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Sample records for borovac southern serbia

  1. Environmental radioactivity in southern Serbia at locations where depleted uranium was used.

    PubMed

    Sarap, Nataša B; Janković, Marija M; Todorović, Dragana J; Nikolić, Jelena D; Kovačević, Milojko S

    2014-06-01

    In the 1999 bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. The cleaning of depleted uranium that followed was performed in southern Serbia by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences between 2002 and 2007 at the locations of Pljačkovica, Borovac, Bratoselce, and Reljan. This paper presents detailed results of radioactivity monitoring four years after cleaning (2011), which included the determination of gamma emitters in soil, water, and plant samples, as well as gross alpha and beta activities in water samples. The gamma spectrometry results showed the presence of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). In order to evaluate the radiological hazard from soil, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma dose rate, the external hazard index, and the annual effective dose were calculated. Considering that a significant number of people inhabit the studied locations, the periodical monitoring of radionuclide content is vital. PMID:24778342

  2. Geographical distribution of the annual mean radon concentrations in primary schools of Southern Serbia - application of geostatistical methods.

    PubMed

    Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Stojanovska, Z; Tollefsen, T; Carpentieri, C; Veselinović, N; Komatina, S; Vaupotič, J; Simović, R D; Antignani, S; Bochicchio, F

    2014-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2011 a survey of radon ((222)Rn) was performed in schools of several districts of Southern Serbia. Some results have been published previously (Žunić et al., 2010; Carpentieri et al., 2011; Žunić et al., 2013). This article concentrates on the geographical distribution of the measured Rn concentrations. Applying geostatistical methods we generate "school radon maps" of expected concentrations and of estimated probabilities that a concentration threshold is exceeded. The resulting maps show a clearly structured spatial pattern which appears related to the geological background. In particular in areas with vulcanite and granitoid rocks, elevated radon (Rn) concentrations can be expected. The "school radon map" can therefore be considered as proxy to a map of the geogenic radon potential, and allows identification of radon-prone areas, i.e. areas in which higher Rn radon concentrations can be expected for natural reasons. It must be stressed that the "radon hazard", or potential risk, estimated this way, has to be distinguished from the actual radon risk, which is a function of exposure. This in turn may require (depending on the target variable which is supposed to measure risk) considering demographic and sociological reality, i.e. population density, distribution of building styles and living habits. PMID:24231373

  3. Distribution and mobility of heavy elements in floodplain agricultural soils along the Ibar River (Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo). Chemometric investigation of pollutant sources and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barać, Nemanja; Škrivanj, Sandra; Bukumirić, Zoran; Živojinović, Dragana; Manojlović, Dragan; Barać, Milan; Petrović, Rada; Ćorac, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of a high-magnitude flood event on heavy elements (HEs) pollution and mobility in the agricultural soils along Ibar River in Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo. The study area was one of the most important Pb/Zn industrial regions in Europe. Soil samples (n = 50) collected before and after the floods in May 2014 were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The results indicated that the floods significantly increased not only the pseudo total concentrations of HEs in the soil but also their mobile and potentially bioavailable amounts. Moreover, higher concentrations (both pseudo total and potentially bioavailable) were found in the agricultural soils closer to the industrial hotspots. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis successfully grouped the analyzed elements according to their anthropogenic or natural origin. The floods significantly increased the potential ecological risk of HEs associated with Pb/Zn industrial activities in the study area. The potential ecological risk of Cd after the floods was highest and should be of special concern. PMID:26822217

  4. How tectonics controlled post-collisional magmatism within the Dinarides: Inferences based on study of tectono-magmatic events in the Kopaonik Mts. (Southern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenović, Ana; Trivić, Branislav; Cvetković, Vladica

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we report evidence about coupling between tectonic and magmatic processes in a complex orogenic system. The study focuses on the Kopaonik Mts. situated between the Dinarides and the Carpatho-Balkanides (Southern Serbia), and a perfect area for investigating tectono-magmatic evolution. We combine a new data set on tectonic paleostress tensors with the existing information on Cenozoic magmatic rocks in the wider Kopaonik Mts. area. The paleostress study revealed the presence of four brittle deformational phases. The established link between fault mechanism and igneous processes suggests that two large tectono-magmatic events occurred in this area. The Late Eocene-Early Miocene tectono-magmatic event was generally characterized by transpressional tectonics that provided conditions for formation of basaltic underplating and subsequent lower crustal melting and generation of I-type magmas. Due to predominant compression in the first half of this event, these magmas could not reach the upper crustal levels. Later on, limited extensional pulses that occurred before the end of this event opened pathways for newly formed mantle melts to reach shallower crustal levels and mix with the evolving I-type magmas. The second event is Middle-Late Miocene in age. It was first associated with clear extensional conditions that caused advancing of basaltic melts to mid-crustal levels. This, in turn, induced the elevation of geotherms, melting of shallow crust and S-type granite formation. This event terminated with transpression that produced small volumes of basaltic melts and finally closed the igneous scene in this part of the Balkan Peninsula. Although we agree that the growth of igneous bodies is usually internally controlled and can be independent from the ambient structural pattern, we have strong reasons to believe that the integration of regional scale observations of fault kinematics with crucial petrogenetic information can be used for establishing spatial

  5. Dating intrusion and cooling of Cenozoic granitoids in the Dinarides of Southern Serbia and discussion of the geodynamic setting of Paleocene-Miocene magmatism in the Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senecio, Schefer; Cvetković, Vladica; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Kounov, Alexandre; Ovtcharova, Maria; Schaltegger, Urs; Schmid, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of high precision single grain U-Pb dating and Hf isotope analyses of thermally annealed and chemically abraded zircons from the Kopaonik, Drenje, Željin, Golija and Polumir intrusions in the inner Dinarides of southern Serbia. In addition, new zircon and apatite fission-track data together with local structural observations, allow for constraining the subsequent exhumation history of these intrusions. Two age groups were determined for the granitoid intrusions: (i) Oligocene intrusive bodies (Kopaonik, Drenje, Željin) ranging in age from 31.7 to 30.6 Ma and (ii) Miocene Golija and Polumir intrusions which emplaced at 20.58-20.17 and 18.06-17.74 Ma, respectively. The apatite fission-track modelling combined with zircon central ages show rapid cooling from above 300 to ca. 80 °C between 16 and 10 Ma for granitoids of both age groups, followed by rather slow cooling to surface temperatures for the last 10 Ma. Fast Middle Miocene cooling between 16 and 10 Ma is caused by extensional exhumation of the plutons that are located in the footwall of core-complexes. This documents that Miocene magmatism and core-complex formation leading to formation of the Pannonian basin also affected a part of the mountainous areas of the internal Dinarides. The discussion of an extensive set of age data from the literature and the geodynamic setting of the Balkan Peninsula reveals that there is no direct connection of the Dinaridic Late Eocene to earliest Miocene magmatic belt with contemporaneous Periadriatic intrusions in the Alps and along the Mid-Hungarian fault zone as proposed in the literature. We insist on the fact that the subduction polarity in the Alps, including that within the Western Carpathians north of the Mid-Hungarian fault zone, is opposite to that of the Dinarides during the given time span. Instead, we propose that Late Eocene to Oligocene magmatism, which affects the Adria-derived lower plate units of the internal Dinarides, may be

  6. SANITATION IN SERBIA

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Edward

    1920-01-01

    We must maintain health programs in Serbia according to Major Stuart, who tells plainly of conditions as his party found them. Serbia, with other Balkan countries, is a menace to the health of the Western world. Typhus and malaria are endemic, while tuberculosis and other communicable diseases enfeeble the people. Imagesp126-ap127-ap128-ap129-ap130-a PMID:18010245

  7. Maize redness in Serbia caused by stolbur phytoplasma is transmitted by Reptalus panzeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR) causes midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. High populations of the ciixid Reptalus panzeri were found in MR affected maize fields in the southern Banat region of Serbia in 2005 and 2006, and stolbur phytoplasma w...

  8. Roles of Stolbur phytoplasma and Reptalus panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the epidemiology of Maize redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  9. Roles of Stolbur Phytoplasma and Reptalus Panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the Epidemiology of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  10. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  11. Canine Babesioses in Noninvestigated Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Simona; Otašević, Suzana; Ignjatović, Aleksandra; Savić, Sara; Fraulo, Maurizio; Arsić-Arsenijević, Valentina; Momčilović, Stefan; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    During the years 2012-2014, a total of 158 outdoor dogs from Pančevo and Đurđevo (northern Serbia) and Niš and Prokuplje (southern Serbia) were submitted to molecular analyses (PCR and sequencing) for canine babesioses. An overall prevalence of 21.5% was found, due to the species Babesia sp. 'spanish dog' (10.1%), B. gibsoni (5.7%), B. canis vogeli (1.9%), B. caballi (1.9%), and B. microti (1.9%). In addition, sequence analysis showed the presence of Hepatozoon canis in a dog from Niš. No significant difference between infected and noninfected dogs was found by age, sex, and place of residence, whereas there was difference regarding the presence of ticks (p<0.005) and application of preventive measures such as applying of antitick drugs/devices. Moreover, a significant difference was established by area: Dogs from Prokuplje showed infection rates (59.1%) higher than dogs from Pančevo (11.9%), Niš (4.5), and Đurđevo (where infected dogs were not found), and a different geographical distribution of the species was found. The presence of so many Babesia species and the first identification of H. canis will allow investigations on the pathogenic role played by each one and suggests entomological studies on the tick species that are more suitable vectors for each of them. Finally, the presence of so many infected dogs offers the opportunity of evaluating the hypothesis of a possible zoonotic role of babesial species affecting dogs. PMID:26348245

  12. On aging and aged care in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Sevo, G; Davidovic, M; Erceg, P; Despotovic, N; Milosevic, D P; Tasic, M

    2015-06-01

    Serbia is a demographically old nation, with 17.4 % of its residents being aged 65 years and older in 2011. The previous two decades of turbulent history have significantly affected the demographic picture of this country, and their ramifications remain visible in Serbia's economic, political, cultural, and health spheres. Major demographic forces behind population aging in Serbia can be attributed to lower fertility rates, migrations, and declining mortality (reflecting improvements in overall health leading to a longer life expectancy). In Serbia, low fertility and migrations appear to play major roles, although the relative contribution of recent migrations cannot be measured with accuracy. Patterns of demographic aging vary considerably across different geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural settings. The common denominator throughout present day Serbia is extensive political and economic transition. One would expect that, given sufficient time, this process will result in improved population health, and yet, at this stage outcomes of major health care reform in Serbia are somewhat perplexing. For the second consecutive year, Serbia's health care system has been ranked at the very bottom of the scale among 34 European countries. It is then no surprise that the elderly represent particularly vulnerable population segment. This paper discusses some of the issues relevant to these demographic patterns of aging and aged care in contemporary Serbia, focusing on the period after 2000. PMID:25943380

  13. Astronomy Education and Popularization in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanackovic, O.

    2013-05-01

    Astronomy education at all levels (elementary and secondary schools, universities) in Serbia is reviewed. The attempts to introduce astronomy as an elective course in elementary schools and to reintroduce astronomy as a separate subject in secondary schools are discussed. The role of the Petnica Science Center is briefly described, as well as the participation of the Serbian team in the International Astronomy Olympiads. A special emphasis is put on recent changes introduced in the accredited study programs at all five Serbian state universities. The research projects performed in two main astronomical institutions in Serbia are outlined. The numerous amateur astronomical societies in Serbia are presented and their growing activities summarized.

  14. [Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, A; Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between particular sites (range 14.4%-43.8%) (Figure 1). Helminthic infections (810) were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) as compared to both protozoan (296) and combined helminthic-protozoan infections (101). Of these, two species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis) were found in all examined regions, three (E. coli, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were detected in two or more, while four species (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a

  15. Astronomy development in Serbia in view of the IAU Strategic Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanacković, Olga

    2015-03-01

    An overview of astronomy development in Serbia in view of the goals envisaged by the IAU Strategic Plan is given. Due attention is paid to the recent reform of education at all levels. In the primary schools several extra topics in astronomy are introduced in the physics course. Attempts are made to reintroduce astronomy as a separate subject in the secondary schools. Special emphasis is put to the role and activities of the Petnica Science Center the biggest center for informal education in SE Europe, and to a successful participation of the Serbian team in International astronomy olympiads. Astronomy topics are taught at all five state universities in Serbia. At the University of Belgrade and Novi Sad students can enroll in astronomy from the first study year. The students have the training at the Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic) and at the astronomical station on the mountain Vidojevica in southern Serbia. Astronomy research in Serbia is performed at the Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade and the Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade. There are about 70 researchers in astronomy in Serbia (and about as many abroad) who participate in eight projects financed by the Ministry of Education and Science and in several international cooperations and projects: SREAC, VAMDC, Belissima (recruitment of experienced expatriate researchers), Astromundus (a 2-year joint master program with other four European universities), LSST. One of the goals in near future is twinning between universities in the SEE region and worldwide. The ever-increasing activities of 20 amateur astronomical societies are also given.

  16. Imported parasitic infections in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Dakić, Z.; Nikolić, A.; Lavadinović, L.; Pelemiš, M.; Klun, I.; Dulović, O.; Milošević, B.; Stevanović, G.; Ofori-Belić, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlović, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account. PMID:24466436

  17. The Miocene rodents of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Z.

    2009-04-01

    During the Miocene period a group of shallow lakes was created in depressions at the territory of present-day Serbia. This caused the present wide distribution of lacustrine sediments, which occasionally alternate with the alluvial and marsh sediments. The remains of large mammals are relatively common, while the remains of small mammals used to be known only from two localities - Mala Miliva and Sibnica. The method of sediment sieving, used during the last decade, led to discovery of 6 new localities with remains of fossil vertebrates - Sibnica 1, Vračevići, village Lazarevac, Bele Vode, Brajkovac and Tavnik. Most of the fossil material is represented by osteological and odontological remains of small mammals. The best represented group of small mammals at each of the localities was the rodents. According to the odontological material presence was proven for 35 rodent species from 6 families. MN zonation was determined according to structure of associations. The geological age of fossil-bearing sediments was determined by using the method of correlation with the sites in Europe and Turkey.

  18. Inclusive Education--Empirical Experience from Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Jasmina; Macesic-Petrovic, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study finds out the problems most frequently facing the children with special needs in regular schooling. The sample included 500 teachers in elementary schools from Serbia. The results point out the problems in inclusive education. Most educational problems occur in relations and communications with their peers in typical…

  19. Differential Selection into Secondary Schools in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baucal, Aleksandar; Pavlovic-Babic, Dragica; Willms, J. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In Serbia there are four levels of education: pre-school (until 7 years of age); primary education consisting of eight grades (ages 7-14); secondary education lasting two, three or four years; and higher education lasting from three to six years. Primary education is compulsory for all children. It consists of two cycles, each lasting four years,…

  20. First evidence of Brucella ovis infection in rams in the Pirot Municipality, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Miloš; Špičić, Silvio; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Lako, Branislav; Kostov, Miloš; Cvetnić, Željko

    2014-12-29

    This paper describes a research on Brucella ovis infection in rams in the Pirot Municipality of South Serbia. A positive result with indirect immunoenzyme test (i-ELISA) was confirmed in 67 (29.8%) and suspicious in 31 (13.8%) out of 225 tested rams. Complement fixation test (CFT) was used as a confirmation test on 67 ELISA positive sera and gave positive reaction in 41 (61.2%) ram serum samples. Rams originated from 113 flocks with 4751 sheep, from 28 villages in the Pirot Municipality of southern Serbia. Clinical examination was performed on epididymis and testes of 12 rams from 7 seropositive flocks by inspection and palpation. The examination showed scrotum asymmetry and unilateral increase of the epididymistail in 5 (41.7%) out of 12 seropositive rams. Pathomorphological examination of testes and epididymis confirmed pathological changes in 7 (58.3%) of the 12 examined rams. Onesided epididymitis with pronounced hypertrophy of the epididymitis was also confirmed. Twelve rams were tested for the presence of bacteria, i.e. 21 epididymis, testes and lymph nodes samples. We isolated 20 Brucella strains from 11 (91.7%) of the 12 examined animals. All isolates were identified with bacteriological and molecular techniques as B. ovis. This is the first evidence of ovine epididymitis (B. ovis) in Republic of Serbia. PMID:25546063

  1. Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Petrović, Tamaš; Polaček, Vladimir; Ristić, Bojan; Milić, Siniša; Stepanović, Predrag; Radisavljević, Katarina; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2016-03-01

    Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections. PMID:27078664

  2. Radio Astronomy in Serbia: A Short Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urosevic, D.

    In this lecture, I presented a short review of: 1. the brief history of development of radio astronomy in Serbia, and 2. the present state of research and university teaching in Serbia on this interesting and modern field of astronomy. Since 1970's, the continuum observations at the lowest radio frequencies (e.g. 38 MHz) and the Galactic radio loops have been represented the topics of main research interest for the first radio astronomer in Serbia, prof. dr Jelena Milogradov-Turin. In 1983, she introduced Radio astronomy as two semester course at 4th year of studies at Department of astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade. In this moment we have radio astronomy group with 5 (mainly younger) researchers from Department of Astronomy and Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The main fields of research interest are, as a part of tradition, the Galactic radio loops and additionally, the hydrodynamic and radio evolution of supernova remnants. Our future projects will be connected with radio evolution of nova remnants and planetary nebulae.

  3. Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources in a war zone. The case of April Serbia in 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukmirović, Zorka B.; Unkašević, Miroslava; Lazić, Lazar; Tošić, Ivana

    During NATO's 78-day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Detection of some important POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in Northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pančevo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pančevo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 h. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. Maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border.

  4. Drought analysis in Serbia using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosic, I.; Krzic, A.; Djurdjevic, V.; Unkasevic, M.; Rajkovic, B.

    2010-09-01

    the SPI-12 for August during the period 2071-2100 were drawn to determine the spatial changes of droughts. According to the obtained results, moderately dry climate is expected over greater part of the southern Europe, while severely dry climate is expected in southern Greece. From the analysis we can conclude that the EBU-POM model could capture the climatic data and also the drought indices well. Also, this analysis showed how SPI12 can be used to monitor drought conditions in Serbia. Djurdjevic, V., B. Rajkovic (2008) Verification of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model using satellite observations over the Adriatic Sea. Annales Geophysicae, 26, 1935-1954 McKee, T. B., N. J. Doesken, J. Kleist (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 179-184 Unkasevic, M., I. Tosic, D. Vujovic, 2004: Variability and probability of annual and extreme precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 79, 103-109

  5. The Interpretation and Implementation of the Bologna Process in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despotovic, Miomir

    2011-01-01

    This paper neither attacks nor defends the Bologna Declaration; rather, it attempts a critical assessment of its implementation in Serbia. Review of the available data shows that the higher education system in Serbia is inefficient and in profound need of reform. Analysis of some of the reform processes shows that the Bologna Declaration as a…

  6. 31 CFR 586.304 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 586.304 Section 586.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro) or FRY (S&M) means the territory of the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro....

  7. 31 CFR 585.313 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 585.313 Section 585.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or FRY (S&M) means the territory of Serbia and Montenegro....

  8. 31 CFR 586.308 - Government of the Republic of Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of the Republic of Serbia... (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.308 Government of the Republic of Serbia. The term Government of the Republic of Serbia means the government of the Republic...

  9. Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia

    SciTech Connect

    Balos, Sebastian; Benscoter, Arlan; Pense, Alan

    2009-04-15

    A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

  10. Space Radar Image of Belgrade, Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Belgrade, Serbia, illustrates the variety of land use patterns that can be observed with a multiple wavelength radar system. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia and former capital of Yugoslavia, is the bright area in the center of the image. The Danube River flows from the top to the bottom of the image, and the Sava River flows into the Danube from the left. Agricultural fields appear in shades of dark blue, purple and brown in outlying areas. Vegetated areas along the rivers appear in light blue-green, while dense forests in hillier areas in the lower left appear in a darker shade of green. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is centered at 44.5 degrees north latitude and 20.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 36 kilometers by 32 kilometers 22 miles by 20 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  11. Suicide prevention program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Gordana; Gordana, Dedic J; Panic, Milivoje; Milivoje, Panic

    2007-05-01

    Suicide, as one of the greatest problems of maladjustment to the military environment, has been a subject of investigation in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (former Yugoslav Army) for more than six decades. The Suicide Prevention Program was implemented in December 2003. The aim of the study was to follow-up the application of the Suicide Prevention Program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro and its effect on the suicide rate and to compare its incidence in civilians. Results of the program application showed that the number of suicides in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro was constantly reducing over the period 2004 to 2005. For soldiers, it was even four times less than in the civilian male population, particularly in the period of adaptation to the military environment. Since the Suicide Prevention Program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro proved to be successful in decreasing the suicide number, it should be further improved and routinely applied. PMID:17521110

  12. Preliminary list of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) of Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Thirty six species of horse flies (Tabanidae) were previously known from Serbia (Europe). The present faunistic study of horse flies (Tabanidae) has resulted in the recording of the 4 new species Atylotus fulvus (Meigen, 1804); Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1880; Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858; and Heptatoma pellucens (Fabricius, 1776), in the fauna of Serbia. The genus Heptatoma Meigen, 1803 is cited for the first time in the fauna of Serbia. 40 species are currently known from Serbia, belonging to nine genera. The fauna can be considered relatively poorly studied. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian type of fauna 23, followed by the South European group with 8 species, the Mediterranean group with 6 species, European group with 2 species and Central European group with 1 species. PMID:21998507

  13. Extreme daily precipitation: the case of Serbia in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Ivana; Unkašević, Miroslava; Putniković, Suzana

    2016-02-01

    The extreme daily precipitation in Serbia was examined at 16 stations during the period 1961-2014. Two synoptic situations in May and September of 2014 were analysed, when extreme precipitation was recorded in western and eastern Serbia, respectively. The synoptic situation from 14 to 16 May 2014 remained nearly stationary over the western and central Serbia for the entire period. On 15 May 2014, the daily rainfall broke previous historical records in Belgrade (109.8 mm), Valjevo (108.2 mm) and Loznica (110 mm). Precipitation exceeded 200 mm in 72 h, producing the most catastrophic floods in the recent history of Serbia. In Negotin (eastern Serbia), daily precipitation of 161.3 mm was registered on 16 September 2014, which was the maximum value recorded during the period 1961-2014. The daily maximum in 2014 was registered at 6 out of 16 stations. The total annual precipitation for 2014 was the highest for the period 1961-2014 at almost all stations in Serbia. A non-significant positive trend was found for all precipitation indices: annual daily maximum precipitation, the total precipitation in consecutive 3 and 5 days, the total annual precipitation, and number of days with at least 10 and 20 mm of precipitation. The generalised extreme value distribution was fitted to the annual daily maximum precipitation. The estimated 100-year return levels were 123.4 and 147.4 mm for the annual daily maximum precipitation in Belgrade and Negotin, respectively.

  14. Spatio-temporal patterns of precipitation in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocic, Milan; Trajkovic, Slavisa

    2014-08-01

    The monthly precipitation data from 29 synoptic stations for the period 1946-2012 were analyzed using a number of different multivariate statistical analysis methods to investigate the spatial variability and temporal patterns of precipitation across Serbia. R-mode principal component analysis was used to study the spatial variability of the precipitation. Three distinct sub-regions were identified by applying the agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis to the two component scores: C1 includes the north and the northeast part of Serbia, while C2 includes the western part of Central Serbia and southwestern part of Serbia and C3 includes central, east, south and southeast part of Serbia. The analysis of the identified sub-regions indicated that the monthly and seasonal precipitation in sub-region C2 had the values above average, while C1 and C3 had the precipitation values under average. The analysis of the linear trend of the mean annual precipitation showed an increasing trend for the stations located in Serbia and three sub-regions. From the result of this analysis, one can plan land use, water resources and agricultural production in the region.

  15. Airborne radioiodine in northern Serbia from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Bikit, Istvan; Mrda, Dusan; Todorovic, Natasa; Nikolov, Jovana; Krmar, Miodrag; Veskovic, Miroslav; Slivka, Jaroslav; Hansman, Jan; Forkapic, Sofija; Jovancevic, Nikola

    2012-12-01

    The results obtained with the monitoring system set up to assess the impact of the Fukushima accident on the environment of Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia) are presented and discussed. Aerosol, rain, fresh milk and spinach samples were collected daily in the weeks following the accident. In the aerosol samples, (131)I activity concentrations of several mBq m(-3) were measured, while in rain, milk and spinach samples, (131)I levels had values in a range of (0.3-1.7) Bq kg(-1). These are the first results on the impact of the Fukushima accident on the Pannonian basin region. Our results are compared with the reported values from other parts of the world. PMID:22326020

  16. Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

    2012-04-01

    As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

  17. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality

    PubMed Central

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ≤ 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The results

  18. 31 CFR 585.418 - Vessels of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 585.418 Section 585.418 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). Any vessel in which a majority or controlling interest is held by...

  19. Northern Slavs from Serbia do not show a founder effect at autosomal and Y-chromosomal STRs and retain their paternal genetic heritage.

    PubMed

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Veselinović, Igor; Siváková, Daniela; Patskun, Erika; Kravchenko, Sergey; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Y-chromosomal markers revealed significant genetic differentiation between Southern and Northern (Western and Eastern) Slavic populations. The northern Serbian region of Vojvodina is inhabited by Southern Slavic Serbian majority and, inter alia, Western Slavic (Slovak) and Eastern Slavic (Ruthenian) minorities. In the study, 15 autosomal STR markers were analysed in unrelated Slovaks, Ruthenians and Serbs from northern Serbia and western Slovakia. Additionally, Slovak males from Serbia were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci. The results were compared to data available for other Slavic populations. Genetic distances for autosomal markers revealed homogeneity between Serbs from northern Serbia and Slovaks from western Slovakia and distinctiveness of Serbian Slovaks and Ruthenians. Y-STR variation showed a clear genetic departure of the Slovaks and Ruthenians inhabiting Vojvodina from their Serbian neighbours and genetic similarity to the Northern Slavic populations of Slovakia and Ukraine. Admixture estimates revealed negligible Serbian paternal ancestry in both Northern Slavic minorities of Vojvodina, providing evidence for their genetic isolation from the Serbian majority population. No reduction of genetic diversity at autosomal and Y-chromosomal markers was found, excluding genetic drift as a reason for differences observed at autosomal STRs. Analysis of molecular variance detected significant population stratification of autosomal and Y-chromosomal microsatellites in the three Slavic populations of northern Serbia, indicating necessity for separate databases used for estimations of frequencies of autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles in forensic casework. Our results demonstrate that regarding Y-STR haplotypes, Serbian Slovaks and Ruthenians fit in the Eastern European metapopulation defined in the Y chromosome haplotype reference database. PMID:24315599

  20. Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

  1. Early Childhood Professionalism in Serbia: Current Issues and Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankovic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…

  2. 31 CFR 586.204 - Prohibited new investment within Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persons designated in or pursuant to 31 CFR § 587.201(a), the new investment activities of United States... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited new investment within... (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 586.204 Prohibited new investment...

  3. Student Background Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes student-level findings of the first large-scale comprehensive school effectiveness study of the primary education in Serbia. Twenty-five student-level variables were examined in a three-level HLM model using a study sample of almost 5000 students, over 250 classrooms and over 100 schools. Differences between the students were…

  4. A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-11-01

    The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia. PMID:23690538

  5. The Geographic Information System (GIS) in Secondary Education in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlenovic, Djurdjica; Manic, Emilija; Malinic, Dusica

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the application of new educational technologies in geography classes. The research involved 126 students from vocational secondary schools in Serbia taking geography as a compulsory subject. We developed and applied a questionnaire for this research. The results indicate that out of several ICTs available, the majority of…

  6. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marić, Saša; Sušnik, Simona; Simonović, Predrag; Snoj, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one haplotype (ATcs1), found only in two individuals originating from two stocked rivers, corresponded to the Atlantic lineage and was considered introduced. Native haplotypes exhibited a strong geographic pattern of distribution: the Danubian haplotypes were strictly confined to the Danubian drainage, while the Adriatic haplotypes dominated in the Aegean and Adriatic drainages; most of the total molecular variance (69%) was attributed to differences among the drainages. Phylogenetic reconstruction, supplemented with seven haplotypes newly described in this study, suggested a sister position of the Atlantic-Danubian and Adriatic-Mediterranean-marmoratus ("southern") phylogenetic group, and pointed to the existence of a distinct clade, detected within the "southern" group. The data obtained confirmed our expectation of the existence of high genetic diversity in Balkan trout populations, and we recommend more widespread surveys covering trout stocks from the region. PMID:16790230

  7. Spatial Pattern of Rainfall Trends in Serbia (1961-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovic, J.; Bajat, B.; Blagojevic, D.; Kilibarda, M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines a spatial pattern of annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall trends in Serbia. The study used data from 63 meteorological stations between 1961 and 2009. The rainfall series was analyzed applying nonparametric method of the Mann Kendall test and Sen's method to determine the significance and magnitude of the trends. Interactive WEB maps were produced to obtain detailed insight in the spatial distribution of rainfall trends in Serbia. Seasonal trends at the confidence level of 95%, however, indicate a slight decrease in winter and spring precipitation and an increase in autumn precipitation. Results for monthly rainfall trends also generally showed non- significant trend, except positive for October (9 stations out of 63) and negative for May (6 stations out of 63). Calculated global autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I) indicate, in general, a random spatial pattern of rainfall trends on annual, seasonal and monthly time scales with exceptions for March, June and November.

  8. Mapping the governance of human resources for health in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Vasic, Milena; Edwards, Matt

    2015-12-01

    This article maps the current governance of human resources for health (HRH) in relation to universal health coverage in Serbia since the health sector reforms in 2003. The study adapts the Global Health Workforce Alliance/World Health Organization four-dimensional framework of HRH in the context of governance for universal health coverage. A set of proxies was established for the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of HRH. Analysis of official HRH documentation from relevant institutions and reports were used to construct a governance profile of HRH for Serbia from the introduction of the reform in 2003 up to 2013. The results show that all Serbian districts (except Sremski) surpass the availability threshold of 59.4 skilled midwives, nurses and physicians per 10,000 inhabitants. District accessibility of health workforce greatly differed from the national average with variances from +26% to -34%. Analysis of national averages and patient load of general practitioners showed variances among districts by ± 21%, whilst hospital discharges per 100 inhabitants deviated between +52% and -45%. Pre-service and in-service education of health workforce is regulated and accredited. However, through its efforts to respond to population health needs Serbia lacks a single coordinating entity to take overall responsibility for effective and coordinated HRH planning, management and development within the broader landscape of health strategy development. PMID:26358245

  9. Human giardiasis in Serbia: asymptomatic vs symptomatic infection*

    PubMed Central

    Nikolić, A.; Klun, I.; Bobić, B.; Ivović, V.; Vujanić, M.; Živković, T.; Djurković-Djaković, O.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animalto- person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed. PMID:21678797

  10. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards. PMID:27145580

  11. Topographic maps of Serbia prior to the WWI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, B.

    2009-04-01

    Compilation of high or medium scale topographic surveys always played an important role in the geosciences of newly independent countries. Serbia formally has gained back its independency from the Turkish Empire sortly after the 1878 Congress of Berlin. The newly founded Institute of Military Geography in Beograd made efforts to complete a topographic series of 1:75,000 scale. Actually two serieses have been completed prior to the Balkan Wars of 1912-13, one with Latin and the other with the Cyrillic name descriptions, in French and Serbian languages, respectively. The scale of these map systems are identical to the Habsburg general mapping of Central Europe, covering also Serbia. As the Habsburg maps used the prime meridian of Ferro, their Serbian counterparts were using the one of Paris, which is a mere longitude shift of 20 degrees in round numbers. The geodetic basis behind the Serbian maps is probably the Habsburg triangulation in the Balkans (1871-75) - this would explain why the Vienna-centered Hermannskogel datum has been used also in Yugoslavia and Serbia even till nowadays. The French language series has red planar graphic elements (only the names, elevations and the railroad lines are written or drawn in back), blue, brown and green prints were used for waters, contours and vegetation. The Serbian language series mostly reminds to the modern maps albeit it has only three colors (black, brown and green).

  12. Trends of cold and heat waves in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The series of the daily minimum and maximum temperatures at fifteen stations in Serbia were used to calculate the cold and warm spell duration indicators, from which the duration and severity of the cold and heat waves were estimated. The trend analysis for all seasons was presented using the data from 1949 to 2012. The most important result of this study is the significant decreasing trends in the frequency of cold waves and increasing trends of heat waves in Serbia. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures almost at all meteorological stations revealed that the longest and most severe cold waves were observed in winter of 1956, spring of 1987, summer of 1962 and 1996, and during the autumn 1983 and 1988. The longest and most severe heat waves, based on the analysis of the daily maximum temperatures, were recorded in winter of 2007, spring of 2003, summer of 2012, and after 1989 during the autumn. The longest heat waves observed in 2012 did not reach the severity of the heat waves in 2007 at ten of fifteen stations. The obtained results indicated that the warming in Serbia was more related to increase in frequency of heat waves than to reduction in cold waves.

  13. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…

  14. The Role of Comparative Pedagogy in the Training of Pedagogues in Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spasenovic, Vera; Vujisic Zivkovic, Natasa; Ermenc, Klara Skubic

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers three issues arising from the study of the development and the current state of Comparative Pedagogy in Serbia and Slovenia. First, the development of Comparative Pedagogy as a distinctive discipline in Serbia and Slovenia is discussed. Second, the role and the content of Comparative Pedagogy courses in university programmes…

  15. Empowering Schools to Serve as Safety Nets for Children with Behavior Problems in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlesic, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Children with special needs have been a focus of institutional reforms in Serbia for nearly two decades. Historically, as in other Eastern European countries, children with severe developmental, emotional, and/or behavior disorders in Serbia were often placed in institutions far from their families for much of their lives. Since the fall of…

  16. Historical Review of Astro-Geodetic Observations in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrizovic, V.; Delcev, S.; Vasilic, V.; Gucevic, J.

    2008-10-01

    Astro-geodetic determinations of vertical deflections in Serbia began during the first years of 20th century. The first field works were led by S. Bo\\vsković. After the 2nd World War, Military Geographic Institute, Department of Geodesy from the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Federal Geodetic Directorate continued the determinations, needed for reductions of terrestrial geodetic measurements and the astro-geodetic geoid determination. Last years improvements of the astro-geodetic methods are carried out in the area of implementing modern measurement equipment and technologies.

  17. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsiae in different regions of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Svetomir; Marinkovic, Tatjana; Marinkovic, Dragan; Djuricic, Bosiljka; Ristanovic, Elizabeta; Simovic, Tatjana; Lako, Branislav; Vukov, Biljana; Bozovic, Bojana; Gligic, Ana

    2008-04-01

    We assayed the presence of antibodies specific for Rickettsia typhi, R. akari, and R. conorii in sera of persons from several localities in Serbia with different geographic, climatic, and lifestyle characteristics. Sera from 140 patients with unclear clinical symptoms and 273 healthy persons were tested for the presence of rickettsiae-specific antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In this study, for the first time we detected the presence of rickettsiae from the spotted fever group in Serbia. We detected the presence of antibodies against R. conorii in the samples from all tested localities. The proportion of positive cases was low in the plain agricultural areas but reached up to 23% in the mountain areas. We also observed a significant number of cases positive for antibodies against R. akari. Antibodies specific for the antigens of R. typhi were detected in only 2 samples from the municipality of Pec (Kosovo region). These findings contribute to the prevalence of Rickettsia species in Southeast Europe. Our study also revealed a dramatic lack of awareness of rickettsioses among medical personnel and pointed to the need for urgent measures that would help improve the current situation in the region. PMID:18240971

  18. Toxoplasmosis in Serbia: time for an action plan.

    PubMed

    Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B; Klun, I

    2010-09-01

    Known for a century, Toxoplasma gondii has been studied in Serbia half this time, ever since the introduction of the Sabin-Feldman test at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR) in 1959. However, despite 50 years of continuous efforts, exact data on the frequency of acute clinical disease, acute infections in pregnancy and congenital infection in the offspring are still lacking, due to the vague regulatory provision that toxoplasmosis is subject to reporting "in case of epidemiological indications". It is, however, clear that the major Toxoplasma-induced public health issue in Serbia, like elsewhere in Europe, is congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Continuous monitoring of particular patient groups showed a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of infection over the past two decades, and a consequently increased proportion of women susceptible to infection in pregnancy, suggesting a potential increase in the incidence of CT. Studies of risk factors for infection transmission have provided data to guide national health education campaigns. It is expected that the recent appointment of the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis as the focal point for the collection of data from the primary level, will provide the means for accurate assessment of the measure of the problem, which is a prerequisite of an evidence-based nation-wide prevention program. In the meantime, health education of all pregnant women, focused at risk factors of major local significance, is advocated as a sound and financially sustainable option to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21073140

  19. Torrential floods and town and country planning in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, R.; Kostadinov, S.; Abolmasov, B.; Dragićević, S.; Trivan, G.; Radić, B.; Trifunović, M.; Radosavljević, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Torrential floods are the most frequent natural catastrophic events in Serbia, causing the loss of human lives and huge material damage, both in urban and rural areas. The analysis of the intra-annual distribution of maximal discharges aided in noticing that torrential floods have a seasonal character. The erosion and torrent control works (ETCWs) in Serbia began at the end of the 19th century. Effective protection from torrential floods encompasses biotechnical works on the slopes in the watershed and technical works on the torrent beds, within a precisely defined administrative and spatial framework in order to achieve maximal safety for people and their property. Cooperation to overcome the conflicts between the sectors of the water resources management, forestry, agriculture, energetics, environmental protection and local economic development groups is indispensable at the following levels: policy, spatial planning, practice, investments and education. The lowest and most effective level is through the Plans for Announcement of Erosive Regions (PAERs) and the Plans for Protection from Torrential Floods (PPTFs), with Hazard Zones (HZs) and Threatened Areas (TAs) mapping on the basis of the hydrologic, hydraulic and spatial analysis of the factors that are important for the formation of torrential floods. Solutions defined through PAERs and PPTFs have to be integrated into Spatial Plans at local and regional levels.

  20. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...

  1. 31 CFR 586.306 - Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) means the government of the FRY (S&M), its agencies... entities organized or located in the FRY (S&M) as of June 9, 1998, any successors to such entities,...

  2. Variability of the honey bee mite Varroa destructor in Serbia, based on mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Gajic, Bojan; Radulovic, Zeljko; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Kulisic, Zoran; Vucicevic, Milos; Simeunovic, Predrag; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2013-09-01

    Only two mitochondrial haplotypes (Korea and Japan) of Varroa destructor, the ectoparasitic honey bee mite, are known to be capable of infesting and successfully reproducing in Apis mellifera colonies worldwide. Varroa destructor (then called Varroa jacobsoni) was observed in Serbia for the first time in 1976. In order to obtain insight into the genetic variability of the mites parasitizing A. mellifera we analyzed 45 adult female mites sampled from nine localities dispersed throughout Serbia. Four fragments within cox1, atp6, cox3 and cytb mtDNA genes were sequenced. The Korea haplotype of V. destructor was found to be present at all localities, but also two new haplotypes (Serbia 1 and Peshter 1) were revealed, based on cox1 and cytb sequence variability. The simultaneous occurrence of Korea and Serbia 1 haplotypes was observed at five localities, whereas Peshter 1 haplotype was identifed at only one place. PMID:23471517

  3. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from Serbia: Revision of CarO Classification

    PubMed Central

    Novovic, Katarina; Mihajlovic, Sanja; Vasiljevic, Zorica; Filipic, Brankica; Begovic, Jelena; Jovcic, Branko

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii present a significant therapeutic challenge for the treatment of nosocomial infections in many European countries. Although it is known that the gradient of A. baumannii prevalence increases from northern to southern Europe, this study provides the first data from Serbia. Twenty-eight carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates were collected at a Serbian pediatric hospital during a 2-year period. The majority of isolates (67.68%) belonged to the sequence type Group 1, European clonal complex II. All isolates harbored intrinsic OXA-51 and AmpC cephalosporinase. OXA-23 was detected in 16 isolates (57.14%), OXA-24 in 23 isolates (82.14%) and OXA-58 in 11 isolates (39.29%). Six of the isolates (21.43%) harbored all of the analyzed oxacillinases, except OXA-143 and OXA-235 that were not detected in this study. Production of oxacillinases was detected in different pulsotypes indicating the presence of horizontal gene transfer. NDM-1, VIM and IMP were not detected in analyzed clinical A. baumannii isolates. ISAba1 insertion sequence was present upstream of OXA-51 in one isolate, upstream of AmpC in 13 isolates and upstream of OXA-23 in 10 isolates. In silico analysis of carO sequences from analyzed A. baumannii isolates revealed the existence of two out of six highly polymorphic CarO variants. The phylogenetic analysis of CarO protein among Acinetobacter species revised the previous classification CarO variants into three groups based on strong bootstraps scores in the tree analysis. Group I comprises four variants (I-IV) while Groups II and III contain only one variant each. One half of the Serbian clinical isolates belong to Group I variant I, while the other half belongs to Group I variant III. PMID:25822626

  4. Southern Rains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...   View Larger image Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and ... for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar ...

  5. Molecular detection of emerging tick-borne pathogens in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Savić, Sara; Vračar, Vuk; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Jurišić, Aleksandar; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Rojas, Alicia; Petrović, Aleksandra; Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon

    2016-02-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission globally due to their capability to serve as vectors for human and animal pathogens. The Republic of Serbia is an endemic area for a large number of tick-borne diseases. However, current knowledge on these diseases in Serbia is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of new emerging tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of Vojvodina, Serbia. A total of 187 ticks, including 124 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 45 Ixodes ricinus and 18 Dermacentor reticulatus were collected from dogs. In addition, 26 questing I. ricinus ticks were collected from the vegetation, using the flagging method, from 4 different localities in Vojvodina, Serbia. DNA was extracted from each tick individually and samples were tested by either conventional or real-time PCR assays for the presence of Rickettsia spp.-DNA (gltA and ompA gene fragments), Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.-DNA (16S rRNA gene fragment) and Hepatozoon spp./Babesia spp.-DNA (18S rRNA gene fragment). In addition, all I. ricinus DNA samples were tested for Bartonella spp.-DNA (ITS locus) by real-time PCR. In this study, the presence of novel emerging tick-borne pathogens including Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia massiliae, Babesia venatorum, Babesia microti, Hepatozoon canis and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was identified for the first time in Serbia. Our findings also confirmed the presence of Rickettsia monacensis, Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks from Serbia. The findings of the current study highlight the great diversity of tick-borne pathogens of human and animal importance in Serbia. Physicians, public health workers and veterinarians should increase alertness to the presence of these tick-borne pathogens in this country. PMID:26565929

  6. Črvenka loess-paleosol sequence revisited: local and regional Quaternary biogeographical inferences of the southern Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sümegi, Pál; Marković, Slobodan B.; Molnár, Dávid; Sávai, Szilvia; Náfrádi, Katalin; Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Novák, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    Studies of Quaternary malacological assemblages from the loess-paleosol section of Črvenka (Vojvodina region, Serbia) provided the opportunity to examine the paleobiogeographic dynamics of the southern part of the Carpathian Basin. The results of quantitative-statistical, paleoecological and paleobiogeographical analyses performed on 9185 specimens of 38 mollusc species from six stratigraphic units showed that the study area was a transition area between the refuge areas in the Carpathian Basin during the Pleistocene.

  7. 31 CFR 586.514 - Divestiture of U.S. person's equity investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. 586.514 Section 586.514 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses... the territory of the Republic of Serbia. Notwithstanding the prohibition in § 586.204 against...

  8. Relation between primary liver cancer occurrence and freshwater Cyanobacterial blooms in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirčev, Z.; Miladinov-Mikov, M.; Simeunović, J.; Vidović, M.; Stojanović, D.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1980 cyanobacterial blooms occurred in a large number of reservoirs, lakes and running water ecosystems (rivers and channels) in Serbia. Among 49 reservoirs examined, 32 were found in blooming condition almost every year during last 2 decades. All natural lakes and 12 river and channel localities in Vojvodina province (agricultural part) proved to be sites with cyanobacterial proliferation. The part of Central Serbia is very problematic for ground water supply. For that reason 21 reservoirs serve as drinking water suppliers. Significant and persistant cyanobacterial blooms have been recognized in 9 of them. Samples for cyanotoxin analyses were taken during and after blooms in Celije Reservoir and in drinking water in Krusevac town 2 days later. Concentratins of Microcystin-LR were 460 µg•L-1 and for Microcystin-RR 170 µg•L-1. Drinking water contained 2 and 0.6 µg•L-1, respectively. Serbia consists of 30 administrative units, in three of which studies for Primary Liver Cancer (PLC) were conducted independently: Vojvodina, where drinking-water is supplied only from deep wells where 7 regions were studied, Kosovo with a few high mountain reservoirs for water supply without cyanobacterial proliferation where 6 regions were studied, and Central Serbia, where 17 regions were studied. Central Serbia showed 7 regions with extremly high PLC incidence and 8 regions with lower PLC incidence. In the two investigated periods, the high PLC mortality of 11.6 in 1980-1995 and extremely high PLC incidence of 26 in 2000 was observed in the regions affected by heavy cyanobacterial blooms. In contrast, the regions not affected by the blooms, PLC mortality and incidence rates were substantially lower: from 1980-1995 mortality rate ammounted to 2.7 in Kosovo, 7.6 in Vojvodina, and 8.5 in the non-affected regions of Central Serbia, and in 2000 incidence rate ammounted to 4.1 (Kosovo), 6.6 (Vojvodina), and 7.5 in the non-affected regions of Central Serbia. The uneven

  9. 75 FR 33376 - Determination Related to Serbia Under Section 7072(c) of the Department of State, Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination Related to Serbia Under Section 7072(c) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... determine and certify that the Government of Serbia is: (1) Cooperating with the International...

  10. Administering the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire to sarcoidosis patients in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Mihailović-Vučinić, Violeta; Gvozdenović, Branislav; Stjepanović, Mihailo; Vuković, Mira; Marković-Denić, Ljiljana; Milovanović, Aleksandar; Videnović-Ivanov, Jelica; Žugić, Vladimir; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Filipović, Snežana; Omčikus, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use a Serbian-language version of the disease-specific, self-report Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ), which was designed and originally validated in the United States, to assess health status in sarcoidosis patients in Serbia, as well as validating the instrument for use in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 346 patients with biopsy-confirmed sarcoidosis. To evaluate the health status of the patients, we used the SHQ, which was translated into Serbian for the purposes of this study. We compared SHQ scores by patient gender and age, as well as by disease duration and treatment. Lower SHQ scores indicate poorer health status. Results: The SHQ scores demonstrated differences in health status among subgroups of the sarcoidosis patients evaluated. Health status was found to be significantly poorer among female patients and older patients, as well as among those with chronic sarcoidosis or extrapulmonary manifestations of the disease. Monotherapy with methotrexate was found to be associated with better health status than was monotherapy with prednisone or combination therapy with prednisone and methotrexate. Conclusions: The SHQ is a reliable, disease-specific, self-report instrument. Although originally designed for use in the United States, the SHQ could be a useful tool for the assessment of health status in various non-English-speaking populations of sarcoidosis patients. PMID:27167430

  11. OCCUPATIONAL DOSE ASSESSMENT IN INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Kaljevic, J; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Bozovic, P; Antic, V

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the occupational dose in interventional cardiology in a large hospital in Belgrade, Serbia. A double-dosimetry method was applied for the estimation of whole-body dose, using thermoluminescent dosemeters, calibrated in terms of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Besides the double-dosimetry method, eye dose was also estimated by means of measuring ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), and doses per procedure were reported. Doses were assessed for 13 physicians, 6 nurses and 10 radiographers, for 2 consequent years. The maximum annual effective dose assessed was 4.3, 2.1 and 1.3 mSv for physicians, nurses and radiographers, respectively. The maximum doses recorded by the dosemeter worn at the collar level (over the apron) were 16.8, 11.9 and 4.5 mSv, respectively. This value was used for the eye lens dose assessment. Estimated doses are in accordance with or higher than annual dose limits for the occupational exposure. PMID:26464526

  12. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  13. Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation in Vojvodina, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Ivana; Hrnjak, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Unkašević, Miroslava; Marković, Slobodan B.; Lukić, Tin

    2014-07-01

    Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation observed at 92 stations in Vojvodina (Serbia) were analyzed during the period 1946-2006. The rainfall series were examined by means of the empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The first set of singular vectors explains from 68.8 % (in summer) to 81.8 % (in winter) of the total variance. The temporal variability of the time series associated with the main EOF configurations (the principal components, PCs) was examined using the Mann-Kendall test and the spectral analysis. The time series of PC1 revealed decreasing trend in the winter and spring precipitation and increasing trend in the autumn, summer, and annual precipitation. The relationships between the first PC and circulation patterns, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, and East Atlantic/West Russia pattern, were also investigated. The PC1, displaying temporal behavior of the first mode, demonstrated evident correspondence with the NAO index in analysis of the annual, winter, and autumn precipitation. Power spectra of the PC1 show statistically significant oscillations of about 3.3 years for the spring precipitation and about 8 and 15 years for the winter precipitation. Comparisons with spectral analysis of authors for some regions in Europe, most of them in the Mediterranean domain, show that similar periodicities are detected.

  14. Circulation weather types and their influence on precipitation in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putniković, Suzana; Tošić, Ivana; Đurđević, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    An objective classification scheme of atmospheric circulation, in which daily circulation is determined by the strength, direction, and vorticity of geostrophic flow, has been applied to the atmosphere over Serbia for the time period 1961-2010. The results for the sea level and isobaric level of 500 hPa for winter and summer are presented. The 26 circulation types (eight pure direction, 16 hybrid, cyclonic, and anticyclonic types) are determined and described. Each of the circulation types has a distinct underlying synoptic pattern that produces the expected type and direction of flow over the study area. The relative frequencies of the circulation types, and the relationship between the precipitation and circulation types at three stations on a seasonal time scale are analyzed. The anticyclonic weather type dominates in winter (18.93 %) and summer (18.70 %), followed by the northeasterly type (16.65 %) in summer, and the cyclonic type (12.83 %) in winter. The cyclonic types (C and hybrid) have a higher than average probability of rain at all stations. Conversely, the anticyclonic types are associated with a lower than average probability and intensity of rainfall.

  15. Phytochemical fingerprints of lime honey collected in serbia.

    PubMed

    Gašić, Uroš; Šikoparija, Branko; Tosti, Tomislav; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Natić, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav

    2014-01-01

    Composition of phenolic compounds and the sugar content were determined as the basis for characterization of lime honey from Serbia. Particular attention was given to differences in phytochemical profiles of ripe and unripe lime honey and lime tree nectar. Melissopalynological analysis confirmed domination of Tilia nectar in all analyzed samples. Phenolic acids, abscisic acid, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides were determined by means of ultra-HPLC coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (UHPLC-OrbiTrap). Sugar content was determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection. Similar phenolic compounds characterized unripe and ripe honeys, while the lime tree nectar profile showed notable differences. Compared to lime tree nectar, a high amount of chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in both ripe and unripe lime honey. Fructose and glucose were the major constituents of all investigated samples, and amounts were within the limits established by European Union legislation. Sucrose content in the nectar sample was up to two-fold higher when compared to all honey samples. Isomaltose and gentiobiose with turanose content were different in analyzed production stages of lime honey. PMID:25902974

  16. Professional stress and health among critical care nurses in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Dragana; Golubović, Boris; Brkić, Nina; Prokeš, Bela

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyse professional stressors, evaluate the level of stress in nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICU), and assess the correlation between the perception of stress and psychological and somatic symptoms or diseases shown by nurses. The research, designed as a cross-sectional study, was carried out in the Intensive Care Units (ICU), in health centres in Serbia. The sample population encompassed 1000 nurses. Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS) was used as the research instrument. ENSS revealed a valid metric characteristic within our sample population. Nurses from ICUs rated situations involving physical and psychological working environments as the most stressful ones, whereas situations related to social working environment were described as less stressful; however, the differences in the perception of stressfulness of these environments were minor. Socio-demographic determinants of the participants (age, marital status and education level) significantly affected the perception of stress at work. Significant differences in the perception of stressfulness of particular stress factors were observed among nurses with respect to psychological and somatic symptoms (such as headache, insomnia, fatigue, despair, lower back pain, mood swings etc.) and certain diseases (such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus etc). In view of permanent escalation of professional stressors, creating a supportive working environment is essential for positive health outcomes, prevention of job-related diseases and better protection of already ill nurses. PMID:22728799

  17. Celiac disease prevalence in epileptic children from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djurić, Zlatko; Nagorni, Aleksandar; Jocić-Jakubi, Bosa; Dimić, Milena; Novak, Martin; Milićević, Radovan; Radenković, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically determined autoimmune enteropathy, induced by gluten ingestion. To date, different prevalences of CD in children with epilepsy have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine CD prevalence in our patients with epilepsy, using anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies as a screening test. One hundred twenty-five children (72 girls, 53 boys; age range: 2-18 years, mean age: 10.51 +/- 3.53) with idiopathic epilepsy from South East Serbia were tested for immunoglobulin (IgA) tTG antibodies. All positive patients were offered endoscopic small bowel biopsy. Biopsies were examined histopathologically in order to confirm the CD diagnosis. The control group consisted of 150 healthy children. Three patients with epilepsy were positive for IgA tTG antibodies. In all of them, small bowel biopsy was performed, and only one was proven to have CD by histopathology (Marsh IIIa grade). The prevalence of biopsy-proven CD in children with epilepsy was not significantly higher in the study group compared to controls (0.8% vs.0.6%, p > 0.05). The results of this study indicate that children with idiopathic epilepsy from our region should not be routinely tested for CD. PMID:23094534

  18. Violence, dignity and HIV vulnerability: street sex work in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Simić, Milena; Rhodes, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Sex work can be contextualized by violence, social and material inequality, and HIV vulnerability. We undertook a qualitative study to explore female and transvestite sex workers' accounts (n = 31) of HIV risk environment in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. Violence emerged as a key theme. Accounts emphasise the ubiquity of multiple forms of everyday violence - physical, emotional, social - in street sex work scenes, linked to police as much as clients. We highlight the salience of emotions in sex work risk management, in which the preservation of dignity is of prime importance. Accounts draw upon narratives of hygiene and responsibility which, we argue, seek to resist portrayals, normative to this setting, of sex workers as contaminated and irresponsible. Findings highlight how the ubiquity of the risk of violence in street sex work scenes reflects institutionalised social inequalities and injustices. Sex workers are inevitably participant in the cycle of symbolic violence they seek to resist. The challenges for HIV prevention are therefore considerable, and require interventions which not only seek to foster safer micro-environments of sex work but structural changes in the welfare, criminal justice and other social institutions which reproduce the cycle of violence faced by sex workers day to day. PMID:19144087

  19. Bioaccumulation of metals in the trees of Novi Sad, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gavrilović, Marjana; Budakov, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    In urban and industrial areas, higher plants are used as biomonitors of exposure. The objective of this study was to assess metals accumulation in leaves of dendroflora for the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, in May and September. The investigation was conducted at three sites in the urban area of Novi Sad. Determination of metals concentration for Al, As, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sample was performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES). In the leaves of the examined tree species the highest concentrations were obtained for: Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The highest mean concentrations of metals were present in leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in September. Trees from Liman and the Danube Park contained higher mean concentrations of metals in the leaves. In A. hippocastanum and Platanus hybrida an increase of al., As, Cr, Fe, and Pb concentrations occurred from May to September, with higher concentrations of Al and Fe noted in May. However, in Celtis australis, Juglans regia, and Tilia platypyllos there was a reduction in Al, Mn, Fe, and Zn from May to September. The basis for these findings requires further investigation, but diverse washing procedures may account partially for these observations. PMID:27459035

  20. Fractures in late medieval skeletal populations from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djurić, Marija P; Roberts, Charlotte A; Rakocević, Zoran B; Djonić, Danijela D; Lesić, Aleksandar R

    2006-06-01

    Bone fractures were analyzed from skeletal remains of 861 adult individuals from six cemeteries dating to the Late Medieval period in Serbia. Results of the study were compared to other cemetery populations (635 individual skeletons) of the same date and region in an attempt to understand fracture patterns. The association of types of fractures and their prevalence with sex, age at death, cemetery site, and information deriving from historical sources are discussed. Results showed that the long bone fracture frequency was 0.7%, and the majority of the fractures were the result of direct force. This rate is similar to some studies of contemporary British skeletal samples. However, it is much lower than for some other Old World sites. Cranial vault fractures had a rate of 6.7%, and of the facial skeleton, 1.3%; the frontal bone was the most affected of bones of the cranial vault. Injuries were more common on the upper extremities (0.8%) compared to the lower (0.6%). However, the fibula was the most fractured bone (2.8%), followed by the ulna (2.4%). This pattern is similar to three of six Late Medieval urban sites in Britain. These findings suggest that this rural community was exposed to a low risk of trauma, probably related mostly to accidents sustained during farming, and rarely to interpersonal violence. PMID:16365855

  1. Genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus in the edible dormouse (Glis glis) in central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, M; Nikolic, V; Stajkovic, N; Stamenkovic, G; Bozovic, B; Cekanac, R; Marusic, P; Gligic, A

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkans, particularly in Serbia, where sporadic cases and/or outbreaks of hantaviral human disease have been reported repeatedly, and evidenced serologically. Here, we present genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) hantaviral sequences in wild rodents trapped in central Serbia. All the animals were pre-screened serologically by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test and only those with a positive finding of hantaviral antigens were further tested by polymerase chain reaction. Of the total of 104 trapped animals, 20 were found to be IF positive and of those three were positive for hantaviral RNA: one Microtus arvalis for Tula virus, and one each of Apodemus agrarius and Glis glis for DOBV. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences implies putative DOBV spillover infection of A. agrarius and G. glis from Apodemus flavicollis. However, future investigations should help to identify the most common natural host and geographical distribution of DOBV in its reservoir hosts in Serbia. PMID:24762257

  2. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Ćirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  3. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  4. Spatial Pattern of North Atlantic Oscillation Impact on Rainfall in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovic, J.; Blagojevic, D.; Kilibarda, M.; Bajat, B.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the spatial pattern of relationships between annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall in Serbia, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) for the period of 1961-2009. The first correlation analysis between rainfall and the NAO was performed using a Pearson product-moment test. Results suggested negative, mainly statistically significant correlations at annual and winter scales as was expected. However, the highest percentage of stations showed significant result in October suggesting a strong impact of a large scale atmospheric mode throughout a wet season in Serbia. Further spatial analysis that incorporated a spatial autocorrelation statistic of correlation coefficients showed significant clustering at all temporal scales.

  5. Seasonal Analysis of Combined Climate Indices in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenovic, Pavle; Tosic, Ivana; Unkasevic, Miroslava

    2014-05-01

    Joint distributions of two weather variables, such as temperature and precipitation, better reflect the weather conditions than temperature or precipitation statistics taken separately (Beniston 2010). Hence, the seasonal analysis of combined climate indices in Serbia is presented using Warm/Dry (WD), Warm/Wet (WW), Cold/Dry (CD) and Cold/Wet (CW) days. The present study is based on the collection of the daily mean temperatures and precipitation at seven stations from the observational network of the Serbian Meteorological Service during the period 1961 - 2010. Day is conceived as warm (cold) if the daily mean temperature is greater (less) than the 75th (25th) percentile. Day is considered as dry (wet) if the daily precipitation sums are below the 25th percentile (higher than the 75th percentile). Temperature percentiles were calculated for each day in a year, while precipitation percentiles were calculated for each season. It is obtained that the number of WW days is small for all seasons. An increasing tendency of WD and decreasing tendencies of CD and CW are observed. Correlation between the combined climatic indices and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are examined. It was found that the connection existed between the NAO index and CW and WD during the winter, CD during the autumn and WD during the summer. Our results are in accordance with previous results of Beniston (2009), who revealed a systematic change at nine European cities in the course of the 20th century with significant declines in the frequency of occurrence of the "cold" modes and a sharp rise in that of the "warm" modes. Beniston, M., 2009: Trends in joint quantiles of temperature and precipitation in Europe since 1901 and projected for 2100. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L07707 Beniston, M., 2010: Impacts of climatic change on water and associated economic activities in the Swiss Alps. Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.06.046

  6. DRIHM Project: Floods in Serbia in May 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivkovic, Marija; Dimitrijevic, Vladimir; Dekic, Ljiljana; Mihalovic, Ana; Pejanovic, Goran

    2015-04-01

    The central parts of Balkans were affected with very deep cyclone named "Tamara" form 13th until 16th of May. Stations in western parts of Serbia recorded precipitation four times greater than average precipitation sums. Two third of that amount has felt in three days. Devastating floods occurred on Sava, Kolubara and Jadar river basins causing damage of 1.7 billion Euros, and loss of 24 human lives. Three days before the event, a first warning was issued pointing that the precipitation amounts will exceed 40 mm of rain for 12 hours, accompanied with the hydrological information that the water level on Sava and Kolubara rivers will significantly rise. Within the DRIHM project and its e-infrastructure it was possible to test a combination of different Numerical Weather Prediction models together with stochastic downscaling algorithms to enable the production of more effective quantitative rainfall predictions for this severe meteorological event. Hydrometeorological models in DRIHM are building blocks that can be easily linked together in a form of hydrometeorological chain. For this case the HBV model, distributed hydrological model, was used as the hydrological component in the model chain and RainFARM as stochastic downscaling tool. Results obtained with these models are shown and compared with Hyprom, one of the hydrological models also used in RHMSS with the aim of scoping the current capabilities for the early warning of the extreme events. The information where and when the High Impact Weather Event (HIWE) can occur is very important for the proper overview of the possible overall influence. Different precipitation distribution both in space and in time is allowing us to estimate the future state of the system but also to see the range of the possible outcomes.

  7. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  8. SELF-REPORTED DRUG ALLERGIES IN SURGICAL POPULATION IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Velicković, Jelena; Palibrk, Ivan; Miljković, Bojana; Velicković, Dejan; Jovanović, Bojan; Bumbasirević, Vesna; Djukanović, Marija; Sljukić, Vladimir

    2015-12-01

    History of drug allergy is of major concern during perioperative period. Medical records usually lack documents confirming the stated allergy. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-reported drug allergies and their characteristics in adult Serbian surgical population, and to analyze their influence on drug prescription during perioperative period. The study enrolled patients scheduled for general surgery during a one-year period at a tertiary care hospital. They were questioned using a structured questionnaire about the existence of drug allergy and its nature. Medical records were examined after discharge to assess medical prescription during hospitalization. Of 1126 patients evaluated during the study period, 434 (38.5%) reported a total of 635 drug reactions. The most common allergy claim was to antibiotics (68%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (16.4%) and iodine (3.9%). Women, urban residents and herbal drug consumers were more likely to state an allergy. The majority of reported reactions were cutaneous (72%) and respiratory (34%), while anaphylaxis was reported by 3.2% of patients. Only 38 (8.7%) patients had previously undergone any allergology testing. Retrospective chart review revealed that 26 (6%) patients were administered the drug to which they had reported allergic reaction in the past, with no adverse effects. Drug allergies are frequently self-reported in surgical population in Serbia, which is in contrast to a very low rate of explored and documented allergies. In order not to deny an effective treatment or postpone a surgery, health care practitioners should pay more attention to an accurate classification of adverse drug reactions. PMID:27017725

  9. Monitoring West Nile virus (WNV) infection in wild birds in Serbia during 2012: first isolation and characterisation of WNV strains from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrović, T; Blazquez, A B; Lupulović, D; Lazić, G; Escribano-Romero, E; Fabijan, D; Kapetanov, M; Lazić, S; Saiz, Jc

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a neurovirulent mosquito-transmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia from August until October 2012. Although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural WNV reservoir. To assess WNV circulation in northern Serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. These comprised resident and migratory birds, collected between January and September 2012 in the Vojvodina province. The birds belonged to 45 species within 27 families. Blood sera (n=92) and pooled tissues from respective birds (n=81) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). WNV antibodies were detected in seven (8%) sera: four from Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), two from White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicillas), and one from a Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Five sera neutralised WNV but not Usutu virus. For the first time in Serbia, WNV RNA was detected by RT-qPCR in pooled tissue samples of eight respective birds. WNV RNA was also derived from an additional bird, after a serum sample resulted infective in cell culture. The total nine WNV RNA positive birds included three Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two White-tailed Eagles, one Legged Gull (Larus michahelis), one Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), one Bearded Parrot-bill (Panarus biramicus), and one Common Pheasant. Phylogenetic analysis of partial E region sequences showed the presence of, at least, two lineage 2 Serbian clusters closely related to those responsible for recent human and animal outbreaks in Greece, Hungary and Italy. Full genomic sequence from a goshawk isolate corroborated this data. These results confirm WNV circulation in Serbia and highlight the risk of infection for humans and horses, pointing to the need for implementing WNV surveillance programmes. PMID:24176657

  10. Who Is Responsible for Vulnerable Pupils? The Attitudes of Teacher Candidates in Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing trend towards inclusive education, initial teacher education programmes must ensure that prospective teachers are prepared to teach all pupils effectively. The study presented in this paper aimed to explore the attitudes of teacher candidates in Serbia and Slovenia towards responsibility for the teaching and learning of vulnerable…

  11. Application of SMOS and ASCAT soil moisture estimations to hydrological modelling in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanovic, Nikola; Ivkovic, Marija; Drobnjak, Aleksandar

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the performance of satellite-based soil moisture products from satellites SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, measuring brightness temperatures in the L-Band at 1.4 GHz) and ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer, measuring surface backscattering coefficients in the C-band at 5.255 GHz) for hydrological application. Firstly, SMOS and ASCAT Level 2 soil moisture data were compared to in situ data over Serbia at available sites. All available in situ ground-based point measurements of soil moisture, from the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia and other independent stations, were collected for the overlapping period with satellite observations and compared against remotely sensed satellite-based soil moisture products. Two approaches are presented in this study to evaluate the applicability of satellite-based SMOS and ASCAT soil moisture products to basin-scale hydrological modelling in a case study catchment in Serbia. The first approach was based on a continuous conceptual forecast-based rainfall-runoff model (using distributed HBV model), where satellite-based soil moisture data helped perform corrections to calculated model soil moisture. The second approach analysed individual event-based rainfall-runoff modelling (using HEC-HMS), where initial (pre-event) model parameters were estimated using satellite-based soil moisture data. Both approaches involved calibration of the hydrological models with and without satellite-based soil moisture data on a case study in Serbia.

  12. Prospects for Inclusive Education in European Countries Emerging from Economic and Other Trauma: Serbia and Albania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radoman, Vesna; Nano, Virxhil; Closs, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent historical, social and economic factors in Albania and Serbia, identifying similarities and differences that have a bearing on the provision of education. The focus is on the education of children with difficulties in learning and/or disabilities (the term "special needs" is used for brevity). The paper provides a…

  13. Architecture of Primary Schools in Serbia in the 21st Century: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkovic, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, when education reform in Serbia began education goals, teachers' training, curriculum and teaching/learning methods have been modernised and improved. However, a closer examination of the schools built from 2000 onwards reveals that architectural design of primary schools rests on standardised school design schemes from socialist…

  14. The Impact of Leadership on the Communication Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terek, Edit; Glušac, Dragana; Nikolic, Milan; Tasic, Ivan; Gligorovic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research into the effects of leadership on the communication satisfaction of teachers. The data was obtained by giving questionnaires to 362 teachers from 57 primary schools in Serbia. Leadership is shown to have a strong and positive impact on the communication satisfaction of teachers in Serbian primary…

  15. Teaching for Humanity in a Neoliberal World: Visions of Education in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    In Serbia, teachers and policy makers express different and sometimes competing visions of education. Teachers express their desire to "awaken" students by using progressive pedagogies, while European Union and World Bank reformers appropriate progressive education in the service of neoliberal goals. The research findings presented here indicate…

  16. Roma Pupils' Identification with School in Slovenia and Serbia: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Munda, Milanka; Pecek, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this paper aims to challenge the belief held by some education professionals that Roma pupils do not value education. The research sample included groups of Roma pupils from two countries (Slovenia and Serbia) and from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results suggest that the majority of the pupils are aware of…

  17. The impact of educational reform and categorization of scientific journals and scientists on physics in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božić, Mirjana; Davidović, Milena; Kapor, Agneš; Knežević, Dragica; Pavkov-Hrvojević, Milica; Puač, Nevena; Savić, Ilija; Stojanović, Maja; Marković-Topalović, Tatjana

    2013-03-01

    The trend of the increasing participation and importance of female physicists in Serbia continues. Many women have taken leading position in research and faculty governance and are contributing significantly to educational reform and the improvement of physics education in the primary and secondary schools.

  18. Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has become one of the subjects most analysed by researchers, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that have hit the globe. A series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures at 15 stations in Serbia were used to calculate temperature indices, from which the duration and severity of cold and heat waves were estimated. Seasonal analysis was based on data from 1949 to 2012. The year 2012 saw severe cooling in Serbia, the longest heat waves during the summer and the worst drought since observations began — three major climate anomalies all in 1 year. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures at almost all meteorological stations during the winter season revealed that the longest cold waves were observed in 1956. The longest heat waves were observed during the summer of 2012 in Serbia at ten out of 15 stations, but they did not reach the severity of those in July 2007. In addition, the main characteristics of the circulation conditions which caused the longest cold and heat waves in Serbia were analysed.

  19. Structure of Vocational Interests in Serbia: Evaluation of the Spherical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrih, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    To explore the structure of vocational interests in Serbia, 1063 participants of various age, education and gender completed the Serbian version of the Personal Globe Inventory [PGI, Tracey, T. (2002). "Personal Globe Inventory: Measurement of the spherical model of interests and competence beliefs." "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 6, 113-172].…

  20. Best Practice for Rainfall Measurement, Torrential Flood Monitoring and Real Time Alerting System in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovic, Milutin; Milojevic, Mileta; Zlatanovic, Nikola

    2014-05-01

    Serbia occupies 88.000 km2 and its confined zone menaced with torrent flood occupies 50.000km2. Floods on large rivers and torrents are the most frequent natural disasters in Serbia. This is the result of a geographic position and relief of Serbia. Therefore, defense from these natural disasters has been institutionalized since the 19th century. Through its specialized bodies and public companies, the State organized defense from floods on large rivers and protection of international and other main roads. The Topčiderska River is one of a number of rivers in Serbia that is a threat to both urban and rural environments. In this text, general characteristics of this river will be illustrated, as well as the historical natural hazards that have occurred in the part of Belgrade near Topčiderska River. Belgrade is the capital of Serbia, its political, administrative and financial center, which means that there are significant financial capacities and human resources for investments in all sectors, and specially in the water resources sector. Along the Topčiderska catchment there are many industrial, traffic and residential structures that are in danger of floods and flood protection is more difficult with rapid high flows. The goal is to use monitoring on the Topčiderska River basin to set up a modern system for monitoring in real time and forecast of torrential floods. This paper represents a system of remote detection and monitoring of torrential floods and rain measurements in real time on Topciderka river and ready for a quick response.

  1. Origin and significance of high nickel and chromium concentrations in pliocene lignite of the Kosovo Basin, Serbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.; Finkelman, R.; Boti, E.; Milosavljevic, M.; Tewalt, S.; Simon, N.; Dulong, F.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element data from 59 Pliocene lignite cores from the lignite field in the Kosovo Basin, southern Serbia, show localized enrichment of Ni and Cr (33-304 ppm and 8-176 ppm, respectively, whole-coal basis). Concentrations of both elements decrease from the western and southern boundaries of the lignite field. Low-temperature ash and polished coal pellets of selected bench and whole-coal samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyses. These analyses show that most of the Ni and Cr are incorporated in detrital and, to a lesser degree, in authigenic minerals. The Ni- and Cr-bearing detrital minerals include oxides, chromites, serpentine-group minerals and rare mixed-layer clays. Possible authigenic minerals include Ni-Fe sulfates and sulfides. Analyses of three lignite samples by a supercritical fluid extraction technique indicate that some (1-11%) of the Ni is organically bound. Ni- and Cr-bearing oxides, mixed-layer clays, chromites and serpentine-group minerals were also identified in weathered and fresh samples of laterite developed on serpentinized Paleozoic peridotite at the nearby Glavica and C??ikatovo Ni mines. These mines are located along the western and northwestern rim, respectively, of the Kosovo Basin, where Ni contents are highest. The detrital Ni- and Cr-bearing minerals identified in lignite samples from the western part of the Kosovo Basin may have been transported into the paleoswamp by rivers that drained the two Paleocene laterites. Some Ni may have been transported directly into the paleoswamp in solution or, alternatively, Ni may have been leached from detrital minerals by acidic peat water and adsorbed onto organic matter and included into authigenic mineral phases. No minable source of Ni and Cr is known in the southern part of the lignite field; however, the mineral and chemical data from the lignite and associated rocks suggest that such a source area may exist.

  2. Phototrophic microorganisms in biofilm samples from Vernjika Cave, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović, Slađana; Jovanović, Jelena; Predojević, Dragana; Trbojević, Ivana; Blagojević, Ana; Subakov Simić, Gordana

    2016-04-01

    Caves represent specific natural monuments in terms of structure, complexity and beauty which can be found worldwide. Even though they are considered extreme environments, they are still a unique habitat for a large number of organisms that grow and proliferate here. Often can be seen that the cave walls are differently coloured as a consequence of the biofilm development. Biofilms represent complex communities of microorganisms that can develop on different kind of surfaces, including various rock surfaces. Each microbe species play a different role in a community, but their development on stone surfaces can cause substantial damage to the substrates through different mechanisms of biodeterioration and degradation. There is an increased interest in the phototrophic component of biofilms (aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae), especially cyanobacteria, an ancient microorganisms capable to survive the most diverse extreme conditions. These phototrophs can easily be found at cave entrances illuminated by direct or indirect sunlight and areas near artificial lights. Cyanobacteria and algae were investigated in biofilm samples taken from the entrance of Vernjika Cave in Eastern Serbia. Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were documented, with Cyanobacteria as a group with the highest number of recorded taxa. Chroococcalean species were the most diverse with the most frequently encountered species from the genus Gloeocapsa. Phormidium and Nostoc species were commonly recorded Oscillatoriales and Nostocles, respectively. Among Oscillatoriales species, it was noticed that one Phormidium species precipitates CaCO3 on it's sheats. Trebouxia sp. and Desmococcus olivaceus were frequently documented Chlorophyta, and representatives of Bacillariophyta were exclusively aerophytic taxa, mostly belonging to the genera Luticola and Humidophila. Measured ecological parameters, temperature and relative humidity, were influenced by the external climatic changes, while light

  3. Southern blotting.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  4. Reclamation of coppice forests in order to increase the potential of woody biomass in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelanovic, I.; Krstic, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass makes 63% of the total renewable energy potential of Serbia. Here, the biomass from forests together with wood processing industry waste represent the second most important renewable source for energy production. The Action Plan for Biomass of Serbia (2010) shows that the technically exploitable biomass in the Republic of Serbia amounts annually 2.7 Mtoe. Here, the woody biomass (fuelwood, forest residue, wood processing industry residue, wood from trees outside the forest) accounts for 1.0 Mtoe while the rest originates from agricultural sources. According to the national forest inventory (2008), forest cover in Serbia accounts for 29% of the country area, having standing volume of 362.5 mil. m3 and annual increment of 9.1 mil. m3. More than half is state-owned and the rest 47% is in the private ownership. Coppice forests dominate in the forest stock (65%). According to Glavonjić (2010), northeastern and southwestern Serbia are the regions with greatest spatial forest distribution. The general forest condition is characterised by insufficient production volume, unsatisfactory stock density and forest cover, high percentage of degraded forests, unfavorable age structure, unfavorable health condition and weeded areas. Herewith, the basic measures for the improvement of forest fund (Forestry Development Strategy for Serbia, 2006) represent conversion of coppice forests, increase of forest cover and productivity of forest ecosystems by the ecologically, economically and socially acceptable methods. The actions include reclamation of degraded forests, re- and afforestation activities on abandoned agricultural, degraded and other treeless lands. The average standing volume of high forests is 254 m3·ha-1 with an annual increment of 5.5 m3·ha-1. On the contrary, coppice forests dispose 124 m3·ha-1 of standing volume, having an annual increment of 3.1 m3·ha-1. Here, estimated losses from coppice forests amount up to 3.5 mil. m3 wood annually. These data

  5. Physician and nurse supply in Serbia using time-series data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unemployment among health professionals in Serbia has risen in the recent past and continues to increase. This highlights the need to understand how to change policies to meet real and projected needs. This study identified variables that were significantly related to physician and nurse employment rates in the public healthcare sector in Serbia from 1961 to 2008 and used these to develop parameters to model physician and nurse supply in the public healthcare sector through to 2015. Methods The relationships among six variables used for planning physician and nurse employment in public healthcare sector in Serbia were identified for two periods: 1961 to 1982 and 1983 to 2008. Those variables included: the annual total national population; gross domestic product adjusted to 1994 prices; inpatient care discharges; outpatient care visits; students enrolled in the first year of medical studies at public universities; and the annual number of graduated physicians. Based on historic trends, physician supply and nurse supply in the public healthcare sector by 2015 (with corresponding 95% confidence level) have been modeled using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) / Transfer function (TF) models. Results The ARIMA/TF modeling yielded stable and significant forecasts of physician supply (stationary R2 squared = 0.71) and nurse supply (stationary R2 squared = 0.92) in the public healthcare sector in Serbia through to 2015. The most significant predictors for physician employment were the population and GDP. The supply of nursing staff was, in turn, related to the number of physicians. Physician and nurse rates per 100,000 population increased by 13%. The model predicts a seven-year mismatch between the supply of graduates and vacancies in the public healthcare sector is forecasted at 8,698 physicians - a net surplus. Conclusion The ARIMA model can be used to project trends, especially those that identify significant mismatches between forecasted

  6. Organic geochemical characterization of Aleksinac oil shale deposit (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Ksenija; Kostić, Aleksandar; Jovančićević, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    Oil shales represent a good source of energy and industrial raw material. The Aleksinac oil shale deposit is the biggest and most important oil shale deposit in Serbia. It covers an area of over 20 km2, and it has three fields: "Dubrava", "Morava" and "Logorište". The potential reserves of oil shale in the Aleksinac deposit are estimated at about 2.1 billion tons. The genesis of oil shales is associated with the lacustrine depositional environments, which existed from Upper to Lower Miocene. In order to determine the generative potential, type of organic matter (OM) and thermal maturity, Rock-Eval pyrolysis was used. In analyzed oil shale samples the content of total organic carbon (TOC), as a general indicator of petroleum generation potential, range from 1.48 to 29.57%. The content of naturally generated hydrocarbons, expressed as S1 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in most analyzed samples have extremely low values 0.002-0.28, which indicate low maturity level [1]. The pyrolysable hydrocarbons expressed as S2 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis, represent the potential to generate hydrocarbons and with that the potential of oil generation through thermal decomposition of kerogen. S2 ranging 3.93-141.36 mg HC/g rock is higher than 20 mg HC/g rock and indicates excellent source rock potential [1]. In order to accept a formation as a source rock, it should exhibit TOC more than 0.5 % and sufficient maturity, but also OM types should be suitable for the oil and gas generation. The kerogen type is determined by Hydrogen Index (HI) and diagram HI vs. Tmax (temperature, corresponding to S2 peak maximum). HI in range 265-728 mg HC/g TOC, indicates Type I and Type II kerogen or their mixture i.e. oil prone kerogen [1], whereas only one sample appears to be oil/gas prone (Type II/III). Similar results are obtained by plotting the Tmax against HI. Maturation degree depends on the overall thermal history of the evaluated rocks; it is very important parameter for evaluation

  7. Acid soils of western Serbia and their further acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvic, Vesna

    2010-05-01

    Acid soils cause many unfavorable soil characteristics from the plant nutrition point of view. Because of increased soil acidity the violation of buffering soil properties due to leaching of Ca and Mg ions is taking place that also can cause soil physical degradation via peptization of colloids. Together with increasing of soil acidity the content of mobile Al increases that can be toxic for plants. Easily available nutritive elements transforms into hardly avaialble froms. The process of deactivation is especially expressed for phosphorous that under such conditions forms non-soluble compounds with sesqui-oxides. From the other hand the higher solubility of some microelements (Zn and B) can cause their accelerated leaching from root zone and therefore, result in their deficiency for plant nutrition. Dangerous and toxic matters transforms into easly-available forms for plants, especially, Cd and Ni under the lower soil pH. The studied soil occupies 36675 hectare in the municipality of Krupan in Serbia, and are characterized with very unfavorable chemical properties: 26% of the territory belongs to the cathegory of very acidic, and 44 % belongs to the cathegory of acidic. The results showed that the soil of the territory of Krupan is limited for agricultural land use due to their high acidity. Beside the statement of negative soil properties determined by acidity, there is a necessity for determination of soil sensitivity for acidification processes toward soil protection from ecological aspect and its prevention from further acidification. Based on such data and categorization of soils it is possible to undertake proper measures for soil protection and melioration of the most endangered soil cover, where the economic aspect of these measures is very important. One of the methods of soil classification based on sensitivity for acidification classification the determination of soil categories is based on the values of soil CEC and pH in water. By combination of these

  8. Southern Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03583 Southern Crater

    This crater is located south of Agassiz Crater. It is likely that the polar freeze/thaw/frost cycle is responsible for unusual appearance of the ejecta region around the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 76.2S, Longitude 247.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Trichinella infection in Serbia in the first decade of the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Djordjevic, M; Plavsic, B; Grgic, B

    2013-05-20

    In Serbia, infection with Trichinella spp. has been recognized as a human health and animal husbandry problem for almost a century. The rate of swine infection gradually decreased from 0.14% to 0.02% between 2001 and 2010. For the past 5 years, Trichinella infections among swine were detected at levels higher than 0.05% in 3 districts of Serbia while prevalence persisted at lower levels for the rest of the country. During this 10-year period, there were 2257 cases of human trichinellosis, including 3 deaths; however, a significant decrease in the number of cases was reported during the last 5 years (fewer than 200 cases per year). The fact that prevalence data presented here are similar to prevalence data from 1990 indicates that this period of 10 years was needed to overcome the re-emergence of Trichinella infection in swine and humans that occurred during the last decade of the previous century. PMID:23462255

  10. Radiation exposure during X-ray examinations in a large paediatric hospital in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Gavrilovic, Marijana; Arandjic, Danijela; Vujovic, Milan; Bozovic, Predrag

    2015-07-01

    Objective of this work is to evaluate radiation exposure from X-ray examinations in a large paediatric hospital in Serbia, including radiographic, fluoroscopic and computed tomography (CT) examinations in four age groups: 0-1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 y. Incident air kerma was assessed for the following radiographies: chest (AP, PA, LAT), spine (AP, LAT), pelvis (AP), urinary tract (AP, PA) and skull (AP, PA, LAT). Kerma-area product was measured for the fluoroscopy examinations: barium swallow, barium meal, barium enema and micturating cystography. Dose in CT was assessed in terms of volume CT dose index and dose-length product for examinations of the head, chest and abdomen. The collected data were compared with other similar studies, which indicated a need to expand such survey to other paediatric hospitals in Serbia. PMID:25821208

  11. New findings of the butterfly Phengaris teleius at the border between Hungary and Serbia (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Šašić, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to its interesting life cycle, vulnerability and conservation importance, the butterfly Phengaris teleius is one of the most studied insects in Europe. It was discovered in Serbia only in 2012 and there were no data on its distribution from the south of Hungary. New information Phengaris teleius was recorded for the first time in four localities in Hungary and in additional locality in Serbia. This suggests that the local populations are more interconnected than previousely thought and that conservation efforts should be done in collaboration between the two countries. All localities are inside protected areas and management measures for preserving several target species already exist. This represents a solid base for the conservation of newly discovered populations of P. teleius. PMID:27099563

  12. Religion, politics and gender in the context of nation-state formation: the case of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Drezgić, Rada

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that nationalism has connected religion with secular politics in Serbia but that their rapprochement has been a gradual process. In order to demonstrate the transition from a limited influence of religion on politics to a much tighter relationship between the two, this article discusses the abortion legislation reform and the introduction of religious education in public schools, respectively. It argues that, while illustrative of different types of connection between religion and politics, these two issues had similar implications for gender equality-they produced discourses that recreated and justified patriarchal social norms. After religion gained access to public institutions, its (patriarchal) discourses on gender were considerably empowered. The article points to some tangible evidence of a re-traditionalisation and re-patriarchalisation of gender roles within the domestic realm in Serbia. PMID:20857571

  13. Therapeutic Fascism: re-educating communists in Nazi-occupied Serbia, 1942-44.

    PubMed

    Antic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    This article probes the relationship between psychoanalysis and right-wing authoritarianism, and analyses a unique psychotherapeutic institution established by Serbia's World War II collaborationist regime. The extraordinary Institute for compulsory re-education of high-school and university students affiliated with the Communist resistance movement emerged in the context of a brutal civil war and violent retaliations against Communist activists, but its openly psychoanalytic orientation was even more astonishing. In order to stem the rapid spread of Communism, the collaborationist state, led by its most extreme fascistic elements, officially embraced psychotherapy, the 'talking cure' and Freudianism, and conjured up its own theory of mental pathology and trauma - one that directly contradicted the Nazi concepts of society and the individual. In the course of the experiment, Serbia's collaborationists moved away from the hitherto prevailing organicist, biomedical model of mental illness, and critiqued traditional psychiatry's therapeutic pessimism. PMID:24594820

  14. Radon in thermal waters in south-east part of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Jovana; Todorović, Nataša; Bikit, Ištvan; Pantić, Tanja Petrović; Forkapić, Sofija; Mrđa, Dušan; Bikit, Kristina

    2014-07-01

    There are several occurrences of thermal waters in the south-eastern part of Serbia, which are originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks. These waters are mainly used in balneology, but some of them are used for drinking purposes and in water supply to heat buildings, for greenhouses and to irrigate land. In this region, there is the well-known Niška banja spa, which has elevated levels of radon. Water samples were examined from other spas in the south-eastern part of Serbia in order to determine radon activity concentration. A detailed discussion of a possible correlation between determined radon activity concentration and the geology of this area is also given. PMID:24707000

  15. First molecular identification of Dirofilaria spp. (Onchocercidae) in mosquitoes from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, Kornélia; Kepner, Anett; Krtinic, Bosiljka; Zana, Brigitta; Földes, Fanni; Bányai, Krisztián; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Kemenesi, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Dirofilariosis is a common and widespread veterinary health issue in several European countries with notable zoonotic potential. The causative agents are Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens nematoda species which are transmitted by different mosquito vectors. Similar to other mosquito-borne infections, the knowledge about mosquito species involved in disease transmission is crucial for the complex understanding of local transmission cycles. Since there is no available data on mosquito species, potentially involved in disease transmission from Serbia, 6369 female mosquito individuals were retrospectively tested for Dirofilaria nematodes, collected from 13 localities in Vojvodina province, Serbia, in 2013. Altogether, 8.33 % of tested pools showed positivity, composed of five mosquito species, mainly, Culex pipiens and Aedes vexans. D. immitis and D. repens were both detected from multiple localities, during the whole period of mosquito breeding season, which provides the first data on local transmission characteristics regarding mosquitoes from the Balkans. PMID:27193348

  16. Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspopovic, Miroslava; Jankulovic, Aleksandar; Runic, Jovana; Lucic, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, DeLone and McLean's updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for…

  17. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region. PMID:27198778

  18. Corn yield estimation in Serbia using MODIS 13Q1 product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govedarica, Miro; Jovanović, Dušan; Sabo, Filip

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to verify the accuracy and the usability of Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 13Q1 product for corn yield estimation on a local level for 2014 year. Product 13Q1 consists of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) 16-day composites with 250 m spatial resolution. The estimation is based on ground truth data (sowing structures for 8 years) which was provided by local agricultural organization in Vojvodina, Serbia. The indices were used in linear regression, where the average yield for corn was the dependent variable, NDVI and EVI were independent variables. Average corn yield was estimated approximately 15 days before the beginning of the harvest and compared with official results. Depending on the used linear method, relative errors ranged from 0.6 % to 7.4 %. Overall, coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.66 to 0.75 and were significant at 0.05. The smallest difference between official results for corn yield and our estimate when using NDVI was 0.59 t/ha, when using EVI the smallest difference was 0.07 t/ha. Paper showed that NDVI and EVI from MODIS follow linear relationship with average corn yield and can be used in estimation of crop yields in Serbia and also that EVI produces better prediction results than NDVI. The crop yield estimation can be used for similar cultivated plants in Serbia and for longer period dataset.

  19. Economic analysis of social services for the elderly in Serbia: two sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj

    2014-08-01

    According to demographic trends, the ratio of senior citizens in the overall population of the Republic of Serbia is rising. This generates the need to create socially acceptable and economically sustainable models for the protection of the elderly. The goal of this paper is to stress the necessity of analyzing and evaluating the efficiency of social protection services aimed at senior citizens. The first part of the paper underlines the need for economic analysis of these services; while the second part features the analysis of the two most frequently provided services for the elderly in Serbia: admission to social protection institutions and home care for senior citizens. Based on the research results, the paper also provides a comparative overview of the efficiency of the services mentioned. This overview clearly confirms that both services prove to be economically justifiable from a social perspective; nevertheless, it also indicates that the cost of home care per user is considerably lower than the cost of putting a senior citizen into a nursing home. After presenting and discussing the results of the studies, the paper also offers recommendations aimed at enhancing the development and sustainability of the social protection system for the elderly in Serbia. PMID:24681299

  20. Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Simić, Milena; Baroš, Sladjana; Platt, Lucy; Žikić, Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore female and transvestite sex workers’ perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. Participants 31 female and transvestite sex workers. Results Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the reduced capacity for avoiding sexual risk. Participants reported that coerced sex was routinely provided to the police in exchange for freedom from detainment, arrest, or fine, and was enforced by the perceived threat of violence, sometimes realised. Accounts contained multiple instances of physical and sexual assault, presented as abuses of police authority, and described policing as a form of moral punishment. This was largely through non-physical means but was also enforced through physical violence, especially towards transvestite and Roma sex workers, whose experience of police violence was reported as relentless and brutal and connected with broader social forces of discrimination in this setting, especially towards Roma. Conclusion Preventing violence towards sex workers, which can link with vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections, is a priority in Serbia. This requires monitoring perpetrators of violence, providing legal support to sex workers, and creating safer environments for sex work. PMID:18667468

  1. Resurgence of measles in Serbia 2010-2011 highlights the need for supplementary immunization activities.

    PubMed

    Nedeljković, J; Rakić Adrović, S; Tasić, G; Kovačević-Jovanović, V; Lončarević, G; Hübschen, J M; Muller, C P

    2016-04-01

    Between December 2010 and August 2011 an outbreak of measles occurred in Serbia with 363 reported cases. Sera and/or nose/throat swabs were collected from 193 patients and tested for measles-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA and viral RNA by RT-PCR, respectively. Epidemiological data were obtained from the surveillance database of the Institute of Public Health of Serbia. Of the 363 cases involved in the outbreak, 113 were laboratory confirmed. More than one third of the patients were hospitalized (n = 130, 35·8%) and for 15 (4·1% of the reported outbreak cases) the infection was complicated by pneumonia. Mostly pre-school children aged ⩽4 years (37·8%) and adults aged ⩾30 years (27·3%) were affected. The majority of patients belonged to the Roma population with a preponderance of female cases (57·0%). Nearly 94% of the patients were either unvaccinated or of unknown vaccination status. The main outbreak virus was the D4-Hamburg strain. The outbreak in Serbia occurred after several years of very low measles incidence despite a high routine immunization coverage in the general population, suggesting that special efforts to identify and vaccinate susceptible population groups are required even in countries with apparently good disease control. PMID:26449667

  2. Spatial analysis of the temperature trends in Serbia during the period 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajat, Branislav; Blagojević, Dragan; Kilibarda, Milan; Luković, Jelena; Tošić, Ivana

    2015-07-01

    The spatial analysis of annual and seasonal temperature trends in Serbia during the period 1961-2010 was carried out using mean monthly data from 64 meteorological stations. Change year detection was achieved using cumulative sum charts. The magnitude of trends was derived from the slopes of linear trends using the least square method. The same formalism of least square method was used to assess the statistical significance of the determined trends. Maps of temperature trends were generated by applying a spatial regression method to visualize the detected tendencies. The obtained results indicate a negative temperature trend for the period before the change year except for winter and a more pronounced positive trend after the change year. Besides being more pronounced, the vast majority of trends after the change year were also clearly statistically significant. Our estimate of the average temperature trend over Serbia is in agreement with those obtained at the global and European scale. Calculated global autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I) indicate an apparent random spatial pattern of temperature trends across the Serbia for both periods before and after the change year.

  3. Extreme rainfall in Serbia, May 2014, simulation using WRF NMM and RainFARM: DRIHM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekić, Ljiljana; Mihalović, Ana; Dimitrijević, Vladimir; Rebora, Nicola; Parodi, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Extreme rainfall in Serbia, May 2014, simulation using WRF NMM and RainFARM: DRIHM project Ljiljana Dekić (1), Ana Mihalović (1), Vladimir Dimitrijević (1), Nicola Rebora (2), Antonio Parodi (2) (1)Republic HydroMeteorological Service of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia, (2)CIMA Research Foundation, Savona, Italy In May 2014 Balkan region was affected with the continuous heavy rainfall, the heaviest in 120 years of recording observation, causing extensive flooding. Serbia suffered human casualties, huge infrastructure and industrial destruction and agricultural damage. Cyclone development and trajectory was very well predicted by RHMSS operational WRF NMM numerical model but extreme precipitation was not possible to predict with sufficient precision. Simulation of extreme rainfall situations using different numerical weather prediction models can indicate weakness of the model and point out importance of specified physical approach and parameterization schemes. The FP7 Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology DRIHM project gives a framework for using different models in forecasting extreme weather events. One of the DRIHM component is Rainfall Filtered Autoregressive Model RainFARM for stochastic rainfall downscaling. Objective of the DRIHM project was developing of standards and conversion of the data for seamless use of meteorological and hydrological models in flood prediction. This paper describes numerical tests and results of WRF NMM nonhydrostatic model and RainFARM downscaling applied on WRF NMM outputs. Different physics options in WRF NMM and their influence on precipitation amount were investigated. RainFARM was applied on every physical option with downscaling from 4km to 500m and 100m horizontal resolution and 100 ensemble members. We analyzed locations on the catchments in Serbia where flooding was the strongest and the most destructive. Statistical evaluation of ensemble output gives new insight into the sub scale precipitation

  4. High-resolution numerical modeling of meteorological and hydrological conditions during May 2014 floods in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Vukovic, Ana; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Rajkovic, Borivoj; Djordjevic, Marija

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014 west Balkan region was affected by catastrophic floods in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and eastern parts of Croatia. Observed precipitation amount were extremely high, on many stations largest ever recorded. In the period from 12th to 18th of May, most of Serbia received between 50 to 100 mm of rainfall, while western parts of the country, which were influenced the most, had over 200 mm of rainfall, locally even more than 300 mm. This very intense precipitation came when the soil was already saturated after a very wet period during the second half of April and beginning of May, when most of Serbia received between 120 i 170 mm of rainfall. New abundant precipitation on already saturated soil increased surface and underground water flow, caused floods, soil erosion and landslides. High water levels, most of them record breaking, were measured on the Sava, Drina, Dunav, Kolubara, Ljig, Ub, Toplica, Tamnava, Jadar, Zapadna Morava, Velika Morava, Mlava and Pek river. Overall, two cities and 17 municipals were severely affected by the floods, 32000 people were evacuated from their homes, while 51 died. Material damage to the infrastructure, energy power system, crops, livestock funds and houses is estimated to more than 2 billion euro. Although the operational numerical weather forecast gave in generally good precipitation prediction, flood forecasting in this case was mainly done through the expert judgment rather than relying on dynamic hydrological modeling. We applied an integrated atmospheric-hydrologic modelling system to some of the most impacted catchments in order to timely simulate hydrological response, and examine its potentials as a flood warning system. The system is based on the Non-hydrostatic Multiscale Model NMMB, which is a numerical weather prediction model that can be used on a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Its non-hydrostatic module allows high horizontal resolution and resolving cloud systems as well as large

  5. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  6. Validation of satellite-derived rainfall products with rain gauges in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanovic, Nikola; Stefanovic, Milutin; Milovanovic, Irina; Cotric, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    Four widely available satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRFE) were extensively validated and intercompared on daily, monthly and seasonal timescales, for a 10-year period (2001-2010), using fifteen rainfall stations in Serbia. The evaluated satellite products were divided into two groups according to data latency. The first group, near real-time products, included the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) real-time product 3B42RT and the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN). The second group, post real-time products, included the TRMM 3B42 research product and the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing technique (CMORPH). All satellite products were available at 0.25 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution, further aggregated into monthly and seasonal. Fifteen rain gauge stations throughout Serbia, operated by the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, with available and reliable daily rainfall data for the time period 2001-2010 were selected for this study. The performance of different satellite-based rainfall estimation (SRFE) products was assessed using standard statistical methods to summarize the strength of the relationship between daily SRFE values and their corresponding ground observations, including the root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coeffient r, BIAS and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of daily, 10-day and monthly rainfall, and visual comparison methods. The results demonstrate that all evaluated products have significantly lower accuracy during the winter months (December to February) and highest accuracy in autumn months (September and October). In respect to performance, the TRMM research product showed best results overall, followed by the CMORPH and TRMM-RT realtime product. PERSIANN showed generally lower accuracy, except in the autumn season.

  7. Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvic, Vesna; Kostic-Kravljanac, Ljiljana; Cakmak, Dragan; Pivic, Radmila; Saljnikov, Elmira; Nikoloski, Mile; Perovic, Veljko

    2010-05-01

    Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia V. Mrvic, Lj. Kostic-Kravljanac, D. Čakmak, R. Pivić, E. Saljnikov, M. Nikoloski, V. Perović Institute of Soil Science, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia (vesnavmrvic@yahoo.com) Main characteristic of surface soil layer (pH in KCl, humus, available P and K), and content of trace elements (Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Hg) were analysed on area of southwestern Serbia, covering total 959 000 ha (one sample represents 1000 ha) . About 30 % of samples have very acid reaction. Main portion of soil samples (86%) is poorly suplied with available phosphorus (<8 mg/100g), and these are located under forests, meadows, pastures and orchards. Supplies of available potasium and humus are well. On the other hand, in small number of soil samples (4%), mostly on fertile alluvial soils, there are high P and K concentration, which are consequence of inadequate usage of mineral fertilizers. Content of trace elements in 70 % of soil samples is bellow maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The most frequente potential pollutants are Cr and Ni, which is assosiated with mafic and ultramafic rocks, which are common in this region (mountains naerby river Ibar - Troglav, Stolovi, Čemerno, Željin, Golija, Kopaonik; near Sjenica- peridotites of mn. Ozren). There are dominace of Eutric Leptosols soil type, with Ni content above 100 mg/kg, and in some samples above 1000 mg/kg. In smaller number of samples arsenic and lead exceed MAC, while other elements exceed MAD very rarelly. There are elevated Pb content in Kopaonik mountain area, and elevated As content besides this region, are in mine zone of Golija and Cemerno. These are mountain soils formed on acid igneous and metamorphic rocks, which are enriched with ores of Pb, Zn and other elements. Eventually negative influences of these elements on plants and other components of ecosystem may be esstimated only after detalied investigation.

  8. Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991–2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by −2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P = 0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

  9. Development a Comprehensive Food Safety System in Serbia- A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    RADOVIĆ, Vesela; KEKOVIĆ, Zoran; AGIĆ, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Food safety issues are not a new issue in science, but due to the dynamic changes in the modern world it is as equally important as decades ago. The aim of the study was to address the efforts in the development of a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia, and make specific recommendations regarding the improvement of epidemiological investigation capacity as a useful tool which contributes to improving the public health by joint efforts of epidemiologists and law enforcement. Methods We used the methodology appropriate for social sciences. Results The findings show the current state-of-affairs in the area of food safety and health care system and present some most important weaknesses which have to be overcome. Policy makers need timely and reliable information so that they can make informed decisions to improve the population health in an ongoing process of seeking full membership in the European Union. Conclusion Serbia has to apply significant changes in practice because the current state-of-affairs in the area of food safety and health care system is not so favourable due to numerous both objective and subjective factors. Hence, the policy-makers must work on the development of epidemiological investigation capacities as a firm basis for greater efficiency and effectiveness. Epidemiologists would not stay alone in their work. Law enforcement as well as many other stakeholders should recognize their new role in the process of the development of epidemiological investigation capacity as a tool for the development of a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia. PMID:25909057

  10. Social, political, and economic factors responsible for the reemergence of trichinellosis in Serbia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, M; Bacic, M; Petricevic, M; Cuperlovic, K; Malakauskas, A; Kapel, C M O; Murrell, K D

    2003-04-01

    Over the past decade, eastern Europe has experienced a resurgence of trichinellosis. A recent outbreak in Serbia, Yugoslavia, from December 2001 to January 2002, involving 309 people, revealed many of the causes for this reemergence. Epidemiological investigations indicate that the immediate cause of the recent outbreak was the consumption of smoked sausages produced by a small slaughterhouse or meat processor. However, failure of in-house meat inspection procedures and quality assurance as well as oversight by official veterinary control were also responsible. Further analysis of this breakdown in the food safety net revealed additional general factors that have yielded a seriously deficient veterinary control system, and these are factors that are relevant to the problems experienced throughout eastern Europe and other regions. The recent civil war that led to the breakup of the former Federation of Yugoslavia resulted in severe economic and demographic changes, including high inflation and external economic sanctions. This led to (1) the loss of large numbers of experienced veterinary control officers and their replacement with inexperienced personnel, (2) a change in the swine industry with reduction in the number of large establishments with in-house inspection and replacement with more than 1,000 small abattoirs, too small to afford full-time in-house inspection, and (3) an increase in smallholder pig farming with reduced government oversight to ensure high standards in pig-rearing practices (infection risk management). The consequences of these events have been a 300% increase in Serbian pig infection and a concomittant large increase in human outbreaks. Before 1990, swine trichinellosis in Serbia was confined to 4 small districts, but today about one third of the Republic is considered endemic for trichinellosis. The reemergence of trichinellosis in Serbia illustrates the ability of this zoonosis to "leak" through a poorly maintained food safety barrier and

  11. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Laserpitium latifolium from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Violeta; Stankov-Jovanović, Vesna; Djordjevic, Aleksandra; Ilic, Marija; Simonovic, Strahinja; Stojanovic, Gordana

    2015-04-01

    The essential oil of aerial parts ofLaserpitium latifolium L. from Serbia, obtained by hydro distillation, was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID applying liquid injection mode; thirty-four compounds were registered (99.9% of the total oil). The essential oil clearly belongs to the monoterpenoid chemotype, with monoterpenoids constituting 99.8% of the total oil. Sabinene (47.8%), α-pinene (25.0%) and β-pinene (7.1%) were the major constituents. PMID:25973500

  12. Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high

  13. First Report on the Efficiency of Oral Vaccination of Foxes against Rabies in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lupulovic, D; Maksimovic Zoric, J; Vaskovic, N; Bugarski, D; Plavsic, B; Ivanovic, N; Petrovic, T; Pusic, I; Marcic, D; Grgic, Z; Lazic, S

    2015-12-01

    Rabies is one of the oldest known zoonotic diseases that has significant impact on public health, but still remains neglected in Serbia. Rabies virus can infect humans and other mammals and causes inflammation of the brain associated with encephalomyelitis and neurological symptoms. In 2010, Veterinary Directorate (national Competent Authority for animal health in Serbia) has started multi-annual project of oral rabies vaccination of foxes and other wild carnivores (e.g. jackals), as support of long-term programme of eradication of rabies in Serbia, co-funded by EU (financed by Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance). Monitoring of the effectiveness of oral vaccination campaigns has been carried out in continuation from 2011 and was based on: (i) post-mortem laboratory examination of brain tissue of target animals (foxes, jackals and other carnivores) by fluorescent antibody test (FAT), (ii) detection of antibodies against rabies virus in serum samples by ELISA and (iii) detection of tetracycline biomarker in the mandibles for the evaluation of vaccine bait uptake. From September 2011 to May 2014, the total number of 4943 brain tissue samples, 4241 sera and 4971 mandibles were analysed. Confirmed rabies-positive brains decreased from 10 in 2011/2012 to 6 in 2012/2013 and eventually to 1 positive case in 2013/2014. The seroconversion rate increased from 10.48% (133/1269) in 2011/2012 to 20.11% (362/1800) in 2012/2013 and 42.23% (495/1172) in 2013/2014. Along with the seroconversion, the number of detected tetracycline-positive mandibles demonstrated an increasing tendency in the same period, being 49.67% (682/1373) in 2011/2012, 62.60% (1294/2067) in 2012/2013 and 90.33% (1383/1531) in the monitoring programme carried out in 2013/2014. Presented results confirmed that ORV of foxes and other wildlife in Serbia against rabies was successful and characterized by steady increase of vaccine baits uptake and immunization of animals. PMID:25903646

  14. Some wild-growing plant species from Serbia and Montenegro as the potential sources of drugs.

    PubMed

    Aljancić, I S; Vajs, V E; Tesević, V V; Milosavljević, S M

    2008-01-01

    The results of phytochemical investigation, over the last decade, of some wild-growing plant species from Serbia and Montenegro belonging to the families Asteraceae, Guttiferae and Gentianaceae are reported. Most of the investigated species are endemites and the emphasis in this report is on those exhibiting biological activities that could be regarded as the potential sources of drugs. This review comprises 154 compounds, e.g. sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids (Asteraceae), xanthones, secoiridoids and C-glucoflavonoids (Gentanaceae) and prenylated phloroglucinols (Guttiferae) as well as some other secondary metabolites, produced by the above families, which could be of pharmacological interest. PMID:19075693

  15. Undercooked meat consumption remains the major risk factor for Toxoplasma infection in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Bobić, B; Nikolić, A; Klun, I; Vujanić, M; Djurković-Djaković, O

    2007-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection prevalence and infection risk factors were analyzed in a series of 765 women of generative age from throughout Serbia tested at the Institute for Medical Research Toxoplasmosis Laboratory between 2001 and 2005. The infection risk factors were additionally analyzed in a group of 53 women with acute infection (cases) compared to a group of seronegative women matched for age and education level (controls). The overall prevalence of infection was 33%. Infection risk factors in the whole series were undercooked meat consumption (RR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.16-2.7, P = 0.008) and exposure to soil (RR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.17-2.29, P = 0.004), particularly in less educated women. Moreover, undercooked meat consumption was the single predictor of infection in women with acute infection, with an 11-fold increased risk of infection in women who acknowledged consumption of undercooked meat (RR = 11.21, 95% CI = 3.10-40.53, P = 0.000). These data prompted us to analyze the significance of consumption of particular meat types as sources of infection. Of all the meat types mostly consumed in Serbia, only consumption of beef (RR = 1.006, 95% CI = 1.001-1.011, P = 0.027) was shown to influence Toxoplasma infection rates. PMID:18689232

  16. High infection rate of zoonotic Eucoleus aerophilus infection in foxes from Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Lalošević, Vesna; Lalošević, Dušan; Čapo, Ivan; Simin, Verica; Galfi, Annamaria; Traversa, Donato

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory capillariid nematode Eucoleus aerophilus (Creplin, 1839) infects wild and domestic carnivores and, occasionally, humans. Thus far, a dozen of human infections have been published in the literature but it cannot be ruled out that lung capillariosis is underdiagnosed in human medicine. Also, the apparent spreading of E. aerophilus in different geographic areas spurs new studies on the epidemiology of this nematode. After the recognition of the first human case of E. aerophilus infection in Serbia, there is a significant merit in enhancing knowledge on the distribution of the nematode. In the present work the infection rate of pulmonary capillariosis was investigated in 70 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the northern part of Serbia by autopsy. The estimated infection rate with Eucoleus aerophilus was 84%. In contrast, by copromicroscopic examination only 38% of foxes were positive. In addition, 10 foxes were investigated for the closely related species in nasal cavity, Eucoleus boehmi, and nine were positive. Our study demonstrates one of the highest infection rates of pulmonary capillariosis in foxes over the world. PMID:23340229

  17. Sterol ratios as a tool for sewage pollution assessment of river sediments in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Matić Bujagić, Ivana; Grujić, Svetlana; Jauković, Zorica; Laušević, Mila

    2016-06-01

    In this work, source pollution tracing of the sediments of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia was performed using sterol ratios. Improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, which enabled complete chromatographic separation of four analytes with identical fragmentation reactions (epicoprostanol, coprostanol, epicholestanol and cholestanol), was applied for the determination of steroid compounds (hormones, human/animal and plant sterols). A widespread occurrence of sterols was identified in all analyzed samples, whereas the only detected hormones were mestranol and 17α-estradiol. A human-sourced sewage marker coprostanol was detected at the highest concentration (up to 1939 ng g(-1)). The ratios between the key sterol biomarkers, as well as the percentage of coprostanol relative to the total sterol amount, were applied with the aim of selecting the most reliable for distinction between human-sourced pollution and the sterols originated from the natural sources in river sediments. The coprostanol/(cholesterol + cholestanol) and coprostanol/epicoprostanol ratios do not distinguish between human and natural sources of sterols in the river sediments in Serbia. The most reliable sterol ratios for the sewage pollution assessment of river sediments in the studied area were found to be coprostanol/(coprostanol + cholestanol), coprostanol/cholesterol and epicoprostanol/coprostanol. For the majority of sediments, human-derived pollution was determined. Two sediment samples were identified as influenced by a combination of human and natural biogenic sources. PMID:26874877

  18. Clinical babesiosis and molecular identification of Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Tomanovic, Snezana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2015-06-01

    Canine babesiosis is a frequent and clinically significant tick-borne disease. Sixty symptomatic dogs with clinical findings compatible with babesiosis were included in this study conducted in Serbia. After clinical examination, blood samples were taken for microscopic examination, complete blood count (CBC), Canine SNAP 4Dx Test, DNA analyses and sequencing. The main clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, fever, brown/red discoloration of urine, pale mucous membranes, icterus, splenomegaly, and vomiting. The main clinicopathological findings in Babesia infections were a slight to severe thrombocytopenia and a mild to very severe normocytic normochromic anaemia. Microscopic evaluation revealed 58 positive samples with the presence of large and small intraerythrocytic piroplasms in 57 and 1 sample(s), respectively. No co-infections were found using SNAP test. Two Babesia species, B. canis (58/60) and B. gibsoni (2/60), were differentiated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Species identification was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of B. gibsoni samples and six randomly selected B. canis samples. All dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (6.6 mg/kg of body weight), given intramuscularly twice at an interval of 14 days. This report presents the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of B. gibsoni and B. canis, confirmed by DNA sequencing, in sick dogs from Serbia. PMID:26051258

  19. Freshwater environmental quality parameters of man-made lakes of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Dorđevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-08-01

    In this study, 28 lakes were selected from the freshwater resources of the network of man-made lakes throughout the Vojvodina Province and the central part of Serbia. Samples were analyzed for the physicochemicals indicators of the water and nutrients. Most of the values of the chemicals indicators and nutrients of the samples from the Vojvodina Province exceeded the Water Act and Regulations on the Monitoring of Water Quality introduced by the Government of the Republic of Serbia (MWQ) and/or the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption. The sample from Lake Međuvršje, where the NH4 (+) concentration was 0.28 mg/L, and the sample from Ovcar Banja, where the total phosphorus (TP) content was 0.15 mg/L with a high total nitrogen (TN) content of 1.21 mg/L, are particularly noteworthy. These high concentrations exceeded the proposed guidelines for safe drinking water; therefore, water from these lakes should be used with care as harmful health effects may occur. The majority of the Serbian lakes are characterized by phosphorus-limited photosynthesis. PMID:24740390

  20. Conditional probability of occurrence of floods and droughts on rivers in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohaska, Stevan; Ilic, Aleksandra; Blagojevic, Borislava

    2010-05-01

    Based on a recent research of floods and droughts in Serbia, this paper will deal with interrelation of both extreme floods and hydrologic droughts. Territory of the Republic of Serbia is analyzed area, excluding the Province of Kosovo and Metohija. Gage stations, that control areas of catchments from 84 km² (Donja Satornja GS on the Jasenica River) to 525009 km² (Pancevo GS on the Danube River), form observation network of Hydro-meteorological Service. There are 144 gauge stations flow data available for analysis. Taking outlier identification as the only indicator of extreme events, analysis will be performed for the data sets at gauge stations where outliers were identified in the series of annual minima, maxima and 30 days minima. Outlier identification is performed by Pilot and Harvey test. Identified gauge stations, possibly leading to regions prone to extreme flood, drought or both, and probability of occurrence of extreme events will be shown on maps. Conditional probabilities of occurrence of studied events will be considered for variety of occurrence scenarios, and results presented in the graphic form.

  1. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćirović, D; Pavlović, I; Penezić, A; Kulišić, Z; Selaković, S

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multiceps multiceps, Multiceps serialis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Mesocestoides litteratus, Dipylidium caninum) were identified. Pseudamphistomum truncatum and M. serialis species were recorded for the first time. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.3%. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of infection between males and females (P>0.817), between localities (P>0.502), or with regard to annual cycles (P>0.502). In the infected jackal population, 65% harboured multiple infections and one individual was a host to five different types of parasite species, the highest number of parasites we recorded in a single host. These findings indicate that although the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the jackal population in Serbia is significantly lower than expected from earlier studies, further monitoring is required given the jackal's rapid population increase. PMID:23941681

  2. Methane emissions from landfills in Serbia and potential mitigation strategies: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Ubavin, Dejan; Batinic, Bojan; Fellner, Johann; Vujic, Goran

    2012-10-01

    Open dumping and landfilling have represented the predominant method of waste management in Serbia during the past decades. This practice resulted in over 3600 waste disposal sites distributed all over the country. The locations of the sites and their characteristics have been determined in the framework of the presented study. The vast majority of disposal sites (up to 3300) are characterized by small deposition depth of waste and total waste volumes of less than 10,000 m(3). Only about 50 landfills in Serbia contain more than 100,000 m(3) of waste. These large landfills are responsible for more than 95% of the total CH(4) emissions from waste disposal, which was assessed as 60,000 tons of CH(4) in 2010. The evaluation of different measures [soil cover, compost cover and landfill gas (LFG) systems] for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from Serbian landfills indicated that enhanced microbial CH(4) oxidation (using a compost cover), as well as the installation of LFG systems, could generate net revenues as saved CH(4) emissions are creditable for the European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme. In total between 4 and 7 million tons of CO(2) equivalent emissions could be avoided within the next 20 years by mitigating CH(4) emissions from Serbian landfills. PMID:22751946

  3. Status of tobacco viruses in Serbia and molecular characterization of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Stanković, I; Bulajić, A; Vučurović, A; Ristić, D; Milojević, K; Berenji, J; Krstić, B

    2011-01-01

    In a four-year survey to determine the presence and distribution of viruses in tobacco crops at 17 localities of the Vojvodina Province and Central Serbia, 380 samples were collected and analyzed by DAS-ELISA. Out of the seven viruses tested, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), potato virus Y (PVY), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) were detected in 37.9, 33.4, 28.7, 23.9, and 15.5% of the total tested samples, respectively. TSWV was the most frequently found virus at the localities of Central Serbia, while PVY and CMV were the most frequent viruses in the Vojvodina Province. Single infections were prevalent in years 2005-2007 and the most frequent were those of PVY. A triple combination of those viruses was most frequent mixed infection type in 2008. The presence of all five detected viruses was confirmed in selected ELISA-positive samples by RT-PCR and sequencing. The comparisons of obtained virus isolate sequences with those available in NCBI, confirmed the authenticity of serologically detected viruses. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial nucleocapsid gene sequences revealed a joint clustering of Serbian, Bulgarian and Montenegrin TSWV isolates into one geographic subpopulation, which was distinct from the other subpopulation of TSWV isolates from the rest of the European countries. The high incidence of viruses in Serbian tobacco crops highlights the importance of enhancing farmers knowledge towards better implementation of control strategies for preventing serious losses. PMID:22149499

  4. Psychosocial Stress and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: A Case-Control Study in Belgrade (Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    Vujcic, Isidora; Vlajinac, Hristina; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Vasiljevic, Zorana; Matanovic, Dragana; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Sipetic, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate which psychosocial risk factors show the strongest association with occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the population of Belgrade in peacetime, after the big political changes in Serbia. Methods A case-control study was conducted involving 154 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with MI, and 308 controls matched by gender, age, and place of residence. Results According to conditional logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for conventional coronary risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for work-related stressful events, financial stress, deaths and diseases, and general stress were 3.78 (1.83-7.81), 3.80 (1.96-7.38), 1.69 (1.03-2.78), and 3.54 (2.01-6.22), respectively. Among individual stressful life events, the following were independently related to MI: death of a close family member, 2.21 (1.01-4.84); death of a close friend, 42.20 (3.70-481.29); major financial problems, 8.94 (1.83-43.63); minor financial problems, 4.74 (2.02-11.14); changes in working hours, 4.99 (1.64-15.22); and changes in working conditions, 30.94 (5.43-176.31). Conclusions During this political transition period , stress at work, financial stress, and stress in general as they impacted the population of Belgrade, Serbia were strongly associated with occurence of MI. PMID:27274168

  5. Chemical Composition and Interpopulation Variability of Essential Oils of Taxus baccata L. from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Milena; Ristić, Mihailo; Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Nikolić, Biljana; Vidaković, Vera; Obratov-Petković, Dragica; Bojović, Srdjan

    2016-07-01

    The composition of the essential oil of the twigs and needles of Taxus baccata L. from three natural populations in Serbia has been determined by GC/MS analysis. Of the 91 detected compounds, 87 were identified. The most abundant compound classes were aliphatic alcohols, terpenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aliphatic aldehydes, which together comprised ca. 86.92% of the total oil composition. The dominant constituents were oct-1-en-3-ol (23.48%), (3Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol (11.46%; aliphatic alcohols), and myrtenol (11.38%; oxygenated monoterpene). The PCA of 22 selected compounds revealed differentiations of populations based on geographic distribution. The CA showed that Populations I and II from the Dinaric Alps were similar, and that Population III from the Balkan mountain system was distinct. This was the first investigation of interpopulation variability of T. baccata populations based on essential oil composition. The results of this study were compared with those of previous studies concerning volatile compounds produced by Taxus species. The results indicate that the essential oil content of T. baccata populations from this study is unique, mostly resembling the population from southeast Serbia. PMID:27286568

  6. Estimated daily intake of benzoic acid through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lazarević, Konstansa; Stojanović, Dusica; Rancić, Natasa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate dietary intake of benzoic acid and its salts through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia. Information on dietary intake among 620 adults (aged 18-65) was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and 748 food samples were analyzed. The mean estimated intake of benzoic acid -0.32 mg/kg of body weight (bw) per day was below acceptable daily intake (ADI). Dietary exposure to benzoic acid (0.36 mg/kg of bw/day; 7.2% ADI) (consumer only), also did not exceed ADI. The main contributors of benzoic acid to dietary intake were non alcoholic beverages (43.1%), ketchup and tomato products (36.1%), and domestic pickled vegetables (19.4%). The results of this study indicate that dietary exposure to benzoic acid and its salts through food preservatives does not represent a public health risk for the adult population of South East Serbia. PMID:22432399

  7. 31 CFR 585.414 - Services performed in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or by the Government of the FRY (S&M). 585.414 Section 585... the Government of the FRY (S&M). Services performed in the FRY (S&M), or by the Government of the FRY... is received in the United States. Services performed in the FRY (S&M) or by the Government of the...

  8. Stolbur Phytoplasma Transmission to Maize by Reptalus panzeri and the Disease Cycle of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), induced by stolbur phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma solani, subgroup 16SrXII-A), is characterized by midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development. MR has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years, and recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 4...

  9. Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinshead, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching capacity of…

  10. Higher Education in Serbia: From Socialism to the Free Market Economy and Implications for the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smirnov, Lidija

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationships between higher education and the labour market in Serbia. In order to understand this relationship better, this paper will first provide a brief history of the country and the history of its higher education structures. The paper will then discuss higher education from post Second World War until the fall of…

  11. Early Warning System for reducing disaster risk: the technological platform DEWETRA for the Republic of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabo, Marco; Molini, Luca; Kostic, Bojan; Campanella, Paolo; Stevanovic, Slavimir

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk reduction has long been recognized for its role in mitigating the negative environmental, social and economic impacts of natural hazards. Flood Early Warning System is a disaster risk reduction measure based on the capacities of institutions to observe and predict extreme hydro-meteorological events and to disseminate timely and meaningful warning information; it is furthermore based on the capacities of individuals, communities and organizations to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. An operational definition of an Early Warning System has been suggested by ISDR - UN Office for DRR [15 January 2009]: "EWS is the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.". ISDR continues by commenting that a people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four key elements: 1-knowledge of the risks; 2-monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; 3-communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and 4- local capabilities to respond to the warnings received." The technological platform DEWETRA supports the strengthening of the first three key elements of EWS suggested by ISDR definition, hence to improve the capacities to build real-time risk scenarios and to inform and warn the population in advance The technological platform DEWETRA has been implemented for the Republic of Serbia. DEWETRA is a real time-integrate system that supports decision makers for risk forecasting and monitoring and for distributing warnings to end-user and to the general public. The system is based on the rapid availability of different data that helps to establish up-to-date and reliable risk scenarios. The integration of all relevant data for risk management significantly

  12. Pearl southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...

  13. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  14. Radiation doses in adult computed tomography practice in Serbia: initial results.

    PubMed

    Arandjic, Danijela; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Hadnadjev, Darka; Stojanovic, Sanja; Bozovic, Predrag; Ceklic, Sandra; Lazarevic, Djordje

    2014-11-01

    This work presents initial data on radiation doses in adult computed tomography (CT) in Serbia. Data were collected in terms of CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values for head, chest and abdomen examination. The range of CTDIvol values was found to be 53-98, 11-34 and 8.5-227 mGy whereas for DLP was 803-1066, 350-845 and 1066-3078 mGy cm(-1) for head, chest and abdomen examination, respectively. Except for abdomen on one CT unit, all estimated values were in line with the reported data. This work also presents simple method on how to reduce radiation doses when scanning head. Using axial (step-and-shot) instead of helical mode and decreasing tube current-time product leads to significant dose reduction. CTDIvol was decreased by 20 % whereas DLP was reduced for a factor 2. PMID:25063787

  15. Realization of ETRF2000 as a New Terrestrial Reference Frame in Republic of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagojevic, D.; Vasilic, V.

    2012-12-01

    The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) is a joint service of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU), which provides the scientific community with the means for computing the transformation from the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) to the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS). It further maintains the realizations of these systems by appropriate coordinate sets called "frames". The densification of terrestrial frame usually serves as official frame for positioning and navigation tasks within the territory of particular country. One of these densifications was recently performed in order to establish new reference frame for Republic of Serbia. The paper describes related activities resulting in ETRF2000 as a new Serbian terrestrial reference frame.

  16. Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows and domestic dogs from Vojvodina, Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Kuruca, Ljiljana; Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Simin, Stanislav; Savović, Milan; Lauš, Saša; Lalošević, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, is a protozoan parasite responsible for high rate of abortion in cattle worldwide. In dogs, consequences of infection vary from severe neuromuscular disorders to asymptomatic infection and shedding of environmentally resistant oocysts. In this study, we determined the occurrence of N. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and dogs in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia) and possible risk factors. N. caninum antibodies were found in 15.4% (55/356, CI 95%:12.0–19.6) of cows and 17.2% (17/99, CI 95%: 10.8–26.2) of dogs. Cows from smallholdings showed significantly greater odds (OR = 5.28, CI 95%: 2.0–13.6, p = 0.0006) of being seropositive in comparison to the farm cows. Epidemiological importance of results is discussed. PMID:24152767

  17. Hyperparasites of the genus Ampelomyces on powdery mildew fungi in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ranković, B

    1997-01-01

    From 1982 to 1996, in Serbia, 229 species of plants infected with powdery mildew were collected. Seventy-five species had hyperparasites of the genus Ampelomyces. Distribution analysis showed that hyperparasitism was greatest on plants from the families Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae. Ampelomyces was not found on the family Poaceae. It was reported for the first time on the families Amygdalaceae, Cornaceae, Grossulariaceae, Plantaginaceae, Rhamnaceae and other 37 plant species. Hyperparasites of the genus Ampelomyces were found on 33 different species of fungi that are causal agents of powdery mildews. They are reported for the first time on nine species. Pycnidial size varied in the range 45-106 x 25.5-40.5 microm and conidia from 4.5-10.5 x 2.5-4.8 microm. PMID:16283455

  18. Trends in combined climate indices in Serbia from 1961 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenović, Pavle; Tošić, Ivana; Unkašević, Miroslava

    2015-08-01

    In this study, trends of combined climate indices based on daily mean temperatures and precipitation were analysed. The combined indices Cold/Dry (CD), Cold/Wet (CW), Warm/Dry (WD) and Warm/Wet (WW) days were examined during the period 1961-2010 at seven stations distributed across Serbia. Decreasing tendencies of CD and CW and increasing tendencies of WD were observed during the winter, spring and summer. It was found that trends of all combined indices were insignificant during the autumn. The most significant trends of CD and WD were revealed for the summer season. The results showed that a negative correlation existed between the East Atlantic pattern and CD and CW, but that a positive correlation existed for WD for all seasons. The North Atlantic Oscillation dominated during the winter, and the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern governed during the autumn.

  19. Essential Oil Chemical Composition and Headspace Volatiles Profile of Achillea coarctata from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Kostevski, Ivana R; Petrović, Goran M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Stamenković, Jelena G; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the essential oil composition and headspace volatiles profile of Achillea coarctata Poir. from Serbia. The inflorescences, stems and leaves, and the aerial parts of A. coarctata were analyzed separately. Germacrene D, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents of the aerial parts essential oil; 1,8-cineole, cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol and α-terpineol were the most dominant compounds in the inflorescence essential oil, while the most abundant components in the stem and leaf oil were germacrene D, cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol and ledol. The percentages of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids in the aerial parts were the same, while there were differences in distribution of these compound classes in inflorescence and stem and leaf essential oils. The major components of the headspace volatiles were the same for aerial parts, inflorescence and stem and leaves: 1,8-cineole, β-pinene and α-pinene. PMID:27396214

  20. Use of enzymatic tools for biomonitoring inorganic pollution in aquatic sediments: a case study (Bor, Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sediment bacterial communities are key players in biogeochemical cycling of elements in the aquatic environment. Copper mining, smelting, and processing operations located in Bor area (Serbia) are major environmental hot spots in the lower Danube Basin and Western Balkans. In the present study, we evaluate the influence of trace element (TE) concentration in sediments and physico-chemical properties of water on sediment microbial communities in water streams adjacent to the Copper Smelter Complex Bor (RTB Bor, Serbia). The degree to which metabolic activities of bacterial biota inhabiting differently polluted sites is inhibited by inorganic pollution were compared using selected enzymatic bioindicators. Results Cu, Zn, Pb, and As concentrations systematically exceeded the target values for metal loadings in aquatic sediments. Water electrical conductivity (WEC) followed the same pattern of spatial variation, irrespective of season. Interestingly, the most intense enzymatic activity occurred at the reference site although this site showed the greatest TE levels in aquatic sediments. Catalase activity (CA), potential dehydrogenase activity (PDA), actual dehydrogenase activity (ADA), urease activity (UA), and phosphatase activity (PA) in aquatic sediments displayed heterogeneous patterns of spatio-temporal variation. Inorganic pollution greatly affected CA, ADA, and PDA, but much less so UA and PA. Canonical correlation analysis showed that pH and WEC were the strongest determinants of enzymatic activity in bacterial biota, with the latter variable being reversely correlated with the enzymatic indicator of sediment quality (EISQ). The median values of EISQ increased with distance from the major sources of pollution. In addition, it was found that sites with different degrees of inorganic pollution can be appropriately classified by applying cluster analysis to EISQ, TE levels in sediments, and physico-chemical properties of water. Conclusions Because EISQ

  1. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  2. Evaluation of probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from traditional cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Milica; Čadež, Neža; Uroić, Ksenija; Miljković, Marija; Tolinački, Maja; Doušova, Petra; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Raspor, Peter; Topisirović, Ljubiša; Golić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic potential of dairy yeast isolates from artisanal cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia. Materials and Methods: Twelve yeast strains isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white brined cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia were used in the study. Survival in chemically-simulated gastrointestinal conditions, adherence to epithelial intestinal cells and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells were evaluated. Results: The results revealed that two strains of Kluyvereomyces lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM 2453 grew above one log unit (Δ log CFU/ml) in the complex colonic medium during 24 h of cultivation, while Torulaspora delbrueckii ZIM 2460 was the most resistant isolate in chemically-simulated conditions of gastric juice and upper intestinal tract. It was demonstrated that the strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM2441 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIM 2415 were highly adhesive to Caco-2 cells, while strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and Debaryomyces hansenii ZIM 2415 exhibit the highest adhesion percentage to HT29-MTX cells. All strains significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased the proliferation of GALT cells, suggesting the possible strain-specific immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Conclusion: The dairy yeast isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties, particularly the strain K. lactis ZIM 2408, which appears to be the best probiotic candidate in terms of all three criteria. Taking into account their immunomodulatory potential, the yeast isolates could be further tested for specific probiotic applications and eventually included in functional food formulated for patients suffering from diseases associated with an increased inflammatory status. PMID:26401378

  3. DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY OF LIVER FLUKE (FASCIOLOIDES MAGNA) INFECTION IN FALLOW DEER (DAMA DAMA) IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Trailović, Saša M; Marinković, Darko; Kulišić, Zoran

    2016-04-28

    Giant liver fluke ( Fascioloides magna ) infection is an important health problem of cervids in southeastern Europe. We measured the prevalence and intensity of infection with F. magna in a fenced area near the Danube River in the South Bačka District of Serbia. Parasitologic, pathomorphologic, and histopathologic examinations were conducted from November 2007 to February 2008, beginning with a population of 127 adult fallow deer ( Dama dama ). After a positive diagnosis, therapy with triclabendazole-medicated corn was applied. Deer were treated at four baiting stations, using medicated feed providing triclabendazole at an estimated dose of 10-14 mg/kg of body weight per deer. Treatment lasted for 7 d in early February 2008 and an additional 7 d 2 wk later. For the complete success of pharmacotherapy it was necessary to prevent any contact of deer with the snail intermediate host ( Galba truncatula ). Intervention in the habitat, removing grass and low vegetation, and draining ponds reduces the possibility of contact. Six months after the treatment, livers of hunted deer were reddish, with fibrous tracks; pigmentation and cysts in the parenchyma were surrounded by a fibrous capsule and their fecal samples contained no eggs of F. magna . Over the following years, livers of hunted deer were negative, and the last control cull in March 2015 confirmed complete absence of infection. We reconfirmed the presence of giant liver flukes in fallow deer in Serbia, apparently the result of natural spread across the Danube from Hungary and Croatia. We also report that the treatment of deer with triclabendazole-medicated corn is an effective method for administration of therapeutic doses of drug in semicaptive deer. Interventions in the environment are necessary to prevent recontact of deer with habitats used by the snail intermediate host, and enable the success of the therapy. PMID:26967130

  4. The assessment of soil availability and wheat grain status of zinc and iron in Serbia: Implications for human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Nikolic, Nina; Kostic, Ljiljana; Pavlovic, Jelena; Bosnic, Predrag; Stevic, Nenad; Savic, Jasna; Hristov, Nikola

    2016-05-15

    The deficiency of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) is a global issue causing not only considerable yield losses of food crops but also serious health problems. We have analysed Zn and Fe concentrations in the grains of two bread wheat cultivars along native gradient of micronutrient availability throughout Serbia. Although only 13% of the soil samples were Zn deficient and none was Fe deficient, the levels of these micronutrients in grain were rather low (median values of 21 mg kg(-1) for Zn and 36 mg kg(-1) for Fe), and even less adequate in white flour. Moreover, excessive P fertilization of calcareous soils in the major wheat growing areas strongly correlated with lower grain concentration of Zn. Our results imply that a latent Zn deficiency in wheat grain poses a high risk for grain quality relevant to human health in Serbia, where wheat bread is a staple food. PMID:26925726

  5. Effects of indoor air pollution on respiratory symptoms of non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indoor air pollution exposure on respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis. Results A strong association was found between respiratory symptoms and indoor air pollution. The associations between home dampness and sinusitis and bronchitis were also found to be statistically significant. Conclusions Indoor air pollution exposure is an important risk factor for respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. PMID:22958910

  6. 137Cs and 40K in some traditional herbal teas collected in the mountain regions of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Branislava M; Grdović, Svetlana N; Vitorović, Gordana S; Vitorović, Duško P; Pantelić, Gordana K; Grubić, Goran A

    2014-01-01

    Herbal teas are an important part of traditional medicine in Serbia. The objective of the present study was to determine the activity concentrations of (40)K and (137)Cs in herbal tea, using the gamma spectroscopy method. The samples were collected during the period 2011-2012 in three mountain regions in Western and Central Serbia. The activity concentrations of (40)K and (137)Cs were found to be in the range of 130-1160 and 0.7-124 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The average annual effective dose equivalents from ingestion of (40)K and (137)Cs for an adult person consuming one cup of herbal tea daily were found to be 588.4-5250.2 nSv for (40)K and 4.0-706.1 nSv for (137)Cs. Our investigation showed that the herbal teas originating from Maljen, Zlatibor and Tara mountains are radiologically safe for human consumption. PMID:25322769

  7. [Dr. Lazar Nenadović, gynecologist-obstetrician and founder of balneology and physical medicine in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Berić, B; Dokmanović-Dordević, M

    1990-01-01

    Prof. Dr. Lazar-Laza Nenadović specialist in obstetrics and gynaecology (Modos, 1870--Beograd, 1939), the founder of advanced physical medicine and balneo-climatology in Serbia. Prof. Nenadović, besides a series of papers on obstetrics and gynaecology, is the author of a monograph on obstetrics and gynaecology published in Novi Sad in 1912, being the first of this kind in Serbia. Its title is Diseases of the female, their origin, causes and treatment. He was also one of the pioneers of gynecologic balneology in Yugoslavia and one of the founders of the Belgrade School of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, as well as a close collaborator and friend of Prof. Dr Milos Bogdanović, the first head and professor of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the School of Medicine in Belgrade. PMID:2214860

  8. First- and fifth-year medical students' intention for emigration and practice abroad: a case study of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena M; Terzic-Supic, Zorica J; Matejic, Bojana R; Vasic, Vladimir; Ricketts, Thomas C

    2014-11-01

    Health worker migration is causing profound health, safety, social, economic and political challenges to countries without special policies for health professionals' mobility. This study describes the prevalence of migration intentions among medical undergraduates, identifies underlying factors related to migration intention and describes subsequent actions in Serbia. Data were captured by survey of 938 medical students from Belgrade University (94% response rate), representing two thirds of matching students in Serbia stated their intentions, reasons and obstacles regarding work abroad. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and a sequential multivariate logistic regression. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics we were able to predict the profile of first and fifth year medical students who intend or have plans to work abroad. This study contributes to our understanding of the causes and correlates of intent to migrate and could serve to raise awareness and point to the valuable policy options to manage migration. PMID:25458972

  9. Results of bacteriological and cytological examinations of the endometrium of subfertile mares in stud farms in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Urosevic, Miroslav; Lako, Branislav; Milanov, Dubravka; Urosevic, Ivana; Aurich, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Uterine microbiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and endometrial cytology were investigated in a total of 51 mares with fertility problems from 16 different stud farms in Serbia. Uterine cultures were performed after collection with a double guarded uterine swab, and endometrial cytology was evaluated after collection of endometrial cells with a special device (cytology brush). In 21 of 51 mares, at least one bacterial species was isolated from the uterus; the most frequent were Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (13 isolates) and E. coli (four isolates). All isolates of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus were susceptible to penicillin. Results from endometrial cytology were inconsistent; in 17 animals with positive bacteriological culture, cytology was not altered. It can be concluded that in Serbia, as in many other contries, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is the main cause for equine endometritis. It can be easily diagnosed by uterine culture but endometrial cytology does not always prove the existence of an endometrial infection with this agent. PMID:21038807

  10. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  11. Genetic analysis of Dobrava-Belgrade virus from western Serbia--a newly detected focus in the Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stamenković, G; Nikolić, V; Blagojević, J; Bugarski-Stanojević, V; Adnađević, T; Stanojević, M; Vujošević, M

    2015-03-01

    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is a hantavirus species that causes the most severe form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. DOBV has been detected in three Apodemus rodents: A. flavicollis, A. agrarius and A. ponticus. These emerging viruses appear throughout the Balkan Peninsula including Serbia as its central part. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of DOBV from A. flavicollis captured at six Serbian localities. Furthermore, we applied microsatellite typing of host animal genome to analyse the role of host kinship in DOBV animal transmission. The overall IgG seropositivity rate over 3 years (2008-2010) was 11.9% (22/185). All seropositive samples were subjected to RT-PCR and DNA sequencing for S and L genome segments (pos. 291-1079 nt and 2999-3316 nt, respectively). DOBV was genetically detected in three samples from mountain Tara in western Serbia, a newly detected DOBV focus in the Balkans. No sequence data from human cases from Serbia are available for the studied period. However, collected DOBV isolates in this work phylogenetically clustered together with isolates from Serbian human cases dating from 2002, with 1.9% nucleotide divergence. We determined the level of kinship between seropositive and seronegative animal groups and found no significant difference, suggesting that horizontal virus transmission in the studied population was the same within and among the hatches. Our findings are the first genetic detection of DOBV in rodents in Serbia. We confirm wide and continuous hantavirus presence in the examined parts of the Balkans, underlying the necessity of continual monitoring of hantavirus circulation in A. flavicollis. PMID:24867363

  12. Superposed orogenic collision and core-complex formation at the present contact between the Dinarides and the Pannonian basin: The Bukulja and Cer Mountains in central and western Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenco, Liviu; Toljic, Marinko; Ducea, Mihai; Stojadinovic, Uros

    2010-05-01

    Formation of large extensional detachments during orogenic collapse can follow inherited weakness zones such as major asymmetries given by pre-existing subduction zones active during mountain building processes. This is valid in particular in low-topography foreland coupling orogens of Mediterranean type where large amounts of deformation is concentrated in their lower plates, favoring weakness zones activated during a subsequent phase of extensional collapse. One good place to study the orogenic collapse post-dating major collision is the NE margin of the Dinarides in central and western Serbia, where Cretaceous-Eocene shortening and collision was recorded in the Alpine Tethys Sava zone between the European-derived Dacia and Tisza mega-units and the lower Adriatic plate. This is the same place where the Pannonian basin formed as a Miocene back-arc basin in response to a different subduction and roll-back taking place along the external Carpathians. A lineament of Paleogene and Miocene plutons is observed at the northern and eastern margin of the Dinarides, interpreted to be the product of both syn- to post-orogenic subduction magmatism and of decompressional melting during the Pannonian extension. Two of these plutons, Cer and Bukulja, located in western and respectively central Serbia, are intruded in the Jadar-Kopaonik composite thrust sheet, part of the lower Adriatic plate, near the contact with the main suture formed during the Cretaceous-Eocene subduction of the Sava zone. The Lower Miocene age (19-17Ma) Bukulja intrusion is a S-type granite with rare aplitic veins (Cvetkovic et al., 2007). The Cer intrusive complex is a S type two mica granite of around 16Ma in age with an older I-type quartz monzonite component (Koroneos et al. in press). Both granitoids are intruded into the Jadar-Kopaonik metamorphic series, which are in direct contact along the northern, eastern and southern flank with non-metamorphosed, mainly clastic sediments of Cretaceous-Miocene in

  13. Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brett D; Dierberg, Kerry; Šćepanović, Milena; Mitrović, Mihajlo; Vuksanović, Miloš; Milić, Ljiljana; VanRooyen, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Background Due to the complexity of health system reform in the post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings, attempts to restructure health services are fraught with pitfalls that are often unanticipated because of inadequate preliminary assessments. Our proposed Integrated Multimodal Assessment – combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies – may provide a more robust mechanism for identifying programmatic priorities and critical barriers for appropriate and sustainable health system interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe this novel multimodal assessment using emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia as a model. Methods Integrated quantitative and qualitative methodologies – system characterization and observation, focus group discussions, free-response questionnaires, and by-person factor analysis – were used to identify needs, problems, and potential barriers to the development of emergency medicine in Serbia. Participants included emergency and pre-hospital personnel from all emergency medical institutions in Belgrade. Results Demographic data indicate a loosely ordered network of part-time emergency departments supported by 24-hour pre-hospital services and an academic emergency center. Focus groups and questionnaires reveal significant impediments to delivery of care and suggest development priorities. By-person factor analysis subsequently divides respondents into distinctive attitudinal types, compares participant opinions, and identifies programmatic priorities. Conclusions By combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies, our Integrated Multimodal Assessment identified critical needs and barriers to emergency medicine development in Serbia and may serve as a model for future health system assessments in post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings. PMID:15715917

  14. Interval linear programming model for long-term planning of vehicle recycling in the Republic of Serbia under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Simic, Vladimir; Dimitrijevic, Branka

    2015-02-01

    An interval linear programming approach is used to formulate and comprehensively test a model for optimal long-term planning of vehicle recycling in the Republic of Serbia. The proposed model is applied to a numerical case study: a 4-year planning horizon (2013-2016) is considered, three legislative cases and three scrap metal price trends are analysed, availability of final destinations for sorted waste flows is explored. Potential and applicability of the developed model are fully illustrated. Detailed insights on profitability and eco-efficiency of the projected contemporary equipped vehicle recycling factory are presented. The influences of the ordinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles in the Republic of Serbia on the vehicle hulks procuring, sorting generated material fractions, sorted waste allocation and sorted metals allocation decisions are thoroughly examined. The validity of the waste management strategy for the period 2010-2019 is tested. The formulated model can create optimal plans for procuring vehicle hulks, sorting generated material fractions, allocating sorted waste flows and allocating sorted metals. Obtained results are valuable for supporting the construction and/or modernisation process of a vehicle recycling system in the Republic of Serbia. PMID:25649401

  15. Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in the river network of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Dević, Gordana; Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the data for ten water quality variables collected during 2009 at 75 monitoring sites along the river network of Serbia are considered. The results are alarming because 48% of the studied sites were contaminated by Ni, Mn, Pb, As, and nutrients, which are key factors impairing the water quality of the rivers in Serbia. Special attention should be paid to Zn and Cu, listed in the priority toxic pollutants of US EPA for aquatic life protection. The employed Q-model cluster analysis grouped the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high). Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) were in the main rivers, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) were in the large and small tributaries/hydro-system. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) showed that the dissolved metals and nutrients in the Serbian rivers varied depending on the river, the heterogeneity of the anthropogenic activities in the basins (influenced primarily by industrial wastewater, agricultural activities, and urban runoff pollution), and natural environmental variability, such as geological characteristics. In LP dominated non-point source pollution, such as agricultural and urban runoff, whereas mixed source pollution dominated in the MP and HP zones. These results provide information to be used for developing better pollution control strategies for the river network of Serbia. PMID:26593728

  16. Gender disparities in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, 1991-2014: a time of civil wars and global crisis.

    PubMed

    Ilic, M; Ilic, I

    2016-09-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to analyse the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia (excluding the Autonomous Province of Kosovo & Metohia) from 1991 to 2014 using joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates from infectious diseases were found to have increased markedly from 1991 to 1994 (+12·4% per year), followed by a significant decline from 1994 to 2009 (-4·6% per year) and then another increase from 2009 to 2014 (+4·3% per year). Throughout the study period, mortality rates were consistently higher in men than in women. Although a substantial decline was observed for young people of both sexes, no consistent pattern was evident for the middle-aged nor the elderly. Since 1991, septicaemia has emerged as a leading cause of infectious disease mortality, particularly in older men. The Yugoslav civil wars in the 1990s and the global financial crisis in 2008 corresponded with changes in the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, with the elderly showing particular vulnerability during those time periods. Data presented in this study might be useful to improve control of infectious diseases in Serbia. PMID:27483375

  17. Canyons and gorges as potential geotourism destinations in Serbia: comparative analysis from two perspectives - general geotourists' and pure geotourists'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božić, Sanja; Tomić, Nemanja

    2015-10-01

    Serbia represents one of those countries which have not yet differentiated themselves on the world tourism map. However, it has an immense but still unrevealed potential for geotourism development. In this paper we analyzed several remarkable canyons and gorges of great scientific importance and geotourism potential. These sites include the Djerdap Gorge and Lazar River Canyon, located in Eastern Serbia and the Ovcar-Kablar Gorge and Uvac Canyon located in Western Serbia. One of the main goals of this paper was to analyze and compare the current state and tourism potential of these geosites by using the M-GAM model for geosite assessment. However, the principal aim of the paper is to analyze how important is each subindicator in the assessment process for different market segments. In this paper, we also analyzed how giving different importance to subindicators can influence the position of the geosites in the matrix indicating different assessment done by two chosen market segments. The research showed that general geotourists appreciate considerably different values when assessing a geosite in comparison to pure geotourists. The paper can be used as framework for developing the tourism management strategy of geosites taking into consideration the needs and preferences of the target market segments.

  18. The Temporal and Spatial Invasion Genetics of the Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lemic, Darija; Mikac, Katarina M; Ivkosic, Stephanie A; Bažok, Renata

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the genetics of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte in southern Europe during the introduction (1996-2001) and establishment/spread (2002-2011) phases of its invasion. The Diabrotica microsatellite core-set was used to perform traditional population genetics analyses. Our results indicated that during the introduction phase genetic diversity and population genetic structure were lower overall as compared to the establishment/spread phase. Unusually high genetic differentiation was found between the Italy and southern Europe comparisons, including high differentiation between Italian populations separated by a short distance during the establishment/spread phase. STRUCTURE analysis revealed two genetic clusters during the introduction phase and two genetic clusters during the establishment/spread phase. However, bottlenecked populations were only detected during the invasion phase. A small but significant isolation by distance effect was noted in both phases. Serbia was the geographic source of WCR to Croatia and Hungary in the introduction phase, while the United States of America was the possible source of WCR to Italy in 2001. These introductory populations were the subsequent source of individuals sampled during the establishment/spread phase. Repeated introductions and admixture events in southern Europe may have resulted in genetically diverse WCR populations that have attained 83% of all known alleles worldwide. PMID:26406466

  19. The Temporal and Spatial Invasion Genetics of the Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lemic, Darija; Mikac, Katarina M.; Ivkosic, Stephanie A.; Bažok, Renata

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the genetics of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte in southern Europe during the introduction (1996–2001) and establishment/spread (2002–2011) phases of its invasion. The Diabrotica microsatellite core-set was used to perform traditional population genetics analyses. Our results indicated that during the introduction phase genetic diversity and population genetic structure were lower overall as compared to the establishment/spread phase. Unusually high genetic differentiation was found between the Italy and southern Europe comparisons, including high differentiation between Italian populations separated by a short distance during the establishment/spread phase. STRUCTURE analysis revealed two genetic clusters during the introduction phase and two genetic clusters during the establishment/spread phase. However, bottlenecked populations were only detected during the invasion phase. A small but significant isolation by distance effect was noted in both phases. Serbia was the geographic source of WCR to Croatia and Hungary in the introduction phase, while the United States of America was the possible source of WCR to Italy in 2001. These introductory populations were the subsequent source of individuals sampled during the establishment/spread phase. Repeated introductions and admixture events in southern Europe may have resulted in genetically diverse WCR populations that have attained 83% of all known alleles worldwide. PMID:26406466

  20. The Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in Begej Canal (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krčmar, Dejan; Trickovic, Jelena; Grba, Nenad; Becelic Tomin, Milena; Pesic, Vesna; Varga, Natasa; Dalmacija, Bozo

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic systems has received huge concern due to their toxicity, persistence and subsequent accumulation in aquatic sediments. One of the most crucial properties of the metals, which differentiate them from organic pollutants, is that they are not biodegradable in the environment. Metals are part of biogeochemical cycles with aquatic sediments acting as their ultimate sinks for longer periods of time. However, when environmental conditions change (pH, redox potential, etc.) sediments act as secondary sources of metal pollution. The toxicity and mobility of metals depend strongly on the way they are associated with sediments. Therefore, information on the total concentrations of metals in sediment alone should not be used to assess the environmental impact of polluted sediments. The Begej Canal is navigation canal between Romania and Serbia and it is a part of Danube-Tisa-Danube hydrosystem in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia). Approximately, 500,000 m3 of sediment is accumulated in Begej canal which currently prevents canal's primary function - navigability. The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical quality of Begej canal sediments regarding heavy metals content. The concentrations of heavy metals were as follows: Cd - 2.4-4.9 mg/kg, Cr - 125-349 mg/kg, Cu - 65-124 mg/kg, Pb - 47-113 mg/kg, Ni - 45-88 mg/kg and Zn - 362-602 mg/kg. According to Serbian legislation (Official gazette, no. 50/12), sediment of Begej canal is the third class sediment which means that special measures should be taken in case of its removal from watercourse and final disposal in order to prevent contamination of other environmental compartments (soil, ground waters, surface waters, wildlife). Therefore, determination of third class has important economic and social implications. Additional tests to assess sediment quality included determination of contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). In

  1. A large-scale study of the Trichinella genus in the golden jackal (Canis aureus) population in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćirović, Duško; Teodorović, Vlado; Vasilev, Dragan; Marković, Marija; Ćosić, Nada; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Klun, Ivana; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2015-09-15

    Over the last decades the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has significantly expanded its range throughout Southeast and Central Europe, and the Balkan Peninsula is considered to be a core area of the species distribution in this part of the range. Due to its increasing number, ability of long distance movement through a wide range of landscapes and opportunistic feeding habits, the golden jackal may represent an important reservoir and transmitter of a variety of zoonotic agents, including parasites. The Balkans, Serbia included, remain an endemic area for various zoonotic parasites including Trichinella spp. Trichinella has recently been recorded in jackals in Serbia, which prompted us to carry out a large-scale survey of its prevalence, distribution and species identification in this host. In cooperation with local hunters, carcasses of a total of 738 legally hunted golden jackals were collected at 24 localities over an 11-year period (2003-2013). Analysis of tongue base tissue revealed Trichinella larvae in 122, indicating a prevalence of infection of 16.5%. No difference in the prevalence of infection was found between genders [16.2% in males and 16.9% in females (χ(2)=0.05, p=0.821)], or among the study years (G=7.22, p=0.705). Trichinella larvae were found in 13 out of the 24 examined localities. Molecular identification was performed for 90 isolates, and 64 (71.1%) larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis and 25 (27.9%) as Trichinella britovi. Mixed infection (T. spiralis and T. britovi) was recorded in a single case. Although T. spiralis was more prevalent, T. britovi had a wider distribution, and was the only recorded species in jackal populations from the mountainous region of eastern Serbia. On the other hand, T. spiralis was dominant in jackals in the lowlands of central and northern Serbia, where domestic pigs are mostly reared. These results show that the golden jackal is involved in both the domestic and sylvatic cycle, and that it has emerged as

  2. Identifying gaps between current and expected ICT competencies of nurses in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Paunic, Sanja; Stojkovic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Introducing of ICT in the health care system in Serbia started 19 years ago and systematic training of nurses and technicians has not been realized yet. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the gap between the sets of ICT competencies of nurses and technicians acquiring education and experience and the necessary skill set required for their daily work. The qualitative research included questioning of the focus group of experts and 400 nurses and technicians employed in secondary and tertiary health institutions in Serbia. Based on the analysis of existing literature we choose the Informatics competencies for nurses at four levels of practice (Staggers, Gassert, Curran, 2001), and for the purposes of this study, we used a list of competencies of the first, and partially of the second and third level. At the start, the group of 12 experts had the task to eliminate some of listed competencies to express the subjective expectations of the ICT competencies of nurses. After that nurses and medical technicians were expected to grade, by Likert scale, their level of knowledge and skills for each of the 39 competencies, respectively. The answers were analyzed using measure of central tendency and distribution of results was done by median. Comparison of perceived competence of the nurses and the desired/expected level by managers shows that there is difference in 25 of the 39 offered statements. Managers expect that nurses are great users of administrative applications for staff scheduling and for maintaining employee records, while nurses declared that these programs they use relatively poorly or not at all. The larger gap is also observed when it comes to computer skill for documenting patient care--experts expect that nurses do it well, and nurses, again, estimate that their documentation skills are relatively poor. The same situation is with use of ICT for patient education. It can be concluded that further training is required in the field of ICT, either

  3. Alternaria toxins in wheat from the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia: a preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Orčić, Dejan; Torbica, Aleksandra; Kos, Jovana; Mastilović, Jasna; Škrinjar, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Although Fusarium species remain a main source of mycotoxin contamination of wheat, in recent years, due to the evident climatic changes, other mycotoxigenic fungi have been recognised as important wheat contaminants. Alternaria species, especially A. alternata, have been found as contaminants of wheat as well as wheat-based products. Under favourable conditions A. alternata very often produce alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA) and others Alternaria toxins. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of three Alternaria toxins (AOH, AME and TeA) in wheat samples harvested during three years (2011-13). To this end, 92 samples were collected during wheat harvesting from different growing regions of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, which represents the most important wheat-growing area in Serbia. The presence of Alternaria toxins was analysed by HPLC with electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Among all the analysed wheat samples, 63 (68.5%) were contaminated with TeA, 11 (12.0%) with AOH and 6 (6.5%) with AME. Furthermore, the maximum and mean toxin concentrations were 2676 and 92.4 µg kg(-1), 48.9 and 18.6 µg kg(-1), and 70.2 and 39.0 µg kg(-1) for TeA, AOH and AME, respectively. Co-occurrence of three Alternaria toxins in wheat samples was detected in six samples; a combination of two toxins was found in two samples; and 64 samples contained one toxin. The results showed that among 92 analysed wheat samples, only 20 (21.7%) samples were without Alternaria toxins. The presence of Alternaria toxins was also investigated in terms of weather conditions recorded during the period of investigation, as well as with the sampling region. This study represents the first preliminary report of the natural occurrence of Alternaria toxins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) from Serbia. PMID:25585540

  4. Geological and geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks in Kremna, basin (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perunović, Tamara; Jovančićević, Branimir; Brčeski, Ilija; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Ksenija; Simić, Vlada; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica

    2014-05-01

    Studying lacustrine sediments is important because of their potential economic value since they often bear coal, oil shales and non-metallic mineral raw materials. Besides this, lacustrine sediments offer valuable information on the climate conditions which existed during the sedimentation. In Serbia there are 14 lacustrine basins spanning in age from Oligocene to Lower Pliocene. The aim of this study was to examine Lower Miocene Kremna basin, located in southwest Serbia. Kremna basin is a small basin, covering 15km2, but sedimentologically very interesting. For the purpose of this study, 43 sediment samples were taken from a borehole at different depths, from surface to 343 m depth of the basin. The borehole ended in weathered serpentinite. Mineralogical composition of sediments was determined using thin-sections and X-ray diffraction analysis, contents of macro-and microelements and rare-earth elements were determined by ICP-ES and ICP-MS techniques. Also, elemental analysis was applied to determine the contents of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen and n-alkanes, isoprenoide aliphatic alkanes and bitumen were also determined using GC-MS technique. Mineralogical analyses proved presents of several lithological types in Kremna basin: clastic sediments, tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, marlstones, dolomites, magnezites, and coal of non-economic value. Occurrence of sirlezite and sepiolite was also determined. Furthermore, according to all obtained results two faciae were determined: alluvial-marginal lacustrine and intrabasinal. Alluvial-marginal facies originated from predominantly ultramafic rocks which underlie the basin. Magnezites and Mg-marls and Mg-dolomites are dominant sediments in this facies. These sediments formed under arid, slightly saline conditions. Intrabasinal facies is represented mostly with marls, Mg-marls and dolomitic limestones. These sediments were deposited under a more humid climate with increase in paleoproductivity. The uppermost sediments of

  5. Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in south-eastern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saljnikov, E.; Mrvic, V.; Cakmak, D.; Nikoloski, M.; Perovic, V.; Kostic, L.; Brebanovic, B.

    2009-04-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals is one of the most powerful factors destroying biosphere components that directly affecting agricultural production quality and therefore health of human and animals. Regional soil contamination by heavy metals occurs mainly in industrial areas and in big cities. However, pollutants can be air-and/or water-transferred to big distances and may accumulated far from industrial zone what makes difficult to distinguish original background concentrations of heavy metals in soil. Our study covers south-eastern part of Serbia and is a part of a big project studying soil fertility and heavy metal contamination all around Serbia. Diverse natural characteristics and heterogeneity of soil cover, as well as, human activity greatly influenced soil fertility parameters, while, diverse geological substrate and human activity determined the level of potential geochemical pollution. There are number of industrial factories functioning from the last century on the studied area. Also, close to studied area, there was a mining in the middle of the last century. About 600 soil samples from surface 0-30 cm were investigated for main soil fertility characteristics (pH, humus, available K and P) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb). Soils graded as very acidic cover 46% of the area, which are mainly mountains with acidic parent materials. Content of humus in 41% of soil samples were below 3%. The most of the soils (71%) are weakly supplied available phosphorus. While available potassium in more than 70% is presented in the concentrations enough for good soil quality. So, about 75% of studied area is characterized with unfavorable soil fertility properties (extremly low soil pH, very low content of available P, about half of the area maintained low soil humus) that is located under forests, meadows and pastures. Content of heavy metals on studied area in 80% of sampled soils was below maximum allowed concentrations

  6. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  7. Distribution of uranium, thorium and some stable trace and toxic elements in human hair and nails in Niška Banja Town, a high natural background radiation area of Serbia (Balkan Region, South-East Europe).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Žunić, Z S; Kritsananuwat, R; Zagrodzki, P; Bossew, P; Veselinovic, N; Mishra, S; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-07-01

    Human hair and nails can be considered as bio-indicators of the public exposure to certain natural radionuclides and other toxic metals over a long period of months or even years. The level of elements in hair and nails usually reflect their levels in other tissues of body. Niška Banja, a spa town located in southern Serbia, with locally high natural background radiation was selected for the study. To assess public exposure to the trace elements, hair and nail samples were collected and analyzed. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and some trace and toxic elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, and Cs) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). U and Th concentrations in hair varied from 0.0002 to 0.0771 μg/g and from 0.0002 to 0.0276 μg/g, respectively. The concentrations in nails varied from 0.0025 to 0.0447 μg/g and from 0.0023 to 0.0564 μg/g for U and Th, respectively. We found significant correlations between some elements in hair and nails. Also indications of spatial clustering of high values could be found. However, this phenomenon as well as the large variations in concentrations of heavy metals in hair and nail could not be explained. As hypotheses, we propose possible exposure pathways which may explain the findings, but the current data does not allow testing them. PMID:25875006

  8. Radioactivity levels and heavy metals in the urban soil of Central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milenkovic, B; Stajic, J M; Gulan, Lj; Zeremski, T; Nikezic, D

    2015-11-01

    Radioactivity concentrations and heavy metal content were measured in soil samples collected from the area of Kragujevac, one of the largest cities in Serbia. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in 30 samples were measured by gamma spectrometry using an HPGe semiconductor detector. The average values ± standard deviations were 33.5 ± 8.2, 50.3 ± 10.6, 425.8 ± 75.7 and 40.2 ± 26.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (137)Cs have shown normal distribution. The annual effective doses, radium equivalent activities, external hazard indexes and excess lifetime cancer risk were also estimated. A RAD7 device was used for measuring radon exhalation rates from several samples with highest content of (226)Ra. The concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured, as well as their EDTA extractable concentrations. Wide ranges of values were obtained, especially for Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The absence of normal distribution indicates anthropogenic origin of Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn. Correlations between radionuclide activities, heavy metal contents and physicochemical properties of analysed soil were determined by Spearman correlation coefficient. Strong positive correlation between (226)Ra and (232)Th was found. PMID:26087932

  9. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in crops and related products from Vojvodina, Serbia: estimated dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Skrbić, B; Predojević, Z

    2008-05-01

    Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 39 composite samples of agricultural crops, related by-products, and foodstuffs collected in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2002 through 2004. After extraction and cleanup, OCPs were determined by capillary gas chromatography using electron-capture detection. The highest mean level of 0.971 ng/g whole weight (ww) was found for alpha-HCH in wheat flour samples. OCPs levels were well lower than the respective maximum residue limits set by current European and Serbian regulations. Mean OCP levels were low (<1 ng/g ww) for all sample types. The most frequently determined residue was 4,4'-DDT (identified in 76.9% of all samples analyzed), followed by gamma-HCH (66.7%), beta-HCH (48.7%), and endosulfan II (41.0%). OCP levels were compared with data from other international surveys. Calculated daily intakes of OCPs by way of consumption of the crop products included in this study according to data of the Serbian National Institute for Statistics were compared with the acceptable daily intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The average level of contamination of the Vojvodina diet was believed to be harmless regarding the studied food commodities. PMID:18197356

  10. High prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs from Belgrade, Serbia--short communication.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Aleksandra; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobrć, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2008-09-01

    To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in military working (100%) and stray dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p < 0.05) among the subgroups (100%, 62.7% and 46.2% for military working dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission. PMID:18828485

  11. Toxicity of mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid, and difenoconazole to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Stević, Milan; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Field isolates of Didymella applanata, the causal agent of spur blight of raspberry, were evaluated in vitro for their sensitivity to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid and difenoconazole. A total of 10 isolates, collected during 2013 at five localities in the major raspberry growing region in Serbia, and characterized as copper hydroxide, dithianon, and tebuconazole (sensitive), pyraclostrobin (sensitive or highly resistant) and fluazinam (sensitive or moderately resistant), were used in this study. The EC50 values for the isolates ranged from 1.33 to 2.88 mg L(-1) for mancozeb, from 3.18 to 6.65 mg L(-1) for chlorothalonil, from 15.75 to 24.69 mg L(-1) for captan and from 1.80 to 8.20 mg L(-1) for fluopyram. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for difenoconazole (0.23-0.49 mg L(-1)), whereas the widest range was obtained for boscalid (4.49-49.25 mg L(-1)). The calculated resistance factors showed that all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, and difenoconazole. Four isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, while three of them were also moderately resistant to fluopyram. This finding of moderately resistant isolates to these SDHI fungicides indicates a possible cross-resistance which should be clarified in further investigations. PMID:26252498

  12. Simulation Of Mine Water Inflow: Case Study Of The Štavalj Coal Mine (Southwestern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladinović, Branko; Vakanjac, Vesna Ristić; Bukumirović, Dragomir; Dragišić, Veselin; Vakanjac, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The inflow of mine water to mining operations is often caused by random events such as precipitation. Consequently, the mine water inflow regime can be defined as a function of random events applying the theory of random processes. Regression models of the multiple linear correlation type have been used to simulate the inflow of mine water into mining operations, produce short-range predictions and facilitate rapid response inside the mine. The significance of such models lies in the ability to simulate and predict the consequences (mine water inflow), caused by events of a random nature (meteorological parameters: precipitation and air temperature). The presented prognostic models have been calibrated for mine water inflow to the Štavalj Coal Mine in southwestern Serbia. Mathematical dependencies were defined based on daily mine water inflow rates recorded during the period from 2003 to 2011, which can be used to generate short-range (1-7 day) predictions of mean daily mine water inflow rates to the Štavalj Coal Mine. A strong correlation (coefficient of correlation r = 0.93, Sig. = 0.00) was derived for the one-day forecast. The coefficients of correlation for predictions of mean daily mine water inflow rates related to time periods of two, three...seven days gradually declined to 0.63 (7-day mean daily inflow rate).

  13. First report of Polycystic kidney disease occurrence in Persian cats in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vucicevic, Milos; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Davitkov, Darko; Avdalovic, Vladimir; Aleksic-Kovacevic, Sanja; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-03-31

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal disorder in cats, mostly diagnosed in Persian cats. Renal cysts can be diagnosed by ultrasound, but cats must be at least 16 weeks old. The goals of this study were to assess the occurrence of PKD in Serbia using a randomly selected group of Persian cats, to compare the diagnostic e cacy of ultrasound and genetic tests, and to measure haematological and selected biochemical parameters. We examined 70 cats of Persian breed, between 4 months and 8 years of age. Complete blood count and selected biochemical parameters were measured, renal ultrasound was performed. Swabs of the oral cavity were obtained for genetic testing. Percentage of PKD positive cats identi ed by genetic testing was 48.6%, whilst only 18.6% were detected through ultrasound. Animals that were polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) positive and ultrasound negative ranged from 4 months to 3.5 years. All haematological and biochemical parameters were within the the normal range values in all examined cats. Genetic methods proved to be the most e ective for reliable and early diagnosis of PKD in Persian cats. DNA analysis can be used right after birth, and excludes the need for other diagnostic procedures, such as ultrasound. PMID:27033530

  14. Metal accumulation capacity of parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) from Rasina region (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Violeta; Trifković, Jelena; Mutić, Jelena; Tešić, Živoslav

    2016-07-01

    During many years of industrial development, soil system was contaminated with large amounts of toxic metals. In order to investigate the mobility and availability of metals from soil to mushrooms, the content of 13 elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, and Zn), in caps and stipes of wild-grown edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera and soil substrates, collected from five sites in Rasina region in central Serbia, was determined. Soil samples were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference in order to fractionate acid-soluble/exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions. Metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and the results subjected to multivariate data analysis. A principal component analysis distinguished mushrooms samples from different geographical areas and revealed the influence of soil composition on metal content in mushrooms. Hierarchical cluster analyses confirmed that the first three phases of extraction were the most important for metal uptake by mushrooms from soil. The bioconcentration factors and translocation factors for each metal were also calculated. These results showed that M. procera could serve as a good dietary source of essential elements, especially Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe but the consumption of mushrooms may pose a health risk for consumers during the "season of mushrooms," due to the presence of cadmium. PMID:27023804

  15. Edaphic factors affecting the vertical distribution of radionuclides in the different soil types of Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Dragović, Snežana; Gajić, Boško; Dragović, Ranko; Janković-Mandić, Ljiljana; Slavković-Beškoski, Latinka; Mihailović, Nevena; Momčilović, Milan; Ćujić, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    The specific activities of natural radionuclides ((40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th) and Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs were measured in soil profiles representing typical soil types of Belgrade (Serbia): chernozems, fluvisols, humic gleysols, eutric cambisols, vertisols and gleyic fluvisols. The influence of soil properties and content of stable elements on radionuclide distribution down the soil profiles (at 5 cm intervals up to 50 cm depth) was analysed. Correlation analysis identified associations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (137)Cs with fine-grained soil fractions. Significant positive correlations were found between (137)Cs specific activity and both organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and specific electrical conductivity were also positively correlated with the specific activity of (137)Cs. The strong positive correlations between (226)Ra and (232)Th specific activities and Fe and Mn indicate an association with oxides of these elements in soil. The correlations observed between (40)K and Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn and also between (137)Cs and Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn could be attributed to their common affinity for clay minerals. These results provide insight into the main factors that affect radionuclide migration in the soil, which contributes to knowledge about radionuclide behaviour in the environment and factors governing their mobility within terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:22072061

  16. Reconstruction of the erythemal UV radiation data in Novi Sad (Serbia) using the NEOPLANTA parametric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovic-Milicevic, S.; Mihailovic, D. T.; Radovanovic, M. M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the development and application of a technique for filling the daily erythemal UV dose data gaps and the reconstruction of the past daily erythemal UV doses in Novi Sad, Serbia. The technique implies developing the empirical equation for estimation of daily erythemal UV doses by means of relative daily sunshine duration under all sky conditions. A good agreement was found between modeled and measured values of erythemal UV doses. This technique was used for filling the short gaps in the erythemal UV dose measurement series (2003-2009) as well as for the reconstruction of the past time-series values (1981-2002). Statistically significant positive erythemal UV dose trend of 6.9 J m-2 per year was found during the period 1981-2009. In relation to the reference period 1981-1989, an increase in the erythemal UV dose of 6.92 % is visible in the period 1990-1999 and the increase of 9.67 % can be seen in the period 2000-2009. The strongest increase in erythemal UV doses has been found for winter and spring seasons.

  17. Complexity analysis of the air temperature and the precipitation time series in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimić, G.; Mihailović, D. T.; Kapor, D.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the time series of daily values for three meteorological elements, two continuous and a discontinuous one, i.e., the maximum and minimum air temperature and the precipitation. The analysis was done based on the observations from seven stations in Serbia from the period 1951-2010. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the complexity of the annual values for the mentioned time series and to calculate the rate of its change. For that purpose, we have used the sample entropy and the Kolmogorov complexity as the measures which can indicate the variability and irregularity of a given time series. Results obtained show that the maximum temperature has increasing trends in the given period which points out a warming, ranged in the interval 1-2 °C. The increasing temperature indicates the higher internal energy of the atmosphere, changing the weather patterns, manifested in the time series. The Kolmogorov complexity of the maximum temperature time series has statistically significant increasing trends, while the sample entropy has increasing but statistically insignificant trend. The trends of complexity measures for the minimum temperature depend on the location. Both complexity measures for the precipitation time series have decreasing trends.

  18. Quantification and assessment of heat and cold waves in Novi Sad, Northern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basarin, Biljana; Lukić, Tin; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been applied to the analysis of heat and cold waves and human thermal conditions in Novi Sad, Serbia. A series of daily minimum and maximum air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and cloud cover was used to calculate PET for the investigated period 1949-2012. The heat and cold wave analysis was carried out on days with PET values exceeding defined thresholds. Additionally, the acclimatization approach was introduced to evaluate human adaptation to interannual thermal perception. Trend analysis has revealed the presence of increasing trend in summer PET anomalies, number of days above defined threshold, number of heat waves, and average duration of heat waves per year since 1981. Moreover, winter PET anomaly as well as the number of days below certain threshold and number of cold waves per year until 1980 was decreasing, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The highest number of heat waves during summer was registered in the last two decades, but also in the first decade of the investigated period. On the other hand, the number of cold waves during six decades is quite similar and the differences are very small.

  19. Evaluation of the stability indices for the thunderstorm forecasting in the region of Belgrade, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujović, D.; Paskota, M.; Todorović, N.; Vučković, V.

    2015-07-01

    The pre-convective atmosphere over Serbia during the ten-year period (2001-2010) was investigated using the radiosonde data from one meteorological station and the thunderstorm observations from thirteen SYNOP meteorological stations. In order to verify their ability to forecast a thunderstorm, several stability indices were examined. Rank sum scores (RSSs) were used to segregate indices and parameters which can differentiate between a thunderstorm and no-thunderstorm event. The following indices had the best RSS values: Lifted index (LI), K index (KI), Showalter index (SI), Boyden index (BI), Total totals (TT), dew-point temperature and mixing ratio. The threshold value test was used in order to determine the appropriate threshold values for these variables. The threshold with the best skill scores was chosen as the optimal. The thresholds were validated in two ways: through the control data set, and comparing the calculated indices thresholds with the values of indices for a randomly chosen day with an observed thunderstorm. The index with the highest skill for thunderstorm forecasting was LI, and then SI, KI and TT. The BI had the poorest skill scores.

  20. Sequence polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA control region in the population of Vojvodina Province, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zgonjanin, Dragana; Veselinović, Igor; Kubat, Milovan; Furac, Ivana; Antov, Mirjana; Loncar, Eva; Tasić, Milos; Vuković, Radenko; Omorjan, Radovan

    2010-03-01

    In order to generate and establish the database for forensic identification purposes in Vojvodina Province (Serbia), the sequence of the hypervariable regions 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) of the mtDNA control region were determined in a population of 104 unrelated individuals from Vojvodina Province, using a fluorescent-based capillary electrophoresis sequencing method. A total of 93 different haplotypes were found, of these 83 mtDNA types were unique, nine haplotypes were shared by two individuals and one haplotype by three individuals. The variation of mtDNA HV1 and HV2 regions was confined to 116 nucleotide positions, of which 72 were observed in the HV1 and 44 in the HV2. A statistical estimate of the results for this population showed the genetic diversity of 0.9977 and the random match probability of 1.18%. Haplogroup H was the most common haplogroup (43.3%). Haplogroups observed at intermediate levels included clusters U (13.5%), T (10.6%), J (8.6%) and W (5.8%). PMID:19962932

  1. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff involved in PET/CT practice in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Todorovic, N; Lucic, S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine (NM) staff in the two positron emission tomography-computed tomography centres in Serbia and to investigate the possibilities for dose reduction. Dose levels in terms of Hp(10) for whole body and Hp(0.07) for hands of NM staff were assessed using thermoluminescence and electronic personal dosemeters. The assessed doses per procedure in terms of Hp(10) were 4.2-7 and 5-6 μSv, in two centres, respectively, whereas the extremity doses in terms of Hp(0.07) in one of the centres was 34-126 μSv procedure(-1). The whole-body doses per unit activity were 17-19 and 21-26 μSv GBq(-1) in two centres, respectively, and the normalised finger dose in one centre was 170-680 μSv GBq(-1). The maximal estimated annual whole-body doses in two centres were 3.4 and 2.0 mSv, while the corresponding extremity dose in the later one was 45 mSv. Improvements as introduction of automatic dispensing system and injection and optimisation of working practice resulted in dose reduction ranging from 12 up to 67 %. PMID:24464817

  2. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Penezić, Aleksandra; Selaković, Sanja; Pavlović, Ivan; Ćirović, Duško

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168

  3. Trichinella infections in different host species of an endemic district of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Cvetkovic, J; Pozio, E; Interisano, M; Plavsic, B; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella infections are endemic in the Balkan region of Europe. Though trichinellosis and agents thereof are serious problems for human health and animal husbandry, only a limited number of Trichinella isolates from Serbia have been identified at the species level so far. The aim of the present study was the surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella in domestic pigs and wild animals from the endemic district of Branicevo. Investigations performed during the 2009-2010 period revealed Trichinella infections in 344 out of 282,960 (0.12%) domestic pigs. Among wildlife, Trichinella infections were detected in 11 out of 94 (11.7%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), 7 out of 57 (12.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 7 out of 13 (53.8%) golden jackals (Canis aureus), and in all three examined wolves (Canis lupus). Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi were the only two species identified. T. britovi was identified in 31% of isolates from wildlife of the Branicevo district and T. spiralis was found in 53% of wild animals; mixed infections were observed in 16% of the animals examined. Findings form the basis of an information campaign for veterinary services, pig owners and the hunter's associations about the risk of the transmission of these zoonotic agents. The application of control programs as established at the Veterinary Specialist Institute of Pozarevac resulted in a decline in Trichinella infections among domestic pigs and the absence of human trichinellosis in the last three years in the Branicevo district. PMID:23453823

  4. Assessment of vessel-generated waste quantities on the inland waterways of the Republic of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Presburger Ulnikovic, Vladanka; Vukic, Marija; Nikolic, Radosav

    2012-04-30

    To establish the quantity and structure of waste generated during inland vessel exploitation, it is necessary to determine the amount of traffic on the waterways, the number of vessel dockings that generate and deliver waste materials to ports, and the types of inland navigation vessels. Criteria must also be established for the calculation of estimated average waste quantities. This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of waste material quantities that was developed as part of the Technological Development Project TR 21037 of the Republic of Serbia. Required information on the amount of traffic, vessel types and numbers as well as the number of dockings was extracted from questionnaires and interviews with watermen and researchers. A set of criteria was defined in order to determine the number of passengers and crewmembers and to establish and classify quantities of vessel-generated waste (sanitary and fecal wastewater, bilge wastewater, waste oils, and solid waste). These data allowed for the Preliminary analysis of the national waterway traffic and transport infrastructure to be carried out. Results presented in this paper have triggered a number of recommendations for the construction of terminals and other facilities for the reception and management of waste streams, from the vessel where the waste is generated to the final destinations for waste processing and deposition. This is particularly applicable to countries who have not yet tackled the problem of vessel-generated waste. PMID:22325587

  5. Toxicity of copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Stević, Milan; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    A study of the in vitro sensitivity of 10 isolates of Didymella applanata to copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin, was conducted. The isolates were derived from diseased raspberry canes sampled during 2013 at five localities in western part of Serbia, known as the main raspberry growing region of the country. Prior to sensitivity testing experimental conditions for radial growth assay were optimized. The results showed that the temperature of 22 °C, oatmeal agar medium and 12/12 hrs light/ darkness light regimen provided the best conditions for sensitivity tests. Most of D. applanata isolates were sensitive to the tested fungicides. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for tebuconazole (1.42-2.66 mg L(-1)). The widest range of EC50 values was obtained for pyraclostrobin, ranging from 0.17 mg L(-1) to 55.33 mg L(-1). The EC50 values for the studied isolates were 39.48-51.19 mg L(-1) for copper hydroxide, 12.12-18.73 mg L(-1) for dithianon and 5.72-42.56 mg L(-1) for fluazinam. According to resistance factor values, all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to copper hydroxide, dithianon and tebuconazole. Among tested isolates, six were highly resistant to pyraclostrobin (RFs in the range of 207.1-325.5) and two moderately resistant to fluazinam (RFs were 3 and 7.4), respectively. PMID:25602150

  6. Natural radionuclide uptake by mosses in eastern Serbia in 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Čučulović, Ana Č; Sabovljević, Marko; Čučulović, Rodoljub Č; Veselinović, Dragan

    2016-03-01

    The results of the study on natural radionuclide content in 102 samples of the moss species randomly collected in 2008- 2013 at 30 locations of eastern Serbia are presented in the paper. The activity concentration values of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 7Be determined by gamma spectrometry were within the intervals: 238U (1.1-50) Bq kg(-1), 226Ra (1.1-41) Bq kg(-1), 232Th (1.4-28) Bq kg(-1), 40K (64-484) Bq kg(-1) and 7Be (88-227) Bq kg(-1), not standing out of the average data reported for this region. The distribution of the obtained data for 226Ra, 232Th, and 238U activity concentration in the analysed mosses has shown values up to 10 Bq kg(-1) with frequencies 47.1 %, 54.9 % and 48.0 %, respectively. The obtained activity concentration values of primordial 40K and cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be were up to 500 Bq kg(-1) and about 90 % of all the results for 7Be uptake by mosses were in the 200-250 Bq kg(-1) concentration range. PMID:27092637

  7. Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment of Kopaonik mountain, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Branislava; Ajtić, Jelena; Lazić, Marko; Andrić, Velibor; Krstić, Nikola; Vranješ, Borjana; Vićentijević, Mihajlo

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the state of the environment in Kopaonik, a mountain in Serbia, the activity concentrations of (4) K, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (137)Cs in five different types of environmental samples are determined by gamma ray spectrometry, and radiological hazard due to terrestrial radionuclides is calculated. The mean activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in the soil are higher than the global average. However, with an exception of two sampling locations, the external radiation hazard index is below one, implying an insignificant radiation hazard. Apart from (40)K, content of the natural radionuclides is predominantly below minimum detectable activities in grass and cow milk, but not in mosses. Although (137)Cs is present in the soil, grass, mosses and herbal plants, its specific activity in cow milk is below minimum detectable activity. Amongst the investigated herbal plants, Vaccinium myrtillus L. shows accumulating properties, as a high content of (137)Cs is detected therein. Therefore, moderation is advised in consuming Vaccinium myrtillus L. tea. PMID:27213569

  8. An Upper Pleistocene to Holocene limnic record from the Carpathian Basin near Vrsac (Vojvodina, Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Fisher, Peter; Obreht, Igor; Schulte, Philipp; Bösken, Janina; Wennrich, Voelker; Schäbitz, Frank; Klasen, Nicole; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Veres, Daniel; Markovic, Slobodan; Vött, Andreas; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Upper Pleistocene geoarchives in the Pannonian Basin are predominantly composed of loess-paleosol sequences accompanied by only few fluvial archives dating to this time frame. In 2015 a 10 m sediment core was recovered within an extensive loess area by means of vibracoring, with the recovered sedimentary succession mainly composed of limnic sediments. Coring was conducted within a depression northwest of Vrsac and east of the Banat Sands in the eastern Carpathian Basin (North-Eastern Serbia) in a region still lacking in paleoenvironmental records but which must have played a crucial role in the spread of modern human into Europe along the main rivers valley tributary to the Danube. Radiocarbon dating places the upper half of the core within the last ca. 20 ka, whereas luminescence dating is on going. Sedimentological analyses give evidence of phases of eolian sediment input within a predominantly limnic depositional environment. Aeolian sediment input has been altered, and early diagenesis is expected to have superimposed the eolian sediment. In addition, levels of carbonate precipitation can be observed in the core, some intervals being very rich in clay and decalcified; both show strong alteration of original sediment. No indications for fluvial input are apparent, suggesting a continuous sedimentation during the Upper Pleistocene and into the Holocene. Here preliminary results are presented including core images and description, XRF scans, grain-size data and an age model in progress. Based on these findings a detailed interpretation on the sedimentary system and (paleo)environmental processes involved are given.

  9. 'Pearl' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  10. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  11. Trouble at Texas Southern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…

  12. Southern (In)hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the project…

  13. Southern Sclerotium blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotium rolfsii attacks a wide range of plants throughout the world. It is most severe in tropical and subtropical areas. Southern Sclerotium blight is of major concern in the eastern, southeastern, and southwestern United States and in Mexico. Although severe losses are reported annually in pe...

  14. Biogeographic study of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia based on mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Stevanovic, J; Stanimirovic, Z; Radakovic, M; Kovacevic, S R

    2010-05-01

    In this work, Apis mellifera carnica and A. m. macedonica honey bees from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia were analysed using molecular techniques in order to improve our knowledge about biogeography of A. mellifera on the Balkan peninsula. This is the first time that the indigenous honey bees from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia have been analyzed using a molecular approach. Sampling was carried out from 560 stationary apiaries where bees were kept in traditional hives (woven skeps). The COI-COII regions of 1680 samples were PCR-amplified and sequenced. To reveal the haplotype of studied bees, the obtained sequences were aligned with published sequence data of haplotypes that belong to A. mellifera C phylogenetic lineage. The C2D mtDNA haplotype was found in all honey bees sampled from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia. These results show that A. m. carnica and A. m. macedonica share the same C2D mtDNA haplotype. COI gene segments of 1680 samples were PCR-amplified and digested with restriction enzymes NcoI and StyI in order to discriminate A. m. macedonica from A. m. carnica. Amplified fragment patterns produced by both restriction enzymes matched with diagnostic pattern characteristic for A. m. macedonica in case of samples from east, south and south-west parts of Serbia, and Republic of Macedonia, fragments of samples from northern part of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina did not include NcoI and StyI restriction sites. These results indicate that honey bees from east, south and south-west parts of Serbia, and Republic of Macedonia belong to the A. m. macedonica, and honey bees from northern part of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina belong to another subspecies, probably to the A. m. carnica. Therefore A. m. macedonica has much wider area of distribution than it was previously considered. PMID:20583605

  15. The Oratory of Southern Demagogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M., Ed.; Dorgan, Howard, Ed.

    This book examines the rhetorical strategies of influential southern United States politicians, termed "southern demagogues," and their particular appeal to the poor working class whites of the South during the early twentieth century. Following an introductory chapter that discusses the origins of the southern demagogue, the remaining chapters…

  16. Socioeconomic inequalities, health damaging behavior, and self-perceived health in Serbia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Janko; Janević, Teresa; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Aim To analyze the association of socioeconomic factors with self-perceived health in Serbia and examine whether this association can be partly explained by health behavior variables. Methods We used data from the 2007 Living Standards Measurement Study for Serbia. A representative sample of 13 831 persons aged ≥20 years was interviewed. The associations between demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, and type of settlement), socioeconomic factors (education, employment status, and household consumption tertiles), and health behavior variables (smoking, alcohol consumption) and self-perceived health were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results A stepwise gradient was found between education and self-perceived health for the total sample, men, and women. Compared to people with high education, people with low education had a 4.5 times higher chance of assessing their health as poor. Unemployed (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-2.10), inactive (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.49-3.19), and the most deprived respondents (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34) were more likely to report poor self-perceived health than employed persons and the most affluent group. After adjustment for demographic and health behavior variables, the magnitudes of all associations decreased but remained clearly and significantly graded. Conclusions This study revealed inequalities in self-perceived health by socioeconomic position, in particular educational and employment status. The reduction of such inequalities through wisely tailored interventions that benefit people’s health should be a target of a national health policy in Serbia. PMID:22661139

  17. Epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis treatment in Serbia at the turn of the millennium.

    PubMed

    Djukanović, Ljubica; Aksić-Miličević, Biserka; Antić, Miodrag; Baković, Jovan; Varga, Željko; Gojaković, Biljana; Dimković, Nada; Đorđević, Verica; Đorđević, Vidojko; Đurić, Stevan; Đurić, Sunčica; Zec, Nenad; Jelačić, Rosa; Kovačević, Zoran; Lazarević, Tatjana; Ležaić, Višnja; Mandić, Milan; Marić, Ivko; Milenković, Srboljub; Milićević, Olivera; Mišković, Milena; Mitić, Igor; Nikolić, Zora; Pilipović, Draga; Plješa, Stevo; Radaković, Miroslava; Rakić, Nenad; Rangelov, Vanja; Stojanović, Radivoje; Stojanović-Stanojević, Marina; Tirmenštajn-Janković, Biserka; Haviža-Lilić, Branimir; Hadžibulić, Edvin; Hrvačević, Rajko; Cvetičanin, Anica

    2012-10-01

    The study presents the epidemiological features of patients treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Serbia from 1997 to 2009 and compares the results of hemodialysis treatment in 1999 and 2009. Epidemiological data were obtained from the National Registry of RRT patients and data on hemodialysis treatment from special surveys conducted in 1999 and 2009. Within the period 1997-2009 the incidence of patients on RRT increased from 108 to 179 per million population (pmp), prevalence rose from 435 to 699 pmp, while mortality rate fell from 20.7% to 16.7%. The frequency of patients with glomerulonephritis decreased, while that of patients with diabetes and hypertensive nephropathy increased. In late 2009 there were 5208 patients receiving RRT in Serbia. Within the examined period new hemodialysis and reverse osmosis equipment were purchased, high-flux dialyzers with synthetic membranes were increasingly used and the number of patients receiving hemodiafiltration increased to 17.6%. Kt/V greater than 1.2 was recorded in 16% of the patients in 1999 but 52% in 2009. Options for correction of anemia and mineral disorders have also improved. The percentage of patients with HbsAg (13.8% vs. 4.8%) as well as anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies positive patients (23.2% vs. 12.7%) was significantly lower in 2009 than in 1999. Both the incidence and prevalence of RRT patients in Serbia are rising continuously, while the mortality rate is falling. More favorable conditions for dialysis treatment have brought about significant improvement in the results over the last 10 years. PMID:22515550

  18. Palaeoenvironment and fluvial history of river Danube between the Neolithic settlement sites of Vinca and Starcevo, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penezic, Kristina; Kadereit, Annette; Thiemeyer, Heinrich

    2013-04-01

    The Neolithic site of Vinca - Belo brdo (ca. 5600 - 4200 BC) is located on the right bank of the Danube River, some 14 km downstream of the city of Belgrade in Serbia. The significance of the Vinca settlement is in its long occupational history, which produced more than 9 meters of settlement layers that provided archaeologists with an understanding of the chronological sequencing and development from the Middle to Late Neolithic in central Serbia. Vinca - Belo brdo was designated as the locus typicus for the Vinca Culture and is considered by many archaeologists as one of the most important sites of the European Neolithic. On the opposite, left side of the river Danube, the early Neolithic site of Starcevo is situated. It spans through the early Neolithic period dated to the seventh and the sixth millennium BC and it is the locus typicus for the Starcevo culture that on the territory of modern-day Serbia precedes the Vinca culture. The vicinity of the Danube influenced the development of these settlements and the relationship between them. Serving as a landmark, border, source of food, but also endangering the sites by a shifting stream course, the Danube is essential. Therefore it is important to define the position of the river during the occupational span of the Neolithic settlements and later. In our study, the early to mid-Holocene environmental changes of the fluvial landscape between the two Neolithic settlement sites are explored. We present preliminary results of recent geomorphological, sedimentological and archaeological investigations, as well as OSL dating, which were combined with relevant information from historical maps and satellite imagery in order to reconstruct the fluvial palaeolandscape.

  19. Mathematics and Astronomy in the Educational System of Serbia in the Second Half of the 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajkovska, V.

    2009-09-01

    In the second half of the 19th century solid fundaments of the educational system were formed in Serbia, in order to follow the contemporaneous development in Europe. Mathematics and astronomy found an important place in this educational system thanks to, above all, distinguished intellectuals who were pioneers in the improvement of education and science in these fields, such as Dimitrije Nešić, Dimitrije Danić, Bogdan Gavrilović and Mihailo Petrović in mathematics and Milan Nedeljković, Milan Andonović, Jovan Dragašević and Djordje Stanojević in astronomy.

  20. Latest research related to climate change analysis with applications in impact studies over the territory of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukovic, Ana; Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Djordjevic, Marija; Ruml, Mirjana; Rankovic-Vasic, Zorica; Przic, Zoran; Stojicic, Djurdja; Krzic, Aleksandra; Rajkovic, Borivoj

    2015-04-01

    Serbia is a country with relatively small scale terrain features with economy mostly based on local landowners' agricultural production. Climate change analysis must be downscaled accordingly, to recognize climatological features of the farmlands. Climate model simulations and impact studies significantly contribute to the future strategic planning in economic development and therefore impact analysis must be approached with high level of confidence. This paper includes research related to climate change and impacts in Serbia resulted from cooperative work of the modeling and user community. Dynamical downscaling of climate projections for the 21st century with multi-model approach and statistical bias correction are done in order to prepare model results for impact studies. Presented results are from simulations performed using regional EBU-POM model, which is forced with A1B and A2 SRES/IPCC (2007) with comparative analysis with other regional models and from the latest high resolution NMMB simulations forced with RCP8.5 IPCC scenario (2012). Application of bias correction of the model results is necessary when calculated indices are not linearly dependent on the model results and delta approach in presenting results with respect to present climate simulations is insufficient. This is most important during the summer over the north part of the country where model bias produce much higher temperatures and less precipitation, which is known as "summer drying problem" and is common in regional models' simulations over the Pannonian valley. Some of the results, which are already observed in present climate, like higher temperatures and disturbance in the precipitation pattern, lead to present and future advancement of the start of the vegetation period toward earlier dates, associated with an increased risk of the late spring frost, extended vegetation period, disturbed preparation for the rest period, increased duration and frequency of the draught periods, etc

  1. Eyeworm infections in dogs and in a human patient in Serbia: A One Health approach is needed.

    PubMed

    Tasić-Otašević, Suzana; Gabrielli, Simona; Trenkić-Božinović, Marija; Petrović, Aleksandar; Gajić, Bojan; Colella, Vito; Momčilović, Stefan; Cancrini, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm has been frequently reported parasitizing humans in Asia. In Europe, the parasite is endemic in wild and domestic carnivores and only eight cases have been reported in humans so far. We describe the first case of human thelaziosis in Serbia, along with two cases in dogs from the same area. A One Health approach, based on cooperation amongst veterinarians and physicians, is strongly advised for this emerging infection in order to assess the risk for and prevent of the zoonotic infection. PMID:27012916

  2. Smectite clays of Serbia and their application in adsorption of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, Maja; Logar, Mihovil

    2014-05-01

    Colorants and dyes are currently available in over a 100.000 different species and several biggest industries are using them daily in their manufacture processes (textile, cosmetics, food industry, etc.). Since colorants are easily dissoluble in water they pass through filter membranes without further decomposing and in that manner they end up in the environment. The main goal of this work is to apply certain methods in determining the suitability of individual clay in adsorbing and removing colorants from polluted waters. For this study we have chosen four different raw clays from three regions in Serbia: Svrljig (B), Bogovina (Bo) and Slatina-Ub (C and V) and as colorant - methylene blue dye (MB (MERCK, for analytical purposes)). Experiments where carried out to determine the sample structure (XRD and IR), grain size (granulometry), cationic exchange capacity (CEC via spectrophotometry using MB) and adsorption capabilities (spectrophotometry and fluorimetry using MB). XRD and IR data are showing that the samples are smectite clays where samples B i Bo are mainly montmorillonite while C and V are montmorillonite-illite clays. Granulometric distribution results indicate that samples B i Bo have smaller grain size, less that 1μ (over 60%) whereas the samples C and V are more coarse grained (40% over 20μ). This grain distribution is affecting their specific surface area in the manner that those coarse grained samples have smaller specific surface area. Cationic exchange capacity determined with methylene blue indicate that montmorillonite samples have larger CEC (B = 37 meq/100g, Bo = 50 meq/100g) and montmorillonite-illite samples smaller CEC (V = 5 meq/100g, V = 3 meq/100g). Fluorimetry measurement results gave us a clear distinction between those with higher and smaller adsorption capability. Montmorillonite samples (B and Bo) with higher CEC values and smaller grain size are adsorbing large amounts of methylene blue witch is visible by absence of fluorimetric

  3. Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Janković, Saša; Curčić, Marijana; Radičević, Tatjana; Stefanović, Srđan; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Durgo, Ksenija; Antonijević, Biljana

    2011-10-01

    This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001 and 2006. Obtained results would serve to analyse spatial, temporal and congener profile characteristics of ndl PCBs cumulated in fish tissues due to environmental pollution. Sixty-four samples of the following species were collected: wels (Silirus glanus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), pike pearch (Stizostedion lucioperca), barbel (Barbus barbus), tench (Tinca tinca), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector was used for analysis of ndl PCBs. Total ndl PCBs content in upstream samples ranged from 2.7 to 98.1 ng/g and from 4.9 to 68.3 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. During the 5 years, ndl PCBs content increased significantly in downstream samples i.e., ndl PCBs varied from 13.7 to 46.1 ng/g and from 14.4 to 107.2 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. PCBs 138 and 180 were predominant congeners in 2001, while in 2006 the most abundant PCB congeners were 138 and 153. In 2006, the presence of PCB 28 and PCB 52 has indicated a recent contamination event. Data on continual monitoring of PCBs in all relevant environmental compartments together with appropriate biomonitoring data are expected to give comprehensive insight into the fate and behaviour profile of these contaminants. PMID:21161586

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood.

    PubMed

    Klun, Ivana; Vujanić, Marija; Yera, Hélène; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Ivović, Vladimir; Bobić, Branko; Bradonjić, Siniša; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2011-01-01

    A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

  5. Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

  6. Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Vasić, Nebojša; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2014-05-01

    In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during

  7. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary indoor radon measurements in a high-radon area of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zunić, Z S; Yarmoshenko, I V; Kelleher, K; Paridaens, J; Mc Laughlin, J P; Celiković, I; Ujić, P; Onischenko, A D; Jovanović, S; Demajo, A; Birovljev, A; Bochicchio, F

    2007-11-15

    In Niska Banja, Serbia, which is a high-radon area, a comparison was made between two retrospective radon measuring methods and contemporary radon measurements. The two retrospective methods derive the radon concentrations that occurred in dwellings over longer periods in the past, based on the amount of trapped (210)Po on the surface of glass objects (surface traps, ST) or in the bulk of porous materials (volume traps, VT). Both surface implanted (210)Po in glass objects and contemporary radon in air were measured in 46 rooms, distributed in 32 houses of this radon spa-town, using a dual alpha track detector configuration (CR-39 and LR115) and CR-39 track etched detectors, respectively. In addition to the use of surface trap measurements, in 18 rooms (distributed in 15 houses) VT samples of suitable material were also collected, allowing to compare ST and VT retrospective radon concentration estimates. For each room, contemporary annual radon concentrations (CONT) were measured or estimated using seasonal correction factors. The distribution of the radon concentration in all data sets was found to be close to lognormal (Chi-square test>0.05). Geometric means (GM) are similar, ranging from 1040 to 1380 Bq m(-3), whereas geometric standard deviations (GSD) for both the retrospective methods are greater than for the CONT method, showing reasonable agreement between VT, ST and CONT measurements. A regression analysis, with respect to the lognormal distribution of each data set, shows that for VT-ST the correlation coefficient r is 0.85, for VT-CONT r is 0.82 and for ST-CONT r is 0.73. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary radon concentrations with regard to supposed long-term indoor radon changes further supports the principal agreement between the retrospective and conventional methods. PMID:17689589

  8. Exchange Transfusion for Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia: 17 Years' Experience from Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Bujandric, Nevenka; Grujic, Jasmina

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of the main risk factors for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, to determine the incidence of exchange transfusion (ET) in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (the northern part of Serbia) and to describe the experience with ET performed in premature and term infants during the past 17 years. We performed a retrospective data analysis of 398 newborn infants who underwent a double volume ET from 1997 to 2013. During the 17 year study period, a decreasing incidence of ET, expressed per thousand newborns, was observed. A total of 468 double volume ET were performed: 328 (82.4 %) infants had one treatment and 70 (17.6 %) had repeated treatments. A total of 262,830 mLs of blood were transfused, an average of 660 mLs per child. There were 221 male and 177 female infants, with a sex ratio 1.25:1. The frequencies of risk factors for developing hyperbilirubinemia were as follows: (1) 38 % RhD incompatibility; (2) 38 % ABO incompatibility (26 % group A infant of group O mother, 12 % group B infant of group O mother); (3) 7 % low birth weight/preterm birth; (4) 17 % other factors. Risk factors for neurotoxicity were identified in 56.3 % of infants. No deaths or complications were reported arising from the treatment. ABO and Rh incompatibilities were found to be the main risk factors for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Vojvodina. Exchange transfusion, used as therapy for severe hyperbilirubinemia, trended downwards over the period of this study. PMID:27065585

  9. Five primary sources of organic aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Belgrade (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Vecchiato, Marco; Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Đorđević, Dragana; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-11-15

    Biomass burning and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) represent important primary sources of organic compounds in the atmosphere. These particles and compounds are able to affect climate and human health. In the present work, using HPLC-orbitrapMS, we determined the atmospheric concentrations of molecular markers such as anhydrosugars and phenolic compounds that are specific for biomass burning, as well as the concentrations of sugars, alcohol sugars and d- and l-amino acids (D-AAs and L-AAs) for studying PBAPs in Belgrade (Serbia) aerosols collected in September-December 2008. In these samples, high levels of all these biomarkers were observed in October. Relative percentages of vanillic (V), syringic compounds (S) and p-coumaric acid (PA), as well as levoglucosan/mannosan (L/M) ratios, helped us discriminate between open fire events and wood combustion for domestic heating during the winter. L-AAs and D-AAs (1% of the total) were observed in Belgrade aerosols mainly in September-October. During open fire events, mean D-AA/L-AA (D/L) ratio values of aspartic acid, threonine, phenylalanine, alanine were significantly higher than mean D/L values of samples unaffected by open fire. High levels of AAs were observed for open biomass burning events. Thanks to four different statistical approaches, we demonstrated that Belgrade aerosols are affected by five sources: a natural source, a source related to fungi spores and degraded material and three other sources linked to biomass burning: biomass combustion in open fields, the combustion of grass and agricultural waste and the combustion of biomass in stoves and industrial plants. The approach employed in this work, involving the determination of specific organic tracers and statistical analysis, proved useful to discriminate among different types of biomass burning events. PMID:27450960

  10. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupić, Zeljko; Jaksić, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption. PMID:25265817

  11. Radionuclides in some edible and medicinal macrofungal species from Tara Mountain, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Rakić, Milana; Karaman, Maja; Forkapić, Sofija; Hansman, Jan; Kebert, Marko; Bikit, Kristina; Mrdja, Dušan

    2014-10-01

    Edible and medicinal macrofungi used in human diet represent not only important sources of nutritive elements but toxic substances as well (heavy metals and radionuclides). Radioactivity levels of four radionuclides ((40)K, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (228)Ra) were determined in the basidiomata (fruiting bodies of a Basidiomycetes) of six lignicolous (Fomitopsis pinicola, Ganoderma applanatum, Hericium clathroides, Megacollybia platyphylla, Pluteus cervinus, Trametes gibbosa) and three mycorrhizal (Boletus luridus, Boletus sp. 1, Boletus sp. 2) species as well as their soil (wood) substrates by gamma spectrometry (high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector). The aim was to investigate their ability for radionuclide absorption according to transfer factors (from soil and wood), to predict potential bioindicator species as well as species with potential risk for human use. Samples were taken during years 2011 and 2012, at two sites in forest ecosystem of Tara Mountain (Serbia). Observed concentration ranges per dry weight were as follows: 29-3,020 Bq/kg ((40)K), 21.9-735 Bq/kg ((137)Cs), 3-39 Bq/kg ((226)Ra), and 2.0-18 Bq/kg ((228)Ra). Obtained results indicate that the type of basidiome (fleshy/tough), most likely due to a different metabolic rate, has a very important role in radionuclide accumulation. The highest activity concentrations of all analyzed radionuclides were found in species with fleshy basidiomata--P. cervinus, H. clathroides, M. platyphylla, and Boletus species. A species-specific influence on radionuclide uptake was more prominent comparing to habitat differences and the role of fungal trophic mode. No significant variations were observed regarding radionuclide activity among the same fungal species from different sampling sites. PMID:24801292

  12. Genomic Southern blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes a detailed protocol for genomic Southern blot analysis which can be used to detect transgene or endogenous gene sequences in cereal genomes. The protocol follows a standard approach that has been shown to generate high-quality results: size fractionation of genomic DNA; capillary transfer to a nylon membrane; hybridization with a digoxigenin-labelled probe; and detection using a chemiluminescent-based system. High sensitivity and limited background are key to successful Southern blots. The critical steps in this protocol are complete digestion of the right quantity of DNA, careful handling of the membrane to avoid unnecessary background, and optimization of probe concentration and temperatures during the hybridization step. Detailed instructions on how to successfully master these techniques are provided. PMID:24243203

  13. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  14. Smoke in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences

  15. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia. PMID:27281225

  16. High Prevalence and Resistance Patterns of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in the Pomoravlje Region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lepsanovic, Zorica; Jeremic, Ljiljana Petrovic; Lazic, Srdjan; Cirkovic, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    With a view to estimating the prevalence and resistance patterns of CA-MRSA in one region of Serbia, we performed an analysis of MRSA isolates from healthy people and hospitalised patients. The detection of CA-MRSA was carried out by SCCmec typing. In MRSA isolates from hospitalised patients SCCmec types IV and V were found in 76% of the strains. Similar percentage (80%) of CA-MRSA genotypes was present in healthy people. SCCmec type V harbouring MRSA was the most successful clone. Higher prevalence of type V in hospitalised patients to that in healthy people (70% vs 54%) may indicate nosocomial transmissions in at least some hospital units. All MRSA strains from hospitalised patients were resistant to one or more non-β-lactam antibiotics while 52% were multi-resistant. In isolates from healthy people, 16% were sensitive to all non-β-lactam antibiotics and 40% were multi-resistant. Similar percentage of multi-resistant CA- and HA-genotypes occurred in a particular environment (53% vs 50% in hospitalised patients, and 37.5% vs 37.5% in healthy people) indicating selective pressure of antibiotics as a leading force conferring antibiotic resistance. High prevalence of CA-MRSA and high resistance rate both in hospitals and the community suggest that this pathogen has been present in the Pomoravlje Region, central Serbia for years. PMID:27020871

  17. Variant Alleles, Triallelic Patterns, and Point Mutations Observed in Nuclear Short Tandem Repeat Typing of Populations in Bosnia and Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Huel, René L. M.; Bašić, Lara; Madacki-Todorović, Kamelija; Smajlović, Lejla; Eminović, Izet; Berbić, Irfan; Miloš, Ana; Parsons, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present a compendium of off-ladder alleles and other genotyping irregularities relating to rare/unexpected population genetic variation, observed in a large short tandem repeat (STR) database from Bosnia and Serbia. Methods DNA was extracted from blood stain cards relating to reference samples from a population of 32 800 individuals from Bosnia and Serbia, and typed using Promega’s PowerPlex®16 STR kit. Results There were 31 distinct off-ladder alleles were observed in 10 of the 15 STR loci amplified from the PowerPlex®16 STR kit. Of these 31 alleles, 3 have not been previously reported. Furthermore, 16 instances of triallelic patterns were observed in 9 of the 15 loci. Primer binding site mismatches that affected amplification were observed in two loci, D5S818 and D8S1179. Conclusion Instances of deviations from manufacturer’s allelic ladders should be expected and caution taken to properly designate the correct alleles in large DNA databases. Particular care should be taken in kinship matching or paternity cases as incorrect designation of any of these deviations from allelic ladders could lead to false exclusions. PMID:17696304

  18. Analysis of solid waste from ships and modeling of its generation on the river Danube in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ulniković, Vladanka Presburger; Vukić, Marija; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2013-06-01

    This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and, particularly, in ports on the river Danube's flow through Serbia. The ports of Apatin, Bezdan, Backa Palanka, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Smederevo, Veliko Gradiste, Prahovo and Kladovo were analyzed. The input data (number of watercrafts, passengers and crew members) were obtained from harbor authorities for the period 2005-2009. The quantities of solid waste generated on both cruise and cargo ships are considered in this article. As there is no strategy for waste treatment in the ports in Serbia, these data are extremely valuable for further design of equipment for waste treatment and collection. Trends in data were analyzed and regression models were used to predict the waste quantities in each port in next 3 years. The obtained trends could be utilized as the basis for the calculation of the equipment capacities for waste selection, collection, storage and treatment. The results presented in this study establish the need for an organized management system for this type of waste, as well as suggest where the terminals for collection, storage and treatment of solid waste from ships should be located. PMID:23460543

  19. EFL Oral Communication Teaching Practices: A Close Look at University Teachers and A2 Students' Perspectives in Thailand and a Critical Eye from Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, David Allen; Sinwongsuwat, Kemtong; Radic-Bojanic, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to reexamine current EFL oral communication teaching practices from the perspectives of teachers and A2 students at two universities, namely Prince of Songkla University (PSU), Thailand and University of Novi Sad (UNS), Serbia. The main objectives were: (1) to analyze current practices from the perspectives of teachers and…

  20. A new species of Aculops (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) from Serbia on Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae), a weed target of classical biological control in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) in northern Serbia is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Aculops salixis Xue, Song and Hong. This is the first e...

  1. A new Metaculus species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Diplotaxis tenuifolia (Brassicaceae) from Serbia: a combined description using morphology and DNA barcode data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Metaculus diplotaxi n.sp. inhabiting Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC., has been described from Serbia. To investigate interspecific variability between Metaculus spp., on three different host plants of Brassicaceae we analyzed phenotypic variability of morphological t...

  2. Mathematics Curriculum Changes in Republic of Serbia for Grades 5-8 After the Break-Up of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlajic, Jovana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the mathematics curriculum for grades 5-8 in the Republic of Serbia after the break-up of SFRY. In particular, the research sought to identify the changes in the mathematics curriculum in terms of curriculum content and learning objectives, textbooks, and high school entrance examination…

  3. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  5. Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.

    1988-04-01

    The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.

  6. Indigenous Astronomy in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Thebe Rodney

    The cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples has been a subject of many studies spanning atleast over a century. Some of the studies were biased against the notion that Southern African could have any interest in studying the natural environment to benefit their societies. In this chapter, I summarize the current knowledge about cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples and highlight points of further research.

  7. How to protect loess-palaeosol sequences? - Proposal of Loess Geopark in Vojvodina Province (North Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiljević, Dj. A.; Marković, S. B.; Hose, T. A.; Lukić, T.; Basarin, B.; Vujičić, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    Loess-palaeosol sequences preserve the most important continental record of climatic and environmental changes during the Quaternary. As loess deposits in the Vojvodina region (North Serbia) could be regarded as one of the most important European terrestrial records of climatic and environmental changes during the last million years that makes them valuable scientific resource. Unfortunately, these sites, due to their economic (e.g. agriculture and brickyards) and functional (e.g. remote sections as waste disposals) values, are constantly endangered by numerous causes and could be degraded or exploited permanently. This study will give proposal of establishing loess geopark as protected area that would include the most significant loess sections in the investigated area. The study is based on analytical, theoretical and practical suggestions and rules according to the general Guidelines and Criteria for National Geoparks seeking UNESCO's assistance to join the Global Geoparks Network. Loess and loess like sediments cover more than 60 % of the area and are preserved in six separate loess plateaus: Bačka, Srem, Tamiš, Banat, south-east Banat, and Titel Loess Plateau, which make it a surface large enough to serve local economic and cultural development. As the dissemination of loess in Vojvodina has a dispersed character, the potential Geopark should also have a certain number of separate locations. A fragmented approach should require less effort during the geoconservation practice, with separate processes, but identical aim. Therefore, one the initial steps of protection and recognition of (loess) geosites should be first achieved by national or provincial legislation and/or by management policies before inscription on the World Heritage List of recognition as a Global Geopark because these organisations by themselves do not provide any protection. As unique protected area of this kind in Europe and wider, role model for this loess geopark could be China, the

  8. Evolution of collapse valleys in karst - examples from the Carpatho-Balkanides of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Aleksandar S.; Ćalić, Jelena; Spalević, Aleksandra; Pantić, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Development of valleys in karst is an issue which has not been sufficiently studied in karst surface morphology. THESE valleys are long linear forms whose orthogonal projections resemble normal valleys, but most of their characteristics are strongly influenced by karst process. In largest number of relevant references, this subject is either only briefly mentioned or completely lacking. This paper presents the examples of a particular type of valley in karst formed by cave ceiling collapse close to the topographical surface. Karst of the Carpatho-Balkanides in eastern Serbia is characterized by uneven spatial distribution in several large massifs, but also in a large number of relatively small outcrops (patches and belts), which enable the development of contact karst and fluviokarst. Many morphological elements are of fluvial origin, subsequently modified by karst process. Collapse valleys occur mostly at the downstream contacts (where a seasonal watercourse leaves limestones) or in karst/limestone belts. In the first phase, which is visible on the example of the Radovanska Reka, the river course sinks to the swallets in the riverbed and forms a blind valley. After sinking, the water flows through the tunnel cave, while largest part of the valley remains above the cave. The bottom of the dry valley is dissected by deep dolines, reaching almost to the cave roof. In this part of the study, the area was scanned by a multistation Leica Nova MS 50 (resolution 20 cm @ 10 m). In the second phase, the doline bottoms reach the cave ceilings which develop holes at certain points, as it is case at the Zamna River valley. These hollows tend to enlarge with time, and the surface of the cave ceiling is reduced. The third, final phase is characterised by collapse of larger segments of cave ceilings. Only the natural bridges remain, as the remnants of former caves (e.g. in the Vratna River valley, Ravna Reka valley). These parts of valleys in karst are usually narrow, steep

  9. Monthly analysis of indices based on daily minimum temperatures in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnikovic, Suzana; Tosic, Ivana; Unkasevic, Miroslava

    2015-04-01

    The following climate indices were analyzed: frost days (FD), cold nights (TN10p), warm nights (TN90p), minimum value of daily minimum temperature (TNn), and tropical nights (TR). Monthly analysis was performed for indices based on the daily minimum temperature at eight stations in Serbia during the period 1950-2009. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine whether the trends were statistically significant. It was found that the trends of FD and TN10p were negative for all the months except for November and December. The significant negative trend of TN10p during the period 1950-2009 was recorded in March, May, August, September and October. There was a positive trend of TN90p, TR for all months and TNn except for October, November and December. The significant positive trend of TN90p was observed in March, May, during the summer months and October, while for TR in July and August, i.e., in the two hottest months. The negative minimum temperature anomaly of about -5.7 °C in February 1956 was obtained for the negative values of the East Atlantic index (EAI) and North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAOI). The positive temperature anomaly of about 3.0 °C in November 2009 was recorded for the positive value of the EAI and small negative value of the NAOI. Hence, the negative/positive anomalies prevailed for the negative/positive values of the EAI. In order to investigate the impact of the low-frequency large-scale variability pattern on the minimum temperature, EAI was compared through a correlation analysis with the time series of the climate indices. It was found that the monthly coefficient of correlation between the EAI and climate indices was negative for FD and TN10p, and positive one for TN90p and TR. The highest monthly correlation was found for FD and TN90p in February and for TN10p and TR in August. Since the highest correlation in value of about 0.7 is obtained in February, it could be concluded that the EA can explain about 50% of the total

  10. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.