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Sample records for bos taurus animal

  1. Whole genome sequencing of a single Bos taurus animal for single nucleotide polymorphism discovery

    PubMed Central

    Eck, Sebastian H; Benet-Pagès, Anna; Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Meitinger, Thomas; Fries, Ruedi; Strom, Tim M

    2009-01-01

    Background The majority of the 2 million bovine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) currently available in dbSNP have been identified in a single breed, Hereford cattle, during the bovine genome project. In an attempt to evaluate the variance of a second breed, we have produced a whole genome sequence at low coverage of a single Fleckvieh bull. Results We generated 24 gigabases of sequence, mainly using 36-bp paired-end reads, resulting in an average 7.4-fold sequence depth. This coverage was sufficient to identify 2.44 million SNPs, 82% of which were previously unknown, and 115,000 small indels. A comparison with the genotypes of the same animal, generated on a 50 k oligonucleotide chip, revealed a detection rate of 74% and 30% for homozygous and heterozygous SNPs, respectively. The false positive rate, as determined by comparison with genotypes determined for 196 randomly selected SNPs, was approximately 1.1%. We further determined the allele frequencies of the 196 SNPs in 48 Fleckvieh and 48 Braunvieh bulls. 95% of the SNPs were polymorphic with an average minor allele frequency of 24.5% and with 83% of the SNPs having a minor allele frequency larger than 5%. Conclusions This work provides the first single cattle genome by next-generation sequencing. The chosen approach - low to medium coverage re-sequencing - added more than 2 million novel SNPs to the currently publicly available SNP resource, providing a valuable resource for the construction of high density oligonucleotide arrays in the context of genome-wide association studies. PMID:19660108

  2. BosFinder: a novel pre-microRNA gene prediction algorithm in Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, B; Ahmadi, H; Azimzadeh-Jamalkandi, S; Nassiri, M R; Masoudi-Nejad, A

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression transcriptionally (transcriptional activation or inactivation) and/or post-transcriptionally (translation inhibition or degradation of their target mRNAs). This phenomenon has significant roles in growth and developmental processes in plants and animals. Bos taurus is one of the most important livestock animals, having great importance in food and economical sciences and industries. However, limited information is available on Bos taurus constituent miRNAs because its whole genome assembly has been only recently published. Therefore, computational methods have been essential tools in miRNA gene prediction and discovery. Among these, machine-learning-based approaches are used to characterize genome scale pre-miRNAs from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In this study, a support vector machine model was used to classify 33 structural and thermodynamic features of pre-miRNA genes. Public bovine EST data were obtained from different tissues in various developmental stages. A new algorithm, called BosFinder, was developed to identify and annotate the whole genome's derived pre-miRNAs. We found 18 776 highly potential pre-miRNA sequences. This is the first genome survey report of Bos taurus based on a machine-learning method for pre-miRNA gene finding. The bosfinder program is freely available at http://lbb.ut.ac.ir/Download/LBBsoft/BosFinder/. PMID:24835488

  3. Diversity and evolution of 11 innate immune genes in Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus cattle

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Christopher M.; Seabury, Paul M.; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1) genes play key roles in the innate immune systems of mammals. While the TLRs recognize a variety of invading pathogens and induce innate immune responses, PGLYRP1 is directly microbicidal. We used custom allele-specific assays to genotype and validate 220 diallelic variants, including 54 nonsynonymous SNPs in 11 bovine innate immune genes (TLR1-TLR10, PGLYRP1) for 37 cattle breeds. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and we were unable to differentiate between the specialized B. t. taurus beef and dairy breeds, despite an average polymorphism density of one locus per 219 bp. Ninety-nine tagSNPs and one tag insertion-deletion polymorphism were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at all 11 innate immune loci in both subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 58 tagSNPs captured 100% of the variation at 172 loci in B. t. taurus. PolyPhen and SIFT analyses of nonsynonymous SNPs encoding amino acid replacements indicated that the majority of these substitutions were benign, but up to 31% were expected to potentially impact protein function. Several diversity-based tests provided support for strong purifying selection acting on TLR10 in B. t. taurus cattle. These results will broadly impact efforts related to bovine translational genomics. PMID:20018671

  4. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  5. Visual discrimination by heifers (Bos taurus) of their own species.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Marjorie; Deputte, Bertrand L; Heyman, Yvan; Delatouce, Laurent; Richard, Christophe; Baudoin, Claude

    2007-05-01

    Species discrimination has been described in several taxa but rarely in domestic animals. In contrast to wild species, domestic species present a great phenotypic variety. This study investigated whether 10 Prim'Holstein heifers (Bos taurus) could discriminate images of cows from images of other domestic animals. The experiment was based on simultaneous discrimination. Responses were obtained through instrumental conditioning using a food reward. In Experiment 1, the reward was associated with a cow face and, in the reversal learning task, with faces of other domestic species. The results showed that in both tasks, cows were able to reach the criterion in few sessions. Therefore, despite great phenotypic variety (a cognitive challenge) cows were able to visually discriminate their own species from other domestic species. PMID:17516798

  6. Massive screening of copy number population-scale variation in Bos taurus genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant source of genomic structural variation. Their length ranges from approximately one hundred to millions of base pair. Genome-wide screenings have clarified that CNVs are a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting essentially the whole genome. Although Bos taurus is one of the most important domestic animal species worldwide and one of the most studied ruminant models for metabolism, reproduction, and disease, relatively few studies have investigated CNVs in cattle and little is known about how CNVs contribute to normal phenotypic variation and to disease susceptibility in this species, compared to humans and other model organisms. Results Here we characterize and compare CNV profiles in 2654 animals from five dairy and beef Bos taurus breeds, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 genotyping array (54001 SNP probes). In this study we applied the two most commonly used algorithms for CNV discovery (QuantiSNP and PennCNV) and identified 4830 unique candidate CNVs belonging to 326 regions. These regions overlap with 5789 known genes, 76.7% of which are significantly co-localized with segmental duplications (SD). Conclusions This large scale screening significantly contributes to the enrichment of the Bos taurus CNV map, demonstrates the ubiquity, great diversity and complexity of this type of genomic variation and sets the basis for testing the influence of CNVs on Bos taurus complex functional and production traits. PMID:23442185

  7. Genetic variation in bison (bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B.b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos Taurus Taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos Taurus indicus). Genetic distances,...

  8. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B. b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Genetic distances...

  9. Cow/calf preweaning efficiency of Nellore and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if Bos taurus percentage had an effect on ME requirements and milk production, and to compare cow/calf efficiency among three production systems. Metabolizable energy requirements were estimated in a pregnancy and lactation feeding trial for 2 groups of...

  10. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The apparent effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on phenotype depends on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the SNP and a quantitative trait locus (QTL). However, the phase of LD between a SNP and a QTL may differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus because they diverged at least one hundred thousand years ago. Here, we test the hypothesis that the apparent effect of a SNP on a quantitative trait depends on whether the SNP allele is inherited from a Bos taurus or Bos indicus ancestor. Methods Phenotype data on one or more traits and SNP genotype data for 10 181 cattle from Bos taurus, Bos indicus and composite breeds were used. All animals had genotypes for 729 068 SNPs (real or imputed). Chromosome segments were classified as originating from B. indicus or B. taurus on the basis of the haplotype of SNP alleles they contained. Consequently, SNP alleles were classified according to their sub-species origin. Three models were used for the association study: (1) conventional GWAS (genome-wide association study), fitting a single SNP effect regardless of subspecies origin, (2) interaction GWAS, fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies-origin, and (3) best variable GWAS, fitting the most significant combination of SNP and sub-species origin. Results Fitting an interaction between SNP and subspecies origin resulted in more significant SNPs (i.e. more power) than a conventional GWAS. Thus, the effect of a SNP depends on the subspecies that the allele originates from. Also, most QTL segregated in only one subspecies, suggesting that many mutations that affect the traits studied occurred after divergence of the subspecies or the mutation became fixed or was lost in one of the subspecies. Conclusions The results imply that GWAS and genomic selection could gain power by distinguishing SNP alleles based on their subspecies origin, and that only few QTL segregate in both B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. Thus, the QTL that segregate in

  11. Cow/calf preweaning efficiency of Nellore and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses.

    PubMed

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if percentage Bos taurus (0 or 50%) of the cow had an effect on ME requirements and milk production, and to compare cow/calf efficiency among 3 mating systems. Metabolizable energy requirements were estimated during a feeding trial that encompassed a gestation and lactation feeding trial for each of 2 groups of cows. Cows were 0 or 50% Bos taurus (100 or 50% Nellore) breed type: Nellore cows (NL; n = 10) mated to Nellore bulls, NL cows (n = 9) mated to Angus bulls, Angus x Nellore (ANL; n = 10) and Simmental x Nellore (SNL; n = 10) cows mated to Canchim (5/8 Charolais 3/8 Zebu) bulls. Cows were individually fed a total mixed diet that contained 11.3% CP and 2.23 Mcal of ME/kg of DM. At 14-d intervals, cows and calves were weighed and the amount of DM was adjusted to keep shrunk BW and BCS of cows constant. Beginning at 38 d of age, corn silage was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was measured using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. At 190 d of age, calves were slaughtered and body composition estimated using 9-10-11th-rib section to obtain energy deposition. Regression of BW change on daily ME intake (MEI) was used to estimate MEI at zero BW change. Increase in percentage Bos taurus had a significant effect on daily ME requirements (Mcal/d) during pregnancy (P < 0.01) and lactation (P < 0.01). Percentage Bos taurus had a positive linear effect on maintenance requirements of pregnant (P = 0.07) and lactating (P < 0.01) cows; during pregnancy, the ME requirements were 91 and 86% of those in lactation (131 +/- 3.5 vs. 145 +/- 3.4 Mcal x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)) for the 0 and 50% B. taurus groups, respectively. The 50% B. taurus cows, ANL and SNL, suckling crossbred calves had greater total MEI (4,319 +/- 61 Mcal; P < 0.01) than 0% B. taurus cows suckling NL (3,484 +/- 86 Mcal) or ANL calves (3,600 +/- 91 Mcal). The 0% B. taurus cows suckling ANL calves were more efficient (45

  12. Impact of parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus origins on copy number variation in traditional Chinese cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution o...

  13. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    PubMed

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment. PMID:1938641

  14. Chemical composition of whole body and carcass of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Nardon, R F; Figueiredo, L A; Alleoni, G F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between the chemical composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section and the chemical composition of the carcass and empty body were evaluated for Bos indicus (108 Nellore and 36 Guzerah; GuS) and tropically adapted Bos taurus (56 Caracu; CaS) bulls, averaging 20 to 24 mo of age at slaughter. Nellore cattle were represented by 56 animals from the selected herd (NeS) and 52 animals from the control herd (NeC). The CaS and GuS bulls were from selected herds. Selected herds were based on 20 yr of selection for postweaning BW. Carcass composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, and analyzing soft tissue and bones. Similarly, empty body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Bulls were separated into 2 groups. Group 1 was composed of 36 NeS, 36 NeC, 36 CaS, and 36 GuS bulls and had water, ether extract (EE), protein, and ash chemically determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section and in the carcass. Group 2 was composed of 20 NeS, 16 NeC, and 20 CaS bulls and water, EE, protein, and ash were determined in the 9th- to 11th-rib section, carcass, and empty body. Linear regressions were developed between the carcass and the 9th- to 11th-rib section compositions for group 1 and between carcass and empty body compositions for group 2. The 9th- to 11th-rib section percentages of water (RWt) and EE (RF) predicted the percentages of carcass water (CWt) and carcass fat (CF) with high precision: CWt, % = 29.0806 + 0.4873 × RWt, % (r(2) = 0.813, SE = 1.06) and CF, % = 10.4037 + 0.5179 × RF, % (r(2) = 0.863, SE = 1.26), respectively. Linear regressions between percentage of CWt and CF and empty body water (EBWt) and empty body fat (EBF) were also predicted with high precision: EBWt, % = -9.6821 + 1.1626 × CWt, % (r(2) = 0.878, SE = 1.43) and EBF, % = 0.3739 + 1.0386 × CF, % (r(2) = 0.982, SE = 0.65), respectively. Chemical composition of the 9th- to 11

  15. Cryptosporidium ryanae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M

    2008-10-01

    A new species, Cryptosporidium ryanae, is described from cattle. Oocysts of C. ryanae, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and recorded as such in GenBank (AY587166, EU203216, DQ182597, AY741309, and DQ871345), are similar to those of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium bovis but smaller. This genotype has been reported to be prevalent in cattle worldwide. Oocysts obtained from a calf for the present study are the smallest Cryptosporidium oocysts reported in mammals, measuring 2.94-4.41micromx2.94-3.68microm (mean=3.16micromx3.73microm) with a length/width shape index of 1.18 (n=40). The pre-patent period for two Cryptosporidium-naïve calves fed C. ryanae oocysts was 11 days and the patent period was 15-17 days. Oocysts were not infectious for BALB/c mice or lambs. Fragments of the SSU-rDNA, HSP-70, and actin genes amplified by PCR were purified and PCR products were sequenced. Multi-locus analysis of the three unlinked loci demonstrated the new species to be distinct from all other species and also demonstrated a lack of recombination, providing further evidence of species status. Based on morphological, molecular and biological data, this geographically widespread parasite found only in Bos taurus calves is recognized as a new species and is named C. ryanae. PMID:18583057

  16. A male linkage map of the cattle (Bos taurus) genome.

    PubMed

    Ma, R Z; Beever, J E; Da, Y; Green, C A; Russ, I; Park, C; Heyen, D W; Everts, R E; Fisher, S R; Overton, K M; Teale, A J; Kemp, S J; Hines, H C; Guérin, G; Lewin, H A

    1996-01-01

    A male linkage map of the cattle (Bos taurus) genome was constructed using nine large half-sib families. The map consists of 269 loci, of which 249 are microsatellites and 20 are structural genes. Among the 249 microsatellites, 140 are markers selected from other maps and 98 are new assignments. Chromosome assignment were established for 35 new markers by somatic cell hybrid analysis, of which 26 were confirmed by linkage analysis. Genome coverage is 1975 cM contained within terminal markers on all 29 autosomes. The average distance between adjacent loci is 9.7 cM, with 72.1% of the map intervals < or = 15 cM and 4.9% of the intervals > or = 25 cM. The inclusion of mapped markers permitted integration and comparisons with other maps, facilitating the identification of discrepancies in chromosome assignment, gene order, and map distance. The inclusion of Type I and blood group markers in the map was useful for comparative mapping, revealing possible blood group orthologies between humans and cattle. The map generated will serve as a useful tool for comparative mapping, mapping of quantitative trait loci and marker assisted selection. PMID:8776874

  17. The polled locus maps to BTA1 in a Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, R A; Davis, S K; Sanders, J O; Burns, B M; Wheeler, T C; Turner, J W; Taylor, J F

    1996-01-01

    Two hundred and nine reciprocal backcross and F2 progeny produced by embryo transfer from Angus (Bos taurus) and Brahman (Bos indicus) parents and their 60 parents and grandparents were utilized to localize the locus (POLL) responsible for the polled phenotype in a genetic map of bovine chromosome 1. Progeny were scored for polled, scurred, and horned phenotypes at 1 year of age and again following skull disection at slaughter at 20 months of age. Phenotype frequencies were independent of gender. One hundred and forty-two informative meioses for POLL and 13 microsatellite loci with an average of 267 informative meioses per locus contributed to a genetic map spanning 124.6 cM with an average interval of 9.6 cM. POLL mapped proximal to the centromere and 4.9 cM from TGLA49 supporting a previous study that employed two anonymous microsatellites. Difficulties in discriminating between scurred and horned phenotypes indicate that bracketing markers will be essential for refining the model for inheritance of the horned, scurred, and polled phenotypes and for effective marker assisted selection (MAS) for polled. PMID:8830095

  18. Identical marker alleles in Podolic cattle (Bos taurus) and Indian zebu (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Pieragostini, E; Scaloni, A; Rullo, R; Di Luccia, A

    2000-09-01

    In the context of biochemical marker research and in order to add new information on native breeds, the present work focuses on a local Southern Italy cattle, namely Italian Podolic. We provide the complete structural characterisation of alpha-lactalbumins and beta-globin chains isolated from Podolic cattle (Bos taurus). Given the unavailability of the complete sequence for alpha-lactalbumin A of taurine cattle in the literature, we intended to check its structure in order to ascertain the absence of any possible silent mutation. Screening the Podolic cattle, we found a new beta-globin variant not detectable by conventional methods. The presence of such a new variant might be helpful in the study of the Podolic population genetic structure and for a better knowledge of the gene pool per se, and in comparison with the other breeds. Structural analyses showed that the new beta-globin Podolic variant exhibited the same sequence as beta-globin Azebu. The alpha-lactalbumin A was the same as that isolated from zebu cattle (Bos indicus). The results are discussed in relation to the possible involvement of the two markers in the debate on the origin of the Podolic breed. PMID:11126744

  19. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  20. Metabolic and endocrine differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus females that impact the interaction of nutrition with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Roberto; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Melo, Leonardo F; Baruselli, Pietro S; Bastos, Michele R

    2016-07-01

    During the last decade, researchers have studied the differences in the reproductive physiology between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. This manuscript focuses on the main aspects of ovarian function and circulating hormones of B. taurus and B. indicus cows and heifers. In general, there is no difference in the number of follicle waves during the estrous cycle, however B. indicus have greater antral follicle count, circulating insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) than B. taurus. Moreover, despite of B. taurus having larger ovulatory follicle diameter and maximum CL volume, they have lesser peak circulating estradiol concentrations and lesser circulating progesterone concentrations than B. indicus. We may speculate that there are two main factors related to lesser circulating concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in B. taurus when compared with B. indicus: increased liver metabolism of steroid hormones and lesser production by follicles and CL. Differences between the two genetic groups are also observed with respect to in vitro embryo production because in addition to B. indicus having greater numbers of retrieved oocytes, due to greater antral follicle count, they also have greater percentages of viable oocytes, number of blastocysts, and blastocyst rates when compared with B. taurus. Effects of dietary intake on embryo quality may differ between B. taurus and B. indicus due to different concentrations of circulating insulin and IGF1. For in vivo and in vitro embryo production, an increase in circulating insulin concentrations is negatively associated with oocyte/embryo quality and conception rates. However, this seems to be more pronounced in B. taurus breeds. Differences in ovarian function related or not to nutrition between these two genetic groups are very consistent and may be related to the influence of metabolic hormones such as insulin and IGF1. PMID:27156680

  1. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

    PubMed

    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    associated with tenderness in the GPE Cycle 7 population, also was highly associated with shear force in the GPE Cycle 8 animals (P < 0.001). Thus, Marker 316 may continue to be useful in a variety of populations with a high percentage of Bos taurus backgrounds. An optimal marker strategy for CAPN1 in many cases will be to use both Markers 316 and 4751. PMID:16100054

  2. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla

    PubMed Central

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  3. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Cristina; Povinelli, Michele; Granato, Alberto; Panin, Mattia; Corain, Livio; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla) indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes. PMID:27128674

  4. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. PMID:26486911

  5. A whole-genome assembly of the domestic cow, Bos taurus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The genome of the domestic cow, Bos taurus, was sequenced using a mixture of hierarchical and whole-genome shotgun sequencing methods. Results: We have assembled the 35 million sequence reads and applied a variety of assembly improvement techniques, creating an assembly of 2.86 billion b...

  6. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from cattle (Bos taurus) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based ...

  7. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  8. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resistance/susceptibility in a bovine F2 population derived from the Gyr (Bos indicus) × Holstein (Bos taurus) cross. Results Through a whole genome scan with microsatellite markers, we were able to map six genomic regions associated with bovine tick resistance. For most QTL, we have found that depending on the tick evaluation season (dry and rainy) different sets of genes could be involved in the resistance mechanism. We identified dry season specific QTL on BTA 2 and 10, rainy season specific QTL on BTA 5, 11 and 27. We also found a highly significant genome wide QTL for both dry and rainy seasons in the central region of BTA 23. Conclusions The experimental F2 population derived from Gyr × Holstein cross successfully allowed the identification of six highly significant QTL associated with tick resistance in cattle. QTL located on BTA 23 might be related with the bovine histocompatibility complex. Further investigation of these QTL will help to isolate candidate genes involved with tick resistance in cattle. PMID:20433753

  9. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brunelle, Brian W; Greenlee, Justin J; Seabury, Christopher M; Brown, Charles E; Nicholson, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular indel region and

  10. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew C.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Wiggans, George R.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Weber, Kristina L.; Penedo, Cecilia T.; Berry, Donagh P.; Flynn, John; Garcia, Jose F.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Albuquerque, Milla; Silva, Marcos V. G. B.; Machado, Marco A.; Coffey, Mike; Moore, Kirsty; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Genestout, Lucie; Mazza, Raffaele; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Simpson, Barry; Marques, Elisa; McEwan, John C.; Cromie, Andrew; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Keele, John W.; Piper, Emily K.; Cook, Jim; Williams, Robert; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2013-01-01

    To assist cattle producers transition from microsatellite (MS) to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for parental verification we previously devised an effective and inexpensive method to impute MS alleles from SNP haplotypes. While the reported method was verified with only a limited data set (N = 479) from Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey cattle, some of the MS-SNP haplotype associations were concordant across these phylogenetically diverse breeds. This implied that some haplotypes predate modern breed formation and remain in strong linkage disequilibrium. To expand the utility of MS allele imputation across breeds, MS and SNP data from more than 8000 animals representing 39 breeds (Bos taurus and B. indicus) were used to predict 9410 SNP haplotypes, incorporating an average of 73 SNPs per haplotype, for which alleles from 12 MS markers could be accurately be imputed. Approximately 25% of the MS-SNP haplotypes were present in multiple breeds (N = 2 to 36 breeds). These shared haplotypes allowed for MS imputation in breeds that were not represented in the reference population with only a small increase in Mendelian inheritance inconsistancies. Our reported reference haplotypes can be used for any cattle breed and the reported methods can be applied to any species to aid the transition from MS to SNP genetic markers. While ~91% of the animals with imputed alleles for 12 MS markers had ≤1 Mendelian inheritance conflicts with their parents' reported MS genotypes, this figure was 96% for our reference animals, indicating potential errors in the reported MS genotypes. The workflow we suggest autocorrects for genotyping errors and rare haplotypes, by MS genotyping animals whose imputed MS alleles fail parentage verification, and then incorporating those animals into the reference dataset. PMID:24065982

  11. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D; Vu, Ninh; Leesburg, Vicki; Blackburn, Harvey D; Derr, James N

    2013-01-01

    The genetic relationship of American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) was quantified and compared with that among breeds and subspecies of cattle. Plains bison from 9 herds (N = 136), wood bison from 3 herds (N = 65), taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus) from 14 breeds (N = 244), and indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus) from 2 breeds (N = 53) were genotyped for 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Bayesian cluster analyses indicate 3 groups, 2 of which are plains bison and 1 of which is wood bison with some admixture, and genetic distances do not show plains bison and wood bison as distinct groups. Differentiation of wood bison and plains bison is also significantly less than that of cattle breeds and subspecies. These and other genetic data and historical interbreeding of bison do not support recognition of extant plains bison and wood bison as phylogenetically distinct subspecies. PMID:23667052

  12. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    PubMed

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds. PMID:3610866

  13. Membrane proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction: A proteomic comparison between Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus) and Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Nathan, Sheila; Othman, Iekhsan; Yee, Tee Ting; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2013-11-01

    Production performance of European cattle breeds has significantly improved through various breeding programs. However, European breeds are more susceptible to heat stress compared to zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as their conception rate can range between 20 to 30% in hot seasons compared to winter. To identify cattle sperm proteins associated with zebu cattle higher fertility and heat tolerance in tropical environments, we utilised a proteomics-based approach to compare sperm from the highly fertile Malaysian indigenous breed, Kedah Kelantan (Bos indicus), with sperm from the sub-fertile crossbreed, Mafriwal (Bos taurus × Bos indicus). Frozen semen of three high performance bulls from each breed was processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Proteins were separated and gel bands were processed by in-gel tryptic digestion. For each breed, mass spectrometry data was acquired over 11 replicates. The analyzed data identified peptides with different expression levels (99% confidence level) and protein identification was determined by targeted MS/MS. Among the identified proteins associated with sperm-oocyte interaction, two proteins were up-regulated in Kedah Kelantan sperm and 7 proteins were up-regulated in or specific to Mafriwal. Our results suggest that the higher fertility of zebu cattle in tropical areas may not be related to more efficient sperm-oocyte interaction. Further analysis of the other regulated proteins in these two breeds may contribute further knowledge on the physiological reason/s for higher fertility and heat tolerance of Zebu cattle in tropical areas.

  14. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CAPN1 and CAST genes on meat traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) and in their crosses with Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Curi, R A; Chardulo, L A L; Mason, M C; Arrigoni, M D B; Silveira, A C; de Oliveira, H N

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the segregation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the calpain 1, large subunit (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genes in Nellore (Bos indicus) and Nellore xBos taurus beef cattle, as well as to evaluate their effects on meat traits. For this, 300 animals, including 114 Nellore, 67 Angus x Nellore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nellore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way crosses and 15 Braunvieh three-way crosses, were genotyped for the CAPN4751 [AF_248054.2:g.6545C>T (GenBank accession AF248054.2)] and CAST/DdeI [AF_159246.1:g.2959A>G (GenBank accession AF159246.1)] polymorphisms and phenotyped for Ribeye Area, Backfat Thickness, Intramuscular Fat, Shear Force (SF) and Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI). In relation to the CAPN4751 polymorphism, a frequency of 10.5% was observed for the C allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample of studied animals, a significant association was found between genotypes and meat tenderness, assessed by SF (P = 0.005) and MFI (P = 0.008), with genotype CT being more favourable than TT. For the CAST/DdeI polymorphism, a frequency of 55.7% was found for the A allele in the Nellore breed. In the total sample, a significant association was observed between genotypes and meat tenderness - SF (P = 0.004) and MFI (P = 0.006), with genotype AA being more favourable than AG. The relationship between genotypes and aged meat tenderness in confluence with the distribution of favourable alleles shows great potential for application of the CAPN4751 and CAST/DdeI polymorphisms in the genetic improvement of the Nellore breed, whilst contributing to the validation, in this breed and in its crosses with B. taurus, of the association results previously described in the literature. PMID:19392828

  15. Evaluation of two progestogen-based estrous synchronization protocols in yearling heifers of Bos indicus × Bos taurus breeding.

    PubMed

    McKinniss, E N; Esterman, R D; Woodall, S A; Austin, B R; Hersom, M J; Thatcher, W W; Yelich, J V

    2011-06-01

    Yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers (n = 410) from three locations, were synchronized with either the Select Synch/CIDR+timed-AI (SSC+TAI) or 7-11+timed-AI (7-11+TAI) treatments. On Day 0 of the experiment, within each location, heifers were equally distributed to treatments by reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5: 1 = immature, 5 = estrous cycling) and body condition score. The 7-11+TAI treatment consisted of melengestrol acetate (0.5 mg/head/d) from Days 0 to 7, with PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 7, GnRH (100 μg im) on Day 11, and PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 18. The SSC+TAI heifers received the same carrier supplement (without MGA) from Days 0 to 7, and on Day 11 they were given 100 μg GnRH and an intravaginal CIDR (containing 1.38 g progesterone). The CIDR were removed on Day 18, concurrent with 25 mg PGF(2α) im For both treatments, estrus was visually detected for 1 h twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) for 72 h after PGF(2α), with AI done 6 to 12 h after a detected estrus. Non-responders were timed-AI and received GnRH (100 μg im) 72 to 76 h post PGF(2α). The 7-11+TAI heifers had a greater (P < 0.05) estrous response (55.2 vs 41.9%), conception rate (47.0 vs 31.3%), and synchronized pregnancy rate (33.5 vs 24.8%) compared to SSC+TAI heifers, respectively. Heifers exhibiting estrus at 60 h (61.7%) had a greater (P < 0.05) conception rate compared to heifers that exhibited estrus at ≤ 36 (35.3%), 48 (31.6%), and 72 h (36.2%), which were similar (P > 0.05) to each other. As RTS increased from ≤ 2 to ≥ 3, estrous response, conception rate, synchronized pregnancy rate, and 30 d pregnancy rate all increased (P < 0.05), irrespective of synchronization treatment. In conclusion, the 7-11+TAI treatment yielded greater synchronized pregnancy rates compared to SSC+TAI treatment in yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers. PMID:21356555

  16. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 is type I myofiber specific in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Coles, C A; Wadeson, J; Knight, M I; Cafe, L M; Johns, W H; White, J D; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B

    2014-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is involved in the regulation of myogenesis and adipogenesis and is of interest as a potential target to manipulate skeletal muscle development and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in cattle to increase beef yield and improve meat quality. The longissimus thoracis muscle (LM) and semitendinosus muscle (STM) from 5 Bos taurus (Angus) and 5 Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle were collected for histological and ADAM12 gene and protein expression analysis. Myofiber typing was used to determine if ADAM12 expression patterns related to differences in muscling and IMF deposition, which are influenced by proportions of the different myofiber types. The STM was found to contain a higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers than the LM, which contained a greater proportion of oxidative myofibers (myofiber ratio of glycolytic to more oxidative types in LM and STM of 1.1 and 3.5, respectively; P < 0.05). ADAM12 gene expression, fluorescent immunohistochemical staining for ADAM12, and image analysis found ADAM12 to be greater in the LM (P < 0.05). Regression analysis found a strong, positive relationship for the distribution of ADAM12 against the proportion of type I myofibers (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.86). These findings suggest ADAM12 is upregulated in muscles with more slow-oxidative myofibres, such as the LM, and is linked to type I myofibers in cattle. ADAM12 may be important in the regulation and maintenance slow myofibers in the LM muscle. PMID:24663211

  17. Differences of skin morphology in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wang; Duangjinda, M.; Vajrabukka, C.; Katawatin, Suporn

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous evaporation is the main avenue by which cattle dissipate heat via the involvement of sweat glands and other skin components. The difference in skin morphology between B. indicus and B. taurus has been recognized, as well as differences in their ability to tolerate heat. The objective of this study was to compare skin morphology between B. indicus, B. taurus, and their crossbreds. Skin samples of Sahiwal ( B. indicus) ( n = 10, reddish brown skin) and Holstein Friesian (HF) ( B. taurus) ( n = 10, black and white skin) and crossbred of HF75% ( n = 10, black and white skin) and HF87.5 % ( n = 10, black and white skin) were biopsied for histological study, followed by measurement of skin components. The results indicated that breed significantly affected sweat gland morphology. The shape of the sweat gland, as indicated by the ratio of length/diameter, in Sahiwal was baggier in shape compared to HF (5.99 and 9.52) while values for crossbreds were intermediate (7.82, 8.45). The density and volume of sweat glands in Sahiwal (1,058 glands/cm2; 1.60 μ3 × 10-6) were higher than in HF (920 glands/cm2; 0.51 μ3x10-6) and crossbreds, both HF 75 % (709 glands/cm2; 0.68 μ3 × 10-6) and HF 87.5 % (691 glands/cm2; 0.61 μ3 × 10-6) respectively. However, capillary surface area was greater for HF (2.07 cm2) compared to Sahiwal (1.79 cm2); accordingly, the lower genetic fraction of HF in crossbred cattle showed less capillary surface area (1.83 and 1.9 cm2 for HF75% and HF87.5 %) ( P < 0.01). Nerve density was not significantly different between Sahiwal and HF but was higher in the crossbred ( P < 0.01) cattle. Moreover, the effect of skin color (black and white) was evaluated and it was found that there was an interaction ( P < 0.01) between breed and skin color on the skin components. This study reveals that there are differences in skin morphology among B. indicus, B. taurus and their crossbreds, with these differences being more or less related to the genetic

  18. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m2/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m2/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m2/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m2/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In conclusion

  19. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Their Crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wang; Ke, Yang; Cheng, Lu

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years), Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years)) and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years) and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years). They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and skin temperature (ST) with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI) increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p<0.01). The SR was highest in Sahiwal (595 g/m(2)/h) compared to HF100% (227 g/m(2)/h), and their crossbreds both HF50% (335 g/m(2)/h) and HF87.5% (299 g/m(2)/h). On the other hand, RR was higher in HF87.5% (54 bpm) and both HF100% (48 bpm) and HF50% (42 bpm) than Sahiwal (25 bpm) (p<0.01). The RT showed no significant differences as a result of breed (p>0.05) but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C) and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C) and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C) than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C) (p<0.01). Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg) and 87.5% (25 kg) than HF50% (23 kg) which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg) while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg) than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg) which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg) (p<0.05). In

  20. Identification of a null allele in genetic tests for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Fozia; Malik, Naveed A; Qureshi, Javed A; Raadsma, Herman W; Tammen, Imke

    2012-12-01

    Two clinically healthy mature Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle were genotyped as homozygous affected for the lethal immunodeficiency disorder bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) using previously described PCR-RFLP based DNA tests which was confirmed by sequencing. Sequencing of Bos taurus and B. indicus × B. taurus genomic DNA surrounding the disease causing mutation (c.383A > G) in the ITGB2 gene identified numerous variations in exonic and intronic regions within and between species, including substantial variation in primer annealing sites for three PCR-RFLP tests for one of the B. indicus allelic variants. These variations in the primer annealing sites resulted in a null allele in the DNA tests causing the misdiagnosis of some heterozygous B. taurus × B. indicus cattle to be classified as homozygous affected. New primers were designed and a modified test was developed which simultaneously identified the disease mutation and the Pakistani B. indicus allelic variant associated with the null allele in the previous test. PMID:22374219

  1. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  2. Evaluation of physiological differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle during controlled heat challenge.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was performed to evaluate differences in thermoregulatory ability of two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine Romosinuano steers (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW; RO) were housed in the Brody Environmental Center at the University of Missouri. S...

  3. Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical compositions, free amino acid contents, and antioxidant activities of different cuts of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef. Beef preferences and prices in the Korean market depend on cut. Therefore, comparisons were made between high-preference (gr...

  4. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of ‘production diseases’ in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  5. Associations between response to handling and growth and meat quality in frequently handled Bos taurus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Turner, S P; Navajas, E A; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Richardson, R I; Prieto, N; Bell, M; Jack, M C; Roehe, R

    2011-12-01

    Fearful behavioral responses to handling (temperament) are undesirably associated with ADG and meat quality in infrequently handled Bos indicus cattle. It has never been assessed whether these relationships exist in calmer Bos taurus breeds in systems where handling is more frequent. Such systems predominate in some countries where beef production is a major agricultural activity. During fattening, 144 crossbred cattle from Limousin and Aberdeen Angus sires were assessed for temperament using 4 approaches: response to movement along a race (race score; 4 occasions), restraint in a crush (crush score; 4 occasions), flight speed from the crush (flight speed; 4 occasions), and isolation in a pen with a human (isolation score; 1 occasion in yr 1, 2 occasions in yr 2). Measurements of ADG were made between birth and slaughter and between 16 and 18 mo of age during fattening. Fattening occurred indoors on a complete mixed diet fed for ad libitum intake. Meat quality was measured by pH, color, and Volodkevitch shear force and by a sensory panel. The repeatability of temperament traits was 0.17 (race score), 0.35 (crush score), 0.51 (flight speed), and 0.36 (isolation score). The proportion of the total variance of temperament traits attributable to the sire and the social group was low (0.003 to 0.402). However, the sire did affect behavior in all tests apart from the crush score (ranging from P = 0.02 to P < 0.001). Correlations between behavior in the different tests (ranging from r = 0.21 to 0.54, and P = 0.02 to P < 0.001) apart from between-flight speed and isolation score indicate that fearful behavior was consistently shown across assessment methods. A calm response in the crush score test was associated with a greater ADG during fattening (P = 0.05), whereas a calm response during the isolation test was associated with a greater ADG in cold carcass weight (P = 0.02). Animals with a calm isolation score had less tender meat as judged by the sensory panel (P = 0

  6. Influence of calf genotype on colostral immunoglobulins in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows and serum immunoglobulins in their calves.

    PubMed

    Vann, R C; Holloway, J W; Carstens, G E; Boyd, M E; Randel, R D

    1995-10-01

    Purebred Bos indicus calves are documented to have lower survival rates than Bos taurus calves. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the possibility that this decreased survival rate may be attributed to dam colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and subsequent calf serum Ig concentrations. The specific objective was to determine the effect of breed type of calf on colostrum production, immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and calf serum, and availability and absorption efficiency of Ig. Brahman (B) and Angus (A) cattle were reciprocally mated to produce calves of the following types: A x A (n = 8), A x B (n = 9), B x B (n = 11), and B x A (n = 11). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and a blood sample was collected before feeding pooled colostrum (30 mL/kg birth weight) at 1 and 6 h of age. From 6 to 12 h of age, each calf was placed in a box that allowed interaction with the dam but prevented suckling. At 12 h of age, each calf was fed its dam's colostrum and placed with the dam. Additional blood samples were collected at 12, 24, and 48 h after birth. Serum and colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA using single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay techniques. The cows were hand-milked after induction of milk letdown with oxytocin at 1 and 12 h after calving. Colostrum volume was recorded, and samples were collected. Brahman cows produced more (P < .001) colostrum at 1 and 12 h than A cows. Total Ig concentrations were obtained by summing IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA concentrations. Total Ig (P < .02), IgG (P < .005), and IgA (P < .01) concentrations in colostrum were greater in cows producing crossbred calves. Total Ig (P < .006), IgG (P < .02), IgG1 (P < .004), and IgG2 (P < .02) available in colostrum were affected by B x B and A x B breed types of calf. Brahman cows had more Ig available at 1 and 12 h than A cows due to increased production of colostrum. Breed type influenced colostral Ig in cattle

  7. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  8. Freezing, thawing and aging effects on beef tenderness from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (P<0.05) purge, cooking loss and total exudate loss throughout aging. Nellore meats had greater total exudate loss and shorter sarcomere lengths (P<0.05). Freezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (P<0.05) only in Aberdeen Angus meats and only at time zero. These results suggest that the meat tenderizing process by freezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed. PMID:26878609

  9. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ≤ 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126

  10. Pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves from a large-scale IVF program using reverse-sorted semen in Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Morotti, F; Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Siqueira, E R; Lisboa, L A; Seneda, M M

    2014-03-15

    Obtaining sexed sperm from previously frozen doses (reverse-sorted semen [RSS]) provides an important advantage because of the possibility of using the semen of bulls with desired genetic attributes that have died or have become infertile but from whom frozen semen is available. We report the efficiency of RSS on the pregnancy rate and birth rate of calves in a large-scale program using ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) from Bos indicus, Bos indicus-taurus, and Bos taurus cattle. From 645 ovum pick-up procedures (Holstein, Gir, and Nelore), 9438 viable oocytes were recovered. A dose of frozen semen (Holstein, Nelore, Brahman, Gir, and Braford) was thawed, and the sperm were sex-sorted and cooled for use in IVF. Additionally, IVF with sperm from three Holstein bulls with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted (RSS) or sex-sorted, freeze-thawed (control) was tested. A total of 2729 embryos were produced, exhibiting a mean blastocyst rate of 29%. Heifers and cows selected for adequate body condition, estrus, and health received 2404 embryos, and 60 days later, a 41% average pregnancy rate was observed. A total of 966 calves were born, and 910 were of a predetermined sex, with an average of 94% accuracy in determining the sex. Despite the lower blastocyst rate with freeze-thawed, sex-sorted semen compared with sex-sorted semen, (P < 0.05), the pregnancy rate (bull I, 45% vs. 40%; II, 35% vs. 50%; and III, 47% vs. 48% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) and sex-sorted efficiency (bull I, 93% vs. 98%; II, 96% vs. 94%; and III, 96% vs. 97% for RSS and control, respectively; P > 0.05) were similar for each of the three bulls regardless of the sperm type used in the IVF. The sexing of previously frozen semen, associated with IVEP, produces viable embryos with a pregnancy rate of up to 40%, and calves of the desired sex are born even if the paternal bull has acquired some infertility, died, or is located a long distance from the sexing laboratory. Furthermore

  11. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. PMID:26481361

  12. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome

    PubMed Central

    Elsik, Christine G.; Unni, Deepak R.; Diesh, Colin M.; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L.; Nguyen, Hung N.; Hagen, Darren E.

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. PMID:26481361

  13. The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pellecchia, Marco; Negrini, Riccardo; Colli, Licia; Patrini, Massimiliano; Milanesi, Elisabetta; Achilli, Alessandro; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L; Piazza, Alberto; Torroni, Antonio; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2007-05-01

    The Etruscan culture developed in Central Italy (Etruria) in the first millennium BC and for centuries dominated part of the Italian Peninsula, including Rome. The history of the Etruscans is at the roots of Mediterranean culture and civilization, but their origin is still debated: local or Eastern provenance? To shed light on this mystery, bovine and human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) have been investigated, based on the well-recognized strict legacy which links human and livestock populations. In the region corresponding to ancient Etruria (Tuscany, Central Italy), several Bos taurus breeds have been reared since historical times. These breeds have a strikingly high level of mtDNA variation, which is found neither in the rest of Italy nor in Europe. The Tuscan bovines are genetically closer to Near Eastern than to European gene pools and this Eastern genetic signature is paralleled in modern human populations from Tuscany, which are genetically close to Anatolian and Middle Eastern ones. The evidence collected corroborates the hypothesis of a common past migration: both humans and cattle reached Etruria from the Eastern Mediterranean area by sea. Hence, the Eastern origin of Etruscans, first claimed by the classic historians Herodotus and Thucydides, receives strong independent support. As the Latin philosopher Seneca wrote: Asia Etruscos sibi vindicat (Asia claims the Etruscans back). PMID:17301019

  14. Genome-wide detection and characterization of endogenous retroviruses in Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Jugo, Begoña Marina

    2010-10-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A BLAST-based method detected 928 possible ERVs, LTR_STRUC detected 4,487 elements flanked by long terminal repeats (LTRs), and Retrotector detected 9,698 ERVs. The ERVs were not homogeneously distributed across chromosomes; the number of ERVs was positively correlated with chromosomal size and negatively correlated with chromosomal GC content. The bovine ERVs (BoERVs) were classified into 24 putative families, with 20 of them not previously described. One of these new families, BoERV1, was the most abundant family and appeared to be specific to ruminants. An analysis of representatives of ERV families from rodents, primates, and ruminants showed a phylogenetic relationship following their hosts' relationships. This study demonstrates the importance of using multiple methods when trying to identify new ERVs and shows that the number of bovine ERV families is not as limited as previously thought. PMID:20686017

  15. Comparison of meat quality between eland (Taurotragus oryx) and cattle (Bos taurus) raised under similar conditions.

    PubMed

    Bartoň, Luděk; Bureš, Daniel; Kotrba, Radim; Sales, James

    2014-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of meat were compared between non-domestic eland (Taurotragus oryx) bulls (n=6) and domestic Fleckvieh (Bos taurus) bulls (n=6) which were finished under controlled conditions of feeding and management. Musculus longissimus lumborum from eland were darker and less yellow in colour, with a higher pH24 and lower contents of intramuscular fat and total collagen, compared to cattle. Contents (mg/100 g muscle tissue) and proportions (g/100 g of FA determined) of SFA and MUFA were higher (P<0.01) in cattle. Although the proportion of total PUFA were higher (P<0.001) in eland, contents of PUFA were similar between species. Meat from cattle was consistently scored higher (P<0.05) for sensory texture characteristics, juiciness, flavour, and overall acceptance. We concluded that bulls of eland provided low-fat meat with a beneficial fatty acid composition from a human nutrition perspective, but with lower sensory scores, compared to bull beef. PMID:23954274

  16. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, Jacqueline; Modolo, Diego Grando; de Souza, Edislane Barreiros; de Melo, Thatiana Corrêa; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Magnelli, Roberta Fiusa; de Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha; de Sá Júnior, Paulo Luis; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Franco; Beçak, Willy; Stocco, Rita de Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA) and comet assay (CA). Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control). Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine. PMID:26783529

  17. Composite Selection Signals for Complex Traits Exemplified Through Bovine Stature Using Multibreed Cohorts of European and African Bos taurus

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution and molecular architecture of complex traits is important in domestic animals. Due to phenotypic selection, genomic regions develop unique patterns of genetic diversity called signatures of selection, which are challenging to detect, especially for complex polygenic traits. In this study, we applied the composite selection signals (CSS) method to investigate evidence of positive selection in a complex polygenic trait by examining stature in phenotypically diverse cattle comprising 47 European and 8 African Bos taurus breeds, utilizing a panel of 38,033 SNPs genotyped on 1106 animals. CSS were computed for phenotypic contrasts between multibreed cohorts of cattle by classifying the breeds according to their documented wither height to detect the candidate regions under selection. Using the CSS method, clusters of signatures of selection were detected at 26 regions (9 in European and 17 in African cohorts) on 13 bovine autosomes. Using comparative mapping information on human height, 30 candidate genes mapped at 12 selection regions (on 8 autosomes) could be linked to bovine stature diversity. Of these 12 candidate gene regions, three contained known genes (i.e., NCAPG-LCORL, FBP2-PTCH1, and PLAG1-CHCHD7) related to bovine stature, and nine were not previously described in cattle (five in European and four in African cohorts). Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of CSS coupled with strategies of combining multibreed datasets in the identification and discovery of genomic regions underlying complex traits. Characterization of multiple signatures of selection and their underlying candidate genes will elucidate the polygenic nature of stature across cattle breeds. PMID:25931611

  18. Expression Variants of the Lipogenic AGPAT6 Gene Affect Diverse Milk Composition Phenotypes in Bos taurus

    PubMed Central

    Littlejohn, Mathew D.; Tiplady, Kathryn; Lopdell, Thomas; Law, Tania A.; Scott, Andrew; Harland, Chad; Sherlock, Ric; Henty, Kristen; Obolonkin, Vlad; Lehnert, Klaus; MacGibbon, Alistair; Spelman, Richard J.; Davis, Stephen R.; Snell, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Milk is composed of a complex mixture of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and various vitamins and minerals as a source of nutrition for young mammals. The composition of milk varies between individuals, with lipid composition in particular being highly heritable. Recent reports have highlighted a region of bovine chromosome 27 harbouring variants affecting milk fat percentage and fatty acid content. We aimed to further investigate this locus in two independent cattle populations, consisting of a Holstein-Friesian x Jersey crossbreed pedigree of 711 F2 cows, and a collection of 32,530 mixed ancestry Bos taurus cows. Bayesian genome-wide association mapping using markers imputed from the Illumina BovineHD chip revealed a large quantitative trait locus (QTL) for milk fat percentage on chromosome 27, present in both populations. We also investigated a range of other milk composition phenotypes, and report additional associations at this locus for fat yield, protein percentage and yield, lactose percentage and yield, milk volume, and the proportions of numerous milk fatty acids. We then used mammary RNA sequence data from 212 lactating cows to assess the transcript abundance of genes located in the milk fat percentage QTL interval. This analysis revealed a strong eQTL for AGPAT6, demonstrating that high milk fat percentage genotype is also additively associated with increased expression of the AGPAT6 gene. Finally, we used whole genome sequence data from six F1 sires to target a panel of novel AGPAT6 locus variants for genotyping in the F2 crossbreed population. Association analysis of 58 of these variants revealed highly significant association for polymorphisms mapping to the 5′UTR exons and intron 1 of AGPAT6. Taken together, these data suggest that variants affecting the expression of AGPAT6 are causally involved in differential milk fat synthesis, with pleiotropic consequences for a diverse range of other milk components. PMID:24465687

  19. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, namely Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis hominis, and Sarcocystis rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (<1 μm), whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 μm or more). Here, we describe a new species of Sarcocystis with thin-walled sarcocysts in cattle. Two newborn calves were fed with sporocysts from the feces of a human volunteer who had ingested raw beef. The calves were killed 111 and 222 days later. In addition to thick-walled sarcocysts of S. hominis, both calves were coinfected with a Sarcocystis species that had a thin-walled sarcocysts, distinct from S. cruzi. The sarcocysts were mature, microscopic, up to 80 μm wide, and up to 1060 μm long. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was thin (<1 μm thick) and had minute protrusions. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had short, conical villar protrusions (vp) that were up to 0.5 μm long and up to 0.5 μm wide, similar to type 29. The vp on the sarcocyst wall lacked microtubules but had six or more disc-shaped plaques. The ground substance layer was smooth, approximately 0.5 μm thick, and without microtubules. The bradyzoites were 8-11 μm long. The structure of the sarcocyst wall was distinct from any species of Sarcocystis reported from livestock. This unique species is named in honor of Dr. Alfred Otto Heydorn who provided the sporocysts. PMID:26243573

  20. Ovarian function in Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) cows after post-ovulation hormonal treatments.

    PubMed

    Machado, R; Bergamaschi, M A C M; Barbosa, R T; de Oliveira, C A; Binelli, M

    2008-04-15

    Maternal recognition of pregnancy in the cow requires successful signaling by the conceptus to block luteolysis. Conceptus growth and function depend on an optimal uterine environment, regulated by luteal progesterone. The objective of this study was to test strategies to optimize luteal function, as well as prevent a dominant follicle from initiating luteolysis. Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) beef cows (n=40) were submitted to a GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH protocol. Cows that ovulated from a dominant ovarian follicle (ovulation=Day 0) were allocated to receive: no additional treatment (G(C); n=7); 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 (G(hCG); n=5); 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(E2); n=6); or 3000IU of hCG on Day 5 and 5mg of estradiol-17beta on Day 12 (G(hCG/E2); n=5). Ultrasonographic imaging of the ovaries, assessment of plasma progesterone concentration, and detection of estrus were done daily from Day 5 to the day of subsequent ovulation. Treatment with hCG induced an accessory CL, increased CL volume, and plasma progesterone concentration throughout the luteal phase (P<0.01). Estradiol-17beta induced atresia and recruitment of a new wave of follicular growth; it eliminated a potentially estrogen-active, growing ovarian follicle within the critical period for maternal recognition of pregnancy, but it also hastened luteolysis (Days 16 or 17 vs. Days 18 or 19 in non-treated cows). In conclusion, the approaches tested enhanced luteal function (hCG) and altered ovarian follicular dynamics (estradiol-17beta), but were unable to extend the life-span of the CL in Nelore cows. PMID:18336896

  1. Select Synch and Co-Synch protocols using a CIDR yield similar pregnancy rates after a fixed-time insemination in suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Regina D; Alava, Erin N; Austin, Brad R; Hersom, Matthew J; Yelich, Joel V

    2016-03-15

    Primiparous and multiparous suckled Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows were used to compare a Select Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol (SSC) to a modified CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (COS). Five separate groups of cows were utilized (n = 659) and within a group, cows were allotted to two treatments on the basis of body condition score (BCS) taken 10 days before and days postpartum at CIDR insertion (Day 0). Blood samples were collected on Day -10 and 0 for assessment of circulating concentrations of progesterone to determine estrous cycling status. Cows in both treatments received intramuscular (im) GnRH (100 μg) and a CIDR inserted on Day 0. On Day 7, the SSC treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg), whereas COS treatment had CIDR removed and received im PGF2α (25 mg) on Day 7.5. In the SSC treatment, estrus was detected daily at 0700 and 1700 hours for 72 hours after PGF2α administration, and cows were artificially inseminated 8 to 12 hours after a detected estrus. Cows failing to exhibit estrus were subjected to timed-AI and received im GnRH (100 μg) 76 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. In the COS treatment, cows received im GnRH (100 μg) and were fixed-time artificially inseminated at 64 ± 4 hours after PGF2α administration. Although group differences (P < 0.05) existed for synchronized AI pregnancy rates, there were no significant interactions of group with any variable analyzed; hence, groups were pooled for further evaluation. Within the SSC treatment, the 72-hour estrous response was 50.6% (168 of 332). Conception rate of cows in estrus was 66.1% (111 of 168), and timed-AI pregnancy rate for nonresponders was 32.3% (53 of 164). Overall synchronized AI pregnancy rates were similar (P > 0.05) for SSC (49.4%; n = 164 of 332) and COS (47.1%; n = 154 of 327). Estrous cycling status and days postpartum did not (P > 0.05) influence synchronized AI pregnancy rates but BCS did (P

  2. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Cattle (Bos taurus) and its Differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Moré, Gastón; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Schares, Gereon

    2016-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based on unverifiable evidence, it was suggested that the same parasite infects cattle. In addition, S. sinensis was recently declared as nomen nudum because its naming violated the rules of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Thus, the fourth species using cattle as an intermediate host does not have a valid name. Here, we propose a new name, Sarcocystis rommeli for the S. sinensis-like parasite from cattle in Argentina, and differentiate it ultrastructurally from S. hominis sarcocysts from experimentally infected cattle. Sarcocystis rommeli sarcocysts were microscopic with a 5-μm-thick wall with slender villar protrusions (Vp); the Vp were up to 5 μm long, up to 0.5 μm wide, and of uneven thickness, often bent at an angle. The ground substance layer (Gs) was up to 0.8 μm thick and smooth. Vesicular structures were seen at the base of the Vp. The bradyzoites were 10-12 μm long. Sarcocystis hominis sarcocysts had Vp that were often upright, up to 7.5 μm long, and up to 1.8 μm wide; the Gs was up to 2 μm thick and without vesicles. Its sarcocyst wall was up to 5.6 μm thick, the vp were bent at an angle, up to 5.8 μm long, the Gs was up to 2 μm thick, but without vesicles seen in S. rommeli. Beef containing sarcocysts of S. rommeli was not orally infectious for two human volunteers and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The Sarcocystis described here is molecularly different from S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis based on 18S rRNA and cox1 gene sequences. PMID:26111603

  3. Isolation and cDNA characteristics of MHC-DRA genes from gayal (Bos frontalis) and gaytle (Bos frontalis × Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Wang, Liping; Zheng, Huanli; Du, Min; Gu, Zhaobing; Yang, Yulin; Yang, Yuai

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays important roles in pathogen recognition and disease resistance. In the present study, the coding sequence and the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of MHC class II DR alpha chain (the DRA gene) from rare gayal and gaytle were cloned and analyzed to dissect structural and functional variations. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the DRA genes in gayal (Bofr-DRA) and gaytle (Bofr × BoLA-DRA) were almost identical to those for cattle and yak (99%). Compared to yak, two amino acids substitutions in the signal peptide (SP) domain for gayal were found within all Bos animals. Except for only one replacement in the amino acid within the α2 domain of the DRA protein in gayal, the additional residues were highly conserved across the species investigated. The 20 peptide-binding sites (PBS) of Bofr-DRA and Bofr × BoLA-DRA were essentially reserved in the α1 domain among all species investigated. The lesser degree of substitution in Bofr-DRA is concordant with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammals. The very high degree of conservativity of the DRA gene among ruminants, including gayal, suggests its recent evolutionary separation. PMID:26019649

  4. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg

  5. Evaluation of Physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to evaluate heat tolerance. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted breed. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ± 7.5 Kg BW) steers from USDA-ARS, Brooksville, Florida were transport...

  6. Evaluation of physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to establish distinctive heat tolerance characteristics. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted, Criollo breed recognized for its heat tolerance. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ±...

  7. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  8. Energy requirements and cow/calf efficiency of Nellore and Continental and British Bos taurus x Nellore crosses.

    PubMed

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Lanna, D P D

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this work was to compare breed types with increasing percentage of Bos taurus on cow/calf energy requirements and preweaning efficiency. Forty mature, lactating, nonpregnant cows [10 Nellore (NL), 10 Canchim x Nellore (CN), 10 Angus x Nellore (AN), and 10 Simmental x Nellore (SN)] were randomized in blocks by calving date. Calves from cross-bred cows were sired by Canchim bulls (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu), whereas calves from NL cows were sired by Nellore bulls. Cows were individually fed a pelleted diet with 50% hay (alfalfa and coastcross) and 50% concentrate from calving to weaning (20 to 180 d post-partum). Estimated diet ME content was 2.24 Mcal/kg of DM. Individual cow DMI was adjusted every 14 d to keep shrunk BW and BCS constant. Shrunk BW and BCS were 430 +/- 12 kg and 4.7 +/- 0.09 for NL, 449 +/- 10 kg and 4.8 +/- 0.09 for CN, 496 +/- 10 kg and 5.0 +/- 0.09 for AN, and 507 +/- 12 kg and 5.1 +/- 0.09 for SN. At 40 d calves were allowed ad libitum access to the same diet. Milk yield was recorded using a weigh-suckle-weigh technique. Increasing B. taurus percentage had a linear effect (P < 0.01) on ME intake (MEI) of cow/calf pairs: 21.9 +/- 0.38 for Nellore, 23.6 +/- 0.35 for 31.5% B. taurus (CN), and 25.6 +/- 0.27 Mcal/d for 50% B. taurus (AN and SN). Bos taurus percentage was also positively associated with milk production. Nellore calves had lower (P < 0.05) weaning weight (kg) than crossbreds: 167 +/- 12 vs. 206 +/- 10 for 3/4 Canchim 1/4 Nellore (3/4C), 220 +/- 11 for 1/2 Canchim 1/4 Angus 1/4 Nellore (1/4A) and 228 +/- 11 for 1/2 Canchim 1/4 Simmental 1/4 Nellore (1/4S). Calf body composition was estimated at weaning using the 9-10-11th-rib section. Retained energy (Mcal) was greater (P < 0.05) in 1/4A (384 +/- 19.9) than in Nellore (298 +/- 21.6) and 3/4C calves (312 +/- 19.8), and was intermediate in 1/4S calves (333 +/- 21.6). Cow/calf energetic efficiency (kcal deposited/Mcal of MEI by the pair) was greater (P < 0.05) for AN (103

  9. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P < 0.05) gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P < 0.05) birth weight (F(1) x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning

  10. Isolation and characteristics of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) in the Chinese yakow (Bos grunniens×Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Xi, Dongmei; Wu, Min; Fan, Yueyuan; Huo, Yinqiang; Leng, Jing; Gou, Xiao; Mao, Huaming; Deng, Weidong

    2012-05-01

    The Chinese yakow is the offspring of yak (Bos grunniens) and Yellow cattle (Bos taurus). The melanocortin 1receptor gene (MC1R) plays a crucial role in determining coat colour of mammals. To investigate the relationship of polymorphism of the MC1R with coat colour in the Chinese yakow, the coding sequence (CDS) and the flanking region of MC1R were sequenced from 84 Chinese yakow samples and compared with the sequences of the MC1R from other bovid species. A fragment of 1134 base pair (bp) sequences including the full CDS (954bp) and parts of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (162 and 18bp, respectively) of the Chineseyakow MC1R were obtained. A total of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 4 SNPs (T-129C, A-127C, C-106T, G-1A) in the 5'-untranslated region and 9 SNPs (C201T, T206C, C340A, C375T, T663C, G714C, C870T, G871A and T890C) in the CDS were identified, revealing high genetic variability. Four novel SNPs including T206C, G714C, C870T and T890C, which have not been reported previously in bovid species, were retrieved. Within 9 coding SNPs, C201T, C375T, T663C and C870T were silent mutations, while T206C, C340A, G714C, G871A and T890C were mis-sense mutations, corresponding to amino acid changes p.L69P, p.Q114K, p.K238N, p.A291N and p.I297T, respectively. Amino acid sequences alignment showed a more than 96% similarity with other ruminates. However, three classical bovine MC1R loci the E(D), E(+) and e were not retrieved in the Chinese yakow, indicating other genes or factors could be involved in affecting coat colour in this species. PMID:22391095

  11. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictive endocrine marker to select Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Nelore) calves for in vitro embryo production.

    PubMed

    Batista, E O S; Guerreiro, B M; Freitas, B G; Silva, J C B; Vieira, L M; Ferreira, R M; Rezende, R G; Basso, A C; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus (Nelore; experiment 1) and Bos taurus (Holstein; experiment 2) calves superstimulated or not with 140 mg of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; 4 decreasing doses twice daily). Oocytes were recovered from calves aged 2 to 4 mo after receiving gonadotropin stimulation (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12) or not (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12). Cycling heifers formed a positive control group (n = 15 for Nelore [aged 18-24 mo], n = 10 for Holstein [aged 14-16 mo]). All the calves underwent laparoscopic ovum pickup, and cycling heifers underwent a regular transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pickup for oocyte recovery. Immediately before oocyte retrieval, blood samples were taken for subsequent AMH determination (ng/mL). Regardless of the genetic group, calves that received pFSH (3.6 ± 1.1 in Nelore and 4.6 ± 1.2 in Holstein) or did not receive pFSH (3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore and 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein) had greater plasma AMH concentrations (P = 0.01 in Nelore and P = 0.003 in Holstein) than cycling heifers (1.1 ± 0.2 in Nelore and 0.6 ± 0.07 in Holstein). AMH concentrations in calves with or without pFSH were similar in both genetic groups (3.6 ± 1.1 vs 3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore; 4.6 ± 1.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein). In calves, positive correlations were observed between plasma AMH concentrations and the numbers of follicles >2 mm (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.78, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.82, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), COCs cultured (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001 in Nelore; r = 0.79, P < 0.0001 in Holstein), and blastocysts produced (r = 0.62, P = 0.0003 in Nelore; r = 0.58, P = 0.009 in Holstein), and these results were independent of pFSH treatment. In conclusion, calves had greater plasma AMH concentrations than cycling heifers. In addition

  12. Evaluation of carcass characteristics of Bos indicus and tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds selected for postweaning weight.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Packer, I U; Razook, A G; Alleoni, G F; Nardon, R F; Resende, F D

    2008-08-01

    Data from 9 studies were compiled to evaluate the effects of 20 yr of selection for postweaning weight (PWW) on carcass characteristics and meat quality in experimental herds of control Nellore (NeC) and selected Nellore (NeS), Caracu (CaS), Guzerah (GuS), and Gir (GiS) breeds. These studies were conducted with animals from a genetic selection program at the Experimental Station of Sertãozinho, São Paulo State, Brazil. After the performance test (168 d postweaning), bulls (n = 490) from the calf crops born between 1992 and 2000 were finished and slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality. Treatments were different across studies. A meta-analysis was conducted with a random coefficients model in which herd was considered a fixed effect and treatments within year and year were considered as random effects. Either calculated maturity degree or initial BW was used interchangeably as the covariate, and least squares means were used in the multiple-comparison analysis. The CaS and NeS had heavier (P = 0.002) carcasses than the NeC and GiS; GuS were intermediate. The CaS had the longest carcass (P < 0.001) and heaviest spare ribs (P < 0.001), striploin (P < 0.001), and beef plate (P = 0.013). Although the body, carcass, and quarter weights of NeS were similar to those of CaS, NeS had more edible meat in the leg region than did CaS bulls. Selection for PWW increased rib-eye area in Nellore bulls. Selected Caracu had the lowest (most favorable) shear force values compared with the NeS (P = 0.003), NeC (P = 0.005), GuS (P = 0.003), and GiS (P = 0.008). Selection for PWW increased body, carcass, and meat retail weights in the Nellore without altering dressing percentage and body fat percentage. PMID:18407987

  13. Differences in PAR-2 activating potential by king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus), salmon (Salmo salar), and bovine (Bos taurus) trypsin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmon trypsin is shown to increase secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 from human airway epithelial cells through activation of PAR-2. Secretion of IL-8 induced by king crab trypsin is observed in a different concentration range compared to salmon trypsin, and seems to be only partially related to PAR-2 activation. This report aim to identify differences in the molecular structure of king crab trypsin (Paralithodes camtschaticus) compared to salmon (Salmo salar) and bovine trypsin (Bos taurus) that might influence the ability to activate protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). Results During purification king crab trypsin displayed stronger binding capacity to the anionic column used in fast protein liquid chromatography compared to fish trypsins, and was identified as a slightly bigger molecule. Measurements of enzymatic activity yielded no obvious differences between the trypsins tested. Molecular modelling showed that king crab trypsin has a large area with strong negative electrostatic potential compared to the smaller negative areas in bovine and salmon trypsins. Bovine and salmon trypsins also displayed areas with strong positive electrostatic potential, a feature lacking in the king crab trypsin. Furthermore we have identified 3 divergent positions (Asp196, Arg244, and Tyr247) located near the substrate binding pocket of king crab trypsin that might affect the binding and cleavage of PAR-2. Conclusion These preliminary results indicate that electrostatic interactions could be of importance in binding, cleavage and subsequent activation of PAR-2. PMID:23870109

  14. Spatial arrangement of the heart muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue in the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Garcia-Martinez, V; Rojo, M; Hurlé, J M

    1994-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of the muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue was examined in the ventricles of the heart of the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus). In both ventricles, the muscle fascicles of the myocardium are arranged in 3 main directions, forming 3 muscle layers within the ventricular wall. The preferentially vertical arrangement of the muscle fascicles in the superficial and deep layers at the level of the fibrous aortic rings and the base of the semilunar valve leaflets suggests that these fascicles are actively involved in valvular dynamics. After controlled digestion of myocytes and elastic fibres with NaOH, a 3-dimensional arrangement of the scaffolding of connective tissue that supports the muscle fascicles and myocytes was observed. The arrangement and structure of this scaffolding may influence the order of contraction of muscle fascicles in different layers of the ventricle. In addition, differences were observed between the connective tissue scaffolding surrounding the myocytes of the 2 ventricles; these variations were correlated with the different biomechanical properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8014119

  15. Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut.

    PubMed

    Oh, Mirae; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Tang, Yujiao; Kim, Moon S; Seong, Hye-Jin; Moon, Sang-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical compositions, free amino acid contents, and antioxidant activities of different cuts of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef. Beef preferences and prices in the Korean market depend on cut. Therefore, comparisons were made between high-preference cuts (group 1 [G1], including loin, tenderloin, and rib) and low-preference cuts (group 2 [G2], including brisket, topside, and shank). Meat samples were collected from 10 fattened cows. Crude fat content was significantly higher in G1 than in G2 (p<0.05). The amounts of crude protein and total free amino acid were negatively correlated with crude fat content (p<0.05). Overall G2 contained higher levels of free amino acids with antioxidant activity than G1. Antioxidant activities were also significantly higher in G2 compared with G1 (p<0.05). In conclusion, providing consumers with positive information about G2 as found in this study could help health-conscious consumers choosing among beef products and further promote increased consumption of low-preference beef cuts. PMID:27115864

  16. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P < 0.05). The protein spot weighing 15.52 ± 0.53 kDa with a pI value of 5.78 ± 0.12 is highlighted by its high abundance in bulls with low semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. PMID:27118515

  17. Intrinsic movement patterns of grazing Rocky Mountains elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) and beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk and cattle are important components of mountainous ecosystems in the western United States and exist contemporaneously on many landscapes. These animals utilize similar resources yet the evolutionary lines that produced them have been distinct for approximately 30 million years. ...

  18. Absorption and excretion of 14C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)in angus cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are environmentally persistent industrial chemicals often found in biosolids. Application of these biosolids to pastures raises concern about accumulation of PFOA in the edible tissues of food animals. Because data on the absorp...

  19. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Violative residues of flunixin in tissues from bob veal calves and cull dairy cows has been attributed to noncompliance with the FDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time, however, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue residue depleti...

  20. Distribution and excretion of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a perfluoroalkyl surfactant used in many industrial products, is present in industrial wastes and in wastewater treatment plant biosolids. Biosolids are commonly applied to pastures and crops used for animal feed; consequently, PFOS may accumulate in the edible tis...

  1. WHOLE GENOME ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS IDENTIFIES SUSCEPTIBILITY ALLELES FOR PARASITIC INFECTION IN BOS TAURUS CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduced herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected fecal egg count (FEC) data from post-weaning animals of an Angus resource population c...

  2. Regional differences in the fescue toxicosis response of Bos taurus cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. S.; Bryant, J. K.; Scharf, B.; Kishore, D. K.; Coate, E. A.; Eichen, P. A.; Keisler, D. H.; Spiers, D. E.

    2015-04-01

    Cattle of the same breed from different regions of the USA may have altered responses to heat stress and fescue toxicosis. Angus steers from Missouri (MO ANG, n = 10, 513.6 ± 13.6 kg BW) and Oklahoma (OK ANG, n = 10, 552.8 ± 12.0 kg BW) were fed a diet containing either endophyte-infected (E+, 30 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) or endophyte-uninfected (E-, 0 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) tall fescue seed for 23 days. Diet treatment began on day 2. Animals were maintained at thermoneutrality (TN, 19-22 °C, days 1-8) and then exposed to heat stress (HS, cycling 26-36 °C, days 9-22). On day 23, ambient temperature was returned to TN and used as a recovery day. Feed intake (FI) was measured daily, with rectal and skin temperatures determined six times daily. Feed intake reduction from pretreatment levels was greater ( P < 0.01) for E + (13.9 ± 0.9 versus 11.9 ± 0.3 kg/day) compared to E - (12.6 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 0.3 kg/day) steers over the entire TN period, regardless of Angus group. During HS, E + cattle had reduced FI ( P < 0.02; 6.9 ± 0.2 versus 8.4 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to E - animals, independent of region of origin. A greater decrease in FI ( P < 0.01) was observed for OK (12.1 ± 0.3 versus 6.2 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to MO ANG (12.2 ± 0.3 versus 7.9 ± 0.2 kg/day) when ambient temperature was increased from TN to HS. On day 13 and days 15-22, OK ANG (E+) had reduced FI ( P < 0.01, -2.21 kg) compared to OK ANG (E-), while there was no effect on MO ANG. From day 12 to day 22 of HS, daily minimum temperatures for ear, rump, and tail skin were less for E + ( P < 0.05) when compared with E-treated steers, signifying peripheral vasoconstriction in E + animals. This was supported by reduced shoulder and lower tail temperatures ( P < 0.01) for E + compared to E-treated OK ANG on the recovery day. In summary, regional differences in the response to fescue toxicosis exist, with peripheral vasomotor effects becoming most evident when animals are subjected to rapid

  3. [The changes of expression and Fc-gamma-receptor's polypeptide composition of fetal small intestine enterocytes in Bos primigenius taurus L].

    PubMed

    Masiuk, D M; Nedzvets'kyĭ, V S; Tsvilikhovs'kyĭ, M I; Nerush, P O

    2008-01-01

    The expression and polypeptide composition of Fc-gamma-receptors of enterocytes from Bos primigenius taurus L. intestine at 3-, 5-, 7-, 9- month of fetal development was investigated. The results of immunobloting show similar composition of Fc-gamma-receptors extracted from apical and basolateral membranes. The proteins that bind IgG after PAAG electrophoresis and transferring on nitrocellulose were observed as 120, 87, 72 and 43 kDa polypeptide line. The changes of each polypeptide contents were related to the changes of total content of Fc-gamma-receptor proteins. The rise in concentration of Fc-gamma-receptors on apical membrane was observed from 3-rd to 7-th month of fetal development. Maximal concentration of these proteins was detected on enterocytes at 7-th month of fetal development. Fc-gamma-receptors content on basolateral side was higher than on apical side. The presence of Fc-gamma-receptors on enterocyte's membrane indicates on active recycling of these receptors on plasma membrane and reflects early development of immune system in Bos primigenius taurus L. fetus. PMID:18416181

  4. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Leavens, Teresa L; Tell, Lisa A; Kissell, Lindsey W; Smith, Geoffrey W; Smith, David J; Wagner, Sarah A; Shelver, Weilin L; Wu, Huali; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict plasma, liver and milk concentrations of flunixin in cattle following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration for use as a tool to determine factors that may affect the withdrawal time. The PBPK model included blood flow-limited distribution in all tissues and elimination in the liver, kidney and milk. Regeneration of parent flunixin due to enterohepatic recirculation and hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites was incorporated in the liver compartment. Values for physiological parameters were obtained from the literature, and partition coefficients for all tissues but liver and kidney were derived empirically. Liver and kidney partition coefficients and elimination parameters were estimated for 14 pharmacokinetic studies (including five crossover studies) from the literature or government sources in which flunixin was administered i.v., i.m. or s.c. Model simulations compared well with data for the matrices following all routes of administration. Influential model parameters included those that may be age or disease-dependent, such as clearance and rate of milk production. Based on the model, route of administration would not affect the estimated days to reach the tolerance concentration (0.125 mg kg(-1)) in the liver of treated cattle. The majority of USDA-reported violative residues in liver were below the upper uncertainty predictions based on estimated parameters, which suggests the need to consider variability due to disease and age in establishing withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals. The model predicted

  5. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    Two trials were conducted with heifers to determine heat tolerance among temperate Bos taurus (Angus, Hereford), Bos indicus (Brahman), tropical Bos taurus (Senepol, Romosinuano), and the reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol. Differences among breeds in temperament score, circulating concentrations of cortisol, and blood packed cell volume were also investigated. Trial 1 used 43 Angus, 28 Brahman, 12 Hereford, 23 Romosinuano, 16 Senepol, 5 Hereford x Senepol (H x S), and 5 Senepol x Hereford (S x H) heifers. Trial 2 used 36 Angus, 31 Brahman, 9 Hereford, 14 Senepol, 19 H x S, and 10 S x H heifers. On the hottest summer date in Trial 1, rectal temperature of Angus was greater (P < .001) than that of Brahman, Senepol, or Romosinuano. Rectal temperature and plasma cortisol were significantly less in Senepol than in Brahman, suggesting that the differences in rectal temperature between these breeds may be due to differences in stress response possibly related to differences in temperament. Reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol had rectal temperatures nearly as low as that of Senepol and displayed substantial heterosis (-9.4%, P < .05) in log10 rectal temperature on the hottest summer date. On both the hottest and coolest dates in Trial 1, Angus heifers had significantly faster respiration rates than Brahman, Romosinuano, or Senepol heifers, and Brahman had significantly slower respiration rates than Romosinuano or Senepol. On the hottest summer date in Trial 2, rectal temperature in Angus heifers was greater (P < .001) than in Brahman or Senepol had rectal temperatures similar to that of Senepol, or heterosis for log10 rectal temperature was similar to that in Trial 1 (-9.8%, P < .05). Considering rank order among breeds, Brahman always had the slowest respiration rate and greatest packed cell volume. Brahman had significantly greater temperament scores and plasma cortisol concentrations than Angus or Senepol, except that plasma cortisol was not different

  6. Diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jehle, C; Dinkel, A; Sander, A; Morent, M; Romig, T; Luc, P V; De, T V; Thai, V V; Mackenstedt, U

    2009-12-23

    Our aim was to develop a method for species diagnosis and to obtain data on the prevalence of Sarcocystis infections in cattle and water buffalo in the Son La Province of Northern Vietnam. Meat samples of naturally infected animals were examined by light and electron microscopy as well as by molecular methods. A PCR of part of the 18S rDNA gene followed by RFLP analysis was modified to detect infections with different Sarcocystis spp. in cattle and water buffaloes slaughtered in the Son La Province. It showed to be an economical method to detect multiple infections with Sarcocystis spp. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons was performed with selected samples and the results were compared with published sequences. With these methods the following Sarcocystis spp. were identified in cattle: Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis hominis. Water buffaloes were infected with Sarcocystis fusiformis, S. cruzi, S. hominis and S. hirsuta. The results indicate that Sarcocystis spp. infecting cattle are also able to infect water buffaloes. So the validity of certain Sarcocystis spp. of water buffalo is discussed. Bovine lifestock in Northern Vietnam were commonly infected with Sarcocystis spp. PMID:19783101

  7. Genes involved in muscle lipid composition in 15 European Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Dunner, S; Sevane, N; Garcia, D; Levéziel, H; Williams, J L; Mangin, B; Valentini, A

    2013-08-01

    Consumers demand healthy and palatable meat, both factors being affected by fat composition. However, red meat has relatively high concentration of saturated fatty acids and low concentration of the beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids. To select animals prone to produce particular fat types, it is necessary to identify the genes influencing muscle lipid composition. This paper describes an association study in which a large panel of candidate genes involved in adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and energy homoeostasis was tested for effects on fat composition in 15 European cattle breeds. Sixteen genes were found to have significant effects on different lipid traits, and among these, CFL1 and MYOZ1 were found to have large effects on the ratio of 18:2/18:3, CRI1 on the amount of neutral adrenic acid (22:4 n-6), MMP1 on docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) and conjugated linoleic acid, PLTP on the ratio of n-6:n-3 and IGF2R on flavour. Several genes - ALDH2, CHRNE, CRHR2, DGAT1, IGFBP3, NEB, SOCS2, SUSP1, TCF12 and FOXO1 - also were found to be associated with both lipid and organoleptic traits although with smaller effect. The results presented here help in understanding the genetic and biochemical background underlying variations in fatty acid composition and flavour in beef. PMID:23611291

  8. Natural autoantibodies in Bos taurus calves during the first twelve weeks of life.

    PubMed

    Mayasari, N; Van Knegsel, A T M; de Vries Reilingh, G; Kemp, B; Parmentier, H K

    2016-10-01

    Natural autoantibodies (NAAb) have a role in maintaining physiological homeostasis and prevention of infections, and have been found in mammalian species tested so far. Albeit NAAb levels rise with age, little is known about the origin, function, regulation and initiation of NAAb in young animals. The present study addressed the presence of IgM and IgG NAAb binding glutamate dehydrogenase (GD), carbonic anhydrase (CA), myosin (MYO) and transferrin (TRANS) from before drinking colostrum until the first 12 weeks of life in plasma of female calves. In addition, NAAb to these four self-antigens were also measured in colostrum and in plasma of their mothers during three weeks before calving. Titers of NAAb binding GD, CA, MYO and TRANS were detected in plasma of cows before calving, in colostrum, and in plasma of calves before and after drinking of colostrum. Levels of NAAb in colostrum were positively related with levels of NAAb in plasma of cows. Before colostrum intake, levels of NAAb in plasma of calves were not related with levels of NAAb in plasma of their mother but were influenced by parity of their mother. After colostrum intake, levels of NAAb in plasma of calves in the first week of life were positively related with levels of NAAb in colostrum. Low NAAb levels in colostrum were related with low NAAb in plasma of calves in the first week of life, but after two weeks of life the relation between colostrum and plasma of calves was absent. In conclusion, NAAb are already present in the unborn calf, and levels of neonatal NAAb during the early weeks of life are affected by levels of maternal NAAb obtained via colostrum. PMID:27496745

  9. Establishment of a pipeline to analyse non-synonymous SNPs in Bos taurus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael A; Keane, Orla M; Glass, Belinda C; Manley, Tim R; Cullen, Neil G; Dodds, Ken G; McCulloch, Alan F; Morris, Chris A; Schreiber, Mark; Warren, Jonathan; Zadissa, Amonida; Wilson, Theresa; McEwan, John C

    2006-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an abundant form of genetic variation in the genome of every species and are useful for gene mapping and association studies. Of particular interest are non-synonymous SNPs, which may alter protein function and phenotype. We therefore examined bovine expressed sequences for non-synonymous SNPs and validated and tested selected SNPs for their association with measured traits. Results Over 500,000 public bovine expressed sequence tagged (EST) sequences were used to search for coding SNPs (cSNPs). A total of 15,353 SNPs were detected in the transcribed sequences studied, of which 6,325 were predicted to be coding SNPs with the remaining 9,028 SNPs presumed to be in untranslated regions. Of the cSNPs detected, 2,868 were predicted to result in a change in the amino acid encoded. In order to determine the actual number of non-synonymous polymorphic SNPs we designed assays for 920 of the putative SNPs. These SNPs were then genotyped through a panel of cattle DNA pools using chip-based MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the SNPs tested, 29% were found to be polymorphic with a minor allele frequency >10%. A subset of the SNPs was genotyped through animal resources in order to look for association with age of puberty, facial eczema resistance or meat yield. Three SNPs were nominally associated with resistance to the disease facial eczema (P < 0.01). Conclusion We have identified 15,353 putative SNPs in or close to bovine genes and 2,868 of these SNPs were predicted to be non-synonymous. Approximately 29% of the non-synonymous SNPs were polymorphic and common with a minor allele frequency >10%. Of the SNPs detected in this study, 99% have not been previously reported. These novel SNPs will be useful for association studies or gene mapping. PMID:17125523

  10. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P < 0.001) LM area, more (P < 0.001) marbling, and lower (P < 0.001) Warner-Bratzler shear force than B back-cross calves, but no consistent trends were detected between reciprocal crosses for any of these traits, in contrast with the trends observed for the weight traits. Furthermore, males were heavier than females entering (P < 0.001) and leaving (P < 0.001) the feedyard, produced a heavier carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces

  11. Similar rates of chromosomal aberrant secondary oocytes in two indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) breeds as determined by dual-color FISH.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, A; Nicodemo, D; Cosenza, G; Peretti, V; Iannuzzi, A; Di Meo, G P; Ramunno, L; Iannuzzi, L; Rubes, J; Di Berardino, D

    2012-02-01

    In vitro-matured metaphase II (MII) oocytes with corresponding first polar bodies (I pb) from two indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) breeds have been investigated to provide specific data upon the incidence of aneuploidy. A total of 165 and 140 in vitro-matured MII oocytes of the Podolian (PO) and Maremmana (MA) breeds, respectively, were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using Xcen and five chromosome-specific painting probes. Oocytes with unreduced chromosome number were 13.3% and 6.4% in the two breeds, respectively, averaging 10.2%. In the PO, out of 100 MII oocytes + I pb analyzed, two oocytes were nullisomic for chromosome 5 (2.0%) and one disomic for the same chromosome (1.0%). In the MA, out of 100 MII oocytes + I pb, one oocyte was found nullisomic for chromosome 5 (1.0%) and one was disomic for the X chromosome (1.0%). Out of 200 MII oocytes + I pb, the mean rate of aneuploidy (nullisomy + disomy) for the two chromosomes scored was 2.5%, of which 1.5% was due to nullisomy and 1.0% due to disomy. By averaging these data with those previously reported on dairy cattle, the overall incidence of aneuploidy in cattle, as a species, was 2.25%, of which 1.25% was due to nullisomy and 1.0% due to disomy. The results so far achieved indicate similar rates of aneuploidy among the four cattle breeds investigated. Interspecific comparison between cattle (Xcen-5 probes) and pig (Sus scrofa domestica) (1-10 probes) also reveal similar rates. Further studies are needed that use more probes to investigate the interchromosomal effect. Establishing a baseline level of aneuploidy for each species/breed could also be useful for improving the in vitro production of embryos destined to the embryo transfer industry as well as for monitoring future trends of the reproductive health of domestic animals in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID:22056011

  12. X-Y aneuploidy rate in sperm of two "minor" breeds of cattle (Bos taurus) by using dual color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, A; Nicodemo, D; Peretti, V; Marino, G; Iannuzzi, A; Cosenza, G; Di Meo, G P; Ramunno, L; Iannuzzi, L; Rubes, J; Di Berardino, D

    2012-08-01

    The present study reports on the frequency of X-Y aneuploidy in the sperm population of two minor cattle breeds reared in Italy, namely Modicana and Agerolese, which are listed in the "Anagraphic Register of autochthonous cattle populations with limited distribution". More than 50 000 sperm nuclei from 11 subjects (5 and 6, respectively for each breed) have been analyzed by the fluorescent in situ hybridization with the Xcen and Y-chromosome specific painting probes. The fraction of X- and Y-bearing sperm was close to the 1:1 ratio in the Modicana breed, whereas in the Agerolese the Y-fraction was significantly higher (P < 0.002) compared to the X-counterpart. The mean rates of X-Y aneuploidy were 0.510 and 0.466%, respectively, in the two breeds; no significant differences were found among individual bulls within each breed. Average frequencies of disomic and diploid sperm were 0.425 and 0.085% in the former and 0.380 and 0.086% in the latter. In both breeds, (a) disomy was significantly more frequent than diploidy (P < 0.01), (b) YY disomy was significantly (P < 0.001) more frequent than XY or XX; (c) MI errors (XY disomy) were significantly (P < 0.01) less represented than MII (XX + YY disomy). Compared to the dairy (Italian Friesian and Brown) and meat (Podolian and Maremmana) breeds previously analyzed, the "minor" breeds investigated in the present study showed a significantly (P < 0.002) higher rate of X-Y aneuploidy (0.486 vs. 0.159 and 0.190%, respectively). Considering all the breeds analyzed -so far- and assuming no significant interchromosomal effect, the baseline level of aneuploidy in the sperm population of the species Bos taurus was estimated as 5.19%. Establishing the baseline level of aneuploidy in the sperm population of the various livestock species/breeds engaged in animal production could reveal useful for monitoring future trends of their reproductive health, especially in relation to management errors and/or environmental hazards. PMID

  13. Novel SNP identification in exon 3 of HSP90AA1 gene and their association with heat tolerance traits in Karan Fries (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cows under tropical climatic condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Verma, Archana; Singh, Sohan Vir; Verma, Nishant; Vineeth, M R; Magotra, Ankit; Das, Ramendra

    2016-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) act as molecular chaperones those are preferentially transcribed in respose to heat stress and the polymorphism in HSP genes associated with heat tolerance traits in cows. HSP90AA1 gene has been mapped on Bos taurus autosome 21 (BTA-21) and spans nearly 5368 bp comprising of 11 exons out of which the first exon does not translate. The present study was done on Karan Fries (5/8 HF × 3/8 Tharparkar) cows reared in tropical climate with the objectives of identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in targeted regions (exon 3) of HSP90AA1 gene and analyzing their association with heat tolerance traits in Karan Fries cows. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded once daily for four consecutive days during probable extreme hours in different seasons or temperature humidity index (THI), viz., winter, spring, and summer. For detecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms, sequence data were analyzed using BioEdit software (version 7.2). Comparative sequence analysis of HSP90AA1 gene showed point mutation, viz., g.1209A>G (exon 3) as compared to Bos taurus (NCBI Ref Seq: AC_000178.1). Association analysis indicated that THI was influenced (P < 0.01) by RR, RT, and HTC. Similarly, SNPs at locus g.1209A>G were categorized into three genotypes, i.e., AA, AG, and GG, and the least squares means (LSMEANS) of RR, RT, and HTC for GG (homozygous) genotype were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than AA (homozygous) and AG (heterozygous) genotypes. These findings may partly suggest that cows with GG genotypes were favored for heat tolerance trait, which can be used as an aid to selection for thermo-tolerance Karan Fries cows for better adaptation in subtropical and tropical hot climate. PMID:26898694

  14. Effect of slaughter age on the antioxidant enzyme activity, color, and oxidative stability of Korean Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) cow beef.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soohyun; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Kang, Sun Moon

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of slaughter age on the antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid and protein oxidation, and color stability in striploins (M. longissimus lumborum) from Korean Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) cows of different age groups (1.9 to 3.7, 4.0 to 4.8, 5.0 to 5.7, 6.0 to 6.9, and 7.5 to 11.5yr). Myoglobin content and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P<0.05) increased in older cow beef. During refrigerated storage, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the meat from the older cows. The beef from older cows was darker and had lower color stability. These findings suggest that slaughter age has a negative effect on the color and lipid stability of Hanwoo cow beef. PMID:26025115

  15. The interval between the emergence of pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular waves and ovum pickup does not significantly affect in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Lindsay U; Ferraz, Márcio L; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Mesquita, Lígia G; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Meirelles, Flávio V; Trinca, Luzia A; Rennó, Francisco P; Watanabe, Yeda F; Baruselli, Pietro S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal phase of the follicular wave to perform ovum pickup (OPU) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in various genetic groups. For this purpose, 27 heifers-nine Bos taurus (Holstein), nine Bos indicus (Nelore), and nine Bubalus bubalis (Mediterranean)-were maintained under the same nutritional, management, and environmental conditions. Heifers within each genetic group were submitted to six consecutive OPU trials with 14-day intersession intervals, at three different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5 after follicular wave emergence), in a 3 × 3 crossover design. When OPU was performed at different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized follicular wave (Day 1, 3, or 5), no differences were found in the percent of oocytes recovered (70.5 ± 3.1%, 75.0 ± 3.1%, 76.0 ± 3.2%, respectively; P = 0.41) or blastocyst production rates (19.4 ± 2.9%, 16.6 ± 2.9%, 15.9 ± 2.6%, respectively; P = 0.36). Comparing genetic groups, B indicus showed a higher blastocyst rate (28.3(a) ± 2.8%; P < 0.01) than B taurus and B bubalis (14.1(b) ± 2.9% and 10.2(b) ± 2.0%, respectively). However, only B indicus heifers showed a variation in the number of visualized follicles and the total and viable oocytes along consecutive OPU sessions. In conclusion, different phases of the pharmacologically synchronized ovarian follicular wave did not affect OPU-IVEP in B indicus, B taurus, and B bubalis heifers. Additionally, B indicus heifers showed greater OPU-IVEP efficiency than did the other genetic groups, under the same management conditions. PMID:25447149

  16. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated. PMID:24990384

  17. Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 2. The effect of rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur on voluntary food intake and rumen characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hunter, R A; Siebert, B D

    1985-05-01

    In a number of experiments voluntary food intake of three low-quality roughages, either alone or supplemented with rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur and minerals, was measured in Brahman (Bos indicus) and Hereford (Bos taurus) steers. The chaffed hays were Spear grass (Heteropogon contortus) (6.2 g N/kg organic matter (OM)), Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) (7.9 g N/kg OM), and Pangola grass (12.0 g N/kg OM). Rumen characteristics relating to rate of fluid outflow from the rumen were also determined. There was no significant difference between breeds in the dry-matter intakes of the unsupplemented diets which ranged from 11.3 to 17.8 g/kg body-weight (BW) by Herefords and from 11.8 to 16.1 g/kg BW by Brahmans. Supplementation of Spear grass with N and S significantly (P less than 0.05) increased intake by Herefords (24%) but not by Brahmans. When the lower-N Pangola grass was supplemented there was a significant increase in intake by both breeds with the magnitude of the response in Herefords (42%) (P less than 0.001) being greater than that in Brahmans (15%) (P less than 0.05). The intakes of both the supplemented Spear grass and the lower-N Pangola diets were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater by Herefords than Brahmans. There was no breed difference in intake when the higher-N Pangola grass was supplemented. Both breeds recorded an 8% intake response to supplementation, although the increase was only significant (P less than 0.05) in Herefords. The mean retention time of fluid in the rumen on the unsupplemented Pangola grass diet of lower N content was 12.7 h in Brahmans compared with 17.5 h in Herefords (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2998450

  18. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P < 0.05). Measurements related to the calcium-dependent protease system and myofibrillar fragmentation explained the bulk of the variation among breeds, whereas variation in fibre type, sarcomere length and connective tissue properties gave less convincing support. With the exception of the Tuli, Sanga and Sanga-related breeds produced more tender (according to SF) meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415

  19. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

  20. Responses of dairy heifers to the visual cliff formed by a herringbone milking pit: evidence of fear of heights in cows (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Arnold, Naomi Adele; Ng, Kim Tee; Jongman, Ellen Caroline; Hemsworth, Paul Hamilton

    2007-11-01

    The ability of cows (Bos taurus) to perceive depth has never been experimentally investigated. If cows can perceive depth, the milking pit in commercial milking facilities may be fear provoking for dairy cows, as past research has shown that most land-dwelling species possess an instinctive fear of heights. In the current study, 12 dairy heifers (1-year-old cows) were exposed to a milking pit (depth-exposed group) and 13 heifers (control group) were exposed to a standard change in the environment while they moved through a milking facility over a 5-day treatment period. Heifers in the depth-exposed group showed a higher heart rate (p < .05) and stopped more often (p < .05) than did those in the control group; persistence of heart rate but not of behavioral responses on repeated exposures indicated that some habituation to the depth stimulus had occurred. Depth exposure had no effect on cortisol concentrations or on ease of handling. These results indicate that heifers responded differently to a change in depth than they did to a standard change in the environment and provide evidence of both depth perception and acute fear of heights in cows. PMID:18085928

  1. in silico identification of cross affinity towards Cry1Ac pesticidal protein with receptor enzyme in Bos taurus and sequence, structure analysis of crystal proteins for stability

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezer, King Solomon; Nachimuthu, Ramesh; Thiagarajan, Prabha; Velu, Rajesh Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Any novel protein introduced into the GM crops need to be evaluated for cross affinity on living organisms. Many researchers are currently focusing on the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on soil and microbial diversity by field experiments. In spite of this, in silico approach might be helpful to elucidate the impact of cry genes. The crystal a protein which was produced by Bt at the time of sporulation has been used as a biological pesticide to target the insectivorous pests like Cry1Ac for Helicoverpa armigera and Cry2Ab for Spodoptera sp. and Heliothis sp. Here, we present the comprehensive in silico analysis of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins with available in silico tools, databases and docking servers. Molecular docking of Cry1Ac with procarboxypeptidase from Helicoverpa armigera and Cry1Ac with Leucine aminopeptidase from Bos taurus has showed the 125th amino acid position to be the preference site of Cry1Ac protein. The structures were compared with each other and it showed 5% of similarity. The cross affinity of this toxin that have confirmed the earlier reports of ill effects of Bt cotton consumed by cattle. PMID:24023423

  2. Linkage disequilibrium levels in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle using medium and high density SNP chip data and different minor allele frequency distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD), the observed correlation between alleles at different loci in the genome, is a determinant parameter in many applications of molecular genetics. With the wider use of genomic technologies in animal breeding and animal genetics, it is worthwhile revising and improving the...

  3. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, the cows receiving eCG presented larger follicles at TAI (control = 13.5 ± 0.3 mm, 300 IU = 14.0 ± 0.2 mm, and 400 IU = 15.1 ± 0.3 mm; P < 0.0001; C1). However, there was no effect of eCG dose on any response variables studied (C2; P > 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination. PMID:26577752

  4. A Novel Mutation in the Maternally Imprinted PEG3 Domain Results in a Loss of MIMT1 Expression and Causes Abortions and Stillbirths in Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Venhoranta, Heli; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; McKay, Stephanie D.; Flyckt, Antti; Taponen, Juhani; Schnabel, Robert; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Szczerbal, Izabela; Lohi, Hannes; Fries, Ruedi; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Switonski, Marek; Andersson, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Congenital malformations resulting in late abortions and stillbirths affect the economic wellbeing of producers and the welfare of cattle in breeding programs. An extremely high incidence of stillbirths of “half-sized” calves of normal karyotype and uninflated lungs was diagnosed in the progeny of the Finnish Ayrshire (Bos taurus) bull - YN51. No other visible anatomical abnormalities were apparent in the stillborn calves. We herein describe the positional identification of a 110 kb microdeletion in the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain that results in a loss of paternal MIMT1 expression and causes late term abortion and stillbirth in cattle. Using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip we performed a genome-wide half-sib linkage analysis that identified a 13.3 Mb associated region on BTA18 containing the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain. Within this cluster we found a 110 kb microdeletion that removes a part of the non-protein coding MER1 repeat containing imprinted transcript 1 gene (MIMT1). To confirm the elimination of gene expression in calves inheriting this deletion, we examined the mRNA levels of the three maternally imprinted genes within the PEG3 domain, in brain and cotyledon tissue collected from eight fetuses sired by the proband. None of the fetuses that inherited the microdeletion expressed MIMT1 in either tissue. The mutation, when inherited from the sire, is semi-lethal for his progeny with an observed mortality rate of 85%. The survival of 15% is presumably due to the incomplete silencing of maternally inherited MIMT1 alleles. We designed a PCR-based assay to confirm the existence of the microdeletion in the MIMT1 region that can be used to assist cattle breeders in preventing the stillbirths. PMID:21152099

  5. An interpretive review of selective sweep studies in Bos taurus cattle populations: identification of unique and shared selection signals across breeds

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan J.; Wiener, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles the results of 21 genomic studies of European Bos taurus breeds and thus provides a general picture of the selection signatures in taurine cattle identified by genome-wide selection-mapping scans. By performing a comprehensive summary of the results reported in the literature, we compiled a list of 1049 selection sweeps described across 37 cattle breeds (17 beef breeds, 14 dairy breeds, and 6 dual-purpose breeds), and four different beef-vs.-dairy comparisons, which we subsequently grouped into core selective sweep (CSS) regions, defined as consecutive signals within 1 Mb of each other. We defined a total of 409 CSSs across the 29 bovine autosomes, 232 (57%) of which were associated with a single-breed (Single-breed CSSs), 134 CSSs (33%) were associated with a limited number of breeds (Two-to-Four-breed CSSs) and 39 CSSs (9%) were associated with five or more breeds (Multi-breed CSSs). For each CSS, we performed a candidate gene survey that identified 291 genes within the CSS intervals (from the total list of 5183 BioMart-extracted genes) linked to dairy and meat production, stature, and coat color traits. A complementary functional enrichment analysis of the CSS positional candidates highlighted other genes related to pathways underlying behavior, immune response, and reproductive traits. The Single-breed CSSs revealed an over-representation of genes related to dairy and beef production, this was further supported by over-representation of production-related pathway terms in these regions based on a functional enrichment analysis. Overall, this review provides a comparative map of the selection sweeps reported in European cattle breeds and presents for the first time a characterization of the selection sweeps that are found in individual breeds. Based on their uniqueness, these breed-specific signals could be considered as “divergence signals,” which may be useful in characterizing and protecting livestock genetic diversity. PMID:26029239

  6. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East. Methodology Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17) and Domiaty (N = 14), from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i) most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s); (ii) haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades. PMID:26513361

  7. Effects of Stocking Density or Group Size on Intake, Growth, and Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (Bos taurus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Moo; Kim, Jae Yeon; Kim, Eun Joong

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density or group size on feed intake, daily gain, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean indigenous breed) steers reared from 7 months to 31 months of age. Thirty Hanwoo steers were divided into four groups with three replicates each (a total of 12 pens). In each group, one (G1), two (G2), three (G3), and four steers (G4) per pen were allocated as treatments. Pen size was 32.0 m(2), and therefore Hanwoo steers in G1, G2, G3, and G4 were reared under different space allowances, i.e. 32.0, 16.0, 10.6, and 8.0 m(2)/steer, respectively. Steers were reared following a conventional beef cattle management method in Korea, and were offered a fixed amount of commercial concentrate with ad libitum forages. Results were subjected to analysis of variance with stocking density as the main effect, and significance was declared at p<0.05. Although total feed intake was not significantly altered, it numerically increased in animals of low stocking density (G1) compared to those subjected to high stocking density treatment (i.e. G4). Feed conversion ratio was higher (p<0.05) in G3 compared to G1 and G2. Animals in G1 (low stocking density) grew faster (p<0.05) than those of high stocking density (G3 and G4). Back fat thickness, meat yield index, and meat yield grade were similar among all levels of stocking density. However, longissimus muscle area was larger in G1 and G2 (p<0.01) compared to G3 and G4, and animals in G3 produced smaller carcasses (p<0.05). Carcass quality traits, including marbling score, meat color, fat color, texture, maturity and meat quality grade, as determined by a group of experts, were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, lower stocking density resulted in increased feed efficiency, daily gain, and carcass weight in Hanwoo steers. However it remains unclear whether such differences are the results of stocking density or group size, or a combination of both

  8. Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Bodo; Baes, Christine; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Kühn, Christa

    2009-01-01

    Background The somatic cell score (SCS) is implemented in routine sire evaluations in many countries as an indicator trait for udder health. Somatic cell score is highly correlated with clinical mastitis, and in the German Holstein population quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SCS have been repeatedly mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18). In the present study, we report a refined analysis of previously detected QTL regions on BTA18 with the aim of identifying marker and marker haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with SCS. A combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium approach was implemented, and association analyses of marker genotypes and maternally inherited two-marker-haplotypes were conducted to identify marker and haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with a locus affecting SCS in the German Holstein population. Results We detected a genome-wide significant QTL within marker interval 9 (HAMP_c.366+109G>A - BMS833) in the middle to telomeric region on BTA18 and a second putative QTL in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A). Association analyses with genotypes of markers flanking the most likely QTL positions revealed the microsatellite marker BMS833 (interval 9) to be associated with a locus affecting SCS within the families investigated. A further analysis of maternally inherited two-marker haplotypes and effects of maternally inherited two-marker-interval gametes indicated haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A) to be associated with SCS in the German Holstein population. Conclusion Our results confirmed previous QTL mapping results for SCS and support the hypothesis that more than one locus presumably affects udder health in the middle to telomeric region of BTA18. However, a subsequent investigation of the reported QTL regions is necessary to verify the two-QTL hypothesis and confirm the association of two-marker-haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A) with SCS. For this purpose, higher marker

  9. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from bovines (Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis) in Sri Lanka: unexpected absence of C. parvum from pre-weaned calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has important implications for investigating their epidemiology and underpins their control. We undertook the first molecular epidemiological survey of domestic bovids in selected regions of Sri Lanka to establish whether they excreted Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia with zoonotic potential. Methods Faecal samples were collected from dairy calves (n = 340; Bos taurus; < 3 months of age; weekly sampling for six weeks) and water buffaloes (n = 297; Bubalus bubalis; <6 months and ≥6 months of age; one sampling) from seven different farms in Sri Lanka. Genomic DNAs were extracted from individual faecal samples and then tested for the presence of parasite DNA using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing genetic markers within the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein genes (designated pSSU and pgp60, respectively) for Cryptosporidium, and within the triose phosphate isomerise (ptpi) gene for Giardia. Results Based on pSSU sequence data, C. bovis, C. ryanae and six new genotypes that were genetically similar but not identical to C. andersoni (n = 1), C. bovis (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 3) and C. suis (n = 1) were recorded in cattle. For pSSU, two other, new genotypes were defined in water buffalo, which were genetically most similar to Cryptosporidium genotypes recorded previously in this host species in other countries including Australia. Consistent with the findings for pSSU, no species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium with zoonotic potential were detected using pgp60. Based on ptpi sequence data, G. duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in four and 137 samples from cattle, respectively, and assemblage E in two samples from water buffaloes. Conclusions The present study showed that C. parvum, the most commonly reported zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium recognised in bovine calves globally, was not

  10. Multispecific Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) from Bos taurus Has High Affinity and Slow Binding Kinetics towards Prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao; Garza, Denisse; Nigam, Sanjay K.; Chang, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, SLC22A1), like many solute carrier 22 (SLC22) family members, is important for the disposition of clinically important drugs, metabolites and signaling molecules. Several studies suggest that SLC22 family (eg. organic anion transporters or OATs and OCTs) bind and possibly transport prostaglandins with relatively high affinity (submicromolar). The affinities of OCT1 and OATs toward PGE2 and PGF2a reported in these cell-based transport studies are considerably greater than for xenobiotics and natural metabolite substrates—in many cases over 100-fold higher. This raises the possibility that prostaglandins are key endogenous substrates and/or that they act on the transporter in a manner different from other substrates such as xenobiotics and lower affinity metabolites. To further investigate OCT1—prostaglandin interactions, we designed biophysical studies using purified bovine OCT1 (Bos taurus, btOCT1/SLC22A1) with PGE2 analogs, in fluorescently labeled and label-free formats. Using fluorescence polarization (FP), we detected a binding of btOCT1 to the PGE2-Rhodamine conjugate at submicromolar affinity, consistent with affinity data for PGE2 from cells over-expressing the related human OCT1. Using purified native btOCT1 as analyte and biotinylated PGE2 analog as ligand, our data from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that btOCT1 specifically interacts to PGE2 with KD values in the hundred nanomolar range. BtOCT1 also demonstrated a slow association (ka) in the range of 103 M-1s-1 and an even slower dissociation rate (kd) in the range of 10−4 s-1 for PGE2, suggesting the possibility of a different mode of binding compared to other structurally unrelated transported substrates of low-affinity (eg. drugs, metabolites). Our results complement in vitro transport studies and provide direct evidence that OCT1—which is normally expressed in liver and other tissues—interacts with prostaglandin analogs. While it is not

  11. A microsatellite-based analysis for the detection of selection on BTA1 and BTA20 in northern Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Microsatellites surrounding functionally important candidate genes or quantitative trait loci have received attention as proxy measures of polymorphism level at the candidate loci themselves. In cattle, selection for economically important traits is a long-term strategy and it has been reported that microsatellites are linked to these important loci. Methods We have investigated the variation of seven microsatellites on BTA1 (Bos taurus autosome 1) and 16 on BTA20, using bovine populations of typical production types and horn status in northern Eurasia. Genetic variability of these loci and linkage disequilibrium among these loci were compared with those of 28 microsatellites on other bovine chromosomes. Four different tests were applied to detect molecular signatures of selection. Results No marked difference in locus variability was found between microsatellites on BTA1, BTA20 and the other chromosomes in terms of different diversity indices. Average D' values of pairwise syntenic markers (0.32 and 0.28 across BTA 1 and BTA20 respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for non-syntenic markers (0.15). The Ewens-Watterson test, the Beaumont and Nichol's modified frequentist test and the Bayesian FST-test indicated elevated or decreased genetic differentiation, at SOD1 and AGLA17 markers respectively, deviating significantly (P < 0.05) from neutral expectations. Furthermore, lnRV, lnRH and lnRθ' statistics were used for the pairwise population comparison tests and were significantly less variable in one population relative to the other, providing additional evidence of selection signatures for two of the 51 loci. Moreover, the three Finnish native populations showed evidence of subpopulation divergence at SOD1 and AGLA17. Our data also indicate significant intergenic linkage disequilibrium around the candidate loci and suggest that hitchhiking selection has played a role in shaping the pattern of observed linkage disequilibrium. Conclusion

  12. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Iran by PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Hamidinejat, Hossein; Razi Jalali, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Darioush; Molayan, Pedram Haddad

    2015-12-01

    Sarcocystis species are cyst-forming intracellular protozoan parasites. Cattle are mainly infected with Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Water buffaloes are intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis levinei (S. cruzi-like species), Sarcocystis dubeyi, Sarcocystis sinensis (S. hominis-like species) and Sarcocystis buffalonis (S. hirsuta- like species). The aim of this study was Identification of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered cattle and water buffaloes in Ahvaz, Khuzestan province by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Meat inspection was done on 124 cattle and 147 water buffaloes. From each animal tissue samples (each 50 g) from heart, esophagus, diaphragm and intercostal muscle were collected during meat inspection. Samples examined with digestion method. Genomic DNA of 80 positive samples was extracted and their 18S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested by restricted enzymes (FokI, SspI and DraI). S. cruzi in cattle and S. fusiformis in water buffaloes were identified. Our study clarified that sarcocystosis in cattle in Ahvaz district may be results acute infection according to determined species, but in buffaloes as S. fusiformis was detected we may expect only economic loss follow up slaughterhouse inspection. PMID:26688630

  13. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Plasma Half-Life Determination and Long-Term Tissue Distribution in Beef Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Lupton, Sara J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J; Wagner, Sarah; Huwe, Janice K

    2015-12-30

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste, which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of biosolids to pastures and croplands used for feed, and as a result, animals such as beef cattle are exposed to PFOS. To determine plasma and tissue depletion kinetics in cattle, 2 steers and 4 heifers were dosed with PFOS at 0.098 mg/kg body weight and 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. Plasma depletion half-lives for steers and heifers were 120 ± 4.1 and 106 ± 23.1 days, respectively. Specific tissue depletion half-lives ranged from 36 to 385 days for intraperitoneal fat, back fat, muscle, liver, bone, and kidney. These data indicate that PFOS in beef cattle has a sufficiently long depletion half-life to permit accumulation in edible tissues. PMID:26684745

  14. Individual Recognition in Domestic Cattle (Bos taurus): Evidence from 2D-Images of Heads from Different Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Marjorie; Deputte, Bertrand L.; Heyman, Yvan; Baudoin, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to maintain cohesion of groups, social animals need to process social information efficiently. Visual individual recognition, which is distinguished from mere visual discrimination, has been studied in only few mammalian species. In addition, most previous studies used either a small number of subjects or a few various views as test stimuli. Dairy cattle, as a domestic species allow the testing of a good sample size and provide a large variety of test stimuli due to the morphological diversity of breeds. Hence cattle are a suitable model for studying individual visual recognition. This study demonstrates that cattle display visual individual recognition and shows the effect of both familiarity and coat diversity in discrimination. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether 8 Prim'Holstein heifers could recognize 2D-images of heads of one cow (face, profiles, ¾ views) from those of other cows. Experiments were based on a simultaneous discrimination paradigm through instrumental conditioning using food rewards. In Experiment 1, all images represented familiar cows (belonging to the same social group) from the Prim'Holstein breed. In Experiments 2, 3 and 4, images were from unfamiliar (unknown) individuals either from the same breed or other breeds. All heifers displayed individual recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individuals from their own breed. Subjects reached criterion sooner when recognizing a familiar individual than when recognizing an unfamiliar one (Exp 1: 3.1±0.7 vs. Exp 2: 5.2±1.2 sessions; Z = 1.99, N = 8, P = 0.046). In addition almost all subjects recognized unknown individuals from different breeds, however with greater difficulty. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that cattle have efficient individual recognition based on categorization capacities. Social familiarity improved their performance. The recognition of individuals with very different coat characteristics from the subjects was

  15. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions: in silico peptide binding prediction identifies distinct functional clusters.

    PubMed

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie; Nijhof, Ard; Mazzoni, Camila J; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla; Awino, Elias; Olds, Cassandra; Jabbar, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African taurines in T. parva endemic areas is very limited. We utilized the multiplexing capabilities of 454 pyrosequencing to make an initial assessment of class I MHC allelic diversity in a population of Ankole cattle. We also typed a population of exotic Holstein cattle from an African ranch for class I MHC and investigated the extent, if any, that their peptide-binding motifs overlapped with those of Ankole cattle. We report the identification of 18 novel allelic sequences in Ankole cattle and provide evidence of positive selection for sequence diversity, including in residues that predominantly interact with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified in Holstein and Boran (Bos indicus) cattle breeds. PMID:26852329

  16. Effect of species-specific differences in chromosome morphology on chromatin compaction and the frequency and distribution of RAD51 and MLH1 foci in two bovid species: cattle (Bos taurus) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Sebestova, Hana; Vozdova, Miluse; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Kotrba, Radim; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-03-01

    Meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes is crucial for their correct segregation into gametes and for generating diversity. We compared the frequency and distribution of MLH1 foci and RAD51 foci, synaptonemal complex (SC) length and DNA loop size in two related Bovidae species that share chromosome arm homology but show an extreme difference in their diploid chromosome number: cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx, 2nmale = 31). Compared to cattle, significantly fewer MLH1 foci per cell were observed in the common eland, which can be attributed to the lower number of initial double-strand breaks (DSBs) detected as RAD51 foci in leptonema. Despite the significantly shorter total autosomal SC length and longer DNA loop size of the common eland bi-armed chromosomes compared to those of bovine acrocentrics, the overall crossover density in the common eland was still lower than in cattle, probably due to the reduction in the number of MLH1 foci in the proximal regions of the bi-armed chromosomes. The formation of centric fusions during karyotype evolution of the common eland accompanied by meiotic chromatin compaction has greater implications in the reduction in the number of DSBs in leptonema than in the decrease of MLH1 foci number in pachynema. PMID:26194101

  17. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible. PMID:25981105

  18. Comparison of the diurnal pattern and magnitude of velocities of goats (Capra Hircus), sheep (Ovis Aries), horses (Equus Caballus) and cattle (Bos Taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ungulates were bred over the last four thousand years to provide man with food, fiber and motive power. Cattle, horses, sheep and goats arose from different animal ancestors and serve different purposes based upon their unique characteristics. We hypothesized that each species would have ...

  19. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  20. Trace Element Distribution in Selected Edible Tissues of Zebu (Bos indicus) Cattle Slaughtered at Jimma, SW Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dermauw, Veronique; Lopéz Alonso, Marta; Duchateau, Luc; Du Laing, Gijs; Tolosa, Tadele; Dierenfeld, Ellen; Clauss, Marcus; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2014-01-01

    The amount of trace elements present in edible bovine tissues is of importance for both animal health and human nutrition. This study presents data on trace element concentrations in semitendinosus and cardiac muscles, livers and kidneys of 60 zebu (Bos indicus) bulls, sampled at Jimma, Ethiopia. From 28 of these bulls, blood samples were also obtained. Deficient levels of copper were found in plasma, livers, kidneys and semitendinosus muscles. Suboptimal selenium concentrations were found in plasma and semitendinosus muscles. Semitendinosus muscles contained high iron concentrations. Trace elements were mainly stored in the liver, except for iron and selenium. Cardiac muscles generally contained higher concentrations of trace elements than semitendinous muscles except for zinc. A strong association was found between liver and kidney concentrations of copper, iron, cobalt and molybdenum. Liver storage was well correlated with storage in semitendinosus muscle for selenium and with cardiac muscle for cobalt and selenium. Plasma concentrations of copper, selenium, cobalt were well related with their respective liver concentrations and for cobalt and selenium, also with cardiac muscle concentrations. The data suggest multiple trace element deficiencies in zebu cattle in South-West Ethiopia, with lowered tissue concentrations as a consequence. Based on the comparison of our data with other literature, trace element concentrations in selected edible tissues of Bos indicus seem quite similar to those in Bos taurus. However, tissue threshold values for deficiency in Bos taurus cattle need to be refined and their applicability for Bos indicus cattle needs to be evaluated. PMID:24465529

  1. Molecular Characterization of Bovine SMO Gene and Effects of Its Genetic Variations on Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Ran; Gui, Lin-Sheng; Li, Yao-Kun; Jiang, Bi-Jie; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Smoothened (Smo)-mediated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs the patterning, morphogenesis and growth of many different regions within animal body plans. This study evaluated the effects of genetic variations of the bovine SMO gene on economically important body size traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Altogether, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-8) were identified and genotyped via direct sequencing covering most of the coding region and 3'UTR of the bovine SMO gene. Both the p.698Ser.>Ser. synonymous mutation resulted from SNP1 and the p.700Ser.>Pro. non-synonymous mutation caused by SNP2 mapped to the intracellular C-terminal tail of bovine Smo protein; the other six SNPs were non-coding variants located in the 3'UTR. The linkage disequilibrium was analyzed, and five haplotypes were discovered in 520 Qinchuan cattle. Association analyses showed that SNP2, SNP3/5, SNP4 and SNP6/7 were significantly associated with some body size traits (p < 0.05) except SNP1/8 (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, cattle with wild-type combined haplotype Hap1/Hap1 had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body length than those with Hap2/Hap2. Our results indicate that variations in the SMO gene could affect body size traits of Qinchuan cattle, and the wild-type haplotype Hap1 together with the wild-type alleles of these detected SNPs in the SMO gene could be used to breed cattle with superior body size traits. Therefore, our results could be helpful for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs. PMID:26225956

  2. Pregnancy Rates to Fixed Embryo Transfer of Vitrified IVP Bos indicus, Bos taurus or Bos indicus × Bos taurus Embryos.

    PubMed

    Marinho, L S R; Sanches, B V; Rosa, C O; Tannura, J H; Rigo, A G; Basso, A C; Pontes, J H F; Seneda, M M

    2015-10-01

    The pregnancy rates obtained after the transfer of cryopreserved in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos are usually low and/or inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rates of Holstein, Gyr and Holstein × Gyr cattle after the transfer of vitrified IVP embryos produced with X-sorted sperm. Seventy-two Gyr and 703 Holstein females were subjected to ovum pickup (OPU) sessions, followed by in vitro embryo production using semen from sires of the same breeds. Embryos (1636 Holstein, 241 Gyr and 1515 Holstein × Gyr) were exposed to forskolin for 48 h prior to vitrification. The pregnancy rate achieved with Gyr dam and sire was 46.1%, which was similar (p = 0.11) to that of Holstein dam and Gyr sire (40.3%). Crossing Gyr dams with Holstein sires resulted in a pregnancy rate of 38.9% and did not differ (p = 0.58) from the pregnancy rate obtained with the cross between Holstein dams and Gyr sires. The rate obtained with Holstein dam and sire was 32.5%. The average pregnancy rate was 36.6%, and no difference was found in the proportion of female foetuses (88.8%, in average) among breeds (p > 0.05). In conclusion, transfer of cryopreserved X-sorted embryos represents an interesting choice for dairy cattle. Despite the small differences between pregnancy rates, we highlight the efficiency of this strategy for all of the racial groups studied. PMID:26280798

  3. DNA-based authentication method for detection of yak (Bos grunniens) in meat products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Hu, Yue; Yang, Hairong; Han, Jiangxun; Zhao, Yongsheng; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    A TaqMan probe real-time PCR method was developed for rapid detection of yak component in raw and cooked meat products. Specific primers and TaqMan probes of yak (Bos grunniens) were designed in the cytochrome b gene. The specificity of the method was evaluated using pure meat of eight yak breeds (Jiulong, Qinghai plateau, Maiwa, Gannan, Bazhou, Sibu, Zhongdian, and Jiali) samples and nine non-Bos grunniens animals (sheep, goat, pig, chicken, cattle, water buffalo, donkey, horse, and rabbit). DNA showed no cross-reaction with non-Bos grunniens animal DNA. This method proved to be sensitive in detecting the presence of low levels of target DNA obtained from 0.001% (w/w) component in a mixed meat sample. The method also successfully identified commercial yak meat products. The results showed that some yak meat might be involved in business fraud by using cattle meat (in this paper, cattle meat means meat of Bos taurus) instead of yak meat. In conclusion, real-time PCR assay used in this study was shown to be a rapid and sensitive method for detection of yak DNA in fresh meat and cooked meat products. PMID:23513969

  4. Post-mortem oxidative stability of three yak (Bos grunniens) muscles as influenced by animal age.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wenting; Luo, Xiaolin; Xia, Baixue; Guan, Jiuqiang; Nie, Yuanyang; Li, Lu; Duan, Jingyue; Suman, Surendranath P; Sun, Qun

    2015-07-01

    The influence of animal age and muscle source on the oxidative stability of yak steaks was examined. Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscles from yaks of different age groups (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 years), and three muscle sources of LT, Psoas major (PM), and Biceps femoris (BF) from yaks of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 years, were evaluated for metmyoglobin content, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and antioxidant capacity. Oxidative stability was influenced (P<0.05) by muscle source and animal age. LT steaks from 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 year old yaks exhibited lower (P<0.05) metmyoglobin content than their PM and BF counterparts. Furthermore, LT steaks from 3.5 year old yaks demonstrated lower (P<0.05) metmyoglobin content and greater (P<0.05) activities of antioxidant enzymes than LT steaks from other age groups. These results indicated the necessity to develop muscle- and age-specific processing strategies to improve color and oxidative stability of yak meat. PMID:25839885

  5. Utilization of low-quality roughage by Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle. 1. Rumen digestion.

    PubMed

    Hunter, R A; Siebert, B D

    1985-05-01

    Six Hereford and six Brahman steers were fed ad lib. Pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and Spear grass (Heteropogon contortus) hay alone and supplemented with rumen-degradable nitrogen and sulphur and minerals. The rumen digestion of the two feeds was determined by reference to the disappearance of substrate from nylon bags suspended in the rumen and withdrawn after intervals ranging from 8 to 120 h. The digestion of the unsupplemented Pangola grass diet occurred more rapidly in Brahmans than in Herefords and was associated with higher rumen ammonia concentrations in Brahmans (40 v. 16 mg/l). The rumen NH3 concentrations were increased to over 100 mg/l by supplementation. The digestion rate increased in both breeds after supplementation and the breed difference disappeared. Increases in digestion rate were not achieved above NH3 concentrations of 60-80 mg/l. Spear grass, especially the cell-wall-constituent fraction, was more resistant to digestion than Pangola grass. Digestion of the unsupplemented Spear grass diet proceeded more rapidly in Brahmans than in Herefords. The digestion rate in Brahmans were similar irrespective of whether the diet was supplemented or not. Supplementation increased digestion rate in Herefords. PMID:2998449

  6. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2005021

  7. Star formation in Taurus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A.; Jarrett, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Data with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) prototype camera were obtained in a 2.3 sq. deg region in Taurus containing Heiles Cloud 2, a region known from Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) observations to contain a number of very young solar type stars. Data at 1.25 (J), 1.65 (H), and 2.2 (K(sub s)) micrometers are presented. These data are representative of the type and quality of data expected from the planned near-IR surveys, 2MASS and Deep Near-Infrared Survey (DENIS). Near-IR surveys will be useful for determining the large scale variation of extinction with clouds, for determining the luminosity function in nearby clouds down to ranges of 0.1-1.0 solar luminosity, and for finding highly extincted T Tauri stars missed by IRAS because the bulk of their luminosity is emitted shortward of 12 micrometers.

  8. [DNA fingerprinting of individual species and intergeneric and interspecific hybrids of genera Bos and Bison, subfamily Bovinae].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, V A; Steklenev, E P; Morozova, E V; Semenova, S K

    2002-04-01

    Genome fingerprinting with a hypervariable minisatellite sequence of phage M13 DNA was used to study the genetic variation in individual species of the genera Bos and Bison (subfamily Bovinae) and in their interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. DNA fingerprints were obtained for domestic cow Bos taurus primigenius, vatussy Bos taurus macroceros, banteng Bos javanicus, gaur Bos gaurus, wisent Bison bonasus, bison Bison bison, and for the interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. Compared with the original species, most hybrids showed a greater variation in number and size of hybridization fragments. An association was revealed between the number of hybridization fragments and blood composition of interspecific hybrids resulting from unique crossing of domestic cow and banteng. Pairwise similarity coefficients were calculated to construct a dendrogram of genetic similarity, which reflected the relationships between the parental species and hybrids varying in blood composition. The applicability of the method for identifying interspecific and intergeneric hybrids and for studying the consequences of distant hybridization in the subfamily Bovinae is discussed. PMID:12018169

  9. HIGH-THROUGHPUT PHYLOGENOMICS: FROM ANCIENT DNA TO SIGNATURES OF HUMAN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We utilized the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip with 54,693 single nucleotide polymorphism loci developed for Bos taurus taurus to rapidly genotype 677 individuals representing 61 Pecoran (horned ruminant) species diverged by up to 29 million years. We produced a completely bifurcating tree, the first...

  10. Loci on Bos taurus chromosome 2 and Bos taurus chromosome 26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify loci linked with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and subsequently to determine if these same loci were associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus persistent infection (BVD-PI) in BVD-PI calves or their dams. A genome-wide linkage study using 312 microsa...

  11. A Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Mesolithic Wild Aurochs (Bos primigenius)

    PubMed Central

    McGettigan, Paul A.; Lohan, Amanda J.; Murphy, Alison; Finlay, Emma K.; Shapiro, Beth; Chamberlain, Andrew T.; Richards, Martin B.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Loftus, Brendan J.; MacHugh, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. Methodology DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738±68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified aurochsen

  12. Volume calculation of the cattle (Bos taurus L.) and the water buffalo (Bos bubalis L.) metapodia with stereologic method.

    PubMed

    Ince, N G; Pazvant, G; Onar, V; Chrószcz, A; Pasicka, E

    2015-01-01

    In this study, stereological volume estimations using 26 cattle metapodia (26 metacarpal and 26 metatarsal bones) and 8 water buffalo metapodia (8 metacarpal and 8 metatarsal bones) were made. For this purpose metapodia were parallel sectioned at 1 cm intervals according to Cavalieri principle. Grids with 0.4 cm probe intervals were superimposed on top of these sections and the matching points were counted. All of the bone structures and medullar cavity volumes were calculated with the data obtained from a formulation (V = t × a(p) × ΣP) as a spreadsheet using Microsoft Excel® Windows XP. In addition, percent ratio of this volume to whole bone volume was calculated. The mean ratio of bone marrow space to whole bone structure volume equals 15% in all of the cattle and buffalos. The difference between whole bone volumes of cattle and water buffalo was significant (p < 0.05) while the difference in volume of medullary cavity (cavum medullare) was not significantly different between the two investigated species. The aim of current study is to present a new method that can be used for the volumes calculation of whole bones and medullary cavity in metapodial bones and their percentages. PMID:26339814

  13. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, a...

  14. Microsatellite DNA Variation and the Evolution, Domestication and Phylogeography of Taurine and Zebu Cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus)

    PubMed Central

    MacHugh, D. E.; Shriver, M. D.; Loftus, R. T.; Cunningham, P.; Bradley, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic variation at 20 microsatellite loci was surveyed to determine the evolutionary relationships and molecular biogeography of 20 different cattle populations from Africa, Europe and Asia. Phylogenetic reconstruction and multivariate analysis highlighted a marked distinction between humpless (taurine) and humped (zebu) cattle, providing strong support for a separate origin for domesticated zebu cattle. A molecular clock calculation using bison (Bison sp.) as an outgroup gave an estimated divergence time between the two subspecies of 610,000-850,000 years. Substantial differences in the distribution of alleles at 10 of these loci were observed between zebu and taurine cattle. These markers subsequently proved very useful for investigations of gene flow and admixture in African populations. When these data were considered in conjunction with previous mitochondrial and Y chromosomal studies, a distinctive male-mediated pattern of zebu genetic introgression was revealed. The introgression of zebu-specific alleles in African cattle afforded a high resolution perspective on the hybrid nature of African cattle populations and also suggested that certain West African populations of valuable disease-tolerant taurine cattle are under threat of genetic absorption by migrating zebu herds. PMID:9215909

  15. Imputation of microsatellite alleles from dense SNP genotypes for parentage verification across multiple Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite markers (MS) have traditionally been used for parental verification and are still the international standard in spite of their higher cost, error rate, and turnaround time compared with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) -based assays. Despite domestic and international demands fr...

  16. Apollo 17: At Taurus Littrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    A summation, with color illustrations, is presented on the Apollo 17 mission. The height, weight, and thrust specifications are given on the launch vehicle. Presentations are given on: the night launch; earth to moon ascent; separation and descent; EVA, the sixth lunar surface expedition; ascent from Taurus-Littrow; the America to Challenger rendezvous; return, reentry, and recovery; the scientific results of the mission; background information on the astronauts; and the future projects.

  17. The early Middle Pleistocene archeopaleontological site of Wadi Sarrat (Tunisia) and the earliest record of Bos primigenius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Oms, Oriol; Amri, Lamjed; López-García, Juan Manuel; Zerai, Kamel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Mtimet, Moncef-Saïd; Espigares, María-Patrocinio; Ben Haj Ali, Nebiha; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Agustí, Jordi; Khayati-Ammar, Hayet; Maalaoui, Kamel; El Khir, Maahmoudi Om; Sala, Robert; Othmani, Abdelhak; Hawas, Ramla; Gómez-Merino, Gala; Solè, Àlex; Carbonell, Eudald; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Here we describe the new, rich lacustrine paleontological and archeological site of Wadi Sarrat (Le Kef, northeastern Tunisia), dated to the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, ˜0.7 Ma, by a combination of paleomagnetism and biochronology. This locality preserves the earliest record of auroch, Bos primigenius, the ancestor of the worldwide extant domestic cattle species Bos taurus, which is represented by a nearly complete, giant-sized cranium (specimen OS1). Both the cranial anatomy and the size of this specimen reflect the phylogenetic legacy inherited from its ancestor, the late Early Pleistocene African Bos buiaensis, recorded in the eastern African paleoanthropological site of Buia, Eritrea (1.0 Ma). Given that the latter species is an evolved form of the classical Early Pleistocene African buffalo Pelorovis oldowayensis, the finding of B. primigenius at Wadi Sarrat shows that the genus Bos evolved in Africa and dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, which coincides with the spread of the Acheulian technocomplex in northern Africa and Europe. Therefore, the lineage of Pelorovis-Bos has been part of the human ecological landscape since the appearance of the genus Homo in the African Early Pleistocene.

  18. Human versus animal: contrasting decomposition dynamics of mammalian analogues in experimental taphonomy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Kathryn L; Forbes, Shari L; Tibbett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Taphonomic studies regularly employ animal analogues for human decomposition due to ethical restrictions relating to the use of human tissue. However, the validity of using animal analogues in soil decomposition studies is still questioned. This study compared the decomposition of skeletal muscle tissues (SMTs) from human (Homo sapiens), pork (Sus scrofa), beef (Bos taurus), and lamb (Ovis aries) interred in soil microcosms. Fixed interval samples were collected from the SMT for microbial activity and mass tissue loss determination; samples were also taken from the underlying soil for pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient (potassium, phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate) analysis. The overall patterns of nutrient fluxes and chemical changes in nonhuman SMT and the underlying soil followed that of human SMT. Ovine tissue was the most similar to human tissue in many of the measured parameters. Although no single analogue was a precise predictor of human decomposition in soil, all models offered close approximations in decomposition dynamics. PMID:23550805

  19. Whole-genome sequencing of the endangered bovine species Gayal (Bos frontalis) provides new insights into its genetic features

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Chugang; Wang, Hongcheng; Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Gong; Qu, Kaixing; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Anning; Zhao, Chunping; Yang, Wucai; Wang, Chongzhi; Xin, Yaping; Zan, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    Gayal (Bos frontalis) is a semi-wild and endangered bovine species that differs from domestic cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus), and its genetic background remains unclear. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of one Gayal for the first time, with one Red Angus cattle and one Japanese Black cattle as controls. In total, 97.8 Gb of sequencing reads were generated with an average 11.78-fold depth and >98.44% coverage of the reference sequence (UMD3.1). Numerous different variations were identified, 62.24% of the total single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in Gayal were novel, and 16,901 breed-specific nonsynonymous SNPs (BS-nsSNPs) that might be associated with traits of interest in Gayal were further investigated. Moreover, the demographic history of bovine species was first analyzed, and two population expansions and two population bottlenecks were identified. The obvious differences among their population sizes supported that Gayal was not B. taurus. The phylogenic analysis suggested that Gayal was a hybrid descendant from crossing of male wild gaur and female domestic cattle. These discoveries will provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds and may assist relevant departments with future conservation and utilization of Gayal. PMID:26806430

  20. Whole-genome sequencing of the endangered bovine species Gayal (Bos frontalis) provides new insights into its genetic features.

    PubMed

    Mei, Chugang; Wang, Hongcheng; Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Hongbao; Cheng, Gong; Qu, Kaixing; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Anning; Zhao, Chunping; Yang, Wucai; Wang, Chongzhi; Xin, Yaping; Zan, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    Gayal (Bos frontalis) is a semi-wild and endangered bovine species that differs from domestic cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus), and its genetic background remains unclear. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of one Gayal for the first time, with one Red Angus cattle and one Japanese Black cattle as controls. In total, 97.8 Gb of sequencing reads were generated with an average 11.78-fold depth and >98.44% coverage of the reference sequence (UMD3.1). Numerous different variations were identified, 62.24% of the total single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in Gayal were novel, and 16,901 breed-specific nonsynonymous SNPs (BS-nsSNPs) that might be associated with traits of interest in Gayal were further investigated. Moreover, the demographic history of bovine species was first analyzed, and two population expansions and two population bottlenecks were identified. The obvious differences among their population sizes supported that Gayal was not B. taurus. The phylogenic analysis suggested that Gayal was a hybrid descendant from crossing of male wild gaur and female domestic cattle. These discoveries will provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds and may assist relevant departments with future conservation and utilization of Gayal. PMID:26806430

  1. Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Bull; abbrev. Tau, gen. Tauri; area 797 sq. deg.) A northern zodiacal constellation which lies between Aries and Orion, and culminates at midnight in late November. It is one of the oldest constellations, dating back to when the Sun was in that part of the sky at the vernal (spring) equinox, between about 4000 and 1800 BC. Later, in Greek mythology, it was identified with the form assumed by...

  2. Cryosurvival and pregnancy rates after exposure of IVF-derived Bos indicus embryos to forskolin before vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sanches, B V; Marinho, L S R; Filho, B D O; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Meirinhos, M L G; Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Seneda, M M

    2013-09-01

    In vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos are more sensitive to cryopreservation than their in vivo counterparts due to their higher lipid concentrations, whereas Bos indicus IVP embryos are even more sensitive than Bos taurus IVP embryos. To examine the effects of a lipolytic agent, before vitrification of Bos indicus IVP embryos, on embryo survival, viability, and pregnancy rates, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, Bos indicus (Nelore) embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into two groups. In the treatment group, 10 μM of forskolin was added to the in vitro culture medium on Day 5 and incubated for 48 hours. On Day 7 of culture, IVP-expanded blastocysts from both the control (n = 101) and treatment (n = 112) groups were vitrified with ethylene glycol and DMSO via the Cryotop procedure. Although there was no significant difference between the rates of blastocoel reexpansion and hatching of the embryos exposed to forskolin (87.5% and 70.5%, respectively) compared with the control embryos (79.2% and 63.3%, respectively), the numerically superior rates of the embryos exposed to forskolin led to another experiment. In experiment 2, blastocysts produced from the ovum pick up were exposed or not exposed to the lipolytic agent and vitrified as in experiment 1. Embryos treated with forskolin had higher pregnancy rates than the control group (48.8% vs. 18.5%). In view of these results, 1908 Bos indicus embryos were produced from ovum pick up, exposed to the lipolytic agent, and blastocysts were transferred to recipients, and the pregnancy rates of the embryos of various breeds were compared. The mean pregnancy rate obtained was 43.2%. All data were analyzed by chi-square or by binary logistic regression (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, treatment with forskolin before vitrification improved cryotolerance of Bos indicus IVP embryos, resulting in good post-transfer pregnancy rates. PMID:23746692

  3. Genome Wide Scan for Loci influencing Warner Bratzler Shear Force in Five Bos taurus Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic tests for beef tenderness are currently limited to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within µ-calpain (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) and explain little of the phenotypic variation in Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). We performed a genome-wide association study for WBSF by genotyping...

  4. Spatial movement of free-roaming cattle (Bos Taurus) when in proximity to wolves (Canis lupus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1995 and 1996, 31 wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park and 35 in central Idaho. These populations have grown to more than 1,500 with more than 835 in Idaho. As wolf populations have grown, so has predation on livestock, complicating cow and ranch management. Our study was de...

  5. Cryptosporidium ryanae n.sp. (Apicomplexa:Cryptosporidiidae)in cattle (Bos Taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species, Cryptosporidium ryanae, is described from cattle. Oocysts of C. ryanae, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and recorded as such in GenBank (AY587166, EU203216, DQ182597, AY741309, and DQ871345), are morphologically similar to those of C. parvum and C. bovi...

  6. New Q lineage found in bovine (Bos taurus) of Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Oceja, Andres; Muro-Verde, Amara; Gamarra, David; Cardoso, Sergio; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2016-09-01

    The northern Iberian Peninsula is home to a variety of autochthonous cattle breeds, such as the Terreña and Pirenaica. With the objective of characterizing the matrilineal lineages of these breeds, a study of mitochondrial DNA was performed. The D-loop of 155 individuals was analyzed and most of the individuals were carriers of the T3 haplogroup, while haplogroups T and T1 were much less frequent. A Pirenaica individual belonging to the Q haplogroup was found. To verify the presence of the Q haplogroup individual, the entire mitochondrial DNA was sequenced and compared with two descendants. The individuals were assigned to the Q1 sub-haplogroup. These findings extend the geographic distribution of the Q haplogroup to the south west of the European continent. This new Q1 lineage has seven polymorphisms in the coding region, so this lineage is probably as old as the Q lineages described to date. PMID:26554433

  7. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Dominique Judith; Wiedemar, Natalie; Welle, Monika Maria; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned) fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled) fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd) 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings. PMID:25993643

  8. Isozyme characterization of cattle (Bos taurus) and American buffalo (Bison bison) cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Carleer, J; Pastoret, P P; Ansay, M

    1978-01-01

    Four Bovidae cell lines (BEK-1, MDBK, Bu and EBTr) were characterized by means of enzymatic biochemical markers. Out of 15 enzymatic systems, 3--adenosine deaminase (Ada), phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) and nucleoside phosphorylase (Np)--were found to be polymorphic and quite suitable for biochemical identification of each cell line. The Bu cell line has shown a Np phenotypic pattern which could be distinctive of the Bison bison species. PMID:109020

  9. Refinement of Bos taurus sequence assembly based on BAC-FISH experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The sequencing of the cow genome was recently published (Btau_4.0 assembly). A second, alternate cow genome assembly (UMD2), based on the same raw sequence data, was also published. The two assemblies have been subsequently updated to Btau_4.2 and UMD3.1 respectively. Results: We accura...

  10. Responses of Single Chorda Tympani Taste Fibers of the Calf (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas; Elmer, Donald; Cragin, Tiffany; Danilova, Vicktoria

    2010-01-01

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality. The N fibers responded best to LiCl, NaCl, urea, monosodium glutamate, and KCl, whereas the H fibers responded strongly to citric and ascorbic acid. Interestingly, propionic and butyric acid stimulated best the 3rd cluster, whereas the 4th cluster responded best to denatonium benzoate and only to a small extent to quinine hydrochloride. Sweeteners stimulated moderately all clusters. Beginning with the largest response to sweet, the order between the responses was: acesulfame-K, saccharin, D-phenylalanine, glycine, sucrose, fructose, erythritol, cyclamate, and lactose. Alitame, aspartame, and super-aspartame evoked no or little responses. Three and 5 M ethanol stimulated all clusters. Comparison with taste fibers in other species suggests that the taste world of cattle is quite different from other species’. PMID:20212013

  11. Expressional Analysis of Immunoglobulin D in Cattle (Bos taurus), a Large Domesticated Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Beilei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zhiguo; Sun, Yi; Tao, Qiqing; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-01-01

    For decades, it has remained unknown whether artiodactyls, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep, express immunoglobulin D (IgD), although the δ gene was identified in these species nearly 10 years ago. By developing a mouse anti-bovine IgD heavy chain monoclonal antibody (13C2), we show that secreted bovine IgD was present mainly as a monomer in serum and was heavily glycosylated by N-linked saccharides. Nonetheless, IgD was detectable in some but not all of the Holstein cattle examined. Membrane-bound IgD was detected in the spleen by western blotting. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that IgD-positive B cells constituted a much lower percentage of B cells in the bovine spleen (∼6.8% of total B cells), jejunal Peyer's patches (∼0.8%), and peripheral blood leukocytes (∼1.2%) than in humans and mice. Furthermore, IgD-positive B cells were almost undetectable in bovine bone marrow and ileal Peyer's patches. We also demonstrated that the bovine δ gene can be expressed via class switch recombination. Accordingly, bovine δ germline transcription, which involves an Iδ exon and is highly homologous to Iμ, was confirmed. However, we could not identify an Iδ promoter, despite bovine Eμ demonstrating both enhancer and promoter activity. This study has answered a long-standing question in cattle B cell biology and significantly contributes to our understanding of B cell development in this species. PMID:23028592

  12. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANDERSONI N. SP. (APICOMPLEXA: CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE) FROM CATTLE, BOS TAURUS. (R825148)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Responses of single chorda tympani taste fibers of the calf (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Roberts, Thomas; Elmer, Donald; Cragin, Tiffany; Danilova, Vicktoria

    2010-06-01

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality. The N fibers responded best to LiCl, NaCl, urea, monosodium glutamate, and KCl, whereas the H fibers responded strongly to citric and ascorbic acid. Interestingly, propionic and butyric acid stimulated best the 3rd cluster, whereas the 4th cluster responded best to denatonium benzoate and only to a small extent to quinine hydrochloride. Sweeteners stimulated moderately all clusters. Beginning with the largest response to sweet, the order between the responses was: acesulfame-K, saccharin, D-phenylalanine, glycine, sucrose, fructose, erythritol, cyclamate, and lactose. Alitame, aspartame, and super-aspartame evoked no or little responses. Three and 5 M ethanol stimulated all clusters. Comparison with taste fibers in other species suggests that the taste world of cattle is quite different from other species'. PMID:20212013

  14. Evidence of a major gene influencing hair length and heat tolerance in Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Olson, T A; Lucena, C; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C

    2003-01-01

    Evidence was found that supports the existence of a major gene (designated as the slick hair gene), dominant in mode of inheritance, that is responsible for producing a very short, sleek hair coat. Cattle with slick hair were observed to maintain lower rectal temperatures (RT). The gene is found in Senepol cattle and criollo (Spanish origin) breeds in Central and South America. This gene is also found in a Venezuelan composite breed, the Carora, formed from the Brown Swiss and a Venezuelan criollo breed. Two sets of backcross matings of normal-haired sire breeds to Senepol crossbred dams assumed to be heterozygous for the slick hair gene resulted in ratios of slick to normal-haired progeny that did not significantly differ from 1:1. Data from Carora x Holstein crossbred cows in Venezuela also support the concept of a major gene that is responsible for the slick hair coat of the Carora breed. Cows that were 75% Holstein: 25% Carora in breed composition segregated with a ratio that did not differ from 1:1, as would be expected from a backcross matinginvolving a dominant gene. The effect of the slick hair gene on RT depended on the degree of heat stress and appeared to be affected by age and/or lactation status. The decreased RT observed for slick-haired crossbred calves compared to normal-haired contemporaries ranged from 0.18 to 0.4 degrees C. An even larger decrease in RT (0.61 degrees C; P < 0.01) was observed in lactating Carora x Holstein F1 crossbred cows, even though it did not appear that these cows were under severe heat stress. The improved thermotolerance of crossbred calves due to their slick hair coats did not result in increased weaning weights, possibly because both the slick and normal-haired calves were being nursed by slick-haired dams. There were indications that the slick-haired calves grew faster immediately following weaning and that their growth during the cooler months of the year was not compromised significantly by their reduced quantity of hair. In the Carora x Holstein crossbred cows there was a positive effect of slick hair on milk yield under dry, tropical conditions. PMID:12597376

  15. Loss of miRNAs during processing and storage of cow's (Bos taurus) milk.

    PubMed

    Howard, Katherine M; Jati Kusuma, Rio; Baier, Scott R; Friemel, Taylor; Markham, Laura; Vanamala, Jairam; Zempleni, Janos

    2015-01-21

    MicroRNAs (miRs, miRNAs) play central roles in gene regulation. Previously, we reported that miRNAs from pasteurized, store-bought bovine milk have biological activity in humans. Here, we assessed the effects of milk processing, storage, somatic cell content, and handling by consumers on the degradation of miRNAs in milk; we also quantified miRNAs in dairy products. Pasteurization and homogenization caused a 63% loss of miR-200c, whereas a 67% loss observed for miR-29b was statistically significant only in skim milk. Effects of cold storage and somatic cell content were quantitatively minor (<2% loss). Heating in the microwave caused a 40% loss of miR-29b but no loss of miR-200c. The milk fat content had no effect on miRNA stability during storage and microwave heating. The concentrations of miRNAs in dairy products were considerably lower than in store-bought milk. We conclude that processing of milk by dairies and handling by consumers causes a significant loss of miRNAs. PMID:25565082

  16. Effect of Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on tenderness of longissimus steaks of Bos Taurus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Three experiments were conducted to determine 1) the interaction of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) inclusion rate (0 or 300 mg·hd-1·d-1 for last 30 to 34 d before harvest) and dietary protein level (13.5 or 17.5% CP) on LM slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem (Exp. 1); 2) the inter...

  17. [Karyotypic instability of peripheral blood lymphocytes in cows Bos taurus L. infected with bovine leukemia virus].

    PubMed

    Dubik, E P; Treus, V V; Nikitin, N S; Smirnov, A F

    1998-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs), aneuploidy and proliferative potential (PP) were investigated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy cows (control group-C), BLV-(bovine leucosis virus)-infected cattle without hematological abnormalities (RID--seropositive group (I) and affected with leucaemia (lymphocytosis (LC), lymphoma (L)). Nonrandom chromosomal (marker) aberrations were not found in the cow group at stage LC. The levels of aneuploidy and SCEs increased in the cow group at stage L compared to the cow group at stage I. Polyploidy: C--1.9 +/- 0.28, I--3.5 +/- 0.22, LC--6.1 +/- 0.82, L--10.5 +/- 0.51 (P < 0.01). Hypoploidy (2n = 58): C--3.0 +/- 0.17, I--54 +/- 0.71, LC--12.1 +/- 0.72, L--14.0 +/- 0.65 (P < 0.01). SCEs: C--3.8 +/- 0.26, I--5.4 +/- 0.15, LC--7.2 +/- 0.16, L--9.7 +/- 0.26 (P < 0.01). There are no differences in CAs rates and PP between groups of cows at all the observed stages of leucaemic process. The obtained results are discussed in terms of cytogenetic aspects of leucaemic process in cows. PMID:9644765

  18. Origin and Spread of Bos taurus: New Clues from Mitochondrial Genomes Belonging to Haplogroup T1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfiglio, Silvia; Ginja, Catarina; De Gaetano, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Colli, Licia; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Agha, Saif Hassan; Gama, Luis T.; Cattonaro, Federica; Penedo, M. Cecilia T; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Torroni, Antonio; Ferretti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Background Most genetic studies on modern cattle have established a common origin for all taurine breeds in the Near East, during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ka) ago. Yet, the possibility of independent and/or secondary domestication events is still debated and is fostered by the finding of rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups like P, Q and R. Haplogroup T1, because of its geographic distribution, has been the subject of several investigations pointing to a possible independent domestication event in Africa and suggesting a genetic contribution of African cattle to the formation of Iberian and Creole cattle. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence analysis, with its proven effectiveness in improving the resolution of phylogeographic studies, is the most appropriate tool to investigate the origin and structure of haplogroup T1. Methodology A survey of >2200 bovine mtDNA control regions representing 28 breeds (15 European, 10 African, 3 American) identified 281 subjects belonging to haplogroup T1. Fifty-four were selected for whole mtDNA genome sequencing, and combined with ten T1 complete sequences from previous studies into the most detailed T1 phylogenetic tree available to date. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of the 64 T1 mitochondrial complete genomes revealed six distinct sub-haplogroups (T1a–T1f). Our data support the overall scenario of a Near Eastern origin of the T1 sub-haplogroups from as much as eight founding T1 haplotypes. However, the possibility that one sub-haplogroup (T1d) arose in North Africa, in domesticated stocks, shortly after their arrival from the Near East, can not be ruled out. Finally, the previously identified “African-derived American" (AA) haplotype turned out to be a sub-clade of T1c (T1c1a1). This haplotype was found here for the first time in Africa (Egypt), indicating that it probably originated in North Africa, reached the Iberian Peninsula and sailed to America, with the first European settlers. PMID:22685589

  19. Loss of miRNAs during Processing and Storage of Cow's (Bos taurus)Milk

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Katherine M.; Kusuma, Rio Jati; Baier, Scott R.; Friemel, Taylor; Markham, Laura; Vanamala, Jairam; Zempleni, and Janos

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs, miRNAs) play central roles in gene regulation. Previously, we reported that miRNAs from somatic cell content, and handling by consumers on the degradation of miRNAs in milk; we also quantified miRNAs in dairy products. Pasteurization and homogenization caused a 63% loss of miR-200c, whereas a 67% loss observed for miR-29b was statistically significant only in skim milk. Effects of cold storage and somatic cell content were quantitatively minor (<2% loss). Heating in the microwave caused a 40% loss of miR-29b but no loss of miR-200c. The milk fat content had no effect on miRNA stability during storage and microwave heating. The concentrations of miRNAs in dairy products were considerably lower than in store-bought milk. We conclude that processing of milk by dairies and handling by consumers causes a significant loss of miRNAs. PMID:25565082

  20. Preweaning performance and body composition of calves from straightbred Nellore and Bos taurus x Nellore crosses.

    PubMed

    Calegare, L; Alencar, M M; Packer, I U; Leme, P R; Ferrell, C L; Lanna, D P D

    2009-05-01

    The objectives were to evaluate preweaning performance, body composition, and efficiency of calves representing straightbred Nellore (NL), F(1), and 3-breed-cross systems. Energy requirements, milk production, and efficiency of 39 cow-calf pairs were recorded from straightbred NL calves from NL cows (10), crossbred (Angus-sired) calves from NL cows (ANL: 9), and crossbred calves (CC; Canchim-sired: 5/8 Charolais, 3/8 Zebu) from ANL (10) and Simmental x NL (10) cows. Cows and their respective calves were individually fed from birth to weaning (17 to 190 d postpartum). At 38 d of age, corn silage (7.8% CP, 2.19 Mcal of ME/kg of DM) was available to calves ad libitum. Milk production at 42, 98, 126, and 180 d postpartum was recorded by weighing calves before and after suckling. The ratio between GE and ME of milk was considered 1:0.93. Calves were slaughtered at weaning and the 9th-, 10th-, and 11th-rib section was removed for body composition estimation. The ANL calves were lighter (P < 0.01) at birth than the CC calves; the NL calves were intermediate. At weaning, the CC calves were heavier (P = 0.04) than the NL and ANL calves (230 +/- 5.5 vs. 172 +/- 8.1 and 209 +/- 8.6 kg, respectively). The ANL calves had greater (371 +/- 27 Mcal; P = 0.01) silage intake than the NL (270 +/- 25 Mcal) and CC (279 +/- 17 Mcal) calves. Milk energy intake was greater for the CC calves (970 +/- 38 Mcal of ME; P = 0.005) than the NL (670 +/- 57 Mcal of ME) and ANL (743 +/- 61 Mcal of ME) calves. The ANL calves compensated for the reduced milk production of the NL cows, which supplied less of their energy requirement for growth by increased silage intake. Calves from crossbred cows received a greater proportion of their total energy intake from milk. Crossbred calves had greater (P < 0.03) retained energy (retained energy = weaning body energy - birth body energy) than the NL calves (388 +/- 23 for ANL, and 438 +/- 15 for CC vs. 312 +/- 22 Mcal for NL calves). Percentages of water (P = 0.74) and chemical fat (P = 0.51) were similar among groups (63.7 +/- 0.6 and 14.3 +/- 0.7% for ANL calves, 63.1 +/- 0.4 and 14.7 +/- 0.5% for CC calves, and 63.3 +/- 0.6 and 13.7 +/- 0.7% of empty BW for water and chemical fat, respectively, for NL calves). Energetic efficiency (kcal of retained energy/Mcal of ME intake) was similar (P = 0.52) among groups (358 +/- 22 for ANL calves, 355 +/- 14 for CC calves, and 327 +/- 22 for NL calves). The greater BW gains and the differences in empty body composition at weaning were not enough to compensate for the greater ME intake of crossbreds. In this study, the crossbreeding systems evaluated increased preweaning calf performance but did not affect gross or energetic calf efficiency. PMID:19122045

  1. Preweaning performance and body composition of calves from straightbred Nellore and Bos taurus x Nellore crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate preweaning performance, body composition, and efficiency of calves representing straightbred Nellore (NL), F1, and three breed-cross systems. Energy requirements, milk production, and efficiency of 39 cow/calf pairs were recorded from straightbred NL cal...

  2. Bos taurus papillomavirus activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: demonstrating a productive infection.

    PubMed

    Melo, T C; Araldi, R P; Pessoa, N S D; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus with mucous and epithelial tropism. Possible productive virus infection in other tissues, such as blood, has been hypothesized. In order to investigate this possibility, three samples of skin papillomas and blood were collected from bovines with BPV infection and five samples of peripheral blood and one sample of normal tissue were collected from a calf without BPV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood and examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. The tissue samples were examined for histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The skin papillomas showed the presence of DNA sequences of BPV-2, BPV-11, and a putative virus type. The blood samples showed DNA sequences of BPV-1, 2, and 4 simultaneously. Immunohistochemistry showed BPV L1 protein in both epithelium and stroma and BPV E2 protein in koilocytes. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of BPV DNA in PBMCs and immunofluorescence showed nuclear labeling of E2 and L1 BPV proteins in PBMCs. The transcription analysis revealed transcripts of BPV-1 L1, BPV-2 L2, and BPV-4 E7 in blood and papilloma samples of BPV-infected cattle. The comet assay revealed high levels of host cell DNA damage upon BPV infection. Electron microscopy analysis of PBMCs identified the presence of particles in the cytoplasm that are consistent with papillomavirus in size and shape. The productive infection of PBMCs with BPV has been previously discussed and this study provides evidence indicating that PBMCs are a target of BPV. PMID:26681018

  3. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosset, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  4. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosset, M.

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  5. Taurus lightweight manned spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Kevin A.; Vandersall, Eric J.; Plotkin, Jennifer; Travisano, Jeffrey J.; Loveless, Dennis; Kaczmarek, Michael; White, Anthony G.; Est, Andy; Bulla, Gregory; Henry, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff data of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step towards larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the Space Shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster--1300 kg to a 300 km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The human factors system deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The propulsion section contains the abort system, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and power generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the structures section. The avionics section includes navigation, attitude determination, data processing, communication systems, and sensors. The mission analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The systems integration section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft and addressed costing and reliability.

  6. Discovery of low mass objects in Taurus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, W. J.; Ninkov, Z.; Garnett, J. D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Shure, M.

    1989-01-01

    In infrared (2.2 micron, K-band) search of small regions (25 in square) near 26 members of the Taurus star-forming association has revealed 20 dim (K = 13-16 mag) stellar objects near 13 of them. Of these 20 objects, 9 are exceptionally red. It is argued that these 9 are probably also Taurus members. From the luminosities (0.4 to 4 times 10 the -3 power luminosity) and ages (estimated at 10(exp 6) years), masses can be determined by reference to theoretical low-mass cooling curves. The masses are in the range 0.005 to 0.015 solar mass, i.e., low-mass brown dwarfs. Proper motion studies of 7 of the objects visible on the POSS plates conducted by Burton Jones establish that 4 are highly probable Taurus members while 1 is a possible member.

  7. Estimated breeding values for meat characteristics of crossbred cattle with an animal model.

    PubMed

    Van Vleck, L D; Hakim, A F; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Crouse, J D; Boldman, K G

    1992-02-01

    Longissimus muscle area, shear force measure, and sensory panel scores for flavor, juiciness, and tenderness, and marbling score were obtained from 682 steer carcasses, resulting from crosses among five Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. The single-trait model used included birth year and as covariates breed fractions, weaning age, and days on feed. The numerator relationship matrix was for 1,350 animals (682 steers, 74 pure breed and 52 F1-cross sires and 542 dams). The coefficient matrix was inverted to examine standard errors of prediction. Estimated breeding value is the sum of the estimate of genetic deviation and the weighted (fractions) sum of estimates of breed effects. Heritabilities used in estimating breeding values were .62, .06, .05, .11, .05, and .43 for longissimus muscle area, shear force, flavor, juiciness, tenderness, and marbling score. Sires within a breed or crossbred group tended to rank similarly due to large differences among breed effects (e.g., the six Sahiwal sires ranked in the highest six places for shear force). These results illustrate that for traits with large breed differences, selection of the proper breed should be done before selection within that breed. PMID:1548197

  8. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    PubMed

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  9. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes residing on chromosomes 14 and 29 for association with carcass composition traits in Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Riley, D G; Smith, T P L; Brenneman, R A; Olson, T A; Johnson, D D; Coleman, S W; Bennett, G L; Chase, C C

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), thyroglobulin (TG), and micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease (CAPN1) genes with carcass composition and meat quality traits in Bos indicus cattle. A population of Brahman calves (n = 479) was developed in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits analyzed were ADG, hip height, slaughter weight, fat thickness, HCW, marbling score, LM area, estimated KPH fat, yield grade, retail yield, sensory panel tenderness score, carcass hump height, and cooked meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported in the TG and DGAT1 genes were used as markers on chromosome 14. Two previously reported and two new SNP in the CAPN1 gene were used as markers on chromosome 29. One SNP in CAPN1 was uninformative, and another one was associated with tenderness score (P < 0.05), suggesting the presence of variation affecting meat tenderness. All three informative SNP at the CAPN1 gene were associated with hump height (P < 0.02). The TG marker was associated with fat thickness and LMA (P < 0.05), but not with marbling score. No significant associations of the SNP in the DGAT1 gene were observed for any trait. Allele frequencies of the SNP in TG and CAPN1 were different in this Brahman population than in reported allele frequencies in Bos taurus populations. The results suggest that the use of molecular marker information developed in Bos taurus populations to Bos indicus populations may require development of appropriate additional markers. PMID:15583037

  10. A Semi-Automated Single Day Image Differencing Technique to Identify Animals in Aerial Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Terletzky, Pat; Ramsey, Robert Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Our research presents a proof-of-concept that explores a new and innovative method to identify large animals in aerial imagery with single day image differencing. We acquired two aerial images of eight fenced pastures and conducted a principal component analysis of each image. We then subtracted the first principal component of the two pasture images followed by heuristic thresholding to generate polygons. The number of polygons represented the number of potential cattle (Bos taurus) and horses (Equus caballus) in the pasture. The process was considered semi-automated because we were not able to automate the identification of spatial or spectral thresholding values. Imagery was acquired concurrently with ground counts of animal numbers. Across the eight pastures, 82% of the animals were correctly identified, mean percent commission was 53%, and mean percent omission was 18%. The high commission error was due to small mis-alignments generated from image-to-image registration, misidentified shadows, and grouping behavior of animals. The high probability of correctly identifying animals suggests short time interval image differencing could provide a new technique to enumerate wild ungulates occupying grassland ecosystems, especially in isolated or difficult to access areas. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to use standard change detection techniques to identify and enumerate large ungulates. PMID:24454827

  11. MHD Turbulence in the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, M.; Gong, H.; Brunt, C.; Ostriker, E.

    2005-12-01

    The presence of MHD turbulence in the Taurus Molecular Cloud is examined from 12CO and 13CO J=1-0 imaging observations using the FCRAO 14 meter telescope. The degree of velocity anisotropy is measured from velocity structure functions derived separately along the x and y axes using Principal Component Analysis of spectroscopic imaging data (Brunt & Heyer 2002). Such anisotropy is predicted from model descriptions and computational simulations of MHD turbulence in the case of strong magnetic fields (Goldreich & Sridhar 1995; Cho, Lazarian, & Vishniac 2002; Vestuto, Ostriker, & Stone 2003). Within a subfield of the Taurus image where the column densities are low, this velocity anisotropy is largest along an angle that is coincident with the local magnetic field direction determined independently from optical polarization of background stars.The structure function derived from data perpendicular to the local field shows a shallower scaling exponent and a larger scaling coefficient than the values that describe the structure function constructed along the magnetic field as predicted by the MHD models. This alignment provides strong evidence that the magnetic field is a significant dynamical force within this column density regime of the Taurus cloud.

  12. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations), insects (7), and reptiles (5). The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae “teju” lizards (44 citations); Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations); Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations); Ovis aries sheep (31 citations); Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations); Boa constrictor (12 citations); and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations). A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was “problems affecting the respiratory system”. Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna. PMID:23050756

  13. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Neta, Rita Oliveira de Sousa; Trovão, Dilma Maria de Brito Melo; Barbosa, Jose Etham de Lucena; Barros, Adrianne Teixeira; Dias, Thelma Lucia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations), insects (7), and reptiles (5). The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae "teju" lizards (44 citations); Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations); Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations); Ovis aries sheep (31 citations); Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations); Boa constrictor (12 citations); and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations). A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was "problems affecting the respiratory system". Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna. PMID:23050756

  14. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vacc...

  15. Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and beef carcass fatness traits in a cross between Bos taurus (Angus) and Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Farnir, F; Savell, J; Taylor, J F

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and beef carcass fatness traits in an experimental population of Angus and Brahman crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 602 progeny from 29 reciprocal backcross and three F2 full-sib families, and 417 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-averaged map of the 29 autosomes spanning 2,642.5 Kosambi cM. Alternative interval-mapping approaches were applied under line-cross (LC) and random infinite alleles (RA) models to detect QTL segregating between and within breeds. A total of 35 QTL (five with genomewide significant and 30 with suggestive evidence for linkage) were found on 19 chromosomes. One QTL affecting yearling weight was found with genomewide significant evidence for linkage in the interstitial region of bovine autosome (BTA) 1, and an additional 19 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the LC model. Many of these QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects the fact that heterosis for growth is known to be appreciable in crosses among Brahman and British breeds. Four QTL affecting growth were detected with genomewide significant evidence for linkage under the RA model on BTA 2 and BTA 6 for birth weight, BTA 5 for yearling weight, and BTA 23 for hot carcass weight. An additional 11 QTL were detected with suggestive evidence for linkage under the RA model. None of the QTL (except for yearling weight on BTA 5) detected under the RA model were found by the LC analyses, suggesting the segregation of alternate alleles within one or both of the parental breeds. Our results reveal the utility of implementing both the LC and RA models to detect dominant QTL and also QTL with similar allele frequency distributions within parental breeds. PMID:12926775

  16. Preweaning growth of Angus- (Bos taurus), Brahman- (Bos indicus), and Tuli- (Sanga) sired calves and reproductive performance of their Brahman dams.

    PubMed

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1995-09-01

    Calves born to Angus (A), Brahman (B), or Tuli (T) bulls and B cows were evaluated to determine sire breed of calf effects on preweaning calf growth and reproductive performance of their dams. Records from 242 cow-calf pairs over 2 yr were used to assess birth weight, calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and postpartum interval to estrus (PPI). The sire breed x sex of calf interaction was important (P < .05) for birth weight, weaning weight, and gestation length. Birth weights of BB males (32.8 +/- .8 kg) were significantly heavier than for AB and TB males (30.1 +/- .9 and 28.6 +/- .7 kg, respectively) and BB females (29.4 +/- .7 kg). As a main effect, sire breed of calf affected (P < .05) calf ADG, weaning weight, gestation length, and PPI. Calf ADG and weaning weights were greater for AB (.90 +/- .01 kg/d; 220.9 +/- 3.5 kg) than for TB (.81 +/- .01 kg/d; 200.4 +/- 3.0 kg) and BB calves (.78 +/- .01 kg/d; 198.8 +/- 3.5 kg). Gestation lengths differed (P < .01) among all calf genotypes (284, 288, and 294 +/- 1 d for AB, TB, and BB, respectively). Postpartum intervals were shorter (P < .05) for cows nursing BB calves (83 +/- 4 d) than for cows nursing AB (95 +/- 5 d) and TB calves (97 +/- 4 d). Tuli-sired F1 calves were inferior to Angus-sired F1 calves and similar to straightbred Brahman calves in preweaning growth. Crossbred calves had shorter gestations but longer postpartum intervals than purebred calves. PMID:8582844

  17. Purebred-crossbred performance and genetic evaluation of postweaning growth and carcass traits in Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, S; Reverter, A; Johnston, D J

    2002-07-01

    Growth and carcass data on 7,154 cattle from a purebred project and 1,241 cattle from a crossbred project, comprising 916 first-crosses and 325 purebred Brahman controls, were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters, including the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performance (rpc). The data also allowed the estimation of sire breed means for various growth and carcass traits. Crossbred calves were produced using 9 Angus, 8 Hereford, 7 Shorthorn, 14 Belmont Red, and 8 Santa Gertrudis sires bred to Brahman dams. These same sires produced 1,568 progeny in a separate purebreeding project. Cattle in both projects were managed under two finishing regimens (pasture and feedlot) to representative market live weights of 400 (domestic), 520 (Korean), and 600 kg (Japanese). The traits studied included live weight at around 400 d of age (400W), hot carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat depth (P8), and preslaughter ultrasound scanned eye muscle area (SEMA). Estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires from their BREEDPLAN genetic evaluations were used to assess their value in predicting crossbred performance. Regressions of actual crossbred calf performance on sire EBV for each of the traits differed little from their expectation of 0.5. Angus sires produced crossbred carcasses with the highest P8 and lowest RBY but highest IMF. In contrast, crossbred progeny from Belmont Red sires had the lightest 400W and CWT, lowest P8, and highest RBY. Estimates of rpc were 0.48, 0.48, 0.83, 0.95, 1.00, and 0.78 for 400W, CWT, RBY, IMF, P8, and SEMA, respectively. Commercial breeders selecting sires for crossbreeding programs with Brahman females, based on EBV computed from purebred data, might encounter some reranking of sire's performance for weight-related traits, with little expected change in carcass traits. PMID:12162647

  18. Strategies for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to enhance genotype imputation in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle: Comparison of commercially available SNP chips.

    PubMed

    Boison, S A; Santos, D J A; Utsunomiya, A H T; Carvalheiro, R; Neves, H H R; O'Brien, A M Perez; Garcia, J F; Sölkner, J; da Silva, M V G B

    2015-07-01

    Genotype imputation is widely used as a cost-effective strategy in genomic evaluation of cattle. Key determinants of imputation accuracies, such as linkage disequilibrium patterns, marker densities, and ascertainment bias, differ between Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds. Consequently, there is a need to investigate effectiveness of genotype imputation in indicine breeds. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate strategies and factors affecting the accuracy of genotype imputation in Gyr (Bos indicus) dairy cattle. Four imputation scenarios were studied using 471 sires and 1,644 dams genotyped on Illumina BovineHD (HD-777K; San Diego, CA) and BovineSNP50 (50K) chips, respectively. Scenarios were based on which reference high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel (HDP) should be adopted [HD-777K, 50K, and GeneSeek GGP-75Ki (Lincoln, NE)]. Depending on the scenario, validation animals had their genotypes masked for one of the lower-density panels: Illumina (3K, 7K, and 50K) and GeneSeek (SGGP-20Ki and GGP-75Ki). We randomly selected 171 sires as reference and 300 as validation for all the scenarios. Additionally, all sires were used as reference and the 1,644 dams were imputed for validation. Genotypes of 98 individuals with 4 and more offspring were completely masked and imputed. Imputation algorithms FImpute and Beagle v3.3 and v4 were used. Imputation accuracies were measured using the correlation and allelic correct rate. FImpute resulted in highest accuracies, whereas Beagle 3.3 gave the least-accurate imputations. Accuracies evaluated as correlation (allelic correct rate) ranged from 0.910 (0.942) to 0.961 (0.974) using 50K as HDP and with 3K (7K) as low-density panels. With GGP-75Ki as HDP, accuracies were moderate for 3K, 7K, and 50K, but high for SGGP-20Ki. The use of HD-777K as HDP resulted in accuracies of 0.888 (3K), 0.941 (7K), 0.980 (SGGP-20Ki), 0.982 (50K), and 0.993 (GGP-75Ki). Ungenotyped individuals were imputed with an

  19. Last chance at Taurus-Littrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelms, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    By the fall of 1971, it was known that only two more Apollos would land on the Moon. Most geoscientists agreed that both should concentrate on the previously neglected terrae (highlands). In June 1991, the Apollo Site Selection Board (ASSB) had chosen Descartes as the site of the Apollo 16 terra landing, scheduled for April 1972. Therefore, we had to assess how many pre-Apollo objectives the first four landings had met, how many Apollo 16 was likely to meet, and how to meet the remaining ones with Apollo 17. Geologists convened at Caltech in November 1971 and formulated a list of major lunar problems. An edited version of the list is presented, and how the remaining problems influenced the Apollo 16 and 17 landing site selection process is discussed with particular emphasis on the selection of Taurus-Littrow as the landing site for Apollo 17. Apollo 17 returned a fine collection from the massifs, bright mantle, Sculptured Hills, subfloor basalt, and dark mantle of Taurus-Littrow. They answered many of 1971's questions, showed others to have been wrongly asked, and left others for us to ponder still today. A brief discussion of the problems solved and the questions raised by the Apollo Program are presented.

  20. Molecular Cloning, Bioinformatics Analysis and Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 from Tianzhu White Yak, Bos grunniens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quanwei; Gong, Jishang; Wang, Xueying; Wu, Xiaohu; Li, Yalan; Ma, Youji; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Xingxu

    2014-01-01

    The IGF family is essential for normal embryonic and postnatal development and plays important roles in the immune system, myogenesis, bone metabolism and other physiological functions, which makes the study of its structure and biological characteristics important. Tianzhu white yak (Bos grunniens) domesticated under alpine hypoxia environments, is well adapted to survive and grow against severe hypoxia and cold temperatures for extended periods. In this study, a full coding sequence of the IGF2 gene of Tianzhu white yak was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for the first time. The cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame of 450 nucleotides, encoding a protein with 179 amino acids. Its expression in different tissues was also studied by Real time PCR. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that yak IGF2 was similar to Bos taurus, and 3D structure showed high similarity with the human IGF2. The putative full CDS of yak IGF2 was amplified by PCR in five tissues, and cDNA sequence analysis showed high homology to bovine IGF2. Moreover the super secondary structure prediction showed a similar 3D structure with human IGF2. Its conservation in sequence and structure has facilitated research on IGF2 and its physiological function in yak. PMID:24394317

  1. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  2. The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism (BOS): Frequency Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; And Others

    Frequency data are reported from a research project aimed at developing the Behavior Observation Scale (BOS), an objective assessment tool for establishing the diagnosis of autism. The goals of the BOS are to differentiate autistic, normal, and mentally retarded children (ages 30 to 60 months) along objective symptom axes involving 67 behaviors.…

  3. Predicting wolf (Canis lupus)-cattle (Bos Taurus) encounters and consequential effects on cattle resource selection patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gray wolf population in Idaho has grown dramatically from the original 35 reintroduced individuals in 1995-1996 to 94 documented packs and a minimum population of 835 individuals in 2009. Wolf depredation on livestock has also increased dramatically with this population growth. Substantial spa...

  4. Characteristics and functions of a minor FSH surge near the end of an interovulatory interval in Bos taurus heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Baldrighi, J M; Siddiqui, M A R; Wolf, C A

    2016-07-01

    The apparent function of a minor FSH surge based on temporality with follicular events was studied in 10 heifers with 2 follicular waves per interovulatory interval. Individual follicles were tracked from their emergence at 2 mm until their outcome was known, and a blood sample was collected for FSH and LH assay every 12 h from day -14 (day 0 = ovulation) to day 4. A minor FSH surge occurred in each heifer (peak, day -4.6 ± 0.2). Concentration of LH increased (P < 0.05) during the FSH increase of the minor surge but did not decrease during the FSH decrease. A minor follicular wave with 8.2 ± 2.0 follicles occurred in 6 of 10 heifers. The maximal diameter (mean, 3.4 ± 0.9 mm) of 77% of the minor-wave follicles occurred in synchrony on day -4.4 ± 0.4. Most (59%) of minor-wave follicles regressed before ovulation and 41% decreased and then increased in diameter (recovered) on day -1.9 ± 0.3 to become part of the subsequent wave 1. A mean of 3.7 ± 0.9 regressing subordinate follicles from wave 2 recovered on the day before or at the peak of the minor FSH surge. The growth rate of the preovulatory follicle decreased (P < 0.02) for 3 d before the peak of the minor FSH surge and then increased (P < 0.03). Concentration of LH increased slightly but significantly temporally with the resurgence in growth rate of the preovulatory follicle. A minor LH surge peaked (P < 0.0002) on day 3 at the expected deviation in growth rates between the future dominant and subordinate follicles. Results indicated on a temporal basis that the recovery of some regressing subordinate follicles of wave 2 was attributable to the minor FSH surge. The hypothesis was supported that some regressing follicles from the minor follicular wave recover to become part of wave 1. PMID:27131335

  5. A novel analytical method detects response of the Angus (Bos taurus) genome to artificial selection on complex traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods have recently been developed to identify selective sweeps within genomes. However, recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that polygenic models are required to identify the genomic regions that have responded to selection on complex traits. Using DNA samples from US registe...

  6. Expression of the SIRT2 Gene and Its Relationship with Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Lin-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ran; Liu, Gui-Yao; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Silent information regulator 2 (SIRT2) is a member of the sirtuin family of class III NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)-dependent protein deacetylases and may regulate senescence, metabolism and apoptosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the SIRT2 gene could be used as a candidate gene in the breeding of Qinchuan cattle. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that among all types of tissue that were analyzed, the highest mRNA expression levels of the gene were found in subcutaneous fat. DNA sequencing of 468 individual Qinchuan cattle identified two novel, single nucleotide polymorphisms (g.19501 C > T and g.19518 C > T) in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the SIRT2 gene. The frequencies of SNP g.19501 C > T and g.19518 C > T were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in all the samples (chi-square test, χ2 < χ0.052). An association analysis showed that the two loci were significantly correlated with some body size traits and the H2H2 (-CT-CT-) diplotypes performed better than other combinations. These results indicated that the variations in the SIRT2 gene and their corresponding genotypes may be considered as molecular markers for economic traits in cattle breeding. PMID:25622258

  7. Perfluorooctane sulfonate plasma half-life determination and long term tissue distribution in beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of bi...

  8. Fine mapping and association analysis of a quantitative trait locus for milk production traits on Bos taurus autosome 4.

    PubMed

    Rincón, G; Islas-Trejo, A; Casellas, J; Ronin, Y; Soller, M; Lipkin, E; Medrano, J F

    2009-02-01

    To fine map a quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting milk production traits previously associated with microsatellite RM188, we implemented an interval mapping analysis by using microsatellite markers in a large Israeli Holstein half-sib sire family, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping in a large set of US Holstein bulls. Interval mapping located the target QTL to the near vicinity of RM188. For the LD mapping, we identified 42 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 15 genes in a 12-Mb region on bovine chromosome 4. A total of 24 tag SNP were genotyped in 882 bulls belonging to the University of California Davis archival collection of Holstein bull DNA samples with predicted transmitted ability phenotypes. Marker-to-marker LD analysis revealed 2 LD blocks, with intrablock r(2) values of 0.10 and 0.46, respectively; outside the blocks, r(2) values ranged from 0.002 to 0.23. A standard additive/dominance model using the generalized linear model procedure of SAS and the regression module of HelixTree software were used to test marker-trait associations. Single nucleotide polymorphism 9 on ARL4A, SNP10 on XR_027435.1, SNP12 on ETV1, SNP21 on SNX13, and SNP24 were significantly associated with milk production traits. We propose the interval encompassing ARL4A and SNX13 genes as a candidate region in bovine chromosome 4 for a concordant QTL related to milk protein traits in dairy cattle. Functional studies are needed to confirm this result. PMID:19164688

  9. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Minh; Sabherwal, Manya; Duncan, Elizabeth; Stevens, Stewart; Stockwell, Peter; McConnell, Michelle; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes) was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes). This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth. PMID:26447763

  10. Bisphenol A Exposure during Oocyte Maturation in vitro Results in Spindle Abnormalities and Chromosome Misalignment in Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jacqueline; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in humans is widespread, and BPA has been detected in a variety of samples including follicular fluid. BPA levels have been found to negatively correlate with the developmental potential of oocytes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and to induce meiotic abnormalities experimentally in human and mouse models. BPA may detrimentally affect oocyte maturation, and different concentrations of exposure can cause various outcomes. Because of the importance of oocyte maturation on developmental potential, disturbances during this time can significantly impact oocyte viability. Here, bovine oocytes were matured in vitro with and without BPA treatment of the media. The levels of BPA taken up by the oocytes were much lower than the initial exposure. Medium treatment with 30 ng/ml resulted in an average of 2.48 ng/ml BPA measured in mature oocytes. These oocytes exhibited decreased maturation and increased incidence of spindle abnormalities. Only 57.4% of oocytes exposed to 30 ng/ml BPA reached maturity compared to 72.4% of controls (p < 0.05). Mature oocytes following BPA exposure displayed increased abnormal spindle morphology (67.9%) and chromosome dispersal (60%) compared to all other groups analyzed (p < 0.05). Thus, exposure to BPA during in vitro oocyte maturation has the potential to decrease oocyte quality. PMID:25871885

  11. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Ha, Minh; Sabherwal, Manya; Duncan, Elizabeth; Stevens, Stewart; Stockwell, Peter; McConnell, Michelle; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes) was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes). This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth. PMID:26447763

  12. Resource availability at Taurus-Littrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    Early lunar technologies will probably use a common lunar material as ore. They will be robust to minor fluctuations in feedstock composition and will not require appreciable feedstock beneficiation such as rock grinding or mineral concentration. Technologies using unprocessed soil and indifferent to its composition will have the advantage. Nevertheless, the size and grade of the ore body must be confirmed for even the most indiscriminate process. Simple uses such as heaping unprocessed lunar soil for thermal insulation or radiation shielding onto a habitat require that we know the depth of the regolith, the size distributions of its soils, the locations of large boulders, and the ease of excavation. Costs of detailed site surveys trade against restrictions on site selection and conservative engineering design to accommodate unknown conditions of a poorly explored site. Given the above considerations, we consider briefly some abundant lunar materials, their proposed uses, and technologies for their preparation, with particular attention to the Taurus-Littrow site.

  13. New low-mass member candidates of Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perger, M.; Lodieu, N.; Martín, E. L.; Barrado, D.

    A widely used tool to characterise the formation of stars is the initial mass function (IMF). It has been suggested that it departs significantly from the universal form in Taurus. To bring them into agreement, about 330 new low-mass members need to be identified. We aim to find those objects in an area located 5 deg to the north of the main clouds. We analysed the already known Taurus members and found in our UKIDSS GCS-based data sample 253 objects showing similar characteristics. 43 of those new member candidates were observed spectroscopically. 11 of them show strong signs for membership to the region. Since we observed only 17% of our selection, we would expect up to 65 objects in our hunting ground. Those numbers indicate a possible unknown population of Taurus away from the main clouds. The answer to whether the IMF of Taurus is different might be located in its off-cloud parts.

  14. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    , but further improvements are needed to reduce deflation of their predictions. Recurrent updates of the training population would be required to enable accurate prediction of the genetic merit of young animals. The technical feasibility of applying genomic prediction in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population was demonstrated. Further research is needed to permit cost-effective selection decisions using genomic information. PMID:24575732

  15. The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Antonio Pérez-Claros, Juan; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rook, Lorenzo; Palmqvist, Paul

    2007-09-01

    The origin of the genus Bos is a debated issue. From ˜ 0.5 Ma until historic times, the genus is well known in the Eurasian large mammal assemblages, where it is represented by Bos primigenius. This species has a highly derived cranial anatomy that shows important morphological differences from other Plio-Pleistocene Eurasian genera of the tribe Bovini such as Leptobos, Bison, Proamphibos-Hemibos, and Bubalus. The oldest clear evidence of Bos is the skull fragment ASB-198-1 from the middle Pleistocene (˜ 0.6-0.8 Ma) site of Asbole (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia). The first appearance of Bos in Europe is at the site of Venosa-Notarchirico, Italy (˜ 0.5-0.6 Ma). Although the origin of Bos has traditionally been connected with Leptobos and Bison, after a detailed anatomical and morphometric study we propose here a different origin, connecting the middle Pleistocene Eurasian forms of B. primigenius with the African Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene large size member of the tribe Bovini Pelorovis sensu stricto. The dispersal of the Bos lineage in Western Europe during middle Pleistocene times seems to coincide with the arrival of the Acheulean tool technology in this continent.

  16. Serosurvey of Smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca) and Domestic Animals from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Gennari, Solange Maria; Ikuta, Cassia Yumi; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Porfírio, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca), 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus), 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus) were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira spp. and modified agglutination test for T. gondii. Cattle populations from all sites (9.88%) were exposed to smooth Brucella, but only one jaguar from Cerrado was exposed to this agent. Jaguars captured in the Cerrado (60.0%) and in the Pantanal (45.5%) were seropositive for different serovars of Leptospira spp., cattle (72.18%) and domestic dogs (13.1%) from the three sites and one domestic cat from Pantanal were also seropositive for the agent. The most prevalent serotype of Leptospira spp. identified in jaguars from the Cerrado (Grippotyphosa) and the Pantanal (Pomona) biomes were distinct from those found in the domestic animals sampled. Jaguars (100%), domestic dogs (38.28%) and domestic cats (82.76%) from the three areas were exposed to T. gondii. Our results show that brucellosis and leptospirosis could have been transmitted to jaguars by domestic animals; and jaguars probably play an important role in the maintenance of T. gondii in nature. PMID:26605787

  17. Serosurvey of Smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca) and Domestic Animals from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Gennari, Solange Maria; Ikuta, Cassia Yumi; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Porfírio, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the exposure of jaguar populations and domestic animals to smooth Brucella, Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, serum samples from 31 jaguars (Panthera onca), 1,245 cattle (Bos taurus), 168 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and 29 domestic cats (Felis catus) were collected and analysed by rose bengal test for smooth Brucella, microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira spp. and modified agglutination test for T. gondii. Cattle populations from all sites (9.88%) were exposed to smooth Brucella, but only one jaguar from Cerrado was exposed to this agent. Jaguars captured in the Cerrado (60.0%) and in the Pantanal (45.5%) were seropositive for different serovars of Leptospira spp., cattle (72.18%) and domestic dogs (13.1%) from the three sites and one domestic cat from Pantanal were also seropositive for the agent. The most prevalent serotype of Leptospira spp. identified in jaguars from the Cerrado (Grippotyphosa) and the Pantanal (Pomona) biomes were distinct from those found in the domestic animals sampled. Jaguars (100%), domestic dogs (38.28%) and domestic cats (82.76%) from the three areas were exposed to T. gondii. Our results show that brucellosis and leptospirosis could have been transmitted to jaguars by domestic animals; and jaguars probably play an important role in the maintenance of T. gondii in nature. PMID:26605787

  18. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  19. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  20. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in yaks (Bos grunniens) and their public health potential.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingbo; Cai, Jinzhong; Ma, Jiawen; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans, is also identified in a wide range of animals. To date, few data are available on E. bieneusi in yaks (Bos grunniens). In this study, we examined the occurrence and genotype identity of E. bieneusi in yaks in four counties in Qinghai Province of China. Of 327 fecal specimens examined by nested PCR analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, 23 (7.0%) were E. bieneusi-positive. DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the presence of five distinct genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (BEB4, I and J) and two novel genotypes (CHN11 and CHN12) belonging to the large zoonotic group (Group 1). Data of the study suggest that these animals could be potential reservoirs for human E. bieneusi infection. PMID:25040451

  1. Identifying the Future Needs for Long-Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Green, R. D.; Qureshi, M. A.; Long, J. A.; Burfening, P.J.; Hamernik, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural animal research has been immensely successful over the past century in developing technology and methodologies that have dramatically enhanced production efficiency of the beef, dairy, swine, poultry, sheep, and aquaculture industries. In the past two decades, molecular biology has changed the face of agricultural animal research, primarily in the arena of genomics and the relatively new offshoot areas of functional genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and metagenomics. Publication of genetic and physical genome maps in the past 15 years has given rise to the possibility of being able finally to understand the molecular nature of the genetic component of phenotypic variation. While quantitative geneticists have been remarkably successful in improving production traits, genomic technology holds potential for being able to lead to more accurate and rapid animal improvement, especially for phenotypic traits that are difficult to measure. Recently, the agricultural research community has been able to capitalize on the infrastructure built by the human genome project by sequencing two of the major livestock genomes (Gallus domesticus and Bos Taurus). The 2005 calendar year is truly unprecedented in the history of agricultural animal research since draft genome sequences were completed for chickens and cattle. In addition, sequencing the swine and equine genome was initiated in early 2006. We now have in place a powerful toolbox for understanding the genetic variation underlying economically important and complex phenotypes. Over the past few years, new challenges have emerged for animal agriculture. Enhancements in production efficiency have not come without some negative side effects on animal well-being and longevity in production environments, including losses in reproductive efficiency, increased stress susceptibility, increased animal waste issues, and increased susceptibility to animal metabolic and infectious diseases. When considered

  2. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  3. Employee Acceptance of BOS and BES Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Gier, Joseph A.

    Previous research on performance evaluation systems has failed to take into account user acceptance. Employee acceptance of a behaviorally-based performance appraisal system was assessed in a field experiment contrasting user preference for Behavioral Expectations Scales (BES) versus Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS). Non-union sales associates…

  4. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nellore cattle play an important role in beef production in tropical systems, and there is great interest in determining if genomic selection can contribute to its improvement. The first results of the application of genomic selection in a Bos indicus (Nellore) population are presented in this paper...

  5. Evidence that BosR (BB0647) Is a Positive Autoregulator in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Zhou, Jianli; Norgard, Michael V

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi survives in nature through a complex tick-mammalian life cycle. During its transit between ticks and mammalian hosts, B. burgdorferi must dramatically alter its outer surface profile in order to interact with and adapt to these two diverse niches. It has been established that the regulator BosR (BB0647) in B. burgdorferi plays important roles in modulating borrelial host adaptation. However, to date, how bosR expression itself is controlled in B. burgdorferi remains largely unknown. Previously, it has been shown that DNA sequences upstream of BosR harbor multiple sites for the binding of recombinant BosR, suggesting that BosR may influence its own expression in B. burgdorferi However, direct experimental evidence supporting this putative autoregulation of BosR has been lacking. Here, we investigated the expression of bosR throughout the tick-mammal life cycle of B. burgdorferi via quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses. Our data indicated that bosR is expressed not only during mouse infection, but also during the tick acquisition, intermolt, and transmission phases. Further investigation revealed that bosR expression in B. burgdorferi is influenced by environmental stimuli, such as temperature shift and pH change. By employing luciferase reporter assays, we also identified two promoters potentially driving bosR transcription. Our study offers strong support for the long-postulated function of BosR as an autoregulator in B. burgdorferi. PMID:27324485

  6. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform) to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population-genetic studies of O. taurus and

  7. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    SciTech Connect

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2014-04-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M {sub ☉}).

  8. Calibration of a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) Set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, David; Echeverría, Carlos; Cardoso, Hiroki; Aguayo, Alejandro; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We use two materials with different known indexes of refraction to calibrate a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) experimental set-up, and to validate the Lorenz-Lorentz equation. BOS is used in our experiments to determine local changes of density in the shock pattern of an axisymmetric supersonic air jet. It is important to validate, in particular, the Gladstone Dale approximation (index of refraction close to one) in our experimental conditions and determine the uncertainty of our density measurements. In some cases, the index of refraction of the material is well known, but in others the density is measured and related to the displacement field. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  9. Deriving Animal Behaviour from High-Frequency GPS: Tracking Cows in Open and Forested Habitat.

    PubMed

    de Weerd, Nelleke; van Langevelde, Frank; van Oeveren, Herman; Nolet, Bart A; Kölzsch, Andrea; Prins, Herbert H T; de Boer, W Fred

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus) fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. Data were obtained in an open field and forested area, and movement metrics were calculated for 1 min, 12 s and 2 s intervals. We observed four behaviour types (Foraging, Lying, Standing and Walking). We subsequently used Classification and Regression Trees to classify the simultaneously obtained GPS data as these behaviour types, based on distances and turning angles between fixes. GPS data with a 1 min interval from the open field was classified correctly for more than 70% of the samples. Data from the 12 s and 2 s interval could not be classified successfully, emphasizing that the interval should be long enough for the behaviour to be defined by its characteristic movement metrics. Data obtained in the forested area were classified with a lower accuracy (57%) than the data from the open field, due to a larger positional error of GPS locations and differences in behavioural performance influenced by the habitat type. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the relationship between behaviour and movement metrics, derived from GNSS fixes at different frequencies and in different habitats, in order to successfully infer behaviour. When spatially accurate location data can be obtained, behaviour can be inferred from high-frequency GNSS fixes by calculating simple movement metrics and using easily interpretable decision trees. This allows for the combined study of animal behaviour and habitat use based on location data, and might make it possible to detect deviations

  10. Deriving Animal Behaviour from High-Frequency GPS: Tracking Cows in Open and Forested Habitat

    PubMed Central

    de Weerd, Nelleke; van Langevelde, Frank; van Oeveren, Herman; Nolet, Bart A.; Kölzsch, Andrea; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Boer, W. Fred

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus) fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. Data were obtained in an open field and forested area, and movement metrics were calculated for 1 min, 12 s and 2 s intervals. We observed four behaviour types (Foraging, Lying, Standing and Walking). We subsequently used Classification and Regression Trees to classify the simultaneously obtained GPS data as these behaviour types, based on distances and turning angles between fixes. GPS data with a 1 min interval from the open field was classified correctly for more than 70% of the samples. Data from the 12 s and 2 s interval could not be classified successfully, emphasizing that the interval should be long enough for the behaviour to be defined by its characteristic movement metrics. Data obtained in the forested area were classified with a lower accuracy (57%) than the data from the open field, due to a larger positional error of GPS locations and differences in behavioural performance influenced by the habitat type. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the relationship between behaviour and movement metrics, derived from GNSS fixes at different frequencies and in different habitats, in order to successfully infer behaviour. When spatially accurate location data can be obtained, behaviour can be inferred from high-frequency GNSS fixes by calculating simple movement metrics and using easily interpretable decision trees. This allows for the combined study of animal behaviour and habitat use based on location data, and might make it possible to detect deviations

  11. Era vaccine-derived cases of rabies in wildlife and domestic animals in Ontario, Canada, 1989-2004.

    PubMed

    Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Nadin-Davis, Susan; Armstrong, Janet; Muldoon, Frances; Bachmann, Peter; Wandeler, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    A vaccination program for the control of terrestrial rabies in the province of Ontario, Canada, began in 1989. During the period between 1989 and 2004, over 13 million baits containing the live, attenuated rabies virus ERA-BHK21 were distributed across the province, with the aim of immunizing foxes by the oral route. Animals recovered from bait distribution areas were assayed by fluorescent antibody test for rabies virus infection. Immunoreactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies that discriminate between ERA and rabies virus variants known to circulate in Ontario, and molecular genetic analyses were used to identify animals infected with ERA. Nine cases of ERA variant rabies were identified over the 16-yr period of study; these did not appear to be stratified by species, year of discovery, or location of capture. The ERA-positive animals were found across the province in eight counties, all of which had been baited in the year of case discovery. The nine ERA-positive cases included four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two raccoons (Procyon lotor), two striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and one bovine calf (Bos taurus). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the partial N gene sequences generated from these isolates indicated that these nine cases were due to infection with the ERA variant. The glycoprotein sequences were predicted from G gene sequencing of all nine field isolates and two laboratory stock ERA viruses. This revealed some heterogeneity at residue 120 (either arginine or histidine) in both field and laboratory stocks as well as a few other mutations in field isolates. The significance of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Our data demonstrate that the ERA vaccine distributed in Ontario carried residual pathogenicity; however, there does not appear to be any evidence of ERA establishment in wildlife populations over the 16-yr period. These results are consistent with previous reports of the rare detection of ERA vaccine-induced rabies and with

  12. ROSAT Survey Observation of the Taurus--Auriga T Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, Ralph

    1996-02-01

    This work presents results from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) observations in the Taurus--Auriga T association. Prior to the ROSAT mission, about 150 low-mass late-type pre-main sequence stars were known in Taurus--Auriga, about as many classical T Tauri stars (cTTS) with Wλ (H α) > 10Å as weak-line T Tauri stars (wTTS) with H α either weak in emission or in absorption. Observations with the X-ray satellite EINSTEIN led to the conclusion that there might be as many as ~103 wTTS in Taurus--Auriga, many of which could be detectable with the flux-limited but spatially complete RASS. Two thirds of the well-known wTTS, but one sixth of the cTTS were detected with RASS. The energy resolution of the ROSAT PSPC allows some spectral analysis even for low S/N observations with RASS, where TTS are detected with typically 102 counts only or less. It was found that cTTS X-ray spectra appear to be harder than those of wTTS, because circumstellar material around cTTS absorbs X-rays, while wTTS are often clear of disks and envelopes. Correcting for both the X-ray emission energy and the (circumstellar, intercloud, and interstellar) absorption yield X-ray luminosities individually corrected for any detected star, so that one can study X-ray luminosity functions. Comparing cTTS and wTTS Kaplan-Meier estimators (including upper limits of undetected TTS), it was found that wTTS emit intrinsically significantly more X-rays than cTTS, consistent with significantly different RASS detection rates for wTTS and cTTS. There is a significant correlation between X-ray emission and rotation period (and rotational velocity) in TTS suggesting that a dynamo mechanism is responsible for X-ray emission in TTS. The faster a TTS rotates, the larger the stellar magnetic field, so that field line emerge out of the stellar surface forming coronal loops that contain hot plasma. It is well known that cTTS rotate slower than wTTS, thus explaining the significantly different X-ray luminosity functions

  13. The need for a new animal model for chronic rejection after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, S; Vanaudenaerde, B; Vos, R; Meers, C; Wauters, S; Dupont, L; Van Raemdonck, D; Verleden, G

    2011-11-01

    The single most important cause of late mortality after lung transplantation is obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), clinically characterized by a decrease in lung function and morphologically by characteristic changes. Recently, new insights into its pathogenesis have been acquired: risk factors have been identified and the use of azithromycin showed a dichotomy with at least 2 different phenotypes of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). It is clear that a good animal model is indispensable to further dissect and unravel the pathogenesis of BOS. Many animal models have been developed to study BOS but, so far, none of these models truly mimics the human situation. Looking at the definition of BOS, a good animal model implies histological OB lesions, possibility to measure lung function, and airway inflammation. This review sought to discuss, including pros and cons, all potential animal models that have been developed to study OB/BOS. It has become clear that a new animal model is needed; recent developments using an orthotopic mouse lung transplantation model may offer the answer because it mimics the human situation. The genetic variants among this species may open new perspectives for research into the pathogenesis of OB/BOS. PMID:22099823

  14. Star formation in Taurus Auriga Perseus and the California nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, L. Viktor; Zahorecz, Sarolta; Doi, Yasuo; Onishi, Toshikazu

    2015-08-01

    Star formation and interstellar medium (ISM) structure were investigated in the Taurus, Auriga, Perseus and California nearby star forming regions. Properties of the ISM was derived using the Planck Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, AKARI FIR all sky maps and the Osaka-1.85m CO survey.The clustering of the clumps was studied by identifying groups with the Minimum Spanning Tree method of Cartwright & Whitworth. Majority of the ECC objects are in groups, 16 of them in the Taurus region. We calculated dust temperature and hydrogen column density, mass, and turbulent energy of all the ECC clumps.Mid- and far-infrared point sources of the region were characterized to describe the star formation properties of the ECC clumps based on 2MASS, WISE, and AKARI FIS photometric catalogues. As many as 6000 sources were classified to young stellar object (YSO) evolutionary classes based on their bolometric temperatures, and the mid-IR slopes of their spectral energy distribution (SED). A detailed analysis with SED fitting was performed for 585 far-infrared sources. Only ~ 10 % of those have so far known YSO associations in the Simbad database. About 50% of the ECC clumps are actively star forming, significantly more, than estimated previously.

  15. BosR Functions as a Repressor of the ospAB Operon in Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanlin; Dadhwal, Poonam; Li, Xin; Liang, Fang Ting

    2014-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, must abundantly produce outer surface lipoprotein A (OspA) in the tick vector but downregulate OspA in mammals in order to evade the immune system and maintain its natural enzootic cycle. Here, we show that BosR binds two regulatory elements of the ospAB operon and that increasing BosR expression leads to downregulation of OspA. Both regulatory sequences, cisI and cisII, showed strong BosR-binding and cisII bound much tighter than cisI. A promoterless bosR gene fused with an inducible promoter was introduced into an rpoS mutant and a wild-type strain to assess RpoS-independent and -dependent downregulation of OspA by BosR. With the induction of BosR expression, OspA expression was reduced more significantly in the RpoS-deficient than wild-type background, but not completely repressed. In the presence of constitutive expression of OspC, DbpA and DbpB, increasing BosR production resulted in complete repression of OspA in the RpoS mutant. Taken together, the study clearly demonstrated BosR serves as a repressor that binds both regulatory elements of the ospAB operon and shuts off expression. PMID:25271631

  16. The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism (BOS): Relationship of Frequency of Behavior to IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; And Others

    The Behavior Observation Scale (BOS) was administered to 53 autistic children, 35 mentally retarded children matched for MA, and 33 normal children (all 2 to 5 years old) in an attempt to quantify autistic behavior. Ss were observed 3 days for 3 minutes through a one way mirror in a playroom setting where occurrence of 67 behaviors on the BOS was…

  17. Who is the BosR around here anyway?

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, D. Scott; Radolf, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi encodes a novel DNA-binding protein in the Fur/PerR family of transcriptional regulators termed BosR (BB0647). This issue of Molecular Microbiology contains two molecular genetic studies that help to clarify the function of BB0647 and resolve longstanding controversies. Loss of BB0647 appears to have a pronounced effect on borrelial gene expression and, in one study, caused significant in vitro growth defects. BB0647 also was found to be essential for infection of the mammalian host but not the tick vector. Both Ouyang et al. and Hyde et al. also demonstrate, quite unexpectedly, that BB0647 is required for induction of RpoS, an alternative sigma factor that controls a cadre of B. burgdorferi genes, most notably ospC, that enable the spirochetes to establish mammalian infection following tick inoculation. There are still many unanswered questions regarding the precise physiological role of BB0647, the most important of which relate to its Fur/PerR namesakes: to what extent does it regulate either the response to oxidative stress and/or transition metal uptake? The mechanism(s) whereby BB0647 interfaces with the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway also remains to be discerned. However, these two seminal papers establish BB0647 (aka BosR) as a central player in the molecular biology and physiology of B. burgdorferi as well as the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. PMID:19943896

  18. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Roggeman, Saskia; van den Brink, Nico; Van Praet, Nander; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were observed. Metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, hair, blood and feces were measured. Although both herds lived in the same reserve, their metal exposure differed significantly. A high consumption of soft rush by herd 1 during winter for instance was responsible for a large increase in daily Cd intake. The results of this study suggest that the exposure and health risks of large grazers can probably not only be predicted by a general monitoring of soil and vegetation pollution. Also detailed information about the occurring vegetation types, spatial habitat use together with the social- and foraging behavior and diet selection of the species need to be studied. PMID:23063994

  19. Postweaning substitution of grazed forage with a high-energy concentrate has variable long-term effects on subcutaneous fat and marbling in Bos taurus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, P L; Siddell, J P; Walmsley, B J; Geesink, G H; Pethick, D W; McPhee, M J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects and interactions of stage of growth and genotype on commercial carcass traits and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in 5 muscles of steers ( = 165) and to test the hypothesis that substituting pasture with a high-energy concentrate during the immediate postweaning period increases IMF. Cattle of 3 genotypes (Angus, Hereford, and Wagyu × Angus; = 55/genotype) were selected at weaning from commercial herds, targeting genotypic differences in marbling and subcutaneous fatness. Following weaning, steers were fed for 168 d within 2 different improved, temperate pasture-based nutritional systems: a forage-only system (FS) and forage with high-energy supplemented system (SS), with 2 replicates per system. The supplement was fed at a level of 1% of average BW adjusted every 2 wk to provide an estimated 50% of energy requirements for 168 d from weaning. Pasture on offer in both systems was managed to match the BW of the FS and SS steers during the postweaning treatment period to avoid confounding due to differences in growth rate during this period. Steers were then regrouped into 2 replicates and backgrounded on improved, temperate pasture for 158 d and then grain fed within 1 group for 105 d (short fed) or 259 d (long fed). Groups were slaughtered at commencement (d 0) and end of postweaning nutritional treatments (d 168), end of backgrounding (d 326), and after short (d 431) or long feedlotting (d 585). Serial slaughter stage had an effect on all traits assessed ( < 0.01). The FS steers had more rib fat ( < 0.01) and higher Meat Standards Australia marbling score ( < 0.05) and a tendency ( < 0.10) to have greater eye muscle area than the SS steers throughout the study. Genotypic differences were evident ( < 0.05) for all traits assessed except HCW, dressing percentage, rib fat depth, ossification score, ultimate pH, and IMF in the semitendinosus muscle. The results for marbling and IMF do not support the use of a high-energy feed as a substitute for an equivalent amount of energy from pasture during the immediate postweaning period to enhance development of marbling. PMID:26440193

  20. Molecular differentiation of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Abbas, Ibrahim E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain sarcocysts of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei from water buffaloes and characterize the isolates by molecular methods in order to determine whether the two species were genetically different from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi, respectively, from cattle, which had been characterized before. About 35 macroscopically visible (3-4 × 1-2 mm) and 20 barely visible (1-3 × 0.2 mm) sarcocysts were excised from the esophagus of 18 naturally infected and freshly slaughtered adult water buffaloes at three slaughterhouses in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were first characterized at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Selected isolates were subsequently further characterized at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit by direct sequencing or cloning. Only six of the isolated macroscopic sarcocysts belonged to S. buffalonis, whereas the others belonged to Sarcocystis fusiformis. Twelve of the smaller cysts belonged to S. levinei and seven to Sarcocystis sinensis. The characterization of the sarcocysts of S. sinensis and some of the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis have been reported before. Fifteen additional sarcocyst isolates of S. fusiformis were characterized at cox1 in the present study and found to be identical or closely similar to previous isolates. At cox1, the sequence identity between the six isolates of S. buffalonis was 99.8-100 % (two haplotypes), whereas the identity between the 12 isolates of S. levinei was 99.0-100 % (10 haplotypes). The identity between cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta (n = 56) was 92.9-93.6 % (on average 93.4 %), and the identity between cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi (n = 22) was 92.9-94.0 % (on average 93.5 %). The phylogenetic analyses placed with high support the cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta into two monophyletic sister groups, and the same was true for the cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi. Hence, the study established that S. buffalonis and S. levinei are distinct species different from S. hirsuta and S. cruzi, respectively. Nucleotide sequences of S. buffalonis could be distinguished from those of S. hirsuta also at the 28S rRNA gene (clearly different) and the ITS1 region (small and uncertain difference) but not at the 18S rRNA gene. Sequences of S. levinei could be distinguished from those of S. cruzi both at the 18S and 28S rRNA genes (ITS1 region not examined). However, the cox1 gene was superior to the 18S and 28S rRNA genes as regards the ability to unambiguously delimit the species within each species pair, since at the latter markers, the number of consistent nucleotide differences between the species was low and there was a slight overlap between the intraspecific and interspecific sequence divergence. Comparison of the newly generated 18S rRNA gene sequences of S. levinei from water buffaloes with similar sequences deposited in GenBank suggested that S. levinei and S. cruzi are not strictly intermediate host specific but might occasionally infect cattle and water buffaloes, respectively. PMID:26979729

  1. Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and sarcocysts of S. bovini in samples from Argentina and New Zealand. The microscopic sarcocysts from water buffaloes were confirmed to belong to S. sinensis. The cox1 sequences of S. bovifelis and S. bovini, respectively, shared an identity of 93-94 % with each other, and these sequences shared an identity of 89-90 % with cox1 of S. sinensis. In contrast, the intraspecific sequence identity was 98.4-100 % (n = 45), 99.3-100 % (n = 24) and 99.5-100 % (n = 7) for sequences of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis, respectively. In each of the latter three species, an aberrant type of cox1 sequences was also identified, which was only 91-92 % identical with the predominant cox1 type of the same species and about 98 % identical with the aberrant types of the two other species. These aberrant cox1 sequences are believed to represent non-functional nuclear copies of the mitochondrial genes (numts or pseudogenes). They might be used as additional markers to separate the three species from each other. Sequencing of a considerable number of clones of S. bovifelis, S. bovini and S. sinensis from each of the three regions of the rDNA unit revealed intraspecific sequence variation in all loci in all species and particularly in the ITS1 locus (78-100 % identity). As regards the 18S rRNA gene, it was possible to separate the three species from each other on the basis of a few consistent nucleotide differences in the less variable 3' end half of the gene. A comparison of the new sequences with GenBank sequences obtained from S. sinensis-like sarcocysts in cattle in other studies indicated that previous sequences derived from cattle in Germany and Austria belonged to S. bovifelis, whereas those derived from cattle in China belonged to S. bovini. On the basis of the new 28S rRNA sequences, it was possible to separate S. sinensis from S. bovifelis and S. bovini, whereas the latter two species could not be separated from each other. Based on ITS1 sequences, the three species were indistinguishable. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony placed with fairly high support c

  2. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benign trypanosomes of cattle and wild ungulates in the United States are designated Trypanosoma theileri and Trypanosoma cervi, respectively. Historically these parasites have been identified based on morphology, host, and vector, if known. No molecular characterization has been reported for T....

  3. Short communication: Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on enzymatic mastitis indicators of milk from dairy cows experimentally inoculated with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L P; Engberg, R M; Løvendahl, P; Larsen, T

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a quantitative trait locus associated with mastitis caused by Escherichia coli, with one haplotype being more susceptible (HH) and another being more resistant (HL) to E. coli mastitis, on the activity of 4 inflammatory related milk enzymes. In particular, we investigated the suitability of β-glucuronidase (GLU) as an early indicator of E. coli mastitis. Besides GLU, the enzymes l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase were included. The study was conducted in an experimental setup with 31 Holstein cows divided into 4 groups representing repeated experiments and, within group, divided according to quantitative trait locus haplotype. All cows were inoculated with viable E. coli, and milk samples were collected 27 times from -6 to 396 h post-E. coli inoculation (PI). Activity of the 4 enzymes in milk, somatic cell count (SCC), daily milk yield, viable E. coli counts, and results of a semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction for pathogen detection, were all analyzed with a repeatability model. The response variables all expressed a strong reaction to the E. coli infection. Daily milk yield decreased significantly at 12 h PI and bacteria counts increased 100-fold and peaked at 18 h PI, which was validated by PCR. Also, SCC started to increase at 12 h PI and increased on average 70 times; however, no significant differences in SCC level were detected between HH and HL cows at any sampling point. The enzymes LDH, NAGase, and alkaline phosphatase showed similar responses, with a significantly increased activity and higher peak values for the HH than the HL cows. Significant differences between HH and HL cows were detected at different time points for these 3 enzymes, but not after adjusting P-values for multiple testing. A different pattern was also observed for GLU, where HL cows expressed the highest peak activity. Indication of differences in GLU activity between the 2 haplotype groups was only seen at 60 h PI. It was concluded that HL and HH cows expressed similar response patterns after E. coli infection but with differences in the size and profile of the activity of the 4 enzymes. The enzyme GLU was an equally good indicator of E. coli mastitis compared with the other studied enzymes, although it showed a slower response compared with LDH and NAGase. PMID:26026757

  4. Development of early tissue cysts and associated pathology of Besnoitia Besnoiti in a naturally infected bull (Bos Taurus) from South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Besnoiti besnoiti is an apicomplexan that causes serious economic loss in cattle in many countries and the disease is now spreading in Europe. Two phases of bovine besnoitiosis are recognized clinically. An acute febrile phase characterized by anasarca and necrosis of skin is associated with multipl...

  5. A Genome Wide Association Study on Age at First Calving Using High Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae)

    PubMed Central

    Hyeong, K.-E.; Iqbal, A.; Kim, J.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Age at first calving is an important trait for achieving earlier reproductive performance. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive traits, a genome wide association study was conducted on the 96 Hanwoo cows that were born between 2008 and 2010 from 13 sires in a local farm (Juk-Am Hanwoo farm, Suncheon, Korea) and genotyped with the Illumina 50K bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model after the effects of birth-year-month and polygenes were considered. A forward regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs for age at first calving. A total of 15 QTL were detected at the comparison-wise 0.001 level. Two QTL with strong statistical evidence were found at 128.9 Mb and 111.1 Mb on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 2 and 7, respectively, each of which accounted for 22% of the phenotypic variance. Also, five significant SNPs were detected on BTAs 10, 16, 20, 26, and 29. Multiple QTL were found on BTAs 1, 2, 7, and 14. The significant QTLs may be applied via marker assisted selection to increase rate of genetic gain for the trait, after validation tests in other Hanwoo cow populations. PMID:25178291

  6. Associations between novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Bos taurus growth hormone gene and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mullen, M P; Berry, D P; Howard, D J; Diskin, M G; Lynch, C O; Berkowicz, E W; Magee, D A; MacHugh, D E; Waters, S M

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone, produced in the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the release of insulin-like growth factor-I from the liver and is of critical importance in the control of nutrient utilization and partitioning for lactogenesis, fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to discover novel polymorphisms in the bovine growth hormone gene (GH1) and to quantify their association with performance using estimates of genetic merit on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI (artificial insemination) dairy sires. Associations with previously reported polymorphisms in the bovine GH1 gene were also undertaken. A total of 38 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5' promoter, intronic, exonic, and 3' regulatory regions, encompassing approximately 7 kb of the GH1 gene. Following multiple regression analysis on all SNP, associations were identified between 11 SNP (2 novel and 9 previously identified) and milk fat and protein yield, milk composition, somatic cell score, survival, body condition score, and body size. The G allele of a previously identified SNP in exon 5 at position 2141 of the GH1 sequence, resulting in a nonsynonymous substitution, was associated with decreased milk protein yield. The C allele of a novel SNP, GH32, was associated with inferior carcass conformation. In addition, the T allele of a previously characterized SNP, GH35, was associated with decreased survival. Both GH24 (novel) and GH35 were independently associated with somatic cell count, and 3 SNP, GH21, 2291, and GH35, were independently associated with body depth. Furthermore, 2 SNP, GH24 and GH63, were independently associated with carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of GH1 on milk production, fertility, and growth-related traits in cattle. PMID:21094770

  7. IRAS 04302+2247: Butterfly star in Taurus!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Philip; Roche, Patrick F.

    1997-02-01

    We present near infrared observations of IRAS 04302+2247, a Class I protostar in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex whose equatorial plane is inclined precisely edge-on to the line of sight (i=90°+/-4°). This system displays a unique quadrupolar morphology, which had not been previously predicted in any simulations of a single protostar. We use the Monte Carlo method to tailor a model to our imaging and polarimetric data, and we explain the quadrupolar structure in terms of a dusty jet or outflow which lies perpendicular to the equatorial plane. We constrain the circumstellar structure to the form of an equatorially condensed envelope with a concave bipolar cavity. The circumstellar disk is not seen, which requires that it is physically thin. With its convenient orientation and proximity (d=140 pc) this system should yield many insights into the Class I phase of evolution.

  8. Analysis of Ices Surrounding YSOs in Taurus and ρ Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Brunt, Kari A.; Pastorius, M. L.; Gibb, E. L.; Shenoy, S. S.

    2008-05-01

    Recent technological advances have sparked an exciting study of the chemistry in star forming regions. By combining Spitzer IRS and ground based observations, a more sensitive diagnostic of the composition of material surrounding Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) can be performed. Initial studies of the material around YSOs show significant differences in the composition of volatiles in regions with massive YSOs compared to regions containing low mass YSOs. Pontoppidan (2006) found that CO2 and CO abundances were enhanced toward the center of the cold Ophiuchus-F core, and recent results for the CO2 ice feature at 15.3 μm also imply spatial variations within regions of star formation. Analysis of short-lived radioisotopes in meteorites indicates our solar system was seeded with material from a nearby supernova, suggesting our system formed in a region of both high and low mass star formation (Goswami & Vanhala 2000). Here we present preliminary results from data taken with the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope and SpeX at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) located on Mauna Kea, HI. Observations of H2O ice, CO ice, and CO2 ice at 3.0 μm, 4.67 μm, and 15.3 μm, respectively, are presented for the Taurus and ρ Ophiuchi star forming regions. We measured abundances and used laboratory spectra to constrain the polar/apolar composition and the thermal history of the region. In the future, additional YSOs in the Taurus and ρ Ophiuchi regions will be similarly analyzed in order to correlate variations in the volatile composition of the material surrounding YSOs with environmental factors and evolutionary states.

  9. Comparison of carfentanil-xylazine and thiafentanil-medetomidine in electroejaculation of captive gaur (Bos gaurus).

    PubMed

    Napier, Julia E; Loskutoff, Naida M; Simmons, Lee G; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2011-09-01

    Carfentanil citrate and thiafentanil oxalate have been used successfully to immobilize captive and free-ranging ungulates. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and certain physiologic parameters of protocols by using the 2 opioids in gaur (Bos gaurus). Eight adult gaur bulls were immobilized for electroejaculation at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, Nebraska, USA). All the animals were immobilized twice, by using each of the following protocols one time: 10 mg carfentanil combined with 100 mg xylazine (CX), reversed with 1,000 mg naltrexone and 24 mg yohimbine; and 12 mg thiafentanil combined with 20 mg medetomidine (TM), reversed with 120 mg naltrexone and 100 mg atipamezole. Immobilization drugs were delivered intramuscularly into the shoulder area via pole syringe. Electroejaculation was carried out by a standardized protocol to duplicate procedural stimulation on each animal. Induction and recovery times, initial rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, anesthetic depth, oxygen saturation, indirect blood pressure, and arterial blood gases were recorded at the time of initial handling, before ejaculation, and after ejaculation. Antagonists were administered 1/4 i.v. and 3/4 s.q. Both protocols require a small volume of drug for a large ungulate, provide smooth induction, and adequate anesthesia. Both protocols produced a significant hypoxemia, although the animals on CX showed slightly better blood gas values (based on lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide) and numerically lower blood pressure values. Animals on TM had better muscle relaxation and smoother recoveries, with no renarcotization noted. The results of the present study indicate the TM and CX protocols used for immobilizing gaur result in similar quality ejaculates that can be used for fertility examination as well as for assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination. Additional immobilizations need to take place to further compare these 2 combinations in this

  10. FIRST ISOLATION OF TENACIBACULUM MARITIMUM IN A CAPTIVE SAND TIGER SHARK (CARCHARIAS TAURUS).

    PubMed

    Florio, Daniela; Gridelli, Stefano; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2016-03-01

    This report describes a case of the first isolation of Tenacibaculum maritimum from a captive-bred adult female sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) housed at the Cattolica Aquarium (Italy). The animal showed, between the second dorsal fin and the precaudal pit, skin lesions characterized by the presence of abundant whitish necrotic tissue. Through routine bacteriological examination, a bacterium was isolated from a skin lesion and subsequently identified as T. maritimum by phenotypic characters and species-specific polymerase chain reaction. The antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolated strain was evaluated for 11 antimicrobial agents by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic therapy was conducted with enrofloxacin at 10 mg kg(-1) i.m. on alternate days for 10 days. One month after the end of treatment skin lesions showed complete resolution and the shark recovered completely. The case presented here represents the first report of infection by T. maritimum in a sand tiger shark and highlights the potential pathogenic role of this microorganism in elasmobranchs kept in an aquarium. PMID:27010301

  11. Internal and Relative Motions of the Taurus and Ophiuchus Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juana L.; Loinard, Laurent; Dzib, Sergio A.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Torres, Rosa M.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the internal and relative motions of the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions using a sample of young stars with accurately measured radial velocities and proper motions. We find no evidence for expansion or contraction of the Taurus complex, but a clear indication of global rotation, resulting in velocity gradients of the order of 0.1 km s-1 pc-1 across the region. In the case of Ophichus, more data are needed to reliably establish its internal kinematics. Both Taurus and Ophiuchus, have a bulk motion relative to the LSR (i.e., a non-zero mean peculiar velocity) of the order of 5 km s-1. Interestingly, these velocities are roughly equal in magnitude, but nearly exactly opposite in direction. Moving back in time, we find that Taurus and Ophiuchus must have been very near each other 20-25 Myr ago. This suggests a common origin, possibly related to that of Gould's Belt.

  12. Correlations between the stellar and disc properties of Taurus PMS stars in the GASPS sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Martínez, Miguel; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Pascual, Natalia; Montesinos, Benjamín; Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Eiroa, Carlos; Dent, Bill

    2013-07-01

    The Herschel Open Time Key Programme GASPS (P.I. B. Dent) has observed a large number of pre-main sequence TTauri stars in Taurus with PACS (photometry and spectroscopy). In addition, we have also carried out new ground-based optical and near-IR observations (photometry and spectroscopy) of most of the Taurus GASPS sample. In this poster, we present some preliminary results on correlations between the stellar and disc properties of this young stellar sample.

  13. Studies on host resistance to tick infestations among trypanotolerant Bos indicus cattle breeds in east Africa.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Ndung'U, J M; Stear, M J; Reid, S W; Gettinby, G; Murray, M

    1998-06-29

    Recent epidemiological studies carried out in East Africa have indicated that some Bos indicus cattle breeds such as the Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu have a degree of trypanotolerance worth exploitation by their introduction into trypanosomosis endemic areas where other cattle breeds cannot survive. However, in most areas of East Africa, trypanosomosis, ticks, and tick-borne diseases occur together. It is therefore important to obtain information on the susceptibility of these breeds to tick infestation and tick-borne diseases. This study was therefore designed to determine the susceptibility of these cattle breeds to tick infestations. They were compared with the Galana Boran (trypanosusceptible) and the Friesian (susceptible to tick infestations, tick-borne diseases, and trypanosomosis). The four breeds of cattle were exposed to natural tick challenge for a period of seven months and whole body weekly tick counts were done on each animal. Significant differences to tick infestations among the four breeds were observed. For both Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Boophilus decoloratus, susceptibility to infestation increased in the order, Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran, Galana Boran and Friesian. The results generated by this pilot study so far suggest that variation in susceptibility to tick infestations exists among the four breeds. The Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu showed greater resistance to tick-infestations than the Galana Boran and Friesian. This suggests that utilization of these trypanotolerant cattle breeds could be feasible even in the face of tick challenge and should therefore be considered when planning integrated trypanosomosis and tick control strategies. PMID:9668465

  14. Star Formation in the Taurus-Auriga Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, Catherine L.

    The era of space astronomy has given researchers new insight into pre-main sequence evolution. IUE, Einstein, and IRAS have already revolutionized this topic by identification of new classes of PMS stars and by yielding detailed information on chromospheres, coronae, winds, and disks. One approach to understanding PMS evolution involves the detailed study of individual objects; this is the basis of nearly all IUE programs to date. Another approach is to perform a statistical study of a number of stars. This avenue is essential to establish the generality of individual studies, and to find trends and correlations among the stars involving differences in age, angular momentum, mass, and so forth. The ultraviolet provides essential diagnostics of the chromosphere and transition region and of the accretion disk boundary layer. However, of the various data sets, the IUE data on pre-main sequence stars is the most incomplete (a natural limitation of a pointed instrument). The limitations of the data set, especially the bias toward the brighter, more massive, less typical PMS stars, make the statistical analysis of the IUE data difficult. We propose to survey a prototypical low-mass star-formation region, the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds, with IUE. We find that it is feasible to obtain IUE data down to specific limiting magnitudes for the various classes of objects (T Tauri stars, "weak" T Tauri stars, SU Aurigae stars, Herbig Ae/Be stars). Doing so would result in a substantial improvement in the data set for this region. The data would include Mg II fluxes, long-wavelength UV "continuum" spectra, and far-ultraviolet emission-line fluxes in order to study chromospheric emission, winds, and disks, either active or passive. New and archival IUE data will be combined with satellite and ground-based data at all wavelength regimes for statistical analysis. We will examine the indicators of various phenomena (chromospheres winds, disks), study their occurence in the various

  15. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  16. Lunar Occultations of Young Stars in Southern Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M.; Beck, Tracy L.; Greene, T. P.; Howell, R. R.; Lumsden, S.; Prato, L.

    1999-03-01

    We have obtained lunar occultation observations of NTT 042916+1751, V826 Tau, L1551-55, HN Tau, DQ Tau, and DR Tau by high-speed single-channel photometry in the IR K band. We detect no companions in the angular separation range 0.020"-10" to a magnitude limit typically 2 mag fainter than the target. Additional occultation observations of GG Tau and HL Tau using IR cameras at K reveal no new stars in the GG Tau A binary within ~2 mag of the primary in the range ~0.08"-10" and no companion of HL Tau within 1.5 mag and ~0.09"-10". The binary fraction of the 56 systems in the Taurus star formation region that have been surveyed by lunar occultation and imaging is 61%. Of the 56 systems, 53 have been surveyed for companions in the angular separation range 0.020"-10". Their binary frequency is at least 1.4+/-0.3 times that measured by Duquennoy & Mayor for the nearby F and G stars. These values for the binary frequency are lower bounds because they contain no corrections for incompleteness.

  17. B- AND A-TYPE STARS IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-07-10

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), {tau} Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  18. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star-Forming Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), t Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  19. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  20. Genome wide association study on early puberty in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A V; Matos, M C; Seno, L O; Romero, A R S; Garcia, J F; Grisolia, A B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fertility traits (early puberty) in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus). Fifty-five Nellore cows were selected from a herd monitored for early puberty onset (positive pregnancy at 18 months of age). Extremes of this phenotype were selected; 30 and 25 individuals were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively, at that age. DNA samples were genotyped using a high-density SNP chip (>777.000 SNP). GWAS using a case-control strategy highlighted a number of significant markers based on their proximity with the Bonferroni correction line. Results indicated that chromosomes 5, 6, 9, 10, and 22 were associated with the traits of interest. The most significant SNPs on these chromosomes were rs133039577, rs110013280, rs134702839, rs109551605, and rs41639155. Candidate genes, as well as quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously reported in the Ensembl and Cattle QTLdb databases, were further investigated. Analysis of the regions close to the SNP on chromosomes 9 and 10 revealed that four QTL had been previously classified under the reproduction category. In conclusion, we have identified SNPs in close proximity to genes associated with reproductive traits. Moreover, U6 spliceosomal RNA was present on three different chromosomes, which is possibly associated with age at first calving, suggesting that it might be a strong candidate for future studies. PMID:26909970

  1. 13CO filaments in the Taurus molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panopoulou, G. V.; Tassis, K.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Heyer, M. H.

    2014-11-01

    We have carried out a search for filamentary structures in the Taurus molecular cloud using 13CO line emission data from the Five Colleges Radio Astronomy Observatory survey of ˜100 deg2. We have used the topological analysis tool, Discrete Persistent Structures Extractor (DISPERSE), and post-processed its results to include a more strict definition of filaments that requires an aspect ratio of at least 3:1 and cross-section intensity profiles peaked on the spine of the filament. In the velocity-integrated intensity map only 10 of the hundreds of filamentary structures identified by DISPERSE comply with our criteria. Unlike Herschel analyses, which find a characteristic width for filaments of ˜0.1 pc, we find a much broader distribution of profile widths in our structures, with a peak at 0.4 pc. Furthermore, even if the identified filaments are cylindrical objects, their complicated velocity structure and velocity dispersions imply that they are probably gravitationally unbound. Analysis of velocity channel maps reveals the existence of hundreds of `velocity-coherent' filaments. The distribution of their widths is peaked at lower values (0.2 pc) while the fluctuation of their peak intensities is indicative of stochastic origin. These filaments are suppressed in the integrated intensity map due to the blending of diffuse emission from different velocities. Conversely, integration over velocities can cause filamentary structures to appear. Such apparent filaments can also be traced, using the same methodology, in simple simulated maps consisting of randomly placed cores. They have profile shapes similar to observed filaments and contain most of the simulated cores.

  2. Mid-infrared spectra of Class I protostars in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. D.; Watson, D. M.; Furlan, E.; Forrest, W. J.; Chen, C. H.; Kemper, F.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Uchida, K. I.; Keller, L. D.; Sargent, B.; Sloan, G. C.; Herter, T. L.; Brandl, B. R.; Houck, J. R.; Barry, D. J.; Hall, P.; Morris, P. W.; Jura, M.; Najita, J.; D'Alessio, P.; Myers, P. C.

    2004-05-01

    We present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)* observations in the 5.3-20 μ m range of five young stellar objects in Taurus that have Class I continuum spectral energy distributions, often taken to represent the younger stellar objects in this star-formation region. The spectra include a rich collection of broad absorption features that we identify with amorphous silicates and various ices, notably those of water, methanol, and carbon dioxide. This is apparently the first detection of such ice features in the disks of low-mass (below a solar mass) young stellar objects. We use these spectral features to estimate the relative contributions of disk and envelope to the absorption spectrum, and compare the spectra to detailed models to derive a view of the thermal structure of these components of circumstellar material. We conclude that the objects represent a range of envelope mass and line-of-sight orientation, and that objects can be classified in terms of these properties from mid-infrared spectra, even in the absence of supporting information from infrared images. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work was provided by NASA through Contract Number 1257184 issued by JPL/Caltech, and through the Spitzer Fellowship Program, under award 011 808-001. * The IRS was a collaborative venture between Cornell University and Ball Aerospace Corporation funded by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Ames Research Center.

  3. Outflows and Bubbles in Taurus: Star-formation Feedback Sufficient to Maintain Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huixian; Li, Di; Qian, Lei; Xu, Duo; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Wu, Yuefang; Song, Yuzhe; Nan, Rendong

    2015-08-01

    We have identified outflows and bubbles in the Taurus molecular cloud based on the ˜100 deg2 Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) maps and the Spitzer young stellar object catalogs. In the main 44 deg2 area of Taurus, we found 55 outflows, of which 31 were previously unknown. We also found 37 bubbles in the entire 100 deg2 area of Taurus, none of which had been found previously. The total kinetic energy of the identified outflows is estimated to be ˜ 3.9× {10}45 erg, which is 1% of the cloud turbulent energy. The total kinetic energy of the detected bubbles is estimated to be ˜ 9.2× {10}46 erg, which is 29% of the turbulent energy of Taurus. The energy injection rate from the outflows is ˜ 1.3× {10}33 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, which is 0.4-2 times the dissipation rate of the cloud turbulence. The energy injection rate from bubbles is ˜ 6.4× {10}33 erg s-1, which is 2-10 times the turbulent dissipation rate of the cloud. The gravitational binding energy of the cloud is ˜ 1.5× {10}48 erg, that is, 385 and 16 times the energy of outflows and bubbles, respectively. We conclude that neither outflows nor bubbles can provide sufficient energy to balance the overall gravitational binding energy and the turbulent energy of Taurus. However, in the current epoch, stellar feedback is sufficient to maintain the observed turbulence in Taurus.

  4. Another Look at Taurus Littrow: An Interactive Geographic Information System DataBase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Meisburger, J. L.; Nettles, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    A variety of data has been amassed for the Apollo 17 landing site, including topography, sample locations, and imagery. These data were compiled into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze their interrelationships more easily. The database will allow the evaluation of the resource potential of the Taurus Littrow region pyroclastic deposits. The database also serves as a catalog for the returned lunar samples. This catalog includes rock type, size, and location. While this project specifically targets the Taurus Littrow region, it is applicable to other regions as well.

  5. A high dynamic radiation measurement instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; Conscience, C.; Janssen, E.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

    2015-05-01

    The Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that was active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of the BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short-term variation of total solar irradiance (TSI) with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time suggests that the BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor for monitoring electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  6. A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; Conscience, C.; Janssen, E.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

    2014-12-01

    The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short term variation of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time, suggests that BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor to monitor electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

  7. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  8. Anomalous strength of the 2200 A feature in Cassiopeia-Taurus association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, C.; Ruiz del Arbol, J. A.; Llorente de Andres, F.

    1980-05-01

    From a large sample of reddened stars we computed the individual extinction curves which agree with that calculated by Nandy et al. (1976), except for four stars which show that the extinction at the 2200 Å feature is greater than that deduced for the rest of stars. These four stars belong to the Cassiopeia-Taurus association.

  9. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of relatively low number of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, conservation of genetic resources and maintenance of the sustainability of the breed...

  10. Sequence analysis for a de novo genome assembly of Bos indicus (Nelore) cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A second draft sequence assembly of the bovine genome based on the sub-species, Bos indicus, is essential to better evaluate the genetic variation underlying the prototypical beef and dairy cattle in tropical and sub-tropical production environments. A linebred bull (Futuro), two generations remove...

  11. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": Education Research as a Distributed Activity across Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe

    2008-01-01

    In response to Bulterman-Bos (2008), this article discusses three kinds of research needed in education: problem-finding research, which helps frame good research questions; problem-solving research, which helps illuminate educational problems; and translational work, which transforms the findings of research into tools that practitioners and…

  12. The preliminary measurements from the Bolometer Oscillation System (BOS) on board PICARD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; Ruymbeke, M. V.; Meftah, M.; Clette, F.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; van Ruymbeke, F.; Noel, J.

    2010-12-01

    The PICARD is a French CNES micro-satellite mission which was successfully launched on June 15, 2010 by the Russian DNEPR launcher. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the relations between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The duration of the mission is about two years with possibility to extend to three or more years. SOVAP/BOS (SOlar Variability for Picard - Bolometer Oscillation System) is one of the key instruments in the PICARD payload. The main goal of SOVAP/BOS consists in measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) with very high precision. SOVAP is a new improved version of the DIARAD absolute solar radiometer, which has been successfully installed and operated on several previous missions designed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. BOS is a pioneering experiment or to say, a complementary part of SOVAP. It consists of a solar bolometer that measures the incident electromagnetic radiation power by converting this radiation energy in a thermal signal. The radiation is measured using a differential thermometer placed in a thermal shunt. By design, this bolometer is able to measure radiation integrated over all wavelengths and provide a broad dynamic range, with high precision and combined with a fast measuring cadence of 10s, instead of typ. 2-3 minutes in earlier TSI (total solar irradiance) measurements. We will show the preliminary results of measurements made by BOS. For instance, the solar eclipse records during 11, July 2010.

  13. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIAVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN BOS INDICUS BEEF CATTLE (NELLORE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci of economic importance in purebred Bos indicus beef cattle breed (Nellore). Two half-sib families constituted of 187 (family 1) and 189 (family 2) female sisters, daughters from two distinct bulls, where used. Each parent (F0) was ...

  14. Impact of Balance Of System (BOS) costs on photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Cusick, J. P.; Poley, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has developed a program to effect a large reduction in the price of photovoltaic modules, with significant progress already achieved toward the 1986 goal of 50 cents/watt (1975 dollars). Remaining elements of a P/V power system (structure, battery storage, regulation, control, and wiring) are also significant cost items. The costs of these remaining elements are commonly referred to as Balance-of-System (BOS) costs. The BOS costs are less well defined and documented than module costs. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in 1976/77 and with two village power experiments that will be installed in 1978. The costs were divided into five categories and analyzed. A regression analysis was performed to determine correlations of BOS Costs per peak watt, with power size for these photovoltaic systems. The statistical relationship may be used for flat-plate, DC systems ranging from 100 to 4,000 peak watts. A survey of suppliers was conducted for comparison with the predicted BOS cost relationship.

  15. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": What Should Education Research Do, and How Should It Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, three theoretical perspectives are used to extend Bulterman-Bos's (2008) argument regarding a clinical approach to education research. First, three intellectual virtues identified by Aristotle--"episteme," "techne," and "phronesis"--are related to the requirements of the "pure" education researcher, the skilled practitioner, and…

  16. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": Research Relevancy or Research for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noffke, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Three issues emanating from the Bulterman-Bos article (2008) form the core of this commentary. First, the issue of relevancy is addressed from the standpoint of action research and other forms of practitioner inquiry. From this perspective, the divisions between the cultures of university and school are addressed both ways: Each can potentially be…

  17. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": The Dysfunctional Pursuit of Relevance in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaree, David F.

    2008-01-01

    Responding to Bulterman-Bos (2008), the author argues that the effort to make education research more relevant is counterproductive. Teachers and researchers have different orientations toward education that arise from different institutional settings, occupational constraints, daily work demands, and professional incentives. These are not…

  18. An Interview with Candace Bos: Informed, Flexible Teaching--A Key to Successful Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Mary T.; Walther-Thomas, Chriss

    1999-01-01

    This interview with Dr. Candace Bos, a professor of special education at the University of Arizona, discusses the need for informed, flexible teaching when working with students with learning disabilities, and the importance of addressing phonological awareness, decoding and fluency, comprehension, and content area reading. (CR)

  19. The Fur homologue BosR requires Arg39 to activate rpoS transcription in Borrelia burgdorferi and thereby direct spirochaete infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Katona, Laura I

    2015-11-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease. In B. burgdorferi, RpoS controls the expression of virulence genes needed for mammalian infection. The Fur homologue BosR regulates the transcription of rpoS and therefore BosR determines, albeit indirectly, the infection status of the spirochaete. Transcription of rpoS in B. burgdorferi is complex: rpoS can be transcribed either from an RpoD-dependent promoter to yield a long transcript or from an RpoN-dependent promoter to yield a short transcript. This study shows that BosR repressed synthesis of the long transcript while at the same time activating synthesis of the short transcript. How BosR does this is unclear. To address this, spirochaetes were engineered to express either BosR or the naturally occurring variant BosRR39K. Mice became infected by the spirochaetes expressing BosR but not by the spirochaetes expressing BosRR39K. Furthermore, the spirochaetes expressing BosR activated rpoS transcription during growth in culture whereas the spirochaetes expressing BosRR39K did not. Thus, BosR's activation of rpoS transcription somehow involves Arg39. This arginine is highly conserved in other FUR proteins and therefore other FUR proteins may also require this arginine to function. PMID:26318670

  20. Exogenous progesterone enhances ova and embryo quality following superstimulation of the first follicular wave in Nelore (Bos indicus) donors.

    PubMed

    Nasser, L F; Sá Filho, M F; Reis, E L; Rezende, C R; Mapletoft, R J; Bó, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2011-07-15

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous progesterone on superovulatory response and ova/embryo quality in Bos indicus donors superstimulated during the first follicular wave (FFW). We hypothesized that exogenous progesterone during gonadotropin treatments would improve ova and embryo quality. In Experiment 1, 18 Nelore cows were randomly allocated to three groups: (1) FFW; (2) FFW plus a progesterone-releasing device (FFW+P4); and (3) control (E2+P4). Cows in the FFW groups were superstimulated beginning at synchronized ovulation, whereas cows in the control group were superstimulated after synchronization of follicular wave emergence with estradiol plus progesterone (E2+P4). There were no differences in mean (± SD) numbers of transferable embryos between FFW+P4 (8.0 ± 4.5) and control (6.7 ± 4.8) groups, but both were higher (P = 0.006) than the FFW group (0.2 ± 0.4). In Experiment 2, FFW and FFW+P4 were compared in 20 Nelore donors; exogenous progesterone increased the number of transferable embryos (3.9 ± 3.4 vs. 1.3 ± 4.1, P = 0.003). In Experiment 3, FFW and FFW+P4 were compared in 10 Nelore donors except that cows were slaughtered 12 h after pLH (Lutropin-V(®), Bioniche Animal Health, Belleville, ON, Canada) treatment. More mature cumulus oocyte complex (COC) (expanded cumulus cell layers) were collected in the FFW+P4 group than in the FFW group (21.8 ± 13.1 vs. 10.8±14.7; P = 0.003). In summary, superovulatory response was satisfactory when FSH (Folltropin-V(®), Bioniche Animal Health) treatment was initiated at emergence of the first follicular wave in Nelore (Bos indicus) donors, and the hypothesis that administration of exogenous progesterone during the treatment will improve oocyte and embryo quality was supported. PMID:21496903

  1. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: Effects on growth and concentrations of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus calves of intra-testicular injection of either saline (n=9) or one of two doses of zinc acetate ((ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10, or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) or surgical castration (n=9) on circulating concentrations of testostosterone and liveweight. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, 1500IU) was administered 202 and 525 days after treatment on Day 0 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. In animals left intact treatment with ZA reduced mean serum concentrations of testosterone (Saline: 5.58±0.79ng/mL, ZA1: 1.28±0.27ng/mL, ZA2: 1.01±0.17ng/mL; P<0.001) and concentrations 48h following administration of hCG. The maximum concentration of testosterone recorded throughout the study in six out of 19 animals treated with ZA was ≤0.21ng/mL. Treatment with ZA did not significantly affect live weights or carcass weights or result in any detectable scrotal lesions. Animals with concentrations of testosterone ≥1.0ng/mL exhibited greater liveweights throughout most of the study and yielded heavier carcass weights (340.9±7.02 versus 309.3±6.17kg, P=0.002). It is concluded that a single, intra-testicular administration of either 57.75mg or 71.75mg of ZA was able to similarly reduce circulating concentrations of testosterone without significantly affecting liveweights or carcass weights. Treatment with ZA can result in variation in circulating concentrations of testosterone which could lead to differences in behaviour, liveweights and carcass characteristics. PMID:26130602

  2. AN INFRARED/X-RAY SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Mamajek, E. E.; Cruz, K. L.

    2009-09-20

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M {approx} 4-7 M{sub Jup}). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy distribution, which indicates that it could be in the protostellar class I stage (star+disk+envelope). Upon inspection of archival images from various observatories, we find that one of the new young stars has a large edge-on disk (r = 2.''5 = 350 AU). The scattered light from this disk has undergone significant variability on a timescale of days in optical images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Using the updated census of Taurus, we have measured the initial mass function for the fields observed by XMM-Newton. The resulting mass function is similar to previous ones that we have reported for Taurus, showing a surplus of stars at spectral types of K7-M1 (0.6-0.8 M{sub sun}) relative to other nearby star-forming regions, such as IC 348, Chamaeleon I, and the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  3. Disks in Transition in the Taurus Population: Spitzer IRS Spectra of GM Aurigae and DM Tauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvet, N.; D'Alessio, P.; Watson, D. M.; Franco-Hernandez, R.; Furlan, E.; Green, J.; Sutter, P. M.; Forrest, W. J.; Hartmann, L.; Uchida, K. I.; Keller, L. D.; Sargent, B.; Najita, J.; Herter, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Hall, P.

    2005-01-01

    We presented Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of two objects of the Taurus population that show unambiguous signs of clea,ring in their inner disks. In one of the objects, DM Tau, the outer disk is truncated at 3 AU; this object is akin to another recently reported in Taurus, CoKu Tau/4, in that the inner disk region is free of small dust. Unlike CoKu Tau/4, however, this star is still accreting, so optically thin gas should still remain in the inner disk region. The other object, GM Aur, also accreting, has about 0.02 lunar masses of small dust in the inner disk region within about 5 AU, consistent with previous reports. However, the IRS spectrum clearly shows that the optically thick outer disk has an inner truncation at a much larger radius than previously suggested, of order 24 AU. These observations provide strong evidence for the presence of gaps in protoplanetary disks.

  4. Flares of Orion population variables in the association Taurus T3

    SciTech Connect

    Khodzhaev, A.S.

    1988-03-01

    Thirteen new flare stars that are irregular variables of the Orion population have been found in an investigation of the Taurus Dark Cloud region by the homogeneous photographic multiexposure method using wide-angle Schmidt telescopes of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory. About 750 h of effective observation time led to the discovery of 17 flares in these stars. Analysis of the complicated light curves of the flares of these stars indicates a variety and multiplicity of phenomena and different dynamics of the energy release processes during the flares. The existence of flare stars that simultaneously exhibit the properties of T Tau and UV Cet type indicates that there is an intimate relationship between these types of young nonstationary stars. The flare star population in the region of the Taurus Dark Cloud is in all probability as young as the analogous groups of stars in Orion and Monoceros.

  5. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Bonavita, Mariangela; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Janson, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M {sub ☉} and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M {sub ☉}. We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M {sub Jup}. The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3{sub −4.9}{sup +6.6}%. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M {sub ☉} appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8{sub −1.5}{sup +4.2}% of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively.

  6. Mare ridges and related studies: Part C: lunar thrust faults in the Taurus-Littrow region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; Muehlberger, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    "Wrinkle ridges" in the Taurus-Littrow region along the eastern margin of the Mare Serenitatis appear very fresh and are probably among the youngest on the Moon. They include both mare ridges and similar-looking one-sided scarps. Evidence will be presented here to suggest that these ridges and scarps may be anticlines and thrust faults that resulted from sliding on a décollement surface. Alternative interpretations are presented by Scott (part D) and Hodges (part B).

  7. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Youquan; Xie, Hui; Meng, Qiong; Jin, Dong; Yu, Bo; Sun, Hui; Lu, Shan; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are recognized as important human pathogens of public health concern. Many animals are the sources of STEC. In this study we determined the occurrence and characteristics of the STEC in yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. A total of 728 yak fecal samples was collected from June to August, 2012 and was screened for the presence of the stx1 and stx2 genes by TaqMan real-time PCR after the sample was enriched in modified Tryptone Soya Broth. Of the 138 (18.96%) stx1 and/or stx2-positive samples, 85 (61.59%) were confirmed to have at least 1 STEC isolate present by culture isolation, from which 128 STEC isolates were recovered. All STEC isolates were serotyped, genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and characterized for the presence of 16 known virulence factors. Fifteen different O serogroups and 36 different O:H serotypes were identified in the 128 STEC isolates with 21 and 4 untypable for the O and H antigens respectively. One stx1 subtype (stx1a) and 5 stx2 subtypes (stx2a, stx2b, stx2c, stx2d and stx2g) were present in these STEC isolates. Apart from lpfAO157/OI-141, lpfAO157/OI-154, lpfAO113, katP and toxB which were all absent, other virulence factors screened (eaeA, iha, efa1, saa, paa, cnf1, cnf2, astA, subA, exhA and espP) were variably present in the 128 STEC isolates. PFGE were successful for all except 5 isolates and separated them into 67 different PFGE patterns. For the 18 serotypes with 2 or more isolates, isolates of the same serotypes had the same or closely related PFGE patterns, demonstrating clonality of these serotypes. This study was the first report on occurrence and characteristics of STEC isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China, and extended the genetic diversity and reservoir host range of STEC. PMID:23776496

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New young star candidates in Taurus-Auriga (Rebull+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Koenig, X. P.; Padgett, D. L.; Terebey, S.; McGehee, P. M.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Knapp, G. R.; Leisawitz, D.; Liu, W.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Ressler, M. E.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Mainzer, A.

    2011-11-01

    In the context of Rebull et al. (2010ApJS..186..259R), we assembled a substantial multi-wavelength database, spanning Sloan u through Spitzer/MIPS 160um (with some X-rays) for point sources throughout the Taurus region. We use that catalog as the core for our analysis here, updating it with confirmed Taurus members from, e.g., Kenyon et al. (2008hsf1.book..405K) and Luhman et al. (2010ApJS..186..111L) outside of our original Spitzer map. We have also searched SIMBAD (and literature references therein) for known galaxies and other contaminants in this vicinity. Our Taurus Spitzer Survey spanned ~44deg2 (figure 1). WISE data acquisition and reduction are discussed in Wright et al. (2010AJ....140.1868W), Jarrett et al. (2011, ApJ, submitted), and in the Explanatory Supplement to the WISE Preliminary Data Release Products. There are four WISE bands, with central wavelengths at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22um, and a spatial resolution of 6" (12" at 22um). (3 data files).

  9. The Gould's Belt Very Large Array Survey. IV. The Taurus-Auriga Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Hartmann, Lee; Evans, Neal J., II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2015-03-01

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ~1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  10. Diversity and gradients in cedar forests on Taurus mountain range (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kavgai, Ali; Earni, Andra

    2012-09-01

    Cedrus libani forests have been under anthropogenic pressure for thousands of years. The unattainable topography of the Taurus mountain range (Southern Anatolia) has prevented cedar in this region from being extirpated, in contrast to its other distribution areas in Syria and Lebanon. Numerical analyses of relevés confirmed the individuality of associations, as well as the division of C. libani forests into two ecological and floristically different groups/alliances (Abieti-Cedrion and Lonicero-Cedrion). Abieti-Cedrion is distributed in the middle and eastern Taurus whereas Lonicero-Cedrion appears in the Western Taurus. The main gradients of C. libani forests were detected. It was noticed that the distribution and floristic composition of C. libani forests is strongly affected by the geographical factors. Topographical factors are also influential on their distribution. C. libani forests are fundemantal components of the Mediterranean phytogeographical region and floral elements, but under more continental conditions, where the influence of the Mediterranean climate decreased, the proportion of Iran-Turanian and Euro-Siberian floral elements increase, especially towards the east and north, as well at higher altitudes and on steeper sites. PMID:23734468

  11. Measurement of density in axisymmetric jets using a novel background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dominic James; Edgington-Mitchell, Daniel; Honnery, Damon

    2015-11-01

    A novel application of the adaptive Fourier-Hankel (AFH) Abel algorithm to reconstruct the radial density distribution of axisymmetric jets is presented. The fluid is imaged using the non-intrusive path-integrated background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique. BOS images are cross-correlated to obtain background displacements that are proportional to the first derivative of the refractive index. The critical step is deconvolving the projected displacements. The AFH method is applied to simulated displacement data to validate the use of averaged turbulent fluctuations that approximate an axisymmetric field. The influence of experimental noise and variations in the flow on the accuracy of the method is discussed. The limitations of the system are demonstrated by applying it to low- and high-Reynolds ( Re) number jets. The high- Re jets are produced from a high-pressure fuel injector operating at nozzle pressure ratios of 2, 3, and 4.

  12. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal (Bos frontalis) Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Uzzaman, Md. Rasel; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Edea, Zewdu; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis) is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the FIS (within-population inbreeding) value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139) and expected (0.148±0.143) heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature. PMID:25178382

  13. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. PMID:25752498

  14. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal (Bos frontalis) Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review.

    PubMed

    Uzzaman, Md Rasel; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Edea, Zewdu; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis) is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the F IS (within-population inbreeding) value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139) and expected (0.148±0.143) heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature. PMID:25178382

  15. Analysis of host genetic factors influencing African trypanosome species infection in a cohort of Tanzanian Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Morrison, Liam J; Black, Alana; Turner, C Michael R; Kambarage, Dominic M; Ballingall, Keith T

    2011-06-30

    Trypanosomosis caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma is a major health constraint to cattle production in many African countries. One hundred and seventy one Bos indicus cattle from traditional pastoral Maasai (87) and more intensively managed Boran (84) animals in Tanzania were screened by PCR for the presence of African animal trypanosomes (Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei), using blood samples archived on FTA cards. All cattle screened for trypanosomes were also genotyped at the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB3 locus to investigate possible associations between host MHC and trypanosome infection. Overall, 23.4% of the 171 cattle tested positive for at least one of the three trypanosome species. The prevalence of individual trypanosome species was 8.8% (T. congolense), 4.7% (T. vivax) and 15.8% (T. brucei). The high prevalence of T. brucei compared with T. congolense and T. vivax was unexpected as this species has previously been considered to be of lesser importance in terms of African bovine trypanosomosis. Significantly higher numbers of Maasai cattle were infected with T. brucei (23.0%, p=0.009) and T. congolense (13.8%, p=0.019) compared with Boran cattle (8.3% and 3.6%, respectively). Analysis of BoLA-DRB3 diversity in this cohort identified extensive allelic diversity. Thirty-three BoLA-DRB3 PCR-RFLP defined alleles were identified. One allele (DRB3*15) was significantly associated with an increased risk (odds ratio, OR=2.71, p=0.034) of T. brucei infection and three alleles (DRB3*35, *16 and *23) were associated with increased risk of T. congolense infection. While further work is required to dissect the role of these alleles in susceptibility to T. brucei and T. congolense infections, this study demonstrates the utility of FTA archived blood samples in combined molecular analyses of both host and pathogen. PMID:21377802

  16. Highly Ordered Structure Formation in RAFT-Synthesized PtBOS-b-P4VP Diblock Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Faber, Martin; Hofman, Anton H; Loos, Katja; Brinke, Gerrit Ten

    2016-06-01

    Linear poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PtBOS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymers are synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The self-assembly of four different PtBOS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers is studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy and a number of interesting observations are made. A tBOS62 -b-4VP28 diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.21 shows a disordered morphology of P4VP spheres with liquid-like short-range order despite an estimated value of χN of the order of 50. Increasing the length of the 4VP block to tBOS62 -b-4VP199 results in a diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.66. It forms a remarkably well-ordered lamellar structure. Likewise, a tBOS146 -b-4VP120 diblock copolymer with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.33 forms an extremely well-ordered hexagonal structure of P4VP cylinders. Increasing the P4VP block of this block copolymer to tBOS146 -b-4VP190 with a weight fraction P4VP of 0.44 results in a bicontinuous gyroid morphology despite the estimated strong segregation of χN≅150. These results are discussed in terms of the architectural dissimilarity of the two monomers, characterized by the presence of the large side group of PtBOS, and the previously reported value of the interaction parameter, χ≅0.39, for this polymer pair. PMID:27079547

  17. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle. PMID:9051459

  18. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L.; Konopacky, Q. M.; McLeod, K. K.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Ghez, A. M.; Robberto, M.

    2014-06-10

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉}). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15{sub −0.03}{sup +0.05} for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M {sub ☉}) and 4/108 = 0.04{sub −0.01}{sup +0.03} for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  19. X-ray deficiency on strongly accreting T Tauri stars. Comparing Orion with Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Bouy, H.; Manara, C. F.; Ribas, Á.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Depending on whether a T Tauri star accretes material from its circumstellar disk or not, different X-ray emission properties can be found. The accretion shocks produce cool heating of the plasma, contributing to the soft X-ray emission from the star. Aims: Using X-ray data from the Chandra Orion Ultra-deep Project and accretion rates that were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 photometric measurements in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), we studied the relation between the accretion processes and the X-ray emissions of a coherent sample of T Tauri sources in the region. Methods: We performed regression and correlation analyses of our sample of T Tauri stars between the X-ray parameters, stellar properties, and the accretion measurements. Results: We find that a clear anti-correlation is present between the residual X-ray luminosity and the accretion rates in our samples in Orion that is consistent with that found on the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST) study. A considerable number of classified non-accreting sources show accretion rates comparable to those of classical T Tauri Stars (CTTS). Our data do not allow us to confirm the classification between classical and weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS), and the number of WTTS in this work is small compared to the complete samples. Thus, we have used the entire samples as accretors in our analysis. We provide a catalog with X-ray luminosities (corrected from distance) and accretion measurements of an ONC T Tauri stars sample. Conclusions: Although Orion and Taurus display strong differences in their properties (total gas and dust mass, star density, strong irradiation from massive stars), we find that a similar relation between the residual X-ray emission and accretion rate is present in the Taurus molecular cloud and in the accreting samples from the ONC. The spread in the data suggests dependencies of the accretion rates and the X-ray luminosities other than the

  20. A Search for Companions to Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L.; Konopacky, Q. M.; McLeod, K. K.; Apai, D.; Ghez, A. M.; Pascucci, I.; Robberto, M.

    2014-06-01

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ~ 0.01-0.1 M ⊙). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ~ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15^{+0.05}_{-0.03} for M4-M6 (M ~ 0.1-0.3 M ⊙) and 4/108 = 0.04^{+0.03}_{-0.01} for >M6 (M <~ 0.1 M ⊙) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming. Based on observations performed with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini Observatory, and the W. M. Keck Observatory. The Hubble observations are associated with proposal IDs 11203, 11204, and 11983 and were obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  1. Apollo 17 lunar module 'Challenger' liftoff from Taurus-Littrow landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 17 lunar module (LM) 'Challenger' ascent stage leaves the Taurus-Littrow landing site as it makes its spectacular liftoff from the lunar surface, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color RCA TV camera mounted on the lunar roving vehicle. The LM liftoff was at 188:01:36 ground elapsed time, 4:54:36 p.m., Thursday, December 14, 1972. The LM descent stage is used as a launching platform and remains behind on the Moon. Here, the two stages have completely separated and the ascent stage is headed skyward.

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi Oxidative Stress Regulator BosR Directly Represses Lipoproteins Primarily Expressed in the Tick during Mammalian Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Dadhwal, Poonam; Cheng, Zhihui; Zianni, Michael R.; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Liang, Fang Ting; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Differential gene expression is a key strategy adopted by the Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, for adaptation and survival in the mammalian host and the tick vector. Many B. burgdorferi surface lipoproteins fall into two distinct groups according to their expression patterns: one group primarily expressed in the tick and the other group primarily expressed in the mammal. Here, we show that the Fur homologue in this bacterium, also known as Borrelia oxidative stress regulator (BosR), is required for repression of outer surface protein A (OspA) and OspD in the mammal. Furthermore, BosR binds directly to sequences upstream of the ospAB operon and the ospD gene through recognition of palindromic motifs similar to those recognized by other Fur homologues but with a 1-bp variation in the spacer length. Putative BosR-binding sites have been identified upstream of 156 B. burgdorferi genes. Some of these genes share the same expression pattern as ospA and ospD. Most notably, 12 (67%) of the 18 genes previously identified in a genome-wide microarray study to be most significantly repressed in the mammal are among the putative BosR regulon. These data indicate that BosR may directly repress transcription of many genes that are down-regulated in the mammal. PMID:23869590

  3. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower ( P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  4. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower (P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle. PMID:26070369

  5. Age-related changes in the morphology and protein expression of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Kun; Yangyang, Pan; He, Junfeng; Yu, Sijiu; Cui, Yan

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate age-related changes in the morphology and expression of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), S100 β, and caspase-3 of the thymus of healthy yaks (Bos grunniens). ANIMALS 15 healthy male yaks of various ages from highland plateaus. PROCEDURES Yaks were allocated to 3 groups on the basis of age (newborn [1 to 7 days old; n = 5], juvenile [5 to 7 months old, 5], and adult [3 to 4 years old; 5]) and euthanized. The thymus was harvested from each yak within 10 minutes after euthanasia. Morphological characteristics were assessed by histologic examination and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of CD3, S100 β, and caspase-3 mRNA and protein was measured by quantitative real-time PCR assay, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS As age increased, functional thymic tissue was replaced with adipose and connective tissues and the thymic capsule thickened. Expression of CD3 and S100 β mRNA and protein decreased with age, whereas expression of caspase-3 mRNA and protein increased with age. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that CD3-positive thymocytes were located within both the thymic cortex and medulla, S100 β-positive thymic dendritic cells were located in the corticomedullary junction and medulla, and caspase-3-positive thymocytes were diffusely scattered throughout the cortex and medulla. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that age-related thymic changes in yaks that live on highland plateaus were similar to those observed in humans and other mammals. Thus, yaks might serve as a model to study thymic immune system adaptations to high elevations. PMID:27227493

  6. An IRAS Hires study of low mass star formation in the Taurus molecular ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan; Surace, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    The Taurus molecular cloud supposedly has no star clusters but only isolated star formation. However, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) shows us that a small star cluster is currently forming in Taurus. Most of the sources are deeply embedded and are probably low-mass protostars. We use High Resolution (HiRes) images of the IRAS data from the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) to look for additional infrared members of the cluster. We also investigate the question of whether the infrared emission matches predictions for protostellar sources by examining whether the dust emission is resolved on scales of one arcminute (approx. 10(exp 17) cm). With the exception of a luminous visible star, HD 29647, we find that the sources L1527, TMC1A, TMC1, TMC1C, tMR1, and IC2087 are unresolved in the HiRes images at 60 microns. Further analysis of IC2087 shows that it is unresolved at all four IRAS wavelengths.

  7. DISCOVERY OF A PLANETARY-MASS COMPANION TO A BROWN DWARF IN TAURUS

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, K.; Luhman, K. L.; McLeod, K. K.

    2010-05-01

    We have performed a survey for substellar companions to young brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In these data, we have discovered a candidate companion at a projected separation of 0.''105 from one of the brown dwarfs, corresponding to 15 AU at the distance of Taurus. To determine if this object is a companion, we have obtained images of the pair at a second epoch with the adaptive optics system at Gemini Observatory. The astrometry from the Hubble and Gemini data indicates that the two objects share similar proper motions and thus are likely companions. We estimate a mass of 5-10 M {sub Jup} for the secondary based on a comparison of its bolometric luminosity to the predictions of theoretical evolutionary models. This object demonstrates that planetary-mass companions to brown dwarfs can form on a timescale of {tau} {approx}< 1 Myr. Companion formation on such a rapid timescale is more likely to occur via gravitational instability in a disk or fragmentation of a cloud core than through core accretion. The Gemini images also reveal a possible substellar companion ({rho} = 0.''23) to a young low-mass star that is 12.''4 from the brown dwarf targeted by Hubble. If these four objects comprise a quadruple system, then its hierarchical configuration would suggest that the fragmentation of molecular cloud cores can produce companions below 10 M {sub Jup}.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Outflows and bubbles in Taurus (Li+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Li, D.; Qian, L.; Xu, D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Wu, Y.; Song, Y.; Nan, R.

    2015-11-01

    In our study, we used the 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0 with the 13.7m FCRAO telescope. The FCRAO CO survey was taken between 2003 and 2005. The FWHM beam width is 45" for 12CO and 47" for 13CO. The MIPS maps were created as part of the final products from the Spitzer Legacy Taurus I and II surveys (Padgett et al. 2007AAS...211.1206P). The data were obtained in fast scan mode in three bands, 24, 70, and 160um, over an area of 44deg2. The observations were performed in three epochs between 2005 and 2007, with integration times of 30s (24um) and 15s (70 and 160um). We also adopted the up-to-date catalog of Spitzer YSOs where 215 YSOs and 140 new YSO candidates in Taurus are reported (Rebull et al. 2010, J/ApJS/186/259). (3 data files).

  9. Large-Scale Structure of the Molecular Gas in Taurus Revealed by High Spatial Dynamic Range Spectral Line Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    Viewgraph topics include: optical image of Taurus; dust extinction in IR has provided a new tool for probing cloud morphology; observations of the gas can contribute critical information on gas temperature, gas column density and distribution, mass, and kinematics; the Taurus molecular cloud complex; average spectra in each mask region; mas 2 data; dealing with mask 1 data; behavior of mask 1 pixels; distribution of CO column densities; conversion to H2 column density; variable CO/H2 ratio with values much less than 10(exp -4) at low N indicated by UV results; histogram of N(H2) distribution; H2 column density distribution in Taurus; cumulative distribution of mass and area; lower CO fractional abundance in mask 0 and 1 regions greatly increases mass determined in the analysis; masses determined with variable X(CO) and including diffuse regions agrees well with the found from L(CO); distribution of young stars as a function of molecular column density; star formation efficiency; star formation rate and gas depletion; and enlarged images of some of the regions with numerous young stars. Additional slides examine the origin of the Taurus molecular cloud, evolution from HI gas, kinematics as a clue to its origin, and its relationship to star formation.

  10. Susceptibility to trypanosomosis of three Bos indicus cattle breeds in areas of differing tsetse fly challenge.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, E K; Stevenson, P; Gettinby, G; Reid, S W; Murray, M

    1998-09-01

    Studies to assess the differences in susceptibility to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds (Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran and Galana Boran) were conducted under conditions of varying tsetse fly challenge at the Nguruman escarpment in south-western Kenya, for a period of 1 year. It was found that under tsetse challenge quantified as high, Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were less susceptible than Galana Boran to trypanosome infections, as judged by the significantly lower incidence of infection, development of less severe anaemia, fewer requirements for trypanocidal drug treatments, higher growth rates and fewer mortalities. In the area where tsetse challenge was considered low as a result of a tsetse fly control operation using odour-baited traps, only the Maasai Zebu and Orma Boran were compared. No significant differences in the incidence of infection, degree of anaemia or growth rates were observed between the two breeds, but all were significantly different from their counterparts in the high tsetse challenge area. These results suggest that there is variation in resistance to trypanosomosis among Bos indicus cattle breeds that could be exploited as part of the integrated trypanosomosis control programmes in East Africa. PMID:9777722

  11. Technical note: Digital quantification of eye pigmentation of cattle with white faces.

    PubMed

    Davis, K M; Smith, T; Bolt, B; Meadows, S; Powell, J G; Vann, R C; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lalman, D L; Rouquette, F M; Hansen, G R; Cooper, A J; Cloud, J E; Garcia, M D; Herring, A D; Hale, D S; Sanders, J O; Hairgrove, T B; DeWitt, T J; Riley, D G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the eye in cattle with white faces occurs less frequently in cattle with pigmented eyelids. Corneoscleral pigmentation is related to eyelid pigmentation and occurrence of lesions that may precede cancer. Objectives of this study were to assess 1) variation in the proportion of eyelid and corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford, Bos taurus, and Bos indicus crossbreds and 2) the occurrence of lesions with the presence of pigmentation in those areas. Hereford and Bos indicus crosses (Brahman or Nellore with Angus and Hereford and straightbred Brafords) and Bos taurus crosses (Angus-Hereford) were included in the study (n = 1,083). Eyelid pigmentation proportions were estimated by pixel quantification and were evaluated as total proportions and for upper and lower eyelids distinctly for each eye. Fixed effects included breed type, age categories, and sex of the animal. Lesion presence (1) or absence (0) was obtained by visual appraisal of image and was assumed to be binomially distributed. Eyelid pigmentation proportions (overall, upper, and lower eyelids) for Hereford ranged from 0.65 ± 0.03 to 0.68 ± 0.03 and were significantly lower than Bos indicus (range from 0.93 ± 0.02 to 0.95 ± 0.02) or Bos taurus (ranged from 0.88 ± 0.02 to 0.92 ± 0.02) crosses. Corneoscleral pigmentation in Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) did not differ (P = 0.91) from Hereford calves and yearlings (0.16 ± 0.07). Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbred cows had larger corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04 for left eyes and 0.37 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.04 for right eyes, respectively) than all calves (P < 0.001), and their corneoscleral pigmentations were greater than that of Hereford cows (P < 0.003). Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows had greater proportions of left eye corneoscleral pigmentation (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.04, respectively) than Hereford cows (0.17 ± 0.06) and all young animal breed types (P < 0.05). Right eye proportions differed for all cow

  12. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (XEST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guedel, M.; Briggs, K. R.; Arzner, K.; Audard, M.; Bouvier, J.; Feigelson, E. D.; Franciosini, E.; Glauser, A.; Grosso, N.; Micela, G.; Monin, J.-L.; Montmerle, T.; Padgett, D. L.; Palla, F.; Pillitteri, I.; Rebull, L.; Scelsi, L.; Silva, B.; Skinner, S. L.; Stelzer, B.; Telleschi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) is the nearest large star-forming region, prototypical for the distributed mode of low-mass star formation. Pre-main sequence stars are luminous X-ray sources, probably mostly owing to magnetic energy release. Aims. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (EST) presented in this paper surveys the most populated =5 square degrees of the TMC, using the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory to study the thermal structure, variability, and long-term evolution of hot plasma, to investigate the magnetic dynamo, and to search for new potential members of the association. Many targets are also studied in the optical, and high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy has been obtained for selected bright sources. Methods. The X-ray spectra have been coherently analyzed with two different thermal models (2-component thermal model, and a continuous emission measure distribution model). We present overall correlations with fundamental stellar parameters that were derived from the previous literature. A few detections from Chandra observations have been added. Results. The present overview paper introduces the project and provides the basic results from the X-ray analysis of all sources detected in the XEST survey. Comprehensive tables summarize the stellar properties of all targets surveyed. The survey goes deeper than previous X-ray surveys of Taurus by about an order of magnitude and for the first time systematically accesses very faint and strongly absorbed TMC objects. We find a detection rate of 85% and 98% for classical and weak-line T Tau stars (CTTS resp. WTTS), and identify about half of the surveyed protostars and brown dwarfs. Overall, 136 out of 169 surveyed stellar systems are detected. We describe an X-ray luminosity vs. mass correlation, discuss the distribution of X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity ratios, and show evidence for lower X-ray luminosities in CTTS compared to WTTS. Detailed analysis (e.g., variability, rotation

  13. Classifying the embedded young stellar population in Perseus and Taurus and the LOMASS database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, M. T.; Yıldız, U. A.; Mottram, J. C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Ramchandani, J.; Jørgensen, J. K.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The classification of young stellar objects (YSOs) is typically done using the infrared spectral slope or bolometric temperature, but either can result in contamination of samples. More accurate methods to determine the evolutionary stage of YSOs will improve the reliability of statistics for the embedded YSO population and provide more robust stage lifetimes. Aims: We aim to separate the truly embedded YSOs from more evolved sources. Methods: Maps of HCO+J = 4-3 and C18O J = 3-2 were observed with HARP on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) for a sample of 56 candidate YSOs in Perseus and Taurus in order to characterize the presence and morphology of emission from high density (ncrit > 106 cm-3) and high column density gas, respectively. These are supplemented with archival dust continuum maps observed with SCUBA on the JCMT and Herschel PACS to compare the morphology of the gas and dust in the protostellar envelopes. The spatial concentration of HCO+J = 4-3 and 850 μm dust emission are used to classify the embedded nature of YSOs. Results: Approximately 30% of Class 0+I sources in Perseus and Taurus are not Stage I, but are likely to be more evolved Stage II pre-main sequence (PMS) stars with disks. An additional 16% are confused sources with an uncertain evolutionary stage. Outflows are found to make a negligible contribution to the integrated HCO+ intensity for the majority of sources in this study. Conclusions: Separating classifications by cloud reveals that a high percentage of the Class 0+I sources in the Perseus star forming region are truly embedded Stage I sources (71%), while the Taurus cloud hosts a majority of evolved PMS stars with disks (68%). The concentration factor method is useful to correct misidentified embedded YSOs, yielding higher accuracy for YSO population statistics and Stage timescales. Current estimates (0.54 Myr) may overpredict the Stage I lifetime on the order of 30%, resulting in timescales down to 0.38 Myr for the

  14. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  15. Sensitive and semi-quantitative TaqMan™ real-time polymerase chain reaction systems for the detection of beef (Bos taurus) and the detection of the family Mammalia in food and feed.

    PubMed

    Brodmann, Peter D; Moor, Dominik

    2003-09-01

    Consumers distrust beef or products that could contain beef because of the BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) and vCJD (variant Creutzfeld Jacob Disease) cases during recent years. Cows could be fed with meat and bone meal-containing food. To regain consumer confidence methods are needed that allow the detection of smallest amounts of beef in the most different kind of products. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis can be used to detect the smallest amounts of even highly degraded DNA. In this work two methods are presented that allow the detection of mammal DNA and beef DNA, respectively, even in highly degraded DNA. The amplification of fragments as short as 66 and 76 bp, respectively, allow a determination of mammal or beef DNA even in meat and bone meal products. PMID:22063254

  16. Artist's concept of topographical layout of Taurus-Littrow landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating the topographical layout of the Taurus-Littrow landing site, depicting the traverses planned on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission using the Lunar Roving Vehicle. The Roman numerals indicate the three periods of extravehicular activity (EVA). The Arabic numbers represent the station stops. The mountain in the center of the picture is South Massif. A portion of North Massif is in the lower right corner of the photograph. The names of some of the craters are: Camelot (at Station 5); Emory (nearest Station 1); Sherlock (at station 10); Steno (between Emory and Sherlock); Amundsen (at Station 2); Lara (at Station 3); Henry (nearest Station 6); Shakespeare (nearest Station 9); Cochise (nearest Station 8); and Powell (halfway between Camelot and Emory). Note the ridge-like feature extending from Station 2 to North Massif. The southern portion of the ridge is called Lee Scarp; and the Northerly portion is Lincoln Scarp. This concept is by MSC artist Jerry Elm

  17. A river based stable isotope record of orographic precipitation: Taurus Mountains, south central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemmel, Fabian; Mulch, Andreas; Mikes, Tamás.; Schildgen, Taylor

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructing continental precipitation and vegetation patterns has become one of the most rapidly growing fields in terrestrial paleoclimate research. Furthermore, stable isotopes in precipitation within continental plateau regions represent an increasingly important tool for reconstructing the various effects of uplift related climate change within the world's largest plateau regions. With peak elevations of more than 3,000 m the Taurus Mountains represent the southern margin of the central Anatolian plateau and must have played a pivotal role in controlling the drainage and sedimentation patterns within the plateau interior. However, their surface uplift history remains largely elusive. We sampled a series of tributaries and rivers along the Ermenek valley that crosscuts the Taurus Mountains in Southern Turkey. The aim of this study is to quantify the modern effect of orographic rainout of the Taurus Mountains on the d18O and dD values of river and spring waters and to compare these values to the d18O and dD of recent precipitation gathered by the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Further we try to study the trends of the recent d18O and dD isotopic composition of local rivers and precipitation in the area to create a set of isotopic data that is comparable to isotopic studies on paleosoils and can therefore be used in future paleoaltimetry and paleoclimate studies. We sampled 6 individual rivers during the fall season 2008 to capture mostly groundwater runoff in the south central Taurus Mountains. All sampled rivers belong to the same local drainage system which drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The total elevation difference within the sampling area exceeds 2,000 m and we were able to collect samples over almost 1,800 m of elevation. Our measurements show that both d18O and dD values follow the same basic trend. d18O and dD values decrease systematically with increasing elevation. The lapse rate of d18O is about -2.2 per mil/km, whereas the

  18. THE RELATION BETWEEN GAS AND DUST IN THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Jorge L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chapman, Nicholas; Li Di; Snell, Ronald L.; Cambresy, Laurent; Brunt, Chris

    2010-09-20

    We report a study of the relation between dust and gas over a 100 deg{sup 2} area in the Taurus molecular cloud. We compare the H{sub 2} column density derived from dust extinction with the CO column density derived from the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 1 {yields} 0 lines. We derive the visual extinction from reddening determined from 2MASS data. The comparison is done at an angular size of 200'' corresponding to 0.14 pc at a distance of 140 pc. We find that the relation between visual extinction A{sub V} and N(CO) is linear between A{sub V} {approx_equal} 3 and 10 mag in the region associated with the B213-L1495 filament. In other regions, the linear relation is flattened for A{sub V{approx}}> 4 mag. We find that the presence of temperature gradients in the molecular gas affects the determination of N(CO) by {approx}30%-70% with the largest difference occurring at large column densities. Adding a correction for this effect and accounting for the observed relation between the column density of CO and CO{sub 2} ices and A{sub V}, we find a linear relationship between the column of carbon monoxide and dust for observed visual extinctions up to the maximum value in our data {approx_equal}23 mag. We have used these data to study a sample of dense cores in Taurus. Fitting an analytical column density profile to these cores we derive an average volume density of about 1.4 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3} and a CO depletion age of about 4.2 x 10{sup 5} yr. At visual extinctions smaller than {approx}3 mag, we find that the CO fractional abundance is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude. The data show a large scatter suggesting a range of physical conditions of the gas. We estimate the H{sub 2} mass of Taurus to be about 1.5 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}, independently derived from the A{sub V} and N(CO) maps. We derive a CO integrated intensity to H{sub 2} conversion factor of about 2.1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1}, which applies even in the region where the [CO

  19. Mare ridges and related studies: Part D: small structures of the Taurus-Littrow region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David H.

    1973-01-01

    Apollo 17 permission geologic studies of the Taurus-Littrow region of the Moon revealed numerous small structures, in both mare and terra, having somewhat similar morphologies and variously resembling fault scarps, flow fronts, and mare ridges. Many of these features are too small to be identified on Lunar Orbiter IV photographs, which provided the most comprehensive, high-resolution coverage of this area before the later Apollo missions. The panoramic- and metric-camera photographs of Apollo 17 were taken at lower Sun angles than those of Apollo 15, which were used for the geologic mapping (refs. 31-40 and 31-41), and thus more clearly reveal fine details of texture and relief. In the illustrations of this part, several of these small structures are compared. It is concluded that they probably developed as lava extrusions from fractures and fissures; they cannot be easily explained by faulting.

  20. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  1. The Taurus-Littrow dark mantle, light mantle, crater cluster, and scarp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    1992-01-01

    The Taurus-Littrow landing site is on the floor of a grabenlike valley that is radial to the Serenitatis Basin; the valley is gently inclined to the east. It is bordered by steep-sided massifs that rise 2 km above the valley floor and form part of the Serenitatis Basin rim. The valley floor is exceptionally dark, and in one place it is overlain by a light-colored mantle apparently derived from the massif to the south. The floor is also peppered by overlapping craters. A scarp, up on the west, transects the valley floor and enters the highlands to the north. Pre- and post-mission analyses of this geological formation are presented.

  2. Photogeology of the dark material in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    Regional relations and characteristics of the dark material as observed on photographs of the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon are reviewed to provide a background for interpretations of its nature and origin. The dark material seems to be a surficial deposit that covers mare and highland areas near the southeastern edge of the Serenitatis Basin. The age of the dark material, as deduced from photogeologic analysis, is ambiguous: contact relations near its western edge suggest that it is older than the central light basalts of Mare Serenitatis; evidence elsewhere indicates that it may be younger. The origin of the dark material is also uncertain, and the following alternate hypotheses are briefly considered: (1) thick regolith, (2) dark impact ejecta, (3) pyroclastic blanket, or (4) a material of different origin in different places.

  3. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (XEST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric; Guedel, M.

    2007-12-01

    The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud is an exceptionally large and growing X-ray survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC). Now comprising 31 1/2-degree diameter fields, observed with the three XMM-Newton EPIC cameras. High-resolution spectroscopy has been obtained for about ten T Tauri stars (TTS) with the RGS instruments, and the Optical Monitor secured an optical/UV survey. XEST detects essentially the entire surveyed TTS population of the TMC in X-rays including about half of the observed (8/16) brown dwarfs and Class I protostars (8/20). Several new candidate members are identified. The X-ray luminosity (LX) of TTS shows related correlations with both stellar bolometric luminosity and mass. Classical TTS show suppressed X-ray output in the CCD band by a factor of about 2. These statistical results confirm results from other star formation regions. Different from previous reports on TMC, XEST identifies no activity-rotation relation. Brown dwarfs are found to follow trends set by TTS, both for accreting and non-accreting objects. But a decrease of the fractional luminosity, LX/Lbol, is seen with decreasing mass indicating weakened heating efficiency in the substellar domain. XEST reports five members of the class of "Two-Absorber X-Ray" (TAX) sources which reveal a double-peaked spectrum originating from two unrelated sources with different absorption column densities. The softer emission is thought to be related to jets, as explicitly seen in DG Tau. RGS spectroscopy shows a systematic "X-ray soft excess" in classical TTS, suggesting excessive cool (1-2 MK) plasma due to accretion, although the excess seems to correlate with magnetic activity as well. XEST has been supported by the Space Science Institute (Bern/Switz.).

  4. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF A NORMAL SPIRAL GALAXY VIEWED THROUGH THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Pavel, M. D. E-mail: pavelmi@utexas.edu

    2013-03-15

    Few normal galaxies have been probed using near-infrared polarimetry, even though it reveals magnetic fields in the cool interstellar medium better than either optical or radio polarimetry. Deep H-band (1.6 {mu}m) linear imaging polarimetry toward Taurus serendipitously included the galaxy 2MASX J04412715+2433110 with adequate sensitivity and resolution to map polarization across nearly its full extent. The observations revealed the galaxy to be a steeply inclined ({approx}75 Degree-Sign ) disk type with a diameter, encompassing 90% of the Petrosian flux, of 4.2 kpc at a distance of 53 Mpc. Because the sight line passes through the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex, the foreground polarization needed to be measured and removed. The foreground extinction A{sub V} of 2.00 {+-} 0.10 mag and reddening E(H - K) of 0.125 {+-} 0.009 mag were also assessed and removed, based on analysis of Two Micron All Sky Survey, UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry using the Near-Infrared Color Excess, NICE-Revisited, and Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess methods. Corrected for the polarized foreground, the galaxy polarization values range from 0% to 3%. The polarizations are dominated by a disk-parallel magnetic field geometry, especially to the northeast, while either a vertical field or single scattering of bulge light produces disk-normal polarizations to the southwest. The multi-kiloparsec coherence of the magnetic field revealed by the infrared polarimetry is in close agreement with short-wavelength radio synchrotron observations of edge-on galaxies, indicating that both cool and warm interstellar media of disk galaxies may be threaded by common magnetic fields.

  5. Magnetically Regulated Star Formation in Three Dimensions: The Case of the Taurus Molecular Cloud Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2008-11-01

    We carry out three-dimensional MHD simulations of star formation in turbulent, magnetized clouds, including ambipolar diffusion and feedback from protostellar outflows. The calculations focus on relatively diffuse clouds threaded by a strong magnetic field capable of resisting severe tangling by turbulent motions and retarding global gravitational contraction in the cross field direction. They are motivated by observations of the Taurus molecular cloud complex (and, to a lesser extent, Pipe Nebula), which shows an ordered large-scale magnetic field, as well as elongated condensations that are generally perpendicular to the large-scale field. We find that stars form in earnest in such clouds when enough material has settled gravitationally along the field lines that the mass-to-flux ratios of the condensations approach the critical value. Only a small fraction (of order 1% or less) of the nearly magnetically critical, condensed material is turned into stars per local free-fall time, however. The slow star formation takes place in condensations that are moderately supersonic; it is regulated primarily by magnetic fields, rather than turbulence. The quiescent condensations are surrounded by diffuse halos that are much more turbulent, as observed in the Taurus complex. Strong support for magnetic regulation of star formation in this complex comes from the extremely slow conversion of the already condensed, relatively quiescent C18O gas into stars, at a rate 2 orders of magnitude below the maximum, free-fall value. We analyze the properties of dense cores, including their mass spectrum, which resembles the stellar initial mass function.

  6. Brood Ball-Mediated Transmission of Microbiome Members in the Dung Beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Anne M.; Hearn, David J.; Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Feindler, Michele; Feeser, Karla; Abebe, Tselotie

    2013-01-01

    Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood chamber. The

  7. Cores, Filaments, and Bundles: Hierarchical core formation in the B213 filament in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacar, Alvaro; Tafalla, Mario; Kauffmann, Jens; Kovacs, Attila

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the dense core formation in filaments is a critical step for our understanding of the star formation process within molecular clouds. Using different molecular tracers to study the gas kinematics at different scales and density regimes, we have investigated the dense core formation in the B213/L1495 filament in Taurus, one of the most prominent structures identified in nearby clouds (see Hacar et al 2013, A&A, 554, A55). Our analysis of its internal kinematics demonstrates that this filament is actually a bundle of 35 velocity-coherent filaments, typically with lengths of ˜ 0.5 pc and oscillatory-like and sonic velocity field, each of them exhibiting linear masses close to the expected mass for a filament in hydrostatic equilibrium. Among them, only a small fraction of these filaments (˜1/4) are "fertile" and efficiently fragment forming all the cores identified within this region, while most of them (˜3/4) do not form cores and remain "sterile". Our observations then suggest that core formation in Taurus occurs in two steps. First, 0.5 pc-long velocity-coherent filaments condense out of the cloud gas, probably as a result of the turbulent cascade. After that, the dense cores condense quasi-statically in only those "fertile" filaments that have accumulated enough mass to became gravitational unstable, inheriting their kinematic properties. The formation of these velocity-coherent filaments appears therefore as a critical step on the star formation process being the first subsonic structures formed out of the turbulent regime that dominates the cloud dynamics at large scales.

  8. The Major Cow Milk Allergen Bos d 5 Manipulates T-Helper Cells Depending on Its Load with Siderophore-Bound Iron

    PubMed Central

    Roth-Walter, Franziska; Pacios, Luis F.; Gomez-Casado, Cristina; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Roth, Georg A.; Singer, Josef; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of allergic sensitization to milk are still elusive. The major allergen Bos d 5 belongs to the lipocalin-family and thus is able to transport numerous ligands. In this study we investigated its ability to bind to iron-siderophore complexes and tested the immune-modulatory properties of Bos d 5 in either forms. Structural and in silico docking analysis of Bos d 5 revealed that Bos d 5 is able to bind to iron via catechol-based flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, luteolin) that act as siderophores as confirmed by spectral-analysis and iron staining. Calculated dissociation constants of docking analyses were below 1 µM by virtual addition of iron. When incubated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), only the apo-form of Bos d 5 led to an increase of CD4+positive cells and significantly elevated IL13 and IFNγ-levels. In contrast, holo-Bos d 5 decreased numbers of CD4 expressing cells and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data give evidence that Bos d 5 is capable of binding iron via siderophores. Moreover, our data support for the first time the notion that the form of application (apo- or holo-form) is decisive for the subsequent immune response. The apo-form promotes Th2 cells and inflammation, whereas the holo-form appears to be immunosuppressive. PMID:25117976

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared photometry of all known members in Taurus (Esplin+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2016-08-01

    To construct a census of the circumstellar disks in Taurus, we begin by compiling a list of all known members of the region. We adopt the 352 members from Luhman et al. 2010 (cat. J/ApJS/186/111), 4 additional stars that have good evidence of membership from previous studies (Section 5.4), 32 members found in a subsequent survey by K. Luhman (in preparation; 33 if GZ Tau A and B are counted separately), and 25 new members (26 if BS Tau A and B are counted separately) that we have confirmed with spectroscopy (Section 5.3). We also adopt as a member HD 285957, which has a proper motion consistent with that of the Taurus subgroup L1551 (Zacharias et al. 2013, cat. I/322; Luhman et al. 2009ApJ...703..399L) and exhibits evidence of youth in the form of Li absorption (Wichmann et al. 2000A&A...359..181W; Sestito et al. 2008, cat. J/A+A/488/943). We make use of mid-infrared photometry for members of Taurus measured with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). We consider the four bands of IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0μm) and the 24μm band of MIPS, which are denoted as [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], [8.0], and [24], respectively. IRAC produced images with a field of view of 5.2'*5.2' and FWHM of 1.6''-1.9'' for [3.6] to [8.0]. MIPS had a field of view of 5.4'*5.4' and a FWHM of 5.9'' for [24]. Photometry from most Spitzer images for most members of Taurus has been measured by Luhman et al. 2010 (cat. J/ApJS/186/111) (see also Hartmann et al. 2005ApJ...629..881H; Luhman et al. 2006, cat. J/ApJ/647/1180; Guieu et al. 2007, cat. 2007A&A...465..855G; Rebull et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/186/259). We have measured photometry of the members that were not considered in Luhman et al. 2010 (cat. J/ApJS/186/111) and all known members appearing in Spitzer images that have become publicly available since that study (Astronomical Observation Requests 26470912, 26471168 26477056, 26475264, 26472704, 26473216, and 23272448). These data were

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared photometry of all known members in Taurus (Esplin+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2016-08-01

    To construct a census of the circumstellar disks in Taurus, we begin by compiling a list of all known members of the region. We adopt the 352 members from Luhman et al. 2010 (cat. J/ApJS/186/111), 4 additional stars that have good evidence of membership from previous studies (Section 5.4), 32 members found in a subsequent survey by K. Luhman (in preparation; 33 if GZ Tau A and B are counted separately), and 25 new members (26 if BS Tau A and B are counted separately) that we have confirmed with spectroscopy (Section 5.3). We also adopt as a member HD 285957, which has a proper motion consistent with that of the Taurus subgroup L1551 (Zacharias et al. 2013, cat. I/322; Luhman et al. 2009ApJ...703..399L) and exhibits evidence of youth in the form of Li absorption (Wichmann et al. 2000A&A...359..181W; Sestito et al. 2008, cat. J/A+A/488/943). We make use of mid-infrared photometry for members of Taurus measured with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). We consider the four bands of IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0μm) and the 24μm band of MIPS, which are denoted as [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], [8.0], and [24], respectively. IRAC produced images with a field of view of 5.2'*5.2' and FWHM of 1.6''-1.9'' for [3.6] to [8.0]. MIPS had a field of view of 5.4'*5.4' and a FWHM of 5.9'' for [24]. Photometry from most Spitzer images for most members of Taurus has been measured by Luhman et al. 2010 (cat. J/ApJS/186/111) (see also Hartmann et al. 2005ApJ...629..881H; Luhman et al. 2006, cat. J/ApJ/647/1180; Guieu et al. 2007, cat. 2007A&A...465..855G; Rebull et al. 2010, cat. J/ApJS/186/259). We have measured photometry of the members that were not considered in Luhman et al. 2010 (cat. J/ApJS/186/111) and all known members appearing in Spitzer images that have become publicly available since that study (Astronomical Observation Requests 26470912, 26471168 26477056, 26475264, 26472704, 26473216, and 23272448). These data were

  11. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  12. [Different threshold concentrations for sensitization by cattle hair allergen Bos d 2 in atopic and non-atopic farmers].

    PubMed

    Hinze, S; Bergmann, K C; Løwenstein, H; Hansen, G N

    1996-02-01

    Several threshold values for indoor allergens leading to IgE sensitization were proposed. Currently such values exists for allergens of house dust mite, cat, dog, and cockroach and cattle. A high sensitization is known as an important risk factor in the development of asthma. This study was undertaken to examine threshold values of major cow hair allergen Bos d 2 in the house dust of atopic and nonatopic cow hair asthmatic farmers. 45 patients with cow hair asthma were visited at their homes. House dust samples were taken from corridor, living room, and bedroom. The concentration of Bos d 2 was determined by means of rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Additionally, samples of venous blood were taken to demonstrate specific IgE towards cow epithelia by CAP-RAST. Five patients were excluded from further investigations because they have given up their cattle for less than 6 months. In 21 patients occurred typical atopic stigmata like infantil history of atopic eczema, hay fever or milk crust, while the other 19 subjects did not show an atopic diathesis. High sensitization towards cow epithelia (specific IgE > 0.7 kU/l in CAP-RAST) occurred significantly more often in atopics than in nonatopics. In atopic subjects the allergen concentrations leading to IgE sensitization amounted to 1-20 micrograms Bos d 2/g dust, whereas in nonatopics were found higher Bos d 2 threshold values (25-50 micrograms/g dust). The present study suggests that in nonatopic cow hair asthmatics high indoor Bos d 2 levels lead to IgE sensitization as well as the close contact to cattle. PMID:8868592

  13. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the tooth of a poached Bornean banteng (Bos javanicus lowi; Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Ishige, Taichiro; Gakuhari, Takashi; Hanzawa, Kei; Kono, Tomohiro; Sunjoto, Indra; Sukor, Jum Rafiah Abdul; Ahmad, Abdul Hamid; Matsubayashi, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of the Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi (Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae), which was determined using next-generation sequencing. The mitochondrial genome is 16,344 bp in length containing 13 protein-coding genes, 21 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. It shows the typical pattern of bovine mitochondrial arrangement. Phylogenetic tree analysis of complete mtDNA sequences showed that Bornean banteng is more closely related to gaur than to other banteng subspecies. Divergence dating indicated that Bornean banteng and gaur diverged from their common ancestor approximately 5.03 million years ago. These results suggest that Bornean banteng might be a distinct species in need of conservation. PMID:26075477

  14. Genetic characterization of MHC class II DQB exon 2 variants in gayal (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Hao, Tiantian; Chen, Yuhan; Yang, Yuai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites (PBS). The DQB loci were analysed for patterns of synonymous (d S) and non-synonymous (d N) substitution. The gayals were observed to be under strong balancing selection in the DQB exon 2 PBS (d N = 0.094, P = 0.001). It appears that this variability among gayals could confer the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens. PMID:26019566

  15. Study of interfaces in an Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet using Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverría, Carlos; Porta, David; Aguayo, Alejandro; Cardoso, Hiroki; Stern, Catalina

    2014-11-01

    We have used several techniques to study a small axisymmetric supersonic jet: Rayleigh scattering, Schlieren Toepler and PIV. Each technique gives different kind of information. In this paper, a BOS set-up is used to study the structure of the shock pattern. A shadowgraph of a dot matrix is obtained with and without a flow. The displacement field of the dots is related to changes in the index of refraction, which can be related, through the Gladstone-Dale equation, to changes in density. Previous results with this technique were not conclusive because of the relative size of the dots compared to the diameter of the nozzle. Measurements have been taken for three different exit speeds. We acknowledge support from UNAM through DGAPA PAPIIT IN117712 and the Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Qinghai Plateau yak Bos grunniens (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xian; Pei, Jie; Bao, Pengjia; Chu, Min; Wu, Xiaoyun; Ding, Xuezhi; Yan, Ping

    2016-07-01

    The Qinghai Plateau yak Bos grunniens (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae) is an important primitive local breed in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions. In this study, its complete mitochondrial genome sequence has been assembled and characterized from high-throughput Illumina sequencing data. This genome is 16 322 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding D-loop or control region. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (33.73% A, 25.79% C, 13.19% G, and 27.29% T) with an overall A + T content of 61.02%. The gene arrangement and the composition are similar to most other vertebrates. These data would contribute to our better understanding its population genetics and evolutionary history. PMID:26478258

  17. NaCl-, protease-tolerant and cold-active endoglucanase from Paenibacillus sp. YD236 isolated from the feces of Bos frontalis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mingjie; Yang, Yunjuan; Tang, Xianghua; Shen, Jidong; Xu, Bo; Li, Junjun; Wu, Qian; Zhou, Junpei; Ding, Junmei; Han, Nanyu; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2016-01-01

    Bos frontalis, which consumes bamboo and weeds, may have evolved unique gastrointestinal microorganisms that digest cellulase. A Paenibacillus sp. YD236 strain was isolated from B. frontalis feces, from which a GH8 endoglucanase gene, pglue8 (1107 bp, 54.5 % GC content), encoding a 368-residue polypeptide (PgluE8, 40.4 kDa) was cloned. PgluE8 efficiently hydrolyzed barley-β-d-glucan followed by CMC-Na, soluble starch, laminarin, and glucan from black yeast optimally at pH 5.5 and 50 °C, and retained 78.6, 41.6, and 34.5 % maximum activity when assayed at 20, 10, and 0 °C, respectively. Enzyme activity remained above 176.6 % after treatment with 10.0 mM β-mercaptoethanol, and was 83.0, 78, and 56 % after pre-incubation in 30 % (w/v) NaCl, 16.67 mg/mL trypsin, and 160.0 mg/mL protease K, respectively. Cys23 and Cys364 residues were critical for PgluE8 activity. pglue8, identified from B. frontalis feces for the first time in this study, is a potential alternative for applications including food processing, washing, and animal feed preparation. PMID:27376014

  18. An assessment of Li abundances in weak-lined and classical T Tauri stars of the Taurus-Auriga association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sestito, P.; Palla, F.; Randich, S.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Accurate measurements of lithium abundances in young low-mass stars provide an independent and reliable age diagnostics. Previous studies of nearby star forming regions have identified significant numbers of Li-depleted stars, often at levels inconsistent with the ages indicated by their luminosity. Aims: We aim at a new and accurate analysis of Li abundances in a sample of ~100 pre-main sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga using a homogeneous and updated set of stellar parameters and model atmospheres appropriate for the spectral types of the sample stars. Methods: We compute Li abundances using published values of the equivalent widths of the Li λ6708 Å doublet obtained from medium/high resolution spectra. Results: We find that the number of significantly Li-depleted stars in Taurus-Auriga is greatly reduced with respect to earlier results. Only 13 stars have abundances lower than the interstellar value by a factor of 5 or greater. All of them are weak-lined T Tauri stars drawn from X-ray surveys; with the exception of four stars located near the L1551 and L1489 dark clouds, all the Li-depleted stars belong to the class of dispersed low-mass stars, distributed around the main sites of current star formation. If located at the distance of Taurus-Auriga, the stellar ages implied by the derived Li abundances are in the range 3-30 Myr, greater than the bulk of the Li-rich population with implication on the star formation history of the region. Conclusions: In order to derive firm conclusions about the fraction of Li-depleted stars of Taurus-Auriga, Li measurements of the remaining members of the association should be obtained, in particular of the group of stars that fall in the Li-burning region of the HR diagram. Table [see full text] is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. A multiwavelength study of star formation in the L1495E cloud in Taurus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Karen M.; Strom, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    We have carried out a deep (t = 30,000 s) X-ray search of the eastern portion of the L1495 cloud centered on the well-known weak line T Tauri star (WTTS) V410 Tau using the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) PSPC. This deep exposure enabled a search for candidate pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects in this cloud to a limit approximately 20 times more sensitive than that typical of the fields examined with the Einstein searches. Despite assertions that the PMS population in Taurus-Auriga is nearly completely known, this Stet survey revealed eight new PMS objects in a region 50 min in diameter, as compared to a previously known stellar population of 12 objects, including deeply embedded Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) sources. Spectroscopic and photometric observations enable us to place these objects in the H-R diagram. The newly discovered objects are predominantly stars of spectral-type M0 and later, and a large fraction (6/8) appear to be surrounded by circumstellar accretion disks as judged by their infrared excess and H alpha emission. We combined the data for these Stet-discovered objects with extant and new data for the previously identified PMS stars in this region to examine the history of star formation and the frequency distribution of stellar masses in this cloud. If the 'post-ROSAT' population is either complete or representative, we conclude (1) that star formation in L1495 East took place approximately 1 x 10(exp 6) yr ago and that the spread in ages is small; (2) the frequency distribution of masses, N(M), in this apparently coeval group appears to peak near log M = -0.5 (using masses derived from recently published PMS tracks of D'Antona & Mazzitelli and Swenson et al. and to decline toward lower masses. The derived N(log M) for L1495E compares well with the IMF derived from studies of stars in the solar neighborhood, a result which suggests that the Taurus-Auriga clouds are currently producing stars whose mass spectrum approximates the time

  20. Bolometric temperature and young stars in the Taurus and Ophiuchus complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H.; Myers, P. C.; Ladd, E. F.; Wood, D. O. S.

    1995-01-01

    We calculated bolometric temperature (T(sub bol)) and luminosity (L(sub bol)) for 128 young stellar objects (YSOs) in Taurus, 74 in the Ophiuchus 'core', and 33 in the Ophiuchus 'off-core' region. We have constructed the bolometric luminosity-temperature (BLT) diagram, the log-log plot of L(sub bol) versus T(sub bol), for the three samples. T(sub bol) is defined as the temperature of a blackbody having the same frequency as the observed continuum spectrum. It measures the redness (or coldness) of an astronomical source. The BLT diagram is analogous to the H-R diagram and allows for a direct and quantitative comparison of YSOs at a wide variety of evolutionary states, ranging from the most deeply embedded stars to T Tauri stars nearly on the main sequence. We found (1) T(sub bol) increases monotonically from embedded sources (approximately 60-500 K) to classical T Tauri stars (approximately 1000-3000 K) to weak-line T Tauri stars (approximately 2000-5000 K); (2) T(sub bol) correlates reasonably well with the age inferred from the evolutionary models of pre-main-sequence stars and protostars for embedded 'protostars' and weak-line T Tauri stars. There is no significant correlation for the classical T Tauri stars. These results can be understood in terms of dissipation of circumstellar dust envelope and disk during the early stages of stellar evolution. Sources in the three regions have different distributions in the BLT diagram. The Ophiuchus core has the highest fraction of cold sources among the three regions. These cold sources are also more luminous than the YSOs in the other regions. The Ophiuchus off-core sample is dominated by the more evolved pre-main-sequence stars. The Taurus sources have distributions intermediate in L(sub bol), T(sub bol), and age between the Ophiuchus core and off-core distributions. These may suggest differences in the star formation history, and possibly in the stellar masses and mass accretion rates in these star-forming regions.

  1. Molecular line study of the very young protostar IRAM 04191 in Taurus: infall, rotation, and outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; André, P.; Despois, D.; Blinder, S.

    2002-10-01

    We present a detailed millimeter spectroscopic study of the circumstellar environment of the low-luminosity Class 0 protostar IRAM 04191+1522 in the Taurus molecular cloud. Molecular line observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope demonstrate that the ~ 14 000 AU radius protostellar envelope is undergoing both extended infall and fast, differential rotation. Radiative transfer modeling of multitransition CS and C34S maps indicate an infall velocity vinf ~0.15 km s-1 at r ~ 1500 AU and v_inf ~ 0.1 km s-1 up to r ~ 11 000 AU, as well as a rotational angular velocity Omega ~ 3.9 x 10-13 rad s-1, strongly decreasing with radius beyond 3500 AU down to a value Omega ~ 1.5-3x 10-14 rad s-1 at ~ 11 000 AU. Two distinct regions, which differ in both their infall and their rotation properties, therefore seem to stand out: the inner part of the envelope (r lower .5ex<~ a 2000-4000 AU) is rapidly collapsing and rotating, while the outer part undergoes only moderate infall/contraction and slower rotation. These contrasted features suggest that angular momentum is conserved in the collapsing inner region but efficiently dissipated due to magnetic braking in the slowly contracting outer region. We propose that the inner envelope is in the process of decoupling from the ambient cloud and corresponds to the effective mass reservoir ( ~ 0.5 Msun) from which the central star is being built. Comparison with the rotational properties of other objects in Taurus suggests that IRAM 04191 is at a pivotal stage between a prestellar regime of constant angular velocity enforced by magnetic braking and a dynamical, protostellar regime of nearly conserved angular momentum. The rotation velocity profile we derive for the inner IRAM 04191 envelope should thus set some constraints on the distribution of angular momentum on the scale of the outer Solar system at the onset of protostar/disk formation.

  2. Organic facies characteristics of the Carboniferous Pamucakyayla Formation, western Taurus, Antalya Nappes, Kemer (Antalya/Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertan Gulludag, Cevdet; Altunsoy, Mehmet; Ozcelik, Orhan

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in the western part of the Taurus Belt (SW Turkey). This region exhibits a complex structure involving two autochthonous units surrounded and imbricated with three allochthonous complexes. Antalya Nappes is a complex tectonic imbricate structure including sedimantary and ultrabasic rocks. In this study, organic facies characteristics of Carboniferous coaly units in the Pamucakyayla region (Kemer, Antalya-Turkey) were examined. The Carboniferous Pamucakyayla Formation, which is characterized by sandstone, claystone, marl and coaly units. This units includes different levels of coal seams in different thicknesses. Organic matter is composed predominantly of woody and amorphous material, with a minor contribution of planty and coaly material. Kerogen in the deposits is type II/III, as indicated by organic petrographic observations and Rock-Eval data. Total organic carbon (TOC) values are generally between 0.01 and 1.44 %, but reach 5.81 % in the formation. Tmax values vary between 446 and 451 °C and indicate mature zone (Based on the value of 0.25 % TOC). Organic facies type BC, C and CD were identified in the investigated units. Organic facies BC is related sandstoneand marl lithofacies. This facis is deposited under an anoxic water column in a fine grained clastics, where rapid deposition creates anoxia in the sediments after deposition. This facies is characterized by average values of HI around 317 (equivalent to type II kerogene), TOC around 0.02 %, and an average of S2 of 0.04 mg HC/g of rock. Organic facies C is related to sandstone, marl and coal lithofacies. This facies is characterized by average values of HI around 176 (equivalent to type III kerogene), TOC around 0.19 %, and an average of S2 of 0.03 mg HC/g of rock. The organic matter is partly oxidized, and terrestrial. Organic facies C is the "gas-prone" facies. Organic facies CD is related to limestone, marl and coal lithofacies. This facies is characterized by average values

  3. A radio survey of weak T Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga

    SciTech Connect

    O'neal, D.; Feigelson, E.D.; Mathieu, R.D.; Myers, P.C. Wisconsin Univ., Madison Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA )

    1990-11-01

    A multi-epoch 5 GHz survey of candidate or confirmed weak T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex was conducted with the Very Large Array. The stars were chosen from those having detectable X-ray or chromospheric emission, and weak-emission-line pre-main-sequence stars found by other means. Snapshots of 99 VLA fields containing 119 candidate stars were obtained with a sensitivity of 0.7 mJy; most fields were observed on two or three dates. Nine radio sources coincident with cataloged stars were found. One may be an RS CVn binary system; the other eight are pre-main-sequence stars. Three of the detected stars - HD 283447, V410 Tau, and FK X-ray 1 - were previously known radio sources. Five new detections are Herbig's Anon 1, Hubble 4, HDE 283572, Elias 12, and HK Tau/c. At least five of the sources are variable, and no linear or circular polarization was found. Several lines of evidence suggest that the radio-detected weak T Tauri stars are quite young, perhaps younger on average than nondetected stars. 54 refs.

  4. Surface electrical properties experiment. [for Taurus-Littrow region of the moon on Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1974-01-01

    The Surface Electrical Properties Experiment (SEP) was flown to the moon in December 1972 on Apollo 17 and used to explore a portion of the Taurus-Littrow region. SEP used a relatively new technique, termed radio frequency interferometry (RFI). Electromagnetic waves were radiated from two orthogonal, horizontal electric dipole antennas on the surface of the moon at frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 Mhz. The field strength of the EM waves was measured as a function of distance with a receiver mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle and using three orthogonal, electrically small, loops. The interference pattern produced by the waves that travelled above the moon's surface and those that travelled below the surface was recorded on magnetic tape. The tape was returned to earth for analysis and interpretation. Several reprints, preprints, and an initial draft of the first publication of the SEP results are included. These documents provide a rather complete account of the details of the theory of the RFI technique, of the terrestrial tests of the technique, and of the present state of our interpretation of the Apollo 17 data.

  5. The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, an intrauterine cannibal

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Demian D.; Wintner, Sabine P.; Abercrombie, Debra L.; Ashe, Jimiane; Bernard, Andrea M.; Shivji, Mahmood S.; Feldheim, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) have an unusual mode of reproduction, whereby the first embryos in each of the paired uteri to reach a certain size (‘hatchlings’) consume all of their smaller siblings during gestation (‘embryonic cannibalism’ or EC). If females commonly mate with multiple males (‘behavioural polyandry’) then litters could initially have multiple sires. It is possible, however, that EC could exclude of all but one of these sires from producing offspring thus influencing the species genetic mating system (‘genetic monogamy’). Here, we use microsatellite DNA profiling of mothers and their litters (n = 15, from two to nine embryos per litter) to quantify the frequency of behavioural and genetic polyandry in this system. We conservatively estimate that nine of the females we examined (60%) were behaviourally polyandrous. The genetic mating system was characterized by assessing sibling relationships between hatchlings and revealed only 40 per cent genetic polyandry (i.e. hatchlings were full siblings in 60% of litters). The discrepancy stemmed from three females that were initially fertilized by multiple males but only produced hatchlings with one of them. This reveals that males can be excluded even after fertilizing ova and that some instances of genetic monogamy in this population arise from the reduction in litter size by EC. More research is needed on how cryptic post-copulatory and post-zygotic processes contribute to determining paternity and bridging the behavioural and genetic mating systems of viviparous species. PMID:23637391

  6. The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, an intrauterine cannibal.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Demian D; Wintner, Sabine P; Abercrombie, Debra L; Ashe, Jimiane; Bernard, Andrea M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Feldheim, Kevin A

    2013-06-23

    Sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) have an unusual mode of reproduction, whereby the first embryos in each of the paired uteri to reach a certain size ('hatchlings') consume all of their smaller siblings during gestation ('embryonic cannibalism' or EC). If females commonly mate with multiple males ('behavioural polyandry') then litters could initially have multiple sires. It is possible, however, that EC could exclude of all but one of these sires from producing offspring thus influencing the species genetic mating system ('genetic monogamy'). Here, we use microsatellite DNA profiling of mothers and their litters (n = 15, from two to nine embryos per litter) to quantify the frequency of behavioural and genetic polyandry in this system. We conservatively estimate that nine of the females we examined (60%) were behaviourally polyandrous. The genetic mating system was characterized by assessing sibling relationships between hatchlings and revealed only 40 per cent genetic polyandry (i.e. hatchlings were full siblings in 60% of litters). The discrepancy stemmed from three females that were initially fertilized by multiple males but only produced hatchlings with one of them. This reveals that males can be excluded even after fertilizing ova and that some instances of genetic monogamy in this population arise from the reduction in litter size by EC. More research is needed on how cryptic post-copulatory and post-zygotic processes contribute to determining paternity and bridging the behavioural and genetic mating systems of viviparous species. PMID:23637391

  7. STAR FORMATION IN THE TAURUS FILAMENT L 1495: FROM DENSE CORES TO STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalzl, Markus; Kainulainen, Jouni; Henning, Thomas; Launhardt, Ralf; Quanz, Sascha P.; Alves, Joao; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.

    2010-12-10

    We present a study of dense structures in the L 1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud and examine its star-forming properties. In particular, we construct a dust extinction map of the filament using deep near-infrared observations, exposing its small-scale structure in unprecedented detail. The filament shows highly fragmented substructures and a high mass-per-length value of M{sub line} = 17 M{sub sun} pc{sup -1}, reflecting star-forming potential in all parts of it. However, a part of the filament, namely B 211, is remarkably devoid of young stellar objects. We argue that in this region the initial filament collapse and fragmentation is still taking place and star formation is yet to occur. In the star-forming part of the filament, we identify 39 cores with masses from 0.4 to 10 M{sub sun} and preferred separations in agreement with the local Jeans length. Most of these cores exceed the Bonnor-Ebert critical mass, and are therefore likely to collapse and form stars. The dense core mass function follows a power law with exponent {Gamma} = 1.2 {+-} 0.2, a form commonly observed in star-forming regions.

  8. Geochemistry of grain-size fractions of soils from the Taurus-Littrow valley floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a study in which high-precision instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the abundances of seven rare-earth and nine other elements in two grain-size fractions (90 to 150 microns and less than 20 microns) of eight soils from the Taurus-Littrow Valley floor and one Apollo 11 bulk-soil fraction with grain sizes of less than 1 mm. Compositional differences between the two size fractions of two valley-floor soils are examined, and mixing of soil components is investigated. It is found that a five-component mixing model describes very adequately the chemical composition of bulk soils with grain sizes of less than 1 mm as mixtures of local Apollo 17 rock types (basalt, anorthositic gabbro, noritic breccia), orange glass, and meteorites, but does not describe well the chemical compositions of the other two size fractions. A ten-component model is used to show that the compositions of those two size fractions can be well represented as mixtures of the five components if the mineralogy and chemical composition of the basalt component are allowed to vary in the size fractions.

  9. Chains of Dense Cores in the Taurus L1495/B213 Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, Mario; Hacar, Alvaro

    2014-07-01

    We study the formation of dense cores in the filamentary L1495/B213 region of Taurus. Observations of its C18O emission show that what appears as a single 10pc-long filament in optical and continuum images is in fact a complex web of smaller filamentary structures that we call fibers. These fibers are typically 0.5~pc long and velocity coherent, and seem to have decoupled from the turbulent velocity field of the large-scale cloud. Fibers appear as the true parent structures of the cores, but only a small subset of them seem able to form cores ("fertile fibers") while the rest remain sterile. The fertile-sterile dychotomy of fibers is striking, since sterile fibers do not form cores but fertile fibers form three cores on average. As a result, most cores in the L1495/B213 region are part of linear groups or chains that have a typical core spacing of 0.1pc. Our observations and analysis suggest that core formation out of a large-scale filament is a two-step process that involves first the dissipation of turbulence via shock interaction and then the fragmentation of those disspated structures that exceed the mass per unit length limit of gravitational instability.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer observations of Taurus members (Luhman+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2016-03-01

    For our census of the disk population in Taurus, we use images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um obtained with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and images at 24um obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The cameras produced images with FWHM=1.6"-1.9" from 3.6 to 8.0um and FWHM=5.9" at 24um. The available data were obtained through Guaranteed Time Observations for PID = 6, 36, 37 (G. Fazio), 53 (G. Rieke), 94 (C. Lawrence), 30540 (G. Fazio, J. Houck), and 40302 (J. Houck), Director's Discretionary Time for PID = 462 (L. Rebull), Legacy programs for PID = 139, 173 (N. Evans), and 30816 (D. Padgett), and General Observer programs for PID = 3584 (D. Padgett), 20302 (P. Andre), 20386 (P. Myers), 20762 (J. Swift), 30384 (T. Bourke), 40844 (C. McCabe), and 50584 (D. Padgett). The IRAC and MIPS observations were performed through 180 and 137 Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs), respectively. The characteristics of the resulting images are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. (6 data files).

  11. A direct approach for instantaneous 3D density field reconstruction from background-oriented schlieren (BOS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, F.; Todoroff, V.; Plyer, A.; Le Besnerais, G.; Donjat, D.; Micheli, F.; Champagnat, F.; Cornic, P.; Le Sant, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for reconstruction of instantaneous density volume from 3D background-oriented schlieren (3DBOS) measurements, with a validation on a dedicated flexible experimental BOS bench. In contrast to previous works, we use a direct formulation where density is estimated from measured deviation fields without the intermediate step of density gradient reconstruction. Regularization techniques are implemented to deal with the ill-posed problem encountered. The resulting high-dimensional optimization is conducted by conjugate gradient techniques. A parallel algorithm, implemented on graphics processing unit, helps to speed up the calculation. The resulting software is validated on synthetic BOS images of a 3D density field issued from a numerical simulation. Then, we describe a dedicated 3DBOS experimental facility which has been built to study various BOS settings and to assess the performance of the proposed numerical reconstruction process. Results on various datasets illustrate the potential of the method for flow characterization and measurement in real-world conditions.

  12. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  13. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  14. A pre-synchronization program at early postpartum might increase the chances of Bos indicus cows cycling prior to 50 days regardless of the length of calf separation

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-TORRES, Libia; RUBIO, Ivette; CORRO, Manuel; COHEN, Abraham; ORIHUELA, Agustín; GALINA, Carlos S.; PABLOS, J. Luis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if pre-synchronization would enhance the number of animals cycling prior to conventional breeding at 45 days irrespective of the length of calf separation. Multiparous Bos indicus cows were allotted in four groups (n = 10). Control group (C) dams remained with their calves; groups G24, G48 and G72, which were partially weaned for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively, were estrus synchronized using a controlled internal drug. These procedures were performed at 25 days and again at 45 days postpartum. The number of follicles, presence of a corpus luteum and back fat thickness (BFT) were determined by ultrasound. The proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation at day 25 postpartum was statistically different between the control and treated groups, with the values being 20, 60, 50 and 70 for the control, G24, G48 and G72 groups respectively (P < 0.05). At days 45 postpartum, the proportion of cows with estrus and ovulation was different in group G48 compared with the other groups (P <0.05). The average BFT and body condition score for the four experimental groups in the two periods were similar (P >0.05). Animals with a higher proportion of follicles from 17 to 21 mm, BFT values above 3.5 mm and a regular body condition were significantly different regardless of whether the dams remained with their calves or were separated, regardless of the length of this event. It can be concluded that (1) a pre-synchronization program at day 25 could trigger the onset of ovarian activity and facilitate a breeding program at day 50 and (2) temporary weaning enhances the effect of a pre-synchronization program. PMID:25739397

  15. Immune Response of Bos indicus Cattle against the Anti-Tick Antigen Bm91 Derived from Local Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks and Its Effect on Tick Reproduction under Natural Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Lambertz, Christian; Chongkasikit, Natthaphon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Gauly, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Antigens of anti-tick vaccines are more efficacious for homologous challenge with local tick strains. cDNA clones encoding for Bm91 from local Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strains were developed to immunize Bos indicus cattle under field conditions. Three groups of six animals each were injected with the antigen Bm91, saline, and adjuvant, respectively. Animals were immunized three times at 3-week intervals and a fourth time after six months. The anti-Bm91 antibody level, measured by ELISA, was monitored for 7 months and the reproductive performance of naturally infested R. (B.) microplus was determined. Bm91-immunized animals developed a strong immune response expressed by high anti-Bm91 levels remaining on high levels until the end of the study. Western blot analysis confirmed that Bm91 is immunogenic. Compared to control animals, the reproductive efficiency index and the egg viability were 6% and 8%, respectively, lower in the Bm91 group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it was demonstrated that Bm91 induced a long-lasting immune response. However, the effect on the tick reproduction was not sufficient for an efficient tick control. Further studies under field conditions are warranted to enhance the effect on the tick reproduction by optimizing the immunization regimen, alone or in combination with other vaccine candidate antigens. PMID:23213489

  16. The influence of tropical adaptation on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in purebred and crossbred beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine whether tropical adaptation influences circulating concentrations of the growth-related hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), 3-breed diallel matings were conducted using temperate Bos taurus (A; Angus), tropical Bos indicus (B; Brahman), and tropical Bos taurus (R...

  17. Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

    2013-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India. PMID:22765517

  18. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling of squamous cell carcinoma of horn in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Koringa, P G; Jakhesara, S J; Bhatt, V D; Meshram, C P; Patel, A K; Fefar, D T; Joshi, C G

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of horn is frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting 1% of cattle population and accounting 83.34% of total tumours found. The transcriptome profile of horn cancer (HC) tissue and the matched normal (HN) tissue were analysed by RNA-seq using Roche 454 sequencing. A total of 1 504 900 reads comprising of 612 MB data were used to identify differentially expressed genes using CLC Genomic Workbench. These include up-regulation of KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT14, SFN, KRT84, PI3, COL17A1, ANLN, SERPINB5 and down-regulation of BOLA, SCGB1A1, CXCL17, KRT19, BPIFB1, NR4A1 and TFF3 in HC, which are involved in regulation of gene transcription, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell survival and metabolic pathways. The qPCR analysis of several targets suggested concordance of gene expression profile with RNA-seq analysis. The present findings would provide basis for further screening of genes and identification of markers for early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of HC. PMID:24314272

  19. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20(th) century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  20. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:23794917

  1. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain).

    PubMed

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980's and 2000's are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:23794917

  2. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  3. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    PubMed

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  4. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  5. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of polled yak (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Chu, Min; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Chunnian; Pei, Jie; Ding, Xuezhi; Guo, Xian; Bao, Pengjia; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Generally speaking, the hornless trait is also known as polled. Although the POLL locus could be assigned to a 1.36-Mb interval in the centromeric region of BTA1 (Georges et al., 1993; Drögemüller et al., 2005)), and (Liu et al., 2014) reported a 147-kb segment that included three protein-coding genes was the most likely location of the POLL mutation in domestic yaks, the underlying genetic basis for the polled trait is still unknown. In this work, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of polled yak was determined for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,324 bp long, with the base composition of 33.72% A, 27.25% T, 25.83% C, and 13.20% G. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The gene order of polled yak mitogenome is identical to that observed in most other vertebrates. The complete mitogenome sequence information of polled yak will provide useful data for further studies on protection of genetic resources and phylogenetic relationships within Bos grunniens. PMID:25347693

  6. First Report of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Yaks (Bos mutus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Hu, Gui-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a chronic lymphosarcoma disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). No information is available concerning the epidemiology of BLV infection in yaks (Bos mutus). One thousand five hundred and eighty-four serum samples from 610 black yaks and 974 white yaks from Gansu province, northwest China, were collected between April 2013 and March 2014 and tested for BLV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall BLV seroprevalence in yaks was 21.09% (334/1584), with 24.26% (148/610) black yaks and 19.10% (186/974) white yaks yielding positive results. Risk factor analysis indicated that with the exception of breed (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.73, P < 0.05), the age, region, gender, farm, and the numbers of pregnancies were not considered as risk factors for the presence of BLV in yaks included in this study. This is the first report of BLV infection in yaks in China, which provides information for controlling BLV infection in yaks. PMID:27340671

  7. Assessment of autozygosity in Nellore cows (Bos indicus) through high-density SNP genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zavarez, Ludmilla B; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ferenčaković, Maja; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M; Curik, Ino; Cole, John B; Van Tassell, Curtis P; da Silva, Marcos V G B; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José F

    2015-01-01

    The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation. PMID:25688258

  8. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  9. Performance evaluation of bolt-cutter system on first Taurus launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baban, F.; Williams, R.; Amimoto, S.; Hansen, W.; Bixler, T.

    1994-10-01

    In rapid response to the request of the Space Test and Experimentation Directorate in Space Launch Operations, a launch-critical experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the performance of a particular bolt-cutter system for separating stages on the first Taurus launch. The tests were to examine the variation of tension preloading on the bolt system and to demonstrate the tolerable margin on this parameter for such launches with the new types of bolts since the preloading was known to vary as much as 12% from a preset value before launch. We planned and carried out the experiment, designed and assembled the fixture to properly simulate flight application, and developed diagnostics. Four bolt cutters were purchased from the manufacturer for these tests, and one was provided by the contractor. In addition to the obvious requirement to demonstrate the successful severing of bolts under varying preloads, ignition-wire current and timing of chisel impact on the bolt were monitored. An optical diagnostic was designed to determine the flyout velocity and kinetic energy of the broken pieces. These latter measurements will be useful in anchoring performance codes simulating and assessing the structural dynamics of the bolt-cutter function for future missions. The tests were conducted successfully and the bolts were severed successfully in all five tests. The preloads were successively lowered from 2,500 lb to 2,250, 2,000, 1,500, and 1,000 lb These tests contributed in a timely manner to the STEP launch decision and to launch mission assurance. They demonstrated important margin to the nominally set 3,200 lb. preload. The entire complicated experimental program from inception to completion was accomplished in less than three weeks.

  10. Taurus Littrow Pyroclastic Deposit-An Optimum Feedstock for Lunar Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2014-01-01

    Future human habitation of the Moon will likely require the use of locally derived materials because of the high cost of transportation from Earth. Oxygen, extracted from oxides and silicates, is a potentially abundant lunar resource vital for life support and spacecraft propulsion. The anticipated costs of supplying all oxygen needs for a lunar base from Earth are high enough to warrant serious study of oxygen production from local resources. Over 20 different processes have been proposed for oxygen production on the Moon. Among the simplest and best studied of these processes is the reduction of oxides in lunar minerals and glass using hydrogen gas. Oxygen can be extracted from lunar soils and pyroclastic glass beads by exposing the samples to flowing hydrogen at subsolidus temperatures (approx. 1050 C). Total oxygen yield is directly correlated to the sample's abundance of FeO, but is not correlated to the abundance of any other oxide. Oxygen is extracted predominantly from FeO, with lesser contributions from TiO2 and SiO2. Oxygen yield is independent of soil maturity. All major FeO-bearing phases contribute oxygen, with extraction from ilmenite and glass significantly more efficient than from olivine and pyroxene. This study demonstrates that the optimum location for a lunar resources demonstration mission can be identified, and that the oxygen yield can be predicted, using a combination of high-resolution imaging and thermal-infrared data. A mission to Taurus Littrow will encounter a deposit at least 10 m in depth with few landing hazards, a uniform composition, and a predicted oxygen yield of approximately 3 wt. %, among the highest values on the Moon.

  11. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended. PMID:20872140

  12. A census of dense cores in the Taurus L1495 cloud from the Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Kirk, J. M.; André, Ph.; Griffin, M. J.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Benedettini, M.; Bresnahan, D. W.; Francesco, J. Di; Elia, D.; Motte, F.; Peretto, N.; Pezzuto, S.; Roy, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Schneider, N.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a catalogue of dense cores in a ˜4° × 2° field of the Taurus star-forming region, inclusive of the L1495 cloud, derived from Herschel SPIRE and PACS observations in the 70 μm, 160 μm, 250 μm, 350 μm, and 500 μm continuum bands. Estimates of mean dust temperature and total mass are derived using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions. We detect 525 starless cores of which ˜10-20 per cent are gravitationally bound and therefore presumably prestellar. Our census of unbound objects is ˜85 per cent complete for M > 0.015 M⊙ in low-density regions (AV ≲ 5 mag), while the bound (prestellar) subset is ˜85 per cent complete for M > 0.1 M⊙ overall. The prestellar core mass function (CMF) is consistent with lognormal form, resembling the stellar system initial mass function, as has been reported previously. All of the inferred prestellar cores lie on filamentary structures whose column densities exceed the expected threshold for filamentary collapse, in agreement with previous reports. Unlike the prestellar CMF, the unbound starless CMF is not lognormal, but instead is consistent with a power-law form below 0.3 M⊙ and shows no evidence for a low-mass turnover. It resembles previously reported mass distributions for CO clumps at low masses (M ≲ 0.3 M⊙). The volume density PDF, however, is accurately lognormal except at high densities. It is consistent with the effects of self-gravity on magnetized supersonic turbulence. The only significant deviation from lognormality is a high-density tail which can be attributed unambiguously to prestellar cores.

  13. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  14. THE NATURE OF TRANSITION CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS. III. PERSEUS, TAURUS, AND AURIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Romero, Gisela A.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Merin, Bruno

    2012-05-10

    As part of an ongoing program aiming to characterize a large number of Spitzer-selected transition disks (disks with reduced levels of near-IR and/or mid-IR excess emission), we have obtained (sub)millimeter wavelength photometry, high-resolution optical spectroscopy, and adaptive optics near-infrared imaging for a sample of 31 transition objects located in the Perseus, Taurus, and Auriga molecular clouds. We use these ground-based data to estimate disk masses, multiplicity, and accretion rates in order to investigate the mechanisms potentially responsible for their inner holes. Following our previous studies in other regions, we combine disk masses, accretion rates, and multiplicity data with other information, such as spectral energy distribution morphology and fractional disk luminosity, to classify the disks as strong candidates for the following categories: grain-growth-dominated disks (seven objects), giant planet-forming disks (six objects), photoevaporating disks (seven objects), debris disks (11 objects), and cicumbinary disks (one object, which was also classified as a photoevaporating disk). Combining our sample of 31 transition disks with those from our previous studies results in a sample of 74 transition objects that have been selected, characterized, and classified in a homogenous way. We discuss this combined high-quality sample in the context of the current paradigm of the evolution and dissipation of protoplanetary disks and use its properties to constrain different aspects of the key processes driving their evolution. We find that the age distribution of disks that are likely to harbor recently formed giant planets favors core accretion as the main planet formation mechanism and a {approx}2-3 Myr formation timescale.

  15. Determining the 3D Subsurface Density Structure of Taurus Littrow Valley Using Apollo 17 Gravity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S,; Johnson, C. L.; Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface gravity surveys can detect subsurface density variations that can reveal subsurface geologic features. In 1972, the Apollo 17 (A17) mission conducted the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) using a gravimeter that measured the local gravity field near Taurus Littrow Valley (TLV), located on the south-eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin. TLV is hypothesized to be a basaltfilled radial graben resulting from the impact that formed Mare Serenitatis. It is bounded by both the North and South Massifs (NM and SM) as well as other smaller mountains to the East that are thought to be mainly composed of brecciated highland material. The TGE is the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon. Other more recent satellite surveys, such as NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission (2011- 2012), have produced the best global gravity field to date (approx. 13km resolution). However, these satellite surveys are not sensitive enough to detect fine-scale (<1km) lunar subsurface structures. This underscores the value of the data collected at the surface by A17. In the original analysis of the data a 2D forward-modelling approach was used to derive a thickness of the subsurface basalt layer of 1.0 km by assuming a simple flat-faced rectangular geometry and using densities derived from Apollo lunar samples. We are investigating whether modern 3D modelling techniques in combination with high-resolution topographical and image datasets can reveal additional fine-scale subsurface structure in TLV.

  16. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) exhibits heritable variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Michael; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2011-03-01

    Sperm competition is thought to be an important selective pressure shaping sperm form and function. However, few studies have moved beyond gross examinations of sperm morphology. Sperm length is subject to sexual selection via sperm competition in the scarab beetle Onthophagus taurus. Here, the structure and ultrastructure of spermatozoa in this species were investigated using light and electron microscopy. Spermatozoa were found to be filiform, measuring about 1,200 mm in length. The sperm head consists of a three-layered acrosome and a nuclear region bearing the anterior extension of the centriole adjunct. Acrosome and nuclear regions are bilaterally symmetric, with their axes of symmetry being orthogonal to each other. Head and flagellar structures are connected by a well-developed centriole adjunct. The sperm heads are asymmetrically surrounded by accessory material and embedded into the cytoplasm of the spermatocyst cell. The accessory material is produced inside the spermatids and then transferred to the outside due to a new membrane formed around the sperm's organelles. The old spermatid membrane separates the accessory material from the cyst cell. The flagellum contains a 9+9+2 axoneme, two accessory bodies, and two mitochondrial derivatives of unequal size. The major mitochondrial derivative is significantly larger than the minor one. The axoneme is arranged in a sinusoidal manner parallel along the major mitochondrial derivative. The spermatozoa show no progressive motility when released in buffer solution which is likely to be the result of the flagellar arrangement and the structure of the major mitochondrial derivative. The cross-sectional area of the minor and the major mitochondrial derivatives show different patterns of genetic variation. The data provide the first estimates of genetic variation in sperm ultrastructure for any species, and give evidence for the persistence of genetic variation in ultrastructure required for the rapid and divergent

  17. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  18. MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE SUBSTELLAR DOMAIN: MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG VERY LOW MASS OBJECTS IN TAURUS AND {rho} OPHIUCHI

    SciTech Connect

    Ngoc Phan-Bao; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen E-mail: pbngoc@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2011-07-01

    We report here our search for molecular outflows from young very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in Taurus and {rho} Ophiuchi. Using the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, we have observed four targets at 1.3 mm wavelength (230 GHz) to search for CO J = 2 {yields} 1 outflows. A young very low mass star MHO 5 (in Taurus) with an estimated mass of 90 M{sub J}, which is just above the hydrogen-burning limit, shows two gas lobes that are likely outflows. While the CO map of MHO 5 does not show a clear structure of outflow, possibly due to environment gas, its position-velocity diagram indicates two distinct blue- and redshifted components. We therefore conclude that they are components of a bipolar molecular outflow from MHO 5. We estimate an outflow mass of 7.0 x 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} and a mass-loss rate of 9.0 x 10{sup -10} M{sub sun}. These values are over two orders of magnitude smaller than the typical ones for T Tauri stars and somewhat weaker than those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M{sub J} in {rho} Ophiuchi. This makes MHO 5 the first young very low mass star showing a bipolar molecular outflow in Taurus. The detection boosts the scenario that very low mass objects form like low-mass stars but in a version scaled down by a factor of over 100.

  19. A lunar occultation and direct imaging survey of multiplicity in the Ophiuchus and Taurus star-forming regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.; Ghez, A. M.; Leinert, CH.; Cassar, L.; Chen, W. P.; Howell, R. R.; Jameson, R. F.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Richichi, A.

    1995-01-01

    We present an IR lunar occultation and direct imaging search for companions in the Ophiuchus star-forming region and update a similar search of the Taurus region. The search is sensitive to companions in the angular separation range 0.005-10 sec. In Ophiuchus, we surveyed 35 young star targets; this sample contains at least 10 binaries, two triples, and one quadruple. Ten of the companion stars are newly discovered. In Taurus, the survey now includes 47 systems among which there are at least 22 binaries and four triples. Only two companion stars are newly identified because there is strong overlap with prior work. All the triples and quadruple are hierarchical. The observed binary frequency in Ophiuchus, in the 3-1400 AU range of separations, is at least 1.1 +/- 0.3 that of the nearby solar-like stars. This value is a lower bound because we make no corrections for incompleteness. In Taurus, in the same range of separations, the observed binary frequency is at least 1.6 +/- 0.3 that of the nearby solar-like stars. This value extends Ghez et al.'s (1993) and Leinert's et al.'s (1993) determination of an excess binary frequency to 3 AU separation. We used the weak-line T Tauri star/T Tauri star (WT/TT) type and the K-L color index to distinguish between systems with and without inner disks. We find no convincing difference in the binary frequency or distribution of separations of the systems with and without inner disks. The 1.3 mm continuum emission of the single systems exceeds that of the multiples suggesting that their extensive outer disks are more massive. The specific angular momenta of the binaries overlap those of molecular cloud cores measured by Goodman et al. (1993).

  20. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher on day 15 than between 50 and 150 days of lactation in case of Sahiwal cows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (P<0.05), respectively. Murrah buffaloes showed low levels of IGFBP-5 protein in milk as compared with

  1. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  2. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  3. BosR (BB0647) Controls the RpoN-RpoS Regulatory Pathway and Virulence Expression in Borrelia burgdorferi by a Novel DNA-Binding Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Deka, Ranjit K.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, the alternative σ factor σ54 (RpoN) directly activates transcription of another alternative σ factor, σS (RpoS) which, in turn, controls the expression of virulence-associated membrane lipoproteins. As is customary in σ54-dependent gene control, a putative NtrC-like enhancer-binding protein, Rrp2, is required to activate the RpoN-RpoS pathway. However, recently it was found that rpoS transcription in Bb also requires another regulator, BosR, which was previously designated as a Fur or PerR homolog. Given this unexpected requirement for a second activator to promote σ54-dependent gene transcription, and the fact that regulatory mechanisms among similar species of pathogenic bacteria can be strain-specific, we sought to confirm the regulatory role of BosR in a second virulent strain (strain 297) of Bb. Indeed, BosR displayed the same influence over lipoprotein expression and mammalian infectivity for strain Bb 297 that were previously noted for Bb strain B31. We subsequently found that recombinant BosR (rBosR) bound to the rpoS gene at three distinct sites, and that binding occurred despite the absence of consensus Fur or Per boxes. This led to the identification of a novel direct repeat sequence (TAAATTAAAT) critical for rBosR binding in vitro. Mutations in the repeat sequence markedly inhibited or abolished rBosR binding. Taken together, our studies provide new mechanistic insights into how BosR likely acts directly on rpoS as a positive transcriptional activator. Additional novelty is engendered by the facts that, although BosR is a Fur or PerR homolog and it contains zinc (like Fur and PerR), it has other unique features that clearly set it apart from these other regulators. Our findings also have broader implications regarding a previously unappreciated layer of control that can be involved in σ54–dependent gene regulation in bacteria. PMID:21347346

  4. Apollo 17 Landing Site: A Cartographic Investigation of the Taurus-Littrow Valley Based on LROC NAC Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, I.; Wählisch, M.; Gläser, P.; Oberst, J.; Robinson, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the Taurus- Littrow Valley with a 1.5 m/pixel resolution was derived from high resolution stereo images of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) [1]. It was used to create a controlled LROC NAC ortho-mosaic with a pixel size of 0.5 m on the ground. Covering the entire Apollo 17 exploration site, it allows for determining accurate astronaut and surface feature positions along the astronauts' traverses when integrating historic Apollo surface photography to our analysis.

  5. Rock elastic properties and near-surface structure at Taurus-Littrow. [strain measurement of lunar basalt and breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trice, R.; Warren, N.; Anderson, O. L.

    1974-01-01

    Linear strain measurements are presented for two lunar basalts, 14310,82 and 71055,15 and one breccia, 15498,23 to 5 kb hydrostatic pressure. Compressional and shear acoustic velocities to 5 kb are also presented for the basalts, 14310,82 and 71055,15. These elastic properties, along with geological, seismological and rock mechanics considerations are consistent with a model of the structure of the Taurus-Littrow valley as follows, a thin surface regolith overlying a fractured mixture of basalt flows and ejecta material which in turn overlies a coherent breccia of highland ejecta debris.

  6. SEARCH FOR VERY LOW-MASS BROWN DWARFS AND FREE-FLOATING PLANETARY-MASS OBJECTS IN TAURUS

    SciTech Connect

    Quanz, Sascha P.; Goldman, Bertrand; Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang; Burrows, Adam; Hofstetter, Lorne W.

    2010-01-01

    The number of low-mass brown dwarfs and even free floating planetary-mass objects in young nearby star-forming (SF) regions and associations is continuously increasing, offering the possibility to study the low-mass end of the initial mass function in greater detail. In this paper, we present six new candidates for (very) low-mass objects in the Taurus SF region one of which was recently discovered in parallel by Luhman et al. The underlying data we use is part of a new database from a deep near-infrared survey at the Calar Alto observatory. The survey is more than 4 mag deeper than the Two Micron All Sky Survey and covers currently approx1.5 deg{sup 2}. Complementary optical photometry from Sloan Digital Sky Survey were available for roughly 1.0 deg{sup 2}. After selection of the candidates using different color indices, additional photometry from Spitzer/IRAC was included in the analysis. In greater detail, we focus on two very faint objects for which we obtained J-band spectra. Based on comparison with reference spectra, we derive a spectral type of L2 +- 0.5 for one object, making it the object with the latest spectral type in Taurus known today. From models, we find the effective temperature to be 2080 +- 140 K and the mass 5-15 Jupiter masses. For the second source, the J-band spectrum does not provide definite proof of the young, low-mass nature of the object, as the expected steep water vapor absorption at 1.33 mum is not present in the data. We discuss the probability that this object might be a background giant or carbon star. If it were a young Taurus member, however, a comparison to theoretical models suggests that it lies close to or even below the deuterium burning limit (<13 M{sub Jup}) as well. A first proper motion analysis for both objects shows that they are good candidates for being Taurus members.

  7. Induction of ovarian follicular wave emergence and ovulation in progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocols for Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Baldrighi, J M; Sales, J N S; Crepaldi, G A; Carvalho, J B P; Bó, G A; Baruselli, P S

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (FWE) and ovulation in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) synchronization protocols using norgestomet ear implants (NORG) in Bos indicus cattle. In Experiment 1, the synchronization of FWE was evaluated when two different estradiol esters in different doses [2mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 2.5mg EV or 5mg estradiol valerate (EV)] were administered with NORG implant insertion in B. indicus cattle (estrous cyclic heifers and cows with suckling calves; n=10 per treatment). After estradiol treatment, ovarian ultrasonic exams were performed once daily to detect the interval between treatment and FWE. There were significant treatment-by-animal category interaction (P=0.05) on the interval from the estradiol treatment to FWE. An earlier (P<0.0001) and less variable (P=0.02) interval from estradiol treatment to FWE was observed in heifers treated with EB (2.5±0.2; mean±SE) than in those treated with 2.5mg EV (4.2±0.3) or 5mg EV (6.1±0.6). Cows treated with 5mg EV (4.0±0.5) had longer (P=0.05) interval than cows receiving EB (2.5±0.2), however, there was an intermediate interval in those cows treated with 2.5mg EV (3.1±0.4). In Experiment 2, the number of uses of the NORG implant (new; n=305 or previously used once; n=314) and three different ovulation induction hormones [0.5mg estradiol cypionate (EC) at implant removal (n=205), 1mg EB given 24h after implant removal (n=219), or 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH) given at FTAI (n=195)] were evaluated in Nelore heifers (2×3 factorial design). Similar pregnancy per AI (P/AI; 30 days after FTAI; P>0.05) were achieved using each of the three ovulation induction hormones (EB=40.6%; EC=48.3%, or GnRH=48.7%) and with a new (47.2%) or once-used NORG implant (44.3%). In Experiment 3, the effect of different ovulation induction hormones for FTAI [1mg EC at NORG implant removal (n=228), 10μg buserelin acetate at FTAI (GnRH; n

  8. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  9. The genetics of brown coat color and white spotting in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Zhang, M-Q; Xu, X; Luo, S-J

    2014-10-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) exhibit two major coat color variations: a brown vs. wild-type black pigmentation and a white spotting vs. wild-type solid color pattern. The genetic basis for these variations in color and distribution remains largely unknown and may be complicated by a breeding history involving hybridization between yaks and cattle. Here, we investigated 92 domestic yaks from China using a candidate gene approach. Sequence variations in MC1R, PMEL and TYRP1 were surveyed in brown yaks; TYRP1 was unassociated with the coloration and excluded. Recessive mutations from MC1R, or p.Gln34*, p.Met73Leu and possibly p.Arg142Pro, are reported in bovids for the first time and accounted for approximately 40% of the brown yaks in this study. The remaining 60% of brown individuals correlated with a cattle-derived deletion mutation from PMEL (p.Leu18del) in a dominant manner. Degrees of white spotting found in yaks vary from color sidedness and white face, to completely white. After examining the candidate gene KIT, we suggest that color-sided and all-white yaks are caused by the serial translations of KIT (Cs6 or Cs29 ) as reported for cattle. The white-faced phenotype in yaks is associated with the KIT haplotype S(wf) . All KIT mutations underlying the serial phenotypes of white spotting in yaks are identical to those in cattle, indicating that cattle are the likely source of white spotting in yaks. Our results reveal the complex genetic origins of domestic yak coat color as either native in yaks through evolution and domestication or as introduced from cattle through interspecific hybridization. PMID:24989079

  10. Oxidation of lignin in eucalyptus kraft pulp by manganese peroxidase from Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    PubMed

    Moreira, M T; Sierra-Alvarez, R; Lema, J M; Feijoo, G; Field, J A

    2001-05-01

    The white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was shown in previous studies to cause high levels of kraft pulp bleaching and delignification under culture conditions in which manganese peroxidase (MnP) occurs as the dominant oxidative enzyme. In this study, the MnP of Bjerkadera was isolated and tested in vitro with eucalyptus oxygen-delignified kraft pulp (ODKP) based on measuring the reduction in kappa number as an indicator of lignin oxidation. The MnP preparation applied at 60 U/g pulp for 6 h caused a significant decrease of 11-13% in the kappa number in the ODKP under optimal conditions compared to parallel-incubated controls lacking enzyme. The effects of MnP dosage, Mn2+ concentration, organic acid buffer selection, pH and H2O2 addition were evaluated. The optimal Mn2+ concentration range for lignin oxidation in ODKP was 100-500 microM. In the presence of low oxalate concentrations (0.3-2 mM) the Bjerkandera MnP also significantly reduced the kappa number of ODKP by 6% without any Mn. This observation is in agreement with the fact that purified Bjerkandera MnP has Mn-independent activities. Under incubation conditions with added Mn2+, buffers composed of metal-complexing organic acids provided two-fold better kappa number reductions compared to the inert acetic acid. The optimal H2O2 dosage was found to be 0.017 micromol/min ml when added as semi-continuous pulses (every 30 min) or 0.2 micromol/min ml when generated continuously by glucose oxidase. Excess H2O2 caused severe inactivation of MnP during the incubations. Factors that improved the turnover of the enzyme, such as Mn2+ and metal-chelating acids, stabilized MnP against rapid inactivation. PMID:11265791

  11. A RESOLVED CENSUS OF MILLIMETER EMISSION FROM TAURUS MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Robert J.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Kraus, Adam L.

    2012-06-01

    We present a high angular resolution millimeter-wave dust continuum imaging survey of circumstellar material associated with the individual components of 23 multiple star systems in the Taurus-Auriga young cluster. Combined with previous measurements in the literature, these new data permit a comprehensive look at how the millimeter luminosity (a rough tracer of disk mass) relates to the separation and mass of a stellar companion. Approximately one-third (28%-37%) of the individual stars in multiple systems have detectable millimeter emission, an incidence rate half that for single stars ({approx}62%) which does not depend on the number of companions. There is a strong, positive correlation between the luminosity and projected separation (a{sub p} ) of a stellar pair. Wide pairs (a{sub p} > 300 AU) have a similar luminosity distribution as single stars, medium pairs (a{sub p} Almost-Equal-To 30-300 AU) are a factor of five fainter, and close pairs (a{sub p} < 30 AU) are {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign fainter yet (aside from a small, but notable population of bright circumbinary disks). In most cases, the emission is dominated by a disk around the primary (or a wide tertiary in hierarchical triples), but there is no clear relationship between luminosity and stellar mass ratio. A direct comparison of resolved disk sizes with predictions from tidal truncation models yields mixed results; some disks are much larger than expected given the projected distances of their companions. We suggest that the presence of a stellar companion impacts disk properties at a level comparable to the internal evolution mechanisms that operate in an isolated system, with both the multiple star formation process itself and star-disk tidal interactions likely playing important roles in the evolution of circumstellar material. From the perspective of the mass content of the disk reservoir, we expect that (giant) planet formation is inhibited around the components of close pairs or secondaries

  12. Chains of dense cores in the Taurus L1495/B213 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.; Hacar, A.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Cloud fragmentation into dense cores is a critical step in the process of star formation. A number of recent observations show that it is connected to the filamentary structure of the gas, but the processes responsible for core formation remain mysterious. Aims: We studied the kinematics and spatial distribution of the dense gas in the L1495/B213 filamentary region of the Taurus molecular cloud with the goal of understanding the mechanism of core formation. Methods: We mapped the densest regions of L1495/B213 in N2H+(1-0) and C18O(2-1) with the IRAM 30 m telescope, and complemented these data with archival dust-continuum observations from the Herschel Space Observatory. Results: The dense cores in L1495/B213 are significantly clustered in linear chain-like groups about 0.5 pc long. The internal motions in these chains are mostly subsonic and the velocity is continuous, indicating that turbulence dissipation in the cloud has occurred at the scale of the chains and not at the smaller scale of the individual cores. The chains also present an approximately constant abundance of N2H+ and radial intensity profiles that can be modeled with a density law that follows a softened power law. A simple analysis of the spacing between the cores using an isothermal cylinder model indicates that the cores have likely formed by gravitational fragmentation of velocity-coherent filaments. Conclusions: Combining our analysis of the cores with our previous study of the large-scale C18O emission from the cloud, we propose a two-step scenario of core formation in L1495/B213. In this scenario, named "fray and fragment", L1495/B213 originated from the supersonic collision of two flows. The collision produced a network of intertwined subsonic filaments or fibers (fray step). Some of these fibers accumulated enough mass to become gravitationally unstable and fragment into chains of closely-spaced cores. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is

  13. Searching for gas emission lines in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of young stars in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Audard, M.; Güdel, M.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Skinner, S. L.; Carmona, A.; Glauser, A. M.; Fajardo-Acosta, S. B.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Our knowledge of circumstellar disks has traditionally been based on studies of dust. However, gas dominates the disk mass and its study is key to our understanding of accretion, outflows, and ultimately planet formation. The Spitzer Space Telescope provides access to gas emission lines in the mid-infrared, providing crucial new diagnostics of the physical conditions in accretion disks and outflows. Aims: We seek to identify gas emission lines in mid-infrared spectra of 64 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus. Using line luminosities and other known star-disk-outflow parameters, we aim to identify correlations that will help to constrain gas heating, excitation mechanisms, and the line formation. Methods: We have based our study on Spitzer observations using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), mainly with the high-resolution modules. Line luminosities (or 3σ upper limits) have been obtained by fitting Gaussian profiles to the lines. We have further searched for correlations between the line luminosities and different parameters related to the star-disk system. Results: We have detected H2 (17.03, 28.22 μm) emission in 6 objects, [Ne II] (12.81 μm) emission in 18 objects, and [Fe II] (17.93, 25.99 μm) emission in 7 objects. [Ne II] detections are found primarily in Class II objects. The luminosity of the [Ne II] line (LNeII) is in general higher for objects known to drive jets than for those without known jets, but the two groups are not statistically distinguishable. LNeII is correlated with X-ray luminosity, but for Class II objects only. LNeII is also correlated with disk mass and accretion rate when the sample is divided into high and low accretors. Furthermore, we find correlations of LNeII with mid-IR continuum luminosity and with luminosity of the [O I] (6300 Å) line, the latter being an outflow tracer. L [FeII] correlates with Ṁacc. No correlations were found between LH2 and several tested parameters. Conclusions: Our study reveals a general trend

  14. Chemistry in disks. X. The molecular content of protoplanetary disks in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilloteau, S.; Reboussin, L.; Dutrey, A.; Chapillon, E.; Wakelam, V.; Piétu, V.; Di Folco, E.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We attempt to determine the molecular composition of disks around young low-mass stars. Methods: We used the IRAM 30 m radio telescope to perform a sensitive wideband survey of 30 stars in the Taurus Auriga region known to be surrounded by gaseous circumstellar disks. We simultaneously observed HCO+(3-2), HCN(3-2), C2H(3-2), CS(5-4), and two transitions of SO. We combined the results with a previous survey that observed 13CO (2-1), CN(2-1), two o-H2CO lines, and another transition of SO. We used available interferometric data to derive excitation temperatures of CN and C2H in several sources. We determined characteristic sizes of the gas disks and column densities of all molecules using a parametric power-law disk model. Our study is mostly sensitive to molecules at 200-400 au from the stars. We compared the derived column densities to the predictions of an extensive gas-grain chemical disk model under conditions representative of T Tauri disks. Results: This survey provides 20 new detections of HCO+ in disks, 18 in HCN, 11 in C2H, 8 in CS, and 4 in SO. HCO+ is detected in almost all sources and its J = 3-2 line is essentially optically thick, providing good estimates of the disk radii. The other transitions are (at least partially) optically thin. Large variations of the column density ratios are observed, but do not correlate with any specific property of the star or disk. Disks around Herbig Ae stars appear less rich in molecules than those around T Tauri stars, although the sample remains small. SO is only found in the (presumably younger) embedded objects, perhaps reflecting an evolution of the S chemistry due to increasing depletion with time. Overall, the molecular column densities, and in particular the CN/HCN and CN/C2H ratios, are well reproduced by gas-grain chemistry in cold disks. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive census of simple molecules in disks of radii >200-300 au. Extending that to smaller disks, or searching for less

  15. Rotationally-supported disks around Class I sources in Taurus: disk formation constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsono, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Bruderer, S.; Persson, M. V.; Mottram, J. C.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Disks are observed around pre-main sequence stars, but how and when they form is still heavily debated. While disks around young stellar objects have been identified through thermal dust emission, spatially and spectrally resolved molecular line observations are needed to determine their nature. Only a handful of embedded rotationally supported disks have been identified to date. Aims: We identify and characterize rotationally supported disks near the end of the main accretion phase of low-mass protostars by comparing their gas and dust structures. Methods: Subarcsecond observations of dust and gas toward four Class I low-mass young stellar objects in Taurus are presented at significantly higher sensitivity than previous studies. The 13CO and C18O J = 2-1 transitions at 220 GHz were observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at a spatial resolution of ≤0.8″ (56 AU radius at 140 pc) and analyzed using uv-space position velocity diagrams to determine the nature of their observed velocity gradient. Results: Rotationally supported disks (RSDs) are detected around 3 of the 4 Class I sources studied. The derived masses identify them as Stage I objects; i.e., their stellar mass is higher than their envelope and disk masses. The outer radii of the Keplerian disks toward our sample of Class I sources are ≤100 AU. The lack of on-source C18O emission for TMR1 puts an upper limit of 50 AU on its size. Flattened structures at radii >100 AU around these sources are dominated by infalling motion (υ ∝ r-1). A large-scale envelope model is required to estimate the basic parameters of the flattened structure from spatially resolved continuum data. Similarities and differences between the gas and dust disk are discussed. Combined with literature data, the sizes of the RSDs around Class I objects are best described with evolutionary models with an initial rotation of Ω = 10-14 Hz and slow sound speeds. Based on the comparison of gas and dust disk masses

  16. MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION FROM THE BOUNDARIES OF THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Li Di; Langer, William D.

    2010-06-01

    We report Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the four lowest rotational transitions of H{sub 2} in three portions of the boundary of the Taurus molecular cloud. Emission in the two lowest transitions, S(0) and S(1), was detected in almost all pointing directions, while the S(2) and S(3) lines were marginally detected only after further averaging of data. The widespread detection of lines coming from levels 510 K and 1016 K above the molecular ground state is indicative of gas at a temperature of at least 200 K containing column densities (1-5) x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} of H{sub 2}. For the region with the simplest geometry, we have used the Meudon PDR code to model the chemistry, radiative transfer, and excitation of molecular hydrogen. We conclude that models with acceptable values of the UV interstellar radiation field can reproduce the amount of H{sub 2} in the lowest excited state, but cannot account for the degree of excitation of the H{sub 2}. The unexpectedly high degree of excitation of the H{sub 2} in the boundary layer of a molecular cloud, which cannot be explained by the presence of stellar sources, points to an enhanced heating rate which may be the result of, e.g., dissipation of turbulence. We have in one boundary region been able to obtain the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) for H{sub 2}, which by modeling and possible detection of the S(2) and S(3) lines has a range 1.0 {>=} OPR {>=} 0.15, although this result must be treated with caution. The fact that the ortho-to-para ratio is lower than that expected for equilibrium at the gas kinetic temperature may be indicative of circulation of material from cold, purely molecular regions into the boundary layer, possibly due to turbulent diffusion. The explanation of these data may thus be suggestive of processes that are having a significant effect on the structure and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation that takes place within them.

  17. Molecular Hydrogen Emission from the Boundaries of the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Li, Di; Langer, William D.

    2010-06-01

    We report Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the four lowest rotational transitions of H2 in three portions of the boundary of the Taurus molecular cloud. Emission in the two lowest transitions, S(0) and S(1), was detected in almost all pointing directions, while the S(2) and S(3) lines were marginally detected only after further averaging of data. The widespread detection of lines coming from levels 510 K and 1016 K above the molecular ground state is indicative of gas at a temperature of at least 200 K containing column densities (1-5) × 1018 cm-2 of H2. For the region with the simplest geometry, we have used the Meudon PDR code to model the chemistry, radiative transfer, and excitation of molecular hydrogen. We conclude that models with acceptable values of the UV interstellar radiation field can reproduce the amount of H2 in the lowest excited state, but cannot account for the degree of excitation of the H2. The unexpectedly high degree of excitation of the H2 in the boundary layer of a molecular cloud, which cannot be explained by the presence of stellar sources, points to an enhanced heating rate which may be the result of, e.g., dissipation of turbulence. We have in one boundary region been able to obtain the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) for H2, which by modeling and possible detection of the S(2) and S(3) lines has a range 1.0 >= OPR >= 0.15, although this result must be treated with caution. The fact that the ortho-to-para ratio is lower than that expected for equilibrium at the gas kinetic temperature may be indicative of circulation of material from cold, purely molecular regions into the boundary layer, possibly due to turbulent diffusion. The explanation of these data may thus be suggestive of processes that are having a significant effect on the structure and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation that takes place within them.

  18. THE DISK IMAGING SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY WITH SMA. I. TAURUS PROTOPLANETARY DISK DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Qi Chunhua; Andrews, Sean M.; Espaillat, Catherine; Van Kempen, Tim A.; Wilner, David J.; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2010-09-01

    Chemistry plays an important role in the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, with implications for the composition of comets and planets. This is the first of a series of papers based on data from DISCS, a Submillimeter Array survey of the chemical composition of protoplanetary disks. The six Taurus sources in the program (DM Tau, AA Tau, LkCa 15, GM Aur, CQ Tau, and MWC 480) range in stellar spectral type from M1 to A4 and offer an opportunity to test the effects of stellar luminosity on the disk chemistry. The disks were observed in 10 different lines at {approx}3'' resolution and an rms of {approx}100 mJy beam{sup -1} at {approx}0.5 km s{sup -1}. The four brightest lines are CO 2-1, HCO{sup +} 3-2, CN 2{sub 33/4/2} - 1{sub 22/3/1}, and HCN 3-2, and these are detected toward all sources (except for HCN toward CQ Tau). The weaker lines of CN 2{sub 22}-1{sub 11}, DCO{sup +} 3-2, N{sub 2}H{sup +} 3-2, H{sub 2}CO 3{sub 03}-2{sub 02}, and 4{sub 14}-3{sub 13} are detected toward two to three disks each, and DCN 3-2 only toward LkCa 15. CH{sub 3}OH 4{sub 21}-3{sub 1} {sub 2} and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} are not detected. There is no obvious difference between the T Tauri and Herbig Ae sources with regard to CN and HCN intensities. In contrast, DCO{sup +}, DCN, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and H{sub 2}CO are detected only toward the T Tauri stars, suggesting that the disks around Herbig Ae stars lack cold regions for long enough timescales to allow for efficient deuterium chemistry, CO freeze-out, and grain chemistry.

  19. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  20. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

  1. CLOSE COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS. I. A LARGE SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN CHAMAELEON I AND TAURUS-AURIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Brandeker, Alexis; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Jayawardhana, Ray E-mail: mhvk@astro.utoronto.ca E-mail: dcnguyen@pas.rochester.edu E-mail: alexis@astro.su.se

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of a multiplicity survey of 212 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I and Taurus-Auriga star-forming regions, based on high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. From these data, we achieved a typical radial velocity (RV) precision of {approx}80 m s{sup -1} with slower rotators yielding better precision, in general. For 174 of these stars, we obtained multi-epoch data with sufficient time baselines to identify binaries based on RV variations. We identified eight close binaries and four close triples, of which three and two, respectively, are new discoveries. The spectroscopic multiplicity fractions we find for Chamaeleon I (7%) and Taurus-Auriga (6%) are similar to each other, and to the results of field star surveys in the same mass and period regime. However, unlike the results from imaging surveys, the frequency of systems with close companions in our sample is not seen to depend on primary mass. Additionally, we do not find a strong correlation between accretion and close multiplicity. This implies that close companions are not likely the main source of the accretion shut down observed in weak-lined T Tauri stars. Our results also suggest that sufficient RV precision can be achieved for at least a subset of slowly rotating young stars to search for hot Jupiter planets.

  2. Analysis of the Plant bos1 Mutant Highlights Necrosis as an Efficient Defence Mechanism during D. dadantii/Arabidospis thaliana Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Patrit, Oriane; Simond-Côte, Elizabeth; Hermand, Victor; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a broad host range phytopathogenic bacterium provoking soft rot disease on many plants including Arabidopsis. We showed that, after D. dadantii infection, the expression of the Arabidopsis BOS1 gene was specifically induced by the production of the bacterial PelB/C pectinases able to degrade pectin. This prompted us to analyze the interaction between the bos1 mutant and D. dadantii. The phenotype of the infected bos1 mutant is complex. Indeed, maceration symptoms occurred more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type parent but at a later stage of infection, a necrosis developed around the inoculation site that provoked a halt in the progression of the maceration. This necrosis became systemic and spread throughout the whole plant, a phenotype reminiscent of that observed in some lesion mimic mutants. In accordance with the progression of maceration symptoms, bacterial population began to grow more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type plant but, when necrosis appeared in the bos1 mutant, a reduction in bacterial population was observed. From the plant side, this complex interaction between D. dadantii and its host includes an early plant defence response that comprises reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accompanied by the reinforcement of the plant cell wall by protein cross-linking. At later timepoints, another plant defence is raised by the death of the plant cells surrounding the inoculation site. This plant cell death appears to constitute an efficient defence mechanism induced by D. dadantii during Arabidopsis infection. PMID:21533045

  3. A hidden deformation zone withing the Cilician Taurus Mountains: Analysis of the GPS data using a novel approcah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinan Özeren, Mehmet; Dimitrova, Lada; Haines, Alan John

    2014-05-01

    Tectonics within the Anatolian peninsula is shaped mainly by the northward motion of Arabia that collides with the East Anatolian High Plateau in the east and the extension in western Turkey and the Aegean Sea due to the roll-back of the Hellenic Trench in the west. The zone between these tectonically active regions is the central Anatolian block that rotates counterclockwise with respect to the stable Eurasia, hitherto thought to have been undergoing little internal deformation. However, the stalled subduction of the Cyprus Arc exerts compression on the overriding Anatolia, thereby creating compressive stresses all along the Turkish southern coast. The immediate consequence of this tectonic setting along with the east-west extension creates a strike-slip dominated central Anatolian block. Neverthless along the southern coast (southern margin of the Taurus mountains) there is scarse evidence of active faulting. Two exceptions are the Ecemis fault and its antithetic Tuzgolu fault, both strike-slip faults, the former bounding the Cilician Taurus from the west. Very little information exists on the ongoing deformation within the Cilician Taurus Mountains that form a quasi-elliptic structure with the major axis that is almost parallel to the Ecemis fault. Since Turkey is planning to build a nuclear power plant 15 km to the south the Ecemis fault, the hazard community has been giving the major attention to the Ecemis fault itself. Recent studies by Dimitrova et al. (2012) revealed that the subsurface sources of the laterally widespread deformation fields can be located very efficiently if one works with the vertical derivatives of horizontal stress (VDoHS) rates. The alternative approach is to directly calculate the GPS strain rates using kinematic algorithms, but they are much less efficient than working with VDoHS in determining zones of deformation, especially along faults without slip rate information mapped from palaeo-seismicity or along completely hidden faults

  4. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  5. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  6. Making Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  7. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  8. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  9. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Söderlund, Tim; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Contacts between humans and animals inevitably involve encounters possibly resulting in the human being injured. During the period of 2000 to 2014 almost 90 people died in this kind of conflict in Finland. Of these deaths, one third were associated with horses. In addition, over the same period 85 people died in traffic accidents in which an animal was hit by a car. Accidents requiring hospitalization occurred for approx. 8 000 people. PMID:27522833

  10. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  11. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8 months of age, 152 ± 12.6 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180 days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180 days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p < 0.05) higher in mithun fed R2 , R3 and R4 compared to those fed R1 diet. In contrast, increased (p < 0.05) ruminal pH, molar proportion of acetate and, acetate to propionate ratio was recorded in mithun fed only TF than those fed concentrate supplemented diets. Similarly, an increase (p < 0.05) in the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and total bacteria were evident in mithun fed R2 , R3 and R4 compared to those fed R1 . Therefore, it is concluded that TF 25% and/or rice straw 25% along with CM 50% may be fed to the growing mithun for improved rumen ecology, nutrient utilization and thus better performance under stall fed system. PMID:22289020

  12. Correlation of Al/Si X-ray fluorescence data with other remote sensing data from the Taurus-Littrow area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, C. G.; Hallam, M. E.; Weidner, J. R.; Clark, P. E.; Adler, I.; Podwysocki, M. H.; Philpotts, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Al/Si intensity ratios from the Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence experiment have been analyzed in conjunction with such other remote-sensing data as visible albedo measurements, color-difference photographs, and relative spectral reflectivity curves for the purpose of defining geochemical units in the Taurus-Littrow area. A geochemical boundary between the dark-mantle unit and the western edge of the Taurus Mountains is indicated by all the remote-sensing techniques considered. The major component of the ejecta from Catena Littrow, located within the dark-mantle unit, is highland-type material. The areal extent of the ejecta determined from the Al/Si data is at least 30 km along the Apollo 15 ground track. The constraint imposed upon depth to high-alumina material at Catena Littrow is 520 m. If the high-alumina material excavated at Catena Littrow is an extension of the Taurus Mountain 'roots', then the maximum slope of the buried highland surface from Catena Littrow to the Taurus Mountains border is less than 2.0 deg

  13. Cores, filaments, and bundles: hierarchical core formation in the L1495/B213 Taurus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacar, A.; Tafalla, M.; Kauffmann, J.; Kovács, A.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Core condensation is a critical step in the star-formation process, but it is still poorly characterized observationally. Aims: We have studied the 10 pc-long L1495/B213 complex in Taurus to investigate how dense cores have condensed out of the lower density cloud material. Methods: We observed L1495/B213 in C18O(1-0), N2H+(1-0), and SO(JN = 32-21) with the 14 m FCRAO telescope, and complemented the data with dust continuum observations using APEX (870 μm) and IRAM 30 m (1200 μm). Results: From the N2H+ emission, we identify 19 dense cores, some starless and some protostellar. They are not distributed uniformly, but tend to cluster with relative separations on the order of 0.25 pc. From the C18O emission, we identify multiple velocity components in the gas. We have characterized them by fitting Gaussians to the spectra and by studying the distribution of the fits in position-position-velocity space. In this space, the C18O components appear as velocity-coherent structures, and we identify them automatically using a dedicated algorithm (FIVE: Friends In VElocity). Using this algorithm, we identify 35 filamentary components with typical lengths of 0.5 pc, sonic internal velocity dispersions, and mass-per-unit length close to the stability threshold of isothermal cylinders at 10 K. Core formation seems to have occurred inside the filamentary components via fragmentation, with few fertile components with higher mass-per-unit length being responsible for most cores in the cloud. On large scales, the filamentary components appear grouped into families, which we refer to as bundles. Conclusions: Core formation in L1495/B213 has proceeded by hierarchical fragmentation. The cloud fragmented first into several pc-scale regions. Each of these regions later fragmented into velocity-coherent filaments of about 0.5 pc in length. Finally, a small number of these filaments fragmented quasi-statically and produced the individual dense cores we see today. Based on

  14. Effect of electrical stimulation on protease activity and tenderness of M. longissimus from cattle with different proportions of Bos indicus content.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D M; Jiang, S T; Hearnshaw, H; Rymill, S R; Thompson, J M

    2000-07-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on protease activity (at approx. 3 h postmortem), sensory tenderness scores and shear force was determined on M. longissimus samples from three Bos indicus genotypes (0% Hereford, 50% Brahman×Hereford and 100% Brahman). The samples were divided and aged for 1 or 30 days. Electrical stimulation resulted in a general reduction in calpastatin activity suggesting that it accelerated proteolysis. Calpastatin activity increased commensurate with increasing Bos indicus content. Several significant interactions were shown, the most relevant of these was the interaction between Bos indicus content×electrical stimulation. In contrast to the other genotypes, calpain I and calpain II activities were shown to increase (significant for calpain II only) following stimulation in the purebred Brahmans (100%). There was a significant reduction in tenderness with increasing Bos indicus content. However, breed differences in shear force were reduced by electrical stimulation. The improvement in shear force following ageing was smaller for stimulated carcasses compared to the controls. This tends to reinforce the premise that electrical stimulation accelerates proteolysis. The results of this study show clear genotypic differences in proteolytic activity and tenderness. However, electrical stimulation can be employed to reduce breed differences in tenderness of the M. longissimus. PMID:22061281

  15. BadR (BB0693) controls growth phase-dependent induction of rpoS and bosR in Borrelia burgdorferi via recognizing TAAAATAT motifs.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Zhou, Jianli

    2015-12-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the alternative sigma factor RpoS plays a central role during Bb's adaptation to ticks and mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that RpoS is not expressed during the early stages of spirochetal growth or when Bb resides in ticks during the intermolt phase, but the molecular details of these events remain unknown. In the current study, biomagnetic bead separation of rpoS promoter-binding proteins, coupled with genetic inactivation, was employed to identify BadR (BB0693) as a negative regulator that controls growth phase-dependent induction of rpoS and bosR in Bb. When badR was inactivated, the expression of rpoS and bosR was induced only during the early stages of bacterial growth, but not during the stationary growth phase. Recombinant BadR bound to the promoter DNA of rpoS and the regulatory region upstream of bosR via AT-rich TAAAATAT motifs. Mutations in this motif markedly inhibited or abolished rBadR binding. These results suggest that BadR directly influences the expression of both rpoS and bosR in Bb. This newly recognized role for BadR to fine-tune the activation of the RpoN-RpoS pathway at strategic times in Bb's life cycle potentially represents another layer of gene control over σ(54)-dependent gene regulation. PMID:26331438

  16. Measuring Learning Styles with Questionnaires versus Direct Observation of Preferential Choice Behavior in Authentic Learning Situations: The Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale (VV-BOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutner, Detlev; Plass, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of the VV-BOS (Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale), a computer-based instrument for direct observation of students' preferences for visual or verbal learning material. Results of a study with second-language learners indicated a high degree of reliability as an alternative to conventional questionnaires.…

  17. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  18. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  19. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  20. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  1. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. I - Models for spectral energy distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe radiative transfer calculations of infalling, dusty envelopes surrounding pre-main-sequence stars and use these models to derive physical properties for a sample of 21 heavily reddened young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The density distributions needed to match the FIR peaks in the spectral energy distributions of these embedded sources suggest mass infall rates similar to those predicted for simple thermally supported clouds with temperatures about 10 K. Unless the dust opacities are badly in error, our models require substantial departures from spherical symmetry in the envelopes of all sources. These flattened envelopes may be produced by a combination of rotation and cavities excavated by bipolar flows. The rotating infall models of Terebey et al. (1984) models indicate a centrifugal radius of about 70 AU for many objects if rotation is the only important physical effect, and this radius is reasonably consistent with typical estimates for the sizes of circumstellar disks around T Tauri stars.

  2. Sub-stellar Companions and Stellar Multiplicity in the Taurus Star-Forming Region - A High-Contrast Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Bonavita, Mariangela; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2013-07-01

    In recent years the rapid improvement of high-contrast imaging instrumentation and techniques lead to the discovery of a number of wide sub-stellar companions to nearby young stars, down to planetary mass. Some of these objects have mass ratios with respect to their parent stars of only ~1%, and due also to their extreme separation are hard to explain in any formation paradigm suggested so far, whether based on core accretion or disk instabilities. Hence, these objects may represent an extreme outcome of their underlying formation mechanisms, regardless of which it is. Previous surveys in nearby star forming regions such as Upper-Sco and Sco-Cen are consistent with the existence of a continuous population of companions, which suggests that binary formation may extend all the way down to planetary masses for wide separations, or at least that mass alone is not a clear-cut observational diagnostic for distinguishing between formation mechanisms. Moreover, the same studies suggest a higher frequency of wide companions in young star forming regions, with respect to young moving groups or in the field, implying that ejection mechanisms could be relevant already within the first few Myrs after formation. In this poster we present initial results of a large, coherent survey for sub-stellar companions and stellar multiplicity of Taurus stars of all masses. It uses high-spatial resolution NIRI/Gemini North adaptive optics imaging in K-band, allowing us to detect companions as close as 0.07" out to 12" (corresponding to ~10AU-1500AU at the distance of Taurus) with masses down to ~1 MJup. The findings will be compared with those of deep high-spatial resolution studies of other young associations. Such a comparison gives insight to, e.g., the interplay between the low-mass multiplicity fraction and mass ratios or primary mass and age, respectively.

  3. A GALEX-based Search for the Sparse Young Stellar Population in the Taurus-Aurigae Star Forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; de Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel; Yañez Gestoso, Javier

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J-K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J-K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions.

  4. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; Gestoso, Javier Yañez; De Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions.

  5. Investigation of novel solid lipid microparticles based on homolipids from Bos indicus for the delivery of gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Kenechukwu, Franklin C.; Momoh, Mumuni A.; Umeyor, Emmanuel C.; Uronnachi, Emmanuel M.; Attama, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to formulate solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS)-based solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) using homolipids from tallow fat (Bos indicus) and evaluate its potential for enhanced delivery of gentamicin. Materials and Methods: SLMs were formulated by melt-emulsification using SRMS (15% w/w Phospholipon® 90G in 35% w/w Bos indicus), polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) and gentamicin (1.0, 2.0, 3.0% w/w), and characterized with respect to size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency % and pH-dependent stability. The in vitro release of gentamicin from the SLMs was performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) while bioevaluation was carried out using clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Results showed that the lipid matrix accommodated gentamicin in a concentration-dependent manner, and that stable and spherical SLMs with size range of 18.62 ± 1.24-20.59 ± 1.36 μm and 21.35 ± 1.57-50.62 ± 2.37 μm respectively for unloaded and drug-loaded formulations were obtained. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that SRMS-based SLMs could better be used to control the release of gentamicin than gentamicin injection. Results of sensitivity test revealed that the SLMs time-dependently and capacity-limitedly produced greater inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) than the standards, an indication of improved bioactivity against the test organisms, with greater IZDs against S. aureus than E. coli. Overall, SLMs containing 2% w/w SRMS, 3% w/w gentamicin and PEG 4000 entrapped the highest amount of drug, achieved complete drug release and gave highest IZD against the organisms within 420 min, while plain gentamicin gave the least. Conclusion: This research has shown that SLMs based on Bos indicus and P90G is a potential carrier system for dissolution and bioactivity enhancement of gentamicin. PMID:27014617

  6. The development of a hexaplex-conventional PCR for identification of six animal and plant species in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Muhammad; Junejo, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    A hexaplex-conventional PCR assay was developed for identification of five meat and one plant species origins in foodstuffs simultaneously. The method merges the use of horse (Equus caballus), soybean (Glycine max), sheep (Ovis aries), poultry (Meleagris meleagris), pork (Sus scrofa), and cow (Bos taurus) specific primers that amplify fragments (horse; 85 bp, soybean; 100 bp, sheep; 119 bp, poultry; 183 bp, pork; 212 bp and cow; 271 bp) of the mitochondrial cyt b, lectin, 12S rRNA, 12S rRNA, ATPase subunit 6 genes and ATPase subunit 8 genes respectively, and a universal 18S rRNA primers that amplifies a 141 bp. Multiplex analysis of the reference food samples showed that detection limit of the hexaplex assay was 0.01% for each species. Taken together, all data indicated that this hexaplex PCR assay was a simple, fast, sensitive, specific, and cost-effective detection method for horse, soybean, sheep, poultry, pork and cow species in foodstuffs. PMID:26304406

  7. MULTINDELS-BOV: Zebu traceback method based on DNA insertion-deletion polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Groenner-Penna, M; Croce, E F D; Pimenta, C G; Bicalho, H M S; Pena, S D J

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer and exporter of beef, with a herd of approximately 210 million animals. For the meat industry, a reliable animal traceback from its origin to the consumer market is paramount. Of all available identification systems, DNA is the only one that survives the slaughterhouse and reaches the dish of the consumer. DNA polymorphisms are already used for cattle traceback, but primarily for the subspecies Bos taurus taurus. However, in Brazil, another subspecies, B. taurus indicus predominates. We describe here the development of a DNA traceback method designed primarily for B. taurus indicus (Zebu), without leaving B. taurus taurus aside. We used insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms, which have the advantage of being simple and easily automatable, since in most cases, the variable loci are biallelic. We studied 94 indels, with a difference of two or more base pairs, in DNA pools of 60 Zebu and 60 taurine animals. A set of 22 indels with heterozygosity greater than 0.3 were selected and used to construct two multiplex PCRs. On the basis of the allelic frequency of these indels, the probability of random match was calculated to be 1.12 x 10(-8) for B. taurus indicus and 1.60 x 10(-6) for B. taurus taurus. Moreover, we estimated that an analysis would cost less than US$15.00 per animal. Thus, this system (MULTINDELS-BOV) is perfectly suited for building large genetic databases and offering viable prospects of a national system for cattle traceback DNA in Brazil. PMID:25501139

  8. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  9. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  10. Molecular characterization of veterinary important trematode and cestode species in the mithun Bos frontalis from north-east India.

    PubMed

    Chamuah, J K; Raina, O K; Lalrinkima, H; Jacob, S S; Sankar, M; Sakhrie, A; Lama, S; Banerjee, P S

    2016-09-01

    Helminth infections in the mithun Bos frontalis, including the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, hepato-gastric amphistomes Explanatum explanatum, Paramphistomum epiclitum and Calicophoron calicophorum, and the cestodes Echinococcus granulosus and E. ortleppi were studied in north-east India over a 2-year period from 2012 to 2014. Cystic echinococcosis caused by E. granulosus and E. ortleppi was found to be highly prevalent in the mithun, with E. ortleppi being reported for the first time. Molecular markers, including the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2), 28S rDNA and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase sub-unit1 (nad1) were used to confirm the identification of the trematode and cestode species. PMID:26343353

  11. Ovarian follicular dynamics, follicle deviation, and oocyte yield in Gyr breed (Bos indicus) cows undergoing repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P; Siqueira, L G B; Fonseca, J F; Camargo, L S A

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ovarian follicular dynamics during intervals between successive ovum pick-up (OPU) and determine its effects on the number and quality of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in Zebu cows (Bos indicus). Pluriparous nonlactating Gyr cows (Bos indicus; n=10) underwent four consecutive OPU sessions at 96-h intervals. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth between OPU sessions was monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. A single dominant follicle (DF) or two codominant (CDF) follicles (>9mm) were present in 63.3% (19 of 30) of intervals studied, with follicle deviation beginning when the future dominant follicle (F1) achieved a diameter of 6.2+/-0.3mm. The phenomenon of codominance was observed in four (13.3%) of the inter-OPU intervals. The remaining intervals (36.6%, 11 of 30) were characterized by a greater follicular population, lower rate of follicular growth, and a smaller diameter F1 (P<0.0001). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward an increase in the number of recovered COCs when dominant follicles were not present (NDF). The quality of COCs was not affected by the presence of a single dominant follicle, but codominant follicles resulted in recovery of a lower proportion of viable embryos (40.0%, 62.1%, and 63.6%; P<0.05) and higher proportions of degenerate COCs (56.0%, 30.3%, and 28.6%; P<0.05) for CDF, NDF, and DF respectively. We concluded that, in Zebu cows, (a) repeated follicle aspirations altered ovarian follicular dynamics, perhaps by increasing follicular growth rate; (b) follicular dominance could be established in cows undergoing twice-a-week OPU; and (c) the presence of a dominant follicle during short inter-OPU intervals may not affect COC quality, except when a codominant follicle was present. PMID:20071017

  12. Animal picobirnavirus.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name 'Picobirnavirus' derives from the prefix 'pico' (latin for 'small') in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix 'bi' (latin for 'two') and the word 'RNA' to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical 'two RNA band' pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749-2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a 'primary diarrhoeal agent' in 'immunocompetent children'; or a 'potential pathogen' in 'immunocompromised individuals' or an 'innocuous virus' in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery. PMID:25674589

  13. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  14. Effects of biological type of beef steers on vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus status.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, J L; Blanton, J R; Horst, R L; Galyean, M L; Morrow, K J; Wester, D B; Miller, M F

    2004-07-01

    Feedlot steers (n = 36) from three biological types (Bos indicus, Bos taurus-Continental, and Bos taurus-English) were used to determine the Ca, P, and vitamin D3 status of feedlot cattle. The USDA yield and quality grade traits were measured at slaughter, and the concentrations of vitamin D3 (VITD) and the metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2 D) were determined in LM, liver, kidney, and plasma. Plasma and muscle Ca and P concentrations also were determined. Biological type of cattle affected a number of carcass traits. Carcasses from Bos taurus-English cattle had more marbling, resulting in higher quality grades (P < 0.05). Carcasses from Bos taurus-Continental cattle had lower calculated yield grades (P < 0.05) than did carcasses from cattle in the other biological types. In general, differences in carcass traits resulting from biological type were consistent with other reports. Plasma and LM Ca and P concentrations were not affected (P = 0.06) by biological type of cattle, indicating that Ca and P homeostasis is a conserved trait across the different types of cattle. Plasma VITD and 25-OH D concentrations were not affected (P = 0.41) by biological type, whereas plasma 1,25-(OH)2 D concentration was lower (P < 0.05) in Bos taurus-English cattle than in Bos taurus-Continental and Bos indicus cattle. Liver VITD and 25-OH D were not affected by biological type (P = 0.76), but liver 1,25-(OH)2 D concentration was greater (P < 0.05) in Bos indicus cattle than in Bos taurus-Continental cattle. Kidney vitamin D metabolite concentrations were not affected by biological type of cattle (P = 0.21). Muscle VITD concentration was greater (P < 0.05) in Bos taurus-English cattle than in the other two biological types, and muscle 25-OH D concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in Bos taurus-English cattle than in Bos indicus cattle. Muscle 1,25-(OH)2 D concentration was less (P < 0.05) in the Bos taurus-Continental cattle than in the

  15. Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus. PMID:24213854

  16. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  17. Animal Intuitions.

    PubMed

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  18. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini using microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Ritz, L R; Glowatzki-Mullis, M L; MacHugh, D E; Gaillard, C

    2000-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if the generally accepted phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Bovini correspond to a phylogenetic scheme derived from polymorphisms at 20 bovine microsatellite loci. This study comprises 17 representative populations: eight Bos taurus, two Bos indicus, one Poëphagus, one Bibos, one Bison, three Bubalus and one Syncerus. Phylogenetic analyses using (delta mu)2 and chord (DC) distances revealed substantial divergence among species. Neighbor-joining trees with both distance measures showed only minor differences. Bos taurus and Bos indicus grouped first, followed by Bos frontalis (Mithan) and Bos grunniens (Yak), Bison bison branched off next and Bubalus bubalis and Syncerus caffer emerged as the two most divergent species from the Bos clade. These findings would suggest that Bos, Poëphagus, and Bibos should be integrated into the Bos genus with each group classified as a subgenus. On the other hand, Bison, Bubalus and Syncerus should each be considered a separate genus. Direct estimates of the divergence times were calculated using the (delta mu)2 genetic distance. Bos taurus and Bos indicus were estimated to have diverged 0.31-0.82 MYA, Bos and Poëphagus: 0.57-1.53 MYA, Bos and Bibos: 0.57-1.52 MYA, Bos and Bison: 0.46-1.23 MYA, Bos and Bubalus: 1.85-4.93 MYA and Bos and Syncerus: 0.98-2.61 MYA. PMID:10895308

  20. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  1. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  2. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  3. Analysis of MOST light curves of five young stars in Taurus-Auriga and Lupus 3 star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwak, Michal; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Guenther, David B.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2011-08-01

    Continuous photometric observations of five young stars obtained by the MOST satellite in 2009 and 2010 in the Taurus and Lupus star formation regions are presented. Using light-curve modelling under the assumption of internal invariability of spots, we obtained small values of the solar-type differential-rotation parameter (k = 0.0005-0.009) for three spotted weak-line T Tauri stars, V410 Tau, V987 Tau and Lupus 3-14; for another spotted weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS), Lupus 3-48, the data are consistent with a rigidly rotating surface (k = 0). Three flares of similar rise (4 min and 30 s) and decay (1 h and 45 min) times were detected in the light curve of Lupus 3-14. The brightness of the classical T Tauri star RY Tau continuously decreased over 3 weeks of its observations with a variable modulation not showing any obvious periodic signal. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  4. Revealing a Detailed Mass Distribution of a High-density Core MC27/L1521F in Taurus with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Kazuki; Onishi, Toshikazu; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Saigo, Kazuya; Kawamura, Akiko; Fukui, Yasuo; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Machida, Masahiro N.; Tomida, Kengo; Tachihara, Kengo; André, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of ALMA observations of dust continuum emission and molecular rotational lines toward a dense core MC27 (aka L1521F) in Taurus, which is considered to be at a very early stage of star formation. The detailed column density distributions on size scales from a few tens to ˜10,000 AU are revealed by combining the ALMA (12 m array + 7 m array) data with the published/unpublished single-dish data. The high angular resolution observations at 0.87 mm with a synthesized beam size of ˜0.″74 × 0.″32 reveal that a protostellar source, MMS-1, is not spatially resolved and lacks associated gas emission, while a starless high-density core, MMS-2, has substructures in both dust and molecular emission. The averaged radial column density distribution of the inner part of MC27/L1521F (r ≲ 3000 AU) is {N}{{{H}}2} ˜ {r}-0.4, clearly flatter than that of the outer part, ˜{r}-1.0. The complex velocity/spatial structure obtained with previous ALMA observations is located inside the inner flatter region, which may reflect the dynamical status of the dense core.

  5. On the alignment of Classical T Tauri stars with the magnetic field in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménard, F.; Duchêne, G.

    2004-10-01

    In this paper we readdress the issue of the alignment of Classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) with the magnetic field in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. Previous studies have claimed that the jet axis of active young stellar objects (YSO), projected in the plane of the sky, is aligned preferentially along the projected direction of the local magnetic field. We re-examine this issue in view of the numerous high angular resolution images of circumstellar disks and micro-jets now available. The images show that T Tauri stars as a group are oriented randomly with respect to the local magnetic field, contrary to previous claims. This indicates that the magnetic field may play a lesser role in the final stages of collapse of an individual prestellar core than previously envisioned. The current database also suggests that a subsample of CTTS with resolved disks but without observations of bright and extended outflows have a tendency to align perpendicularly to the magnetic field. We discuss the possibility that this may trace a less favorable topology, e.g., quadrupolar, for the magnetic field in the inner disk, resulting in a weaker collimated outflow.

  6. The genetics of maternal care: direct and indirect genetic effects on phenotype in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus.

    PubMed

    Hunt, John; Simmons, Leigh W

    2002-05-14

    While theoretical models of the evolution of parental care are based on the assumption of underlying genetic variance, surprisingly few quantitative genetic studies of this life-history trait exist. Estimation of the degree of genetic variance in parental care is important because it can be a significant source of maternal effects, which, if genetically based, represent indirect genetic effects. A major prediction of indirect genetic effect theory is that traits without heritable variation can evolve because of the heritable environmental variation that indirect genetic effects provide. In the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus, females provide care to offspring by provisioning a brood mass. The size of the brood mass has pronounced effects on offspring phenotype. Using a half-sib breeding design we show that the weight of the brood mass females produce exhibits significant levels of additive genetic variance due to sires. However, variance caused by dams is considerably larger, demonstrating that maternal effects are also important. Body size exhibited low additive genetic variance. However, body size exerts a strong maternal influence on the weight of brood masses produced, accounting for 22% of the nongenetic variance in offspring body size. Maternal body size also influenced the number of offspring produced but there was no genetic variance for this trait. Offspring body size and brood mass weight exhibited positive genetic and phenotypic correlations. We conclude that both indirect genetic effects, via maternal care, and nongenetic maternal effects, via female size, play important roles in the evolution of phenotype in this species. PMID:11983863

  7. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. II - Models for scattered light images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Gomez, Mercedes; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe NIR imaging observations of embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We find a large range in J-K and H-K colors for these class I sources. The bluest objects have colors similar to the reddest T Tauri stars in the cloud; redder objects lie slightly above the reddening line for standard ISM dust and have apparent K extinctions of up to 5 mag. Most of these sources also show extended NIR emission on scales of 10-20 arcsec which corresponds to linear sizes of 1500-3000 AU. The NIR colors and nebular morphologies for this sample and the magnitude of linear polarization in several sources suggest scattered light produces most of the NIR emission in these objects. We present modeling results that suggest mass infall rates that agree with predictions for cold clouds and are generally consistent with rates estimated from radiative equilibrium models. For reasonable dust grain parameters, the range of colors and extinctions require flattened density distributions with polar cavities evacuated by bipolar outflows. These results support the idea that infall and outflow occur simultaneously in deeply embedded bipolar outflow sources. The data also indicate fairly large centrifugal radii and large inclinations to the rotational axis for a typical source.

  8. The nutritionally responsive transcriptome of the polyphenic beetle Onthophagus taurus and the importance of sexual dimorphism and body region

    PubMed Central

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Pespeni, Melissa H.; Rocha, Guilherme; Kafadar, Karen; Moczek, Armin P.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental responses to nutritional variation represent one of the ecologically most important classes of adaptive plasticity. However, knowledge of genome-wide patterns of nutrition-responsive gene expression is limited. Here, we studied genome-wide transcriptional responses to nutritional variation and their dependency on trait and sex in the beetle Onthophagus taurus. We find that averaged across the transcriptome, nutrition contributes less to overall variation in gene expression than do sex or body region, but that for a modest subset of genes nutrition is by far the most important determinant of expression variation. Furthermore, our results reject the hypothesis that a common machinery may underlie nutrition-sensitive development across body regions. Instead, we find that magnitude (measured by number of differentially expressed contigs), composition (measured by functional enrichment) and evolutionary consequences (measured by patterns of sequence variation) are heavily dependent on exactly which body region is considered and the degree of sexual dimorphism observed on a morphological level. More generally, our findings illustrate that studies into the developmental mechanisms and evolutionary consequences of nutrition-biased gene expression must take into account the dynamics and complexities imposed by other sources of variation in gene expression such as sexual dimorphism and trait type. PMID:25377458

  9. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  10. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  11. Effects of ration, season and animal handling on composition of bison and cattle blood.

    PubMed

    Hawley, A W; Peden, D G

    1982-07-01

    Composition of ration and season of sampling markedly affected the composition of blood in six tamed bison (Bison bison) steers and eight Hereford cattle (Bos taurus) steers. Observed values extended reported ranges for albumin, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in bison serum. There were several differences between species in blood composition. In particular, erythrocytic and BUN values were higher in bison than in cattle. Overall mean values for bison and cattle receiving experimental rations were, respectively: BUN, 17.1 mg/dl and 14.1 mg/dl; hemoglobin, 17.8 g/dl and 13.3 g/dl; packed cell volume (PCV), 47.6% and 35.6%; red blood cells, 9.3 x 10(6)/mm3 and 8.2 x 10(6)/mm3; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), 51.3 mean 3; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, 18.9 pg and 16.1 pg. The significant changes in blood composition associated with changes in ration composition support the use of blood composition as an index of nutritional status. There were no sex-specific differences in blood of 20 bison from Elk Island National Park and 34 bison from Wood Buffalo National Park, Alberta. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was higher in juvenile than in adult bison. Impoundment of wild bison for 24 hr was accompanied by a decrease in BUN and an increase in PCV. Wild bison that were killed during handling had significantly higher blood levels of ALP, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, MCV and phosphorus. PMID:7131655

  12. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: I. Reproductive, maternal, and size traits.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Cows (n = 116) sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls and from Hereford dams were evaluated (when bred to the same breed of bull) for reproductive performance and cow weight and height and their calves (n = 1,161) were evaluated for birth and weaning weight in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). Cows were born from 1982 to 1985 and their calves were born from 1985 to 1999. Crossbred cows sired by Angus had a higher (P < 0.10) occurrence of calving difficulty than Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman crossbreds. Calves from Gir crossbreds had lighter (P < 0.10) birth weight (34.8 kg) than calves from Angus and Red Brahman crossbreds (39.4 and 37.2 kg). Calves from Angus crossbreds cows had lighter (P < 0.001) weaning weight (227.0 kg) than calves from Bos indicus crossbreds. Cows sired by Angus were lighter (P < 0.10) as mature cows (520.69 kg) than Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds (585.6, 571.9, and 577.6 kg, respectively). They also had smaller (P < 0.05) hip height (124.7 cm) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Mature cows sired by Indu-Brazil had greater (P < 0.05) hip height (138.3 cm) than Gir crossbreds (133.8 cm). Differences among sire breeds were noted within cow age categories (2 through 14 yr of age) for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, calf survival rate (as a trait of cow), and calf crop weaned. Angus and Indu-Brazil crossbred cows were lower (P < or = 0.10) than Gir and Nellore crossbreds for pregnancy rate, calf crop born, and(or) calf crop weaned at some, but not all, ages. Indu-Brazil crossbreds had a lower (P < or = 0.10) calf survival rate than most other breed groups at ages 11 to 14 yr. The results of this study indicate that Nellore and Gir crossbreds, but not Indu-Brazil, could perform as well or better than breeds traditionally used in cross-breeding programs of U.S. cow-calf production. PMID:11424679

  13. Angus and Romosinuano steers exhibit differential acute phase responses following an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our primary objective was to elucidate the acute phase response in cattle while evaluating potential genetic differences between two diverse Bos taurus breeds [Angus (AG) and Romosinuano (RO)] in response to an endotoxin challenge. The Romosinuano is a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed developed i...

  14. Differential acute phase immune responses by Angus and Romosinuano steers following an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our primary objective was to evaluate potential genetic differences between two diverse Bos taurus breeds (Angus (AG) and Romosinuano (RO)) in response to an endotoxin. The RO is a tropically adaptive Bos taurus breed developed in the Sinú valley of northern Colombia. Eighteen steers (n = 9 steers/b...

  15. Serological Patterns of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis and Q Fever in Bos indicus Cattle in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Scolamacchia, Francesca; Handel, Ian G.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility. In addition, they are all important zoonotic infections infecting those who work with livestock and those who consume livestock related products such as milk, producing non-specific symptoms including fever, that are often misdiagnosed and that can lead to severe chronic disease. This study used banked sera from the Adamawa Region of Cameroon to investigate the seroprevalences and distributions of seropositive animals and herds. A classical statistical and a multi-level prevalence modelling approach were compared. The unbiased estimates were 20% of herds were seropositive for Brucella spp. compared to 95% for Leptospira spp. and 68% for Q fever. The within-herd seroprevalences were 16%, 35% and 39% respectively. There was statistical evidence of clustering of seropositive brucellosis and Q fever herds. The modelling approach has the major advantage that estimates of seroprevalence can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test used and the multi-level structure of the sampling. The study found a low seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Adamawa Region compared to a high proportion of leptospirosis and Q fever seropositive herds. This represents a high risk to the human population as well as potentially having a major impact on animal health and productivity in the region. PMID:20098670

  16. The effect of seasons on behaviour during milking in buffaloes ( Bos bubalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, P. C.

    1982-06-01

    An investigation on behaviour during milking involving 200 buffaloes was carried out to study the effect of climate on milking behaviour for a period of four years. The results obtained were: (1) In extremely docile animals (temperament score I) the mean distribution was least (33.5) in hot-dry summer as compared to winter (39.2) and hot-humid summer. (2) The number of buffaloes milked after oxytocin injections was maximum (11.1%) during the hot-dry summer against other seasons for the temperament score I over temperament scores III and IV, where all buffaloes were milked with oxytocin injections. (3) The mean flow rate was least in hot-dry summer in each temperament score. (4) Milking time was higher in all the temperament scored buffaloes during the hot-dry summer than during the other seasons. It is concluded that as environmental temperature increases, there occurs an increase in thermal stress, the milking behaviour changes and animals become more hostile and excited which leads to a decrease in milk production.

  17. Stimulation of Ligninolytic Peroxidase Activity by Nitrogen Nutrients in the White Rot Fungus Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55

    PubMed Central

    Kaal, Erwin E. J.; de Jong, Ed; Field, Jim A.

    1993-01-01

    Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55, a newly isolated wild-type white rot fungus, produced lignin peroxidase (LiP) in nitrogen (N)-sufficient glucose-peptone medium, whereas no LiP was detectable in N-limited medium. The production of LiP was induced by the peptide-containing components of this medium and also by soy bean protein. Furthermore, the production of manganese-dependent peroxidase was stimulated by organic N sources, although lower production was also evident in N-limited medium. Further research showed that the induction of LiP depended on the combination of pH and the type of N source. An amino acid mixture and ammonium induced LiP only at either pH 6 or 7.3, respectively. Peptone induced LiP activity at all pH values tested; however, the highest activity was observed at pH 7.3. The results presented here indicate that Bjerkandera spp. are distinct from the model white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produces ligninolytic peroxidases in response to N limitation. PMID:16349104

  18. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of an 11,450-year-old Aurochsen (Bos primigenius) from Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bos primigenius, the aurochs, is the wild ancestor of modern cattle breeds and was formerly widespread across Eurasia and northern Africa. After a progressive decline, the species became extinct in 1627. The origin of modern taurine breeds in Europe is debated. Archaeological and early genetic evidence point to a single Near Eastern origin and a subsequent spread during the diffusion of herding and farming. More recent genetic data are instead compatible with local domestication events or at least some level of local introgression from the aurochs. Here we present the analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of a pre-Neolithic Italian aurochs. Results In this study, we applied a combined strategy employing both multiplex PCR amplifications and 454 pyrosequencing technology to sequence the complete mitochondrial genome of an 11,450-year-old aurochs specimen from Central Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of the aurochs mtDNA genome supports the conclusions from previous studies of short mtDNA fragments - namely that Italian aurochsen were genetically very similar to modern cattle breeds, but highly divergent from the North-Central European aurochsen. Conclusions Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for several modern cattle and two pre-Neolithic mtDNA genomes from very different geographic areas. These data suggest that previously identified sub-groups within the widespread modern cattle mitochondrial T clade are polyphyletic, and they support the hypothesis that modern European breeds have multiple geographic origins. PMID:21281509

  19. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and probiotic potential of Enterococcus hirae isolated from the rumen of Bos primigenius.

    PubMed

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Hairul Islam, Villianur Ibrahim; Bharanidharan, R; Raveendar, Sebastian; Lee, Jinwook; Kim, Do Hyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    In the present study bacterial strains were isolated from the rumen fluids of Bos primigenius and investigated their in vitro probiotic properties with potent antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects. 9 g positive bacterial isolates were obtained and three isolates could able to tolerate gastric conditions, high bile salt concentrations and exhibited significant bactericidal effect against the enteric pathogens Vibrio cholera, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Moreover it showed above 70% cell surface hydrophobicity, significant low-invasion ability and potential adherence capacity in Caco-2 cells when compared with the control. The proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) was greatly reduced in rumen bacteria treatment and ARBS-1 modulate the immune response by activating the IL-4 secretion in parallel to TNF-α suppression. The 16s rRNA gene sequence of the active isolates were identified as Enterococcus hirae (ARBS-1), Pediococcus acidilactici (ARBS-4) and Bacillus licheniformis (ARBS-7). This study revealed the probiotic bactericidal properties of E. hirae obtained from the rumen of B. primigenius with potential antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Future studies with the strains may yield some novel probiotic product for livestock's. PMID:24609495

  20. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  1. Evolution of OH and CO-Dark Molecular Gas Fraction across a Molecular Cloud Boundary in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Duo; Li, Di; Yue, Nannan; Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2016-03-01

    We present observations of 12CO J = 1-0, 13CO J = 1-0, H i, and all four ground-state transitions of the hydroxyl (OH) radical toward a sharp boundary region of the Taurus molecular cloud. Based on a photodissociation region (PDR) model that reproduces CO and [C i] emission from the same region, we modeled the three OH transitions, 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz successfully through escape probability non-local thermal equilibrium radiative transfer model calculations. We could not reproduce the 1720 MHz observations, due to unmodeled pumping mechanisms, of which the most likely candidate is a C-shock. The abundance of OH and CO-dark molecular gas is well-constrained. The OH abundance [OH]/[H2] decreases from 8× {10}-7 to 1× {10}-7 as Av increases from 0.4 to 2.7 mag following an empirical law: which is higher than PDR model predictions for low-extinction regions by a factor of 80. The overabundance of OH at extinctions at or below 1 mag is likely the result of a C-shock. The dark gas fraction (DGF, defined as the fraction of molecular gas without detectable CO emission) decreases from 80% to 20% following a Gaussian profile: This trend of the DGF is consistent with our understanding that the DGF drops at low visual extinction due to photodissociation of H2 and drops at high visual extinction due to CO formation. The DGF peaks in the extinction range where H2 has already formed and achieved self-shielding but 12CO has not. Two narrow velocity components with a peak-to-peak spacing of ˜1 km s-1 were clearly identified. Their relative intensity and variation in space and frequency suggest colliding streams or gas flows at the boundary region.

  2. Taphonomic implications from Upper Triassic mass flow deposits: 2-dimensional reconstructions of an ammonoid mass occurrence (Carnian, Taurus Mountains, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer, Susanne; Mayrhofer, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Ammonoid mass occurrences of Late Triassic age were investigated in sections from A şağlyaylabel and Yukarlyaylabel, which are located in the Taurus Platform-Units of eastern Turkey. The cephalopod beds are almost monospecific, with > 99.9 % of individuals from the ceratitic genus Kasimlarceltites, which comprises more than hundreds of millions of ammonoid specimens. The ontogenetic composition of the event fauna varies from bed to bed, suggesting that these redeposited shell-rich sediments had different source areas. The geographical extent of the mass occurrence can be traced over large areas up to 10 km2. Each of the Early Carnian (Julian 2) ammonoid mass occurrences signifies a single storm (e.g. storm-wave action) or tectonic event (e.g. earthquake) that caused gravity flows and turbidity currents. Three types of ammonoid accumulation deposits are distinguished by their genesis: 1) matrix-supported floatstones, produced by low density debris flows, 2) mixed floatstones and packstones formed by high density debris flows, and 3) densely ammonoid shell-supported packstones which result from turbidity currents. Two-dimensional calculations on the mass occurrences, based on sectioning, reveal aligned ammonoid shells, implying transport in a diluted sediment. The ammonoid shells are predominantely redeposited, preserved as mixed autochthonous/parautochnonous/ allochthonous communities based on biogenic and sedimentological concentration mechanisms ( = in-situ or post-mortem deposited). This taphonomic evaluation of the Kasimlarceltites beds thus reveals new insights into the environment of deposition of the Carnian section, namely that it had a proximal position along a carbonate platform edge that was influenced by a nearby shallow water regime. The Kasimlarceltites-abundance zone is a marker-zone in the study area, developed during the drowning of a shallow water platform, which can be traceable over long distances.

  3. Whole-Rock Geochemistry and Zircon U-Pb Isotopes of the Late Cretaceous Granitoids of the Eastern Taurus (turkey): Implications for Petrogenesis and Geodynamic Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyarslan, Melahat; Lin, Yu-Chin; Chung, Sun-Lin; Feyzi Bingol, Ahmet; Yildirim, Esra

    2015-04-01

    The granitoid plutons out crop largely in the Eastern Taurus, in Turkey. New data, including a combination of field relation, U-Pb zircon geochronology and rock geochemistry on the granitoids in the Eastern Taurus of the Tethyan orogen in Turkey, come from four plutons ( Pertek, Baskil, Göksun and Şifrin). Pertek, Baskil and Göksun plutons consist mainly of diorite, quartz-diorites, tonalite, granodiorites and granites of I-type, with minor monzonite, the Şifrin pluton consists of syenogranite, syenite, monzogranite, monzonite. U-Pb zircon geochronology of four samples of diorite and granite from Pertek and Baskil plutons indicate ages of 86±2 - 79 ± 1Ma. U-Pb zircon geochronology of four samples from the Şifrin granitoid yield ages 77±1-72±1 Ma. Considering these ages, emplacement of the plutons took place during Late Cretaceous (Santonian-Campanian), from 86 to 72 Ma. Although the SiO2 of rocks forming granitoids varies in wide range ( 46.792- 74.092 wt%), they show arc and syn-collision geochemical affinity, with enrichment of LILE (K, Rb, Sr and Ba) and depletion of HFSE (Nb, Ta and Ti) and P. Geochemical data indice that the diorite, tonalite and granodiorite are low-K tholeiite, monzodiorite, monzogranite, granite and K-granite are calc-alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline and monzonite, syenomonzonite and syenite of Şifrin pluton and some samples of the Pertek pluton are shoshonitic. The Eastern Taurus granitoids would be formed by partial melting of possible juvenile arc-derived rocks during subduction of the South Branch of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust and subsequent arc-continent collision.

  4. Molecular investigation of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in yaks (Bos gruniens) from Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus which infects both domestic animals and wildlife species worldwide. In China, cattle are often infected with BVDV of different genotypes, but there is very limited knowledge regarding BVDV infection in Chinese yaks and the genetic diversity of the virus. The objectives of this study were to detect viral infection in yaks in Qinghai, China and to determine the genotypes of BVDV based on analysis of the 5′untranslated region (5′UTR) and N-terminal protease (Npro) region. Results Between 2010 and 2012, 407 blood samples were collected from yaks with or without clinical signs in six counties of Qinghai Province. Ninety-eight samples (24%) were found to be positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting a conserved region of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. The nucleotide sequences of the 5′UTR and complete Npro region were determined for 16 positive samples. Phylogenetic reconstructions demonstrated that all 16 samples belong to subgenotypes BVDV-1b, BVDV-1d and BVDV-1q. Conclusions This study provides, for the first time, molecular evidence for BVDV infection in yaks in Qinghai involving multiple subgenotypes of BVDV-1. This may have occurred under three possible scenarios: interspecies transmission, natural infection, and the use of vaccines contaminated with BVDV. The results have important implications for yak production and management in China, and specifically indicate that unscientific vaccination practices should be stopped and bio-security increased. PMID:24524442

  5. First molecular survey and identification of Anaplasma spp. in white yaks (Bos grunniens) in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Guan, Guiquan; Xie, Jingying; Luo, Jianxun; Wang, Shuqing; Wang, Shufang; Yin, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Anaplasmosis is caused by a group of obligate intracellular bacteria in the genus Anaplasma, which are transmitted by ticks and infect humans, domestic animals and wildlife. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasma spp. in semi-wild white yaks sampled in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, northwest China. Out of 332 samples tested, 35 (10·9%) were positive for Anaplasma spp. The positive rates were 6·2% (20/322) and 5·3% (17/322) for Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in white yaks, respectively. None of the sample was positive for Anaplasma marginale. Two (0·6%) samples were simultaneously positive to A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed two genotypes (ApG1 and ApG2) of A. phagocytophilum and two sequence types (ST1 and ST2) of A. bovis in white yaks. This study is the first to document the presence of Anaplasma in white yaks. Our findings extend the host range for Anaplasma species and provide more valuable information for the control and management of anaplasmosis in white yaks. PMID:27003378

  6. Assessment of Serum Trace Elements in Diarrheic Yaks (Bos grunniens) in Hongyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhaoqing; Li, Rongrong; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wang, Xiao Qiang; Jiang, Wenteng; Luo, Houqiang; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Li, Jiakui; Meng, Xianrong

    2016-06-01

    Diarrhea is one of the main causes of animal deaths especially in neonatal calves. The objective of this study was to investigate the blood serum for cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in yak serum samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) from 35 yaks consisting of 10 healthy and 25 diarrheic ones. Our observations indicated that the concentrations of Mn, Zn, and Fe in yak affected with diarrhea had statistically significant reduced levels as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The mean concentration of Cu in blood serum of diarrheic yaks was found significantly higher than the normal ones (P < 0.05). The Mn and Zn in the serum of diarrheic groups were observed significantly different (P < 0.05) with different ages. These findings can provide for some valuable information for the investigation on relationship between trace elements in the serum of normal and diarrheic yaks. PMID:26498329

  7. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  8. Characterization of the rumen microbiome of Indian Kankrej cattle (Bos indicus) adapted to different forage diet.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Amrutlal K; Parmar, Nidhi R; Patel, Anand B; Reddy, Bhaskar; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-12-01

    Present study described rumen microbiome of Indian cattle (Kankrej breed) to better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the rumen microbiome under different dietary treatments. Kankrej cattle were gradually adapted to a high-forage diet (four animals with dry forage and four with green forage) containing 50 % (K1), 75 % (K2) to 100 % (K3) forage, and remaining concentrate diet, each for 6 weeks followed by analysis of rumen fiber adherent and fiber-free metagenomic community by shotgun sequencing using ion torrent PGM platform and EBI-metagenomics annotation pipeline. Taxonomic analysis indicated that rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes followed by Firmicutes, Fibrobacter, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. Functional analysis based on gene ontology classified all reads in total 157 categories based on their functional role in biological, molecular, and cellular component with abundance of genes associated with hydrolase activity, membrane, transport, transferase, and different metabolism (such as carbohydrate and protein). Statistical analysis using STAMP revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) between solid and liquid fraction of rumen (in 65 categories), between all three treatments (in 56 categories), and between green and dry roughage (17 categories). Diet treatment also exerted significant difference in environmental gene tags (EGTs) involved in metabolic pathways for production of volatile fatty acids. EGTs for butyrate production were abundant in K2, whereas EGTs for propionate production was abundant during K1. Principal component analysis also demonstrated that diet proportion, fraction of rumen, and type of forage affected rumen microbiome at taxonomic as well as functional level. PMID:25359471

  9. Stimulation of aryl metabolite production in the basidiomycete Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 with biosynthetic precursors and lignin degradation products.

    PubMed Central

    Mester, T; Swarts, H J; Romero i Sole, S; de Bont, J A; Field, J A

    1997-01-01

    Aryl metabolites are known to have an important role in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. The addition of known precursors and aromatic acids representing lignin degradation products stimulated the production of aryl metabolites (veratryl alcohol, veratraldehyde, p-anisaldehyde, and 3-chloro-p-anisaldehyde) in the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55. The presence of manganese (Mn) is known to inhibit the biosynthesis of veratryl alcohol (T. Mester, E. de Jong, and J.A. Field, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:1881-1887, 1995). A new finding of this study was that the production of the other aryl metabolites, p-anisaldehyde and 3-chloro-p-anisaldehyde, was also inhibited by Mn. We attempted to bypass the Mn-inhibited step in the biosynthesis of aryl metabolites by the addition of known and suspected precursors. Most of these compounds were not able to bypass the inhibiting effect of Mn. Only the fully methylated precursors (veratrate, p-anisate, and 3-chloro-p-anisate) provided similar concentrations of aryl metabolites in the presence and absence of Mn, indicating that Mn does not influence the reduction of the benzylic acid group. The addition of deuterated benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate resulted in the formation of deuterated aryl metabolites, indicating that these aromatic acids entered into the biosynthetic pathway and were common intermediates to all aryl metabolites. Only deuterated chlorinated anisyl metabolites were produced when the cultures were supplemented with deuterated 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate. This observation combined with the fact that 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate is a natural product of Bjerkandera spp. (H. J. Swarts, F. J. M. Verhagen, J. A. Field, and J. B. P. A. Wijnberg, Phytochemistry 42:1699-1701, 1996) suggest that it is a possible intermediate in chlorinated anisyl metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:9143129

  10. Superovulation, collection and transfer of embryos and demi-embryos from Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Jordt, T; Lorenzini, E

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three Boran(Bos indicus ) cows and heifers were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG); a total of four embryos and 4.1 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) ova per ova-producing donor resulted. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P) was then used to superovulate 49 Boran cows for a total of 106 superovulations, of which 63 (59.4%) produced an average of 3.7 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SEM) embryos. The embryo production was not influenced by either the season or the number of times(one to five) the cows were superovulated. A higher pregnancy rate was obtained when the selection of Boran recipients was based on their plasma-progesterone values (overall 52.5%, single embryos 63.3%, twin demi-embryos 45.8%) than when they were selected by palpation per rectum only (overall 43.8%, single embryos 50%, twin demi-embryos 36.4%). The twinning rate of twin demiembryos was 62.5%, whereas only single calves were born after transfer of two embryos per recipient. No pregnancies were produced following transfer of twin demi-embryos without zonae pellucidae. Transferring single demi-embryos gave a low pregnancy rate (13.3%). Twelve donor Boran cows (21 superovulations) bred with their fathers resulted in a high rate of early embryonic death; additionally, only 20.9% (overall) of the recipients became pregnant. Estrus synchronization of Boran cows with a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for a short period (7 d) combined with one injection of prostaglandin (Day 6) produced a larger number of good quality recipients (70.5%) than using double prostaglandin injections (60%). PMID:16726476

  11. Comparison of F1 Bos indicus x Hereford cows in central Texas: II. Udder, mouth, longevity, and lifetime productivity.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    2001-06-01

    Postpartum udder characteristics, aged mouth condition scores, and cow survival, longevity, and productivity were evaluated for 15 yr on F1 cows in central Texas (temperate winters and subtropical summers). The cows (n = 116) were progeny of Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman sires and Hereford dams. Crossbred cows sired by Nellore had smaller (P < 0.05) postpartum teat length than cows of all other crossbred groups and smaller (P < 0.10) postpartum teat diameter than Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman crossbreds. The Nellore crossbred cows had larger (P < 0.10) postpartum udder support scores (more well-supported udders) than Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Red Brahman crossbreds. As 14-yr-old cows, Angus crossbreds had lower (P < 0.05) mouth scores (indicative of one or more missing incisors) than Bos indicus crossbreds. Under actual and artificial (records were removed) culling procedures, Nellore crossbreds had the highest cow survival to age 14 and the highest longevity. Indu-Brazil crossbreds tended to be the lowest for both survival and longevity. Curves were fitted by nonlinear regression procedures to the adjusted frequencies of cows remaining at each age; scale and shape parameters were estimated and compared for the different breed groups. Breed group cow survival rates, calf crop weaned, and calf weaning weights were used 1) to construct population projection and production matrices for each breed group and 2) to generate breed group vectors containing projected age distributions and production information. Cows sired by Nellore and Gir were projected to require the fewest purebred cows to generate replacement heifers and to have the most calves and the largest total calf weight sold per year. PMID:11424680

  12. Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) with natural estrus or estrus induced with prostaglandin F2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, O L; Barros, C M; Figueiredo, R A; do Valle, E R; Encarnação, R O; Padovani, C R

    1998-02-01

    Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval are essential for estimating the best time to artificially inseminate cattle. Because these parameters are not well characterized in the Nelore breed (Bos indicus), the main purpose of the this study was to determine the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore heifers and cows with natural estrus or with estrus induced by treatments with PGF2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate (NEV). The cows and heifers were observed continuously (24 h a day) to determine the onset of estrus and to study estrous behavior in the cows. Ten hours after the start of estrus the ovaries were scanned every 2 h by ultrasonography to monitor the dominant follicle until ovulation. Blood samples were collected periodically to determine progesterone levels by RIA. Administration of PGF2 alpha (2 injections, 11 days apart) did not induce estrus in most Nelore females in spite of the presence of functional CL, indicated by progesterone concentrations above 6.0 ng/ml in 25 of 28 animals. Treatment with NEV induced high sexual receptivity in cows (10/11), but only 66% ovulated. Cows with natural or induced estrus exhibited behavioral estrus of 10.9 +/- 1.4 h, and ovulation occurred 26.6 +/- 0.44 h (n = 26) after the onset of estrus. In most of the cows (53.8%) estrus began at night (between 1801 and 600 h), and 34.6% it started and finished during the night. It is concluded that in Nelore females ovulation occurs approximately 26 h after the onset of estrus. Additionally, estrous behavior is shorter than in European breeds, and there is a high incidence of estrus at night, which makes it difficult to detect and, consequently, impairs Al in Nelore cattle. The observation that a high percentage of Nelore females with an active CL did not respond to usual dosages of PGF2 alpha warrants further investigation. PMID:10732045

  13. X-rays from young stars: A summary of highlights from the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (XEST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güdel, M.

    2008-02-01

    The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (XEST) is a survey of the nearest large star-forming region, the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC), making use of all instruments on board the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. The survey, presently still growing, has provided unprecedented spectroscopic results from nearly every observed T Tauri star, and from ≈50% of the studied brown dwarfs and protostars. The survey includes the first coherent statistical sample of high-resolution spectra of T Tauri stars, and is accompanied by an U-band/ultraviolet imaging photometric survey of the TMC. XEST led to the discovery of new, systematic X-ray features not possible before with smaller samples, in particular the X-ray soft excess in classical T Tauri stars and the Two-Absorber X-ray (TAX) spectra of jet-driving T Tauri stars. This paper summarizes highlights from XEST and reviews the key role of this large project.

  14. Photometric observations of weak-line T Tauri stars . II. WTTS in Taurus-Auriga, Orion and Scorpius OB2-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarría-K, C.; Terranegra, L.; Moreno-Corral, M. A.; de Lara, E.

    2000-08-01

    We present uvby-$beta a photometry of 116 X-ray flux-selected active stars in the directions of the Orion (40), Taurus-Auriga (58) and Scorpius OB2-2 (18) star forming regions. Additionally, we give near IR JHK photometry of 20 active stars in the Taurus-Auriga direction. The program stars were selected from the R_\\odotsat All Sky Survey and EINSTEIN X-ray surveys and are spectroscopically confirmed weak-line T Tauri stars and weak-line T Tauri star candidates. The photometry confirms the young nature of the program stars and also indicates that a significant fraction of the sample could be foreground objects. The data given here probably represent the largest homogeneous uvby-beta a$ photometric sample of new WTTS and WTTS candidates. Many objects in the sample are observed photometrically for the first time. Based on observations collected at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, México. Tables 1-4 are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  15. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading—whether scientifically aided or not—have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non‐human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412

  16. Comparison of synthetic oviductal fluid and G1/G2 medium under low-1 oxygen atmosphere on embryo production and pregnancy rates in Nelore (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanches, B V; Pontes, J H F; Basso, A C; Ferreira, C R; Perecin, F; Seneda, M M

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we evaluated whether embryo development and pregnancy rates would be affected by culturing bovine Bos indicus embryos in Synthetic Oviductal Fluid with amino acids (SOFaa) or G1/G2 sequential medium under a low-oxygen atmosphere. Using Ovum Pick Up, we obtained 1,538 oocytes, divided into G1/G2 (n = 783) and SOFaa (n = 755). No difference was observed for blastocyst development among the groups (27.8% ± 14.6 and 34.9% ± 20.0 for G1/G2 and SOFaa respectively, p > 0.05). Transferring the embryos (n = 450) from both groups to recipients resulted in similar pregnancy rates for the G1/G2 (38.4% n = 78/203) compared to the SOFaa (39.7% n = 98/247). Our findings confirm that Bos indicus embryos cultured in SOFaa and G1/G2 under low-oxygen atmosphere have similar in vitro (blastocyst rate) and in vivo (pregnancy rate) developmental capacity. However, embryos cultured in G1/G2 medium have higher cleavage than those cultured in SOFaa medium. PMID:22448771

  17. Manganese Is Not Required for Biobleaching of Oxygen-Delignified Kraft Pulp by the White Rot Fungus Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, M. T.; Feijoo, G.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Lema, J.; Field, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 extensively delignified and bleached oxygen-delignified eucalyptus kraft pulp handsheets. Biologically mediated brightness gains of up to 14 ISO (International Standards Organization units) were obtained, providing high final brightness values of up to 80% ISO. In nitrogen-limited cultures (2.2 mM N), manganese (Mn) greatly improved manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) production. However, the biobleaching was not affected by the Mn nutrient regimen, ranging from 1,000 (mu)M added Mn to below the detection limit of 0.26 (mu)M Mn in EDTA-extracted pulp medium. The lowest Mn concentration tested was at least several orders of magnitude lower than the K(infm) known for MnP. Consequently, it was concluded that Mn is not required for biobleaching in Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55. Nonetheless, fast protein liquid chromatography profiles indicated that MnP was the predominant oxidative enzyme produced even under culture conditions in the near absence of manganese. High nitrogen (22 mM N) and exogenous veratryl alcohol (2 mM) repressed biobleaching in Mn-deficient but not in Mn-sufficient culture medium. No correlation was observed between the titers of extracellular peroxidases and the biobleaching. However, the decolorization rate of the polyaromatic dye Poly R-478 was moderately correlated to the biobleaching under a wide range of Mn and N nutrient regimens. PMID:16535591

  18. Visualization of Flow Separation Around an Atmospheric Entry Capsule at Low-Subsonic Mach Number Using Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Borg, Stephen E.; Danehy, Paul M.; Murman, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of visualization of separated flow around a generic entry capsule that resembles the Apollo Command Module (CM) and the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The model was tested at flow speeds up to Mach 0.4 at a single angle of attack of 28 degrees. For manned spacecraft using capsule-shaped vehicles, certain flight operations such as emergency abort maneuvers soon after launch and flight just prior to parachute deployment during the final stages of entry, the command module may fly at low Mach number. Under these flow conditions, the separated flow generated from the heat-shield surface on both windward and leeward sides of the capsule dominates the wake flow downstream of the capsule. In this paper, flow visualization of the separated flow was conducted using the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method, which has the capability of visualizing significantly separated wake flows without the particle seeding required by other techniques. Experimental results herein show that BOS has detection capability of density changes on the order of 10(sup-5).

  19. Physics for Animation Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  20. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species. PMID:27221255

  1. Synchronization of ovulation in beef cows (Bos indicus) using GnRH, PGF2alpha and estradiol benzoate.

    PubMed

    Barros, C M; Moreira, M B; Figueiredo, R A; Teixeira, A B; Trinca, L A

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate protocols for synchronizing ovulation in beef cattle. In Experiment 1, Nelore cows (Bos indicus) at random stages of the estrous cycle were assigned to 1 of the following treatments: Group GP controls (nonlactating, n=7) received GnRH agonist (Day 0) and PGF2alpha (Day 7); while Groups GPG (nonlactating, n=8) and GPG-L (lactating, n=9) cows were given GnRH (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and GnRH again (Day 8, 30 h after PGF2alpha). A new follicular wave was observed 1.79+/-0.34 d after GnRH in 19/24 cows. After PGF2alpha, ovulation occurred in 19/24 cows (6/7 GP, 6/8 GPG, 7/9 GPG-L). Most cows (83.3%) exhibited a dominant follicle just before PGF2alpha, and 17/19 ovulatory follicles were from a new follicular wave. There was a more precise synchrony of ovulation (within 12 h) in cows that received a second dose of GnRH (GPG and GPG-L) than controls (GP, ovulation within 48 h; P<0.01). In Experiment 2, lactating Nelore cows with a visible corpus luteum (CL) by ultrasonography were allocated to 2 treatments: Group GPE (n=10) received GnRH agonist (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 7) and estradiol benzoate (EB; Day 8, 24 h after PGF2alpha); while Group EPE (n=11), received EB (Day 0), PGF2alpha (Day 9) and EB (Day 10, 24 h after PGF2alpha). Emergence of a new follicular wave was observed 1.6+/-0.31 d after GnRH (Group GPE). After EB injection (Day 8) ovulation was observed at 45.38+/-2.03 h in 7/10 cows within 12 h. In Group EPE the emergence of a new follicular wave was observed later (4.36+/-0.31 d) than in Group GEP (1.6+/-0.31 d; P<0.001). After the second EB injection (Day 10) ovulation was observed at 44.16+/-2.21 h within 12 (7/11 cows) or 18 h (8/11 cows). All 3 treatments were effective in synchronizing ovulation in beef cows. However, GPE and, particularly, EPE treatments offer a promising alternative to the GPG protocol in timed artificial insemination of beef cattle, due to the low cost of EB compared with GnRH agonists. PMID

  2. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  3. Animal issues and society.

    PubMed

    Grabau, J H

    1993-05-01

    Animal use topics are sensitive issues today. Animal uses issues are often presented as black and white or 'we' are right and 'they' are wrong. This is clearly demonstrated in the available literature from most organizations. Topics presented will include: delineation of issues and concerned groups; examples of animal issues in education and agriculture; the terrorist issue; examples of animal issues/sportsman issues; examples of political and legislative impact; and examples of biomedical and toxicology animal use issues. PMID:8516774

  4. Herschel/PACS observations of young sources in Taurus: the far-infrared counterpart of optical jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podio, L.; Kamp, I.; Flower, D.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Mora, A.; Aresu, G.; Brittain, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Pinte, C.; White, G. J.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Observations of the atomic and molecular line emission associated with jets and outflows emitted by young stellar objects provide sensitive diagnostics of the excitation conditions, and can be used to trace the various evolutionary stages they pass through as they evolve to become main sequence stars. Aims: To understand the relevance of atomic and molecular cooling in shocks, and how accretion and ejection efficiency evolves with the evolutionary state of the sources, we will study the far-infrared counterparts of bright optical jets associated with Class I and II sources in Taurus (T Tau, DG Tau A, DG Tau B, FS Tau A+B, and RW Aur). Methods: We have analysed Herschel/PACS observations of a number of atomic ([O i]63 μm, 145 μm, [C ii]158 μm) and molecular (high-J CO, H2O, OH) lines, collected within the open time key project GASPS (PI: W. R. F. Dent). To constrain the origin of the detected lines we have compared the obtained FIR emission maps with the emission from optical-jets and millimetre-outflows, and the measured line fluxes and ratios with predictions from shock and disk models. Results: All of the targets are associated with extended emission in the atomic lines; in particular, the strong [O i] 63 μm emission is correlated with the direction of the optical jet/mm-outflow. The line ratios suggest that the atomic lines can be excited in fast dissociative J-shocks occurring along the jet. The molecular emission, on the contrary, originates from a compact region, that is spatially and spectrally unresolved, and lines from highly excited levels are detected (e.g., the o-H2O 818-707 line, and the CO J = 36-35 line). Disk models are unable to explain the brightness of the observed lines (CO and H2O line fluxes up to 10-15-6 × 10-16 W m-2). Slow C- or J-shocks with high pre-shock densities reproduce the observed H2O and high-J CO lines; however, the disk and/or UV-heated outflow cavities may contribute to the observed emission. Conclusions

  5. Tectonic and karstic effects on the western Taurus region, southwestern Turkey: Relations to the present temperature gradients and total organic carbon content

    SciTech Connect

    Demirel, I.H.; Gunay, Y.

    2000-06-01

    The western Taurus region is one of the promising hydrocarbon provinces and the largest karstic terrain of Turkey. The Mesozoic Beydaglari units deposited in the study area are composed mainly of a carbonate succession which has potential hydrocarbon source rocks of various ages. To confirm the tectonic and karstic influence on the regional temperature gradient and total organic carbon content, subsurface data obtained from four drillholes, and the results of the surface samples and water samples analyses, were used. The low salinity values (less than 2,500 mg/liter) of the formation water, and the measured hole temperatures, indicate the presence of the meteoric water circulation in the geologic section. Since the Late Miocene, intensive tectonic deformations and karstification have provided the development of the aquifer characteristics of the Beydaglari units. Water circulation in the aquifer system has influenced the total organic carbon content and karstic conduits within carbonates.

  6. The Transitional Protoplanetary Disk Frequency as a Function of Age: Disk Evolution In the Coronet Cluster, Taurus, and Other 1-8 Myr Old Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora

    2011-05-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6-24 μm photometry and spectroscopy for stars in the 1-3 Myr old Coronet Cluster, expanding upon the survey of Sicilia-Aguilar et al. Using sophisticated radiative transfer models, we analyze these new data and those from Sicilia-Aguilar et al. to identify disks with evidence for substantial dust evolution consistent with disk clearing: transitional disks. We then analyze data in Taurus and others young clusters—IC 348, NGC 2362, and η Cha—to constrain the transitional disk frequency as a function of time. Our analysis confirms previous results finding evidence for two types of transitional disks—those with inner holes and those that are homologously depleted. The percentage of disks in the transitional phase increases from ~15%-20% at 1-2 Myr to >=50% at 5-8 Myr the mean transitional disk lifetime is closer to ~1 Myr than 0.1-0.5 Myr, consistent with previous studies by Currie et al. and Sicilia-Aguilar et al. In the Coronet Cluster and IC 348, transitional disks are more numerous for very low mass M3-M6 stars than for more massive K5-M2 stars, while Taurus lacks a strong spectral-type-dependent frequency. Assuming standard values for the gas-to-dust ratio and other disk properties, the lower limit for the masses of optically thick primordial disks is M disk ≈ 0.001-0.003 M sstarf. We find that single color-color diagrams do not by themselves uniquely identify transitional disks or primordial disks. Full spectral energy distribution modeling is required to accurately assess disk evolution for individual sources and inform statistical estimates of the transitional disk population in large samples using mid-IR colors.

  7. The Transitional Protoplanetary Disk Frequency as a Function of Age: Disk Evolution in the Coronet Cluster, Taurus, and Other 1--8 Myr-old Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Sicilia-Aguilar, Auora

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6-24 micron photometry and spectroscopy for stars in the 1-3 Myr-old Coronet Cluster, expanding upon the survey of Sicilia-Aguilar et al. (2008). Using sophisticated radiative transfer models, we analyze these new data and those from Sicilia-Aguilar et al. (2008) to identify disks with evidence for substantial dust evolution consistent with disk clearing: transitional disks. We then analyze data in Taurus and others young clusters - IC 348, NGC 2362, and eta Cha -- to constrain the transitional disk frequency as a function of time. Our analysis confirms previous results finding evidence for two types of transitional disks -- those with inner holes and those that are homologously depleted. The percentage of disks in the transitional phase increases from approx.15-20% at 1-2 Myr to > 50% at 5-8 Myr; the mean transitional disk lifetime is closer to approx. 1 Myr than 0.1-0.5 Myr, consistent with previous studies by Currie et al. (2009) and Sicilia-Aguilar et al. (2009). In the Coronet Cluster and IC 348, transitional disks are more numerous for very low-mass M3--M6 stars than for more massive K5-M2 stars, while Taurus lacks a strong spectral type-dependent frequency. Assuming standard values for the gas-to-dust ratio and other disk properties, the lower limit for the masses of optically-thick primordial disks is Mdisk approx. 0.001-0.003 M*. We find that single color-color diagrams do not by themselves uniquely identify transitional disks or primordial disks. Full SED modeling is required to accurately assess disk evolution for individual sources and inform statistical estimates of the transitional disk population in large samples using mid-IR colors.

  8. Herschel Key Program, "Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time" (DIGIT): The Origin of Molecular and Atomic Emission in Low-mass Protostars in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jinhee; Lee, Seokho; Evans, Neal J., II; Green, Joel D.

    2014-10-01

    Six low-mass embedded sources (L1489, L1551-IRS5, TMR1, TMC1-A, L1527, and TMC1) in Taurus have been observed with Herschel-PACS to cover the full spectrum from 50 to 210 μm as part of the Herschel key program, "Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time." The relatively low intensity of the interstellar radiation field surrounding Taurus minimizes contamination of the [C II] emission associated with the sources by diffuse emission from the cloud surface, allowing study of the [C II] emission from the source. In several sources, the [C II] emission is distributed along the outflow, as is the [O I] emission. The atomic line luminosities correlate well with each other, as do the molecular lines, but the atomic and molecular lines correlate poorly. The relative contribution of CO to the total gas cooling is constant at ~30%, while the cooling fraction by H2O varies from source to source, suggesting different shock properties resulting in different photodissociation levels of H2O. The gas with a power-law temperature distribution with a moderately high density can reproduce the observed CO fluxes, indicative of CO close to LTE. However, H2O is mostly subthermally excited. L1551-IRS5 is the most luminous source (Łbol = 24.5 L ⊙) and the [O I] 63.1 μm line accounts for more than 70% of its FIR line luminosity, suggesting complete photodissociation of H2O by a J shock. In L1551-IRS5, the central velocity shifts of the [O I] line, which exceed the wavelength calibration uncertainty (~70 km s-1) of PACS, are consistent with the known redshifted and blueshifted outflow direction.

  9. THE TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISK FREQUENCY AS A FUNCTION OF AGE: DISK EVOLUTION IN THE CORONET CLUSTER, TAURUS, AND OTHER 1-8 Myr OLD REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora

    2011-05-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6-24 {mu}m photometry and spectroscopy for stars in the 1-3 Myr old Coronet Cluster, expanding upon the survey of Sicilia-Aguilar et al. Using sophisticated radiative transfer models, we analyze these new data and those from Sicilia-Aguilar et al. to identify disks with evidence for substantial dust evolution consistent with disk clearing: transitional disks. We then analyze data in Taurus and others young clusters-IC 348, NGC 2362, and {eta} Cha-to constrain the transitional disk frequency as a function of time. Our analysis confirms previous results finding evidence for two types of transitional disks-those with inner holes and those that are homologously depleted. The percentage of disks in the transitional phase increases from {approx}15%-20% at 1-2 Myr to {>=}50% at 5-8 Myr; the mean transitional disk lifetime is closer to {approx}1 Myr than 0.1-0.5 Myr, consistent with previous studies by Currie et al. and Sicilia-Aguilar et al. In the Coronet Cluster and IC 348, transitional disks are more numerous for very low mass M3-M6 stars than for more massive K5-M2 stars, while Taurus lacks a strong spectral-type-dependent frequency. Assuming standard values for the gas-to-dust ratio and other disk properties, the lower limit for the masses of optically thick primordial disks is M{sub disk} {approx} 0.001-0.003 M{sub *}. We find that single color-color diagrams do not by themselves uniquely identify transitional disks or primordial disks. Full spectral energy distribution modeling is required to accurately assess disk evolution for individual sources and inform statistical estimates of the transitional disk population in large samples using mid-IR colors.

  10. Animal Communication: What Do Animals Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Eugene S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of animal communication, including possible relationships between the physical structure of vocalizations and their functions in communicating. Provides tables of mammalian and avian sounds (by species/family) used in hostile and friendly appeasing contexts. (JN)

  11. Animals in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  12. Animations in spreadsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J.; Bolland, T. Kenneth; Ziegler, Michael G.

    1999-12-01

    Recently, Ole Haglund mentioned in this journal that it was possible to incorporate animations into spreadsheets. We would like to describe what might be an easier way to incorporate animations into spreadsheets using Excel™ software.

  13. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  14. Vaccines and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Morton, D B

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination promotes animal welfare by protecting animal health, but it also has other welfare benefits, e.g. recent investigations have looked at the potential of vaccines in immunoneutering such as immunocastration--a humane alternative to the painful traditional methods. Similarly, vaccination can be used during disease outbreaks as a viable alternative to stamping-out, thus avoiding the welfare problems that on-farm mass slaughter can cause. Protecting animal health through vaccination leads to improved animal welfare, and maintaining good welfare ensures that animals can respond successfully to vaccination (as poor welfare can lead to immunosuppression, which can affect the response to vaccination). It is clear that vaccination has tremendous advantages for animal welfare and although the possible side effects of vaccination can have a negative effect on the welfare of some individual animals, the harm caused by these unwanted effects must be weighed against the undoubted benefits for groups of animals. PMID:17633300

  15. "Name" that Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  16. Ethology and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, D R

    1981-12-01

    Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

  17. Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

  18. Animals of the Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on how desert animals have adapted to dryness and heat, how and when animals move on the desert, and nocturnal/diurnal animals. Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. Ready-to-copy pages are included for a…

  19. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  20. Animals in Disguise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary C.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which first grade students learn why camouflage is important to an animal's survival. Students see living examples of animals who use camouflage for protection, then create their own camouflaged animals and hide them around the classroom. For assessment, students write and illustrate five things they learned from the study…

  1. Advanced X-Ray Timing Array (AXTAR) Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Thompson, Kevin S.

    2011-01-01

    The animation depicts NASA's concept for a next-generation Advanced X-ray Timing Mission. The models and their textures doe not necessarily represent the final iteration. Delivery specifications include launch with Taurus II or Falcon 9, mass of 2650 kg, with a circular low earth orbit at approximately 600 km. The inclination depends on the launch vehicle and spacecraft mass. AXTAR's prime instrument will probe the physics of neutron stars and black holes through X-ray timing and spectral measurements. The primary instrument will be the Large Area Timing Array (LATA). The Sky Monitor Clusters configuration consists of 27 Sky Monitor cameras th at are grouped in five clusters. This configuration will achieve approximately 85 percent all sky coverage. Spacecraft components include a science bus to house the LATA of supermodules; a spacecraft bus to house components such as propulsion tanks, avionics, and reaction wheels; solar arrays configured from space-qualified GaAs 3-junction cells; star trackers for attitude knowledge; a propulsion system of four pods, each containing one 100 lbf and two 5 lbf engines; a launch vehicle adaptor; and a radiation shield.

  2. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

  3. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

  4. Seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with percentage of morphologically normal sperm in 2-year-old Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Burns, B M; McGowan, M R

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm morphology in Bos indicus bulls of the Brahman breed. Fifty-six 24-month-old Australian Brahman bulls were electroejaculated and samples were examined to determine the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (PNS24) and the seminal plasma protein composition was identified and quantified by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The total integrated optical density of 152 seminal plasma protein spots (SPPs) across all gels was determined using the PDQuest software version 8.0 (Bio Rad, USA). Using a single regression mixed model with the density of individual spots as a covariate for PNS24, 17 SPPs were significantly associated with PNS24 (p<0.05). A multiple regression analyses of these SPPs, using three models; non-parametric Tree Model, Generalized Additive Model, and a step-wise selection method were conducted, and 6 SPPs could be used to predict PNS24; four SPPs had positive and two had negative association with PNS24. Together these spots explained 35% of the phenotypic variation in PNS24. Using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF and TripleToF-MS) the SPPs with positive relationship contained mainly apolipoprotein A-I (1310), protein DJ-1 and glutathione peroxidase 3 (2308), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (6402) and apolipoprotein A-I and secretoglobin family 1D member (8008). The SPPs inversely associated with PNS24 were clusterin/seminal plasma protein A3 (1411) and epididymal secretory protein E1 (8108). This is the first comprehensive report on the association between seminal plasma protein composition in Bos indicus Brahman bulls and sperm morphology. PMID:26417650

  5. Prediction of breeding values for tenderness of market animals from measurements on bulls.

    PubMed

    Barkhouse, K L; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Koohmaraie, M; Lunstra, D D; Crouse, J D

    1996-11-01

    Data were tenderness measures on steaks from 237 bulls (Group II) slaughtered after producing freezable semen and on 1,431 related steers and heifers (market animals, Group I) from Angus, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Brahman, and Sahiwal crosses from the Germ Plasm Evaluation project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Tenderness was assessed through Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (SF), taste panel tenderness (TPT), marbling score (MS), and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI). For all traits, as fraction Bos indicus inheritance increased, implied tenderness decreased. Heritability estimates were generally not significantly different from zero. Genetic correlations generally indicated favorable associations among the traits. The range in predicted breeding values of bulls for market animal tenderness was small and from -.34 to .32 kg for market animal shear force. Because of low estimates of heritability for SF or TPT, results from this experiment indicate that selection based on tenderness of steaks sampled from intact or late castrate males slaughtered following collection of freezable quality semen would not be very effective in improving average tenderness of steaks from steers of heifer progeny. If a mean of heritability estimates reported in the literature of .27 for shear value was assumed for market steer and heifer progeny instead of .02 as found in the present study, then selection based on estimates of shear force in young bulls would be relatively more effective in improving shear force of market progeny. PMID:8923175

  6. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions following application of animal manures to grassland

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.R.; Pain, B.F.; Brookman, S.K.E.

    2000-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions were measured from grassland following manure applications at three times of the year. Pig (Sus scrofa) slurry and dairy cow (Bos taurus) slurry were applied in April, at equal rates of ammoniacal-N (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N), and in July, at equal volumetric rates (50 m{sup 3}ha{sup {minus}1}). In October, five manure types were applied to grassland plots at typical application rates: pig slurry, dilute diary cow effluent, pig farm yard manure (FYM), beef FYM and layer manure. Emissions were measured for 20, 22, and 24 d, respectively. In April, greater cumulative emissions of N{sub 2}O-N were measured following application of dairy cow slurry (1.51 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than pig slurry (90.77 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Cumulative CH{sub 4} emissions following application in April were significantly greater from the dairy cow slurry treatment (0.58 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than the pig slurry treatment (0.13 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) (P < 0.05). In July, significantly greater N{sub 2}O-N emissions resulted from pig slurry-treated plots (0.57 kg ha{sup {minus}1}) than dairy cow slurry-treated plots (0.34 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Cumulative net CH{sub 4} emissions were very low following July applications (<10 g ha{sup {minus}1}). In October, the lowest N{sub 2}O-N emission resulted from application of dilute dairy effluent, 0.15 kg ha{sup {minus}1}, with the greatest net emission from the application of pig slurry, 0.74 kg ha{sup {minus}1}. Methane emissions were greatest from the plots that received pig FYM, resulting in a mean cumulative net emission of 2.39 kg ha{sup {minus}1}.

  7. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  8. The representative animal

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experimental performance be considered. Behavior analysis tends to favor the ontogenetic over the phylogenetic component, yet both components are responsible for the performance of each individual animal. This paper raises questions about the role of genotype variables in the use of representative animals to understand human behavior. Examples indicating the role of genotype in human behavior are also discussed. The final section of the paper deals with considerations of genotype in the design of animal experiments. PMID:22478186

  9. Lightning safety of animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  10. The dying animal.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The study of animal death is poised to blossom into an exciting new interdisciplinary field-and one with profound relevance for bioethics. Areas of interest include the biology and evolution of death-related behavior in nonhuman animals, as well as human social, psychological, cultural, and moral attitudes toward and practices related to animal death. In this paper, I offer a brief overview of what we know about death-related behavior in animals. I will then sketch some of the bioethical implications of this emerging field of research. PMID:24092402

  11. Whole animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be used to investigate the whole animal, oftentimes in a single exam which provides opportunities to perform longitudinal studies and dynamic imaging of the same subject, and hence minimizes the experimental variability, requirement for the number of animals, and the time to perform a given experiment. Whole animal imaging can be performed by a number of techniques including x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, fluorescence imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, among others. Individual imaging techniques provide different kinds of information regarding the structure, metabolism, and physiology of the animal. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, and none serves every purpose of image acquisition from all regions of an animal. In this review, a broad overview of basic principles, available contrast mechanisms, applications, challenges, and future prospects of many imaging techniques employed for whole animal imaging is provided. Our main goal is to briefly describe the current state of art to researchers and advanced students with a strong background in the field of animal research. PMID:20836038

  12. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Nobuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host's normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the present paper, we surveyed reports about the methodology of the dermatophytosis animal model for tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium and discussed future prospects. PMID:22619489

  13. Diagnosis of animal allergy.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R

    1987-01-01

    The aims of the diagnostic evaluation are to establish the presence and severity of disease and the importance of animal exposure as the etiology of the disease. The evaluation of the importance of animals may be part of a general allergy evaluation or specifically directed toward an animal in certain cases, such as occupational exposure. The diagnostic techniques are medical history, physical examination, allergy skin tests or in vitro tests for IgE antibody and correlation of improvement in symptoms with animal avoidance. PMID:3477684

  14. Admixture mapping of tuberculosis and pigmentation-related traits in an African–European hybrid cattle population

    PubMed Central

    Kassahun, Yonas; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Ameni, Gobena; Hailu, Elena; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas B.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Admixture mapping affords a powerful approach to genetic mapping of complex traits and may be particularly suited to investigation in cattle where many breeds and populations are hybrids of the two divergent ancestral genomes, derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Here we design a minimal genome wide SNP panel for tracking ancestry in recent hybrids of Holstein–Friesian and local Arsi zebu in a field sample from a region of high bovine tuberculosis (BTB) endemicity in the central Ethiopian highlands. We first demonstrate the utility of this approach by mapping the red coat color phenotype, uncovering a highly significant peak over the MC1R gene and a second peak with no previously known candidate gene. Secondly, we exploit the described differential susceptibility to BTB between the ancestral strains to identify a region in which Bos taurus ancestry associates, at suggestive significance, with skin test positivity. Interestingly, this association peak contains the toll-like receptor gene cluster on chromosome 6. With this work we have shown the potential of admixture mapping in hybrid domestic animals with divergent ancestral genomes, a recurring condition in domesticated species. PMID:26124773

  15. Ode to an Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelken, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    People know little about the non-domesticated animals that live around them. Somehow, they seem remote. In stories they hear about them, animals are often acting, speaking, and dressing like people. This article presents a lesson where students learn about the native species of their area while exploring the concept of interdependence through…

  16. Inuit-Style Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  17. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  18. Animating Preservice Teachers' Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Zandra; Amador, Julie; Estapa, Anne; Weston, Tracy; Aming-Attai, Rachael; Kosko, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of animation in mathematics teacher education courses is one method for transforming practices and promoting practice-based education. Animation can be used as an approximation of practice that engages preservice teachers (PSTs) in creating classroom scenes in which they select characters, regulate movement, and construct…

  19. Exploring Animals, Glossopedia Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveen, Lois

    2007-01-01

    It's the first day of the "Animals" unit for Tami Brester's third-grade class and the first day her students are using Glossopedia, a free online multimedia science encyclopedia. But you wouldn't know that from observing the kids, who are excitedly researching animals on the internet. This is inquiry-based learning of a special kind, incorporating…

  20. Animal leptospirosis in Malaya*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. E. Gordon; Turner, L. H.; Harrison, J. L.; Broom, J. C.

    1961-01-01

    In recent years leptospirosis has been shown to be an important cause of human febrile illness in Malaya. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine its animal reservoirs and the factors influencing spread of infection from them to man and domestic animals. This paper presents the board picture obtained. A wide range of animal species were trapped in forest localities, ricefield areas, areas of scrub and cultivation and in several towns and villages. The maintenance hosts of leptospirosis in Malaya appear to be mainly or entirely rats, although evidence of infection has been found throughout the animal kingdom. Some rat species have characteristics which suggest that they are better maintenance hosts than others. Evidence was found of practically every serogroup of leptospires infecting animals in Malaya. Altogether 104 strains were isolated and identified, and 155 animals were found to have serological evidence of infection. Of 1763 rodents examined, 194 had evidence of infection, and 41 of 1083 other animals. A serum survey of domestic animals showed the highest incidence of antibodies to be in goats and the lowest in oxen. PMID:20604085