichler, Thomas; Ayala, Paola

    2015-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the best tools for studying the chemical modification of surfaces, and in particular the distribution and bonding of heteroatom dopants in carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although these materials have superb intrinsic properties, these often need to be modified in a controlled way for specific applications. Towards this aim, the most studied dopants are neighbors to carbon in the periodic table, nitrogen and boron, with phosphorus starting to emerge as an interesting new alternative. Hundreds of studies have used XPS for analyzing the concentration and bonding of dopants in various materials. Although the majority of works has concentrated on nitrogen, important work is still ongoing to identify its precise atomic bonding configurations. In general, care should be taken in the preparation of a suitable sample, consideration of the intrinsic photoemission response of the material in question, and the appropriate spectral analysis. If this is not the case, incorrect conclusions can easily be drawn, especially in the assignment of measured binding energies into specific atomic configurations. Starting from the characteristics of pristine materials, this review provides a practical guide for interpreting X-ray photoelectron spectra of doped graphitic carbon nanomaterials, and a reference for their binding energies that are vital for compositional analysis via XPS. PMID:25671162

  14. Boron doped diamond biotechnology: from sensors to neurointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Hébert, C; Scorsone, E; Bendali, A; Kiran, R; Cottance, M; Girard, H A; Degardin, J; Dubus, E; Lissorgues, G; Rousseau, L; Mailley, P; Picaud, S; Bergonzo, P

    2014-01-01

    Boron doped nanocrystalline diamond is known as a remarkable material for the fabrication of sensors, taking advantage of its biocompatibility, electrochemical properties, and stability. Sensors can be fabricated to directly probe physiological species from biofluids (e.g. blood or urine), as will be presented. In collaboration with electrophysiologists and biologists, the technology was adapted to enable structured diamond devices such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs), i.e. common electrophysiology tools, to probe neuronal activity distributed over large populations of neurons or embryonic organs. Specific MEAs can also be used to build neural prostheses or implants to compensate function losses due to lesions or degeneration of parts of the central nervous system, such as retinal implants, which exhibit real promise as biocompatible neuroprostheses for in vivo neuronal stimulations. New electrode geometries enable high performance electrodes to surpass more conventional materials for such applications. PMID:25259508

  15. Phase change in terahertz waves emitted from differently doped graphite: The role of carrier drift

    SciTech Connect

    Irfan, Muhammad; Yim, Jong-Hyuk; Jho, Young-Dahl, E-mail: jho@gist.ac.kr [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changyoung [Institute of Physics and Applied physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Physics and Applied physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Wook Lee, Sang [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-11

    We investigate characteristics of THz waves radiated from differently doped graphite samples excited by femtosecond laser pulses. Between n-type single-crystalline graphite and p-type polycrystalline graphite films, we observe the phase reversal of THz waves regardless of excitation energy variations around K-valley. In addition, variations in other parameters such as excitation fluence and azimuthal angle produce no changes in the phase of THz waves, which correlate well with the opposite dipole polarization between differently doped samples rather than unidirectional diffusive transport.

  16. INFLUENCE OF GERMANIUM CONCENTRATION AND HOMOGENEOUS BORON DOPING ON MICROSTRUCTURE, KINETICS, AND SHEET RESISTANCE OF NICKEL

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    1 INFLUENCE OF GERMANIUM CONCENTRATION AND HOMOGENEOUS BORON DOPING ON MICROSTRUCTURE, KINETICS..............................................................................15 1.2 Silicon-Germanium in Semiconductor Technologies.................................................................................................................25 2.1.1 Silicon-Germanium Binary System

  17. Boron-doped diamond-like amorphous carbon as photovoltaic films in solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Q. Ma; B. X. Liu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the photovoltaic feature of metal-boron carbide-silicon (MCS) solar cell was reported. The boron-doped diamond-like carbon thin film on n-silicon substrate has been prepared using arc-discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) technique. The conductivity and the resistivity of the film were measured by Bio-Rad Hall5500PC system to be p-type semiconductor and 3–12?cm\\/?, respectively. The boron content in the

  18. Structure and Mn 2+ adsorption properties of boron-doped goethite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuijiao Liao; Juan Wang; Duanwei Zhu; Liying Ren; Jianwei Lu; Mingjian Geng; Alan Langdon

    2007-01-01

    Two kinds of boron-doped goethites were synthesized, one was called ad-B-goethite prepared by reacting the original goethite with borax solution and the other called oc-B-goethite prepared in the presence of boric acid solution. The goethites were characterized by IR and XRD. The IR bands of FeOHFe in-plane bending and free OH of the boron-doped goethites were weak compared with the

  19. Boron-Doped Diamond Film Electrodes—New Tool for Voltammetric Determination of Organic Substances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karolina Pecková; Jana Musilová; Ji?í Barek

    2009-01-01

    This review with 194 references summarizes the recent progress in the development and applications of boron-doped diamond film electrodes in electroanalysis of organic compounds. It is based on the survey of 106 papers listed in a comprehensive table devoted to batch voltammetric and liquid flow amperometric methods using boron-doped diamond electrodes. The varieties in their construction, surface pre-treatment and electroanalytical

  20. Adsorption of formaldehyde molecule on the pristine and silicon-doped boron nitride nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruoxi Wang; Rongxiu Zhu; Dongju Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of formaldehyde (HCOH) molecule on the pristine and silicon-doped (Si-doped) single-walled (8,0) boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Compared with the weak physisorption on the pristine BNNT, the HCOH molecule presents strong chemisorption on both silicon-substituted boron defect site and silicon-substituted nitrogen defect site of the BNNT, as indicated by the calculated

  1. Ab initio investigation on hybrid graphite-like structure made up of silicene and boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, C.; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Banerjee, Arup

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we report our results on the geometric and electronic properties of hybrid graphite-like structure made up of silicene and boron nitride (BN) layers. We predict from our calculations that this hybrid bulk system, with alternate layers of honeycomb silicene and BN, possesses physical properties similar to those of bulk graphite. We observe that there exists a weak van der Waals interaction between the layers of this hybrid system in contrast to the strong inter-layer covalent bonds present in multi-layers of silicene. Furthermore, our results for the electronic band structure and the density of states show that it is a semi-metal and the dispersion around the Fermi level (EF) is parabolic in nature and thus the charge carriers in this system behave as nearly-free-particle-like. These results indicate that the electronic properties of the hybrid bulk system resemble closely those of bulk graphite. Around EF the electronic band structures have contributions only from silicene layers and the BN layer acts only as a buffer layer in this hybrid system since it does not contribute to the electronic properties near EF. In case of bi-layers of silicene with a single BN layer kept in-between, we observe a linear dispersion around EF similar to that of graphene. However, the characteristic linear dispersion becomes parabola-like when the system is subjected to a compression along the transverse direction. Our present calculations show that the hybrid system based on silicon and BN can be a possible candidate for two-dimensional layered system, akin to graphite and multi-layers of graphene.

  2. Properties of boron-doped thin films of polycrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Merabet, Souad [Electronic Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Jijel, Cité Ouled-Aissa B. P. 98 Jijel, 18 000 Jijel (Algeria)

    2013-12-16

    The properties of polycrystalline-silicon films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and doped heavily in situ boron-doped with concentration level of around 2×10{sup 20}cm{sup ?3} has been studied. Their properties are analyzed using electrical and structural characterization means by four points probe resistivity measurements and X-ray diffraction spectra. The thermal-oxidation process are performed on sub-micron layers of 200nm/c-Si and 200nm/SiO{sub 2} deposited at temperatures T{sub d} ranged between 520°C and 605°C and thermally-oxidized in dry oxygen ambient at 945°C. Compared to the as-grown resistivity with silicon wafers is known to be in the following sequence < and < . The measure X-ray spectra is shown, that the Bragg peaks are marked according to the crystal orientation in the film deposited on bare substrates (poly/c-Si), for the second series of films deposited on bare oxidized substrates (poly/SiO{sub 2}) are clearly different.

  3. Experimental studies of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle ply laminates in compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, T.

    1977-01-01

    A test program aimed at studying the nonlinear/inelastic response under axial compression across a wide range of angle ply was graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy laminates was presented and described. The strength allowables corresponding to the various laminate configurations were defined and the failure mechanisms which dictate their mode of failure were detected. The program involved two types of specimens for each laminate configuration: compression sandwich coupons and compression tubes. The test results indicate that the coupons perform better than the tubes displaying considerably high stress-strain allowables and mechanical properties relative to the tubes. Also, it is observed that depending on their dimensions the coupons are susceptible to very pronounced edge effects. This sensitivity results in assigning to the laminate conservative mechanical properties rather than the actual ones.

  4. Structure and superconductivity of isotope-enriched boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ekimov, E A [INSTIT OF HIGH PRESSURE; Sidorov, V A [INSTIT OF HIGH PRESSURE; Zoteev, A [MOSCOW SU; Lebed, Y [INST FOR NUCI RES; Stishov, S M [INST FOR HIGH PRESSURE

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting boron-doped diamond samples were synthesized with isotopes of {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup 13}C and {sup 12}C. We claim the presence of a carbon isotope effect on the superconducting transition temperature, which supports the 'diamond-carbon'-related nature of superconductivity and the importance of the electron-phonon interaction as the mechanism of superconductivity in diamond. Isotope substitution permits us to relate almost all bands in the Raman spectra of heavily boron-doped diamond to the vibrations of carbon atoms. The 500 cm{sup 01} Raman band shifts with either carbon or boron isotope substitution and may be associated with vibrations of paired or clustered boron. The absence of a superconducting transition (down to 1.6 K) in diamonds synthesized in the Co-C-B system at 1900 K correlates with the small boron concentration deduced from lattice parameters.

  5. Electronic and optical properties of pure and doped boron-nitride nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roknabadi, M. R.; Ghodrati, M.; Modarresi, M.; Koohjani, F.

    2013-02-01

    Band structure of the carbon doped zigzag boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) is calculated by a simple tight-binding model. It was found that the doping effect of B-substituted and N-substituted BNNT is different and carbon substitution for either boron or nitrogen in BNNTs reduces the band gap. Investigations show the dependence of band gap to the axial magnetic and transverse electric fields for C-doped BNNTs. The applied high electric field causes transition from semiconductor to conductor in C-doped BNNTs. The band gap of C-doped BNNTs oscillates as a function of magnetic flux with period ?°in the magnetic fields. Influence of C-doping on the absorption spectrum is also discussed in this paper.

  6. Boron- and phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by silver-induced layer exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Antesberger, T.; Wassner, T. A.; Jaeger, C.; Algasinger, M.; Kashani, M.; Scholz, M.; Matich, S.; Stutzmann, M. [Walter Schottky Institut and Physics Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany)] [Walter Schottky Institut and Physics Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-05-27

    Intentional boron and phosphorus doping of polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass prepared by the silver-induced layer exchange is presented. A silver/(titanium) oxide/amorphous silicon stack is annealed at temperatures below the eutectic temperature of the Ag/Si system, leading to a complete layer exchange and simultaneous crystallization of the amorphous silicon. Intentional doping of the amorphous silicon prior to the exchange process results in boron- or phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon. Hall effect measurements show carrier concentrations between 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} for phosphorus and 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} for boron-doped layers, with carrier mobilities up to 90 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  7. Boron- and phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by silver-induced layer exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antesberger, T.; Wassner, T. A.; Jaeger, C.; Algasinger, M.; Kashani, M.; Scholz, M.; Matich, S.; Stutzmann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Intentional boron and phosphorus doping of polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass prepared by the silver-induced layer exchange is presented. A silver/(titanium) oxide/amorphous silicon stack is annealed at temperatures below the eutectic temperature of the Ag/Si system, leading to a complete layer exchange and simultaneous crystallization of the amorphous silicon. Intentional doping of the amorphous silicon prior to the exchange process results in boron- or phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon. Hall effect measurements show carrier concentrations between 2×1017 cm-3 and 3×1020 cm-3 for phosphorus and 4×1018 cm-3 to 3×1019 cm-3 for boron-doped layers, with carrier mobilities up to 90 cm2/V s.

  8. Measurements of Increased Enthalpies of Adsorption for Boron-Doped Activated Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Andrew; Beckner, Matthew; Chada, Nagaraju; Schaeperkoetter, Joseph; Singh, Anupam; Lee, Mark; Wexler, Carlos; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Boron-doping of activated carbons has been shown to increase the enthalpies of adsorption for hydrogen as compared to their respective undoped precursors (>10kJ/mol compared to ca. 5kJ/mol). This has brought significant interest to boron-doped carbons for their potential to improve hydrogen storage. Boron-doped activated carbons have been produced using a process involving the deposition of decaborane (B10H14) and high-temperature annealing resulting in boron contents up to 15%. In this talk, we will present a systematic study of the effect that boron content has on the samples' structure, hydrogen sorption, and surface chemistry. Measurements have shown a significant increase in the areal hydrogen excess adsorption and binding energy. Experimental enthalpies of adsorption will be presented for comparison to theoretical predictions. Additionally, samples have been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TGA and GC-MS results investigated the decomposition of the decaborane in the carbon. Boron-carbon bonds are shown in the FTIR and XPS spectra, indicating that boron has been incorporated into the carbon matrix.

  9. Boron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mineral that is found in food and the environment. People take boron supplements as medicine. Boron is ... Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate. The effectiveness ratings for BORON are as follows:Preventing boron deficiency. ...

  10. Impact resistance of composite fan blades. [fiber reinforced graphite and boron epoxy blades for STOL operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premont, E. J.; Stubenrauch, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    The resistance of current-design Pratt and Whitney Aircraft low aspect ratio advanced fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite fan blades to foreign object damage (FOD) at STOL operating conditions was investigated. Five graphite/epoxy and five boron/epoxy wide chord fan blades with nickel plated stainless steel leading edge sheath protection were fabricated and impact tested. The fan blades were individually tested in a vacuum whirlpit under FOD environments. The FOD environments were typical of those encountered in service operations. The impact objects were ice balls, gravel, stralings and gelatin simulated birds. Results of the damage sustained from each FOD impact are presented for both the graphite boron reinforced blades. Tests showed that the present design composite fan blades, with wrap around leading edge protection have inadequate FOD impact resistance at 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) tip speed, a possible STOL operating condition.

  11. Multiple delta doping of single crystal cubic boron nitride films heteroepitaxially grown on (001)diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, H., E-mail: hyin@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ziemann, P. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-06-23

    Phase pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films have been epitaxially grown on (001) diamond substrates at 900?°C. The n-type doping of c-BN epitaxial films relies on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p-) and Si doped (n-) layers with well-controlled thickness (down to several nanometer range) in the concept of multiple delta doping. The existence of nominally undoped c-BN overgrowth separates the Si doped layers, preventing Si dopant segregation that was observed for continuously doped epitaxial c-BN films. This strategy allows doping of c-BN films can be scaled up to multiple numbers of doped layers through atomic level control of the interface in the future electronic devices. Enhanced electronic transport properties with higher hall mobility (10{sup 2} cm{sup 2}/V s) have been demonstrated at room temperature as compared to the normally continuously Si doped c-BN films.

  12. High precision chemical mechanical polishing of highly-boron-doped Si wafer used for epitaxial substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Watanabe; G. Yu; O. Eryu; I. Koshiyama; K. Izumi; K. Nakashima; M. Umeno; T. Jimbo; K. Kodama

    2005-01-01

    The surface waviness with concentric circular pattern is generated on highly-boron-doped Si wafer by chemical–mechanical polishing (CMP) with amine system polishing slurry. To investigate the generation mechanism of the waviness, the mechanical and chemical characteristics were clarified using the silicon crystal samples with various boron concentration level ranging from 2.9×1017cm?3 to 1.3×1020cm?3. The conventional silicon substrate used as epitaxial wafer

  13. Boron doped diamond films: Electrical and optical characterization and the effect of compensating nitrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Locher; J. Wagner; F. Fuchs; C. Wild; P. Hiesinger; P. Gonon; P. Koidl

    1995-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films were prepared by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition from CH4?H2 mixtures. For p-type doping with boron, trimethylborate was added at concentrations between 50 ppb and 500 ppm referred to the total gas phase. The boron concentration in the film, as determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, varied between 1.1 × 1018 cm?3 and 2.1 × 1020

  14. Synthesis and characterization of boron-doped Bi 2 O 3 - La 2 O 3 fiber derived nanocomposite precursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?enol Durmu?o?lu; ?brahim Uslu; Tuncay Tunç; Selda Keskin; Arda Aytimur; Ahmet Akdemir

    Boron doped poly(vinyl) alcohol\\/ bismuth - lanthanum acetate (PVA\\/Bi-La) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning using\\u000a PVA as a precursor. The effect of boron doping was investigated in terms of solution properties, morphological changes and\\u000a thermal characteristics. The fibers were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and BET. The addition of boron did not only increase\\u000a the thermal stability of the fibers,

  15. Boron doping effects in electrochromic properties of NiO films prepared by sol-gel

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Xianchun; Zhao, Xiujian; He, Xin [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, 122 Luoshi Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, NiO films doped with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} were first prepared by sol-gel. The effects of boron content on the structure and electrochromic properties of NiO films were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetric (CV) and UV-vis spectrophotometer, respectively. In addition, the roughness and phase of the bleached/colored were studied by atom force microscopy (AFM). B-doped prevent the crystallization of the films. The colored state transmittance could be significantly lowered when the boron added. The NiO film doped with boron exhibited a noticeable electrochromism with a variation of transmittance up to {proportional_to}60% at the wavelength range of 300-500 nm. (author)

  16. Critical boron-doping levels for generation of dislocations in synthetic diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegre, M. P.; Araújo, D.; Fiori, A.; Pinero, J. C.; Lloret, F.; Villar, M. P.; Achatz, P.; Chicot, G.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2014-10-01

    Defects induced by boron doping in diamond layers were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The existence of a critical boron doping level above which defects are generated is reported. This level is found to be dependent on the CH4/H2 molar ratios and on growth directions. The critical boron concentration lied in the 6.5-17.0 × 1020at/cm3 range in the ?111? direction and at 3.2 × 1021 at/cm3 for the ?001? one. Strain related effects induced by the doping are shown not to be responsible. From the location of dislocations and their Burger vectors, a model is proposed, together with their generation mechanism.

  17. Critical boron-doping levels for generation of dislocations in synthetic diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Alegre, M. P., E-mail: maripaz.alegre@uca.es; Araújo, D.; Pinero, J. C.; Lloret, F.; Villar, M. P. [Departamento de Ciencias de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Fiori, A.; Achatz, P.; Chicot, G.; Bustarret, E. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, 25 av. des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Jomard, F. [GEMaC, CNRS and Université de Versailles St Quentin, 45 Avenue des États-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2014-10-27

    Defects induced by boron doping in diamond layers were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The existence of a critical boron doping level above which defects are generated is reported. This level is found to be dependent on the CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} molar ratios and on growth directions. The critical boron concentration lied in the 6.5–17.0?×?10{sup 20}at/cm{sup 3} range in the ?111? direction and at 3.2?×?10{sup 21?}at/cm{sup 3} for the ?001? one. Strain related effects induced by the doping are shown not to be responsible. From the location of dislocations and their Burger vectors, a model is proposed, together with their generation mechanism.

  18. An insight into what superconducts in polycrystalline boron-doped diamonds based on investigations of microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Wirth, R.; Wosnitza, J.; Papageorgiou, T.; Braun, H. F.; Miyajima, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) synthesized under high pressure and high temperatures [Ekimov, et al. (2004) Nature 428:542–545] has raised a number of questions on the origin of the superconducting state. It was suggested that the heavy boron doping of diamond eventually leads to superconductivity. To justify such statements more detailed information on the microstructure of the composite materials and on the exact boron content in the diamond grains is needed. For that we used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. For the studied superconducting BDD samples synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures the diamond grain sizes are ?1–2 ?m with a boron content between 0.2 (2) and 0.5 (1) at %. The grains are separated by 10- to 20-nm-thick layers and triangular-shaped pockets of predominantly (at least 95 at %) amorphous boron. These results render superconductivity caused by the heavy boron doping in diamond highly unlikely. PMID:18697937

  19. Electronic and structural properties of Au-doped zigzag boron nitride nanotubes: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Mosahhar; Bahari, Ali; Amiri, Masoud; Dehbandi, Behnam

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, structural and electronic properties of zigzag single-walled boron nitride nanotubes are investigated within density functional theory by adding one gold atom as an impurity. One boron and one nitrogen atoms are substituted by one gold atom separately. Calculations show that the substitution of Au atom on boron atom turns the BNNT into a p-type semiconductor with a band gap of 2.435 eV. On the other hand, doping the Au atom on N site diminishes the pristine BNNT gap to 3.905 eV.

  20. Atomistic boron-doped graphene field-effect transistors: a route toward unipolar characteristics.

    PubMed

    Marconcini, Paolo; Cresti, Alessandro; Triozon, François; Fiori, Gianluca; Biel, Blanca; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Macucci, Massimo; Roche, Stephan

    2012-09-25

    We report fully quantum simulations of realistic models of boron-doped graphene-based field-effect transistors, including atomistic details based on DFT calculations. We show that the self-consistent solution of the three-dimensional (3D) Poisson and Schrödinger equations with a representation in terms of a tight-binding Hamiltonian manages to accurately reproduce the DFT results for an isolated boron-doped graphene nanoribbon. Using a 3D Poisson/Schrödinger solver within the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism, self-consistent calculations of the gate-screened scattering potentials induced by the boron impurities have been performed, allowing the theoretical exploration of the tunability of transistor characteristics. The boron-doped graphene transistors are found to approach unipolar behavior as the boron concentration is increased and, by tuning the density of chemical dopants, the electron-hole transport asymmetry can be finely adjusted. Correspondingly, the onset of a mobility gap in the device is observed. Although the computed asymmetries are not sufficient to warrant proper device operation, our results represent an initial step in the direction of improved transfer characteristics and, in particular, the developed simulation strategy is a powerful new tool for modeling doped graphene nanostructures. PMID:22876866

  1. Electrochemical inactivation of triclosan with boron doped diamond film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Farrell, James

    2004-10-01

    This research investigated an electrochemical method for inactivating contaminated stockpiles of the biocidal agent, triclosan. The goal of the electrolysis was to produce products that were amenable to treatment in conventional activated sludge treatment systems. Triclosan oxidation in electrochemical cells with boron doped diamond (BDD) film anodes was investigated in aqueous solutions at a pH value of 12. Chronoamperometry experiments showed that direct oxidation of triclosan occurred at potentials below those for H2O, Cl-, or OH- oxidation. Measurable rates of triclosan oxidation began at potentials above 0.4 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), while potentials of 0.5, 1.3, and 1.8 V were required to obtain measurable oxidation rates of H2O, Cl-, and OH-, respectively. At anode potentials below 2 V, the dominant electrode reaction involved direct triclosan oxidation, while indirect oxidation was the dominant pathway at higher potentials. However, cyclic voltammetry experiments showed that direct oxidation of triclosan resulted in the formation of a passivating film on the electrode that could only be removed by oxidation at potentials above 3 V. Direct triclosan oxidation showed a very weak potential dependence, suggesting that its oxidation was limited by chemical dependent factors rather than by an outer-sphere electron transfer reaction. Organic triclosan oxidation products consisted primarily of chlorinated acetic acids and chlorinated phenolic compounds. Although the byproducts of triclosan oxidation became increasingly less reactive with increasing electrolysis time, triclosan could be completely oxidized to CO2 at current densities above 2 mA/cm2. Microtox testing indicated that residual triclosan accounted for nearly all the toxicity in the treated water, despite the fact that chlorinated byproduct concentrations were significantly higher than those of triclosan itself. PMID:15506222

  2. Controlled in situ boron doping of diamond thin films using solution phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Dua, A. K.; Nuwad, J.; Girija, K. G.; Tyagi, A. K.; Kulshreshtha, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    Controlled boron doping of diamond film using nontoxic reagents is a challenge in itself. During the present study, attempts have been made to dope diamond films in situ with boron from a solution of boric acid (H3BO3) in methanol (CH3OH) using a specially designed bubbler that ensured continuous and controlled flow of vapors of boron precursors during deposition. The samples are thoroughly characterized using a host of techniques comprising of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman, x-ray diffraction, and current-voltage measurements (I-V). Cross-sectional micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used to obtain depth profile of boron in diamond films. Boron concentration ([B]) in the films is found to vary linearly on a semilog scale with molarity (M) of H3BO3 in CH3OH. Lattice constant of our samples is smaller than the reported American society for testing and materials (ASTM) values due to oxygen incorporation and it increases with [B] in the diamond samples. Heavily boron doped samples exhibit Fano deformation of the Raman line shape and negative and/zero activation barrier in temperature dependent I-V measurements that indicate the formation of metallic phase in the samples. The present study illustrates the feasibility of safe and controlled boron doping of diamond films using a solution of H3BO3 in CH3OH over a significant range of [B] from semiconductor to metallic regime but with a little adverse effect due to unintentional but unavoidable incorporation of oxygen.

  3. Electrical and optical properties of boron doped CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Hyeong Lee; Jun-Sin Yi; Kea-Joon Yang; Joon-Hoon Park; Ryum-Duk Oh

    2003-01-01

    Boron doped CdS films were prepared by chemical bath deposition, which is a low-cost and large-area technique and appears to be well-suited for the manufacture of thin film solar cells, using boric acid (H3BO3) as dopant source, and their properties were investigated as a function of doping concentration. In addition, effects of the boron doping of the CdS films on

  4. Sulfur doping at the tips of (6,0) boron nitride nanotube: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2010-06-01

    We have investigated sulfur (S) doping at the tips of (6,0) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Bond lengths, tubular diameters, dipole moments, band gaps, and quadrupole coupling constants ( Cq) have been calculated in four models of the investigated BNNT: pristine, S-doping at the boron (B) tip, S-doping at the nitrogen (N) tip, and S-doping at both the tips. The results indicated the influence of the S-doping on the electronic and structural properties of the (6,0) BNNT. The B-N bond lengths do not differ in the S-doped models but the tubular diameters at S-doped tips are increased. The values of dipole moments and band gaps are reduced in the S-doped models. The Cq parameters revealed that the S-N bonds could be weaker than the B-N bonds whereas the B-S bonds could be stronger. We have also indicated that the properties of the S-doped models are independent of the dangling effects.

  5. Adsorption of formaldehyde molecule on the pristine and silicon-doped boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruoxi; Zhu, Rongxiu; Zhang, Dongju

    2008-12-01

    The adsorption of formaldehyde (HCOH) molecule on the pristine and silicon-doped (Si-doped) single-walled (8, 0) boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Compared with the weak physisorption on the pristine BNNT, the HCOH molecule presents strong chemisorption on both silicon-substituted boron defect site and silicon-substituted nitrogen defect site of the BNNT, as indicated by the calculated geometrical structures and electronic properties for these systems. It is suggested that the Si-doped BNNT presents high sensitivity to toxic HCOH. Based on calculated results, the Si-doped BNNT is expected to be a potential novel sensor for detecting the presence of HCOH.

  6. Enhanced Stability of Carbon Doped Boron Nanotubes: An ab-initio Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sandeep Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj

    2015-02-01

    We have performed ab-initio calculations for investigating structural stability of carbon doped boron nanotubes. The considered structures are Armchair (3,3), Zigzag (5,0), and Chiral (4,2) nanotubes consists of 12,20,and 56 atoms respectively. The ground state energies of relaxed nanotubes are calculated, thereby cohesive energy and formation energy. The cohesive energy is increased to a significant extent after carbon doping. Thus, carbon doped boron nanotubes are energetically more stable than pristine nanotubes. The enhancement of energetic stability is also supported by formation energy. It is found that the formation energy is higher for the higher stable structure in all the three nanotubes. It is also observed that carbon doped zigzag nanotube is most favourable nanotube among all the three considered nanotubes because of high formation energy.

  7. New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Peter [University of Missouri; Wexler, Carlos [University of Missouri; Hawthorne, M. Frederick [University of Missouri; Lee, Mark W. [University of Missouri; Jalistegi, Satish S. [University of Missouri

    2014-08-14

    This project, since its start in 2007—entitled “Networks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storage” (2007-10) and “New pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospaces” (2010-13)—is in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program’s comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007—metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storage—sorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (“5.5 wt%”) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have demonstrated the predicted increase in binding energy experimentally, currently at ~10 kJ/mol. The synthetic route for incorporation of boron at the outset is to create appropriately designed copoly- mers, with a boron-free and a boron-carrying monomer, followed by pyrolysis of the polymer, yielding a bo- ron-substituted carbon scaffold in which boron atoms are bonded to carbon atoms by synthesis. This is in contrast to a second route (funded by DE-FG36-08GO18142) in which first high-surface area carbon is cre- ated and doped by surface vapor deposition of boron, with incorporation of the boron into the lattice the final step of the fabrication. The challenge in the first route is to create high surface areas without compromising sp2 boron-carbon bonds. The challenge in the second route is to create sp2 boron-carbon bonds without com- promising high surface areas.

  8. Cat-doping: Novel method for phosphorus and boron shallow doping in crystalline silicon at 80 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Taro; Ohta, Tatsunori; Nakashima, Yuki; Miyamoto, Motoharu; Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2014-09-01

    Phosphorus (P) or boron (B) atoms can be doped at temperatures as low as 80 to 350 °C, when crystalline silicon (c-Si) is exposed only for a few minutes to species generated by catalytic cracking reaction of phosphine (PH3) or diborane (B2H6) with heated tungsten (W) catalyzer. This paper is to investigate systematically this novel doping method, "Cat-doping", in detail. The electrical properties of P or B doped layers are studied by the Van der Pauw method based on the Hall effects measurement. The profiles of P or B atoms in c-Si are observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry mainly from back side of samples to eliminate knock-on effects. It is confirmed that the surface of p-type c-Si is converted to n-type by P Cat-doping at 80 °C, and similarly, that of n-type c-Si is to p-type by B Cat-doping. The doping depth is as shallow as 5 nm or less and the electrically activated doping concentration is 1018 to 1019 cm-3 for both P and B doping. It is also found that the surface potential of c-Si is controlled by the shallow Cat-doping and that the surface recombination velocity of minority carriers in c-Si can be enormously lowered by this potential control.

  9. Cat-doping: Novel method for phosphorus and boron shallow doping in crystalline silicon at 80?°C

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Taro; Ohta, Tatsunori; Nakashima, Yuki; Miyamoto, Motoharu; Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), Asahidai, Nomi-shi, Ishikawa-ken 923-1292 (Japan)

    2014-09-21

    Phosphorus (P) or boron (B) atoms can be doped at temperatures as low as 80 to 350?°C, when crystalline silicon (c-Si) is exposed only for a few minutes to species generated by catalytic cracking reaction of phosphine (PH{sub 3}) or diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) with heated tungsten (W) catalyzer. This paper is to investigate systematically this novel doping method, “Cat-doping”, in detail. The electrical properties of P or B doped layers are studied by the Van der Pauw method based on the Hall effects measurement. The profiles of P or B atoms in c-Si are observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry mainly from back side of samples to eliminate knock-on effects. It is confirmed that the surface of p-type c-Si is converted to n-type by P Cat-doping at 80?°C, and similarly, that of n-type c-Si is to p-type by B Cat-doping. The doping depth is as shallow as 5?nm or less and the electrically activated doping concentration is 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 19?}cm{sup -3} for both P and B doping. It is also found that the surface potential of c-Si is controlled by the shallow Cat-doping and that the surface recombination velocity of minority carriers in c-Si can be enormously lowered by this potential control.

  10. Resonance of graphene nanoribbons doped with nitrogen and boron: a molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ye; Zhan, Haifei; Xia, Kang; Zhang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    Summary Based on its enticing properties, graphene has been envisioned with applications in the area of electronics, photonics, sensors, bio-applications and others. To facilitate various applications, doping has been frequently used to manipulate the properties of graphene. Despite a number of studies conducted on doped graphene regarding its electrical and chemical properties, the impact of doping on the mechanical properties of graphene has been rarely discussed. A systematic study of the vibrational properties of graphene doped with nitrogen and boron is performed by means of a molecular dynamics simulation. The influence from different density or species of dopants has been assessed. It is found that the impacts on the quality factor, Q, resulting from different densities of dopants vary greatly, while the influence on the resonance frequency is insignificant. The reduction of the resonance frequency caused by doping with boron only is larger than the reduction caused by doping with both boron and nitrogen. This study gives a fundamental understanding of the resonance of graphene with different dopants, which may benefit their application as resonators. PMID:24991509

  11. Sulfur-doped graphene via thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide in H2S, SO2, or CS2 gas.

    PubMed

    Poh, Hwee Ling; Šimek, Petr; Sofer, Zden?k; Pumera, Martin

    2013-06-25

    Doping of graphene with heteroatoms is an effective way to tailor its properties. Here we describe a simple and scalable method of doping graphene lattice with sulfur atoms during the thermal exfoliation process of graphite oxides. The graphite oxides were first prepared by Staudenmaier, Hofmann, and Hummers methods followed by treatments in hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, or carbon disulfide. The doped materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, combustible elemental analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. The ?-potential and conductivity of sulfur-doped graphenes were also investigated in this paper. It was found that the level of doping is more dramatically influenced by the type of graphite oxide used rather than the type of sulfur-containing gas used during exfoliation. Resulting sulfur-doped graphenes act as metal-free electrocatalysts for an oxygen reduction reaction. PMID:23656223

  12. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial ?-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C. [Dpto Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain)] [Dpto Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain); Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E. [Institut Néel, CNRS-Université Joseph Fourier, 25 av. des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)] [Institut Néel, CNRS-Université Joseph Fourier, 25 av. des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Jomard, F. [Groupe d'Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), UMR 8635 du CNRS, UVSQ, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)] [Groupe d'Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), UMR 8635 du CNRS, UVSQ, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup ?}/p{sup ++}/p{sup ?} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  13. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Schenectady, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  14. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Luthra, Krishan Lal (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  15. Mechanism of the electrochemical dehydrogenation of hexahydropyrimidine on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenyapina, M. D.; Simakova, A. P.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Makhova, N. N.; Vedenyapin, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of hexahydropyrimidine (HHP) on a boron-doped diamond electrode was studied. The obtained data were compared with the results of previous studies on the electrooxidation of HHP on platinum and gold electrodes. It was shown that different products can be obtained from one organic substance using different electrode materials.

  16. Visible and Infra-red Light Emission in Boron-Doped Wurtzite Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rotunno, Enzo; Lazzarini, Laura; Fukata, Naoki; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Silicon, the mainstay semiconductor in microelectronic circuitry, is considered unsuitable for optoelectronic applications owing to its indirect electronic band gap, which limits its efficiency as a light emitter. Here we show the light emission properties of boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires measured by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. A visible emission, peaked above 1.5?eV, and a near infra-red emission at 0.8?eV correlate respectively to the direct transition at the ? point and to the indirect band-gap of wurtzite silicon. We find additional intense emissions due to boron intra-gap states in the short wavelength infra-red range. We present the evolution of the light emission properties as function of the boron doping concentration and the growth temperature. PMID:24398782

  17. Boosting activation of oxygen molecules on C60 fullerene by boron doping.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao-Zhi; Zheng, Jia-Jia; Dang, Jing-Shuang; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    The activation of oxygen molecules on boron-doped C60 fullerene (C59 B) and the subsequent water formation reaction are systematically investigated by using hybrid density functional calculations. Results indicate that C59 B shows a favorable ability to activate oxygen molecules both kinetically and thermodynamically. The oxygen molecule is first adsorbed on the boron atom, which is identified to be the most reactive site in C59 B for O2 adsorption because of its high positive charge and spin density. The adsorption structure C59 B?O2 can further isomerize to form two products with small reaction barriers. Water formation reactions upon these two structures are energetically favorable and suggest a four-electron mechanism for the oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by C59 B. This work provides a reliable theoretical insight into the catalytic properties of boron-doped fullerene, which is believed to be helpful to explore fullerene catalysts. PMID:25399745

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermoelectric Properties of Electrospun Boron-Doped Barium-Stabilized Bismuth-Cobalt Oxide Nanoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çinar, Emre; Koçyi?it, Serhat; Aytimur, Arda; Uslu, ?brahim; Akdemir, Ahmet

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the boron-doped barium-stabilized bismuth cobalt oxide thermoelectric nanocrystalline ceramic powders were produced by the polymeric precursor technique. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the physical properties measurement system. The X-ray diffraction results showed that these patterns have mixture of two phases as face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic. Values of the crystallite size, the dislocation density, and the microstrain were calculated by the Scherrer equation. According to these values, the crystallite size decreased from 60 to 51 nm with the boron addition in the boron-undoped and boron-doped samples, respectively. The scanning electron microscope results showed that nanograins are rarely seen in the boron-undoped samples, but nanograins turn into needle-like and layered structures with boron addition. The diameters distribution of nanofibers was calculated. The average diameter of the boron-doped sample is smaller than the boron-undoped sample. The physical properties measurement system values showed that the electrical and thermal conductivity, the Seebeck coefficient, and the figure of merit increased with the temperature rise for both samples. The boron-doping effect increased the electrical and thermal conductivity, decreased the Seebeck coefficient, and decreased the figure of merit.

  19. Density Functional Theory Study of Boron- and Nitrogen-Atom-Doped Graphene Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Iyama, Tetsuji; Azumi, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    The structures and electronic states of boron- and nitrogen-substituted graphene chips (B-, N-, and BN-doped graphene chips) have been investigated by means of the density functional theory (DFT) method in order to shed light on the mechanism of change in the electronic properties of graphene chips caused by heteroatoms. The atomic charge of nitrogen atoms in N-graphene was a negative value, whereas that of boron atoms in B-graphene was positive. In the case of the BN-doped graphene chip, a charge polarization such as B?+-N?- was found. It was also found that the B-N bond pair is preferentially formed because of the large heat of formation of the B-N bond. The BN-doped graphene chips showed a large red shift of the band gap compared with that of normal graphene. The electric states of BN-graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  20. Transport properties of boron-doped single-walled silicon carbide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. T.; Ding, R. X.; Song, J. X.

    2011-01-01

    The doped boron (B) atom in silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) can substitute carbon or silicon atom, forming two different structures. The transport properties of both B-doped SiCNT structures are investigated by the method combined non-equilibrium Green’s function with density functional theory (DFT). As the bias ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 V, the negative differential resistance (NDR) effect occurs, which is derived from the great difficulty for electrons tunneling from one electrode to another with the increasing of localization of molecular orbital. The high similar transport properties of both B-doped SiCNT indicate that boron is a suitable impurity for fabricating nano-scale SiCNT electronic devices.

  1. Isolated boron and nitrogen sites on porous graphitic carbon synthesized from nitrogen-containing chitosan for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Fu, Yu; Tian, Chungui; Yang, Ying; Wang, Lei; Yin, Jie; Ma, Jing; Wang, Ruihong; Fu, Honggang

    2014-06-01

    Separated boron and nitrogen porous graphitic carbon (BNGC) is fabricated by a facile hydrothermal coordination/ZnCl2-activation process from renewable and inexpensive nitrogen-containing chitosan. In this synthetic pathway, chitosan, which has a high nitrogen content, first coordinates with Fe(3+) ions to form chitosan-Fe that subsequently reacts with boric acid (boron source) to generate the BNGC precursor. After simultaneous carbonization and ZnCl2 activation followed by removal of the Fe catalyst, BNGC, containing isolated boron and nitrogen centers and having a high surface area of 1567?m(2) ?g(-1) and good conductivity, can be obtained. Results indicate that use of chitosan as a nitrogen-containing carbon source effectively prevents nitrogen atoms from direct combination with boron atoms. In addition, the incorporation of Fe(3+) ions not only endows BNGC with high graphitization, but also favors for nitrogen fixation. Remarkably, the unique microstructure of BNGC enables its use as an advanced electrode material for energy storage. As electrode material for supercapacitors, BNGC shows a high capacitance of 313?F?g(-1) at 1?A?g(-1), and also long-term durability and coulombic efficiency of >99.5?% after 5000?cycles. Notably, in organic electrolytes, the energy density could be up to 50.1?Wh?kg(-1) at a power density of 10.5?kW?kg(-1). The strategy developed herein opens a new avenue to prepare BNGC without inactive B?N bonds from commercially available chitosan for high-performance supercapacitors. PMID:24692324

  2. First-principles calculations of covalently-bonded 3D networks of graphitic boron-nitride for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Jhi, Seung-Hoon

    2012-02-01

    Graphitic nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and covalently-bonded graphene (CBG) have attracted great attention due to their large surface area for high-capacity hydrogen storage. We carried out first-principles calculations based on density functional theory of covalently-bonded 3D networks of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) layers and investigated the metal dispersion and subsequent hydrogen adsorption inside the networks. We performed a comparative analysis of stability, metal dispersion, and hydrogen sorption between graphene, CNT, hBN single layer, and 3D hBN networks.

  3. Analytical and experimental studies of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle ply laminates in compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, T.

    1977-01-01

    The applicability and adequacy of several computer techniques in predicting satisfactorily the nonlinear/inelastic response of angle ply laminates were evaluated. The analytical predictions were correlated with the results of a test program on the inelastic response under axial compression of a large variety of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle ply laminates. These comparison studies indicate that neither of the abovementioned analyses can satisfactorily predict either the mode of response or the ultimate stress value corresponding to a particular angle ply laminate configuration. Consequently, also the simple failure mechanisms assumed in the analytical models were not verified.

  4. Formation of graphitic structures in cobalt- and nickel-doped carbon aerogels.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ruowen; Baumann, Theodore F; Cronin, Steve; Dresselhaus, Gene; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Satcher, Joe H

    2005-03-29

    We have prepared carbon aerogels (CAs) doped with cobalt or nickel through sol-gel polymerization of formaldehyde with the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, followed by ion exchange with M(NO3)2 (where M = Co2+ or Ni2+), supercritical drying with liquid CO2, and carbonization at temperatures between 400 and 1050 degrees C under a N2 atmosphere. The nanostructures of these metal-doped carbon aerogels were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Metallic nickel and cobalt nanoparticles are generated during the carbonization process at about 400 and 450 degrees C, respectively, forming nanoparticles that are approximately 4 nm in diameter. The sizes and size dispersion of the metal particles increase with increasing carbonization temperatures for both materials. The carbon frameworks of the Ni- and Co-doped aerogels carbonized below 600 degrees C mainly consist of interconnected carbon particles with a size of 15-30 nm. When the samples are pyrolyzed at 1050 degrees C, the growth of graphitic nanoribbons with different curvatures is observed in the Ni- and Co-doped carbon aerogel materials. The distance of graphite layers in the nanoribbons is approximately 0.38 nm. These metal-doped CAs retain the overall open cell structure of metal-free CAs, exhibiting high surface areas and pore diameters in the micro- and mesoporic region. PMID:15779927

  5. N-doped graphitic layer encased cobalt nanoparticles as efficient oxygen reduction catalysts in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ce; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhang, Yufan; Li, Mian; Nsabimana, Anaclet; Guo, Liping

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen doped graphitic layer encased cobalt (N-C@Co) nanoparticles, as novel non-precious-metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), were fabricated by a facile method using cyanamide and cobalt nitrate as precursors. The N-C@Co catalysts exhibited comparable catalytic performance, better stability and improved methanol tolerance towards the ORR than those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst.Nitrogen doped graphitic layer encased cobalt (N-C@Co) nanoparticles, as novel non-precious-metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), were fabricated by a facile method using cyanamide and cobalt nitrate as precursors. The N-C@Co catalysts exhibited comparable catalytic performance, better stability and improved methanol tolerance towards the ORR than those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07571d

  6. Boron-Doped Strontium-Stabilized Bismuth Cobalt Oxide Thermoelectric Nanocrystalline Ceramic Powders Synthesized via Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koçyi?it, Serhat; Aytimur, Arda; Ç?nar, Emre; Uslu, ?brahim; Akdemir, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Boron-doped strontium-stabilized bismuth cobalt oxide thermoelectric nanocrystalline ceramic powders were produced by using a polymeric precursor technique. The powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and physical properties measurement system (PPMS) techniques. The XRD results showed that these patterns have a two-phase mixture. The phases are face-centered cubic (fcc) and body-centered cubic (bcc). Values of the crystallite size, dislocation density, and microstrain were calculated by using the Scherrer equation. The lattice parameters were calculated for fcc and bcc phases. The SEM results showed that needle-like grains are formed in boron-undoped composite materials, but the needle-like grains changed to the plate-like grains with the addition of boron. The distribution of the nanofiber diameters was calculated and the average diameter of the boron-doped sample is smaller than the boron-undoped one. PPMS values showed that the electrical resistivity values decreased, but the thermal conductivity values, the Seebeck coefficients, and figure of merit ( ZT) increased with increasing temperature for the two samples.

  7. Potential rare earth free permanent magnet: interstitial boron doped FeCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang

    2014-10-01

    Using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, we investigated the structural and the magnetic properties of boron doped FeCo. After fully relaxing the lattice structure, the interatomic distances between boron and Fe atoms were found to be greatly enhanced and the tetragonal distortion was realized due to this increased interatomic distance. Nonetheless, both the unit cell volume and the total magnetic moment of the tetragonally distorted FeCo structure were weakly suppressed compared with those of ideal bulk FeCo. We found a magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant of 0.8 MJ m-3 and this was mainly due to the tetragonal distortion induced by boron impurity, not from the hybridization effect with Fe or Co, because no essential change in the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant was found even without boron impurity in the lattice distorted system. Additionally, the estimated maximum energy product and coercive field were 100 MGOe and 745 kA m-1, respectively. These results may imply that the interstitial boron doped FeCo can be used for a potential rare earth free permanent magnet although those values are likely to be suppressed in real samples due to micromagnetic factors.

  8. Computations of the quadrupole coupling constants in aluminum doped boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Giahi, Masoud

    2010-09-01

    We performed a computational study to calculate the quadrupole coupling constants ( CQ) in the aluminum doped (Al-doped) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) based on the density functional theory (DFT). The Al-doped forms of representative (6,0) zigzag and (4,4) armchair models of BNNTs are considered in this study. Comparison with the available data on the pristine BNNTs reveals the influence of Al-doping on the CQ parameters of 11B and 14N atoms in the Al-doped structures. For most lattice sites, the magnitude of influence on the CQ parameters of the zigzag model is larger than that of the armchair model. Similar values of the CQ parameters of 27Al atoms are obtained for the armchair and zigzag BNNTs when the same element is replaced with Al, but the CQ parameter is larger for Al when it forms an Al-B bond than when it forms an Al-N bond.

  9. Electronic and transport properties of boron and nitrogen doped graphene nanoribbons: an ab initio approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Satyendra Singh; Srivastava, Pankaj; Shrivastava, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are expected to display extraordinary properties in the form of nanostructures. The effect of boron and nitrogen substitutional doping at four successive positions on electronic and transport properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) is studied using spin-unpolarized density functional theory. It has been observed that the electronic structures of the doped ZGNRs are different from those of pristine ZGNRs. We have also calculated the transformation energy in the form of total energy. The substitutional boron atom at the nanoribbons edges suppresses the energy band near Fermi level by changing properties of material from metallic to semi-metallic in ZGNRs which can be explained as a consequence of the edge polarization effects. At all doping positions, N-doped ZGNRs are n-type while B-doped ZGNRs are p-type semiconductors. These substitutionally B- and N-doped impurities act as scattering centers for transport in GNRs. Due to unusual properties of these nanomaterials, they can be used in carbon-based nanoelectronics devices.

  10. A theoretical study of silicon-doped boron nitride nanotubes serving as a potential chemical sensor for hydrogen cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruoxi Wang; Dongju Zhang; Yongjun Liu; Chengbu Liu

    2009-01-01

    In order to search for a novel sensor to detect and control exposure to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) pollutant molecule in environments, the reactivities of pristine and silicon-doped (Si-doped) (8, 0) single-walled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) towards the HCN molecule are investigated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The HCN molecule presents strong chemisorption on both the silicon-substituted boron defect

  11. Controlled electrochemical intercalation, exfoliation and in situ nitrogen doping of graphite in nitrate-based protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xunyu; Zhao, Chuan

    2013-12-14

    Few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene has been prepared via fast and controlled electrochemical exfoliation of graphite in a protic ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate. The method presents a potentially scalable approach for preparation of metal-free, N-doped graphene for use as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. PMID:24169792

  12. Boron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  13. Effects of hydrogen ion bombardment and boron doping on (0 0 1) polycrystalline diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yiben; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Zhang, Wenjun; Jiang, Xin; Wu, Wenhai; Yao, Takafumi

    2000-06-01

    Hydrogen ion bombardment was carried out by applying a negative bias voltage to the substrate during a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process, using only hydrogen as reactant gas. The size of (0 0 1) faces increases after hydrogen ion etching while other grains are etched off. The surfaces of [0 0 1] directionally oriented films after boron doping were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cathodoluminescent (CL) spectra. The absence of the band-A emission in the CL spectra indicates a low density of dislocations in the films. It is the first indication that the peak at 741.5 nm and the broad peak at around 575 and 625 nm in the CL spectra are reduced efficiently after boron doping in (0 0 1) polycrystalline diamond films. We propose that these phenomena could be explained in simple terms by penetration or adsorption through the lattice nets of the [0 0 1] directionally oriented surfaces model.

  14. Synthesis of boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon from asphaltene for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Dao-Long; Wang, Chun-Lei; Jin, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Jie-Shan

    2014-08-01

    Oxidized asphaltene (OA), a thermosetting material with plenty of functional groups, is synthesized from asphaltene (A) using HNO3/H2SO4 as the oxidizing agent. Boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon (BNC—OA) is prepared by carbonization of the mixture of boric acid and OA at 1173 K in an argon atmosphere. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization reveals that the BNC—OA has a nitrogen content of 3.26 at.% and a boron content of 1.31 at.%, while its oxidation-free counterpart (BNC—SA) has a nitrogen content of 1.61 at.% and a boron content of 3.02 at.%. The specific surface area and total pore volume of BNC—OA are 1103 m2·g-1 and 0.921 cm3·g-1, respectively. At a current density of 0.1 A·g-1, the specific capacitance of BNC-OA is 335 F·g-1 and the capacitance retention can still reach 83% at 1 A·g-1. The analysis shows that the superior electrochemical performance of the BNC—OA is attributed to the pseudocapacitance behavior of surface heteroatom functional groups and an abundant pore-structure. Boron, nitrogen co-doped porous carbon is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  15. Local impedance imaging of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieli?ski, A.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Ryl, J.; Burczyk, L.; Darowicki, K.

    2014-09-01

    Local impedance imaging (LII) was used to visualise surficial deviations of AC impedances in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD). The BDD thin film electrodes were deposited onto the highly doped silicon substrates via microwave plasma-enhanced CVD. The studied boron dopant concentrations, controlled by the [B]/[C] ratio in plasma, ranged from 1 × 1016 to 2 × 1021 atoms cm-3. The BDD films displayed microcrystalline structure, while the average size of crystallites decreased from 1 to 0.7 ?m with increasing [B]/[C] ratios. The application of LII enabled a direct and high-resolution investigation of local distribution of impedance characteristics within the individual grains of BDD. Such an approach resulted in greater understanding of the microstructural control of properties at the grain level. We propose that the obtained surficial variation of impedance is correlated to the areas of high conductance which have been observed at the grain boundaries by using LII. We also postulate that the origin of high conductivity is due to either preferential boron accumulation, the presence of defects, or sp2 regions in the intragrain regions. The impedance modulus recorded by LII was in full agreement with the bulk impedance measurements. Both variables showed a decreasing trend with increasing [B]/[C] ratios, which is consistent with higher boron incorporation into BDD film.

  16. Electrochemical reactivity of TiO 2 nanoparticles adsorbed onto boron-doped diamond surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Marken; Avninder S. Bhambra; Duk-Hyun Kim; Roger J. Mortimer; Susan J. Stott

    2004-01-01

    TiO2 (anatase) nanoparticles of ca. 6–10 nm diameter are adsorbed from acidic aqueous solution onto polycrystalline industrially polished boron-doped diamond electrode surfaces. After immobilisation at the electrode surface, TiO2 nanoparticles are imaged in vacuum by electron microscopy (FEGSEM) and when immersed in a liquid film of aqueous 12 M LiCl by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Mono-layer films of

  17. Deuteron activation analysis of ultra-trace carbon in boron-doped Si single crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Shikano; H. Yonezawa; T. Shigematsu

    1993-01-01

    The charged particle activation analysis of ultra-trace carbon in boron-doped silicon with the12C(d,n)13N reaction has been developed. In order to apply13N substoichiometric separation to determine carbon in silicon, we studied the rapid dissolution of silicon using nitric acid as the13N carrier. Its amounts were as small and definite as possible and the nitrogen oxide gas produced during the dissolution was

  18. Band gap-tunable potassium doped graphitic carbon nitride with enhanced mineralization ability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaozheng; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Yanfeng; Lv, Zhenbo

    2015-01-21

    Band gap-tunable potassium doped graphitic carbon nitride with enhanced mineralization ability was prepared using dicyandiamide monomer and potassium hydrate as precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The CB and VB potentials of graphitic carbon nitride could be tuned from -1.09 and +1.56 eV to -0.31 and +2.21 eV by controlling the K concentration. Besides, the addition of potassium inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride, enhanced the surface area and increased the separation rate for photogenerated electrons and holes. The visible-light-driven Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation and mineralization performances were significantly improved after potassium doping. A possible influence mechanism of the potassium concentration on the photocatalytic performance was proposed. PMID:25409884

  19. The nature of radiative transitions in o-doped boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gou, Gaoyang; Pan, Bicai; Shi, Lei

    2009-04-01

    Recent measurements on cathodoluminescences spectra of natural and isotope-substituted boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) surprisingly suggest the existence of pronounced radiative transitions in BN tubes, which are possibly induced by the oxygen substitutional impurities of the samples. [Han, W. Q. et al. Nano Lett. 2008, 8, 491] However, the structural pattern of the O-doped BN tube is unknown, as a result, how does the substitutional impurity in BNNT contribute to the observed radiative transitions is still a puzzle. Using first-principle calculations, we predict a novel, stable O-doped BNNT configuration. Such a structure contains one B(3)O(6) group, which is similar to the structural unit of boron oxide. Our calculations demonstrate that this type of O substitutional impurity can result in some donor-like gap states in the electronic structure and lead to the significant changes on the optical properties of BNNTs. The vibrational properties of the O-doped BNNT and boron oxide are also investigated. Our work elucidates the origins for experimental findings and provides a strong theoretical evidence on the existence of O substitutional impurity-induced radiative transitions in BNNT systems. PMID:19278260

  20. Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2013-10-01

    A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6 V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors.

  1. Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2013-01-01

    A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6?V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors. PMID:24113335

  2. Surface damages in diamond by Ar/O2 plasma and their effect on the electrical and electrochemical characteristics of boron-doped layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, A.; Romanyuk, A.; Pietzka, C.; Scharpf, J.; Kohn, E.

    2010-10-01

    Epitaxial single crystal and boron-doped diamond layers were exposed to reactive ion etching in Ar/O2 plasma (rf power of 25 W and self-bias of 100 V); and the electrical, structural, and electrochemical characteristics of the exposed surface were investigated. Angle-resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed a nonuniform layer of amorphous carbon at the exposed surface with an average thickness of approximately 4 nm, as confirmed also by atomic force microscopy profiling of selectively etched areas. On highly boron-doped diamond, the plasma-induced damages resulted also in a nonconductive surface layer. This damaged and insulating surface layer remained resistant to graphite-etching chemicals and to rf oxygen plasma but it was removed completely in microwave hydrogen plasma at 700 °C. The surface characteristics after the H-plasma process followed by wet chemical oxidation were restored back to the initial state, as confirmed by XPS. Such "recovery" treatment had been applied to an all-diamond submicrometer electrode array initially patterned by an Ar/O2 plasma etching. The electrochemical characteristics of this electrode array were improved by more than two orders of magnitude, approaching theoretical limit for the given geometrical configuration.

  3. Metal-to-insulator transition and superconductivity in boron-doped diamond.

    PubMed

    Bustarret, E; Achatz, P; Sacépé, B; Chapelier, C; Marcenat, C; Ortéga, L; Klein, T

    2008-01-28

    The experimental discovery of superconductivity in boron-doped diamond came as a major surprise to both the diamond and the superconducting materials communities. The main experimental results obtained since then on single-crystal diamond epilayers are reviewed and applied to calculations, and some open questions are identified. The critical doping of the metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) was found to coincide with that necessary for superconductivity to occur. Some of the critical exponents of the MIT were determined and superconducting diamond was found to follow a conventional type II behaviour in the dirty limit, with relatively high critical temperature values quite close to the doping-induced insulator-to-metal transition. This could indicate that on the metallic side both the electron-phonon coupling and the screening parameter depend on the boron concentration. In our view, doped diamond is a potential model system for the study of electronic phase transitions and a stimulating example for other semiconductors such as germanium and silicon. PMID:18024360

  4. Origin of the unusual dependence of Raman D band on excitation wavelength in graphite-like materials

    E-print Network

    Asher, Sanford A.

    , glassy carbon, boron- doped highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, carbon black, mul- ticomponent carbon of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1408590 I. INTRODUCTION Carbon based materials, ranging from highly oriented pyrolitic graphite, diamond-like carbon films, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes have been the subject

  5. NMR Study of Heavily Doped SILICON:BORON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Scott Edward

    Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to study the hyperfine interactions in powdered Si:B. Samples from a variety of sources were examined to confirm the generality of our results. Room temperature carrier concentrations varied from about 3.4 times 10 ^{18} to 5.1 times 10^{19} cm ^{-3}. NMR measurements were carried out on the nuclei B^{11} and Si^{29} over a temperature range from 93 K to 463 K and an applied field strength of 8.0 T and 5.5 T. The B^{11} NMR frequency shift exhibits a Curie-like temperature dependence. A strong concentration dependence to the shift was observed. Lower concentration samples showed a more rapid rise in frequency than higher concentration samples as the temperature was lowered. Shift measurements on the highest concentration sample showed a linear dependence on applied field at lower temperatures. The Si^{29} NMR frequency showed relatively no shift over the same temperature range. B^{11} NMR in cubic NaBH_4 also showed no shift, thus ruling out the probe as a source of the shift. Both the B^{11} and Si^{29} line widths increase with decreasing temperature. We attribute all of the Si^{29} temperature dependence to a distribution of paramagnetic moments localized on a small fraction of the boron sites. Part of the B ^{11} line width temperature dependence is due a similar mechanism; other parts remain unexplained. The Si^{29}^in -lattice relaxation is due to interaction with itinerant carriers and shows a Korringa enhancement ranging from 7 to 10, possibly due to disorder. The B^ {11}^in-lattice relaxation rate is not linear in temperature in the two lower concentration samples, and is presumably associated with paramagnetic fluctuations localized on the boron sites. Relaxation in the highest concentration sample is due to interaction with itinerant carriers. We suggest that the source of the paramagnetism is transitory local moments which form on every boron site with a lifetime, tau_{rm loc}, such that T_1{rm (elec)} prec tau_{rm loc} prec 1/(2Deltaomega_ {rm sep}). T_1{ rm (elec)} is the electron spin-lattice relaxation time and Deltaomega_ {rm sep} is the separation in angular frequency space between the resonance frequency of the B^0 (paramagnetic) and the B ^{-}(diamagnetic) states. The observed shift is caused by a weighted average of the local magnetic fields at the B^0 and B ^{-} sites.

  6. Growth and nucleation regimes in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Will, J., E-mail: johannes.will@fau.de; Gröschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Weißer, M.; Magerl, A. [Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The oxygen precipitation of highly (17.5 m? cm) and moderately (4.5 ? cm) boron (B) doped silicon (Si) crystals at 780?°C is investigated by following in-situ the evolution of diffraction Pendellösung oscillations. All samples show an initial diffusion-driven growth process which may change over into Ostwald ripening. For the highly doped sample and involving a nucleation step at 450?°C for 30?h, the precipitate density ? is enhanced by a factor of 8 as compared to the moderately doped sample. The influence of a high B concentration on ? is dramatically higher for the samples directly heated to 780?°C, where an enhancement factor of 80 is found. Considering Ostwald ripening as a second growth regime reveals consistent ripening rates and surface energies ? with those found at 900?°C in a previous publication.

  7. Growth and nucleation regimes in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, J.; Gröschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Weißer, M.; Magerl, A.

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen precipitation of highly (17.5 m? cm) and moderately (4.5 ? cm) boron (B) doped silicon (Si) crystals at 780 °C is investigated by following in-situ the evolution of diffraction Pendellösung oscillations. All samples show an initial diffusion-driven growth process which may change over into Ostwald ripening. For the highly doped sample and involving a nucleation step at 450 °C for 30 h, the precipitate density ? is enhanced by a factor of 8 as compared to the moderately doped sample. The influence of a high B concentration on ? is dramatically higher for the samples directly heated to 780 °C, where an enhancement factor of 80 is found. Considering Ostwald ripening as a second growth regime reveals consistent ripening rates and surface energies ? with those found at 900 °C in a previous publication.

  8. Radiation tolerance of boron doped dendritic web silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of dendritic web silicon for giving radiation hard solar cells is compared with the float zone silicon material. Solar cells with n(+)-p-P(+) structure and approximately 15% (AMl) efficiency were subjected to 1 MeV electron irradiation. Radiation tolerance of web cell efficiency was found to be at least as good as that of the float zone silicon cell. A study of the annealing behavior of radiation-induced defects via deep level transient spectroscopy revealed that E sub v + 0.31 eV defect, attributed to boron-oxygen-vacancy complex, is responsible for the reverse annealing of the irradiated cells in the temperature range of 150 to 350 C.

  9. Electronic level scheme in boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keisuke; Castaldini, Antonio; Fukata, Naoki; Cavallini, Anna

    2012-06-13

    We report the first observation of the electronic level scheme in boron (B)- and phosphorus (P)-doped nanowires (NWs). The NWs' morphology dramatically depends on the doping impurity while a few deep electronic levels appear in both kinds of nanowires, independently of the doping type. We demonstrate that the doping impurities induce the same shallow levels as in bulk silicon. The presence of two donor levels in the lower half-bandgap is also revealed. In both kinds of NWs, B- and P-doped, the donor level (0/+) at E(v) + 0.36 eV of the gold-hydrogen complex is observed. This means that the gold diffusion from the NW tip introduces an electronically active level, which might negatively affects the electrical characteristics of the NWs. In P-doped NWs, we observed a further donor level at 0.26 eV above the valence band due to the phosphorus-vacancy pairs, the E-center, well-known in bulk silicon. These findings seriously question both diffusion modeling of impurities in NWs and the technological aspects arising from this. PMID:22545949

  10. Study of different thermal processes on boron-doped PERL cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjia; Wang, Zhenjiao; Han, Peiyu; Lu, Hongyan; Yang, Jian; Guo, Ying; Shi, Zhengrong; Li, Guohua

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, three kinds of thermal processes for boron-doped PERL cells were investigated. These are the forming gas annealing (FGA), the rapid thermal (RTP) and the low temperature annealing processes. FGA was introduced after laser ablation and doping in order to increase minority carrier lifetime by hydrogenating the trapping centers. Subsequent evaluation revealed considerable enhancement of minority carrier lifetime (from 150 ?s to 240 ?s) and the implied Voc (from 660 mV to 675 mV). After aluminum sputtering, three actual peak temperatures (370 °C, 600 °C and 810 °C) of RTP (as it occurs in the compressed air environment used in our experiment) were utilized to form a contact between the metal and the semi-conductor. It is concluded that only low temperature (lower than 600 °C) firing could create boron back surface field and high quality rear reflector. Lastly, a method of improving the performance of finished PERL cells which did not experience high temperature (over 800 °C) firing was investigated. Finished cells undergone low temperature annealing in N2 atmosphere at 150 °C for 15 min produced 0.44% absolute increase in PERL cells. The enhancement of low temperature annealing originally comes from the activation of passivated boron which is deactivated during FGA.

  11. Photodegradation of aniline by goethite doped with boron under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guanglong [Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Ecological Environment Research, Centre for Microelement Research of Huazhong Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430070 (China)] [Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Ecological Environment Research, Centre for Microelement Research of Huazhong Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liao, Shuijiao [Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Ecological Environment Research, Centre for Microelement Research of Huazhong Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430070 (China) [Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Ecological Environment Research, Centre for Microelement Research of Huazhong Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Basic Sciences of Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhu, Duanwei, E-mail: zhudw@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Ecological Environment Research, Centre for Microelement Research of Huazhong Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430070 (China)] [Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Ecological Environment Research, Centre for Microelement Research of Huazhong Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Linghua; Cheng, Dongsheng; Zhou, Huaidong [China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038 (China)] [China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Goethite modified by boron was prepared by sol-gel method in presence of boron acid at the low temperature. {yields} B-goethite has slight red shift in the band gap transition beside their stronger light absorption compared with pristine goethite. {yields} The results showed that semiconductor photocatalytic reaction mechanism should exist in the process of aniline degradation with goethite and B-goethite as photocatalyst. -- Abstract: In the present study, goethite and goethite doped with boron (B-goethite) were employed to detect the presence or absence of semiconductor photocatalytic reaction mechanism in the reaction systems. B-goethite was prepared by sol-gel method in presence of boron acid in order to improve its photocatalystic efficiency under the ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The optical properties of goethite and B-goethite were characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra and the result indicated that B-goethite has slight red shift in the band gap transition beside their stronger light absorption compared with pristine goethite. Degradation of aniline was investigated in presence of goethite and B-goethite in aqueous solution. It was found that the B-goethite photocatalyst exhibited enhanced ultraviolet and visible light photocatalytic activity in degradation of aniline compared with the pristine goethite. The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of B-goethite was discussed.

  12. Boron-doped amorphous diamondlike carbon as a new p-type window material in amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells

    E-print Network

    Kim, Yong Jung

    Boron-doped amorphous diamondlike carbon as a new p-type window material in amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells Chang Hyun Lee and Koeng Su Lim Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced 1997; accepted for publication 3 November 1997 A boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous diamondlike carbon

  13. Irradiation and penetration tests of boron-doped low activation concrete using 2.45 and 14 MeV neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Atsuhiko; Sato, Satoshi; Kinno, Masaharu; Sakasai, Akira; Hori, Junichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Masaki, Kei; Sakurai, Shinji; Hayashi, Takao; Matsukawa, Makoto; Tamai, Hiroshi; Ishida, Shinichi

    2004-08-01

    The neutron penetration and the activation characteristics of the boron-doped low activation concrete were investigated for irradiation of 2.45 and 14 MeV neutrons. The shielding property of the 2 wt% boron-doped low activation concrete is superior to that of the 1 wt% boron for the thermal neutron, on the contrary to no clear difference for the fast neutron. The total activity detected in the boron-doped low activation concrete was about one hundredth of that in the geostandard sample at more than 30 days cooling time. The total activity of the boron-doped concrete by major nuclei does not depend on the boron density for the 14 MeV neutron irradiation.

  14. Boron, graphite, glass, metal and aramid fiber reinforced plastics. January, 1973-May, 1981 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association Data Base). Report for January 1973-May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The citations cover information about advanced reinforced composites such as boron, graphite, glass, metal, and aramid. Topics include applications, fabrication processes, proerties, nondestructive testing, and economics of composite materials. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  15. Oxidation-enhanced diffusion of ion-implanted boron in heavily phosphorus-doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Masayasu

    1985-07-01

    Oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) of ion-implanted boron in heavily phosphorus-doped silicon is studied by measuring boron depth profiles using secondary ion mass spectroscopy for phosphorus concentration from intrinsic conditions to 1.2×1020 cm-3. OED is observed for the whole phosphorus concentration range investigated in the present work. However, both the diffusion coefficient in N2 ambient DN and that in dry O2 ambient DO decrease with an increase in substrate phosphorus concentration in extrinsic conditions, i.e., for phosphorus concentration larger than the intrinsic carrier concentration. Diffusion coefficient increment due to OED ?D(=DO-DN) decreases with an increase in phosphorus concentration. The decrease in ?D with an increase in phosphorus concentration is attributed to a decrease in excess silicon interstitials due to recombination with acceptor-type vacancies.

  16. Irradiation and penetration tests of boron-doped low activation concrete using 2.45 and 14 MeV neutron sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsuhiko Morioka; Satoshi Sato; Masaharu Kinno; Akira Sakasai; Junichi Hori; Kentaro Ochiai; Michinori Yamauchi; Takeo Nishitani; Atsushi Kaminaga; Kei Masaki; Shinji Sakurai; Takao Hayashi; Makoto Matsukawa; Hiroshi Tamai; Shinichi Ishida

    2004-01-01

    The neutron penetration and the activation characteristics of the boron-doped low activation concrete were investigated for irradiation of 2.45 and 14 MeV neutrons. The shielding property of the 2 wt% boron-doped low activation concrete is superior to that of the 1 wt% boron for the thermal neutron, on the contrary to no clear difference for the fast neutron. The total

  17. Self-compensation property of ?-rhombohedral boron doped with high Li concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, H.; Nezu, A.; Soga, K.; Kimura, K.

    2012-11-01

    A high concentration of Li (up to LiB5.8; 18 Li/cell) was doped into ?-rhombohedral boron (?-B), which has a crystalline structure built up from B12 icosahedral clusters, by sealing the raw materials in a stainless-steel tube. The relation between the structure and the electronic properties was clarified and a self-compensation property of Li- or Mg-doped ?-B was discussed. The Li concentration was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The changes in the structure and the electronic properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction using the Rietveld method and by electrical conductivity measurements, respectively. Li occupies the A1, D, E and F sites, and the occupancies of the B sites (B13, B16 and B4) decrease with increasing Li doping. In Li- or Mg-doped ?-B, electron doping is compensated by the removal of interstitial B atoms at the B16 site and by the generation of vacancies at the B13 and B4 sites. There have been no reports of self-compensation in other crystalline elemental semiconductors.

  18. Density functional theory study on boron- and phosphorus-doped hydrogen-passivated silicene.

    PubMed

    Pi, Xiaodong; Ni, Zhenyi; Liu, Yong; Ruan, Zhichao; Xu, Mingsheng; Yang, Deren

    2015-01-28

    When silicene is passivated by hydrogen, a bandgap occurs so that it becomes a semiconductor. Analogous to all the other semiconductors, doping is highly desired to realize the potential of hydrogen-passivated silicene (H-silicene). In the framework of density functional theory (DFT), we have studied the doping of H-silicene with boron (B) and phosphorus (P). The concentration of B or P ranges from 1.4% to 12.5%. It is found that the doping of B or P enables the indirect-bandgap H-silicene to be a semiconductor with a direct bandgap. With the increase of the concentration of B or P, both the valence band and the conduction band shift to lower energies, while the bandgap decreases. Both B- and P-doping lead to the decrease of the effective mass of holes and electrons in H-silicene. For both B- and P-doped H-silicene a subband absorption peak may appear, which blueshifts with the increase of the dopant concentration. PMID:25564050

  19. Plasma Synthesized Doped Boron Nanopowder for MgB2 Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    James V. Marzik

    2012-03-26

    Under this program, a process to synthesize nano-sized doped boron powder by a plasma synthesis process was developed and scaled up from 20 gram batches at program start to over 200 grams by program end. Over 75 batches of boron nanopowder were made by RF plasma synthesis. Particle sizes were typically in the 20-200 nm range. The powder was synthesized by the reductive pyrolysis of BCl{sub 3} in hydrogen in an RF plasma. A wide range of process parameters were investigated including plasma power, torch geometry, gas flow rates, and process pressure. The powder-in-tube technique was used to make monofilament and multifilament superconducting wires. MgB{sub 2} wire made with Specialty Materials plasma synthesized boron nanopowder exhibited superconducting properties that significantly exceeded the program goals. Superconducting critical currents, J{sub c}, in excess of 10{sup 5} A cm{sup -2} at magnetic fields of 8 tesla were reproducibly achieved. The upper critical magnetic field in wires fabricated with program boron powder were H{sub c2}(0) = 37 tesla, demonstrating the potential of these materials for high field magnet applications. T{sub c} in carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} powder showed a systematic decrease with increasing carbon precursor gas flows, indicating the plasma synthesis process can give precise control over dopant concentrations. Synthesis rates increased by a factor of 400% over the course of the program, demonstrating the scalability of the powder synthesis process. The plasma synthesis equipment at Specialty Materials has successfully and reproducibly made high quality boron nanopowder for MgB{sub 2} superconductors. Research and development from this program enabled Specialty Materials to successfully scale up the powder synthesis process by a factor of ten and to double the size of its powder pilot plant. Thus far the program has been a technical success. It is anticipated that continued systematic development of plasma processing parameters, dopant chemistry and concentration, wire processing technology, and collection technology will lead to the commercialization of boron nanopowder as a precursor for MgB{sub 2} superconductors. Potential commercial applications include magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fault current limiters, wind turbine generators.

  20. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on recombination centres in boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, D. C., E-mail: d.walter@isfh.de; Lim, B.; Bothe, K.; Schmidt, J. [Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Voronkov, V. V.; Falster, R. [SunEdison, Via Nazionale 59, 39012 Merano (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    Rapid thermal annealing in a belt furnace results in a dramatic change of the recombination properties of boron-doped Czochralski silicon: (1) the lifetime degraded by applying a prolonged illumination at room temperature was significantly improved, (2) after subsequent dark recovery, the lifetime has a remarkably high value, and (3) the permanent recovery, by annealing at 185?°C under illumination, is enormously accelerated, and the finally achieved stable lifetime acquires a record value of 1.5 ms, as compared to 110??s after permanent recovery of not-annealed reference samples.

  1. Raman Scattering and Photoluminescence in Boron-Doped and Arsenic-Doped Silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Cherlow; R. L. Aggarwal; B. Lax

    1973-01-01

    The deformation potentials and g values of the ground state of the boron acceptor in silicon have been determined from a study of the stress and Zeeman splitting of the electronic Raman scattering in this material. The stress splitting of the Raman line results from a twofold splitting of the Gamma8 ground state only and yields the shear deformation potentials

  2. Magnetic behavior and clustering effects in Mn-doped boron nitride sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitran, T. L.; Nicolaev, Adela; Nemnes, G. A.; Ion, L.; Antohe, S.

    2012-08-01

    Ab initio calculations are performed in the framework of density functional theory on Mn-doped boron nitride sheets, which are candidates for two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs). Each type of substitution reveals a qualitatively different magnetic behavior encompassing ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic and spin glass ordering. The ability of formation of these defects is also discussed. We analyze the dependence of the exchange couplings on the distance between impurities and the typical range and distribution are extracted. Multiple-impurity configurations are considered and the results are mapped on an Ising-type Hamiltonian with higher order exchange interactions, revealing deviations from the standard two-spin models. The percolation of interacting magnetic moments is discussed and the critical concentration is determined for the underlying transition from a ferromagnetic to a super-paramagnetic state. We conclude our study by providing the optimal conditions for doping in order to obtain a ferromagnetic DMS.

  3. Adsorption of CO and NO molecules on carbon doped boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baierle, R. J.; Schmidt, T. M.; Fazzio, A.

    2007-04-01

    Using first principles calculations, we have investigated the electronic and structural properties of CO and NO molecules adsorbed on boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and carbon doped BNNTs. Our results indicate that for non defective nanotubes, small binding energies (around 150 meV) are obtained. When a carbon substitution impurity is present in the BNNT the binding energies are substantially increased and a chemical adsorption is observed. The calculated band structures show that the defect electronic levels inside the band gap are sensitive to the presence of the adsorbed molecules. This increasing of the functionalization capacity of the tubes due to carbon doping is an important mechanism to open up new possibilities for nanodevices applications.

  4. Magnetic behavior and clustering effects in Mn-doped boron nitride sheets.

    PubMed

    Mitran, T L; Nicolaev, Adela; Nemnes, G A; Ion, L; Antohe, S

    2012-08-15

    Ab initio calculations are performed in the framework of density functional theory on Mn-doped boron nitride sheets, which are candidates for two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs). Each type of substitution reveals a qualitatively different magnetic behavior encompassing ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic and spin glass ordering. The ability of formation of these defects is also discussed. We analyze the dependence of the exchange couplings on the distance between impurities and the typical range and distribution are extracted. Multiple-impurity configurations are considered and the results are mapped on an Ising-type Hamiltonian with higher order exchange interactions, revealing deviations from the standard two-spin models. The percolation of interacting magnetic moments is discussed and the critical concentration is determined for the underlying transition from a ferromagnetic to a super-paramagnetic state. We conclude our study by providing the optimal conditions for doping in order to obtain a ferromagnetic DMS. PMID:22785224

  5. Structural and electronic properties of cubic boron nitride doped with zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yubo [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Cheng, Tianyuan; Wang, Xiao; Jiang, Huaxing [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang, Hangsheng, E-mail: hsyang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Nose, Kenji [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-07-28

    Structural and electronic properties of Zn-doped cubic boron nitride (cBN) were investigated via first principle calculation based on density functional theory. Our simulation suggests that Zn can substitute for both B (Zn{sub B}) and N (Zn{sub N}) atom; Zn{sub B} is energetically favorable, and Zn{sub N} can only be prepared under B-rich conditions. Zn{sub B} induced a shallow acceptor level; however, the large difference in electronegativity between Zn and N makes the acceptor level strongly localized, which reduces effective carrier density. In the case of Zn{sub N}, both deep acceptor levels within band gap and shallow acceptor levels at the top of valence band were induced, which produced more free carriers than Zn{sub B}. The calculated results account for experimental results of enhanced electric conductivity of Zn-doped cBN films prepared under B-rich conditions.

  6. Optoelectronic surface-related properties in boron-doped and irradiated diamond thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nemashkalo, A.; Chapagain, P. R.; Strzhemechny, Y. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas 76129 (United States); Peters, R. M. [Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Sciences, Paine College, Augusta, Georgia 30901 (United States); Farmer, J. [Department of Physics and Missouri University Research Reactor, University of Missouri-Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Gupta, S. [Department of Chemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Elucidation of microscopic properties of synthetic diamond films, such as formation and evolution of bulk and surface defects, chemistry of dopants, is necessary for a reliable quality control and reproducibility in applications. Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were employed to study diamond thin films grown on silicon by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition with different levels of boron doping in conjunction with gamma irradiation. SPV experiments showed that while the increase of boron concentration leads to a semiconductor-metal transition, subsequent gamma irradiation reverts quasi-metallic samples back to a semiconducting state by compensating electrical activity of boron possibly via hydrogen. One of the most pronounced common transitions observed at {approx}3.1-3.2 eV in the SPV spectra was also present in all of the PL spectra. It is likely that this is a signature of the sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon clusters in or in the vicinity of grain boundaries.

  7. Gel-hydrothermal synthesis of carbon and boron co-doped TiO 2 and evaluating its photocatalytic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongmei Wu; Mingyang Xing; Jinlong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Carbon and boron co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared firstly by the gel-hydrothermal method, that is, synthesized through sol–gel process followed by hydrothermal in the glucose solution. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, Raman spectra, TEM, N2 physical adsorption, XPS, and UV–vis absorption spectra. It was found that the co-doped TiO2 has a larger BET surface areas and a narrower

  8. Simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in highly boron-doped nanocrystalline Si.

    PubMed

    Neophytou, Neophytos; Zianni, Xanthippi; Kosina, Hans; Frabboni, Stefano; Lorenzi, Bruno; Narducci, Dario

    2013-05-24

    A large thermoelectric power factor in heavily boron-doped p-type nanograined Si with grain sizes ?30 nm and grain boundary regions of ?2 nm is reported. The reported power factor is ?5 times higher than in bulk Si. It originates from the surprising observation that for a specific range of carrier concentrations, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient increase simultaneously. The two essential ingredients for this observation are nanocrystallinity and extremely high boron doping levels. This experimental finding is interpreted within a theoretical model that considers both electron and phonon transport within the semiclassical Boltzmann approach. It is shown that transport takes place through two phases so that high conductivity is achieved in the grains, and high Seebeck coefficient by the grain boundaries. This together with the drastic reduction in the thermal conductivity due to boundary scattering could lead to a significant increase of the figure of merit ZT. This is one of the rare observations of a simultaneous increase in the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, resulting in enhanced thermoelectric power factor. PMID:23598565

  9. Electrochemical behavior of triflusal, aspirin and their metabolites at glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Enache, Teodor Adrian; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2010-08-01

    The electrochemical behavior of triflusal (TRF) and aspirin (ASA), before and after hydrolysis in water and in alkaline medium using two different electrode surfaces, glassy carbon and boron doped diamond, was study by differential pulse voltammetry over a wide pH range. The hydrolysis products are 2-(hydroxyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-benzoic acid (HTB) for triflusal and salicylic acid (SA) for aspirin, which in vivo represent their main metabolites. The hydrolysis processes were also followed by spectrophotometry. The UV results showed complete hydrolysis after one hour for TRF and after two hours for ASA in alkaline solution. The glassy carbon electrode enables only indirect determination of TRF and ASA through the electrochemical detection of their hydrolysis products HTB and SA, respectively. The oxidation processes of HTB and SA are pH dependent and involve different numbers of electrons and protons. Moreover, the difference between the oxidation peak potential of SA and HTB was equal to 100 mV in the studied pH range from 1 to 8 due to the CF3 of the aromatic ring of HTB molecule. Due to its wider oxidation potential range, the boron doped diamond electrode was used to study the direct oxidation of TRF and ASA, as well as of their respective metabolites HTB and SA. PMID:20402644

  10. Iron-boron pairing kinetics in illuminated p-type and in boron/phosphorus co-doped n-type silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Möller, Christian, E-mail: cmoeller@cismst.de [CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany); TU Ilmenau, Institut für Physik, Weimarer Str. 32, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Bartel, Til; Gibaja, Fabien [Calisolar GmbH, Magnusstraße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Lauer, Kevin [CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany)

    2014-07-14

    Iron-boron (FeB) pairing is observed in the n-type region of a boron and phosphorus co-doped silicon sample which is unexpected from the FeB pair model of Kimerling and Benton. To explain the experimental data, the existing FeB pair model is extended by taking into account the electronic capture and emission rates at the interstitial iron (Fe{sub i}) trap level as a function of the charge carrier densities. According to this model, the charge state of the Fe{sub i} may be charged in n-type making FeB association possible. Further, FeB pair formation during illumination in p-type silicon is investigated. This permits the determination of the charge carrier density dependent FeB dissociation rate and in consequence allows to determine the acceptor concentration in the co-doped n-type silicon by lifetime measurement.

  11. A practical guide to using boron doped diamond in electrochemical research.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-02-01

    Conducting, boron doped diamond (BDD), in addition to its superior material properties, offers several notable attributes to the electrochemist making it an intriguing material for electrochemical research. These include the widest solvent window of all electrode materials; low background and capacitive currents; reduced fouling compared to other electrodes and; the ability to withstand extreme potentials, corrosive and high temperature/pressure environments. However, BDD is not your typical electrode material, it is a semi-conductor doped degenerately with boron to present semi-metallic characteristics. Input from materials scientists, chemists and physicists has been required to aid understanding of how to work with this material from an electrochemical viewpoint and improve electrode quality. Importantly, depending on how the BDD has been grown and then subsequently treated, prior to electrochemical measurement, the resulting material properties can vary quite significantly from one electrode to the next. This likely explains the variability seen by different researchers working on the same experimental systems. The aim of this "protocols" article is not to provide a state-of-the-art review of diamond electrochemistry, suitable references are provided to the interested reader, but instead serves as a reference point for any researcher wishing to commence work with diamond electrodes and interpret electrochemical data. It provides information on how best to characterise the material properties of the electrode before use and outlines the interplay between boron dopant density, non-diamond-carbon content, grain morphology, surface chemistry and redox couple identity. All should ideally be considered when interpretating electrochemical data arising from the diamond electrode. This will aid the reader in making meaningful comparisons between data obtained by different researchers using different diamond electrodes. The guide also aims to help educate the researcher in choosing which form of BDD is best suited to their research application. PMID:25518988

  12. Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-H.; Lin, G.-R.

    2012-05-01

    The free-standing graphite nano-particle located between two FC/APC fiber connectors is employed as the saturable absorber to passively mode-lock the ring-type Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). The host-solvent-free graphite nano-particles with sizes of 300 – 500 nm induce a comparable modulation depth of 54%. The interlayer-spacing and lattice fluctuations of polished graphite nano-particles are observed from the weak 2D band of Raman spectrum and the azimuth angle shift of –0.32° of {002}-orientation dependent X-ray diffraction peak. The graphite nano-particles mode-locked EDFL generates a 1.67-ps pulsewidth at linearly dispersion-compensated regime with a repetition rate of 9.1 MHz. The time-bandwidth product of 0.325 obtained under a total intra-cavity group-delay-dispersion of –0.017 ps2 is nearly transform-limited. The extremely high stability of the nano-scale graphite saturable absorber during mode-locking is observed at an intra-cavity optical energy density of 7.54 mJ/cm2. This can be attributed to its relatively high damage threshold (one order of magnitude higher than the graphene) on handling the optical energy density inside the EDFL cavity. The graphite nano-particle with reduced size and sufficient coverage ratio can compete with other fast saturable absorbers such as carbon nanotube or graphene to passively mode-lock fiber lasers with decreased insertion loss and lasing threshold.

  13. Theoretical study of the adsorption of pentachlorophenol on the pristine and Fe-doped boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruo-xi; Zhang, Dong-ju; Zhu, Rong-xiu; Liu, Cheng-bu

    2014-02-01

    To explore the novel application of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), we investigated the interaction of pentachlorophenol (PCP) pollutant with the pristine and Fe doped (Fe-doped) (8, 0) single-walled BNNTs by performing density functional theory calculations. Compared with the weak physisorption on the pristine BNNT, PCP molecule presents strong chemisorption on the Fe-doped BNNT. The calculated data for the electronic properties indicate that doping Fe atom into the BNNT significantly improves the electronic transport property of BNNT, induces magnetism in the BNNT, and increases its adsorption sensitivity toward PCP molecule. It is suggested that doping BNNTs with Fe is an available strategy for improving the properties of BNNTs, and that Fe-doped BNNT would be a potential resource for adsorbing PCP pollutant in environments. PMID:24504454

  14. Can metal-free silicon-doped hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets and nanotubes exhibit activity toward CO oxidation?

    PubMed

    Lin, Sen; Ye, Xinxin; Huang, Jing

    2015-01-14

    Si-doped hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (Si-BNNS) and nanotubes (Si-BNNT) have been investigated by first-principle methods. The strong interaction between the silicon atom and the hexagonal boron nitride nanosheet or nanotube with a boron vacancy indicates that such nanocomposites should be very stable. The significant charge transfer from the Si-BNNS substrate to the O2 molecule, which could occupy the antibonding 2?* orbitals of O2, results in the activation of the adsorbed O2. The catalytic activity of the Si-BNNS for CO oxidation is explored and the calculated barrier (0.29 eV) of the reaction CO + O2? CO2 + O is much lower than those on the traditional noble metals. This opens a new avenue to fabricate low cost and high activity boron nitride-based metal-free catalysts. PMID:25407885

  15. Can trans-polyacetylene be formed on single-walled carbon-doped boron nitride nanotubes?

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Hong-xia; Zhao, Jing-xiang; Cai, Qing-hai; Wang, Xiao-guang; Wang, Xuan-zhang

    2012-07-01

    Recently, the grafting of polymer chains onto nanotubes has attracted increasing attention as it can potentially be used to enhance the solubility of nanotubes and in the development of novel nanotube-based devices. In this article, based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we report the formation of trans-polyacetylene on single-walled carbon-doped boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) through their adsorption of a series of C(2)H(2) molecules. The results show that, rather than through [2 + 2] cycloaddition, an individualmolecule would preferentially attach to a carbon-doped BNNT via "carbon attack" (i.e., a carbon in the C(2)H(2) attacks a site on the BNNT). The adsorption energy gradually decreases with increasing tube diameter. The free radical of the carbon-doped BNNT is almost completely transferred to the carbon atom at the end of the adsorbed C(2)H(2) molecule. When another C(2)H(2) molecule approaches the carbon-doped BNNT, it is most energetically favorable for this C(2)H(2) molecule to be adsorbed at the end of the previously adsorbed C(2)H(2) molecule, and so on with extra C(2)H(2) molecules, leading to the formation of polyacetylene on the nanotube. The spin of the whole system is always localized at the tip of the polyacetylene formed, which initiates the adsorption of the incoming species. The present results imply that carbon-doped BNNT is an effective "metal-free" initiator for the formation of polyacetylene. PMID:22271098

  16. Preparation of calcium-doped boron nitride by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anzai, Atsushi; Fuchigami, Masayo; Yamanaka, Shoji [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Inumaru, Kei, E-mail: inumaru@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ? Ca-doped boron nitride was prepared by pulsed laser deposition. ? The films do not have long range order structure in terms of XRD. ? But the films had short-range order structure of h-BN sheets. ? Ca-free films had the same optical band gap as crystalline bulk h-BN (5.8 eV.) ? Ca-doping brought about decreases of the optical band gap by ca. 0.4 eV. -- Abstract: Calcium-doped BN thin films Ca{sub x}BN{sub y} (x = 0.05–0.1, y = 0.7–0.9) were grown on ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using h-BN and Ca{sub 3}N{sub 2} disks as the targets under nitrogen radical irradiation. Infrared ATR spectra demonstrated the formation of short range ordered structure of BN hexagonal sheets, while X-ray diffraction gave no peak indicating the absence of long-range order structure in the films. It was notable that Ca-doped film had 5.45–5.55 eV of optical band gap, while the band gap of Ca-free films was 5.80–5.85 eV. This change in the band gap is ascribed to interaction of Ca with the BN sheets; first principle calculations on h-BN structure indicated that variation of inter-plane distance between the BN layers did not affect the band gap. This study highlights that PLD could prepare BN having short-range structure of h-BN sheets and being doped with electropositive cation which varies the optical band gap of the films.

  17. Electronic and physico-chemical properties of nanometric boron delta-doped diamond structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chicot, G., E-mail: gauthier.chicot@neel.cnrs.fr; Fiori, A.; Tran Thi, T. N.; Bousquet, J.; Delahaye, J.; Grenet, T.; Eon, D.; Omnès, F.; Bustarret, E. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 38042 Grenoble (France); Volpe, P. N.; Tranchant, N.; Mer-Calfati, C.; Arnault, J. C. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gerbedoen, J. C.; Soltani, A.; De Jaeger, J. C. [IEMN, UMR-CNRS 8520, Avenue Poincaré, Université de Lille 1, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Araújo, D. [Dpto Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain); Jomard, F. [Groupe d'Étude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), UMR 8635 du CNRS, UVSQ, 45 Avenue des États-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); and others

    2014-08-28

    Heavily boron doped diamond epilayers with thicknesses ranging from 40 to less than 2?nm and buried between nominally undoped thicker layers have been grown in two different reactors. Two types of [100]-oriented single crystal diamond substrates were used after being characterized by X-ray white beam topography. The chemical composition and thickness of these so-called delta-doped structures have been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Temperature-dependent Hall effect and four probe resistivity measurements have been performed on mesa-patterned Hall bars. The temperature dependence of the hole sheet carrier density and mobility has been investigated over a broad temperature range (6?K?doped layers exhibited the same mobility value, around 3.6?±?0.8?cm{sup 2}/Vs, independently of the layer thickness and the substrate type. Comparison with previously published data and theoretical calculations showed that scattering by ionized impurities explained only partially this low common value. None of the delta-layers showed any sign of confinement-induced mobility enhancement, even for thicknesses lower than 2?nm.

  18. Boron-Doped, Carbon-Coated SnO2 /Graphene Nanosheets for Enhanced Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Ping; Wu, Dongqing; Huang, Yanshan; Tang, Yanping; Su, Yuezeng; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2015-03-27

    Heteroatom doping is an effective method to adjust the electrochemical behavior of carbonaceous materials. In this work, boron-doped, carbon-coated SnO2 /graphene hybrids (BCTGs) were fabricated by hydrothermal carbonization of sucrose in the presence of SnO2 /graphene nanosheets and phenylboronic acid or boric acid as dopant source and subsequent thermal treatment. Owing to their unique 2D core-shell architecture and B-doped carbon shells, BCTGs have enhanced conductivity and extra active sites for lithium storage. With phenylboronic acid as B source, the resulting hybrid shows outstanding electrochemical performance as the anode in lithium-ion batteries with a highly stable capacity of 1165?mA?h?g(-1) at 0.1?A?g(-1) after 360 cycles and an excellent rate capability of 600?mA?h?g(-1) at 3.2?A?g(-1) , and thus outperforms most of the previously reported SnO2 -based anode materials. PMID:25694249

  19. Can CO2 molecule adsorb effectively on Al-doped boron nitride single walled nanotube?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Peng; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Ding, Li-Ping; Yang, Jing; Zhong, Ming-Min

    2013-11-01

    The adsorption of carbon dioxides (CO2) is very important in environmental and industrial applications. The boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) with large surface and polarity may be a good candidate as CO2 capture. Unfortunately, the pristine BNNT is almost inert to the highly stable CO2. To renew technical applications of BNNT for CO2 adsorption, we explore the possibility of CO2 adsorption on various (n, 0) (n = 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14) Al-doped BNNT by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that the Al-doped BNNT could be a potential CO2 adsorption material, and the CO2 adsorption energies are independent of BNNT diameters. Furthermore, the interactions between CO2 and exemplified (6, 0) Al-doped BNNT are investigated by density of states (DOS) and electron density. We found the interaction between CO2 and AlB-BNNT is stronger than that of CO2 and AlN-BNNT. The adsorption of CO2 can induce new density of state, as well as a local charge fluctuation due to more electron density redistribution on the atoms near CO2 molecule.

  20. Scanning tunneling microscopy simulations of nitrogen- and boron-doped graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing; Hermet, Patrick; Henrard, Luc

    2010-07-27

    We report on studies of electronic properties and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of the most common configurations of nitrogen- or boron-doped graphene and carbon nanotubes using density functional theory. Charge transfer, shift of the Fermi level, and localized electronic states are analyzed as a function of the doping configurations and concentrations. The theoretical STM images show common fingerprints for the same doping type for graphene, and metallic or semiconducting nanotubes. In particular, nitrogen is not imaged in contrast to boron. STM patterns are mainly shaped by local density of states of the carbon atoms close to the defect. STM images are not strongly dependent on the bias voltage when scanning the defect directly. However, the scanning of the defect-free side of the tube displays a perturbation compared to the pristine tube depending on the applied bias. PMID:20552993

  1. Nitrogen-doped Fe/Fe3C@graphitic layer/carbon nanotube hybrids derived from MOFs: efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for ORR and OER.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Sen; Li, Shun-Li; Tang, Yu-Jia; Han, Min; Dai, Zhi-Hui; Bao, Jian-Chun; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2015-02-14

    A novel nitrogen-doped Fe/Fe3C@graphitic layer/carbon nanotube hybrid derived from MOFs has been first fabricated by a facile approach. The hybrid exhibited outstanding bifunctional electrocatalytic activity for ORR and OER, due to the merits of graphitic layer/carbon nanotube structures with highly active N and Fe/Fe3C sites. PMID:25575029

  2. Evaluation of freestanding boron-doped diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition as substrates for vertical power electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Issaoui, R.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.; Silva, F.; Gicquel, A. [LSPM-CNRS (formerly LIMHP), Universite Paris 13, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bisaro, R.; Servet, B.; Garry, G. [Thales Research and Technology France, Campus de Polytechnique, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Barjon, J. [GEMaC-CNRS, Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin Batiment Fermat, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2012-03-19

    In this study, 4 x 4 mm{sup 2} freestanding boron-doped diamond single crystals with thickness up to 260 {mu}m have been fabricated by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition. The boron concentrations measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy were 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} which is in a good agreement with the values calculated from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, thus indicating that almost all incorporated boron is electrically active. The dependence of lattice parameters and crystal mosaicity on boron concentrations have also been extracted from high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments on (004) planes. The widths of x-ray rocking curves have globally shown the high quality of the material despite a substantial broadening of the peak, indicating a decrease of structural quality with increasing boron doping levels. Finally, the suitability of these crystals for the development of vertical power electronic devices has been confirmed by four-point probe measurements from which electrical resistivities as low as 0.26 {Omega} cm have been obtained.

  3. Optically detected cyclotron resonance in heavily boron-doped silicon nanostructures on n-Si (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Bagraev, N. T., E-mail: Bagraev@mail.ioffe.ru; Kuzmin, R. V.; Gurin, A. S.; Klyachkin, L. E.; Malyarenko, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Mashkov, V. A. [Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Electron and hole cyclotron resonance at a frequency of 94 GHz is detected by a change in the intensity of photoluminescence lines whose positions are identical to those of dislocation luminescence lines D1 and D2 in single-crystal silicon and in heavily boron-doped silicon nanostructures on the Si (100) surface. The angular dependence of the spectrum of the optically detected cyclotron resonance corresponds to the tensor of the electron and hole effective mass in single-crystal silicon, and the resonance-line width indicates long carrier free-path times close to 100 ps. The results obtained are discussed within the framework of the interrelation of the electron-vibration coupling to charge and spin correlations in quasi-one-dimensional chains of dangling bonds in silicon.

  4. Observation of conduction electron spin resonance in boron-doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szirmai, Péter; Fábián, Gábor; Koltai, János; Náfrádi, Bálint; Forró, László; Pichler, Thomas; Williams, Oliver A.; Mandal, Soumen; Bäuerle, Christopher; Simon, Ferenc

    2013-05-01

    We observe the electron spin resonance of conduction electrons in boron-doped (6400 ppm) superconducting diamond (Tc=3.8K). We clearly identify the benchmarks of conduction electron spin resonance (CESR): the nearly temperature independent electron spin resonance signal intensity and its magnitude, which is in good agreement with that expected from the density of states through the Pauli spin susceptibility. The temperature dependent CESR linewidth weakly increases with increasing temperature, which can be understood in the framework of the Elliott-Yafet theory of spin relaxation. An anomalous and yet unexplained relation is observed between the g-factor, CESR linewidth, and the resistivity using the empirical Elliott-Yafet relation.

  5. Neutral and charged boron-doped fullerenes for CO2 adsorption

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Suchitra W; Du, Aijun; Senadeera, Wijitha

    2014-01-01

    Summary Recently, the capture and storage of CO2 have attracted research interest as a strategy to reduce the global emissions of greenhouse gases. It is crucial to find suitable materials to achieve an efficient CO2 capture. Here we report our study of CO2 adsorption on boron-doped C60 fullerene in the neutral state and in the 1e ?-charged state. We use first principle density functional calculations to simulate the CO2 adsorption. The results show that CO2 can form weak interactions with the BC59 cage in its neutral state and the interactions can be enhanced significantly by introducing an extra electron to the system. PMID:24778968

  6. Boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon germanium thin films for uncooled infrared bolometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Li, Wei; He, Jian; Sun, Yan; Jiang, Ya-Dong

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, boron-doped nanocrystalline Si0.78Ge0.22:H thin film is assessed for use as resistive sensing layer in uncooled infrared bolometer applications. The silicon germanium thin films were deposited by PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) through decomposition of silane, germane and diborane diluted with argon at substrate temperature of 230 °C. Under optimum deposition parameters, the sensing films with modulate electrical resistivity (<104 ? cm) and high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) (>-3%/K) were obtained at room temperature. 1/f noise character in the form of the normalized Hooge parameter was measured in the frequency range of 1-64 Hz, resulting in a lower 1/f noise compared to other materials currently used for device application.

  7. Pulsed-laser crystallized highly conductive boron-doped microcrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nebel, C.E.; Dahlheimer, B.; Karrer, U.; Stutzmann, M.

    1997-07-01

    The preparation of seed lattices, using three interfering beams (TIB) from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser in a-Si layers of 100 to 400 nm thickness is introduced and applied for seeded laser or thermally induced crystallization of a-Si on Corning 7059 glass. The structural and electronic properties of the {micro}c-Si layers are investigated by X-ray, electron- and atomic force microscopy, Hall and conductivity measurements. In highly boron-doped {micro}c-Si, grains up to 1.3 {micro}m in diameter are detected, giving rise to conductivities of {approx}2,000 S/cm and hole mobilities of {approx}10 cm{sup 2}/Vs.

  8. Domestic and Industrial Water Disinfection Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychen, Philippe; Provent, Christophe; Pupunat, Laurent; Hermant, Nicolas

    This chapter first describes main properties and manufacturing process (production using HF-CVD, quality-control measurements, etc.) of diamond electrodes and more specifically boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Their exceptional properties make such electrodes particularly suited for many disinfection applications as thanks to their wide working potential window and their high anodic potential, they allow generating a mixture of powerful oxidizing species mainly based on active oxygen and peroxides. Such mixture of disinfecting agents is far more efficient than conventional chemical or physical known techniques. Their efficiency was tested against numerous microorganisms and then proved to be greater than conventional methods. All bacteria and viruses tested up to date were inactivated 3-5 times faster with a treatment based on with BDD electrodes and the DiaCell? technology than with other techniques. Several applications, either industrial or private (wellness and home use), are discussed with a focus on the dedicated products and the main technology advantages.

  9. Decomposition of nitrous oxide on Fe-doped boron nitride nanotubes: the ligand effect.

    PubMed

    Injan, Natcha; Sirijaraensre, Jakkapan; Limtrakul, Jumras

    2014-11-14

    N2O decomposition on iron-doped boron nitride nanotubes (Fe-BNNTs) was investigated by means of the density functional theory (M06-L). Two different forms of Fe-BNNTs, which are substitutions of the Fe atom into the boron-vacancy and nitrogen-vacancy sites of BNNTs, were used as the catalyst. Influence of the support plays a crucial role in the electronic configuration and catalytic reactivity of the iron atom. With the nitrogen surrounding (Fe(B)-BNNT), the iron behaves as a Lewis acid for accepting an electron from the lone-pair orbital of the N2O oxygen atom (?(1)-O complex). The catalytic process over this one at the transition state involves a synergistic ?-donation from the HOMO of N2O into a LUMO of the catalyst and the ?-back-bonding from the metal d orbital into the ?* orbital of N2O, leading to the cleavage of the N-O bond. The activation for this step is 22.5 kcal mol(-1). With the boron surrounding (Fe(N)-BNNT), the iron acting as a Lewis base plays a different role as compared with the iron in the case of Fe(B)-BNNTs. The HOMO of Fe(N)-BNNTs promotes the side-on binding mode of N2O on the iron center (?(2)-O,N complex), leading to the weakening of the N-O bond at the adsorption state. As a result, the decomposition over the Fe(N)-BNNTs takes place easily without an energy barrier. PMID:25254314

  10. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-06-01

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200 nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti3+ self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene.

  11. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti(3+) self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200 nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti(3+) self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene. PMID:24974890

  12. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200?nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti3+ self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene. PMID:24974890

  13. Surface chemistry of boron-doped SiO{sub 2} CVD: Enhanced uptake of tetraethyl orthosilicate by hydroxyl groups bonded to boron

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, M.E.; Moffat, H.K.

    1993-12-31

    Insight into how dopants can enhance deposition rates has been obtained by comparing reactivities of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 4}) with silanol and boranol groups on SiO{sub 2}. This comparison is relevant for boron-doped SiO{sub 2} film growth from TEOS and trimethyl borate (TMB, B(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}) sources since boranols and silanols are expected to be present on surface during the (CVD). A silica substrate having coadsorbed deuterated silanols (SIOD) and boranols (BOD) was reacted with TEOS in a cold-wall reactor in the mTorr pressure regime at 1000K. Reactions were followed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Use of deuterated hydroxyls allowed consumption of hydroxyls by TEOS chemisorption to be distinguished from concurrent formation of SIOH and BOH that results from TEOS decomposition. It was found that TEOS reacts with BOD at twice the rate observed for SIOD demonstrating that hydroxyl groups bonded to boron increase the rate of TEOS chemisorption. Surface ethoxy groups produced by chemisorption of TEOS decompose at a slower rate in the presence of TMB decomposition products. Possible dependencies on reactor geometries and other deposition conditions may determine which of these two competing effects will control deposition rates. This may explain (in part) why the rate enhancement effect is not always observed in boron-doped SiO{sub 2} CVD processes.

  14. Enhanced electrical conductivity in a substitutionally doped spiro-bis(phenalenyl)boron radical molecular solid.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sushanta K; Bag, Pradip; Itkis, Mikhail E; Tham, Fook S; Haddon, Robert C

    2014-10-22

    We report the crystallization of a subsitutionally doped organic conductor based on a host lattice composed of spiro-bis(phenalenyl)boron radicals. Co-crystallization of solutions of spiro-bis(9-oxidophenalenone)boron radical [PLY(O,O)]2B mixed with selected amounts of spiro-bis(9-oxidophenalenone)beryllium [PLY(O,O)]2Be leads to the formation of a series of solid-state solutions of composition [PLY(O,O)]2B(1-x)Be(x). The dopant molecules [PLY(O,O)]2Be serve to introduce holes into the lattice of spins provided by the [PLY(O,O)]2B radicals and lead to a systematic increase in the conductivity while decreasing the activation energy of the conduction process and leaving the solid-state structure relatively unperturbed. While the energies of the hole sites are expected to be high, the results are consistent with the interpretation of the electronic structure of [PLY(O,O)]2B in terms of the resonating valence bond model. PMID:25271884

  15. Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor

    E-print Network

    Nominanda, Helinda

    2004-01-01

    The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films...

  16. Microwave-enhanced electro-deposition and stripping of palladium at boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed A; Hanson, Harriet; Compton, Richard G; Coles, Barry A; Marken, Frank

    2007-04-15

    In situ microwave activation has been applied to the electro-deposition and stripping of palladium metal (which is widely used as a catalyst) at cavitation resistant boron-doped diamond electrodes. Focused microwave radiation leading to heating, boiling, and cavitation is explored as an option to improve the speed and sensitivity of the analytical detection procedure. The deposition and anodic stripping of palladium by linear sweep voltammetry in 0.1M KCl (pH 2) solution and at boron-doped diamond electrodes is shown to be strongly enhanced by microwave activation due to both (i) the increase in mass transport and (ii) the increase in the kinetic rate of deposition and stripping. The temperature at the electrode surface is calibrated with the reversible redox couple Fe(CN)(6)(4-)/Fe(CN)(6)(3-) and found to be reach 380K. In the presence of microwave radiation, the potential of onset of the deposition of palladium is strongly shifted positive from -0.4 to +0.1V versus SCE. The optimum potential for deposition in the presence of microwaves is -0.4V versus SCE and the anodic stripping peak current is shown to increase linearly with deposition time. Under these conditions, the stripping peak current varies linearly with the palladium concentration down to ca. 2muM. At concentration lower than this a logarithmic variation of the stripping peak current with concentration is observed down to ca. 0.1muM (for 5min pre-concentration in presence of microwave radiation). PMID:19071583

  17. Friction and wear performance of boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinchang; Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong

    2015-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have attracted more attentions due to their excellent mechanical properties. Whereas as-fabricated traditional diamond films in the previous studies don't have enough adhesion or surface smoothness, which seriously impact their friction and wear performance, and thus limit their applications under extremely harsh conditions. A boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond (BD-UM-FGCD) film is fabricated by a three-step method adopting hot filament CVD (HFCVD) method in the present study, presenting outstanding comprehensive performance, including the good adhesion between the substrate and the underlying boron doped diamond (BDD) layer, the extremely high hardness of the middle undoped microcrystalline diamond (UMCD) layer, as well as the low surface roughness and favorable polished convenience of the surface fine grained diamond (FGD) layer. The friction and wear behavior of this composite film sliding against low-carbon steel and silicon nitride balls are studied on a ball-on-plate rotational friction tester. Besides, its wear rate is further evaluated under a severer condition using an inner-hole polishing apparatus, with low-carbon steel wire as the counterpart. The test results show that the BD-UM-FGCD film performs very small friction coefficient and great friction behavior owing to its high surface smoothness, and meanwhile it also has excellent wear resistance because of the relatively high hardness of the surface FGD film and the extremely high hardness of the middle UMCD film. Moreover, under the industrial conditions for producing low-carbon steel wires, this composite film can sufficiently prolong the working lifetime of the drawing dies and improve their application effects. This research develops a novel composite diamond films owning great comprehensive properties, which have great potentials as protecting coatings on working surfaces of the wear-resistant and anti-frictional components.

  18. Density functional calculations on 11B and 15N chemical shielding tensors of small boron nitride nanotubes and graphitic sheet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zargham Bagheri; Mohammad Reza Abolhassani; Nasser L. Hadipour

    2008-01-01

    Geometrical structure, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shielding tensors, and chemical shifts of boron and nitrogen nuclei are investigated for five small boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs, three zigzag and two armchair types) and boron nitride (BN) sheet using density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. Geometrical structures of BNNTs are studied regarding B–N bonds and dihedral angles of B and

  19. Density functional calculations on 11B and 15N chemical shielding tensors of small boron nitride nanotubes and graphitic sheet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zargham Bagheri; Mohammad Reza Abolhassani; Nasser L. Hadipour

    2008-01-01

    Geometrical structure, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shielding tensors, and chemical shifts of boron and nitrogen nuclei are investigated for five small boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs, three zigzag and two armchair types) and boron nitride (BN) sheet using density functional theory (DFT) level of theory. Geometrical structures of BNNTs are studied regarding B N bonds and dihedral angles of B

  20. Effect of rf power on the photovoltaic properties of boron-doped amorphous carbon\\/n-type silicon junction fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Soga; Toshihide Kokubu; Yasuhiko Hayashi; Takashi Jimbo

    2005-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of boron doped amorphous carbon thin films using methane and trimethylboron by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are studied with varying the rf power. The optical bandgap is decreased from 2.4 to 1.4 eV with increasing the rf power due to the increase of sp2 carbon. The boron doped amorphous carbon deposited at 300 W

  1. Formation and Transport Properties of Defects in Boron-Doped Silicon Studied Through Tight Binding Bond Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasband, Paul Brent

    The formation and transport properties of point defects in boron-doped silicon have been studied at the atomic level. Robust continuum models of boron diffusion require a knowledge of equilibrium concentrations and diffusivities of self-interstitials, vacancies, boron-defect pairs, and small boron clusters that cannot easily be obtained experimentally. Such thermodynamic and transport properties can, however, be estimated through statistical mechanical and Transition State theories, provided energies and vibrational entropies of point defect formation and migration are known. These energies and entropies have been determined in this work using an empirical quantum mechanical model called Tight Binding (ETB) to describe Si-Si, Si-B, and B-B bonding. Classical models (via the Stillinger-Weber potential) are used to estimate entropies. Defects were identified using "scramble -relaxation" computer runs in which starting positions of atoms were randomly varied and then relaxed to yield stable defect structures. The ETB results for formation energies are generally consistent with LDA ab initio results, to within approximately 0.3eV. C_ {EQ}(I) values determined via the ETB model agree with Au, Pt, and Zn in-diffusion-derived estimates, and contrast with those obtained through modeling of OED and stacking-fault experiments. The negative-U behavior of vacancies and boron interstitials is reproduced by the ETB model, and the correct charge states (0 and -1 for V, and +1 for B_{S }I and B_{i} ) are obtained. Several new di-interstitial clusters, with and without boron, have been obtained which have formation energies 1-2eV/atom lower than isolated interstitials. Although the accuracy limits of the ETB and Stillinger-Weber models make it impossible to determine whether interstitials or vacancies dominate in the mediation of boron transport at equilibrium, it is concluded that, because the migration energy of B_{i} in a direct-interstitial mechanism is very low (0.15eV), boron should have a high effective diffusion coefficient in cases where boron interstitials are super-saturated (e.g., for OED and TED). The ETB model predicts that B _{n} (n from 1 to 4) substitutional clusters decrease in stability with increasing n, but that the inclusion of an interstitial (B_{n}I) makes larger clusters increasingly more stable. This may help explain how boron precipitates nucleate in highly-doped silicon.

  2. Sulfur doping effects on the electronic and geometric structures of graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst: insights from first principles.

    PubMed

    Stolbov, Sergey; Zuluaga, Sebastian

    2013-02-27

    We present here results of our first-principles studies of the sulfur doping effects on the electronic and geometric structures of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C(3)N(4)). Using the ab initio thermodynamics approach combined with some kinetic analysis, we reveal the favorable S-doping configurations. By analyzing the valence charge densities of the doped and undoped systems, we find that sulfur partially donates its p(x)- and p(y)- electrons to the system with some back donation to the S p(z)-states. To obtain an accurate description of the excited electronic states, we calculate the electronic structure of the systems using the GW method. The band gap width calculated for g-C(3)N(4) is found to be equal to 2.7 eV, which is in agreement with experiment. We find the S doping causes a significant narrowing of the gap. Furthermore, the electronic states just above the gap become occupied upon doping, making the material a conductor. Analysis of the projected local density of states provides an insight into the mechanism underlying such changes in the electronic structure of g-C(3)N(4) upon S doping. Based on our results, we propose a possible explanation for the S-doping effect on the photocatalytic properties of g-C(3)N(4) observed in experiments. PMID:23363533

  3. Highly graphitized nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanopolyhedra derived from ZIF-8 nanocrystals as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linjie; Su, Zixue; Jiang, Feilong; Yang, Lingling; Qian, Jinjie; Zhou, Youfu; Li, Wenmu; Hong, Maochun

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic porous carbons (NGPCs) have been synthesized by using a zeolite-type nanoscale metal-organic framework (NMOF) as a self-sacrificing template, which simultaneously acts as both the carbon and nitrogen sources in a facile carbonization process. The NGPCs not only retain the nanopolyhedral morphology of the parent NMOF, but also possess rich nitrogen, high surface area and hierarchical porosity with well-conducting networks. The promising potential of NGPCs as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in fuel cells is demonstrated. Compared with commercial Pt/C, the optimized NGPC-1000-10 (carbonized at 1000 °C for 10 h) catalyst exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity via an efficient four-electron-dominant ORR process coupled with superior methanol tolerance as well as cycling stability in alkaline media. Furthermore, the controlled experiments reveal that the optimum activity of NGPC-1000-10 can be attributed to the synergetic contributions of the abundant active sites with high graphitic-N portion, high surface area and porosity, and the high degree of graphitization. Our findings suggest that solely MOF-derived heteroatom-doped carbon materials can be a promising alternative for Pt-based catalysts in fuel cells.Nitrogen-doped graphitic porous carbons (NGPCs) have been synthesized by using a zeolite-type nanoscale metal-organic framework (NMOF) as a self-sacrificing template, which simultaneously acts as both the carbon and nitrogen sources in a facile carbonization process. The NGPCs not only retain the nanopolyhedral morphology of the parent NMOF, but also possess rich nitrogen, high surface area and hierarchical porosity with well-conducting networks. The promising potential of NGPCs as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in fuel cells is demonstrated. Compared with commercial Pt/C, the optimized NGPC-1000-10 (carbonized at 1000 °C for 10 h) catalyst exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity via an efficient four-electron-dominant ORR process coupled with superior methanol tolerance as well as cycling stability in alkaline media. Furthermore, the controlled experiments reveal that the optimum activity of NGPC-1000-10 can be attributed to the synergetic contributions of the abundant active sites with high graphitic-N portion, high surface area and porosity, and the high degree of graphitization. Our findings suggest that solely MOF-derived heteroatom-doped carbon materials can be a promising alternative for Pt-based catalysts in fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM and TEM images, EDS, crystal structures illustration, XRD, Raman, N2 sorption, XPS, FTIR, TGA and supplementary reaction tests. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00348a

  4. Self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Ian D.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Nicols, Samuel P.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, John L.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Haller, Eugene E.

    2002-04-01

    Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. {sup 30}Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched {sup 28}Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850 C and 1100 C. A specially designed ion- implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of boron doped Bi?WO? nanosheets under simulated solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu; Chang, Chun; Chen, Peng; Chu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Lingyan

    2013-06-15

    Bi?WO6 doped with different amounts of boron atoms (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10% B) were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their photocatalytic activities to degrade rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated solar light was investigated. The successful incorporation of B atoms in Bi?WO? was proved by FT-IR, Raman spectra and XPS. Doping with B could affect the pore structure and volume. 0.5% B/Bi?WO? displayed more mesopores with higher total pore volume than pure Bi?W?; while the pores of 10% B/Bi?WO? mainly distributed in microporous range with much less total pore volume. As a result, 0.5% B/Bi?WO? displayed stronger adsorption capacity to RhB, favoring the photodegradation. In addition, the doped B atoms could act as electron traps and facilitate the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs due to its electron deficient and oxytropic characteristics. 0.5% B/Bi?WO? displayed the highest photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light with rate constant (kobs) 8.8 times of that using pure Bi?WO?. Its photoactivity was affected by solution pH and the optimum was achieved at pH 7. At this condition, around 100% of RhB (10(-5)mol/L) was degraded in 180 min. The photogenerated holes were the main active species responsible for the photodegradation of RhB by B/Bi?WO?. PMID:23618657

  6. Hard magnetic property enhancement of Co7Hf-based ribbons by boron doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. W.; Liao, M. C.; Shih, C. W.; Chang, W. C.; Yang, C. C.; Hsiao, C. H.; Ouyang, H.

    2014-11-01

    Hard magnetic property enhancement of melt spun Co88Hf12 ribbons by boron doping is demonstrated. B-doping could not only remarkably enhance the magnetic properties from energy product ((BH)max) of 2.6 MGOe and intrinsic coercivity (iHc) of 1.5 kOe for B-free Co88Hf12 ribbons to (BH)max = 7.7 MGOe and iHc = 3.1 kOe for Co85Hf12B3 ribbons but also improve the Curie temperature (TC) of 7:1 phase. The (BH)max value achieved in Co85Hf12B3 ribbons is the highest in Co-Hf alloy ribbons ever reported, which is about 15% higher than that of Co11Hf2B ribbons spun at 16 m/s [M. A. McGuire, O. Rios, N. J. Ghimire, and M. Koehler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 202401 (2012)]. The structural analysis confirms that B enters the orthorhombic Co7Hf (7:1) crystal structure as interstitial atoms, forming Co7HfBx, in the as-spun state. Yet B may diffuse out from the 7:1 phase after post-annealing, leading to the reduction of Curie temperature and the magnetic properties. The uniformly refined microstructure with B-doping results in high remanence (Br) and improves the squareness of demagnetization curve. The formation of interstitial-atom-modified Co7HfBx phase and the microstructure refinement are the main reasons to give rise to the enhancement of hard magnetic properties in the B-containing Co7Hf-based ribbons.

  7. A first principles study of pristine and Al-doped boron nitride nanotubes interacting with platinum-based anticancer drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerzadeh, Ehsan; Noorizadeh, Siamak

    2014-03-01

    Interaction of cis-platin and neda-platin, two conventional platinum-based anticancer drugs, with pristine [8,8] and Al-doped [8,0] boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The obtained results indicate that cis-platin and neda-platin weakly interact with pristine zig zag or armchair BNNTs with a little dependency on the adsorbing positions; while both cis-platin and neda-platin are preferentially adsorbed onto the Al atom of the Al-doped BNNT with considerable adsorption energies. Therefore the Al-doped-BNNT might be an efficient carrier for delivery of these drugs in nanomedicine domain. The electronic structures of the stable configurations are also investigated through both DOS and PDOS spectra. The obtained results introduce the Al-doped-BNNT as an efficient carrier for delivery of cis-platin and neda-platin in nanomedicine domain.

  8. Elemental boron-doped p(+)-SiGe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy for infrared detector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.

  9. A theoretical study of silicon-doped boron nitride nanotubes serving as a potential chemical sensor for hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruoxi; Zhang, Dongju; Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Chengbu

    2009-12-16

    In order to search for a novel sensor to detect and control exposure to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) pollutant molecule in environments, the reactivities of pristine and silicon-doped (Si-doped) (8, 0) single-walled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) towards the HCN molecule are investigated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The HCN molecule presents strong chemisorption on both the silicon-substituted boron defect site and the silicon-substituted nitrogen defect site of the BNNT, which is in sharp contrast to its weak physisorption on pristine BNNT. A remarkable charge transfer occurs between the HCN molecule and the Si-doped BNNT as proved by the electronic charge densities. The calculated data for the electronic density of states (DOSs) further indicate that the doping of the Si atom improves the electronic transport property of the BNNT, and increases its adsorption sensitivity towards the HCN molecule. Based on calculated results, the Si-doped BNNT is expected to be a potential resource for detecting the presence of toxic HCN. PMID:19923655

  10. A theoretical study of silicon-doped boron nitride nanotubes serving as a potential chemical sensor for hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruoxi; Zhang, Dongju; Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Chengbu

    2009-12-01

    In order to search for a novel sensor to detect and control exposure to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) pollutant molecule in environments, the reactivities of pristine and silicon-doped (Si-doped) (8, 0) single-walled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) towards the HCN molecule are investigated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The HCN molecule presents strong chemisorption on both the silicon-substituted boron defect site and the silicon-substituted nitrogen defect site of the BNNT, which is in sharp contrast to its weak physisorption on pristine BNNT. A remarkable charge transfer occurs between the HCN molecule and the Si-doped BNNT as proved by the electronic charge densities. The calculated data for the electronic density of states (DOSs) further indicate that the doping of the Si atom improves the electronic transport property of the BNNT, and increases its adsorption sensitivity towards the HCN molecule. Based on calculated results, the Si-doped BNNT is expected to be a potential resource for detecting the presence of toxic HCN.

  11. Boron/Nitrogen co-doped helically unzipped multiwalled carbon nanotubes as efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Zehtab Yazdi, Alireza; Fei, Huilong; Ye, Ruquan; Wang, Gunuk; Tour, James; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-04-15

    Bamboo structured nitrogen doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been helically unzipped, and nitrogen doped graphene oxide nanoribbons (CNx-GONRs) with a multifaceted microstructure have been obtained. CNx-GONRs have then been codoped with nitrogen and boron by simultaneous thermal annealing in ammonia and boron oxide atmospheres, respectively. The effects of the codoping time and temperature on the concentration of the dopants and their functional groups have been extensively investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that pyridinic and BC3 are the main nitrogen and boron functional groups, respectively, in the codoped samples. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) properties of the samples have been measured in an alkaline electrolyte and compared with the state-of-the-art Pt/C (20%) electrocatalyst. The results show that the nitrogen/boron codoped graphene nanoribbons with helically unzipped structures (CNx/CBx-GNRs) can compete with the Pt/C (20%) electrocatalyst in all of the key ORR properties: onset potential, exchange current density, four electron pathway selectivity, kinetic current density, and stability. The development of such graphene nanoribbon-based electrocatalyst could be a harbinger of precious metal-free carbon-based nanomaterials for ORR applications. PMID:25793636

  12. The nature of grain-boundary dislocations and local order in boron-doped Ni3AI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Forwood; M. A. Gibson

    1992-01-01

    The question of whether a disordered f.c.c. phase exists and whether it has a significant effect on the plastic response at grain boundaries in boron-doped nickelrich Ni3Al alloys is addressed. Image matching of simultaneous two-beam electron micrographs is used to identify the nature of the Burgers vectors of both intrinsic and extrinsic grain-boundary dislocations in general large-angle boundaries and ?

  13. Cathodic reductive coupling of methyl cinnamate on boron-doped diamond electrodes and synthesis of new neolignan-type products

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Taiki; Obata, Rika; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The electroreduction reaction of methyl cinnamate on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was investigated. The hydrodimer, dimethyl 3,4-diphenylhexanedioate (racemate/meso = 74:26), was obtained in 85% yield as the major product, along with small amounts of cyclic methyl 5-oxo-2,3-diphenylcyclopentane-1-carboxylate. Two new neolignan-type products were synthesized from the hydrodimer.

  14. Heat Treatment of Boron-Doped CdS Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition for Solar Cell Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Hyung Lee; Ho-Yeol Lee; Jeong-Ho Kim; Yong-Kwan Park

    2000-01-01

    Effects of annealing on the properties of boron-doped CdS films prepared by chemical bath deposition using boric acid as a dopant source were investigated. The crystalline orientation and the grain size of CdS films appeared to be seriously affected by the annealing ambient. The crystal structures of H2-annealed films were wurtzite type with a preferential orientation of the (002) plane

  15. Preparation of boron-doped porous titania networks containing gold nanoparticles with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingdong; Blackford, Mark; Prince, Kathryn; Caruso, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    The ability to decrease the electron/hole recombination rate, and decrease the band gap of titania to allow photoactivity on irradiation with visible light is attracting more and more attention. Here, boron doping of the titania, the deposition of gold nanoparticles, along with a meso-macroporous structure were obtained using a facile agarose gel templating process combined with sol-gel chemistry. The Au/B/TiO(2) nanocomposites were characterized using SEM, TEM, XRD, N(2) gas sorption, diffuse UV-vis, photoluminescence, and SIMS. The photocatalytic activity was assessed by degradation of an organic probe molecule (methylene blue) under visible light (? > 420 nm). The resulting materials achieved photocatalytic activities up to 50% greater than the commercial Degussa P25 under visible light. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity was primarily attributed to the decrease in band gap as a result of the boron doping and its influence on the anatase to rutile phase formation: The doped materials were highly crystalline and an optimum anatase to rutile ratio (3:1) was obtained with 0.25 wt % boron in the sample calcined at 650 °C. In addition, the presence of the gold nanoparticles decreased recombination between the photoexcited electrons and holes, which further improved the photocatalytic activity. PMID:22242543

  16. Highly graphitized nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanopolyhedra derived from ZIF-8 nanocrystals as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linjie; Su, Zixue; Jiang, Feilong; Yang, Lingling; Qian, Jinjie; Zhou, Youfu; Li, Wenmu; Hong, Maochun

    2014-06-21

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic porous carbons (NGPCs) have been synthesized by using a zeolite-type nanoscale metal-organic framework (NMOF) as a self-sacrificing template, which simultaneously acts as both the carbon and nitrogen sources in a facile carbonization process. The NGPCs not only retain the nanopolyhedral morphology of the parent NMOF, but also possess rich nitrogen, high surface area and hierarchical porosity with well-conducting networks. The promising potential of NGPCs as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in fuel cells is demonstrated. Compared with commercial Pt/C, the optimized NGPC-1000-10 (carbonized at 1000 °C for 10 h) catalyst exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity via an efficient four-electron-dominant ORR process coupled with superior methanol tolerance as well as cycling stability in alkaline media. Furthermore, the controlled experiments reveal that the optimum activity of NGPC-1000-10 can be attributed to the synergetic contributions of the abundant active sites with high graphitic-N portion, high surface area and porosity, and the high degree of graphitization. Our findings suggest that solely MOF-derived heteroatom-doped carbon materials can be a promising alternative for Pt-based catalysts in fuel cells. PMID:24806824

  17. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li+Cl–), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li+Cl– catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  18. Determination of trace impurities in boron nitride by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using solid sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, P.; Hassler, J.; Kudrik, I.; Krivan, V.

    2007-09-01

    Two digestion-free methods for trace analysis of boron nitride based on graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma spectrometry optical emission (ETV-ICP-OES) using direct solid sampling have been developed and applied to the determination of Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr in four boron nitride materials in concentration intervals of 1-23, 54-735, 0.05-21, 0.005-1.3, 1.6-112, 4.5-20, 0.03-1.8, 6-46, 38-170 and 0.4-2.3 ?g g - 1 , respectively. At optimized experimental conditions, with both methods, effective in-situ analyte/matrix separation was achieved and calibration could be performed using calibration curves measured with aqueous standard solutions. In solid sampling GFAAS, before sampling, the platform was covered with graphite powder and, for determination of Si, also the Pd/Mg(NO 3) 2 modifier was used. In the determination of all analyte elements by solid sampling ETV-ICP-OES, Freon R12 was added to argon carrier gas. For solid sampling GFAAS and ETV-ICP-OES, the achievable limits of detection were within 5 (Cu)-130 (Si) ng g - 1 and 8 (Cu)-200 (Si) ng g - 1 , respectively. The results obtained by these two methods for four boron nitride materials of different purity grades are compared each with the other and with those obtained in analysis of digests by ICP-OES. The performance of the two solid sampling methods is compared and discussed.

  19. Comparison of electrocatalytic characterization of boron-doped diamond and SnO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiangwei; Feng, Yujie; Liu, Junfeng; Qu, Youpeng; Cui, Fuyi

    2013-10-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) and SnO2 electrodes were prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition (DC-PCVD) and sol-gel method, respectively. Electrochemical characterization of the two electrodes were investigated by phenol electrochemical degradation, accelerated service life test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) in phenol solution, polarization curves in H2SO4. The surface morphology and crystal structure of two electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed a considerable difference between the two electrodes in their electrocatalytic activity, electrochemical stability and surface properties. Phenol was readily mineralized to CO2 at BDD electrode, favoring electrochemical combustion, but its degradation was much slower at SnO2 electrode. The service life of BDD electrode was 10 times longer than that of SnO2. Higher electrocatalytic activity and electrochemical stability of BDD electrode arise from its high oxygen evolution potential and the physically absorbed hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on electrode surface.

  20. Boron-doped diamond nano/microelectrodes for bio-sensing and in vitro measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hua; Wang, Shihua; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the fabrication of the first diamond electrode in the mid 1980s, repid progress has been made on the development and application of this new type of electrode material. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes exhibit outstanding properties compared to oxygen-containing sp2 carbon electrodes. These properties make BDD electrodes an ideal choice for use in complex samples. In recent years, BDD microelectrodes have been applied to in vitro and in vivo measurements of biological molecules in animals, tissues and cells. This review will summarize recent progress in the development and applications of BDD electrodes in bio-sensing and in vitro measurements of biomolecules. In the first section, the methods for BDD nanocrystalline diamond film deposition and BDD microelectrodes preparation are described. This is followed by a description and discussion of several approaches for characterization of the BDD electrode surface structure, morphology, and electrochemical activity. Further, application of BDD microelectrodes for use in the in vitro analysis of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), nitric oxide (NO), histamine, and adenosine from tissues are summarized and finally some of the remaining challenges are discussed. PMID:21196394

  1. Energy consumption of electrooxidation systems with boron-doped diamond electrodes in the pulse current mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-jun; Gao, Xu-hui; Hei, Li-fu; Askari, Jawaid; Li, Cheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A pulse current technique was conducted in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system for electrochemical wastewater treatment. Due to the strong generation and weak absorption of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface, the BDD electrode possesses a powerful capability of electrochemical oxidation of organic compounds, especially in the pulse current mode. The influences of pulse current parameters such as current density, pulse duty cycle, and frequency were investigated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, average current efficiency, and specific energy consumption. The results demonstrated that the relatively high COD removal and low specific energy consumption were obtained simultaneously only if the current density or pulse duty cycle was adjusted to a reasonable value. Increasing the frequency slightly enhanced the COD removal and average current efficiency. A pulse-BDD anode system showed a stronger energy saving ability than a constant-BDD anode system when the electrochemical oxidation of phenol of the two systems was compared. The results prove that the pulse current technique is more cost-effective and more suitable for a BDD anode system for real wastewater treatment. A kinetic analysis was presented to explain the above results.

  2. Electrochemical incineration of sulfanilic acid at a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    El-Ghenymy, Abdellatif; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Brillas, Enric

    2012-06-01

    The anodic oxidation of sulfanilic acid solutions has been studied in acidic medium using a divided cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel cathode. Overall mineralization was achieved under all experimental conditions tested due to the efficient destruction of sulfanilic acid and all its by-products with hydroxyl radicals generated at the BDD anode from water oxidation. The alternative use of an undivided cell with the same electrodes gave rise to the coating of the cathode with polymeric compounds, thus preventing the complete electrochemical incineration of sulfanilic acid. The solutions treated in the anodic compartment of the divided cell were degraded at similar rate under pH regulation within the pH interval 2.0-6.0. The mineralization current efficiency was enhanced when the applied current decreased and the initial substrate concentration increased. The decay of sulfanilic acid was followed by reversed-phase HPLC, showing a pseudo first-order kinetics. Hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone were identified as aromatic intermediates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and/or reversed-phase HPLC. Maleic, acetic, formic, oxalic and oxamic acids were detected as generated carboxylic acids by ion-exclusion HPLC. Ionic chromatographic analysis of electrolyzed solutions revealed that the N content of sulfanilic acid was mainly released as NH(4)(+) ion and in much smaller proportion as NO(3)(-) ion. PMID:22365277

  3. Multichannel boron doped nanocrystalline diamond ultramicroelectrode arrays: design, fabrication and characterization.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Raphael; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaëlle; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Bongrain, Alexandre; Yvert, Blaise; Picaud, Serge; Mailley, Pascal; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of an 8 × 8 multichannel Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicro-electrode array (UMEA). The device combines both the assets of microelectrodes, resulting from conditions in mass transport from the bulk solution toward the electrode, and of BDD's remarkable intrinsic electrochemical properties. The UMEAs were fabricated using an original approach relying on the selective growth of diamond over pre-processed 4 inches silicon substrates. The prepared UMEAs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrated that the electrodes have exhibited a very fast electrode transfer rate (k(0)) up to 0.05 cm·s(-1) (in a fast redox couple) and on average, a steady state limiting current (in a 0.5 M potassium chloride aqueous solution containing 1 mM Fe(CN)(6)(4-) ion at 100 mV·s(-1)) of 1.8 nA. The UMEAs are targeted for electrophysiological as well as analytical applications. PMID:22969367

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of phenolic wastes with boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Cañizares, P; Lobato, J; Paz, R; Rodrigo, M A; Sáez, C

    2005-07-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of several phenolic aqueous wastes has been studied using a bench-scale plant with a single-compartment electrochemical flow cell. Boron-doped diamond materials were used as the anode. Complete mineralization of the waste was obtained in the treatment of phenols not substituted with chlorine or nitrogen. Chlorinated phenolic compounds were transformed into carbon dioxide; volatile organochlorinated compounds and nitro-substituted phenols deal with the formation of polymeric materials. These polymeric materials behave as final products or treatment intermediates depending on the nature of the initial pollutant. The removal of nitro- or the chloro-group from the phenolic molecule seems to be one of the first stages in the treatment. Non-nitrogenated or chlorinated carboxylic acids have been found to be the main intermediates in the electrochemical oxidation of all the phenolic compounds tested. The efficiencies of the process depend strongly on the concentration of organic pollutants and on their nature, and not on the current density, at least in the operation range studied. PMID:15979123

  5. 3D-nanostructured boron-doped diamond for microelectrode array neural interfacing.

    PubMed

    Piret, Gaëlle; Hébert, Clément; Mazellier, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Lionel; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Cottance, Myline; Lissorgues, Gaelle; Heuschkel, Marc O; Picaud, Serge; Bergonzo, Philippe; Yvert, Blaise

    2015-06-01

    The electrode material is a key element in the design of long-term neural implants and neuroprostheses. To date, the ideal electrode material offering high longevity, biocompatibility, low-noise recording and high stimulation capabilities remains to be found. We show that 3D-nanostructured boron doped diamond (BDD), an innovative material consisting in a chemically stable material with a high aspect ratio structure obtained by encapsulation of a carbon nanotube template within two BDD nanolayers, allows neural cell attachment, survival and neurite extension. Further, we developed arrays of 20-?m-diameter 3D-nanostructured BDD microelectrodes for neural interfacing. These microelectrodes exhibited low impedances and low intrinsic recording noise levels. In particular, they allowed the detection of low amplitude (10-20 ?V) local-field potentials, single units and multiunit bursts neural activity in both acute whole embryonic hindbrain-spinal cord preparations and long-term hippocampal cell cultures. Also, cyclic voltammetry measurements showed a wide potential window of about 3 V and a charge storage capacity of 10 mC.cm(-2), showing high potentiality of this material for neural stimulation. These results demonstrate the attractiveness of 3D-nanostructured BDD as a novel material for neural interfacing, with potential applications for the design of biocompatible neural implants for the exploration and rehabilitation of the nervous system. PMID:25890717

  6. Semiconducting polymers with nanocrystallites interconnected via boron-doped carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kilho; Lee, Ju Min; Kim, Junghwan; Kim, Geunjin; Kang, Hongkyu; Park, Byoungwook; Ho Kahng, Yung; Kwon, Sooncheol; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Byoung Hun; Kim, Jehan; Park, Hyung Il; Kim, Sang Ouk; Lee, Kwanghee

    2014-12-10

    Organic semiconductors are key building blocks for future electronic devices that require unprecedented properties of low-weight, flexibility, and portability. However, the low charge-carrier mobility and undesirable processing conditions limit their compatibility with low-cost, flexible, and printable electronics. Here, we present significantly enhanced field-effect mobility (?(FET)) in semiconducting polymers mixed with boron-doped carbon nanotubes (B-CNTs). In contrast to undoped CNTs, which tend to form undesired aggregates, the B-CNTs exhibit an excellent dispersion in conjugated polymer matrices and improve the charge transport between polymer chains. Consequently, the B-CNT-mixed semiconducting polymers enable the fabrication of high-performance FETs on plastic substrates via a solution process; the ?FET of the resulting FETs reaches 7.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is the highest value reported for a flexible FET based on a semiconducting polymer. Our approach is applicable to various semiconducting polymers without any additional undesirable processing treatments, indicating its versatility, universality, and potential for high-performance printable electronics. PMID:25372930

  7. Electrochemical treatment of cork boiling wastewater with a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Annabel; Santos, Diana; Pacheco, Maria José; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Simões, Rogério; Gomes, Arlindo C; Lopes, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anodic oxidation at a boron-doped diamond anode of cork boiling wastewater was successfully used for mineralization and biodegradability enhancement required for effluent discharge or subsequent biological treatment, respectively. The influence of the applied current density (30-70 mA/cm(2)) and the background electrolyte concentration (0-1.5 g/L Na2SO4) on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. The supporting electrolyte was required to achieve conductivities that enabled anodic oxidation at the highest current intensities applied. The results indicated that pollutant removal increased with the applied current density, and after 8 h, reductions greater than 90% were achieved for COD, dissolved organic carbon, total phenols and colour. The biodegradability enhancement was from 0.13 to 0.59 and from 0.23 to 0.72 for the BOD/COD ratios with BOD of 5 and 20 days' incubation period, respectively. The tests without added electrolyte were performed at lower applied electrical charges (15 mA/cm(2) or 30 V) with good organic load removal (up to 80%). For an applied current density of 30 mA/cm(2), there was a minimum of electric conductivity of 1.9 mS/cm (corresponding to 0.75 g/L of Na2SO4), which minimized the specific energy consumption. PMID:25409580

  8. Bioelectrochemical degradation of urea at platinized boron doped diamond electrodes for bioregenerative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, Eduardo; González-González, Ileana; Flynn, Michael; Griebenow, Kai; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2009-10-01

    The recovery of potable water from space mission wastewater is critical for the life support and environmental health of crew members in long-term missions. NASA estimates reveal that at manned space missions 1.91 kg/person day of urine is produced, with urea and various salts as its main components. In this research we explore the utilization of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, 15,000 U/g) along with a platinized boron doped diamond electrode (Pt-BDD) to degrade urea. Urea is directly degraded to nitrogen by the in situ utilization of the reaction products as a strategy to increase the amount of clean water in future space expeditions. The biochemical reaction of urease produces ammonia and carbon dioxide from urea. Thereafter, ammonia is electrooxidized at the interface of the Pt-BDD producing molecular nitrogen. The herein presented system has been proven to have 20% urea conversion efficiency. This research has potential applications for future long-term space missions since the reaction byproducts could be used for a biomass subsystem (in situ resource recovery), while generating electricity from the same process.

  9. Development of a biochemical oxygen demand sensor using gold-modified boron doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Saepudin, Endang; Wardah, Habibah; Harmesa; Dewangga, Netra; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2012-11-20

    Gold-modified boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were examined for the amperometric detection of oxygen as well as a detector for measuring biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) using Rhodotorula mucilaginosa UICC Y-181. An optimum potential of -0.5 V (vs Ag/AgCl) was applied, and the optimum waiting time was observed to be 20 min. A linear calibration curve for oxygen reduction was achieved with a sensitivity of 1.4 ?A mg(-1) L oxygen. Furthermore, a linear calibration curve in the glucose concentration range of 0.1-0.5 mM (equivalent to 10-50 mg L(-1) BOD) was obtained with an estimated detection limit of 4 mg L(-1) BOD. Excellent reproducibility of the BOD sensor was shown with an RSD of 0.9%. Moreover, the BOD sensor showed good tolerance against the presence of copper ions up to a maximum concentration of 0.80 ?M (equivalent to 50 ppb). The sensor was applied to BOD measurements of the water from a lake at the University of Indonesia in Jakarta, Indonesia, with results comparable to those made using a standard method for BOD measurement. PMID:23088708

  10. Hydrogen passivation of interstitial iron in boron-doped multicrystalline silicon during annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, AnYao; Sun, Chang; Macdonald, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Effective hydrogenation of interstitial iron in boron-doped multicrystalline silicon wafers is reported. The multicrystalline silicon wafers were annealed with plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride films, at temperatures of 400 °C - 900 °C and for times from minutes to hours. At low temperatures where a combined effect of hydrogenation and precipitation of dissolved Fe is expected, results show that the hydrogenation process dominates the effect of precipitation. The concentrations of dissolved interstitial iron reduce by more than 90% after a 30-min anneal at temperatures between 600 and 900 °C. The most effective reduction occurs at 700 °C, where 99% of the initial dissolved iron is hydrogenated after 30 min. The results show that the observed reductions in interstitial Fe concentrations are not caused by the internal gettering of Fe at structural defects or by an enhanced diffusivity of Fe due to the presence of hydrogen. The hydrogenation process is conjectured to be the pairing of positively charged iron with negatively charged hydrogen, forming less recombination active Fe-H complexes in silicon.

  11. Microchip capillary electrophoresis coupled with a boron-doped diamond electrode-based electrochemical detector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joseph; Chen, Gang; Chatrathi, Madhu Prakash; Fujishima, Akira; Tryk, Donald A; Shin, Dongchan

    2003-02-15

    The attractive behavior and advantages of a diamond electrode detector for a micromachined capillary electrophoresis (CE) system are discussed. A chemically vapor-deposited boron-doped diamond (BDD) film band (0.3 x 6.0 mm) electrode is used for end-column amperomettic detection. The favorable performance of the diamond electrode microchip detector is indicated from comparison to a commonly used thick-film carbon detector. The diamond electrode offers enhanced sensitivity, lower noise levels, and sharper peaks for several groups of important anaytes (nitroaromatic explosives, organophosphate nerve agents, phenols). The favorable signal-to-background characteristics of the BDD-based CE detector are coupled with a greatly improved resistance to surface fouling and greater isolation from high separation voltages. The enhanced stability is indicated from a RSD of 0.8% for 60 repetitive measurements of 5 ppm 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (vs RSD of 10.8% at the thick-film carbon electrode). A highly linear response is obtained for the explosives 1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene over the 200-1,400 ppb range, with detection limits of 70 and 110 ppb, respectively. Factors influencing the performance of the BDD detector are assessed and optimized. The attractive properties of BDD make it very promising material for electrochemical detection in CE microchip systems and other micromachined flow analyzers. PMID:12622387

  12. QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN FLUE GAS EMISSION USING BORON-DOPED DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Manivannan; M.S. Seehra

    2003-08-19

    In this project, we have attempted to develop a new technique utilizing Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films to electrochemically detect mercury dissolved in solution via the initial deposition of metallic mercury, followed by anodic linear sweep voltammetry in the range from 10-10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -5} M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were employed. The extremely low background current for BDD electrodes compared to glassy carbon (GC) provides a strong advantage in trace metal detection. CV peak currents showed good linearity in the micromolar range. A detection level of 6.8 x 10{sup -10} M was achieved with DPV in 0.1 M KNO{sub 3} (pH = 1) for a deposition time of 20 minutes. Reproducible stripping peaks were obtained, even for the low concentration range. A comparison with GC shows that BDD is superior. Linear behavior was also obtained in the mercury concentration range from 10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -9} M.

  13. Optical and electrical properties of ultrathin transparent nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobaszek, M.; Skowro?ski, ?.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Siuzdak, K.; Cirocka, A.; Zi?ba, P.; Gnyba, M.; Naparty, M.; Go?u?ski, ?.; P?otka, P.

    2015-04-01

    The optical properties of ultrathin (less than 100 nm) boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) film were investigated in a wavelength range of 200-20,000 nm. The B-NCD refractive index showed values close to that of monocrystalline diamond (n = 2.45) in a broad wavelength range (450-4000 nm). A transmittance up to 70% and the average film thickness of 70 nm were achieved. A special cone-shaped shim was used in the deposition process. Ultrathin nanocrystalline films were deposited on silicon substrates using the Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (MW PA CVD) method. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements in aqueous media consisting of 5 mM K3[Fe(CN)6] in 0.1 M Na2SO4 demonstrated a width of the electrochemical window up to 2.5 V. The evolution of the surface morphology was analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The chemical composition of B-NCD films was examined with micro-Raman Spectroscopy. The Raman spectra included a diamond peak and a nanocrystalline diamond band at 1330-1333 cm-1 and 1126-1143 cm-1, respectively. The thickness and optical properties of ultrathin B-NCD film in UV-MIR wavelength range were investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  14. Diamond-modified AFM probes: from diamond nanowires to atomic force microscopy-integrated boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Waldemar; Kriele, Armin; Hoffmann, René; Sillero, Eugenio; Hees, Jakob; Williams, Oliver A; Yang, Nianjun; Kranz, Christine; Nebel, Christoph E

    2011-06-15

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM), sharp and wear-resistant tips are a critical issue. Regarding scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), electrodes are required to be mechanically and chemically stable. Diamond is the perfect candidate for both AFM probes as well as for electrode materials if doped, due to diamond's unrivaled mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical properties. In this study, standard AFM tips were overgrown with typically 300 nm thick nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers and modified to obtain ultra sharp diamond nanowire-based AFM probes and probes that were used for combined AFM-SECM measurements based on integrated boron-doped conductive diamond electrodes. Analysis of the resonance properties of the diamond overgrown AFM cantilevers showed increasing resonance frequencies with increasing diamond coating thicknesses (i.e., from 160 to 260 kHz). The measured data were compared to performed simulations and show excellent correlation. A strong enhancement of the quality factor upon overgrowth was also observed (120 to 710). AFM tips with integrated diamond nanowires are shown to have apex radii as small as 5 nm and where fabricated by selectively etching diamond in a plasma etching process using self-organized metal nanomasks. These scanning tips showed superior imaging performance as compared to standard Si-tips or commercially available diamond-coated tips. The high imaging resolution and low tip wear are demonstrated using tapping and contact mode AFM measurements by imaging ultra hard substrates and DNA. Furthermore, AFM probes were coated with conductive boron-doped and insulating diamond layers to achieve bifunctional AFM-SECM probes. For this, focused ion beam (FIB) technology was used to expose the boron-doped diamond as a recessed electrode near the apex of the scanning tip. Such a modified probe was used to perform proof-of-concept AFM-SECM measurements. The results show that high-quality diamond probes can be fabricated, which are suitable for probing, manipulating, sculpting, and sensing at single digit nanoscale. PMID:21534601

  15. First-principles study of CO and NO adsorption on transition metals doped (8,0) boron nitride nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, You; Huo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2012-06-01

    To explore the novel application of boron nitride nanotube (BNNT), we have investigated the structural, magnetic and electronic properties of CO and NO molecules adsorption on transition metals (TM = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co or Ni) doped (8,0) BNNT using first-principle calculations. The combining processes of all gas adsorption on TM-doped BNNT are exothermic, accompanying with larger formation energies and charges transfer showing that both CO and NO molecules present strong chemical interaction with the TM-doped BNNT, and the adsorption of NO is more stable than that of CO. The presence of CO molecule almost does not change the magnetic properties of the TM-BNNT systems. But the adsorption of NO gas on different sites of different TM doped BNNT has different magnetic moment. The adsorption of CO and NO molecules on TM-doped BNNTs leads to different electronic structure properties of BNNTs. Therefore, the TM-doped BNNT can be used as CO and NO gas sensor manufacturing raw materials, and it may be a potential material for nanodevice applications.

  16. Development of boron-doped diamond thin-films as voltammetric and amperometric detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jishou

    2000-10-01

    The utilization of boron-doped diamond thin-films for applications in electroanalysis was investigated. Voltammetric analysis in static solution, and amperometric detection coupled with flow injection analysis and HPLC were performed. The results were compared to those for glassy carbon. The electroactivity, the merit of detection figures, the adsorption of polar organic molecules, and the resistance to fouling were studied. Surface characterization was performed to elucidate the surface property-electroacticvity relationship. The results showed that diamond thin-films, compared with glassy carbon, had comparable electroactivity to simple electron transfer processes (e.g., Ru(NH3)6+2/+3, Fe(CN)6 -3/-4, IrCl6-2/-3, azide, chlorpromazine), but had lower electroactivity for the electron transfer processes involving surface-confined intermediate (e.g., hydrogen evolution, oxygen evolution, 4-methyl catechol, hydrazine). The diamond thin-films had a wide working potential up to 4.0 V in aqueous media. They also had small double layer capacitance, voltammetric background current, and amperometric residual current. These properties had leaded to higher signal-to-background ratios and signal-to-noise ratios. The diamond thin-films had lower limits of detection in voltammetric measurements of several analytes, and had lower limits of detection in amperometric measurements of all compounds studied. The diamond thin-films had negligible adsorption of polar organic molecules (e.g., anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate, chlorpromazine), compared to glassy carbon. This is due to the fact that the diamond surfaces are primarily composed of sp3 carbon and hydrogen terminated. This leaded to less decay of the electroactivity by storage and operation, and higher resistance to fouling. The surface property-electroactivity relationship depends on the specific mechanism for electron transfer. The extent of non-diamond impurities (e.g., oxygen evolution), diamond crystalline size, surface termination (e.g., azide), and surface boron sites (hydrazine) could all affect the electroactivity for diamond thin-films.

  17. Enhanced capacitance of composite TiO2 nanotube/boron-doped diamond electrodes studied by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, K.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Sawczak, M.; Sobaszek, M.

    2014-12-01

    We report on novel composite nanostructures based on boron-doped diamond thin films grown on top of TiO2 nanotubes. The nanostructures made of BDD-modified titania nanotubes showed an increase in activity and performance when used as electrodes in electrochemical environments. The BDD thin films (~200-500 nm) were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW PA CVD) onto anodically fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays. The influence of boron-doping level, methane admixture and growth time on the performance of the Ti/TiO2/BDD electrode was studied in detail. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate the surface morphology and grain size distribution. Moreover, the chemical composition of TiO2/BDD electrodes was investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The composite electrodes TiO2/BDD are characterized by a significantly higher capacitive current compared to BDD films deposited directly onto a Ti substrate. The novel composite electrode of TiO2 nanotube arrays overgrown by boron-doped diamond (BDD) immersed in 0.1 M NaNO3 can deliver a specific capacitance of 2.10, 4.79, and 7.46 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 for a [B]/[C] ratio of 2k, 5k and 10k, respectively. The substantial improvement of electrochemical performance and the excellent rate capability could be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 treatment in CH4 : H2 plasma and the high electrical conductivity of BDD layers. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra using an electric equivalent circuit allowed us to determine the surface area on the basis of the value of constant phase element.

  18. Electron emission originated from free-electron-like states of alkali-doped boron-nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Binghai; Park, Changwon; Ihm, Jisoon; Zhou, Gang; Duan, Wenhui; Park, Noejung

    2008-12-17

    We investigate the electronic structures and electron emission properties of alkali-doped boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using density-functional theory calculations. We find that the nearly free-electron (NFE) state of the BNNT couples with the alkali atom states, giving rise to metallic states near the Fermi level. Unlike the cases of potassium-doped carbon nanotubes, not only the s but the d orbital state substantially takes part in the hybridization, and the resulting metallic states preserve the free-electron-like energy dispersion. Through first-principles electron dynamic simulations under applied fields, it is shown that the alkali-doped BNNT can generate an emission current 2 orders of magnitude larger than the carbon nanotube. The nodeless wave function at the Fermi level, together with the lowered work function, constitutes the major advantage of the alkali-doped BNNT in electron emission. We propose that the alkali-doped BNNT should be an excellent electron emitter in terms of the large emission current as well as its chemical and mechanical stability. PMID:19012383

  19. Electrical transport properties of the Si-doped cubic boron nitride thin films prepared by in situ cosputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, J.; Zhang, X. W.; Yin, Z. G.; Tan, H. R.; Zhang, S. G.; Fan, Y. M. [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Si-doped cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films with various Si concentrations were achieved by in situ cosputtering during ion beam assisted deposition. Effects of the Si concentration and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) conditions on the electrical transport properties of Si-doped c-BN thin films were investigated systematically. The results suggest that the optimum RTA condition is at the temperature of 1000 deg. C for 3 min. The resistance of Si-doped c-BN films gradually decreases as the Si concentration increases, indicating an electrical doping effect of the Si impurity. The temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the Si-doped c-BN films suggests that different conduction mechanisms are dominant over the different temperature ranges. Based on the Davis-Mott model, we propose that the extended-state conduction, band tail-state conduction and short-range hopping conduction are responsible for the respective temperature ranges. In addition, the reduction in activation energy of Si impurities is observed as the Si concentration increases.

  20. Bioelectrochemical degradation of urea at platinized boron doped diamond electrodes for bioregenerative applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ileana; Nicolau, Eduardo; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    The recovery of potable water from space mission wastewater is critical for the life support and environmental health of crew members in long-term missions. NASA estimates reveal that at manned space missions 0.06 kg/person·day of urine is produced, with urea and various salts as its main components. Current spacecraft water reclamation strategies include the utilization of not only multifiltration systems (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO), but also biological components to deal with crew urine streams. In this research we explore the utilization of urease (EC 3.5.1.5) to convert urea directly to nitrogen by the in-situ utilization of the reaction products, to increase the amount of clean water in future space expeditions. First of all, platinum was electrodeposited on boron doped diamond electrodes by cycling the potential between -0.2 V and 1.0 V in metal/0.5 M H2SO4 solution. SEM images of the electrodes showed a distribution of platinum nanoparticles ranging between 50 nm and 300 nm. The biochemical reaction of urease in nature produces ammonia and carbon dioxide from urea. Based on this, Cyclic Voltammetry experiments of an ammonium acetate solution at pH 10 were performed showing an anodic peak at -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl due to the ammonia oxidation. Then, a urease solution (Jack Bean) was poured into the electrochemical cell and subsequent additions of urea were performed with the potential held at -0.3 V in order to promote ammonia oxidation. Chronoamperometry data shows that with more than five urea additions the enzyme still responding by producing ammonia, which is being subsequently oxidized at the electrode surface and producing molecular nitrogen. This research has tremendous applications for future long-term space missions since the reaction byproducts could be used for a biomass subsystem (in-situ resource recovery), while generating electricity from the same process.

  1. Kinetics of the electrochemical mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid on ultrananocrystalline boron doped conductive diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Urtiaga, Ane; Fernández-González, Carolina; Gómez-Lavín, Sonia; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2014-06-27

    This work deals with the electrochemical degradation and mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Model aqueous solutions of PFOA (100mg/L) were electro-oxidized under galvanostatic conditions in a flow-by undivided cell provided with a tungsten cathode and an anode formed by a commercial ultrananocrystalline boron doped diamond (BDD) coating on a niobium substrate. A systematic experimental study was conducted in order to analyze the influence of the following operation variables: (i) the supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 (1.4 and 8.4g/L) and Na2SO4 (5g/L); (ii) the applied current density, japp, in the range 50-200 A/m(2) and (iii) the hydrodynamic conditions, in terms of flowrate in the range 0.4×10(-4)-1.7×10(-4)m(3)/s and temperature in the range 293-313K. After 6h of treatment and at japp 200A/m(2), PFOA removal was higher than 93% and the mineralization ratio, obtained from the decrease of the total organic carbon (TOC) was 95%. The electrochemical generation of hydroxyl radicals in the supporting electrolyte was experimentally measured based on their reaction with dimethyl sulfoxide. The enhanced formation of hydroxyl radicals at higher japp was related to the faster kinetics of PFOA removal. The fitting of experimental data to the proposed kinetic model provided the first order rate constants of PFOA degradation, kc(1) that moved from 2.06×10(-4) to 15.58×10(-4)s(-1), when japp varied from 50 to 200A/m(2). PMID:24981910

  2. Microchip capillary electrophoresis with a boron-doped diamond electrochemical detector for analysis of aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongchan; Tryk, Donald A; Fujishima, Akira; Muck, Alexander; Chen, Gang; Wang, Joseph

    2004-09-01

    The attractive features of a boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin-film detector for microchip capillary electrophoretic (CE) separations of dye-related amino-substituted aromatic compounds are described. The diamond electrode was employed in the end-column amperometric detection of 4-aminophenol (4-AP), 1,2-phenylenediamine (1,2-PDA), 2-aminonaphthalene (2-AN), 2-chloroaniline (2-CA), and o-aminobenzoic acid (o-ABA), and its attractive behavior was compared to commonly used screen-printed carbon and glassy-carbon electrodes. These conventional electrode materials exhibit a significant degree of passivation and low sensitivity to the above-mentioned environmental pollutants. The diamond-based electrochemical detection system displayed a favorable analytical performance, including lower noise levels, higher peak resolution with enhanced sensitivity, and improved resistance against electrode passivation. Factors influencing the on-chip analysis were assessed and optimized. The diamond detector displayed detection limits of 2.0 and 1.3 microM for 4-AP and 2-AN, respectively, and a wide linear response for these compounds over the 2-50 microM range. The enhanced stability was demonstrated by relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.4% and 4.7% for 100 microM 1,2-PDA and 200 microM 2-CA, respectively, for repetitive detections (n = 7). Besides, the simultaneously observed current decrease was 2.4 and 9.1% for 1,2-PDA and 2-CA, respectively (compared to 21.8 and 41.0% at the screen-printed carbon electrode and 28.3 and 34.1% at the glassy carbon electrode, respectively). The favorable properties of the diamond electrode indicate great promise for environmental applications in CE and other microchip devices. PMID:15349943

  3. Electrochemical detection of sugar-related compounds using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomohisa; Sakurada, Ikuo; Honda, Kensuke; Motohashi, Shigeyasu; Uchikura, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical detection of sugar-related compounds was conducted using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode as a detector for flow-injection analysis (FIA). Sugar-related compounds oxidize at high applied potentials, for which the BDD electrode is suitable for electrochemical measurements. Conditions for an FIA system with a BDD detector were optimized, and the following detection limits were achieved for sugar-related compounds: monosaccharides, 25-100 pmol; sugar alcohols, 10 pmol; and oligosaccharides, 10 pmol. The detection limit for monosaccharide D-glucose (Glu) was 105 pmol (S/N = 3). A linear range was acquired from the detection limit to 50 nmol, and the relative standard deviation was 0.65% (20 nmol, n = 6). A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column was added to the system between the sample injector and the detector and detection limits to the picomole level were achieved, which is the same for the HPLC system and the FIA system. The electrochemical oxidation reaction of Glu was examined using cyclic voltammetry with the BDD detector. The reaction proved to be irreversible, and proceeded according to the following two-step mechanism: (1) application of a high potential (2.00 V vs. Ag/AgCl) to the electrode causes water to electrolyze on the electrode surface with the simultaneous generation of a hydroxyl radical on the surface, and (2) the hydroxyl radical indirectly oxidizes Glu. Thus, Glu can be detected by an increase in the oxidation current caused by reactions with hydroxy radicals. PMID:22322804

  4. Electrochemical treatment of wastewater polluted by nitrate: selective reduction to N2 on boron-doped diamond cathode.

    PubMed

    Georgeaud, V; Diamand, A; Borrut, D; Grange, D; Coste, M

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical tests of nitrate reduction on Boron-Doped Diamond cathode are investigated through a Design of Experiments (DOE) method. The results show good reduction of nitrate into almost exclusively N2. In the studied domain, the best experimental conditions are high initial nitrate content, low acidic pH values and low working current densities. The application of DOE conclusions on an agro-industrial wastewater gives really satisfying results: final nitrate contents lower than 50 mg/L without nitrite or ammonium formation, and with low energy consumption (under 25 kWh/kgNO3). PMID:21252421

  5. High density and taper-free boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} nanowire via two-step growth process

    SciTech Connect

    Periwal, Priyanka; Salem, Bassem; Bassani, Franck; Baron, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.baron@cea.fr [University of Grenoble Alpes LTM, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CNRS LTM, UMR-5129, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Barnes, Jean-Paul [CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-07-01

    The authors study Au catalyzed chemical vapor growth of Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloyed nanowires in the presence of diborane, serving as a dopant precursor. Our experiments reveal that introduction of diborane has a significant effect on doping and morphology. Boron exposure poisons the Au catalyst surface, suppresses catalyst activity, and causes significantly tapered wires, as a result of conformal growth. The authors develop here a two-step method to obtain high density and taper-free boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires. The two-step process consists of: (1) growth of a small undoped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} section and (2) introduction of diborane to form a boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} section. The catalyst preparation step remarkably influences wire yield, quality and morphology. The authors show that dopant-ratio influences wire resistivity and morphology. Resistivity for high boron doped Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} nanowire is 6 m?-cm. Four probe measurements show that it is possible to dope Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires with diborane.

  6. Assessment of Electrodes Prepared from Wafers of Boron-doped Diamond for the Electrochemical Oxidation of Waste Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.T.; Sullivan, I.A.; Newey, A.W.E. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes is being investigated as a treatment process for radioactively contaminated oily wastes. Previously, it was shown that electrodes coated with a thin film of diamond were able to oxidise a cutting oil but not a mineral oil. These tests were inconclusive, because the electrodes lost their diamond coating during operation. Accordingly, an electrode prepared from a 'solid' wafer of boron-doped diamond is being investigated to determine whether it will oxidise mineral oils. The electrode has been tested with sucrose, a cutting oil and an emulsified mineral oil. Before and after each test, the state of the electrode was assessed by cyclic voltammetry with the ferro/ferricyanide redox couple. Analysis of the cyclic voltammogram suggested that material accumulated on the surface of the electrode during the tests. The magnitude of the effect was in the order: - emulsified mineral oil > cutting oil > sucrose. Despite this, the results indicated that the electrode was capable of oxidising the emulsified mineral oil. Confirmatory tests were undertaken in the presence of alkali to trap the carbon dioxide, but they had to be abandoned when the adhesive holding the diamond in the electrode was attacked by the alkali. Etching of the diamond wafer was also observed at the end of the tests. Surface corrosion is now regarded as an intrinsic part of the electrochemical oxidation on diamond, and it is expected that the rate of attack will determine the service life of the electrodes. (authors)

  7. Carrier transport properties of the Group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge1-xFex with and without boron doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yoshisuke; Wakabayashi, Yuki; Akiyama, Ryota; Nakane, Ryosho; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated the transport and magnetic properties of group-IV ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge1-xFex films (x = 1.0 and 2.3%) with and without boron doping grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In order to accurately measure the transport properties of 100-nm-thick Ge1-xFex films, (001)-oriented silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers with an ultra-thin Si body layer (˜5 nm) were used as substrates. Owing to the low Fe content, the hole concentration and mobility in the Ge1-xFex films were exactly estimated by Hall measurements because the anomalous Hall effect in these films was found to be negligibly small. By boron doping, we increased the hole concentration in Ge1-xFex from ˜1018 cm-3 to ˜1020 cm-3 (x = 1.0%) and to ˜1019 cm-3 (x = 2.3%), but no correlation was observed between the hole concentration and magnetic properties. This result presents a contrast to the hole-induced ferromagnetism in III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  8. CE with a boron-doped diamond electrode for trace detection of endocrine disruptors in water samples.

    PubMed

    Browne, Damien J; Zhou, Lin; Luong, John H T; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2013-07-01

    Off-line SPE and CE coupled with electrochemical detection have been used for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F, 4-ethylphenol, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether in bottled drinking water. The use of boron-doped diamond electrode as an electrochemical detector in amperometric mode that provides a favorable analytical performance for detecting these endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as lower noise levels, higher peak resolution with enhanced sensitivity, and improved resistance against electrode passivation. The oxidative electrochemical detection of the endocrine-disrupting compounds was accomplished by boron-doped diamond electrode poised at +1.4 V versus Ag/AgCl without electrode pretreatment. An off-line SPE procedure (Bond Elut® C18 SPE cartridge) was utilized to extract and preconcentrate the compounds prior to separation and detection. The minimum concentration detectable for all four compounds ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 ?M, having S/N equal to three. After exposing the plastic bottle water container under sunlight for 7 days, the estimated concentration of BPA in the bottled drinking water was estimated to be 0.03 ?M. This proposed approach has great potential for rapid and effective determination of BPA content present in water packaging of plastic bottles that have been exposed to sunlight for an extended period of time. PMID:23172695

  9. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Viney; Li, Zhongrui; Bourdo, Shawn; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Trigwell, Steven; Couraud, Arthur; Rioux, Julien; Boyer, Cyril; Nteziyaremye, Valens; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Biris, Alexandru R.; Salamo, Gregory J.; Viswanathan, Tito; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The SWNTs were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection, and transportation while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  10. Dissolution Mediated Boron and Carbon Storage during Exhumation of HP Metapelites: Examples from New Hampshire Tourmaline-Graphite Intergrowths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, M.; Rumble, D.; Cody, G. D.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamic of light elements (e.g. C,B) in subduction zones is a complex process ultimately governed by variables such as P, T, fH2 and pH. Interface phenomena at scales from the outcrop to intergranular surfaces play key chemical and mechanical roles on this dynamic (e.g. Galvez et al. 2013). We report here a petrological study of hydrated borosilicate tourmaline intergrown with graphite formed at the contact between igneous intrusives and high grade micaschists in New Hampshire graphite deposits (Rumble and Hoering, 1986). Our study includes Raman scattering, SEM, microprobe analysis and thermodynamic modeling, focusing on the Franklin Pierce and Walpole outcrops. Both localities experienced HP-HT metamorphism during the Acadian orogeny as well as complex metasomatic process during exhumation. The tourmaline-graphite intergrowths are structurally localized at and around contacts between an aplite sill and micaschists - biotite-muscovite-garnet-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz-ilmenite - (Franklin Pierce), or along shear zones (Walpole) in veins. Tourmalines are dravitic in composition (i.e. Na, Mg rich with minor vacancy and Li content 0.2/0.1 a.p.f.u) and contain multiple primary tubular mixed fluid-solid inclusions containing graphite, quartz and gaseous CO2 and CH4. Sharp optical and compositional radial zonations are observed from core to rim in sections along and perpendicular to the c-axis. Blue-green cores are enriched in Mg and Ca (1.5/0.1 a.p.f.u respectively) whereas rims are enriched in Fe, Na and Ti (0.9/0.6/0.1 a.p.f.u respectively). Alternative interpretations in terms of sector zoning or compositional variability of the mineralizing fluid will be discussed. The carbonaceous material (CM) occurs primarily as flakes directly replacing biotite present in wall rocks. The structural ordering of CM, of unambiguous abiotic origin, reveals a material possessing the 3 dimensional structure of hexagonal graphite. Our results are critically compared to measurements done on other metasomatic or biogenic graphite displaying high structural ordering. Other textural habit of graphite are radiating crystals of graphite preferentially growing along crystalline planes of wall rock minerals (e.g. plagioclases) and at the interface between grain edge. We test whether a C and B(OH)3° (×As, Cu) rich acidic vapor unmixing from a salt-rich aqueous fluid exsolved from crystallizing igneous bodies can account for some geochemical and textural greisen-type metasomatic features of these outcrops. Other mechanical and geochemical processes participating in the process will be discussed. This work is direct evidence that respeciation and/or fluid-rock interaction at varying P,T,fH2,pH conditions of fluids during exhumation, as well as interaction between magmatic bodies and metasedimentary units play a key role in the cycling of light elements during exhumation. Rumble, D., III, and Hoering, T.C., 1986, Carbon isotope geochemistry of graphite vein deposits from New Hampshire, U.S.A: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 50, p. 1239-1247. Galvez ME, Beyssac O, Martinez I, Benzerara K, Chaduteau C, Malvoisin B, Malavieille J (2013) Graphite formation by carbonate reduction during subduction. Nature Geoscience 6 (6):473-477

  11. Phosphorus-doped graphitic carbon nitrides grown in?situ on carbon-fiber paper: flexible and reversible oxygen electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian Yi; Ran, Jingrun; Dai, Sheng; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Flexible non-metal oxygen electrodes fabricated from phosphorus-doped graphitic carbon nitride nano-flowers directly grown on carbon-fiber paper exhibit high activity and stability in reversibly catalyzing oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, which is a result of N, P dual action, enhanced mass/charge transfer, and high active surface area. The performance is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art transition-metal, noble-metal, and non-metal catalysts. Remarkably, the flexible nature of these oxygen electrodes allows their use in folded and rolled-up forms, and directly as cathodes in Zn-air batteries, featuring low charge/discharge overpotential and long lifetime. PMID:25522311

  12. Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: Disorder, electron–phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea C. Ferrari

    2007-01-01

    We review recent work on Raman spectroscopy of graphite and graphene. We focus on the origin of the D and G peaks and the second order of the D peak. The G and 2D Raman peaks change in shape, position and relative intensity with number of graphene layers. This reflects the evolution of the electronic structure and electron–phonon interactions. We

  13. Electrical and optical properties of phosphorus doped Ge1 -yCy M.W. Dashiella,

    E-print Network

    Kolodzey, James

    refined germanium was thermally evaporated, at 0.20 A° /s, from a pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) crucible contained in a standard EPI effusion cell. Carbon was intro- duced into the molecular beam by passing current through a high purity, pyrolytic-graphite filament. Phosphorus doping was achieved by in situ

  14. Magnetization Study of Sulfur-doped Graphitic Nano-platelets and Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Oliveira, L.; Podila, R.; Neeleshwar, S.; Chen, Y. Y.; He, J.; Skove, M.; Rao, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    Recently we investigated the magnetic behavior of as-prepared and sulfur doped chemically exfoliated graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The doping was achieved by annealing desired carbon nanostructures with 0, 1.0, 1.5 and 3 at% sulfur in an evacuated quartz tube at 1000 ^oC for 1 day, followed by multiple rinsing in alcohol and drying in vacuum to remove excess sulfur. The isothermal M vs. H as well as the temperature-dependent M vs. T measurements were obtained using a vibrating sample magnetometer. We found that sulfur doping drastically changes the magnetic behavior of the as-prepared samples (both SWCNTs and GNPs). The results of zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling (FC) in M vs. T measurements indicated the existence of large amount of coupled super-paramagnetic domains, along with antiferromagnetic domains. The saturation magnetization decreased in S doped GNPs, while a contrasting trend was observed in S doped SWCNTs. The role of edge states and structural defects in carbon nanostructures in the observed magnetic properties will be discussed.

  15. Enhanced Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells on Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Grausova, Lubica; Kromka, Alexander; Burdikova, Zuzana; Eckhardt, Adam; Rezek, Bohuslav; Vacik, Jiri; Haenen, Ken; Lisa, Vera; Bacakova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films have been proven to be promising substrates for the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of bone-derived cells. To understand the role of various degrees of doping (semiconducting to metallic-like), the NCD films were deposited on silicon substrates by a microwave plasma-enhanced CVD process and their boron doping was achieved by adding trimethylboron to the CH4:H2 gas mixture, the B?C ratio was 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm. The room temperature electrical resistivity of the films decreased from >10 M? (undoped films) to 55 k?, 0.6 k?, and 0.3 k? (doped films with 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm of B, respectively). The increase in the number of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in 7-day-old cultures on NCD films was most apparent on the NCD films doped with 133 and 1000 ppm of B (153,000±14,000 and 152,000±10,000 cells/cm2, respectively, compared to 113,000±10,000 cells/cm2 on undoped NCD films). As measured by ELISA per mg of total protein, the cells on NCD with 133 and 1000 ppm of B also contained the highest concentrations of collagen I and alkaline phosphatase, respectively. On the NCD films with 6700 ppm of B, the cells contained the highest concentration of focal adhesion protein vinculin, and the highest amount of collagen I was adsorbed. The concentration of osteocalcin also increased with increasing level of B doping. The cell viability on all tested NCD films was almost 100%. Measurements of the concentration of ICAM-1, i.e. an immunoglobuline adhesion molecule binding inflammatory cells, suggested that the cells on the NCD films did not undergo significant immune activation. Thus, the potential of NCD films for bone tissue regeneration can be further enhanced and tailored by B doping and that B doping up to metallic-like levels is not detrimental for cells. PMID:21695172

  16. Nitrogen- and boron-co-doped core-shell carbon nanoparticles as efficient metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reactions in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shengkui; Zhou, Lihua; Wu, Ling; Tang, Lianfeng; He, Qiyi; Ahmed, Jalal

    2014-12-01

    The most severe bottleneck hindering the widespread application of fuel cell technologies is the difficulty in obtaining an inexpensive and abundant oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The concept of a heteroatom-doped carbon-based metal-free catalyst has recently attracted interest. In this study, a metal-free carbon nanoparticles-based catalyst hybridized with dual nitrogen and boron components was synthesized to catalyze the ORR in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Multiple physical and chemical characterizations confirmed that the synthetic method enabled the incorporation of both nitrogen and boron dopants. The electrochemical measurements indicated that the co-existence of nitrogen and boron could enhance the ORR kinetics by reducing the overpotential and increasing the current density. The results from the kinetic studies indicated that the nitrogen and boron induced an oxygen adsorption mechanism and a four-electron-dominated reaction pathway for the as-prepared catalyst that was very similar to those induced by Pt/C. The MFC results showed that a maximum power density of ?642 mW m-2 was obtained using the as-prepared catalyst, which is comparable to that obtained using expensive Pt catalyst. The prepared nitrogen- and boron-co-doped carbon nanoparticles might be an alternative cathode catalyst for MFC applications if large-scale applications and price are considered.

  17. Study of the thermoelectric properties of lead selenide doped with boron, gallium, indium, or thallium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Cao, Feng; Lukas, Kevin; Liu, Weishu; Esfarjani, Keivan; Opeil, Cyril; Broido, David; Parker, David; Singh, David J; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2012-10-24

    Group IIIA elements (B, Ga, In, and Tl) have been doped into PbSe for enhancement of thermoelectric properties. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity were systematically studied. Room-temperature Hall measurements showed an effective increase in the electron concentration upon both Ga and In doping and the hole concentration upon Tl doping to ~7 × 10(19) cm(-3). No resonant doping phenomenon was observed when PbSe was doped with B, Ga, or In. The highest room-temperature power factor ~2.5 × 10(-3) W m(-1) K(-2) was obtained for PbSe doped with 2 atom % B. However, the power factor in B-doped samples decreased with increasing temperature, opposite to the trend for the other dopants. A figure of merit (ZT) of ~1.2 at ~873 K was achieved in PbSe doped with 0.5 atom % Ga or In. With Tl doping, modification of the band structure around the Fermi level helped to increase the Seebeck coefficient, and the lattice thermal conductivity decreased, probably as a result of effective phonon scattering by both the heavy Tl(3+) ions and the increased grain boundary density after ball milling. The highest p-type ZT value was ~1.0 at ~723 K. PMID:23025440

  18. Study of the Thermoelectric Properties of Lead Selenide Doped with Boron, Gallium, Indium, or Thallium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qian; Cao, Feng; Lukas, K; Liu, W S; Esfarjani, Keivan; Opeil, C; Broido, D; Parker, David; Singh, David J.; Chen, Gang; Ren, Z. F.

    2012-01-01

    Group IIIA elements (B, Ga, In, and Tl) have been doped into PbSe for enhancement of thermoelectric properties. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity were systematically studied. Room-temperature Hall measurements showed an effective increase in the electron concentration upon both Ga and In doping and the hole concentration upon Tl doping to 7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}. No resonant doping phenomenon was observed when PbSe was doped with B, Ga, or In. The highest room-temperature power factor 2.5 × 10{sup –3} W m{sup –1} K{sup –2} was obtained for PbSe doped with 2 atom % B. However, the power factor in B-doped samples decreased with increasing temperature, opposite to the trend for the other dopants. A figure of merit (ZT) of 1.2 at 873 K was achieved in PbSe doped with 0.5 atom % Ga or In. With Tl doping, modification of the band structure around the Fermi level helped to increase the Seebeck coefficient, and the lattice thermal conductivity decreased, probably as a result of effective phonon scattering by both the heavy Tl{sup 3+} ions and the increased grain boundary density after ball milling. The highest p-type ZT value was 1.0 at 723 K.

  19. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: Application to stomach disorder diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Fierro, Stéphane; Seishima, Ryo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the in vivo electrochemical monitoring of pH using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode and silver needles for potential application in medical diagnosis. Accurate calibration curve for pH determination were obtained through in vitro electrochemical measurements. The increase induced in stomach pH by treatment with pantoprazole was used to demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the pH in vivo using the simple and noninvasive system proposed herein. Using the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments, a quantitative analysis of the increase in stomach pH is also presented. It is proposed that the catheter-free pH monitoring system presented in this study could be potentially employed in any biological environment. PMID:24247214

  20. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: Application to stomach disorder diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, Stéphane; Seishima, Ryo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the in vivo electrochemical monitoring of pH using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode and silver needles for potential application in medical diagnosis. Accurate calibration curve for pH determination were obtained through in vitro electrochemical measurements. The increase induced in stomach pH by treatment with pantoprazole was used to demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the pH in vivo using the simple and noninvasive system proposed herein. Using the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments, a quantitative analysis of the increase in stomach pH is also presented. It is proposed that the catheter-free pH monitoring system presented in this study could be potentially employed in any biological environment.

  1. Ultra-long zinc oxide nanowires and boron doping based on ionic liquid assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition growth.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas; Komin, Kris; Yang, Yang; Güder, Firat; Trouillet, Vanessa; Werner, Peter; Zacharias, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquid assisted growth of ultra-long ZnO nanowires from thermal chemical vapor deposition and the incorporation of dopants into the ZnO lattice have been investigated. We find that decomposed components of the ionic liquid at higher temperatures facilitate ultra-long vapor-liquid-solid ZnO nanowires that exhibit an unusual a-axis orientation. In particular, the ionic liquid BMImBF4 has been studied and the mechanism of the nanowire growth model in response to the use of the ionic liquid has been explained. We show that boron which is part of the investigated ionic liquid incorporates into the ZnO lattice and serves as a donor source. Electrical measurements were conducted and have shown an enhanced electrical conductivity (? = 0.09 ? cm) when using the ionic liquid assisted growth approach. This work represents a step towards the controlled doping for designing future nanowire devices. PMID:25407691

  2. Electronic structure and optical property of 3 d transition metal doped (5,5) boron nitride nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su-Fang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Min; Xu, Ke-Wei; Ji, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic and optical properties of a 3 d transition metal M (M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe) doped (5,5) boron nitride (B19MN20) nanotube are investigated by using the first-principles projector augmented wave potential within density functional theory under the generalized gradient approximation. It is found that B19VN20 and B19MnN20 systems are ideal candidates for spintronic applications, and the B19CrN20 system seems to be a promising diluted magnetic semiconductor. The analyses of optical dielectric functions show that B19CrN20 exhibits a new main peak at about 0.3 eV, and thus may be utilized in fields that are associated with infrared technology, such as infrared detectors, infrared masers, and so on.

  3. Chemometric study on the electrochemical incineration of nitrilotriacetic acid using platinum and boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyong; He, Zhenzhu; Wu, Jingyu; Fu, Degang

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the electrochemical incineration of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and platinum (Pt) anodes. Trials were performed in the presence of sulfate electrolyte media under recirculation mode. The parameters that influence the degradation efficiency were investigated, including applied current density, flow rate, supporting electrolyte concentration and reaction time. To reduce the number of experiments, the system had been managed under chemometric technique named Doehlert matrix. As a consequence, the mineralization of NTA demonstrated similar behavior upon operating parameters on these two anodes. Further kinetic study indicated that the degradations followed pseudo-first-order reactions for both BDD and Pt anodes, and the reaction rate constant of the former was found to be higher than that of the latter. Such difference could be interpreted by results from fractal analysis. In addition, a reaction sequence for NTA mineralization considering all the detected intermediates was also proposed. PMID:25747300

  4. Cathodic and anodic pre-treated boron doped diamond with different sp2 content: Morphological, structural, and impedance spectroscopy characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldan, M. R.; Azevedo, A. F.; Couto, A. B.; Ferreira, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the influence of cathodic (Red) and anodic (Ox) pre-treatment on boron doped diamond (BDD) films grown with different sp2/sp3 ratios was systematically studied. The sp2/sp3 ratios were controlled by the addition of CH4 of 1,3,5 and 7 sccm in the gas inlet during the growth process. The electrodes were treated in 0.5 mol L-1 H2SO4 at -3 and 3 V vs Ag/AgCl, respectively, for 30 min. The electrochemical response of BDD films was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky Plot (MSP) measurements. Four film sample sets were produced in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition reactor. During the growth process, an additional H2 line passing through a bubbler containing the B2O3 dissolved in methanol was used to carry the boron. The scanning electron microscopy morphology showed well faced films with a small decrease in their grain size as the CH4 concentration increased. The Raman spectra depicted a pronounced sp2 band, mainly for films with 5 and 7 sccm of CH4. MSP showed a decrease in the acceptor concentration as the CH4 increased indicating the CH4 influence on the doping process for Red-BDD and Ox-BDD samples. Nonetheless, an apparent increase in the acceptor concentrations for both Ox-BDD samples was observed compared to that for Red-BDD samples, mainly attributed to the surface conductive layer (SCL) formation after this strong oxidation process. The EIS Nyquist plots for Red-BDD showed a capacitance increase for the films with higher sp2 content (5 and 7 sccm). On the other hand, the Nyquist plots for Ox-BDD can be described as semicircles near the origin, at high frequencies, where their charge transfer resistance strongly varied with the sp2 increase in such films.

  5. Effect of reaction conditions on methyl red degradation mediated by boron and nitrogen doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galenda, A.; Crociani, L.; Habra, N. El; Favaro, M.; Natile, M. M.; Rossetto, G.

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays the employment of renewable and sustainable energy sources, and solar light as main option, becomes an urgent need. Photocatalytic processes received great attention in wastewater treatment due to their cheapness, environmental compatibility and optimal performances. Despite the general low selectivity of the photocatalysts, an accurate optimisation of the operational parameters needs to be carried out in order to maximise the process yield. Because of this reason, the present contribution aims to deepen either the knowledge in boron and/or nitrogen doped TiO2-based systems and their employment in methyl red removal from aqueous solutions. The samples were obtained by coprecipitation and characterised by XRD, SEM, BET specific surface area, UV-vis and XPS techniques. The catalytic activity was for the first time carefully evaluated with respect to methyl red photodegradation in different conditions as a function of working pH, counter-ions and pre-adsorption time. An ad-hoc study was performed on the importance of the pre-adsorption of the dye, suggesting that an extended adsorption is useless for the catalyst photoactivity, while a partial coverage is preferable. The photocatalytic tests demonstrate the positive influence of boron doping in photo-activated reactions and the great importance of the operational parameters with respect to the simple methyl red bleaching rather than the overall pollutant mineralisation. It is proved, indeed, that different working pH, acidifying means and substrate pre-adsorption time can enhance or limit the catalyst performances with respect to the complete pollutant degradation rather than its partial breakage.

  6. Low-Temperature Softening Due to Vacancy Orbital with ?8 Quartet Ground State in Boron-Doped Floating Zone Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Shotaro; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Mitsumoto, Keisuke; Komatsu, Satoru; Horie, Kunihiko; Nemoto, Yuichi; Yamada-Kaneta, Hiroshi; Goto, Terutaka

    2013-08-01

    We have carried out low-temperature ultrasonic measurements using shear-mode ultrasound to clarify the quantum state of a vacancy orbital in boron-doped silicon grown by the floating zone (FZ) method. The elastic constants (C11-C12)/2 and C44 of the transverse mode exhibit considerable softening below 2 and 5 K down to the base temperature of 30 mK, respectively. The elastic constant C44 measured by the three ultrasonic modes (kx,uy), (kz,ux), and (kx,uz) shows the different magnetic field dependences among the configurations under applied magnetic fields along the z-axis. The elastic softening and the magnetic field dependence of the elastic constants are accounted for by the quadrupole susceptibility based on the energy level scheme of the vacancy orbital with a ?8 quartet ground state and ?7 doublet excited state located at an energy of 1 K. The difference in C44 between the two ultrasonic modes (kz,ux) and (kx,uz) at fields along the z-axis indicates that the ?8 quartet ground state is slightly split by local strain in the silicon sample. The quantum state of the vacancy orbital is expected to be sensitive to strain because of the extremely large quadrupole-strain coupling energy of g?? 105 K due to the extensively spreading orbital radius of r? 1 nm. The differences in variation of the low-temperature softening and magnetic field dependence among eight samples cut out from different locations of the present boron-doped FZ silicon ingot evidence the inhomogeneous distribution of the vacancy concentration.

  7. Interaction between Glycine/ Glycine Radicals and Intrinsic/Boron-doped (8, 0) Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes: A Density Functional Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenming; Bu, Yuxiang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorptions of a glycine molecule as well as dehydrogenated radicals on the side walls of both intrinsic and boron-doped (B-doped) single-walled (8,0) carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated by a density functional theory. A glycine molecule tends to physically adsorb on intrinsic SWCNT, yet chemically adsorb on B-doped SWCNT as a result of a somewhat chemical bond between the electron-rich nitrogen atom of the glycine molecule and the electron-scarce boron atom of the doped SWCNT. Opposite to the previous report (J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 6048-6050), it is found in the present study that both the N-centered and C-centered glycine radicals can form quite stable complexes with intrinsic as well as B-doped (8, 0) SWCNTs. When the B-doped SWCNT interacts with glycine radicals, although there is a competition between B and the neighbor C in the nanotube axis direction, glycine radicals preferentially bind to the C site. The encapsulations of a glycine molecule into SWCNTs with various diameters are also discussed. We find that the encapsulation process is endothermic for (8, 0) and (9, 0) SWCNTs, while it is exothermic for (10,0) SWCNT, indicating that the critical diameter of the zigzag SWCNT for the encapsulation is 7.83 Å, the diameter of (10,0). PMID:19006275

  8. Molecular dynamics investigations of boron doping in a-Si:H

    SciTech Connect

    Fedders, P.A.; Drabold, D.A.

    1997-07-01

    The rather low doping efficiency of B in a-Si:H is almost always explained by the argument that almost all of the B is incorporated into three-fold coordinated sites and that B is inert or non-doping in this configuration. Using ab initio molecular dynamics, the authors have studied the energetics and doping (electronic structure) consequences of B incorporation into a-Si:H both with and without H passivation. Their results suggest that the conventional view is in error and that the low doping efficiency is primarily due to H passivation. These results are consistent with the low doping efficiency of B as well as NMR studies on the large electric field gradients experienced by the B atoms and on NMR double resonance studies of B-H neighboring distances.

  9. Comparative study on the localized surface plasmon resonance of boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shu; Pi, Xiaodong; Ni, Zhenyi; Ding, Yi; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Delerue, Christophe; Yang, Deren; Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2015-01-27

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of doped Si nanocrystals (NCs) is critical to the development of Si-based plasmonics. We now experimentally show that LSPR can be obtained from both B- and P-doped Si NCs in the mid-infrared region. Both experiments and calculations demonstrate that the Drude model can be used to describe the LSPR of Si NCs if the dielectric screening and carrier effective mass of Si NCs are considered. When the doping levels of B and P are similar, the LSPR energy of B-doped Si NCs is higher than that of P-doped Si NCs because B is more efficiently activated to produce free carriers than P in Si NCs. We find that the plasmonic coupling between Si NCs is effectively blocked by oxide at the NC surface. The LSPR quality factors of B- and P-doped Si NCs approach those of traditional noble metal NCs. We demonstrate that LSPR is an effective means to gain physical insights on the electronic properties of doped Si NCs. The current work on the model semiconductor NCs, i.e., Si NCs has important implication for the physical understanding and practical use of semiconductor NC plasmonics. PMID:25551330

  10. Electric field effect on the electronic properties of double-walled carbon-doped boron-nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, A.; Azevedo, S.; Kaschny, J.; Machado, M.

    2014-03-01

    Carbon (C) doped zigzag (8, 0)@(16, 0) and armchair (5, 5)@(10, 10) double-walled boron-nitride nanotubes (DWBNNTs), under the influence of external electric fields applied in different directions are studied through first-principles calculations. We have considered the substitution of a B and a N (one species at each wall—inner or outer) by C atoms, generating a type-n inside a type-p semiconductor ((type-n)@(type-p)) and vice-versa. The resulting doped DWBNNT can be thought as a p-n junction. The obtained formation energies and structural properties results indicate that these structures present good stability and are not affected by the electric field application. For the electronic structure, it was observed that external fields can be used to modulate these systems energy gaps. Also, there is a preferred field direction which minimizes the gap values, and the gap increase or decrease is related to the reverse and direct polarization of the p-n junction, respectively.

  11. Use of zirconium-phosphate-carbonate chemistry to immobilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on boron-doped diamond.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Maciej; Krysi?ski, Pawe?; Blanchard, G J

    2005-09-13

    We report on the formation of monomolecular layers of perylene- and pyrene-alkanoic acids on boron-doped diamond (BDD) substrates. The carboxylic acid layers are bound by coordination to zirconium phosphate (ZP) functionalities on the BDD substrate surface. The resulting Zr-phosphate-carbonate (ZPC) linkages between the substrate and the adlayer are asymmetric, of the form -(OPO3(2-) Zr4+-O2C-R)+ X-. Pyrene and perylene are well-established optical probes of polarity and viscosity at interfaces. We have used electrochemical and steady-state fluorescence techniques to study the loading density and behavior of these monomolecular films, allowing comparison of BDD and indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) substrates. Electrochemical data suggest that the pyrene chromophores are positioned roughly at the same distance from the surface, regardless of the length of the anchoring alkanoic acid chain, a finding that can be explained by the pyrene lying on the substrate surface. Such a conformation is plausible given the surface coverage (5 x 10(-11) mol/cm2, ca. 0.1 monolayer) we measure for these systems. PMID:16142963

  12. Transition-metal dispersion on carbon-doped boron nitride nanostructures: Applications for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Liao, Ji-Hai; Yang, Xiao-Bao

    2012-07-01

    Using density-functional theory calculations, we investigated the adsorption of transition-metal (TM) atoms (TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) on carbon doped hexagonal boron nitride (BN) sheet and the corresponding cage (B12N12). With carbon substitution of nitrogen, Sc, V, Cr, and Mn atoms were energetically favorable to be dispersed on the BN nanostructures without clustering or the formation of TM dimers, due to the strong binding between TM atoms and substrate, which contains the half-filled levels above the valence bands maximum. The carbon doped BN nanostructures with dispersed Sc could store up to five and six H2, respectively, with the average binding energy of 0.3 ˜ 0.4 eV, indicating the possibility of fabricating hydrogen storage media with high capacity. We also demonstrated that the geometrical effect is important for the hydrogen storage, leading to a modulation of the charge distributions of d levels, which dominates the binding between H2 and TM atoms.

  13. The Effect of Carrier Injection Stress on Boron-Doped Amorphous Silicon Suboxide Layers Investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunhwa Lee; Jinjoo Park; Youngkuk Kim; Kichan Yoon; Chonghoon Shin; Seungsin Baek; Joondong Kim; Youn-Jung Lee; Junsin Yi

    2011-01-01

    In amorphous silicon solar cells, reducing degradation is one of the key issues in improving cell performance. The degradation of the p-layer can play an important role since it is directly related to the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) in the cells. In this study, we investigated the changes in boron-doped p-type silicon suboxide (SiOx) layers after

  14. Application of a Deconvolutive Procedure to Analyze Several Chlorophenol Species in Natural Waters by Square?Wave Voltammetry on the Boron?Doped Diamond Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valber A. Pedrosa; Sergio A. S. Machado; Luis A. Avaca

    2006-01-01

    The anodic voltammetric behavior of 4?chlorophenol (4?CP) on a boron?doped diamond electrode (BDD) in aqueous solution was studied by square?wave voltammetry. After optimization of the experimental conditions, 4?CP was determined in a Britton?Robinson buffer solution with pH 6.0, prepared with pure water. Moreover, mixtures of some different chlorophenols were also investigated and an analytical method was developed for the simultaneous

  15. A study on the solid-state welding of boron-doped Ni 3Al–AISI 304 stainless steel couple

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukru Yildirim; Mehmet Halidun Kelestemur

    2005-01-01

    The solid-state welding of boron-doped Ni3Al intermetallic compound with AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel has been carried out. The interface characteristics of bonding have been examined by using SEM, EDS and XRD. The elasto-plastic analyses on the interface zones of the bonds have been conducted to obtain residual stress induced by different thermal expansion properties of bonded materials. The results

  16. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid using a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films.

    PubMed

    Tyszczuk-Rotko, Katarzyna; B?czkowska, Ilona; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and application of a novel sensor (a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films) for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid by differential pulse voltammetry. The main advantage of the lead film and polymer covered boron-doped diamond electrode is that the sensitivity of the stripping responses is increased and the separation of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved due to the modification of the boron-doped diamond surface by the lead layer. Additionally, the repeatability of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved by the application of the Nafion film coating. In the presence of oxygen, linear calibration curves were obtained in a wide concentration range from 5×10(-7) to 2×10(-4) mol L(-1) for paracetamol and from 1×10(-6) to 5×10(-4) mol L(-1) for ascorbic acid. The analytical utility of the differential pulse voltammetric method elaborated was tested in the assay of paracetamol and ascorbic acid in commercially available pharmaceutical formulations and the method was validated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. PMID:25127609

  17. Evidence of loss of active lithium in titanium-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höweling, Andres; Glatthaar, Sven; Nötzel, Dorit; Binder, Joachim R.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries require higher energy densities to meet with a broad acceptance in the fields of electric vehicles and grid storage solutions. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) can fulfill this goal due to its high operating voltage. Cycling of LNMO is known to be stable vs. lithium metal anode. Cycling in an LNMO/graphite configuration leads to severe capacity fade. Ti-doped LNMO (LNMTO)/graphite cells experience a lower, but still strong loss of capacity. In order to understand capacity fade, cycling tests of LNMTO vs. graphite and vs. lithium metal were carried out and additionally, three electrode tests were performed. Both cell configurations showed similar Coulombic efficiencies correlating with the applied C-rate. Experimental data and mathematical modeling indicated that loss of active lithium with a constant reaction rate of (3.76 ± 0.46) · 10-8 mol Li h-1 is responsible for capacity fade in LNMTO/graphite cells and that no degradation of the active material occurs. It was concluded that lithium loss also occurs when lithium metal anodes are used. Here, the lithium metal anode can compensate for lithium consumption, as a result of which the capacity is not influenced. Further support for lithium consumption is given by a three-electrode cell with a lithiated graphite anode. The lithium in the graphite anode can compensate the lithium loss for 120 cycles. During this time, the cell experienced hardly any capacity fade and the voltage profile was similar to that of a cell with LNMTO/Li configuration.

  18. Effective catalytic media using graphitic nitrogen-doped site in graphene for a non-aqueous Li-O2 battery: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyung-Han; Hwang, Yubin; Chung, Yong-Chae

    2015-03-01

    The cell performance of lithium-oxygen batteries using nitrogen doped graphene as a catalytic cathode has been validated in recent research, but the cathode reaction mechanism of lithium and oxygen still remains unclear. Since the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) mechanism by ionic lithium and catalytic surface is predicted to be distinct for different defective sites such as graphitic, pyridinic, and pyrrolic, it is necessary to observe the behavior of ionic lithium and oxygen gas at each defective site in nitrogen doped graphene. In this study, density functional theory (DFT) calculations are adopted to analyze at an atomic scale how effectively each defective site acts as a catalytic cathode. Interestingly, unlike pyridinic or pyrrolic N is known to be the most effective catalytic site for ORR in fuel cells. Among the other defective sites, it is found that the graphitic N site is the most effective catalytic media activating ORR by ionic lithium in lithium-oxygen batteries due to the electron accepting the reaction of Li-O formation by the graphitic N site.

  19. Effect of Polishing on the Friction Behaviors and Cutting Performance of Boron-Doped Diamond Films on WC-Co Inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-04-01

    Boron doped (B-doped) diamond films are deposited onto WC-Co inserts by HFCVD with the mixture of acetone, trimethyl borate (C3H9BO3) and H2. The as-deposited B-doped diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, 3D surface topography based on white-light interferometry and Rockwell hardness tester. The effects of mechanical polishing on the friction behavior and cutting performance of B-doped diamond are evaluated by ball-on-plate type reciprocating tribometer and turning of aluminum alloy 7075 materials, respectively. For comparison, the same tests are also conducted for the bare WC-Co inserts with smooth surface. Friction tests suggest that the unpolished and polished B-doped diamond films possess relatively low fluctuation of friction coefficient than as-received bare WC-Co samples. The average stable friction coefficient for B-doped diamond films decreases apparently after mechanical polishing. The values for WC-Co sample, unpolished and polished B-doped diamond films are approximately 0.38, 0.25 and 0.11, respectively. The cutting results demonstrate that the low friction coefficient and high adhesive strength of B-doped diamond films play an essential role in the cutting performance enhancement of the WC-Co inserts. However, the mechanical polishing process may lower the adhesive strength of B-doped diamond films. Consequently, the polished B-doped diamond coated inserts show premature wear in the machining of adhesive aluminum alloy materials.

  20. Effects of Doping Ratio and Thermal Annealing on Structural and Electrical Properties of Boron-Doped ZnO Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Cheng-Chang; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Lee, Shao-Yi; Lan, Wen-How; Kuo, Hsin-Hui; Shih, Ming-Chang; Jui-Yang Feng, David; Huang, Kai-Feng

    2013-06-01

    Boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) thin films have been fabricated by spray pyrolysis on a glass substrate. The morphology and electrical properties of the thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed. It was found that [B]/[Zn] ratio altered both the microstructure and concentration of the BZO thin films. The film grain size was reduced by increasing the [B]/[Zn] ratio. The highest Hall mobility was 3.65 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the undoped ZnO thin film, and the highest carrier concentration of 1.0×1019 cm-3 was achieved for the as-deposited BZO thin film with [B]/[Zn] = 1.5 at. %. Conductivity was determined at different measurement temperatures and shallow donors provided the dominate conduction mechanism for the as-deposited BZO thin films. After 600 °C annealing, shallow level reduction and donors with a high activation energy of 129+/-6 meV in the BZO thin films were characterized, and the shallow donors that dominate the carrier concentration for the as-deposited spray-pyrolized BZO thin film were eliminated.

  1. Electrochemical treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate on boron-doped electrodes in undivided and divided cell configurations.

    PubMed

    Bagastyo, Arseto Y; Batstone, Damien J; Kristiana, Ina; Escher, Beate I; Joll, Cynthia; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2014-08-30

    An undivided electrolytic cell may offer lower electrochlorination through reduction of chlorine/hypochlorite at the cathode. This study investigated the performance of electrooxidation of reverse osmosis concentrate using boron-doped diamond electrodes in membrane-divided and undivided cells. In both cell configurations, similar extents of chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal were obtained. Continuous formation of chlorinated organic compounds was observed regardless of the membrane presence. However, halogenation of the organic matter did not result in a corresponding increase in toxicity (Vibrio fischeri bioassay performed on extracted samples), with toxicity decreasing slightly until 10AhL(-1), and generally remaining near the initial baseline-toxicity equivalent concentration (TEQ) of the raw concentrate (i.e., ?2mgL(-1)). The exception was a high range toxicity measure in the undivided cell (i.e., TEQ=11mgL(-1) at 2.4AhL(-1)), which rapidly decreased to 4mgL(-1). The discrepancy between the halogenated organic matter and toxicity patterns may be a consequence of volatile and/or polar halogenated by-products formed in oxidation by OH electrogenerated at the anode. The undivided cell exhibited lower energy compared to the divided cell, 0.25kWhgCOD(-1) and 0.34kWhgCOD(-1), respectively, yet it did not demonstrate any improvement regarding by-products formation. PMID:25048621

  2. Electrochemical oxidation of tramadol in low-salinity reverse osmosis concentrates using boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Schulz, Manoj; Wagner, Manfred; Ternes, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical treatment of low-salinity reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates was investigated using tramadol (100 ?M) as a model substance for persistent organic contaminants. Galvanostatic degradation experiments using boron-doped diamond electrodes at different applied currents were conducted in RO concentrates as well as in ultra-pure water containing either sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. Kinetic investigations revealed a significant influence of in-situ generated active chlorine besides direct anodic oxidation. Therefore, tramadol concentrations decreased more rapidly at elevated chloride content. Nevertheless, reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) was found to be comparatively low, demonstrating that transformation rather than mineralization was taking place. Early stage product formation could be attributed to both direct and indirect processes, including demethylation, hydroxylation, dehydration, oxidative aromatic ring cleavage and halogenation reactions. The latter led to various halogenated derivatives and resulted in AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) formation in the lower mg/L-range depending on the treatment conditions. Characterisation of transformation products (TPs) was achieved via MS(n) experiments and additional NMR measurements. Based on identification and quantification of the main TPs in different matrices and on additional potentiostatic electrolysis, a transformation pathway was proposed. PMID:25660808

  3. Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, Carlee [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent hydroxyl radicals for these measurements; however, many of these approaches require use of radioactive sources or caustic oxidizing chemicals. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and optimize the use of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as a highly accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals as a means to induce a controllable level of oxidation on a range of intact proteins. These experiments utilize a relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber, along with a unique cell activation approach to improve control over the intact protein oxidation yield. Studies were conducted to evaluate the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface. This report demonstrates a robust protocol for the use of BDD electrochemistry and high performance LC-MS/MS as a high-throughput experimental pipeline for probing higher order protein structure, and illustrates how it is complementary to predictive computational modeling efforts.

  4. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Viney [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Zhongrui [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Bourdo, Shawn [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kunets, Vasyl P. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Trigwell, Steven [ASRC Aerospace Corp., Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Couraud, Arthur [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs de CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Rioux, Julien [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Boyer, Cyril [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Nteziyaremye, Valens [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Dervishi, Enkeleda [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Salamo, Gregory J. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Viswanathan, Tito [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  5. Electrochemical disinfection using boron-doped diamond electrode--the synergetic effects of in situ ozone and free chlorine generation.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Mohamad; Heim, Carolin; Letzel, Thomas; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2015-02-01

    This work investigated the capability of using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for bacterial disinfection in different water matrices containing varying amounts of chloride. The feed water containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa was electrochemically treated while applying different electrode conditions. Depending on the applied current density and the exposure time, inactivation between 4- and 8-log of the targeted microorganisms could be achieved. The disinfection efficiency was driven by the generation of free chlorine as a function of chloride concentration in the water. A synergetic effect of generating both free chlorine and ozone in situ during the disinfection process resulted in an effective bactericidal impact. The formation of the undesired by-products chlorate and perchlorate depended on the water matrix, the applied current density and the desired target disinfection level. In case of synthetic water with a low chloride concentration (20 mg L(-1)) and an applied current density of 167 mA cm(-2), a 6-log inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be achieved after 5 min of exposure. The overall energy consumption ranged between 0.3 and 0.6 kW h m(-3) depending on the applied current density and water chemistry. Electrochemical water disinfection represents a suitable and efficient process for producing pathogen-free water without the use of any chemicals. PMID:25434271

  6. Removal of organic contaminants from secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond anode as tertiary treatment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Keller, Jürg; Brillas, Enric; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2015-02-11

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have been widely investigated as promising technologies to remove trace organic contaminants from water, but have rarely been used for the treatment of real waste streams. Anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was applied for the treatment of secondary effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant containing 29 target pharmaceuticals and pesticides. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed from the contaminants decay, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of applied current and pH was evaluated. Almost complete mineralization of effluent organic matter and trace contaminants can be obtained by this EAOP primarily due to the action of hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface. The oxidation of Cl(-) ions present in the wastewater at the BDD anode gave rise to active chlorine species (Cl2/HClO/ClO(-)), which are competitive oxidizing agents yielding chloramines and organohalogen byproducts, quantified as adsorbable organic halogen. However, further anodic oxidation of HClO/ClO(-) species led to the production of ClO3(-) and ClO4(-) ions. The formation of these species hampers the application as a single-stage tertiary treatment, but posterior cathodic reduction of chlorate and perchlorate species may reduce the risks associated to their presence in the environment. PMID:25464295

  7. Photovoltaic devices based on high density boron-doped single-walled carbon nanotube/n-Si heterojunctions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Saini, Viney [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Zhongrui [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Bourdo, Shawn [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kunets, Vasyl P. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Trigwell, Steven [ASRC Aerospace Corp., Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Couraud, Arthur [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs de CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Rioux, Julien [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Boyer, Cyril [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Ecole d'Ingenieurs du CESI-EIA, La Couronne (France); Nteziyaremye, Valens [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Dervishi, Enkeleda [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Salamo, Gregory J. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Viswanathan, Tito [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, Alexandru S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-01-13

    A simple and easily processible photovoltaic device has been developed based on borondoped single-walled carbon nanotubes (B-SWNTs) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunctions. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were substitutionally doped with boron atoms by thermal annealing, in the presence of B2O3. The samples used for these studies were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fully functional solar cell devices were fabricated by airbrush deposition that generated uniform B-SWNT films on top of the n-Si substrates. The carbon nanotube films acted as exciton-generation sites, charge collection and transportation, while the heterojunctions formed between B-SWNTs and n-Si acted as charge dissociation centers. The current-voltage characteristics in the absence of light and under illumination, as well as optical transmittance spectrum are reported here. It should be noted that the device fabrication process can be made amenable to scalability by depositing direct and uniform films using airbrushing, inkjet printing, or spin-coating techniques.

  8. Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Gargouri, Bochra; Trabelsi, Souhel Kallel; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm(-2)) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment. PMID:25129707

  9. Electrochemical analysis of chloramphenicol using boron-doped diamond electrode applied to a flow-injection system.

    PubMed

    Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Chailapakul, Orawon; Motomizu, Shoji

    2008-04-01

    The electrochemical properties of chloramphenicol at a boron-doped diamond thin-film (BDD) electrode were studied using cyclic voltammetry. The highest current response of chloramphenicol was obtained with phosphate buffer, pH 6 (0.1 M) in 1% ethanol. The relationship between the concentration of chloramphenicol and the current response was linear over the range of 0.1-10 mM (R2=0.9990). The amount of chloramphenicol was analyzed by flow-injection analysis. A thin-layer flow cell equipped with a BDD electrode was used as an amperometric detector, and experiments were carried out at -0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The linear relationship between the current response and the concentration of chloramphenicol in the range of 0.1-50 microM (R2=0.9948) and the limit of detection of 0.03 microM (S/N=3) were obtained. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of chloramphenicol in sterile eye drops and milk sample by the standard addition method. The average recoveries of chloramphenicol in eye drops were 98.0%, and the average recoveries of chloramphenicol from spiked milk were 93.9-103%. PMID:18403841

  10. Microchip capillary electrophoresis with a boron-doped diamond electrode for rapid separation and detection of purines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joseph; Chen, Gang; Muck, Alexander; Shin, Dongchan; Fujishima, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode has been employed for the separation and detection of several purines and purine-containing compounds. The BDD end-channel amperometric detector offers favorable signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristics at the high detection potential (+ 1.3 V) essential for detecting purine-related compounds. Factors influencing the separation and detection processes were examined and optimized. Five purines (guanine, hypoxanthine, guanosine, xanthine, and uric acid) have been separated within 6 min at a separation voltage of 1000V using a borate/phosphate run buffer (pH 8.2). Linear calibration plots are observed for micromolar concentrations of the purine compounds. Good stability and reproducibility (R.S.D. < 5%) are obtained reflecting the minimal adsorption of purines at the BDD surface. Applicability for the detection of nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides is illustrated. The new microchip protocol offers great promise for a wide range of bioanalytical applications involving assays of purines and purine-containing compounds. PMID:14753788

  11. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro-Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Radovan, Ciprian; Cinghi??, Dan; Manea, Florica; Mincea, Manuela; Cofan, Codru?a; Ostafe, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB), has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE), especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998) and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an “overall paraben index”, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  12. Comparative study of oxidation ability between boron-doped diamond (BDD) and lead oxide (PbO2) electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jun; Zhu, Xiu-Ping; Lü, Fan-Xiu; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2011-10-01

    The electrochemical oxidation capabilities of two high-performance electrodes, the boron-doped diamond film on Ti (Ti/BDD) and the lead oxide film on Ti (Ti/PbO2), were discussed. Hydroxyl radicals (·HO) generated on the electrode surface were detected by using p-nitrosodimethylaniline (RNO) as the trapping reagent. Electrochemical oxidation measurements, including the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the current efficiency (CE), were carried out via the degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) under the galvanostatic condition. The results indicate that an indirect reaction, which is attributed to free hydroxyl radicals with high activation, conducts on the Ti/BDD electrode, while the absorbed hydroxyl radicals generated at the Ti/PbO2 surface results in low degradation efficiency. Due to quick mineralization which combusts PNP to CO2 and H2O absolutely by the active hydroxyl radical directly, the CE obtained on the Ti/BDD electrode is much higher than that on the Ti/PbO2 electrode, notwithstanding the number of hydroxyl radicals produced on PbO2 is higher than that on the BDD surface.

  13. Anodic stripping voltammetry of gold nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes and its application in immunochromatographic strip tests.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Wicaksono, Wiyogo P; Saepudin, Endang; Rismetov, Bakhadir; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-03-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of colloidal gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in 50 mM HClO4. A deposition time of 300 s at-0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was fixed as the condition for the ASV. The voltammograms showed oxidation peaks that could be attributed to the oxidation of gold. These oxidation peaks were then investigated for potential application in immunochromatographic strip tests for the selective and quantitative detection of melamine, in which AuNPs were used as the label for the antibody of melamine. Linear regression of the oxidation peak currents appeared in the concentration range from 0.05-0.6 ?g/mL melamine standard, with an estimated LOD of 0.069 ?g/mL and an average relative standard deviation of 8.0%. This indicated that the method could be considered as an alternative method for selective and quantitative immunochromatographic applications. The validity was examined by the measurements of melamine injected into milk samples, which showed good recovery percentages during the measurements. PMID:25618650

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of ampicillin antibiotic at boron-doped diamond electrodes and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Körbahti, Bahad?r K; Ta?yürek, Selin

    2015-03-01

    Electrochemical oxidation and process optimization of ampicillin antibiotic at boron-doped diamond electrodes (BDD) were investigated in a batch electrochemical reactor. The influence of operating parameters, such as ampicillin concentration, electrolyte concentration, current density, and reaction temperature, on ampicillin removal, COD removal, and energy consumption was analyzed in order to optimize the electrochemical oxidation process under specified cost-driven constraints using response surface methodology. Quadratic models for the responses satisfied the assumptions of the analysis of variance well according to normal probability, studentized residuals, and outlier t residual plots. Residual plots followed a normal distribution, and outlier t values indicated that the approximations of the fitted models to the quadratic response surfaces were very good. Optimum operating conditions were determined at 618 mg/L ampicillin concentration, 3.6 g/L electrolyte concentration, 13.4 mA/cm(2) current density, and 36 °C reaction temperature. Under response surface optimized conditions, ampicillin removal, COD removal, and energy consumption were obtained as 97.1 %, 92.5 %, and 71.7 kWh/kg CODr, respectively. PMID:24906830

  15. Determination of vanillin in commercial food product by adsorptive stripping voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Yard?m, Yavuz; Gülcan, Mehmet; ?entürk, Zühre

    2013-12-01

    A method for the determination of food additive vanillin was developed by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Its determination was carried out at the anodically pre-treated boron-doped diamond electrode in aqueous solutions. Using square-wave stripping mode, the compound yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in phosphate buffer, pH 2.5 at +1.14 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) (a pre-concentration step being carried out at open-circuit condition for 60s). A linear calibration graph was obtained in the concentration range of 0.5-15.0 ?g mL(-1) (3.3×10(-6)-9.8×10(-5) mol L(-1)) with a detection limit of 0.024 ?g mL(-1) (1.6×10(-7) mol L(-1)). As an example, the practical applicability of the proposed method was tested for the determination of this flavouring agent in commercial pudding powder of Keshkule (Turkish milk pudding with almond flour). PMID:23870896

  16. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Rao, Dewei; Lu, Ruifeng

    2015-02-01

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars.

  17. Surface Roughness and Critical Exponent Analyses of Boron-Doped Diamond Films Using Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging: Application of Autocorrelation and Power Spectral Density Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Vierkant, G. P.

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of the surface roughness of growing metal or semiconductor thin films provides much needed information about their growth kinetics and corresponding mechanism. While some systems show stages of nucleation, coalescence, and growth, others exhibit varying microstructures for different process conditions. In view of these classifications, we report herein detailed analyses based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization to extract the surface roughness and growth kinetics exponents of relatively low boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by utilizing the analytical power spectral density (PSD) and autocorrelation function (ACF) as mathematical tools. The machining industry has applied PSD for a number of years for tool design and analysis of wear and machined surface quality. Herein, we present similar analyses at the mesoscale to study the surface morphology as well as quality of BDD films grown using the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. PSD spectra as a function of boron concentration (in gaseous phase) are compared with those for samples grown without boron. We find that relatively higher boron concentration yields higher amplitudes of the longer-wavelength power spectral lines, with amplitudes decreasing in an exponential or power-law fashion towards shorter wavelengths, determining the roughness exponent ( ? ? 0.16 ± 0.03) and growth exponent ( ? ? 0.54), albeit indirectly. A unique application of the ACF, which is widely used in signal processing, was also applied to one-dimensional or line analyses (i.e., along the x- and y-axes) of AFM images, revealing surface topology datasets with varying boron concentration. Here, the ACF was used to cancel random surface "noise" and identify any spatial periodicity via repetitive ACF peaks or spatially correlated noise. Periodicity at shorter spatial wavelengths was observed for no doping and low doping levels, while smaller correlations were observed for relatively higher boron concentration. These semiquantitative spatial analyses may prove useful in comparing synthesis techniques and varying compositional makeups of diamond films and other technologically important electronic materials. These findings in terms of critical exponents are also correlated with traditional Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction structural properties, thus helping to provide insight into the growth kinetics, albeit in reverse manner.

  18. The influence of Cu-doping on aluminum nitride, silicon carbide and boron nitride nanotubes’ ability to detect carbon dioxide; DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavifar, Zabiollah; Abbasi, Nasibeh

    2014-02-01

    In this research, the potential use of Cu-functionalized [4,4] silicon carbide (SiC), aluminum nitride (AlN) and boron nitride (BN) single-walled nanotubes as nanodevices for CO2 monitoring is investigated. It is found that Cu-doping the different sites of the considered nanotubes and combining these nanotubes with CO2 gas molecules are both exothermic processes, and the relaxed geometries are stable. Our results reveal that the CO2 gas molecules can be strongly physisorbed on the Cu-doped nanotubes, accompanied by large adsorption energy. Compared with the weak adsorption of CO2 molecule onto pristine BNNT and SiCNT, the CO2 molecule tends to be strongly physisorbed onto Cu-decorated BNNT and SiCNT with an appreciable adsorption energy. Furthermore, the results indicate that Cu-functionalized SiCNT is more favorable than Cu-doped BNNT and AlNNT structures for CO2 adsorption. Natural bond orbital analysis indicates that the adsorption of a CO2 molecule onto Cu-doped nanotubes is influenced by the electronic conductance and mechanical properties of the nanotube, which could serve as a signal for a gas sensor. It appears that the considerable charge transfer from the Cu-doped nanotubes to a CO2 molecule reduces the energy gap. These observations suggest that the Cu-doped-SiCNT, -BNNT and -AlNNT can be introduced as promising candidates for gas sensor devices that detect CO2 molecules.

  19. The Effect of Carrier Injection Stress on Boron-Doped Amorphous Silicon Suboxide Layers Investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunhwa; Park, Seungman; Park, Jinjoo; Kim, Youngkuk; Yoon, Kichan; Shin, Chonghoon; Baek, Seungsin; Kim, Joondong; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2011-09-01

    In amorphous silicon solar cells, reducing degradation is one of the key issues in improving cell performance. The degradation of the p-layer can play an important role since it is directly related to the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) in the cells. In this study, we investigated the changes in boron-doped p-type silicon suboxide (SiOx) layers after carrier injection stress. The boron doping level was varied by controlling B2H6 gas flow rate. When these layers were degraded, the dark conductivity decay decreased from 53% to less than 5%, and the increase in activation energy decreased from 11 to 0.5% depending on the B2H6 gas flow rate increase. Our improvements are explained in conjunction with the three- and four-fold coordinated boron atoms by the shift of the B 1s X-ray photoelectron spectrum. In this paper we present how to improve the stability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells.

  20. Tensile properties of a boron/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube–graphene hybrid structure

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kang; Zhan, Haifei; Wei, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Summary Doping is an effective approach that allows for the intrinsic modification of the electrical and chemical properties of nanomaterials. Recently, a graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid structure (GNHS) has been reported, which extends the excellent properties of carbon-based materials to three dimensions. In this paper, we carried out a first-time investigation on the tensile properties of the hybrid structures with different dopants. It is found that with the presence of dopants, the hybrid structures usually exhibit lower yield strength, Young’s modulus, and earlier yielding compared to that of a pristine hybrid structure. For dopant concentrations below 2.5% no significant reduction of Young’s modulus or yield strength could be observed. For all considered samples, the failure is found to initiate at the region where the nanotubes and graphene sheets are connected. After failure, monatomic chains are normally observed around the failure region. Dangling graphene layers without the separation of a residual CNT wall are found to adhere to each other after failure with a distance of about 3.4 Å. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the tensile properties of the doped graphene–nanotube hybrid structures, which will benefit the design and also the applications of graphene-based hybrid materials. PMID:24778956

  1. Line defects and induced doping effects in graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and hybrid BNC.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Narjes; Nazari, Fariba; Illas, Francesc

    2014-10-21

    Effects on the atomic structure and electronic properties of two-dimensional graphene (G) and h-BN sheets related to the coexistence of dopants and defects are investigated by using density functional theory based methods. Two types of extended line defects are considered for pristine G and h-BN sheets. In these sheets, the presence of individual doping increases the charge transport character. The coexistence of dopants and defects tunes the band gap towards lower values and causes the direct-indirect band gap change. The relative stability and the electronic properties of various BxNyCz systems are analyzed in detail. We find that the structural properties of these types of systems strongly depend on the orientation of grain boundaries and whether these are parallel or perpendicular to the extended line defects. The electronic structure analysis of the different systems evidences the shift of absorption to the visible region. PMID:25182411

  2. Ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets: a novel peroxidase mimetic, Fe doping-mediated catalytic performance enhancement and application to rapid, highly sensitive optical detection of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jingqi; Liu, Qian; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Qusti, Abdullah H.; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O.; Sun, Xuping

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4) possess peroxidase activity. Fe doping of the nanosheets leads to peroxidase mimetics with greatly enhanced catalytic performance and the mechanism involved is proposed. We further demonstrate the novel use of such Fe-g-C3N4 as a cheap nanosensor for simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive optical detection of glucose with a pretty low detection limit of 0.5 ?M.In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4) possess peroxidase activity. Fe doping of the nanosheets leads to peroxidase mimetics with greatly enhanced catalytic performance and the mechanism involved is proposed. We further demonstrate the novel use of such Fe-g-C3N4 as a cheap nanosensor for simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive optical detection of glucose with a pretty low detection limit of 0.5 ?M. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03693f

  3. Simultaneous detection of purine and pyrimidine at highly boron-doped diamond electrodes by using liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Honda, Kensuke; Rao, Tata N; Fujishima, Akira; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2007-02-15

    Highly boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode, have been examined for simultaneous detection of purine and pyrimidine bases in mild acidic media by using HPLC with amperometric detection. Cyclic voltammetry at as-deposited (AD) and anodically oxidized (AO) BDD were used to study the electrochemistry and to optimize the condition for HPLC applications. At AO BDD electrode, due to its higher overpotential of oxygen evolution reaction, well-defined anodic peaks were observed for the oxidation of purine and pyrimidine bases in acid medium, whereas at AD BDD the oxidation peak of thymine was overlapped with the anodic current of oxygen evolution. The chromatograms of adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and 5-methylcytosine mixture were well resolved by using a silica-based column and a solution of 5% acetonitrile in 100mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.25) as the mobile phase. The detection was carried out at AO BDD electrode at an applied potential of 1.6V versus Ag/AgCl. Linear calibration curves were obtained within the concentration range from 0.1 to 10microM with the limits of detection (S/N=3) ranging from 26.3 to 162.1nM, resulting in an order of magnitude higher sensitivities than those at conventional electrodes. HPLC analysis with diamond amperometric detector was successfully applied for determination of 5-methylcytosine in real DNA samples with high reproducibility. No deactivation of the electrode was found during cyclic voltammetric and HPLC measurements, indicating the high stability for analysis of biological samples. PMID:19071355

  4. Electrochemical combustion of herbicide mecoprop in aqueous medium using a flow reactor with a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Flox, Cristina; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Arias, Conchita; Brillas, Enric

    2006-08-01

    The anodic oxidation of 1.8l of solutions with mecoprop (2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-propionic acid or MCPP) up to 0.64 g l(-1) in Na2SO4 as background electrolyte within the pH range 2.0-12.0 has been studied using a flow plant containing a one-compartment filter-press electrolytic reactor with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel cathode, both of 20-cm2 area. Electrolyses carried out in batch under steady conditions and operating at constant current density between 50 and 150 mA cm(-2) always yield complete mineralization due to the great concentration of hydroxyl radical generated at the BDD anode. The degradation rate is practically independent of pH and Na2SO4 concentration, but it becomes faster with increasing MCPP concentration, current density, temperature and liquid flow rate. The effect of these parameters on current efficiency and energy cost has also been investigated. Generated weak oxidants such as H2O2 and peroxodisulfate ion have little influence on the mineralization process. The kinetics for the herbicide decay follows a pseudo first-order reaction with a higher rate constant when current density increases. Aromatic products such as 4-chloro-o-cresol, 2-methylhydroquinone and 2-methyl-p-benzoquinone, and generated carboxylic acids such as maleic, fumaric, lactic, pyruvic, tartronic, acetic and oxalic, have been identified as intermediates by chromatographic techniques. The initial chlorine is completely released in the form of chloride ion, which is slowly oxidized to Cl2 at the BDD anode. A reaction pathway for MCPP mineralization involving all products detected is proposed. PMID:16516266

  5. Improved fiber retention by the use of fillers in graphite fiber/resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of matrix fillers were tested for their ability to prevent loss of fiber from graphite fiber/PMR polyimide and graphite fiber/epoxy composites in a fire. The fillers tested included powders of boron, boron carbide lime glass, lead glass, and aluminum. Boron was the most effective and prevented any loss of graphite fiber during burning. Mechanical properties of composites containing boron filler were measured and compared to those of composites containing no filler.

  6. Meso/Macroporous nitrogen-doped carbon architectures with iron carbide encapsulated in graphitic layers as an efficient and robust catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in both acidic and alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meiling; Zhu, Jianbing; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Meso-/macroporous nitrogen-doped carbon architectures with iron carbide encapsulated in graphitic layers are fabricated by a facile approach. This efficient and robust material exhibits superior catalytic performance toward the oxygen reduction reaction in both acidic and alkaline solutions and is the most promising alternative to a Pt catalyst for use in electrochemical energy devices. PMID:25757871

  7. The effect of doping three Al and N atoms on the chemical shielding tensor parameters of the boron phosphide nanotubes: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei-Sameti, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an armchair model of the (4,4) boron phosphide nanotubes (BPNTs) with a 1-nm length and consisting of 32 B and 32 P atoms is considered to study the influence of doping three atoms of aluminum in sites of boron (B 3AlPNTs) and three atoms of nitrogen in sites of phosphors (BP 3NNTs) on the electrostatic structure properties. The mouths of nanotubes are capped by hydrogen atoms in order to saturate the dangling bonds of the boundaries and to decrease the calculation time. The structures of BPNTs, B 3AlPNTs and BP 3NNTs are optimized by performing the level of density functional theory (DFT) using 6-31G * basis set. The optimized structures are used for calculating the chemical shielding (CS) tensors and nuclear magnetic resonance parameters such as isotropic chemical shielding (CS I) and anisotropic chemical shielding (CS A). The results reveal that in both models of B 3AlPNTs and BP 3NNTs by doping N atoms the chemical shielding parameters of P and B atoms, which are directly connected to the Al and N atoms decreased and the other sites significantly changed.

  8. Direct assessment of the mechanical modulus of graphene co-doped with low concentrations of boron-nitrogen by a non-contact approach.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shun-Hsien; Medina, Henry; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Chou, Li-Jen; Wang, Zhiming M; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2014-08-01

    Boron and nitrogen co-doping has been shown to be an effective way to induce a band gap in graphene for electrical applications but only a few theoretical studies have been done to understand the elastic and mechanical properties of the modified graphene. Until now, no experimental assessment of the mechanical modulus of boron-nitrogen-doped graphene (BNG) has been reported in the literature. Here, we demonstrate a novel non-contact approach to determine the in-plane stiffness of BNG at low BN concentrations. The in-plane stiffness of BNG with 2 at% BN concentration was estimated to be about 309 N m(-1), which is lower than that of pristine graphene, in good agreement with some theoretical studies. Moreover, we correlated the conductivity of BNG with induced strain and found the BNG to be more sensitive than pristine graphene in response to externally applied strain. This result indicates that BNG is a more suitable material than graphene for strain sensor applications. PMID:24882359

  9. Structure, electronic and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheets doped by 5d transition metal atoms: First-principles calculations and molecular orbital analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaofu; Geng, Zhaohui; Cai, Danyun; Pan, Tongxi; Chen, Yixin; Dong, Liyuan; Zhou, Tiege

    2015-01-01

    A first-principles calculation based on density functional theory is carried out to reveal the geometry, electronic structures and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheets (h-BNSs) doped by 5d transitional mental atoms (Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au and Hg) at boron-site (B5d) and nitrogen-site (N5d). Results of pure h-BNS, h-BNS with B vacancy (VB) and N vacancy (VN) are also given for comparison. It is shown that all the h-BNSs doped with 5d atoms possess a C3v local symmetry except for NLu and NHg which have a clear deviation. For the same 5d dopant, the binding energy of B5d is larger than that of N5d, which indicates the substitution of a 5d atom for B is preferred. The total densities of states are presented, where impurity energy levels exist. Besides, the total magnetic moments (TMMs) change regularly with the increment of the 5d atomic number. Theoretical analyses by molecular orbital under C3v symmetry explain the impurity energy levels and TMMs.

  10. Highly fluorinated graphite prepared from graphite fluoride formed using BF 3 catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline Delabarre; Katia Guérin; Marc Dubois; Jérôme Giraudet; Ziad Fawal; André Hamwi

    2005-01-01

    Fluorinated graphites (CF0.47) were obtained by reaction at room temperature of fluorine gas with graphite in the presence of boron trifluoride and hydrogen fluoride as catalysts. Their thermal treatments under fluorine at temperatures up to 600°C lead to a progressive increase of the fluorine level resulting in an highly fluorinated graphite (CF1.02). Whatever the fluorination level, a stage one fluorine–graphite

  11. Fillers for improved graphite fiber retention by polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a program designed to determine the extent to which elemental boron and boron containing fillers added to the matrix resin of graphite/epoxy composites prevent the release of graphite fibers when the composites are exposed to fire and impact conditions are described. The fillers evaluated were boron, boron carbide and aluminum boride. The conditions evaluated were laboratory simulations of those that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation. The baseline (i.e., unfilled) laminates evaluated were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy. The baseline and filled laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, also were compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the baseline graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that the addition of boron and boron containing fillers to the resin matrix eliminated this fiber release. Mechanical properties of laminates containing the boron and boron containing fillers were lower than those of the baseline laminates. These property degradations for two systems: boron (5 micron) at 2.5 percent filler loading, and boron (5 micron) at 5.0 percent filler loading do not appear severe enough to preclude their use in structural composite applications.

  12. Bulk-bronzied graphites for plasma-facing components in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Doerner, R.; Khandagle, M. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Causey, R.; Wilson, K. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Croessmann, D.; Whitley, J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Holland, D.; Smolik, G. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Matsuda, T.; Sogabe, T. (Toyo Tanso Co. Ltd., O

    1990-06-01

    Newly developed bulk-boronized graphites and boronized C-C composites with a total boron concentration ranging from 1 wt % to 30 wt % have been evaluated as plasma-facing component materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Bulk-boronized graphites have been bombarded with high-flux deuterium plasmas at temperatures between 200 and 1600{degree}C. Plasma interaction induced erosion of bulk-boronized graphites is observed to be a factor of 2--3 smaller than that of pyrolytic graphite, in regimes of physical sputtering, chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation. Postbombardment thermal desorption spectroscopy indicates that bulk-boronized graphites enhance recombinative desorption of deuterium, which leads to a suppression of the formation of deuterocarbon due to chemical sputtering. The tritium inventory in graphite has been found to decrease by an order of magnitude due to 10 wt % bulk-boronization at temperatures above 1000{degree}C. The critical heat flux to induce cracking for bulk-boronized graphites has been found to be essentially the same as that for non-boronized graphites. Also, 10 wt % bulk-boronization of graphite hinders air oxidation nearly completely at 800{degree}C and reduces the steam oxidation rate by a factor of 2--3 at around 1100 and 1350{degree}C. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Coercivity enhancement of boron nitride doped Nd sub 15 Fe sub 77 B sub 8 permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.K.; Chin, T.S. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu 30043 (TW)); Heh, S.J.; Lin, K.D. (High End Metals Co., Hsinchu Industrial Park, Hsinchu 30316 (TW))

    1990-09-01

    Small addition of boron nitride is effective in increasing the Hci value of Nd-Fe-B magnets. With the optimal addition of 0.1 wt% BN, a maximum 20% increase in Hci and a slight increase in Br are obtained, hence (BH)m is slightly enhanced. Chemical compositions estimated by Auger spectroscopy and EPMA indicate that the boron concentration is higher at grain boundaries. The higher concentration of boron can be the result that BN particles react with Nd and dissolve in the Nd-rich phase during the heating processes. Although the dissolved BN contributes to slight grain refining, the coercivity mechanism might be attributed to the change in compositions, notably an increase of NdN and NdB{sub 6}, and morphology of the intergranular phase.

  14. Direct assessment of the mechanical modulus of graphene co-doped with low concentrations of boron-nitrogen by a non-contact approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shun-Hsien; Medina, Henry; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Chou, Li-Jen; Wang, Zhiming M.; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2014-07-01

    Boron and nitrogen co-doping has been shown to be an effective way to induce a band gap in graphene for electrical applications but only a few theoretical studies have been done to understand the elastic and mechanical properties of the modified graphene. Until now, no experimental assessment of the mechanical modulus of boron-nitrogen-doped graphene (BNG) has been reported in the literature. Here, we demonstrate a novel non-contact approach to determine the in-plane stiffness of BNG at low BN concentrations. The in-plane stiffness of BNG with 2 at% BN concentration was estimated to be about 309 N m-1, which is lower than that of pristine graphene, in good agreement with some theoretical studies. Moreover, we correlated the conductivity of BNG with induced strain and found the BNG to be more sensitive than pristine graphene in response to externally applied strain. This result indicates that BNG is a more suitable material than graphene for strain sensor applications.Boron and nitrogen co-doping has been shown to be an effective way to induce a band gap in graphene for electrical applications but only a few theoretical studies have been done to understand the elastic and mechanical properties of the modified graphene. Until now, no experimental assessment of the mechanical modulus of boron-nitrogen-doped graphene (BNG) has been reported in the literature. Here, we demonstrate a novel non-contact approach to determine the in-plane stiffness of BNG at low BN concentrations. The in-plane stiffness of BNG with 2 at% BN concentration was estimated to be about 309 N m-1, which is lower than that of pristine graphene, in good agreement with some theoretical studies. Moreover, we correlated the conductivity of BNG with induced strain and found the BNG to be more sensitive than pristine graphene in response to externally applied strain. This result indicates that BNG is a more suitable material than graphene for strain sensor applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Actual strain applied on pristine graphene and 2BNG; Raman spectra of CVD graphene and 2BNG transferred onto PDMS substrates; schematic of the atomic model; I2D/IG Raman ratio as a function of the PDMS strain for pristine graphene in the reversible deformation region; Raman information of the I2D/IG ratio for pristine graphene in the irreversible deformation region; Raman G band for graphene before and under applied strain; I2D/IG Raman ratio as a function of the PDMS strain for the 2BNG film in the reversible deformation region; Raman information of the I2D/IG ratio for 2BNG in the irreversible deformation region; Raman G band for 2BNG before and under applied strain; the schematic diagram of the deposition process for a strain sensor device; schematic diagram of the 2D stress applied to graphene and BNG films; actual strain on graphene and BNG measured by Raman versus PDMS strain; schematic diagrams of the strain distribution. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00495g

  15. Characterization and Hydrodesulfurization Activity of CoMo Catalysts Supported on Boron-Doped Sol-Gel Alumina

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -Gel Alumina Franck Dumeignila *, Koichi Satoa , Motoyasu Imamuraa , Nobuyuki Matsubayashia , Edmond Payenb HDS of light fractions. Keywords: Hydrodesulfurization, boron, alumina, sol-gel, thiophene, DBT, 4 based supports and enhancement of the catalytic functions of CoMoS or NiMoS phase might be achieved

  16. Electronic structures and thermochemical properties of the small silicon-doped boron clusters B(n)Si (n=1-7) and their anions.

    PubMed

    Tai, Truong Ba; Kad?uba?ski, Pawe?; Roszak, Szczepan; Majumdar, Devashis; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2011-11-18

    We perform a systematic investigation on small silicon-doped boron clusters B(n)Si (n=1-7) in both neutral and anionic states using density functional (DFT) and coupled-cluster (CCSD(T)) theories. The global minima of these B(n)Si(0/-) clusters are characterized together with their growth mechanisms. The planar structures are dominant for small B(n)Si clusters with n?5. The B(6)Si molecule represents a geometrical transition with a quasi-planar geometry, and the first 3D global minimum is found for the B(7)Si cluster. The small neutral B(n)Si clusters can be formed by substituting the single boron atom of B(n+1) by silicon. The Si atom prefers the external position of the skeleton and tends to form bonds with its two neighboring B atoms. The larger B(7)Si cluster is constructed by doping Si-atoms on the symmetry axis of the B(n) host, which leads to the bonding of the silicon to the ring boron atoms through a number of hyper-coordination. Calculations of the thermochemical properties of B(n)Si(0/-) clusters, such as binding energies (BE), heats of formation at 0 K (?H(f)(0)) and 298 K (?H(f)([298])), adiabatic (ADE) and vertical (VDE) detachment energies, and dissociation energies (D(e)), are performed using the high accuracy G4 and complete basis-set extrapolation (CCSD(T)/CBS) approaches. The differences of heats of formation (at 0 K) between the G4 and CBS approaches for the B(n)Si clusters vary in the range of 0.0-4.6 kcal mol(-1). The largest difference between two approaches for ADE values is 0.15 eV. Our theoretical predictions also indicate that the species B(2)Si, B(4)Si, B(3)Si(-) and B(7)Si(-) are systems with enhanced stability, exhibiting each a double (? and ?) aromaticity. B(5)Si(-) and B(6)Si are doubly antiaromatic (? and ?) with lower stability. PMID:21984168

  17. Influence of boron doping on magnetic properties and microwave characteristics of MnIr/FeCoB multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Phuoc, Nguyen N. [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5 A Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Ong, C. K. [Department of Physics, Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2012-04-15

    A detailed investigation of the influence of B doping on the magnetic properties and high frequency characteristics of FeCoB/MnIr multilayered thin films was carried out. Exchange bias was found to decrease monotonically with B doping possibly due to less favorable of AF phase of MnIr in the samples with rich B concentration. However, with small amount of doping up to 9% of B concentration, the MnIr fcc (111) peaks become more prominent and the real part of permeability enhanced. Our results suggest no correlation between the structural phase of MnIr and the exchange bias. Also, the influences of B doping on several static and dynamic parameters, such as rotational magnetic anisotropy field, coercivity, saturation magnetization, resonance frequency, and effective damping factor are presented and discussed. Our results support the claim that the coercivity enhancement and the arising of rotational anisotropy may have the same physical origin.

  18. Substrate and method for the formation of continuous magnesium diboride and doped magnesium diboride wire

    DOEpatents

    Suplinskas, Raymond J. (Haverhill, MA); Finnemore, Douglas (Ames, IA); Bud'ko, Serquei (Ames, IA); Canfield, Paul (Ames, IA)

    2007-11-13

    A chemically doped boron coating is applied by chemical vapor deposition to a silicon carbide fiber and the coated fiber then is exposed to magnesium vapor to convert the doped boron to doped magnesium diboride and a resultant superconductor.

  19. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of boron-doped layers in amorphous thin film silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchamp, M.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Moreno, M. S.; van Aken, B. B.; Soppe, W. J.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.

    2013-03-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is used to study p-doped layers in n-i-p amorphous thin film Si solar cells grown on steel foil substrates. For a solar cell in which an intrinsic amorphous hydrogenated Si (a-Si-H) layer is sandwiched between 10-nm-thick n-doped and p-doped a-Si:H layers, we assess whether core-loss EELS can be used to quantify the B concentration. We compare the shape of the measured B K edge with real space ab initio multiple scattering calculations and show that it is possible to separate the weak B K edge peak from the much stronger Si L edge fine structure by using log-normal fitting functions. The measured B concentration is compared with values obtained from secondary ion mass spectrometry, as well as with EELS results obtained from test samples that contain ˜200-nm-thick a-Si:H layers co-doped with B and C. We also assess whether changes in volume plasmon energy can be related to the B concentration and/or to the density of the material and whether variations of the volume plasmon line-width can be correlated with differences in the scattering of valence electrons in differently doped a-Si:H layers.

  20. Boron-doped peroxo-zirconium oxide dielectric for high-performance, low-temperature, solution-processed indium oxide thin-film transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Ho; Yoo, Young Bum; Lee, Keun Ho; Jang, Woo Soon; Oh, Jin Young; Chae, Soo Sang; Lee, Hyun Woo; Han, Sun Woong; Baik, Hong Koo

    2013-08-28

    We developed a solution-processed indium oxide (In2O3) thin-film transistor (TFT) with a boron-doped peroxo-zirconium (ZrO2:B) dielectric on silicon as well as polyimide substrate at 200 °C, using water as the solvent for the In2O3 precursor. The formation of In2O3 and ZrO2:B films were intensively studied by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT IR), high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Boron was selected as a dopant to make a denser ZrO2 film. The ZrO2:B film effectively blocked the leakage current at 200 °C with high breakdown strength. To evaluate the ZrO2:B film as a gate dielectric, we fabricated In2O3 TFTs on the ZrO2:B dielectrics with silicon substrates and annealed the resulting samples at 200 and 250 °C. The resulting mobilities were 1.25 and 39.3 cm(2)/(V s), respectively. Finally, we realized a flexible In2O3 TFT with the ZrO2:B dielectric on a polyimide substrate at 200 °C, and it successfully operated a switching device with a mobility of 4.01 cm(2)/(V s). Our results suggest that aqueous solution-processed In2O3 TFTs on ZrO2:B dielectrics could potentially be used for low-cost, low-temperature, and high-performance flexible devices. PMID:23883390

  1. Ab initio investigation of Al- and Ga-doped single-walled boron nitride nanotubes as ammonia sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Alireza; Raz, Shima Ghafouri; Rezaei, Vahid Joveini; Dehno Khalaji, Aliakbar; Savar, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    We performed first-principles calculations on the ammonia (NH3) adsorption properties with zigzag and armchair single-walled BN nanotubes (SWBNNTs) using B3LYP/6-31G* basis set implemented in Gaussian 98 program. We considered the ammonia adsorption on structural and electronic properties of Al- and Ga-doped (8, 0), (5, 5) BNNTs. The adsorption energy for the most stable configuration of NH3 on Al-doped (8, 0) BNNT is about -0.182 eV, which is typical for the chemisorptions. We determined that both aluminum and gallium doping can significantly enhance the adsorption energy of NH3/BNNTs complexes. Our electronic results reveal that there is a significant orbital hybridization between two species in adsorption process being an evidence of covalent interaction.

  2. Doping of Phosphorus and Boron into Silicon by Solid-Phase Diffusion at Low Temperatures ( <650° C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yutaka; Sugioka, Katsutoshi

    1995-01-01

    The diffusion of phosphorus and boron into silicon at lower than 650° C was achieved. Spin-coated glass was used for the diffusion source and samples were heated with a tungsten halogen lamp. The key to diffusing these impurities into silicon at such low temperatures is to decrease the temperature of silicon without reducing some of the light radiated from the halogen lamp. Impurity concentrations at the silicon surface were 1-2×1020 cm-3 at 620-720° C. These impurities diffused into silicon typically at least 0.1 µ m from the silicon surface after 40 min of 620° C annealing.

  3. An Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Carlee S; Hettich, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent – hydroxyl radicals – for these measurements; however, these approaches range significantly in their complexity and expense of operation. This research expands upon earlier work to enhance the controllability of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as an easily accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals in order to oxidize a range of intact proteins. Efforts to modulate oxidation level while minimizing the adsorption of protein to the electrode involved the use of relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber. Additionally, a different cell activation approach using variable voltage to supply a controlled current allowed us to precisely tune the extent of oxidation in a protein-dependent manner. In order to gain perspective on the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface, studies were conducted to monitor protein concentration during electrolysis and gauge changes in the electrode surface between cell activation events. This report demonstrates the successful use of BDD electrochemistry for greater precision in generating a target number of oxidation events upon intact proteins. PMID:23210708

  4. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster. PMID:19863989

  5. Light-induced degradation and metastable-state recovery with reaction kinetics modeling in boron-doped Czochralski silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Min; Chun, Seungju; Bae, Suhyun; Park, Seungeun; Lee, Hae-seok, E-mail: lhseok@korea.ac.kr; Kim, Donghwan, E-mail: donghwan@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min Gu; Song, Hee-eun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yoonmook, E-mail: ddang@korea.ac.kr [KU-KIST Green School, Graduate School of Energy and Environment, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25

    Solar cells fabricated from boron-doped p-type Czochralski silicon suffer from light-induced degradation that can lower the conversion efficiency by up to 10% relative. When solar cells are exposed to temperatures between 100?°C and 200?°C under illumination, regeneration, in which the minority carrier lifetime is gradually recovered, occurs after the initial light-induced degradation. We studied the light-induced degradation and regeneration process using carrier injection within a design chamber and observed open-circuit voltage trends at various sample temperatures. We proposed a cyclic reaction kinetics model to more precisely analyze the degradation and recovery phenomenon. Our model incorporated the reaction paths that were not counted in the original model between the three states (annealed, degradation, and regeneration). We calculated a rate constant for each reaction path based on the proposed model, extracted an activation energy for each reaction using these rate constants at various temperatures, and calculated activation energies of redegradation and the stabilization reaction.

  6. Electro-fenton and photoelectro-fenton degradation of sulfanilic acid using a boron-doped diamond anode and an air diffusion cathode.

    PubMed

    El-Ghenymy, Abdellatif; Garrido, José Antonio; Centellas, Francesc; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Brillas, Enric

    2012-04-01

    The mineralization of sulfanilic acid has been studied by electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) reaction with UVA light using an undivided electrochemical cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air diffusion cathode able to generate H(2)O(2). Organics were then oxidized by hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between generated H(2)O(2) and added Fe(2+). The UVA irradiation in PEF enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals in the bulk, accelerating the removal of organics and photodecomposed intermediates like Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes. Partial decontamination of 1.39 mM sulfanilic acid solutions was achieved by EF until 100 mA cm(-2) at optimum conditions of 0.4 mM Fe(2+) and pH 3.0. The increase in current density and substrate content led to an almost total mineralization. In contrast, the PEF process was more powerful, yielding almost complete mineralization in less electrolysis time under comparable conditions. The kinetics for sulfanilic acid decay always followed a pseudo-first-order reaction. Hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone were detected as aromatic intermediates, whereas acetic, maleic, formic, oxalic, and oxamic acids were identified as generated carboxylic acids. NH(4)(+) ion was preferentially released in both treatments, along with NO(3)(-) ion in smaller proportion. PMID:22404230

  7. Investigation of the synergistic effects for p-nitrophenol mineralization by a combined process of ozonation and electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cuicui; Yuan, Shi; Li, Xiang; Wang, Huijiao; Bakheet, Belal; Komarneni, Sridhar; Wang, Yujue

    2014-09-15

    Electrolysis and ozonation are two commonly used technologies for treating wastewaters contaminated with nitrophenol pollutants. However, they are often handicapped by their slow kinetics and low yields of total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization. To improve TOC mineralization efficiency, we combined electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode with ozonation (electrolysis-O3) to treat a p-nitrophenol (PNP) aqueous solution. Up to 91% TOC was removed after 60 min of the electrolysis-O3 process. In comparison, only 20 and 44% TOC was respectively removed by individual electrolysis and ozonation treatment conducted under similar reaction conditions. The result indicates that when electrolysis and ozonation are applied simultaneously, they have a significant synergy for PNP mineralization. This synergy can be mainly attributed to (i) the rapid degradation of PNP to carboxylic acids (e.g., oxalic acid and acetic acid) by O3, which would otherwise take a much longer time by electrolysis alone, and (ii) the effective mineralization of the ozone-refractory carboxylic acids to CO2 by OH generated from multiple sources in the electrolysis-O3 system. The result suggests that combining electrolysis with ozonation can provide a simple and effective way to mutually compensate the limitations of the two processes for degradation of phenolic pollutants. PMID:25218262

  8. In situ control of local pH using a boron doped diamond ring disk electrode: optimizing heavy metal (mercury) detection.

    PubMed

    Read, Tania L; Bitziou, Eleni; Joseph, Maxim B; Macpherson, Julie V

    2014-01-01

    A novel electrochemical approach to modifying aqueous solution pH in the vicinity of a detector electrode in order to optimize the electrochemical measurement signal is described. A ring disk electrode was employed where electrochemical decomposition of water on the ring was used to generate a flux of protons which adjusts the local pH controllably and quantifiably at the disk. Boron doped diamond (BDD) functioned as the electrode material given the stability of this electrode surface especially when applying high potentials (to electrolyze water) for significant periods of time. A pH sensitive iridium oxide electrode electrodeposited on the disk electrode demonstrated that applied positive currents on the BDD ring, up to +50 ?A, resulted in a local pH decrease of over 4 orders of magnitude, which remained stable over the measurement time of 600 s. pH generation experiments were found to be in close agreement with finite element simulations. The dual electrode arrangement was used to significantly improve the stripping peak signature for Hg in close to neutral conditions by the generation of pH = 2.0, locally. With the ability to create a localized pH change electrochemically in the vicinity of the detector electrode, this system could provide a simple method for optimized analysis at the source, e.g., river and sea waters. PMID:24321045

  9. Direct electrochemistry of Shewanella loihica PV-4 on gold nanoparticles-modified boron-doped diamond electrodes fabricated by layer-by-layer technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenguo; Xie, Ronggang; Bai, Linling; Tang, Zuming; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-05-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are robust devices capable of taping biological energy, converting pollutants into electricity through renewable biomass. The fabrication of nanostructured electrodes with good bio- and electrochemical activity, play a profound role in promoting power generation of MFCs. Au nanoparticles (AuNPs)-modified Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) electrodes are fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique and used for the direct electrochemistry of Shewanella loihica PV-4 in an electrochemical cell. Experimental results show that the peak current densities generated on the Au/PAH multilayer-modified BDD electrodes increased from 1.25 to 2.93 microA/cm(-2) as the layer increased from 0 to 6. Different cell morphologies of S. loihica PV-4 were also observed on the electrodes and the highest density of cells was attached on the (Au/PAH)6/BDD electrode with well-formed three-dimensional nanostructure. The electrochemistry of S. loihica PV-4 was enhanced on the (Au/PAH)4/BDD electrode due to the appropriate amount of AuNPsand thickness of PAH layer. PMID:22852323

  10. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    SciTech Connect

    Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V. [Ångström Solar Center, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lischner, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Louie, Steven G. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Guo, J.-H. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Himpsel, F. J., E-mail: fhimpsel@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO?=?VBM{sub CIGS} – VBM{sub diamond}?=?0.3?eV?±?0.1?eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0?eV?±?0.1?eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  11. Nucleation Control for Large, Single Crystalline Domains of Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Si-Doped Fe Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scalable chemical vapor deposition of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single crystals, with lateral dimensions of ?0.3 mm, and of continuous h-BN monolayer films with large domain sizes (>25 ?m) is demonstrated via an admixture of Si to Fe catalyst films. A simple thin-film Fe/SiO2/Si catalyst system is used to show that controlled Si diffusion into the Fe catalyst allows exclusive nucleation of monolayer h-BN with very low nucleation densities upon exposure to undiluted borazine. Our systematic in situ and ex situ characterization of this catalyst system establishes a basis for further rational catalyst design for compound 2D materials. PMID:25664483

  12. Nucleation Control for Large, Single Crystalline Domains of Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Si-Doped Fe Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Caneva, Sabina; Weatherup, Robert S; Bayer, Bernhard C; Brennan, Barry; Spencer, Steve J; Mingard, Ken; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Baehtz, Carsten; Pollard, Andrew J; Hofmann, Stephan

    2015-03-11

    The scalable chemical vapor deposition of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single crystals, with lateral dimensions of ?0.3 mm, and of continuous h-BN monolayer films with large domain sizes (>25 ?m) is demonstrated via an admixture of Si to Fe catalyst films. A simple thin-film Fe/SiO2/Si catalyst system is used to show that controlled Si diffusion into the Fe catalyst allows exclusive nucleation of monolayer h-BN with very low nucleation densities upon exposure to undiluted borazine. Our systematic in situ and ex situ characterization of this catalyst system establishes a basis for further rational catalyst design for compound 2D materials. PMID:25664483

  13. Structural and electrical characterization of boron-containing diamond-like carbon films deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, A.; Berkesse, A.; Bourgeois, O.; Garden, J.-L.; Guerret-Piécourt, C.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigates the influence of the incorporation of boron in Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) films deposited by femtosecond laser ablation, on the structure and electrical properties of the coatings within the temperature range 70-300 K. Doping with boron has been performed by ablating alternatively graphite and boron targets. The film structure and composition have been highlighted by coupling Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with a field emission gun (SEM-FEG) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Boron dilution ranges between 2 and 8% and appears as nanometer size clusters embedded in the DLC matrix. Typical resistivity values are 100 W cm for pure a-C films, down to few W cm for a-C:B films at room temperature. The resistance decreases exponentially when the temperature increases in the range 70-300 K. The results are discussed considering the classical model of hopping conduction in thin films. Some coatings show temperature coefficients of resistance (TCR) as high as 3.85%. TCRs decrease when the doping increases. Such high values of TCR may have interests in the use of these films as thermometer elements in micro and nanodevices.

  14. Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

    2013-10-01

    Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900°C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

  15. First-Principles Investigation on Boron Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui

    2011-12-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory are employed to study and predict the properties of boron and Mg boride nanostructures. For boron nanostructures, two-dimensional boron sheets are found to be metallic and made of mixtures of triangles and hexagons which benefit from the balance of two-center bonding and three-center bonding. This unusual bonding in boron sheets results in a self-doping picture where adding atoms to the hexagon centers does not change the number of bonding states but merely increases the electron count. Boron sheets can be either flat or buckled depending on the ratio between hexagons and triangles. Formed by stacking two identical boron sheets, double-layered boron sheets can form interlayer bonds, and the most stable one is semiconducting. Built from single-layered boron sheets, single-walled boron nanotubes have smaller curvature energies than carbon nanotubes and undergo a metal-to-semiconductor transition once the diameter is smaller than ˜20 A. Optimal double-walled boron nanotubes with inter-walled bonds formed are metallic and always more stable than single-walled ones. For Mg boride nanostructures, certain Mg boride sheets prefer to curve themselves into nanotubes, which is explained via Mg-Mg interactions governed by the charge state of Mg. In addition, optimal Mg boride sheet structures are explored with a genetic algorithm. Phase diagrams for Mg boride sheet structures are constructed and stable phases under boron-rich environments are identified. Curvature effects on the phase diagram of Mg boride nanotubes are also discussed. As a natural extension to boron sheets, layered boron crystals based on boron sheets are then presented and are shown to be stable under high pressure. Finally, this thesis ends with an investigation of hydrogen-storage properties of pristine and metal doped boron nanostructures.

  16. Boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon germanium alloy nanocrystals—Nonthermal plasma synthesis and gas-phase thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, David J., E-mail: rowex108@umn.edu, E-mail: kortshagen@umn.edu; Kortshagen, Uwe R., E-mail: rowex108@umn.edu, E-mail: kortshagen@umn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Alloyed silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures are the topic of renewed research due to applications in modern optoelectronics and high-temperature thermoelectric materials. However, common techniques for producing nanostructured SiGe focus on bulk processing; therefore little is known of the physical properties of SiGe nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized from molecular precursors. In this letter, we synthesize and deposit thin films of doped SiGe NCs using a single, flow-through nonthermal plasma reactor and inertial impaction. Using x-ray and vibrational analysis, we show that the SiGe NC structure appears truly alloyed for Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} for 0.16 < x < 0.24, and quantify the atomic dopant incorporation within the SiGe NC films.

  17. Electrochemical incineration of omeprazole in neutral aqueous medium using a platinum or boron-doped diamond anode: degradation kinetics and oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Eliane Bezerra; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2013-04-01

    The electrochemical incineration of omeprazole, a widely prescribed gastrointestinal drug which is detected in natural waters, has been studied in a phosphate buffer of pH 7.0 by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H(2)O(2) (AO-H(2)O(2)) operating at constant current density (j). The experiments were carried out in a cell equipped with either a Pt or a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode to continuously produce H(2)O(2). In these systems, organics are mainly oxidized by hydroxyl radicals formed at the Pt or BDD surface from water oxidation. A partial total organic carbon (TOC) abatement close to 78% for omeprazole was achieved by AO-H(2)O(2) with a BDD anode after consumption of 18 Ah L(-1) at 100 mA cm(-2), whereas the alternative use of Pt did not allow mineralizing the drug. However, the drug was totally removed using both anodes, although it decayed more rapidly using BDD. In this latter system, increasing j accelerated the degradation process, but lowering the mineralization current efficiency. Greater drug content also enhanced the degradation rate with higher mineralization degree and current efficiency. The kinetics for omeprazole decay always followed a pseudo-first-order reaction and its rate constant increased with increasing j and with decreasing its concentration. Seven heteroaromatic intermediates and four hydroxylated derivatives were detected by LC-MS, while nine short-linear carboxylic acids were identified and quantified by ion-exclusion HPLC. These acids were largely accumulated using Pt and rapidly removed using BDD, thus explaining the partial mineralization of omeprazole achieved by AO-H(2)O(2) with the latter anode. The release of inorganic ions such as NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) was followed by ionic chromatography. A plausible reaction sequence for omeprazole mineralization involving all intermediates detected is proposed. PMID:23351432

  18. Electro-oxidation and amperometric detection of chlorinated phenols at boron-doped diamond electrodes: a comparison of microcrystalline and nanocrystalline thin films.

    PubMed

    Muna, Grace W; Tasheva, Natasha; Swain, Greg M

    2004-07-01

    We report on the electro-oxidation and amperometric detection of phenol and chlorinated phenols, the latter coupled with flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using boron-doped microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond thin-film electrodes. The low background current, good response without extensive pretreatment, and low susceptibility to fouling are properties that make diamond an attractive new electrode for monitoring this class of pollutants. Cyclic voltammetric studies were performed to evaluate the redox response of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol,4-chlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in phosphate buffer, pH 3.5, as a function of the potential scan rate and cycle number. The diamond electrode performance for the amperometric detection of these contaminants in FIA-EC and HPLC-EC was evaluated in terms of the linear dynamic range, limit of quantitation, sensitivity, response precision, and response stability. Both diamond types yielded low mass limits of quantitation of 100-1000 pg for all the phenolic compounds in FIA-EC, except PCP which was 3 ng, and 100-600 pg for all the compounds in HPLC-EC. In all cases, the S/N was 3 or greater. Both electrode types also exhibited good sensitivity, excellent response reproducibility (av 2.7% for FIA-EC and av 4.2% for HPLC-EC), and superb response stability for all the analytes. The electrodes could be used from days to weeks in the measurement with only a periodic soak in distilled 2-propanol required to maintain optimum performance. Both types of diamond outperformed glassy carbon, which exhibited short-lived responsiveness as a consequence of fouling by reaction products and potential-dependent changes in the electrode's physiochemical properties. The use of the HPLC-EC assay for the determination of 2-chlorophenol in a contaminated soil sample is also demonstrated. PMID:15296320

  19. Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation of solid boronized probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Khandagle, M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research; Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; England, A.; Isler, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; von Goeler, S.; Post-Zwicker, A.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jones, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The initial boronization of PBX-M was performed using the sequential ablation of two types of solid target probes. Probe-1 in a mushroom shape consisted of a 10.7% boronized 2-D C-C composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B{sub 4}C binder. Probe-2 in a rectangular shape consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40 {mu} boron particles. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage during 1 MW neutral beam heated plasmas decreased 27% and volt-sec consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of about 5. The central oxygen density decreased 15--20%. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization exhibited improved operating conditions similar to Probe-1, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred due to the residual boron from the previous boronization using Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front face temperatures at or slightly above the boron melting point. These results confirm the effectiveness of the solid target boronization (STB) technique as a real-time impurity control method for replenishing boron depositions without the use of hazardous borane compounds.

  20. Initial boronization of PBX-M using ablation of solid boronized probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Khandagle, M. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Timberlake, J.; Bell, R.; England, A.; Isler, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tighe, W.; von Goeler, S.; Post-Zwicker, A.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Jones, S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The initial boronization of PBX-M was performed using the sequential ablation of two types of solid target probes. Probe-1 in a mushroom shape consisted of a 10.7% boronized 2-D C-C composite containing 3.6 g of boron in a B[sub 4]C binder. Probe-2 in a rectangular shape consisted of an 86% boronized graphite felt composite containing 19.5 g of 40 [mu] boron particles. After boronization with Probe-1, the loop voltage during 1 MW neutral beam heated plasmas decreased 27% and volt-sec consumption decreased 20%. Strong peripheral spectral lines from low-Z elements decreased by factors of about 5. The central oxygen density decreased 15--20%. The total radiated power during neutral beam injection decreased by 43%. Probe-2 boronization exhibited improved operating conditions similar to Probe-1, but for some parameters, a smaller percentage change occurred due to the residual boron from the previous boronization using Probe-1. The ablation rates of both probes were consistent with front face temperatures at or slightly above the boron melting point. These results confirm the effectiveness of the solid target boronization (STB) technique as a real-time impurity control method for replenishing boron depositions without the use of hazardous borane compounds.

  1. Formation of boron nitride inclusions in hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride-silicon carbide composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Servet Turan; Kevin M. Knowles

    1995-01-01

    Small graphite-like boron nitride inclusions have been detected, using transmission electron microscopy, in silicon nitride particulate-reinforced silicon carbide composites hot isostatically pressed in tantalum cans. The inclusions are thought to arise indirectly from fine particles of boron nitride sprayed onto the internal surface of the tantalum can to prevent a chemical reaction between the tantalum and the silicon carbide. Boron

  2. Deposition, characterization, reflow and analysis of undoped and boron trioxide/phosphorus pentoxide-doped germanosilicate glass films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Darrell Lorenza

    Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of undoped mixed GeO 2-SiO2 glass films in a horizontal tube reactor using germane, silane and oxygen has been studied. Doped films of the mixed GeO2-SiO 2 glass using diborane and phosphine have been studied as well. The glass films offer the potential for both trench etch-refill and interlevel dielectric applications. Film synthesis was carried out at 200°C using a dual coil inductively coupled plasma system. It was determined that the presence SiH4 was not necessary to catalyze the decomposition of GeH4 as required in a strictly thermal environment. Oxide film composition has been determined using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Auger Energy Spectroscopy (AES). Charging effects usually observed in non-conducting films have been eliminated in the EDS analysis with the use of an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (N-SEM) operating at a partial pressure of 150 mTorr of oxygen. EDS and AES results indicate that the on-wafer and wafer-to-wafer compositional uniformity was +/-5% in a caged boat using 4 inch silicon wafers. Cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy has been employed to study the compositional dependency of the flow behavior of the mixed GeO2-SiO2, P2O 5-GeO2-SiO2, B2O 3-GeO2-SiO2, and P2O5-B 2O3-GeO2-SiO2, glass films over silicon trenches under various ambient atmospheres. Reflows were performed at temperatures ranging from 500°C to 1050°C in various gas ambient atmospheres. As result of the work, a low temperature (˜600°C) reflow process was developed resulting in fully planar dielectric film. This process may have application for planarization of interlevel dielectric for ULSI integrated circuits, and is the subject of a patent application.

  3. Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm?2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

  4. Proceedings of the conference on electrochemistry of carbon allotropes: Graphite, fullerenes and diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Scherson, D. [ed.] [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for electrochemists, physicists, materials scientists and engineers to meet and exchange information on different carbon allotropes. The presentations and discussion among the participants provided a forum to develop recommendations on research and development which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes. The following topics which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes were addressed: Graphitized and disordered carbons, as Li-ion intercalation anodes for high-energy-density, high-power-density Li-based secondary batteries; Carbons as substrate materials for catalysis and electrocatalysis; Boron-doped diamond film electrodes; and Electrochemical characterization and electrosynthesis of fullerenes and fullerene-type materials. Abstracts of the presentations are presented.

  5. Boron nitride as a lubricant additive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitsugu Kimura; Toshiaki Wakabayashi; Kazumi Okada; Tetsuya Wada; Hiroshi Nishikawa

    1999-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has a graphite-like lamellar structure, but has been considered less effective than other solid lubricants except for high-temperature applications. The present paper describes a series of sliding experiments which show somewhat curious behavior of BN when added to lubricating oil, and discusses their results by comparing with the results of observation and analysis of sliding surfaces.

  6. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ghosh, C. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Ravindran, T.R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E. [Physical Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ? 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  7. Boron-doped diamond microdisc arrays: electrochemical characterisation and their use as a substrate for the production of microelectrode arrays of diverse metals (Ag, Au, Cu)via electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Simm, Andrew O; Banks, Craig E; Ward-Jones, Sarah; Davies, Trevor J; Lawrence, Nathan S; Jones, Timothy G J; Jiang, Li; Compton, Richard G

    2005-09-01

    A novel boron-doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode array is characterised with electrochemical and atomic force microscopic techniques. The array consists of 40 micron-diameter sized BDD discs which are separated by 250 microns from their nearest neighbour in a hexagonal arrangement. The conducting discs can be electroplated to produce arrays of copper, silver or gold for analytical purposes in addition to operating as an array of BDD-microelectrodes. Proof-of-concept is shown for four separate examples; a gold plated array for arsenic detection, a copper plated array for nitrate analysis, a silver plated array for hydrogen peroxide monitoring and last, cathodic stripping voltammetry for lead at the bare BDD-array. PMID:16096678

  8. Direct Synthesis of Gallium Nitride Nanowires Coated with Boron Carbonitride Layers Hee Won Seo, Seung Yong Bae, and Jeunghee Park*

    E-print Network

    Kim, Bongsoo

    Direct Synthesis of Gallium Nitride Nanowires Coated with Boron Carbonitride Layers Hee Won Seo-crystalline wurtzite-structured gallium nitride nanowires. The graphitic outerlayers are composed of boron, carbonN nanorods.19 They also synthesized GaN nanorods coated with boron nitride (BN) layers.20 The mixture of Ga

  9. Fabrication and characterization of carbon and boron carbide nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Sara

    Carbon is present in nature in a variety of allotropes and chemical compounds. Due to reduced dimensionality, nanostructured carbon materials, i.e. single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties. There is a potential for SWNTs use as biological probes and assists for tunable tissue growth in biomedical applications. However, the presumed cytotoxicity of SWNTs requires investigation of the risks of their incorporation into living systems. Boron is not found in nature in elementary form. Boron based materials are chemically complex and exist in various polymorphic forms, i.e. boron carbide (BC). Because BC is a lightweight material with exceptional mechanical and elastic properties, it is the ideal candidate for armor and ballistic applications. However, practical use of BC as armor material is limited because of its anomalous glass-like behaviour at high velocity impacts, which has been linked to stress-induced structural instability in one of BC polymorphs, B12(CCC). Theoretical calculations suggest that formation of B12(CCC) in BC could be suppressed by silicon doping. In the first part of this thesis, biocompatibility of SWNTs is investigated. It is shown that under normal cell implantation conditions, the electrical conductivity of the SWNTs decreases due to an increase in structural disorder. This research suggests that SWNTs can be functionalized by protein and biological cells reducing the risk of cytotoxicity. In the second part of this thesis, boron carbide nanostructured materials are synthesized and investigated. Radio frequency sputtering deposition technique is employed for fabrication of BC (Si free) and BC:Si thin films. Variation of plasma conditions and temperature are found to affect chemical composition, adhesion to the substrate and morphology of the films. It is shown that BC films are predominantly amorphous and a small addition of Si largely improves their mechanical properties. In addition, nanostructured BC compounds are fabricated by arc discharge technique using graphite or boron carbide electrodes submerged in liquid nitrogen, de-ionised water, or argon gas. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of the synthesized material confirms formation of various BC and carbon nanostructures. Specifically, arc discharge initiated in inert environment by applying low current leads to the formation of nanostructured BC without contaminants.

  10. Development and fabrication of a graphite polyimide box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, M. A.; Darms, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of graphite/polyimide structures was evaluated and key design and fabrication issues to be considered in future hardware programs are defined. The fabrication and testing at 500 F of a graphite/polyimide center wing box beam using OV-10A aircraft criteria was accomplished. The baseline design of this box was developed in a series of studies of other advanced composite materials: glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and boron/polyimide. The use of this basic design permits ready comparison of the performance of graphite/polyimide with these materials. Modifications to the baseline composite design were made only in those areas effected by the change of materials. Processing studies of graphite fiber polyimide resins systems resulted in the selection of a Modmor II/Gemon L material.

  11. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  12. Raman Spectrum of Graphite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tuinstra; J. L. Koenig

    1970-01-01

    Raman spectra are reported from single crystals of graphite and other graphite materials. Single crystals of graphite show one single line at 1575 cm?1. For the other materials like stress-annealed pyrolitic graphite, commercial graphites, activated charcoal, lampblack, and vitreous carbon another line is detected at 1355 cm?1. The Raman intensity of this band is inversely proportional to the crystallite size

  13. Processing of boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Namtae

    The processing of boron carbide powder including sintering optimization, green body optimization and sintering behavior of nano-sized boron carbide was investigated for the development of complex shaped body armor. Pressureless sintered B4C relative densities as high as 96.7% were obtained by optimizing the soak temperature, and holding at that temperature for the minimum time required to reach terminal density. Although the relative densities of pressureless sintered specimens were lower than that of commercially produced hot-pressed B4C, their (Vickers) hardness values were comparable. For 4.45 cm dia. 1.35 cm height disk-shaped specimens, pressureless sintered to at least 93.0% relative density, post-hot isostatic pressing resulted in vast increases in relative densities (e.g. 100.0%) and hardness values significantly greater than that of commercially produced hot-pressed B 4C. The densification behavior of 20-40nm graphite-coated B4C nano-particles was studied using dilatometry, x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The higher than expected sintering onset from a nano-scale powder (˜1500°C) was caused by remnant B2O3 not removed by methanol washing, keeping particles separated until volatilization, and the carbon coatings, which imposed particle to particle contact of a substance more refractory than B4C. Solid state sintering (1500-1850°C) was followed by an arrest in contraction attributed to formation of eutectic liquid droplets of size more than 10X the original nano-particles. These droplets, induced to form well below known B4C-graphite eutectic temperatures by the high surface energy of nanoparticles, are interpreted to have quickly solidified to form a vast number of voids in particle packing, which in turn, impeded continued solid state sintering. Starting at 2200°C, a permanent liquid phase formed which facilitated a rapid measured contraction by liquid phase sintering and/or compact slumping.

  14. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  15. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

    1994-12-13

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

  16. Preparation of graphitic articles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Nemer, Martin; Weigle, John C.

    2010-05-11

    Graphitic structures have been prepared by exposing templates (metal, metal-coated ceramic, graphite, for example) to a gaseous mixture that includes hydrocarbons and oxygen. When the template is metal, subsequent acid treatment removes the metal to yield monoliths, hollow graphitic structures, and other products. The shapes of the coated and hollow graphitic structures mimic the shapes of the templates.

  17. LEO degradation of graphite and carbon-based composites aboard Space Shuttle Flight STS-46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Blaine R.; Synowicki, R. A.; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Devries, M. J.; Woollam, John A.; Moore, Arthur W.; Lake, Max

    1995-01-01

    Six different types of carbon and carbon-boron nitride composites were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-46. The samples received a nominal atomic oxygen fluence of 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm in 42 hours of exposure. Pyrolytic graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite showed significant degradation, and the measured erosion yield was within a factor of two of published values. The erosion yield of pyrolytic boron nitride was found to be 2.6 x 10(exp 26) cu cm/atom in plasma asher exposure, over 42 times lower than that of pyrolytic graphite. This low erosion yield makes graphite plus boron nitride mixtures quite resistant to low Earth orbit exposure. Evidence suggests that the graphitic component was preferentially etched, leaving the surface boron nitride rich. Degradation resistance increases with boron nitride composition. Carbon fiber/carbon composites degraded in low Earth orbit, and the carbon pitch binder was found to etch more easily than the graphite fibers which have much higher degradation resistance.

  18. A first-principles study of nitrogen- and boron-assisted platinum adsorption on carbon nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Hung Li; Ting-Hsiang Hung; Chun-Wei Chen

    2009-01-01

    We have performed first-principles calculations to investigate the origin of adsorption of platinum on nitrogen- and boron-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Our calculation results reveal that both nitrogen- and boron-doped CNTs can assist the reactivity of platinum adsorption on the CNT surface, although the detailed mechanisms are very different. For nitrogen-doped CNTs, the enhanced adsorption results from activation of the nitrogen-neighboring

  19. Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, C. R.; Young, A. F.; Meric, I.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Sorgenfrei, S.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kim, P.; Shepard, K. L.; Hone, J.

    2010-10-01

    Graphene devices on standard SiO2 substrates are highly disordered, exhibiting characteristics that are far inferior to the expected intrinsic properties of graphene. Although suspending the graphene above the substrate leads to a substantial improvement in device quality, this geometry imposes severe limitations on device architecture and functionality. There is a growing need, therefore, to identify dielectrics that allow a substrate-supported geometry while retaining the quality achieved with a suspended sample. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an appealing substrate, because it has an atomically smooth surface that is relatively free of dangling bonds and charge traps. It also has a lattice constant similar to that of graphite, and has large optical phonon modes and a large electrical bandgap. Here we report the fabrication and characterization of high-quality exfoliated mono- and bilayer graphene devices on single-crystal h-BN substrates, by using a mechanical transfer process. Graphene devices on h-BN substrates have mobilities and carrier inhomogeneities that are almost an order of magnitude better than devices on SiO2. These devices also show reduced roughness, intrinsic doping and chemical reactivity. The ability to assemble crystalline layered materials in a controlled way permits the fabrication of graphene devices on other promising dielectrics and allows for the realization of more complex graphene heterostructures.

  20. Boron and sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanofilm as effective photoanode for high efficiency CdS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Yang, Xichuan; Zhang, Wenming; Zhang, Huayan; Li, Xiaowei

    2014-12-01

    A modified polysulfide redox couple, (CH3)4N)2S/((CH3)4N)2Sn, was employed in CdS quantum dots (QDs) sensitized B/S co-doped TiO2 solar cell with NiS as counter electrode, followed by chemical bath deposition (CBD) in an organic solution to prepare the QDs-cell to ensure high wettability and superior penetration ability of the B/S co-doped TiO2 films, with the co-doping of B/S in TiO2, its band-gap was narrowed and significantly extended the light capture range, and an enhanced energy conversion efficiency of up to 3.6% was observed under AM 1.5 G illuminations, with a significantly high Voc of 1.217 V, a high ff of 88.2% and a short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 3.35 mA cm-2.

  1. Effect of various dopant elements on primary graphite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, N.; Theuwissen, K.; Sertucha, J.; Lacaze, J.

    2012-01-01

    Five spheroidal graphite cast irons were investigated, a usual ferritic grade and four pearlitic alloys containing Cu and doped with Sb, Sn and Ti. These alloys were remelted in a graphite crucible, leading to volatilization of the magnesium added for spheroidization and to carbon saturation of the liquid. The alloys were then cooled down and maintained at a temperature above the eutectic temperature. During this step, primary graphite could develop showing various features depending on the doping elements added. The largest effects were that of Ti which greatly reduces graphite nucleation and growth, and that of Sb which leads to rounded agglomerates instead of lamellar graphite. The samples have been investigated with secondary ion mass spectrometry to enlighten distribution of elements in primary graphite. SIMS analysis showed almost even distribution of elements, including Mg and Al (from the inoculant) in the ferritic grade, while uneven distribution was evident in all doped alloys. Investigations are going on to clarify if the uneven distribution is associated with structural defects in the graphite precipitates.

  2. Friction and wear of carbon-graphite materials for high energy brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Caliper-type brakes simulation experiments were conducted on seven different carbon-graphite material formulations against a steel disk material and against a carbon-graphite disk material. The effects of binder level, boron carbide (B4C) additions, graphite fiber additions, and graphite cloth reinforcement on friction and wear behavior were investigated. Reductions in binder level and additions of B4C each resulted in increased wear. The wear rate was not affected by the addition of graphite fibers. Transition to severe wear and high friction was observed in the case of graphite-cloth-reinforced carbon sliding against a disk of similar composition. This transition was related to the disruption of a continuous graphite shear film that must form on the sliding surfaces if low wear is to occur. The exposure of the fiber structure of the cloth constituent is believed to play a role in the shear film disruption.

  3. Friction and wear of carbon-graphite materials for high-energy brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Caliper type brake simulation experiments were conducted on seven different carbon graphite materials formulations against a steel disk material and against a carbon graphite disk material. The effects of binder level, boron carbide (B4C) additions, SiC additions, graphite fiber additions, and graphite cloth reinforcement on friction and wear behavior were investigated. Reductions in binder level, additions of B4C, and additions of SiC each resulted in increased wear. The wear rate was not affected by the addition of graphite fibers. Transition to severe wear and high friction was observed in the case of graphite-cloth-reinforced carbon sliding against a disk of similar composition. The transition was related to the disruption of a continuous graphite shear film that must form on the sliding surfaces if low wear is to occur.

  4. Boron nitride nanoribbons become metallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Huang, Jingsong; Terrones, Humberto; Sumpter, Bobby

    2011-03-01

    Boron nitride (BN) sheets can be grown on nickel substrates, similar to graphene, and BN domains coexist with graphene. The synthesis of zig-zag BN nanoribbons (zBNNRs) brings interesting possibilities regarding edge chemistry: since both boron and nitrogen atoms are exposed on each edge the functionality of the nanostructure is enriched. We report first principles calculations on the electronic properties of zBNNR nanoribbons with several types of functionalization. Sulfur and oxygen edge doping and topological one-dimensional defects are studied and the possibility of having half metallicity is also analysed. Sulfur and oxygen edge passivation converts zBNNRs into a metallic material which offers several possibilities for new applications in electronics, molecular sensing and spintronics.

  5. Enhanced low voltage cell electropermeabilization by boron nitride nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Raffa; G. Ciofani; A. Cuschieri

    2009-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are a structural analogue of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with alternating B and N atoms which entirely substitute for C atoms in a graphitic-like sheet with almost no change in atomic spacing. BNNTs have generated considerable interest within the scientific community by virtue of their unique properties. Very recently, biomedical applications of BNNTs have also been proposed.

  6. Covalent functionalization based heteroatom doped graphene nanosheet as a metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Minju; Lee, Taemin; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2013-11-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is an important reaction in energy conversion systems such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Carbon nanomaterials doped with heteroatoms are highly attractive materials for use as electrocatalysts by virtue of their excellent electrocatalytic activity, high conductivity, and large surface area. This study reports the synthesis of highly efficient electrocatalysts based on heteroatom-doped graphene nanosheets prepared through covalent functionalization using various small organic molecules and a subsequent thermal treatment. A series of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NRGOn) nanosheets exhibited varying degrees and configurations of nitrogen atoms within the graphitic framework depending on the type of precursors used. On the basis of the rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) experiments, NRGO3, with a high degree of pyridinic-N content, displayed the desired one-step, quasi-four-electron transfer pathway during ORR, similar to commercial Pt/C. We also demonstrated the potential of covalent functionalization of sulfur and boron-doped graphene nanosheets.Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is an important reaction in energy conversion systems such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Carbon nanomaterials doped with heteroatoms are highly attractive materials for use as electrocatalysts by virtue of their excellent electrocatalytic activity, high conductivity, and large surface area. This study reports the synthesis of highly efficient electrocatalysts based on heteroatom-doped graphene nanosheets prepared through covalent functionalization using various small organic molecules and a subsequent thermal treatment. A series of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NRGOn) nanosheets exhibited varying degrees and configurations of nitrogen atoms within the graphitic framework depending on the type of precursors used. On the basis of the rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) experiments, NRGO3, with a high degree of pyridinic-N content, displayed the desired one-step, quasi-four-electron transfer pathway during ORR, similar to commercial Pt/C. We also demonstrated the potential of covalent functionalization of sulfur and boron-doped graphene nanosheets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: UV-vis spectra of all NGOn, tables of atomic composition and nitrogen configurations from high-resolution XPS, RDE, and stability data are provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03581f

  7. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W. (Newport News, VA); Jordan, Kevin (Newport News, VA); Park, Cheol (Yorktown, VA)

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  8. Rim region growth and its composition in reaction bonded boron carbide composites with core-rim structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayun, S.; Weizmann, A.; Dilman, H.; Dariel, M. P.; Frage, N.

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum was detected in reaction-bonded boron carbide that had been prepared by pressureless infiltration of boron carbide preforms with molten silicon in a graphite furnace under vacuum. The presence of Al2O3 in the heated zone, even though not in contact with the boron carbide preform, stands behind the presence of aluminium in the rim region that interconnects the initial boron carbide particles. The composition of the rim corresponds to the Bx(C,Si,Al)y quaternary carbide phase. The reaction of alumina with graphite and the formation of a gaseous aluminum suboxide (Al2O) accounts for the transfer of aluminum in the melt and, subsequently in the rim regions. The presence of Al increases the solubility of boron in liquid silicon, but with increasing aluminum content the activity of boron decreases. These features dominate the structural evolution of the rim-core in the presence of aluminum in the melt.

  9. Study of high resistance inorganic coatings on graphite fibers. [for graphite-epoxy composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Veltri, R. D.; Scola, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Coatings made of boron, silicon carbide, silica, and silica-like materials were studied to determine their ability to increase resistance of graphite fibers. The most promising results were attained by chemical vapor depositing silicon carbide on graphite fiber followed by oxidation, and drawing graphite fiber through ethyl silicate followed by appropriate heat treatments. In the silicon carbide coating studies, no degradation of the graphite fibers was observed and resistance values as high as three orders of magnitude higher than that of the uncoated fiber was attained. The strength of a composite fabricated from the coated fiber had a strength which compared favorably with those of composites prepared from uncoated fiber. For the silica-like coated fiber prepared by drawing the graphite fiber through an ethyl silicate solution followed by heating, coated fiber resistances about an order of magnitude greater than that of the uncoated fiber were attained. Composites prepared using these fibers had flexural strengths comparable with those prepared using uncoated fibers, but the shear strengths were lower.

  10. Fabrication of boron nitride planar field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Yuuko; Tagawa, Shigeru; Sugino, Takashi

    1999-05-01

    Boron nitride (BN) films are grown on sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD). BN films are doped with sulfur. Insertion of the GaN layer between the BN film and sapphire leads to a tight adhesion of the BN film. The electrical resistivity of the sulfur-doped BN film is reduced to 10 3 ? cm. The cathode electrode is formed on the BN film and the anode electrode on the sapphire substrate by evaporating Ti and Au. An emission current of 1 ?A is obtained at an electric field strength of 16 V/?m.

  11. Screw Dislocations in Graphite.

    PubMed

    Hennig, G R

    1965-02-12

    Graphite contains varying concentrations of screw dislocations whose Burgers vector parallels the c axis. Single crystals of natural graphite contain very few such dislocations; furthermore, their Burgers vector always exceeds 450 angstroms. Pyrolytic graphites annealed above 3000 degrees C contain abundant screw dislocations, ranging from 10(6) to 5 x 10(8) per square centimeter in two different samples prepared by somewhat different methods. The Burgers vectors of these screws are predominantly 3.35 angstroms. PMID:17758193

  12. Operation of DIII-D with all-graphite walls

    SciTech Connect

    Holtrop, K.L.; Jackson, G.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Lee, R.L.; Hollerbach, M.A

    1993-10-01

    Recently, additional graphite coverage has been installed in the DIII-D tokamak, increasing the graphite tile coverage from 45% to {approximately}90%. Due to a problem with copper impurity bursts during tokamak discharges, copper foam sheets between the graphite tiles and the Inconel wall have been replaced with GRAFOIL gaskets, which further increases the surface area of the graphite inside the DIII-D torus. Although additional graphite has the potential for improving DIII-D performance, if not properly conditioned it can also degrade tokamak discharges by contributing to increased low Z impurity influx and higher particle fueling. To address these concerns, improvements were implemented both in tile preparation and wall conditioning techniques. All previously installed tiles were grit-blasted with boron-carbide grit to remove co-deposited metal impurities and all tiles were outgassed to 1000{degrees}C prior to installation. The glow discharge system used for wall conditioning was modified to include a large area electrode. The only conditioning techniques used were baking and helium conditioning to avoid producing loosely bound carbon. Previously, H{sup 2} or D{sup 2} Taylor discharge cleaning was used extensively during the vent recovery phase. Recovery from the recent 7-month machine opening was extremely rapid with improved modes of energy confinement (H-mode) transitions observed on the 14th plasma discharge. In addition, very high confinement (VH-mode) discharges were obtained without boronization, which is further indication of the rapid vent recovery. Lower recycling/lower fueling efficiency was also observed during operation with all-graphite walls. We will also discuss the use of Ne and Ar glow, and qualification of the new graphite including outgassing tests of the GRAFOIL material.

  13. GUM Analysis for SIMS Isotopic Ratios in BEP0 Graphite Qualification Samples, Round 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, David C.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

  14. Raman spectroscopic characterization of the core-rim structure in reaction bonded boron carbide ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannotti, Phillip; Subhash, Ghatu; Zheng, James Q.; Halls, Virginia; Karandikar, Prashant G.; Salamone, S.; Aghajanian, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of reaction bonded boron carbide ceramics. Compositional and structural gradation in the silicon-doped boron carbide phase (rim), which develops around the parent boron carbide region (core) due to the reaction between silicon and boron carbide, was evaluated using changes in Raman peak position and intensity. Peak shifting and intensity variation from the core to the rim region was attributed to changes in the boron carbide crystal structure based on experimental Raman observations and ab initio calculations reported in literature. The results were consistent with compositional analysis determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The Raman analysis revealed the substitution of silicon atoms first into the linear 3-atom chain, and then into icosahedral units of the boron carbide structure. Thus, micro-Raman spectroscopy provided a non-destructive means of identifying the preferential positions of Si atoms in the boron carbide lattice.

  15. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines

    DOEpatents

    Pappano, Peter J (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael R (Clinton, TN)

    2012-05-08

    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  16. Covalent functionalization based heteroatom doped graphene nanosheet as a metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Park, Minju; Lee, Taemin; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2013-12-21

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is an important reaction in energy conversion systems such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Carbon nanomaterials doped with heteroatoms are highly attractive materials for use as electrocatalysts by virtue of their excellent electrocatalytic activity, high conductivity, and large surface area. This study reports the synthesis of highly efficient electrocatalysts based on heteroatom-doped graphene nanosheets prepared through covalent functionalization using various small organic molecules and a subsequent thermal treatment. A series of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NRGOn) nanosheets exhibited varying degrees and configurations of nitrogen atoms within the graphitic framework depending on the type of precursors used. On the basis of the rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) experiments, NRGO3, with a high degree of pyridinic-N content, displayed the desired one-step, quasi-four-electron transfer pathway during ORR, similar to commercial Pt/C. We also demonstrated the potential of covalent functionalization of sulfur and boron-doped graphene nanosheets. PMID:24146109

  17. Deformation-driven electrical transport of individual boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuedong; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio; Zhi, Chunyi; Tang, Chengchun; Mitome, Masanori; Kurashima, Keiji

    2007-03-01

    In contrast to standard metallic or semiconducting graphitic carbon nanotubes, for years their structural analogs, boron nitride nanotubes, in which alternating boron and nitrogen atoms substitute for carbon atoms in a graphitic network, have been considered to be truly electrically insulating due to a wide band gap of layered BN. Alternatively, here, we show that under in situ elastic bending deformation at room temperature inside a 300 kV high-resolution transmission electron microscope, a normally electrically insulating multiwalled BN nanotube may surprisingly transform to a semiconductor. The semiconducting parameters of bent multiwalled BN nanotubes squeezed between two approaching gold contacts inside the pole piece of the microscope have been retrieved based on the experimentally recorded I-V curves. In addition, the first experimental signs suggestive of piezoelectric behavior in deformed BN nanotubes have been observed. PMID:17288485

  18. Synthesis and mechanical properties of boron suboxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen M. Schneider; Veronika Kugler; Setsuo Nakao; Ping Jin; Mattias Östblom; Lars Hultman; Ulf Helmersson

    2002-01-01

    Boron suboxide thin films have been deposited on Si(100) and graphite substrates by reactive rf magnetron sputtering of a sintered B target in an Ar\\/O2 atmosphere. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy were applied to study the influence of the O2 partial pressure on the film composition and microstructure.

  19. Synthesis and structure of chemically vapour-deposited boron nitride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshitsugu Matsuda; Naoki Uno; Hiroyuki Nakae; Toshio Hirai

    1986-01-01

    Chemically vapour-deposited boron nitride (CVD-BN) plates have been synthesized on a graphite substrate by the reaction of the BCl3-NH3-H2 gas system in a deposition temperature (Tdep) range from 1200 to 2000° C, with a total gas pressure (Ptot) which was varied from 5 to 60 torr. The effects ofPtot andTdep on the crystal structure and the microstructure of the CVD-BN

  20. Electron oxidation of graphite by fluorospecies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, G.L.

    1984-09-01

    The fluoride-ion affinity (A/sub F/sup -//) of phosphorus pentafluoride was determined to be 100 kcal/mole from the heats of reaction of the Lewis bases SF/sub 4/ and ClO/sub 2/F with PF/sub 5/ near room temperature. The fluoride-ion affinity of boron trifluoride was determined to be 92 kcal/mole from the heat of reaction of ClO/sub 2/F with BF/sub 3/. The crystal structure of ClO/sub 2/BF/sub 4/ was determined and a precise lattice energy was calculated from this structure and used to determined A/sub F/sup -//. Both PF/sub 5/ and BF/sub 3/ were found to react with graphite in the presence of fluorine gas to yield a variety of non-stoichiometric compounds. The fluoride-ion affinity of silicon tetrafluoride is not known, but it does not react with graphite and F/sub 2/ except at high pressures. These and previous results suggested a threshold in oxidizing power of intercalating species below which the oxidative intercalation reaction would not occur. The reduction of C/sub x/PF/sub 6/ by PF/sub 3/ proved that the reaction is thermodynamically controlled to some extent. The displacement of PF/sub 5/ in C/sub x/PF/sub 6/ by BF/sub 3/ (with a smaller A/sub F/sup -//) suggested that two BF/sub 3/ molecules may have a larger fluoride-ion affinity than one PF/sub 5/ and that B/sub 2/F/sub 7//sup -/ may be a stable anion in graphite. Conductivity studies of PF/sub x/ and BF/sub y/ salts showed that a large drop in conductivity when the reaction reaches first stage is due in the most part to direct fluorination of carbon in graphite.

  1. Plant Availability of Boron Adsorbed or Occulted on Goethite to Rape (Brassica napus L.) Seedling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liying Ren; Jingzhen Cui; Yuliang Dong; Duanwei Zhu; Shuijiao Liao; Mingjian Geng; David Hamilton

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine plant availability of boron (B) and relaxation of soil acid to rape seedling exhibited by B-doped goethite in acidic soil. For this purpose, two kinds of B-doped goethite were synthesized: one was goethite with adsorbed B prepared by reacting goethite with borax solution, and the other was goethite with occluded B by

  2. A first principles study on organic molecule encapsulated boron nitride nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei He; Zhenyu Li; Jinlong Yang; J. G. Hou

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structures of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) doped with organic molecules are investigated using density functional theory. An electrophilic molecule introduces acceptor states in the wide gap of BNNT close to the valence band edge, which makes the doped system a p-type semiconductor. However, with typical nucleophilic organic molecules encapsulation, only deep occupied molecular states but no shallow donor

  3. Intercalated graphite electrical conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    For years NASA has wanted to reduce the weight of spacecraft and aircraft. Experiments are conducted to find a lightweight synthetic metal to replace copper. The subject of this paper, intercalated graphite, is such a material. Intercalated graphite is made by heating petroleum or coal to remove the hydrogen and to form more covalent bonds, thus increasing the molecular weight. The coal or petroleum eventually turns to pitch, which can then be drawn into a fiber. With continued heating the pitch-based fiber releases hydrogen and forms a carbon fiber. The carbon fiber, if heated sufficiently, becomes more organized in parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms in the form of graphite. A conductor of intercalated graphite is potentially useful for spacecraft or aircraft applications because of its low weight.

  4. Molecular Structure of graphite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-26

    In the the mid-16th century, a violent storm knocked over several trees in Borrowdale, England, uncovering a large deposit of a black substance that was first thought to be lead. More than 200 years later, an English scientist discovered that the substance was not actually lead, but a type of carbon instead. The substance was named graphite, after the Greek word meaning "to write," since that is how people used the substance. Graphite is a black silver with a metallic to dull luster. It has a hexagonal crystal system with crystals that are opaque. Due to its high temperature stability and chemical inertness graphite is a good candidate for a refractory material. It is used in the production of refractory bricks and in the production of Mag-carbon refractory bricks. Amorphous graphite is used in metallurgy, pencil production, and paint production.

  5. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; R. Bratton

    2007-09-01

    This technology development plan is designed to provide a clear understanding of the research and development direction necessary for the qualification of nuclear grade graphite for use within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor. The NGNP will be a helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Considerable effort will be required to ensure that the graphite performance is not compromised during operation. Based upon the perceived requirements the major data needs are outlined and justified from the perspective of reactor design, reatcor performance, or the reactor safety case. The path forward for technology development can then be easily determined for each data need. How the data will be obtained and the inter-relationships between the experimental and modeling activities will define the technology development for graphite R&D. Finally, the variables affecting this R&D program are discussed from a general perspective. Factors that can significantly affect the R&D program such as funding, schedules, available resources, multiple reactor designs, and graphite acquisition are analyzed.

  6. Residual stresses in boron/tungsten and boron/carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Longitudinal residual stress distribution is determined for 102-micron diam B/W and B/C fibers. The 102-micron diam B/W fibers are deposited on a 12.7-micron diam tungsten wire resistively heated in a BCl3-H2 reactor. The 102-micron diam B/C fibers are made by deposition of boron on a pyrolytic graphite-coated carbon fiber. The longitudinal residual stress distribution is calculated from measurements of the change in length of the fiber produced by removal of the surface through electropolishing. It is found that for both types of fibers, the residual stress vary from a compressive stress at the surface to a tensile stress in the boron near the core. Closer to the core and in the core, significant differences in the residual stresses are observed for the B/W and B/C fibers.

  7. Boron arsenide thin film solar cell development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, J.L.; Van Doren, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    Pyrolytic decomposition of diborane and arsine has been used in attempts to grow polycrystalline BAs films. This method, however, produced only amorphous films for deposition temperatures below 920/sup 0/C and polycrystalline boron subarsenide (B/sub 12/As/sub 2/) flms for deposition temperatures above this value. The amorphous films have been determined to have a significant arsenic content but the actual stoichiometry was not obtained. The films were adherent on single crystal sapphire (0001), (111) silicon, (0001) SiC, and polycrystalline SiC but were found not to be adherent to substrates of fused quartz, tungsten, and molybdenum. It was also found that all films deposited above 650/sup 0/C were p-type while those deposited below 600/sup 0/C were usually n-type. Polycrystalline BAs and B/sub 12/As/sub 2/ was produced by reaction of the elements in a closed tube. The amorphous films showed an indirect or non-direct optical bandgap from 1.0 to 1.7 eV with the most probable values between 1.2 to 1.4 eV. The crystalline BAs powder shows a bandgap near 1.0 eV. Photoconductance time constants have been measured for films deposited on (0001) sapphire and (0001) SiC. Attempts at doping the amorphous films were generally unsuccessful. A polycrystalline powder sample was successfully doped with sulfur. Attempts were made to produce a Schottky barrier diode by evaporating Al dots onto an amorphous film on graphite without a post-evaporation anneal. An MIS structure was also attempted by baking an amorphous film in air at 280/sup 0/C before evaporation of aluminum. Although nonlinear characteristics were obtained, none of the devices showed any photovoltaic response. A p-type amorphous film was deposited on an n-type silicon substrate to form a p-n heterojunction. This device did exhibit a photovoltaic response but it is believed that the photogeneration was occurring primarily in the silicon substrate.

  8. The structure of boron in boron fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, J.; Krawitz, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of noncrystalline, chemically vapour-deposited boron fibres was investigated by computer modelling the experimentally obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. The diffraction patterns from the models were computed using the Debye scattering equation. The modelling was done utilizing the minimum nearest-neighbour distance, the density of the model, and the broadening and relative intensity of the various peaks as boundary conditions. The results suggest that the fibres consist of a continuous network of randomly oriented regions of local atomic order, about 2 nm in diameter, containing boron atoms arranged in icosahedra. Approximately half of these regions have a tetragonal structure and the remaining half a distorted rhombohedral structure. The model also indicates the presence of many partial icosahedra and loose atoms not associated with any icosahedra. The partial icosahedra and loose atoms indicated in the present model are in agreement with the relaxing sub-units which have been suggested to explain the anelastic behavior of fibre boron and the loosely bound boron atoms which have been postulated to explain the strengthening mechanism in boron fibres during thermal treatment.

  9. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyday

    1990-01-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position

  10. Passivation effects in B doped self-assembled Si nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthen Veettil, B.; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Zhang, Tian; Yang, Terry; Johnson, Craig; McCamey, Dane; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Würfl, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Doping of semiconductor nanocrystals has enabled their widespread technological application in optoelectronics and micro/nano-electronics. In this work, boron-doped self-assembled silicon nanocrystal samples have been grown and characterised using Electron Spin Resonance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The passivation effects of boron on the interface dangling bonds have been investigated. Addition of boron dopants is found to compensate the active dangling bonds at the interface, and this is confirmed by an increase in photoluminescence intensity. Further addition of dopants is found to reduce the photoluminescence intensity by decreasing the minority carrier lifetime as a result of the increased number of non-radiative processes.

  11. Lamellar lubrication in vivo and vitro: Friction testing of hexagonal boron nitride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Pawlak; R. Pai; E. Bayraktar; T. Kaldonski; A. Oloyede

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipid molecules (PLs) in vivo and graphite, molybdenum disulfide, tungsten disulfide and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in vitro are good examples of frictionless lubricants. PLs and solid materials have the ability to form multi-bilayer or layered structures similar to lamellate solid. It has been confirmed experimentally that PLs as lamellar lubricants protect the surface of joints against wear while acting

  12. Charge Transfer Chemical Doping of Few Layer Graphenes: Charge

    E-print Network

    . There is no evidence for chemical reaction disrupting the basal plane electron conjugation. Adsorption of bromine on 1 stoichiometric "stage" compounds (termed graphite intercalation compounds GICs). Bromine creates a stage 2 bulk. The bromine GIC Raman spectrum shows that the graphite G band is energy upshifted by hole doping, from 1580 cm

  13. Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

  14. Graphite Gamma Scan Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mark W. Drigert

    2014-04-01

    This report documents the measurement and data analysis of the radio isotopic content for a series of graphite specimens irradiated in the first Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, AGC-1. This is the first of a series of six capsules planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphites. The AGC-1 capsule was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INL at approximately 700 degrees C and to a peak dose of 7 dpa (displacements per atom). Details of the irradiation conditions and other characterization measurements performed on specimens in the AGC-1 capsule can be found in “AGC-1 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Report” ORNL/TM 2013/242. Two specimens from six different graphite types are analyzed here. Each specimen is 12.7 mm in diameter by 25.4 mm long. The isotope with the highest activity was 60Co. Graphite type NBG-18 had the highest content of 60Co with an activity of 142.89 µCi at a measurement distance of 47 cm.

  15. Oxygen hole doping of nanodiamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Tristan; Arnault, Jean-Charles; Girard, Hugues A.; Sennour, Mohamed; Kang, Tsai-Yang; Cheng, Chia-Liang; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Surface-graphitized nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising hybrid nanomaterials which appear to combine core properties of diamond with surface properties of graphene-based materials. Here we demonstrate that NDs covered by graphene islands, so-called Fullerene-Like Reconstructions (FLRs), are sensitive to hole doping by molecular oxygen in water. NDs covered by FLRs (NDs-FLRs) are prepared by annealing under vacuum of detonation NDs at 750 °C. We propose that oxygen hole doping is promoted on FLRs due to a unique electronic interaction between the diamond core and the outer graphene layer. As a consequence, NDs-FLRs exhibit positive zeta potential in water, unlike NDs surrounded by several graphitic layers. Surface hole-doped NDs may be promising nanomaterials for new electronic and biomedical applications.Surface-graphitized nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising hybrid nanomaterials which appear to combine core properties of diamond with surface properties of graphene-based materials. Here we demonstrate that NDs covered by graphene islands, so-called Fullerene-Like Reconstructions (FLRs), are sensitive to hole doping by molecular oxygen in water. NDs covered by FLRs (NDs-FLRs) are prepared by annealing under vacuum of detonation NDs at 750 °C. We propose that oxygen hole doping is promoted on FLRs due to a unique electronic interaction between the diamond core and the outer graphene layer. As a consequence, NDs-FLRs exhibit positive zeta potential in water, unlike NDs surrounded by several graphitic layers. Surface hole-doped NDs may be promising nanomaterials for new electronic and biomedical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Size distribution of annealed NDs and additional XPS data. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31655b

  16. Control of work function of graphene by plasma assisted nitrogen doping

    SciTech Connect

    Akada, Keishi; Terasawa, Tomo-o; Imamura, Gaku; Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro, E-mail: saiki@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-03-31

    Nitrogen doping is expected to provide several intriguing properties to graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment to defect-free and defective highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples causes doping of nitrogen atom into the graphene layer. Nitrogen atoms are initially doped at a graphitic site (inside the graphene) for the defect-free HOPG, while doping to a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site (edge of the graphene) is dominant for the defective HOPG. The work function of graphene correlates strongly with the site and amount of doped nitrogen. Nitrogen atoms doped at a graphitic site lower the work function, while nitrogen atoms at a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site increase the work function. Control of plasma treatment time and the amount of initial defect could change the work function of graphite from 4.3?eV to 5.4?eV, which would open a way to tailor the nature of graphene for various industrial applications.

  17. Gas adsorption on graphene doped with B, N, Al, and S: A theoretical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiayu Dai; Jianmin Yuan; Paolo Giannozzi

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of several common gas molecules over boron-, nitrogen-, aluminum-, and sulfur-doped graphene was theoretically studied using density-functional theory. B- and N-doped graphene retain a planar form, while Al and S atoms protrude out of the graphene layer. We find that only NO and NO2 bind to B-doped graphene, while only NO2 binds to S-doped graphene. Al-doped graphene is

  18. Theoretical study of hydrogen atom adsorbed on carbon-doped BN nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Li; Yueyuan Xia; Mingwen Zhao; Xiangdong Liu; Boda Huang; Yanju Ji; Chen Song

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the electronic structures of C-doped (9,0) boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and hydrogen-decorated C-doped (9,0) BNNTs using density functional theory (DFT). It is found that the doping effect of C-doped BNNTs can be compensated by adsorption of H atom on the C sites. The adsorption energies for hydrogen atoms on different adsorption sites on BNNTs and C-doped BNNTs

  19. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  20. Electrical Activity of Boron and Phosphorus in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A.; Cai, B.; Podraza, N.; Drabold, D. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using realistic models of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and density functional methods, we explore doping and transport with the most popular impurities: boron and phosphorous. We discuss conventional analogies of doping based upon shallow acceptors and donors in a crystalline matrix and highlight the limitations of such an approach. We show that B enters the network always with considerable strain, whereas P is much more "substitutional" in a tetrahedral site. We show that H is attracted to strained centers, especially for B, which increases the likelihood of H passivation effects on B impurities. We elucidate doping and nondoping static configurations in doped a -Si ?H , and the role of H passivation as a partial explanation for the well-known low doping efficiency the material exhibits. We show that thermal fluctuations (that induce both network motion and H hopping) can also significantly impact conduction. We draw comparisons to experimental work.

  1. Interlayer interactions in graphites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobin; Tian, Fuyang; Persson, Clas; Duan, Wenhui; Chen, Nan-xian

    2013-01-01

    Based on ab initio calculations of both the ABC- and AB-stacked graphites, interlayer potentials (i.e., graphene-graphene interaction) are obtained as a function of the interlayer spacing using a modified Möbius inversion method, and are used to calculate basic physical properties of graphite. Excellent consistency is observed between the calculated and experimental phonon dispersions of AB-stacked graphite, showing the validity of the interlayer potentials. More importantly, layer-related properties for nonideal structures (e.g., the exfoliation energy, cleave energy, stacking fault energy, surface energy, etc.) can be easily predicted from the interlayer potentials, which promise to be extremely efficient and helpful in studying van der Waals structures. PMID:24192753

  2. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  3. Ferric chloride-graphite intercalation compounds prepared from graphite fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Cheh Hung

    1995-01-01

    The reaction between graphite fluoride and ferric chloride was observed in the temperature range of 300 to 400 °C. The graphite fluorides used for this reaction have an sp3 electronic structure and are electrical insulators. They can be made by fluorinating either carbon fibers or powder having various degrees of graphitization. Reaction is fast and spontaneous and can occur in

  4. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  5. Boron nitride nanotubes and nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio; Huang, Yang; Terao, Takeshi; Mitome, Masanori; Tang, Chengchun; Zhi, Chunyi

    2010-06-22

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a layered material with a graphite-like structure in which planar networks of BN hexagons are regularly stacked. As the structural analogue of a carbon nanotube (CNT), a BN nanotube (BNNT) was first predicted in 1994; since then, it has become one of the most intriguing non-carbon nanotubes. Compared with metallic or semiconducting CNTs, a BNNT is an electrical insulator with a band gap of ca. 5 eV, basically independent of tube geometry. In addition, BNNTs possess a high chemical stability, excellent mechanical properties, and high thermal conductivity. The same advantages are likely applicable to a graphene analogue-a monatomic layer of a hexagonal BN. Such unique properties make BN nanotubes and nanosheets a promising nanomaterial in a variety of potential fields such as optoelectronic nanodevices, functional composites, hydrogen accumulators, electrically insulating substrates perfectly matching the CNT, and graphene lattices. This review gives an introduction to the rich BN nanotube/nanosheet field, including the latest achievements in the synthesis, structural analyses, and property evaluations, and presents the purpose and significance of this direction in the light of the general nanotube/nanosheet developments. PMID:20462272

  6. Operation and Applications of the Boron Cathodic Arc Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. M.; Freeman, J. H. [Brontek Delta Corporation, 6580 Valley Center Drive, Radford, VA 24141 (United States); Klepper, C. C. [Brontek Delta Corporation, 6580 Valley Center Drive, Radford, VA 24141 (United States); HY-Tech Research Corporation, 105 Centre Court, Radford, VA 24141 (United States); Chivers, D. J. [Ion Links Int. Ltd., 32 St. Mary's Place, Bathgate, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hazelton, R. C. [HY-Tech Research Corporation, 105 Centre Court, Radford, VA 24141 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    The boron cathodic arc ion source has been developed with a view to several applications, particularly the problem of shallow junction doping in semiconductors. Research has included not only development and operation of the boron cathode, but other cathode materials as well. Applications have included a large deposition directed toward development of a neutron detector and another deposition for an orthopedic coating, as well as the shallow ion implantation function. Operational experience is described and information pertinent to commercial operation, extracted from these experiments, is presented.

  7. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Lagally, Max (Madison, WI); Liu, Feng (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  8. Discharge characteristics of graphite fluoride prepared via graphite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Hagiwara, R.; Moriya, K.; Watanabe, N.

    The discharge performance of graphite fluoride, prepared by fluorinating residual carbon from the thermal decomposition of graphite oxide, has been evaluated. In most cases, the graphite fluoride was (CF) n. That prepared from flaky natural graphite gave a higher OCV and discharge potential than (C 2F) n prepared by direct fluorination; the overpotential was similar. The energy density increased by 20 - 30%. In the case of (CF) n prepared from graphitized petroleum coke, a large overpotential, which commonly appears at the beginning of discharge, was not observed, and the discharge potential gradually decreased with the progress of the discharge reaction.

  9. Role of boron oxide in growth of boron nitride grains

    SciTech Connect

    Hubacek, Milan; Ueki, Masanori [Nippon Steel Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Grain growth in sintered hexagonal boron nitride ceramics hot-pressed from microcrystalline and crystalline powders was studied. Boron oxide released during sintering, especially from the microcrystalline powder, had a crucial effect on the size and orientation of boron nitride grains and on the mechanical properties of the ceramics. The extraction of boron oxide from the boron nitride grains with elemental boron and subsequent conversion to a refractory suboxide resulted in a substantial rise in the refractoriness, preventing the undesirable growth of boron nitride grains, and reducing their response to the uniaxial effect of the external pressure. The migration mechanism of boron oxide ill hot-pressed boron nitride was also confirmed by measurements of the oxygen distribution ill the ceramics.

  10. Development of seal ring carbon-graphite materials (tasks 8, 9, and 10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fechter, N. J.; Petrunich, P. S.

    1973-01-01

    A screening study was conducted to develop improved carbon-graphite materials for use in self-acting seals at air temperatures to 1300 F (704 C). Property measurements on materials prepared during this study have shown that: (1) The mechanical properties of a carbon-graphite material were significantly improved by using a fine milled artificial graphite filler material and including intensive mixing, warm molding, and pitch impregnation in the processing; and (2) the oxidation resistance of a carbon-graphite material was improved by including fine milled boron carbide as an oxidation-inhibiting additive. These techniques were employed to develop a material that has 10 times more oxidation resistance than that of a widely used commercial grade and mechanical properties that approach those of the commercial grade.

  11. Coatings for Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galasso, F. S.; Scola, D. A.; Veltri, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Several approaches for applying high resistance coatings continuously to graphite yarn were investigated. Two of the most promising approaches involved (1) chemically vapor depositing (CVD) SiC coatings on the surface of the fiber followed by oxidation, and (2) drawing the graphite yarn through an organo-silicone solution followed by heat treatments. In both methods, coated fibers were obtained which exhibited increased electrical resistances over untreated fibers and which were not degraded. This work was conducted in a previous program. In this program, the continuous CVD SiC coating process used on HTS fiber was extended to the coating of HMS, Celion 6000, Celion 12000 and T-300 graphite fiber. Electrical resistances three order of magnitude greater than the uncoated fiber were measured with no significant degradation of the fiber strength. Graphite fibers coated with CVD Si3N4 and BN had resistances greater than 10(exp 6) ohm/cm. Lower pyrolysis temperatures were used in preparing the silica-like coatings also resulting in resistances as high as three orders of magnitude higher than the uncoated fiber. The epoxy matrix composites prepared using these coated fibers had low shear strengths indicating that the coatings were weak.

  12. Dislocation patterns in graphite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Delavignette; S. Amelinckx

    1962-01-01

    A detailed analysis is given of the dislocation patterns observed by ; means of electron microscopy in graphite single crystal flakes. It is found that ; the dislocations are ribbons consisting of two partials of the Shockley type ; separated by a strip of stacking fault. All patterns can be interpreted in a ; consistent way on the basis of

  13. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  14. An enhanced hydrogen adsorption enthalpy for fluoride intercalated graphite compounds.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hansong; Sha, Xianwei; Chen, Liang; Cooper, Alan C; Foo, Maw-Lin; Lau, Garret C; Bailey, Wade H; Pez, Guido P

    2009-12-16

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study on H(2) physisorption in partially fluorinated graphite. This material, first predicted computationally using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and subsequently synthesized and characterized experimentally, represents a novel class of "acceptor type" graphite intercalated compounds that exhibit significantly higher isosteric heat of adsorption for H(2) at near ambient temperatures than previously demonstrated for commonly available porous carbon-based materials. The unusually strong interaction arises from the semi-ionic nature of the C-F bonds. Although a high H(2) storage capacity (>4 wt %) at room temperature is predicted not to be feasible due to the low heat of adsorption, enhanced storage properties can be envisaged by doping the graphitic host with appropriate species to promote higher levels of charge transfer from graphene to F(-) anions. PMID:19928879

  15. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/coron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Manos, Dennis (Williamsburg, VA); Nartowitz, Ed (Edison, NJ)

    1994-01-01

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

  16. Boron and Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munir Ozturk; Serdal Sakcali; Salih Gucel; Huseyin Tombuloglu

    \\u000a Boron is found naturally in the earth’s crust in the oxidized form as borax and colemanite, particularly in the oceans, sedimentary\\u000a rocks, coal, shale, and some soils. It is never found in the elemental form in nature possessing a complex chemistry similar\\u000a to that of silicon, with properties switching between metals and non-metals. Boron has become an important and strategic

  17. Processing of boron carbide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namtae Cho

    2006-01-01

    The processing of boron carbide powder including sintering optimization, green body optimization and sintering behavior of nano-sized boron carbide was investigated for the development of complex shaped body armor. Pressureless sintered B4C relative densities as high as 96.7% were obtained by optimizing the soak temperature, and holding at that temperature for the minimum time required to reach terminal density. Although

  18. Molecular Structure of boron

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-26

    Boron was founded in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and Gay-Lussac and Thenard. It occurs as orthoboric acid in volcanic spring waters and as borates in Boron and colematic. Some sources can also be found in the Mohave Desert. It is used when making glass to keep the glass from breaking under temperature stress. Also if combined with sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide it makes bleach.

  19. Diffusion profiles of boron implanted into plasma-etched silicon surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna Shenai

    1992-01-01

    The diffusion of low-dose boron implanted into plasma-etched silicon surfaces is studied. The thermally grown oxide film on the silicon surface was plasma-etched in a CHF3\\/CO2 plasma. The samples were successively implanted and activated with boron and arsenic to form n+-p-n junctions to obtain a range of surface doping profiles and junction depths. The chemical and electrically active dopant concentrations

  20. Infrared reflectivity and transmissivity of boron-implanted, laser-annealed silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Engstrom, H.

    1980-10-01

    Analysis of the infrared reflectance and transmittance of boron-implanted, laser-annealed silicon shows that the Drude theory of free hole scattering provides a good description of the optical properties of these materials up to the highest doping levels obtainable. It was found that (1) the relaxation time (approx.7 x 10/sup -15/ s) was independent of the implant dose, and (2) the boron concentration affecting the optical properties varies essentially linearly with implant dose.

  1. All-vanadium redox flow batteries with graphite felt electrodes treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Zhang; Liao, Wei-Yang; Hsieh, Wen-Yen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Chen, Yong-Song

    2015-01-01

    Graphite felts modified with atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are applied as electrodes in an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). APPJ flow penetrates deeply into the graphite felt, improving significantly the wettability of the graphite felt inside out and, thereby, enhancing graphite fiber-electrolyte contact during battery operation. The energy efficiency of a VRFB was improved from 62% (untreated) to 76% (APPJ-treated with the scan mode) at a current density of 80 mA cm-2, an improvement of 22%. The efficiency improvement is attributed to the oxygen-containing groups and nitrogen doping introduced by N2 APPJs on the fiber surfaces of graphite felt, both of which enhance electrochemical reactivity.

  2. Boron-Based Layered Structures for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory simulations, we have studied the boron-based graphite-like materials, i.e., LiBC and MgB2 for energy storage. First, when half of the Li-ions in the LiBC are removed, the BC layered structure is still preserved. The Li intercalation potential (equilibrium lithium-insertion voltage of 2.3-2.4 V relative to lithium metal) is significantly higher than that in graphite, allowing Li0.5BC to function as a cathode material. The reversible electrochemical reaction, LiBC = Li0.5BC + 0.5Li, enables a specific energy density of 1088 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 2463 Wh/L. Second, 75% of the Mg ions in MgB2 can be removed and reversibly inserted with the layered boron structures being preserved through an in-plane topological transformation between the hexagonal lattice domains and triangular domains. The mechanism of such a charge-driven transformation originates from the versatile valence state of boron in its planar form.

  3. Chemical Analysis of Impurity Boron Atoms in Diamond Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Iihara, Junji; Takebe, Toshihiko; Denlinger, Jonathan D.

    2008-03-29

    To analyze the local structure and/or chemical states of boron atoms in boron-doped diamond, which can be synthesized by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method (CVD-B-diamond) and the temperature gradient method at high pressure and high temperature (HPT-B-diamond), we measured the soft X-ray emission spectra in the CK and BK regions of B-diamonds using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). X-ray spectral analyses using the fingerprint method and molecular orbital calculations confirm that boron atoms in CVD-B-diamond substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice to form covalent B-C bonds, while boron atoms in HPT-B-diamond react with the impurity nitrogen atoms to form hexagonal boron nitride. This suggests that the high purity diamond without nitrogen impurities is necessary to synthesize p-type B-diamond semiconductors.

  4. Novel semiconducting boron carbide/pyridine polymers for neutron detection at zero bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverría, Elena; James, Robinson; Chiluwal, Umesh; Pasquale, Frank L.; Colón Santana, Juan A.; Gapfizi, Richard; Tae, Jae-Do; Driver, M. Sky; Enders, A.; Kelber, Jeffry A.; Dowben, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films containing aromatic pyridine moieties bonded to boron, in the partially dehydrogenated boron-rich icosahedra (B10C2HX), prove to be an effective material for neutron detection applications when deposited on n-doped (100) silicon substrates. The characteristic I-V curves for the heterojunction diodes exhibit strong rectification and largely unperturbed normalized reverse bias leakage currents with increasing pyridine content. The neutron capture generated pulses from these heterojunction diodes were obtained at zero bias voltage although without the signatures of complete electron-hole collection. These results suggest that modifications to boron carbide may result in better neutron voltaic materials.

  5. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  6. Boronate-Mediated Biologic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Gregory A.; Palte, Michael J.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    Inefficient cellular delivery limits the landscape of macromolecular drugs. Boronic acids readily form boronate esters with the 1,2- and 1,3-diols of saccharides, such as those that coat the surface of mammalian cells. Here pendant boronic acids are shown to enhance the cytosolic delivery of a protein toxin. Thus, boronates are a non-cationic carrier that can deliver a polar macromolecule into mammalian cells. PMID:22303837

  7. Bamboo leaf-assisted formation of carbon/nitrogen co-doped anatase TiO2 modified with silver and graphitic carbon nitride: novel and green synthesis and cooperative photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhifeng; Liu, Dong; Jiang, Deli; Wei, Wei; Qian, Kun; Chen, Min; Xie, Jimin

    2014-09-28

    We report a novel synthesis approach employing bamboo leaves as sources of both the C/N dopant and reductant to the formation of C/N co-doped TiO2 modified with Ag and g-C3N4 (Ag/CN-TiO2@g-C3N4). In this case, the ternary composite has a hierarchical structure and a large surface area, which increases the contact area of reactants. Degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and hydrogen generation were carried out to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples under visible light irradiation. It is found that with respect to single and binary catalysts, the Ag/CN-TiO2@g-C3N4 ternary composite shows the highest photocatalytic activity (degradation of RhB, H2 evolution from water splitting) as a result of the fast generation, separation and transportation of the photogenerated carriers, which was evidenced by photoluminescence measurements and free radical/hole scavenging experiments. At last, a possible photocatalytic mechanism under visible light irradiation was proposed. The novel and green synergistic approach presented here could provide a facile yet effective method for designing other visible light active non-metal co-doped TiO2 based photocatalysts with enhanced activity and high chemical stability. PMID:25102976

  8. CMB-13 research on carbon and graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results of the research on carbon and graphite accomplished during this report period are presented. Included are: particle characteristics of Santa Maria fillers, compositions and density data for hot-molded Santa Maria graphites, properties of hot-molded Santa Maria graphites, and properties of hot-molded anisotropic graphites. Ablation-resistant graphites are also discussed.

  9. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navak, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a program designed to optimize the fabrication procedures for graphite thermoplastic composites are described. The properties of the composites as a function of temperature were measured and graphite thermoplastic fan exit guide vanes were fabricated and tested. Three thermoplastics were included in the investigation: polysulfone, polyethersulfone, and polyarylsulfone. Type HMS graphite was used as the reinforcement. Bending fatigue tests of HMS graphite/polyethersulfone demonstrated a gradual shear failure mode which resulted in a loss of stiffness in the specimens. Preliminary curves were generated to show the loss in stiffness as a function of stress and number of cycles. Fan exit guide vanes of HMS graphite polyethersulfone were satisfactorily fabricated in the final phase of the program. These were found to have stiffness and better fatigue behavior than graphite epoxy vanes which were formerly bill of material.

  10. Impedance of electrochemically modified graphite.

    PubMed

    Magdi?, Katja; Kvastek, Krešimir; Horvat-Radoševi?, Višnja

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS, has been applied for characterization of electrochemically modified graphite electrodes in the sulphuric acid solution. Graphite modifications were performed by potential cyclization between potentials of graphite oxide formation/reduction, different number of cycles, and prolonged reduction steps after cyclization. Impedance spectra measured at two potential points within double-layer region of graphite have been successfully modeled using the concept of porous electrodes involving two different electrolyte diffusion paths, indicating existence of two classes of pores. The evaluated impedance parameter values show continuous changes with stages of graphite modification, indicating continuous structural changes of pores by number of potential cycles applied. Differences of impedance parameter values at two potential values indicate the potential induced changes of solution properties within the pores of modified graphite. PMID:25125120

  11. Method for separating boron isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rockwood

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes ¹°B and ¹¹B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BClâ molecules containing a particular boron isotope is described. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BClâ, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  12. Method for separating boron isotopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rockwood; Stephen D

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  13. Mineral of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  14. Wear and friction of oxidation-resistant mechanical carbon graphites at 650 C in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. P.; Wisnader, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the friction and wear properties of experimental carbon-graphites. Hemispherically tipped carbon-graphite rider specimens were tested in sliding contact with rotating Inconel X-750 disks in air. A surface speed of 1.33 m/sec, a load of 500 g, and a specimen temperature of 650 C were used. Results indicate: (1) hardness is not a major factor in determining friction and wear under the conditions of these studies. (2) Friction and wear as low as or lower than those observed for a good commercial seal material were attained with some of the experimental materials studied. (3) The inclusion of boron carbide (as an oxidation inhibitor) has a strong influence on wear rate. (4) Phosphate treatment reduces the friction coefficient when boron carbide is not present in the base material.

  15. Gas Immersion Laser Doping for superconducting nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodi, F.; Grockowiak, A.; Duvauchelle, J. E.; Fossard, F.; Lefloch, F.; Klein, T.; Marcenat, C.; Débarre, D.

    2014-05-01

    We have conceived and fabricated Superconductor/Normal metal/Superconductor Josephson junctions made entirely of boron doped Silicon. We have used Gas Immersion Laser Doping to fabricate SN bilayers with good ohmic interfaces and well controlled concentration and doping depth. Standard fabrication processes, optimised for silicon, were employed to nanostructure the bilayers without affecting their transport properties. The junctions thus fabricated are proximity superconducting and show well understood I-V characteristics. This research opens the road to all-silicon, non-dissipative, Josephson Field Effect Transistors.

  16. Universal infrared conductivity of graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Falkovsky, L. A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow 117334 (Russian Federation) and Institute of the High Pressure Physics, Troitsk 142190 (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15

    The conductivity of graphite is analytically evaluated in the range of 0.1-1.5 eV, where the electron relaxation processes can be neglected and the low-energy excitations at the 'Dirac' points are most essential. The value of conductivity calculated per one graphite layer is close to the universal conductivity of graphene. The features of the conductivity are explained in terms of singularities of the electron dispersion in graphite.

  17. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    SciTech Connect

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  18. Study of pulsed laser-deposited phosphorus-doped carbon\\/p-silicon photovoltaic cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Z. Islam; M. Alam; S. M. Mominuzzaman; M. Rusop; T. Soga; T. Jimbo; M. Umeno

    2006-01-01

    A heterostructure is fabricated by depositing phosphorus (P)-doped camphoric (C10H16O) carbon thin film (n-type) on boron-doped crystalline silicon (p-type) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In order to dope, different amount of P was incorporated with the camphoric soot target and successful doping of P in carbon thin film is realized. Temperature-dependent conductivity data, transmittance-reflectance measurements in the UV–VIS–IR

  19. Raman scattering and photoluminescence analysis of B-doped CdS thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaehyeong Lee

    2004-01-01

    Boron-doped CdS thin films were chemically deposited onto glass substrates. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and Raman techniques were used to evaluate the quality of B-doped CdS films. XRD results have confirmed that B-doped CdS films have a hexagonal structure with a preferential orientation of the (002) plane. The grain size of B-doped CdS films slightly decreases, but no change

  20. Ultrahard nanotwinned cubic boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongjun; Xu, Bo; Yu, Dongli; Ma, Yanming; Wang, Yanbin; Jiang, Yingbing; Hu, Wentao; Tang, Chengchun; Gao, Yufei; Luo, Kun; Zhao, Zhisheng; Wang, Li-Min; Wen, Bin; He, Julong; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2013-01-17

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is a well known superhard material that has a wide range of industrial applications. Nanostructuring of cBN is an effective way to improve its hardness by virtue of the Hall-Petch effect--the tendency for hardness to increase with decreasing grain size. Polycrystalline cBN materials are often synthesized by using the martensitic transformation of a graphite-like BN precursor, in which high pressures and temperatures lead to puckering of the BN layers. Such approaches have led to synthetic polycrystalline cBN having grain sizes as small as ?14?nm (refs 1, 2, 4, 5). Here we report the formation of cBN with a nanostructure dominated by fine twin domains of average thickness ?3.8?nm. This nanotwinned cBN was synthesized from specially prepared BN precursor nanoparticles possessing onion-like nested structures with intrinsically puckered BN layers and numerous stacking faults. The resulting nanotwinned cBN bulk samples are optically transparent with a striking combination of physical properties: an extremely high Vickers hardness (exceeding 100?GPa, the optimal hardness of synthetic diamond), a high oxidization temperature (?1,294?°C) and a large fracture toughness (>12?MPa?m(1/2), well beyond the toughness of commercial cemented tungsten carbide, ?10?MPa?m(1/2)). We show that hardening of cBN is continuous with decreasing twin thickness down to the smallest sizes investigated, contrasting with the expected reverse Hall-Petch effect below a critical grain size or the twin thickness of ?10-15?nm found in metals and alloys. PMID:23325219

  1. High-Performance Double delta-Doped Channel Si Metal Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    San Lein Wu; Shui Jinn Wang; Chen Chin Liu

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we report the double boron delta-doped Si metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is found that when a double boron delta-doped layer has been used as a conducting channel, the devices exhibit the excellent property of not only higher drain-to-source saturation current (I DSS) but also enhancement in extrinsic transconductance. MESFETs

  2. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1990-08-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Domestically, glass fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The United States continued to provide essentially all of its own supply while maintaining a strong position as a source of sodium borate products and boric acid exported to foreign markets. Supplementary U.S. imports of Turkish calcium borate and calcium-sodium borate ores, borax, and boric acid, primarily for various glass uses, continued.

  3. Boron Requirement in Cyanobacteria 1

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Ildefonso; Garcia-González, Mercedes; Mateo, Pilar

    1990-01-01

    The effect of boron on heterocystous and nonheterocystous dinitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria was examined. The absence of boron in culture media inhibited growth and nitrogenase activity in Nodularia sp., Chlorogloeopsis sp., and Nostoc sp. cultures. Examinations of boron-deficient cultures showed changes in heterocyst morphology. However, cultures of nonheterocystous Cyanobacteria, Gloeothece sp. and Plectonema sp., grown in the absence of boron did not show any alteration in growth or nitrogenase activity. These results suggest a requirement of boron only by heterocystous Cyanobacteria. A possible role for this element in the early evolution of photosynthetic organisms is proposed. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667889

  4. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  5. Boron nitride as desalting material in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment in shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Takeshi; Nukarinen, Ella; Ota, Shigenori; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2014-05-01

    Hydrophilic peptides in shotgun proteomics have been shown to be problematic in conventional chromatography. Typically, C18 solid phase extraction or peptide traps are used for desalting the sample prior to mass spectrometry analysis, but the capacity to retain hydrophilic peptides is not very high, causing a bias toward more hydrophobic peptides. This is particularly problematic in phosphoproteomic studies. We tested the compatibility of commercially available boron nitride as a novel material for peptide desalting. Boron nitride can be used to recover a wide range of peptides with different physicochemical properties comparable to combined C18 and graphite carbon material. PMID:24462817

  6. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, Kurt Edward (Avella, PA); Kolsun, George J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  7. Bidimensional intercalation of Ge between SiC(0001) and a heteroepitaxial graphite top layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kubler, L.; Dentel, D.; Bischoff, J.-L.; Derivaz, M. [LPSE, UMR CNRS-7014, Faculte des Sciences, 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Aiet-Mansour, K. [Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Diani, M. [LSGM, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 416, Tanger (Morocco)

    2005-09-15

    High temperature annealing of 4H- or 6H-SiC(0001) crystals is well known to desorb Si from the surface and to generate a C-rich (6{radical}3x6{radical}3)R30 deg. (6{radical}3) reconstruction explained as a graphite monolayer in heteroepitaxial registry with the substrate. Ge deposition at room temperature and in the monolayer range on this graphitized reconstruction results in Ge islands. Using a number of surface techniques, we follow subsequent Ge morphology evolutions as a function of isochronal post-annealing treatments at increasing temperatures. In a particular temperature window Ge reacts with the substrate by diffusion under the graphite planes and wets the Si-terminated SiC surface. In spite of this bidimensional insertion of a Ge layer, the epitaxial relationship between the SiC substrate and the graphite is maintained as shown by very clear graphite-(1x1) LEED or RHEED patterns. They denote extended and well-ordered graphite planes at the surface of a graphite/Ge/SiC heterostructure. XPS analyses reveal a complete passivation of the intercalated Ge layer against oxidation by the overlying graphite sheets. Moreover, drastic spectroscopic changes on the bulk-SiC Si 2p and C 1s core levels are observed, depending on whether graphite(6{radical}3)/SiC or graphite(1x1)/Ge/SiC terminations are analyzed. In the latter case, the observed core level splitting of the bulk components is interpreted by a significant upward band bending ({approx}1.2 eV) of the n-doped SiC, making this second interface to act as a Schottky barrier. Above 1300 deg. C, a delayed Ge desorption takes place that allows the graphite sheets to re-form in their initial 6{radical}3 form, i.e., without Ge and with flatter bands.

  8. Determination of phase stability of elemental boron.

    PubMed

    White, Mary Anne; Cerqueira, Anthony B; Whitman, Catherine A; Johnson, Michel B; Ogitsu, Tadashi

    2015-03-16

    Boron is an important element, used in applications from superhard materials to superconductors. Boron exists in several forms (allotropes) and, surprisingly, it was not known which form (? or ?) is stable at ambient conditions. Through experiment, we quantify the relative stability of ?-boron and ?-boron as a function of temperature. The ground-state energies of ?-boron and ?-boron are nearly identical. For all temperatures up to 2000?K, the complicated ?-boron structure is more stable than the simpler ?-boron structure at ambient pressure. Below 1000?K, ?-boron is entropically stabilized with respect to ?-boron owing to its partially occupied sites, whereas at higher temperatures ?-boron is enthalpically stabilized with respect to ?-boron. We show that ?-boron only becomes stable on application of pressure. PMID:25619645

  9. Cleavage of graphite to graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shioyama

    2001-01-01

    Graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are of interest to chemists and physicists because of their unusual properties. Much attention has been focused on the preparation and the properties of GICs themselves and on their utilization. In recent years, there have been attempts to intercalate two guest species together into graphite to study the behavior of the first intercalated component towards the

  10. Plasma boron and the effects of boron supplementation in males.

    PubMed Central

    Green, N R; Ferrando, A A

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a proliferation of athletic supplements has been marketed touting boron as an ergogenic aid capable of increasing testosterone. The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in male bodybuilders. Ten male bodybuilders (aged 20 to 26) were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement, while nine male bodybuilders (aged 21 to 27) were given a placebo for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on day 1 and day 49 of the study. A microwave digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy was used for boron determination. Twelve subjects had boron values at or above the detection limit with median value of 25 ng/ml (16 ng/ml lower quartile and 33 ng/ml upper quartile). Of the ten subjects receiving boron supplements, six had an increase in their plasma boron. Analysis of variance indicated no significant effect of boron supplementation on any of the other dependent variables. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in total testosterone (p < 0.01), lean body mass (p < 0.01), and one repetition maximum (RM) squat (p < 0.001) and one RM bench press (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that 7 weeks of bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser-trained bodybuilders, but boron supplementation affects these variables not at all. PMID:7889885

  11. Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet

    SciTech Connect

    Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the development of the Baseline Graphite Characterization program from a testing and data collection standpoint through the completion of characterization on the first billet of nuclear-grade graphite. This data set is the starting point for all future evaluations and comparisons of material properties.

  12. Gas adsorption on graphene doped with B, N, Al, and S: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jiayu; Yuan, Jianmin; Giannozzi, Paolo

    2009-12-01

    The adsorption of several common gas molecules over boron-, nitrogen-, aluminum-, and sulfur-doped graphene was theoretically studied using density-functional theory. B- and N-doped graphene retain a planar form, while Al and S atoms protrude out of the graphene layer. We find that only NO and NO2 bind to B-doped graphene, while only NO2 binds to S-doped graphene. Al-doped graphene is much more reactive and binds many more gases, including O2. We suggest that B- and S-doped graphene could be a good sensor for polluting gases such as NO and NO2.

  13. Boron suboxide: As hard as cubic boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Duanwei; Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, L.; Qian, J.; Shen, T. D.; Zerda, T. W.

    2002-07-01

    The Vickers hardness of boron suboxide single crystals was measured using a diamond indentation method. Under a loading force of 0.98 N, our test gave an average Vickers hardness of 45 GPa. The average fracture toughness was measured as 4.5 MPa m1/2. We also measured the hardness of the cubic boron nitride and sapphire single crystals for comparison. The average measured hardness for boron suboxide was found to be very close to that of cubic boron nitride under the same loading force. Our results suggest that the boron suboxide could be a new superhard material for industrial applications, surpassed in hardness only by diamond and cubic boron nitride.

  14. Electrical properties of heavily doped polycrystalline silicon-germanium films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsu-Jae King; James P. McVittie; Krishna C. Saraswat; James R. Pfiester

    1994-01-01

    The electrical properties of polycrystalline silicon-germanium (poly-Si1-xGex) films with germanium mole fractions up to 0.56 doped by high-dose ion implantation are presented. The resistivity of heavily doped p-type (P+) poly-Si1-x Gex is much lower than that of comparably doped poly-Si, because higher levels of boron activation and higher hole mobilities are achieved in poly-Si1-xGex. The resistivity of heavily doped n-type

  15. Ultrananopores in Carbons by Boron-neutron Capture and Their Effect on Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanos, J.; Robertson, D.; Beckner, M.; Kraus, M.; Kuchta, B.; Firlej, L.; Pfeifer, P.

    2010-03-01

    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (ALL-CRAFT) has been optimizing high surface area activated carbon nanospaces for high capacity hydrogen storage. Boron doped samples have been prepared by vapor deposition of decaborane. Neutron irradiation of Boron doped activated carbon was done at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). Ultrananopores created by alpha particle fission tracks from Boron-neutron capture alter the surface and the adsorption properties of activated Carbons. A detailed theoretical model of the creation and the structure of defects on graphene sheets was developed. BET surface areas, porosity, and pores size distributions of modified activated carbons were measured using sub-critical nitrogen isotherms. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms of irradiated samples were indicative of record fraction of high binding energies and record fraction of sub-nm pores compared to their unirradiated parent samples.

  16. Structural and electronic properties of fluorinated boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lin; Song, Wei; Lu, Jing; Gao, Zhengxiang; Nagase, Shigeru; Ni, Ming; Mei, W N; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Dapeng; Ye, Hengqiang

    2006-07-27

    The effects of F doping on the structural and electronic properties of the (5, 5) single-walled boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) are investigated by using the density functional theory method. The chemiadsorption of F maintains the hexagonal BN network, increases the lattice constant, and introduces acceptor impurity states. On the other hand, substitutional doping of F destroys the hexagonal BN network, decreases the lattice constant, but does not alter the insulating feature of the BNNT. The observed insulator-to-semiconducting transition, a lattice contraction, and a highly disordered atom arrangement in the sidewall of BNNTs upon F doping appear to be most reasonably attributed to a codoping of dominating substitutional F over chemiabsorbed F, which can induce deep donor impurity states, a lattice contraction, and a destruction of the hexagonal BN network simultaneously. PMID:16854105

  17. Effect of boron segregation at grain boundaries on heat-affected zone cracking in wrought INCONEL 718

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Chen; M. C. Chaturvedi; N. L. Richards

    2001-01-01

    Susceptibility to heat-affected zone (HAZ) cracking during electron-beam welding was studied in two INCONEL 718-based alloys\\u000a doped with different levels of boron. By lowering the carbon, sulfur, and phosphorous concentrations to be “as low as possible,”\\u000a the occurrence of HAZ cracking was related directly to the level of segregation of boron at grain boundaries, which occurred\\u000a by nonequilibrium segregation during

  18. Effect of boron segregation at grain boundaries on heat-affected zone cracking in wrought INCONEL 718

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Chen; M. C. Chaturvedi; N. L. Richards

    2001-01-01

    Susceptibility to heat-affected zone (HAZ) cracking during electron-beam welding was studied in two INCONEL 718-based alloys doped with different levels of boron. By lowering the carbon, sulfur, and phosphorous concentrations to be ``as low as possible,'' the occurrence of HAZ cracking was related directly to the level of segregation of boron at grain boundaries, which occurred by nonequilibrium segregation during

  19. Nonoxide–boron nitride composites: in situ synthesis, microstructure and properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo-Jun Zhang; Jian-Feng Yang; Motohide Ando; Tatsuki Ohji

    2002-01-01

    Hexagonal graphitic boron nitride (h-BN) composites show excellent corrosion and thermal shock resistance, good mechanical tolerance and machinability, especially Si3N4–BN and Sialon–BN composites; they have already been used as break rings for horizontal continuous casting of steel. However, the strength of the conventionally processed BN composites were remarkably degraded by the addition of BN due to the poor densification behavior

  20. Multiple doping of silicon-germanium alloys for thermoelectric applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Vining, Cronin B.; Borshchevsky, Alex

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that heavy doping of n-type Si/Ge alloys with phosphorus and arsenic (V-V doping interaction) by diffusion leads to a significant enhancement of their carrier concentration and possible improvement of the thermoelectric figure of merit. High carrier concentrations were achieved by arsenic doping alone, but for a same doping level higher carrier mobilities and lower resistivities are obtained through phosphorus doping. By combining the two dopants with the proper diffusion treatments, it was possible to optimize the different properties, obtaining high carrier concentration, good carrier mobility and low electrical resistivity. Similar experiments, using the III-V doping interaction, were conducted on boron-doped p-type samples and showed the possibility of overcompensating the samples by diffusing arsenic, in order to get n-type behavior.

  1. Density of intercalated graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Slabe, Melissa E.

    1989-01-01

    The density of Amoco P-55, P-75, P-100, and P-120 pitch-based graphite fibers and their intercalation compounds with bromine, iodine monochloride, and copper (II) chloride have been measured using a density gradient column. The distribution of densities within a fiber type is found to be a sensitive indicator of the quality of the intercalation reaction. In all cases the density was found to increase, indicating that the mass added to the graphite is dominant over fiber expansion. Density increases are small (less than 10 percent) giving credence to a model of the intercalated graphite fibers which have regions which are intercalated and regions which are not.

  2. Spent graphite fuel element processing

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

  3. Inelastic properties of boron oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ch. Tushishvili; G. Sh. Darsavelidze; O. A. Tsagareishvili; I. A. Bairamashvili; J. Sh. Jobava

    1991-01-01

    Temperature dependence of internal friction and dynamic shear modulus for boron anhydride (B2O3) and boron suboxide (B6O) have been investigated at frequencies of 1–10 Hz and over the temperature range 80–900 K. Absolute shear modulus for boron suboxide at 80 and 400 K was 0.9 and 0.85 GPa, respectively. Relaxation maximum of internal friction, accompanied with shear modulus defect had

  4. Inelastic properties of boron oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ch. Tushishvili; G. Sh. Darsavelidze; O. A. Tsagareishvili; I. A. Bairamashvili; J. Sh. Jobava

    1991-01-01

    Temperature dependence of internal friction and dynamic shear modulus for boron anhydride (B2O3) and boron suboxide (B6O) have been investigated at frequencies of 1-10 Hz and over the temperature range 80-900 K. Absolute shear modulus for boron suboxide at 80 and 400 K was 0.9 and 0.85 GPa, respectively. Relaxation maximum of internal friction, accompanied with shear modulus defect had

  5. First-principles study on substituted doping of BN nanotubes by transition metals V, Cr and Mn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    You Xie; Jian-Min Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The substitution of a single boron atom or two atoms boron and nitrogen in (4,4) and (8,0) boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) by 3d transition metal (TM=V, Cr or Mn) atom has been systemically studied using first-principle calculations. All optimized TM-doped BNNT systems have obvious local deformation of the nanotubes, and almost all TM atoms protrude to the exterior of the

  6. Effect of boron segregation at grain boundaries on heat-affected zone cracking in wrought INCONEL 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Chaturvedi, M. C.; Richards, N. L.

    2001-04-01

    Susceptibility to heat-affected zone (HAZ) cracking during electron-beam welding was studied in two INCONEL 718-based alloys doped with different levels of boron. By lowering the carbon, sulfur, and phosphorous concentrations to be “as low as possible,” the occurrence of HAZ cracking was related directly to the level of segregation of boron at grain boundaries, which occurred by nonequilibrium segregation during a preweld heat treatment. The study has demonstrated a direct correlation between the amount of boron segregated at grain boundaries and their susceptibility to HAZ cracking, in terms of the total crack length and number of cracks observed in the HAZ. The analysis of results suggests that both the melting and resolidification temperatures of the boron-segregated grain boundaries can be about 100 °C to 200 °C lower than those of the grain boundaries that were susceptible to constitutional liquation of Nb carbides on them, making boron more deleterious in causing HAZ cracking.

  7. Effect of boron concentration on recombination at the p-Si–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Lachlan E., E-mail: lachlan.black@anu.edu.au; Allen, Thomas; Cuevas, Andres [Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); McIntosh, Keith R. [PV Lighthouse, Coledale, NSW 2515 (Australia)

    2014-03-07

    We examine the surface passivation properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited on boron-doped planar ?100? crystalline silicon surfaces as a function of the boron concentration. Both uniformly doped and diffused surfaces are studied, with surface boron concentrations ranging from 9.2?×?10{sup 15} to 5.2?×?10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3}. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and thermal atomic layer deposition are used to deposit the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. The surface recombination rate of each sample is determined from photoconductance measurements together with the measured dopant profiles via numerical simulation, using the latest physical models. These values are compared with calculations based on the interface properties determined from capacitance–voltage and conductance measurements. It is found that the fundamental surface recombination velocity of electrons, S{sub n0}, which describes the chemical passivation of the interface, is independent of the surface boron concentration N{sub s} for N{sub s}???3?×?10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3}, and in excellent agreement with values calculated from the interface state density D{sub it} and capture coefficients c{sub n} and c{sub p} measured on undiffused boron-doped surfaces. We conclude that the physical properties of the Si–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface are independent of the boron dopant concentration over this range.

  8. Boron nitride nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Chopra; R. J. Luyken; K. Cherrey; V. H. Crespi; M. L. Cohen; S. G. Louie; A. Zettl

    1995-01-01

    The successful synthesis of pure boron nitride (BN) nanotubes is reported here. Multi-walled tubes with inner diameters on the order of 1 to 3 nanometers and with lengths up to 200 nanometers were produced in a carbon-free plasma discharge between a BN-packed tungsten rod and a cooled copper electrode. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy on individual tubes yielded B:N ratios of approximately

  9. Boron Nitride Nanomesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Corso; Willi Auwärter; Matthias Muntwiler; Anna Tamai; Thomas Greber; Jürg Osterwalder

    2004-01-01

    A highly regular mesh of hexagonal boron nitride with a 3-nanometer periodicity and a 2-nanometer hole size was formed by self-assembly on a Rh(111) single crystalline surface. Two layers of mesh cover the surface uniformly after high-temperature exposure of the clean rhodium surface to borazine (HBNH)3. The two layers are offset in such a way as to expose a minimum

  10. Dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramics doped by B{sub 2}O{sub 3} vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, J.Q.; Chen, W.P.; Wang Yu; Chan, H.L.W.; Li, L.T. [Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Center, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2004-12-01

    The effects of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} vapor doping on the dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramics were studied. After the doping, the Curie point of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics was increased from 128 deg. C to 130 deg. C and the maximum dielectric constant was considerably increased. X-ray diffraction showed that both the grain lattice parameters and the tetragonality were increased by the boron oxide vapor doping. It was proposed that boron interstitial was introduced into the grain lattice of barium titanate ceramics by B{sub 2}O{sub 3} vapor doping and the dielectric properties were thus obviously changed.

  11. Experimental identification of p-type conduction in fluoridized boron nitride nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Wuxia; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Lin; Lin, Jing; Gu, Changzhi

    2013-04-01

    The transport properties of F-doped boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) top-gate field effect devices were investigated to demonstrate the realization of p-type BNNTs by F-doping. The drain current was found to increase substantially with the applied negative gate voltage, suggesting these devices persist significant field effect with holes predominated; it also suggests that F-doping remarkably modified the band gap with F atoms preferred to be absorbed on B sites. Parameters, including the resistivity, charge concentration, and mobility, were further retrieved from the I-V curves. Our results indicate that device characterization is an effective method to reveal the specific properties of BNNTs.

  12. Observation of inter-sub-level transitions in modulation-doped Ge quantum dots

    E-print Network

    of 30 periods of Ge quantum dots sandwiched by two 6 nm boron-doped Si layers. An absorption peak suggests the possible use of modulation-doped Ge quantum dots for improved infrared detector applications interaction may further enhance detector performance.1­3 It is also possible to have normal incidence

  13. Graphite for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Fuller, E.L.; Romanoski, G.R.; Strizak, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite finds applications in both fission and fusion reactors. Fission reactors harness the energy liberated when heavy elements, such as uranium or plutonium, fragment or fission''. Reactors of this type have existed for nearly 50 years. The first nuclear fission reactor, Chicago Pile No. 1, was constructed of graphite under a football stand at Stagg Field, University of Chicago. Fusion energy devices will produce power by utilizing the energy produced when isotopes of the element hydrogen are fused together to form helium, the same reaction that powers our sun. The role of graphite is very different in these two reactor systems. Here we summarize the function of the graphite in fission and fusion reactors, detailing the reasons for their selection and discussing some of the challenges associated with their application in nuclear fission and fusion reactors. 10 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Intercalated hybrid graphite fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is directed to a highly conductive lightweight hybrid material and methods of producing the same. The hybrid composite is obtained by weaving strands of a high strength carbon or graphite fiber into a fabric-like structure, depositing a layer of carbon onto the structure, heat treating the structure to graphitize the carbon layer, and intercalating the graphitic carbon layer structure. A laminate composite material useful for protection against lightning strikes comprises at least one layer of the hybrid material over at least one layer of high strength carbon or graphite fibers. The composite material of the present invention is compatible with matrix compounds, has a coefficient of thermal expansion which is the same as underlying fiber layers, and is resistant to galvanic corrosion in addition to being highly conductive. These materials are useful in the aerospace industry, in particular as lightning strike protection for airplanes.

  15. Graphite-reinforced bone cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.

    1976-01-01

    Chopped graphite fibers added to surgical bone cement form bonding agent with mechanical properties closely matched to those of bone. Curing reaction produces less heat, resulting in reduced traumatization of body tissues. Stiffness is increased without affecting flexural strength.

  16. STM studies of graphite microdevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova, Elena; Flynn, George; Zhang, Yuanbo; Fazlollahi, Mina; Kim, Philip

    2006-03-01

    A novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been designed and built to study transport phenomena in mesoscopic conductive films, self-assembled monolayers, and nanostructures on insulating substrates under ambient conditions. In this work we present experimental STM studies of monocrystalline ultrathin graphite films including single graphite sheets (graphene) at the atomic scale. Electronic transport is possible only in the lateral direction for graphene. Graphite microscopic devices (˜ 10 ?m) have been prepared by mechanical exfoliation followed by deposition of macroscopic gold electrodes over the graphite film and its surrounding insulator. Evolution of STM images during the transition from multilayer to single graphene sheets as well as the dependence of STM images on tunneling conditions near the Fermi energy will be discussed.

  17. Topological phases in graphitic cones

    PubMed

    Lammert; Crespi

    2000-12-11

    The electronic structure of graphitic cones exhibits distinctive topological features associated with the apical disclinations. Ahranov-Bohm magnetoconductance oscillations (period Phi(0)) are completely absent in rings fabricated from cones with a single pentagonal disclination. Close to the apex, the local density of states changes qualitatively, either developing a cusp which drops to zero at the Fermi energy, or forming a region of nonzero density across E(F), a local metallization of graphite. PMID:11102218

  18. Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Persson; Vijay A. Sethuraman; Laurence J. Hardwick; Yoyo Hinuma; Ying Shirley Meng; Anton van der Ven; Venkat Srinivasan; Robert Kostecki; Gerbrand Ceder

    2011-01-01

    Graphitic carbon is currently considered the state-of-the-art material for the negative electrode in lithium-ion cells, mainly due to its high reversibility and low operating potential. However, carbon anodes exhibit mediocre charge\\/discharge rate performance, which contributes to severe transport-induced surface-structural damage upon prolonged cycling, and limits the lifetime of the cell. Lithium bulk diffusion in graphitic carbon is not yet completely

  19. Universal infrared conductivity of graphite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Falkovsky

    2010-01-01

    The conductivity of graphite is analytically evaluated in the range of 0.1-1.5 eV, where the electron relaxation processes can be neglected and the low-energy excitations at the ``Dirac'' points are most essential. The value of conductivity calculated per one graphite layer is close to the universal conductivity of graphene. The features of the conductivity are explained in terms of singularities

  20. Universal infrared conductivity of graphite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Falkovsky

    2010-01-01

    The conductivity of graphite is analytically evaluated in the range of 0.1-1.5 eV, where the electron relaxation processes can be neglected and the low-energy excitations at the 'Dirac' points are most essential. The value of conductivity calculated per one graphite layer is close to the universal conductivity of graphene. The features of the conductivity are explained in terms of singularities

  1. Thermal conductivity of boron carbide-boron nitride composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ruh; Kimberly Y. Donaldson; D. P. H. Hasselman

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that because of their preferred orientation, the addition of boron nitride dispersions to hot-pressed boron carbide was found to result in a considerable degree of anisotropy in thermal conductivity of the resulting composite, indicated by an increase in the thermal conductivity perpendicular to the hot-pressing direction by as much as a factor of 3 at the highest

  2. Boron Nitride Nanotube Films Grown From Boron Ink Painting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Hua Li; Ying Chen; Alexey M. Glushenkov

    2010-01-01

    The growth of nanotube films on various substrates and surfaces is vital for applications in nanoscale functional devices. We report a simple and versatile boron (B) ink painting method that enables high-density boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) films with any desired pattern to be grown on, and firmly attached to, different surfaces. In the method, special B ink is first painted,

  3. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition.

  4. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1999-04-27

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition. 3 figs.

  5. Spectroscopic ellipsometry of homoepitaxial diamond multilayers and delta-doped structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet, J.; Chicot, G.; Eon, D.; Bustarret, E. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst. NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-13

    The optimization of diamond-based unipolar electronic devices such as pseudo-vertical Schottky diodes or delta-doped field effect transistors relies in part on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p{sup –}) and heavily boron doped (p{sup ++}) layers with well-controlled thicknesses and steep interfaces. Optical ellipsometry offers a swift and contactless method to characterize the thickness, roughness, and electronic properties of semiconducting and metallic diamond layers. We report ellipsometric studies carried out on delta-doped structures and other epitaxial multilayers with various boron concentrations and thicknesses (down to the nanometer range). The results are compared with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and transport measurements.

  6. Theoretical study on transport properties of a BN co-doped SiC nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Sudhanshu; Qureshi, S.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of silicon carbide nanotubes (SiCNT) in presence of both boron (B) and nitrogen (N) impurities. The results show that co-doping BN impurities suppresses the important negative differential resistance (NDR) property. NDR suppression is attributed to the introduction of new electronic states near the Fermi level followed by weak orbital localization. BN co-doping results in exponential current-voltage (I-V) characteristics which is in contrast to linear I-V characteristics for individual boron and nitrogen doped SiCNTs. HOMO has no contribution from B impurity, whereas, LUMO has contribution from N impurity at low and high bias.

  7. Band gap effects of hexagonal boron nitride using oxygen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sevak Singh, Ram; Leong Chow, Wai [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yingjie Tay, Roland [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hon Tsang, Siu [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Mallick, Govind [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Tong Teo, Edwin Hang, E-mail: htteo@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-04-21

    Tuning of band gap of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been a challenging problem due to its inherent chemical stability and inertness. In this work, we report the changes in band gaps in a few layers of chemical vapor deposition processed as-grown h-BN using a simple oxygen plasma treatment. Optical absorption spectra show a trend of band gap narrowing monotonically from 6?eV of pristine h-BN to 4.31?eV when exposed to oxygen plasma for 12?s. The narrowing of band gap causes the reduction in electrical resistance by ?100 fold. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of plasma treated hexagonal boron nitride surface show the predominant doping of oxygen for the nitrogen vacancy. Energy sub-band formations inside the band gap of h-BN, due to the incorporation of oxygen dopants, cause a red shift in absorption edge corresponding to the band gap narrowing.

  8. Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doganov, Rostislav A.; Koenig, Steven P.; Yeo, Yuting; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ã-zyilmaz, Barbaros

    2015-02-01

    Ultrathin black phosphorus, or phosphorene, is a two-dimensional material that allows both high carrier mobility and large on/off ratios. Similar to other atomic crystals, like graphene or layered transition metal dichalcogenides, the transport behavior of few-layer black phosphorus is expected to be affected by the underlying substrate. The properties of black phosphorus have so far been studied on the widely utilized SiO2 substrate. Here, we characterize few-layer black phosphorus field effect transistors on hexagonal boron nitride—an atomically smooth and charge trap-free substrate. We measure the temperature dependence of the field effect mobility for both holes and electrons and explain the observed behavior in terms of charged impurity limited transport. We find that in-situ vacuum annealing at 400 K removes the p-doping of few-layer black phosphorus on both boron nitride and SiO2 substrates and reduces the hysteresis at room temperature.

  9. Differences in interfacial bond strengths of graphite fiber-epoxy resin composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needles, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of epoxy-size and degree of cure on the interfacial bonding of an epoxy-amine-graphite fiber composite system is examined. The role of the fiber-resin interface in determining the overall mechanical properties of composites is poorly understood. A good interfacial adhesive bond is required to achieve maximum stress transfer to the fibers in composites, but at the same time some form of energy absorbing interfacial interaction is needed to achieve high fracture toughening. The incompatibility of these two processes makes it important to understand the nature and basic factors involved at the fiber-resin interface as stress is applied. The mechanical properties including interlaminar shear values for graphite fiber-resin composites are low compared to glass and boron-resin composites. These differences have been attributed to poor fiber-matrix adhesion. Graphite fibers are commonly subjected to post-treatments including application of organic sizing in order to improve their compatibility with the resin matrix and to protect the fiber tow from damage during processing and lay-up. In such processes, sized graphite fiber tow is impregnated with epoxy resin and then layed-up i nto the appropriate configuration. Following an extended ambient temperature cure, the graphite-resin composite structure is cured at elevated temperature using a programmed temperature sequence to cure and then cool the product.

  10. Boron containing multilayer coatings and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from multilayer boron/boron carbide, boron carbide/cubic boron nitride, and boron/boron nitride/boron carbide, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron and boron carbide used in forming the multilayers are formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/boron carbide, and boron carbide/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron, cubic boron nitride or boron carbide, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be of a discrete or a blended or graded composition.

  11. Kinetics of Boron Sorption and Desorption in Boron Thermal Regeneration System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JIDONG LOU; GARY L. FOUTCH; JUNG WON NA

    2000-01-01

    Boron is used in the primary coolant of pressurized water reactors in nuclear power generation for shim control. If boron concentration is decreased, fewer neutrons are adsorbed and more fission occurs. When boron concentration increases, less fission occurs. The boron concentration can be controlled by the use of ion-exchange resins operating in the Boron Thermal Regeneration System (BTRS). A better

  12. Ferrix Chloride-Graphite Intercalation Compounds Prepared From Graphite Flouride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1995-01-01

    The reaction between graphite fluoride and ferric chloride was observed in the temperature range of 300 to 400 C. The graphite fluorides used for this reaction have an sp(sup 3) electronic structure and are electrical insulators. They can be made by fluorinating either carbon fibers or powder having various degrees of graphitization. Reaction is fast and spontaneous and can occur in the presence of air. The ferric chloride does not have to be predried. The products have an sp(sup 2) electronic structure and are electrical conductors. They contain first-stage FeCl3 intercalated graphite. Some of the products contain FeCl2 (center dot) 2H2O, others contain FeF3, in concentrations that depend on the intercalation condition. The graphite intercalated compounds (GIC) deintercalated slowly in air at room temperature, but deintercalated quickly and completely at 370 C. Deintercalation is accompanied by the disappearance of iron halides and the formation of rust (hematite) distributed unevenly on the fiber surface. When heated to 400 C in pure N2 (99.99 vol%), this new GIC deintercalates without losing its molecular structure. However, when the compounds are exposed to 800 C N2, in a quartz tube, they lost most of their halogen atoms and formed iron oxides (other than hematite), distributed evenly in or on the fiber.

  13. Ferric chloride graphite intercalation compounds prepared from graphite fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1994-01-01

    The reaction between graphite fluoride and ferric chloride was observed in the temperature range of 300 to 400 C. The graphite fluorides used for this reaction have an sp3 electronic structure and are electrical insulators. They can be made by fluorinating either carbon fibers or powder having various degrees of graphitization. Reaction is fast and spontaneous and can occur in the presence of air. The ferric chloride does not have to be predried. The products have an sp2 electronic structure and are electrical conductors. They contain first stage FeCl3 intercalated graphite. Some of the products contain FeCl2*2H2O, others contain FeF3 in concentrations that depend on the intercalation condition. The graphite intercalated compounds (GIC) deintercalated slowly in air at room temperature, but deintercalated quickly and completely at 370 C. Deintercalation is accompanied by the disappearing of iron halides and the formation of rust (hematite) distributed unevenly on the fiber surface. When heated to 400 C in pure N2 (99.99 vol %), this new GIC deintercalates without losing its molecular structure. However, when the compounds are heated to 800 C in quartz tube, they lost most of its halogen atoms and formed iron oxides (other than hematite), distributed evenly in or on the fiber. This iron-oxide-covered fiber may be useful in making carbon-fiber/ceramic-matrix composites with strong bonding at the fiber-ceramic interface.

  14. Arabidopsis boron transporter for xylem loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junpei Takano; Kyotaro Noguchi; Miho Yasumori; Masaharu Kobayashi; Zofia Gajdos; Kyoko Miwa; Hiroaki Hayashi; Tadakatsu Yoneyama; Toru Fujiwara

    2002-01-01

    Boron deficiency hampers the productivity of 132 crops in more than 80 countries. Boron is essential in higher plants primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and is also beneficial and might be essential in animals and in yeast. Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) of boron transport is crucial for alleviating boron deficiency. Here we describe the molecular identification of

  15. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf F. Barth; Albert H. Soloway; Ralph G. Fairchild

    1990-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) bring together two components that when kept separate have only minor effects on normal cells. The first component is a stable isotope of boron (boron 10) that can be concentrated in tumor cells. The second is a beam of low-energy neutrons that produces short-range radiation when absorbed, or captured, by the boron. The combination of

  16. Boron nitride nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, N.G.; Luyken, R.J.; Cherrey, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-18

    The successful synthesis of pure boron nitride (BN) nanotubes is reported here. Multi-walled tubes with inner diameters on the order of 1 to 3 nanometers and with lengths up to 200 nanometers were produced in a carbon-free plasma discharge between a BN-packed tungsten rod and a cooled copper electrode. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy on individual tubes yielded B:N ratios of approximately 1, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of stable BN tube structures. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  18. Crystal-originated particles in germanium-doped Czochralski silicon crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiahe Chen; Deren Yang; Hong Li; Xiangyang Ma; Daxi Tian; Liben Li; Duainlin Que

    2007-01-01

    Grown-in distribution and annealing behavior of crystal-originated particles (COPs) in Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) wafer with germanium doping have been investigated. It was found that COPs with high density but small sizes were inclined to generate in germanium-doped Cz-Si (GCz-Si) wafer. The increase of boron atoms in Cz-Si crystal with the germanium doping could benefit the formation of COPs while the

  19. PtSi/Si LWIR Detectors Made With p+ Doping Spikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon; Park, Jin S.; George, Thomas; Fathauer, Robert W.; Jones, Eric W.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    PtSi/Si Schottky-barrier devices detecting long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photons demonstrated. Essential feature of one of these devices is p+ "doping spike"; layer of Si about 10 Angstrom thick, located at PtSi/Si interface, and doped with electron acceptors (boron atoms) at concentration between 5 x 10(19) and 2 x 10(20) cm(-3). Doping spikes extend cutoff wavelengths of devices to greater values than otherwise possible.

  20. Room-temperature near-infrared electroluminescence from boron-diffused silicon pn junction diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si; Gao, Yuhan; Fan, Ruixin; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2015-02-01

    Silicon pn junction diodes with different doping concentrations were prepared by boron diffusion into Czochralski (CZ) n-type silicon substrate. Their room-temperature near-infrared electroluminescence (EL) was measured. In the EL spectra of the heavily boron doped diode, a luminescence peak at ~1.6 ?m (0.78 eV ) was observed besides the band-to-band line (~1.1eV) under the condition of high current injection, while in that of the lightly boron doped diode only the band-to-band line was observed. The intensity of peak at 0.78 eV increases exponentially with current injection with no observable saturation at room temperature. Furthermore, no dislocations were found in the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy image, and no dislocation-related luminescence was observed in the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra. We deduce the 0.78 eV emission originates from the irradiative recombination in the strain region of diodes caused by the diffusion of large number of boron atoms into silicon crystal lattice.

  1. Bonding distances as Exact Sums of the Radii of the Constituent Atoms in Nanomaterials - Boron Nitride and Coronene

    E-print Network

    Raji Heyrovska

    2011-12-19

    This paper presents for the first time the exact structures at the atomic level of two important nanomaterials, boron nitride and coronene. Both these compounds are hexagonal layer structures similar to graphene in two dimensions and to graphite in three-dimensions. However, they have very different properties: whereas graphene is a conductor, h-BN is an electrical insulator and coronene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon of cosmological interest. The atomic structures presented here for boron nitride, coronene and graphene have been drawn to scale based on bond lengths as sums of the atomic radii.

  2. Low temperature coefficient of resistance and high gage factor in beryllium-doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Littlejohn, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The gage factor and resistivity of p-type silicon doped with beryllium was studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It was shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gage factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, whereas the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

  3. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  4. Photoluminescent properties of copper-doped zinc oxide nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C X Xu; X W Sun; X H Zhang; L Ke; S J Chua

    2004-01-01

    Copper-doped zinc oxide nanowires were fabricated on copper-coated silicon substrate by sintering a mixture of zinc oxide and graphite powders at high temperature. Copper functioned as a catalyst in the zinc oxide nanowire growth and was incorporated during the growth as a dopant. The size of copper-doped zinc oxide nanowires ranges from 30 to 100 nm in diameter and tens

  5. On the influence of impurities on the high-temperature sputtering yield of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, J.; Bohdansky, J.; Roberto, J. B.

    1984-12-01

    The influence of near-surface impurities on the enhanced sputtering of graphite near 600°C and above 1000° Chas been investigated under various doping conditions. The chemical sputtering yield of methane molecules for 2 keV D+ ions on graphite at 600°C has been determined for several coverages of Si, Fe, Ni, Ti, Mo, and Au. Graphite samples were pre-deposited with ~ 500 Å of a given impurity, and weight loss was monitored in-situ using a vacuum balance while sputtering through the deposited layer. Small amounts of impurities remaining on the surface after prolonged sputtering reduced chemical erosion by 30-50%. The radiation-enhanced sublimation of graphite observed for energetic ion bombardment above 1000°C was investigated during 50 keV Ar sputtering and simultaneous Ti evaporation. For very low surface concentrations of Ti, graphite sputtering increased while for concentrations above 10 at% the yields were significantly reduced. A graphite sample containing 4 at% bulk Si was also investigated and showed greatly reduced chemical erosion at 600° Cbut no reduction in radiation-enhanced sublimation at 1500°C due to surface enrichment and depletion of Si for the low- and high-temperature irradiation, respectively.

  6. High boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth of SiGe layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ghandi; M. Kolahdouz; J. Hållstedt; Jun Lu; R. Wise; H. Wejtmans; M. Östling; H. H. Radamson

    2007-01-01

    Incorporation of high amount of boron in the range of 1  1020–1  1021 cm?3 in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of Si1 ? xGex (x = 0.15–0.315) layers for recessed or elevated source\\/drain junctions in CMOS has been studied. The effect of high boron\\u000a doping on growth rate, Ge content and appearance of defect in the epi-layers was investigated. In this study, integration\\u000a issues were oriented towards having

  7. Elastic properties of boron nitride nanotubes and their comparison with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K; Sood, A K

    2009-09-01

    Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) have alternating boron and nitrogen atoms in graphite like network and are strongly polar in nature due to a large charge on boron and nitrogen atoms. Hence electrostatic interactions are expected to play an important role in determining the elastic properties of BNNTs. In the absence of specific partial atomic charge information for boron and nitrogen, we have studied the elastic properties BNNTs varying the partial atomic charges on boron and nitrogen. We have computed Young modulus (Y) and Shear modulus (G) of BNNT as a function of the tube radius and number of walls using molecular mechanics calculation. Our calculation shows that Young modulus of BNNTs increases with increase in magnitude of the partial atomic charge on B and N and can be larger than the Young modulus of CNTs of same radius. This is in contrast to the earlier finding that CNTs has the largest tensile strength (PRL, 80, 4502, 1998). Shear modulus, on the other hand depends weakly on the magnitude of partial atomic charge and is less than the shear modulus of the CNT The values obtained for Young modulus and Shear modulus are in excellent agreement with the available experimental results. PMID:19928237

  8. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  9. Graphite filament wound pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, A.; Damico, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Filament wound NOL rings, 4-inch and 8-inch diameter closed-end vessels involving three epoxy resin systems and three graphite fibers were tested to develop property data and fabrication technology for filament wound graphite/epoxy pressure vessels. Vessels were subjected to single-cycle burst tests at room temperature. Manufacturing parameters were established for tooling, winding, and curing that resulted in the development of a pressure/vessel performance factor (pressure x volume/weight) or more than 900,000 in. for an oblate spheroid specimen.

  10. Pyrolytic graphite collector development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Pyrolytic graphite promises to have significant advantages as a material for multistage depressed collector electrodes. Among these advantages are lighter weight, improved mechanical stiffness under shock and vibration, reduced secondary electron back-streaming for higher efficiency, and reduced outgassing at higher operating temperatures. The essential properties of pyrolytic graphite and the necessary design criteria are discussed. This includes the study of suitable electrode geometries and methods of attachment to other metal and ceramic collector components consistent with typical electrical, thermal, and mechanical requirements.

  11. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

  12. Systems and methods for forming defects on graphitic materials and curing radiation-damaged graphitic materials

    DOEpatents

    Ryu, Sunmin; Brus, Louis E.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Liu, Haitao

    2012-09-25

    Systems and methods are disclosed herein for forming defects on graphitic materials. The methods for forming defects include applying a radiation reactive material on a graphitic material, irradiating the applied radiation reactive material to produce a reactive species, and permitting the reactive species to react with the graphitic material to form defects. Additionally, disclosed are methods for removing defects on graphitic materials.

  13. Polymeric photocatalysts based on graphitic carbon nitride.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shaowen; Low, Jingxiang; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2015-04-01

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis is considered to be an attractive way for solving the worldwide energy shortage and environmental pollution issues. Since the pioneering work in 2009 on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) for visible-light photocatalytic water splitting, g-C3 N4 -based photocatalysis has become a very hot research topic. This review summarizes the recent progress regarding the design and preparation of g-C3 N4 -based photocatalysts, including the fabrication and nanostructure design of pristine g-C3 N4 , bandgap engineering through atomic-level doping and molecular-level modification, and the preparation of g-C3 N4 -based semiconductor composites. Also, the photo-catalytic applications of g-C3 N4 -based photocatalysts in the fields of water splitting, CO2 reduction, pollutant degradation, organic syntheses, and bacterial disinfection are reviewed, with emphasis on photocatalysis promoted by carbon materials, non-noble-metal cocatalysts, and Z-scheme heterojunctions. Finally, the concluding remarks are presented and some perspectives regarding the future development of g-C3 N4 -based photocatalysts are highlighted. PMID:25704586

  14. Boron suboxide: As hard as cubic boron nitride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duanwei He; Yusheng Zhao; L. Daemen; J. Qian; T. D. Shen; T. W. Zerda

    2002-01-01

    The Vickers hardness of boron suboxide single crystals was measured using a diamond indentation method. Under a loading force of 0.98 N, our test gave an average Vickers hardness of 45 GPa. The average fracture toughness was measured as 4.5 MPa m1\\/2. We also measured the hardness of the cubic boron nitride and sapphire single crystals for comparison. The average

  15. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes by boron ink annealing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Hua Li; Ying Chen; Alexey M. Glushenkov

    2010-01-01

    Ball-milling and annealing is one effective method for the mass production of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). We report that the method has been modified to a boron (B) ink annealing method. In this new process, the nanosize ball-milled B particles are mixed with metal nitrate in ethanol to form an ink-like solution, and then the ink is annealed in nitrogen-containing

  16. Method of Joining Graphite Fibers to a Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beringer, Durwood M. (Inventor); Caron, Mark E. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor); Gleason, Brian P. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of assembling a metallic-graphite structure includes forming a wetted graphite subassembly by arranging one or more layers of graphite fiber material including a plurality of graphite fibers and applying a layer of metallization material to ends of the plurality of graphite fibers. At least one metallic substrate is secured to the wetted graphite subassembly via the layer of metallization material.

  17. Separation medium containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A separation medium, such as a chromatography filling or packing, containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide has a surface that has been at least partially functionalized.

  18. CMB-13 research on carbon and graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    The research on graphite and carbon for this period is reported. Topics discussed include: effects of grinding on the Santa Marie graphites, properties and purities of coal-tar, resin-bonded graphite, carbonization of resin components, and glass-like carbon filler.

  19. IMPREGNATION OF POROUS GRAPHITE WITH URANIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanz

    1947-01-01

    A method for impregnating porous graphite with UOâ using uranyl ; nitrate hexahydrate is described. The theoretical amount of possible ; impregmation based on graphite of 25% porosity and apparent density 1.67 using ; uranyl nitrate hexahydrate, uranium carbide, and uranium metal is tabulated. The ; analytical method employed for the determination of uranium in graphite is ; outlined. (L.T.W.)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of boron-based one-dimensional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Carolyn Jones

    New synthetic methods for the preparation of boron-based one-dimensional nanostructures are developed that employ catalytic chemical vapor deposition. The structures, morphologies, and elemental compositions of the nanostructures are characterized using electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Electrical-transport measurements performed on individual boron nanowires assess their potential as nanoscale interconnects. Multi-walled boron nitride nanotubes are generated from a molten salt mixture containing (NH4)2SO4, NaBH4, and Co3O4 at 300--400°C. Volatile BN-containing species generated in the molten salt are transported via a carrier gas to a nickel boride catalyst at 1100°C, whereupon precursor decomposition upon the catalyst material results in the formation of crystalline boron nitride nanotubes. The BN nanotubes have concentric-tube structures, are free of internal closures, have crystalline walls, and exhibit lengths of up to ca. 5 mum. The nanotubes often possess bulbous, flag-like, or club-like tip closures. A root-growth mechanism is proposed for the catalyzed process. This work provides the first CVD synthesis of BN nanotubes not requiring the use of carbon nanotube templates. A theoretical prediction for the existence of conductive boron nanotubes inspired our next project in the search for ideal nanostructured electrical interconnects for nanoelectronics. Promising candidates should be highly refractory, covalently bonded, and conductive irrespective of their crystallographic orientation. We report the growth of crystalline boron nanowires from a nickel boride catalyst using diborane at temperatures of 1100°C. However, our one-dimensional boron nanostructures are dense nanowhiskers rather than hollow nanotubes. Electrical-conductivity measurements indicate the boron nanowires to be semiconductors, with properties consistent with bulk elemental boron. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements reported on crystalline boron nanowires. To probe the electrical-transport properties of boron nanowires, a separation strategy was developed to remove and untangle individual nanowires for subsequent nanowire-device fabrication. Experiments identified nickel as having a sufficiently high work function to make Ohmic contacts to boron nanowires, allowing subsequent conductivity measurements, observation of a gate effect, and calculations of the transconductance and carrier mobilities. Synthetic attempts to boost conductivities into the conducting regime via doping are also described.