Science.gov

Sample records for boson-fermion degeneracy symmetry

  1. Critical-point symmetries in boson-fermion systems: the case of shape transitions in odd nuclei in a multiorbit model.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C E; Arias, J M; Vitturi, A

    2007-02-01

    We investigate phase transitions in boson-fermion systems. We propose an analytically solvable model [E(5/12)] to describe odd nuclei at the critical point in the transition from the spherical to gamma-unstable behavior. In the model, a boson core described within the Bohr Hamiltonian interacts with an unpaired particle assumed to be moving in the three single-particle orbitals j=1/2, 3/2, 5/2. Energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions at the critical point compare well with the results obtained within the interacting boson-fermion model, with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that describes the same physical situation. PMID:17358851

  2. Critical-Point Symmetries in Boson-Fermion Systems: The Case of Shape Transitions in Odd Nuclei in a Multiorbit Model

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Vitturi, A.

    2007-02-02

    We investigate phase transitions in boson-fermion systems. We propose an analytically solvable model [E(5/12)] to describe odd nuclei at the critical point in the transition from the spherical to {gamma}-unstable behavior. In the model, a boson core described within the Bohr Hamiltonian interacts with an unpaired particle assumed to be moving in the three single-particle orbitals j=1/2, 3/2, 5/2. Energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions at the critical point compare well with the results obtained within the interacting boson-fermion model, with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that describes the same physical situation.

  3. Complete Boson-Fermion Model of Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Llano, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    The unification of the 1957 BCS theory with that of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) that gives roughly good first-principles transition temperature Tc predictions in either 2D or 3D for all of the ``Uemura plot'' ``exotic'' or conventional superconductors without abandoning the much-maligned phonon interaction mechanism has recently been achieved [1]-[3]. The same dynamical mechanism also allows for room-temperature superconductivity. The only condition is that one depart moderately from the perfect electron (e)-/hole (h)-Cooper-pair (CP) symmetry to which BCS (and indeed also the somewhat more general BCS-Bose crossover) theory are restricted by construction. It now becomes feasible to explain, among other things, why largely all superconductors empirically have substantially higher T_c's if their normal-state charge carriers are holes rather than electrons. A complete (in the sense that 2h-CPs are not ignored) boson-fermion model (CBFM) has been developed that reduces in the appropriate special cases to: a) ordinary BCS theory for weak boson-fermion coupling; b) the BCS-Bose ``crossover'' theory dating back to 1967; and, for no 2h-CPs to: c) the 1989 boson-fermion (BF) BEC model by T.D. Lee et al. of superconductors which without 2h-CPs is unrelated to BCS theory; d) an ideal BF binary-gas model [4] predicting nonzero BEC T_c's even in 2D; and finally to e) ordinary BEC (1925). The CBFM is a BF statistical model similar to those developed in the mid-50's by Schafroth, Blatt & Butler but which now includes 2h-CPs on an equal footing with 2e-CPs, and which unlike these models also contains the empirically well-established fermionic energy gap. [1] V.V. Tolmachev, Phys. Lett. A 266, 400 (2000). [2] M. Fortes, M.A. Solis, M. de Llano & V.V. Tolmachev, Physica C 364, 95 (2001). [3] M. de Llano & V.V. Tolmachev, Physica A 317, 546 (2003). [4] M. Casas, N.J. Davidson, M. de Llano, T.A. Mamedov, A. Puente, R.M. Quick, A. Rigo & M.A. Solis, Physica A 295, 146 (2001

  4. SU(8) Family Unification with Boson Fermion Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2015-03-01

    We formulate an SU(8) family unification model motivated by requiring that the theory should incorporate the graviton, gravitinos, and the fermions and gauge fields of the standard model, with boson.fermion balance. Gauge field SU(8) anomalies cancel between the gravitinos and spin 1/2 fermions. The 56 of scalars breaks SU(8) to SU(3)family×SU(5)×U(1)/Z5, with the fermion representation content needed for "flipped" SU(5) with three families, and with residual scalars in the 10 and overline {10} representations that break flipped SU(5) to the standard model. Dynamical symmetry breaking can account for the generation of 5 representation scalars needed to break the electroweak group. Yukawa couplings of the 56 scalars to the fermions are forbidden by chiral and gauge symmetries, so in the first stage of SU(8) breaking fermions remain massless. In the limit of vanishing gauge coupling, there are N = 1 and N = 8 supersymmetries relating the scalars to the fermions, which restrict the form of scalar self-couplings and should improve the convergence of perturbation theory, if not making the theory finite and "calculable." In an Appendix we give an analysis of symmetry breaking by a Higgs component, such as the (1, 1)(-15) of the SU(8) 56 under SU(8) ⊃ SU(3) × SU(5) × U(1), which has nonzero U(1) generator.

  5. Symmetry and Degeneracy in Quantum Mechanics. Self-Duality in Finite Spin Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osacar, C.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    The symmetry of self-duality (Savit 1980 "Rev. Mod. Phys. 52" 453) of some models of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory is discussed for finite spin blocks of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field. The existence of this symmetry in a specific type of these blocks, and not in others, is manifest by the degeneracy of their…

  6. Twisted vertex algebras, bicharacter construction and boson-fermion correspondences

    SciTech Connect

    Anguelova, Iana I.

    2013-12-15

    The boson-fermion correspondences are an important phenomena on the intersection of several areas in mathematical physics: representation theory, vertex algebras and conformal field theory, integrable systems, number theory, cohomology. Two such correspondences are well known: the types A and B (and their super extensions). As a main result of this paper we present a new boson-fermion correspondence of type D-A. Further, we define a new concept of twisted vertex algebra of order N, which generalizes super vertex algebra. We develop the bicharacter construction which we use for constructing classes of examples of twisted vertex algebras, as well as for deriving formulas for the operator product expansions, analytic continuations, and normal ordered products. By using the underlying Hopf algebra structure we prove general bicharacter formulas for the vacuum expectation values for two important groups of examples. We show that the correspondences of types B, C, and D-A are isomorphisms of twisted vertex algebras.

  7. Feshbach resonance described by boson-fermion coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Domanski, T.

    2003-07-01

    We consider a possibility to describe the Feshbach resonance in terms of the boson-fermion (BF) model. Using such a model, we show that after a gradual disentangling of the boson from fermion subsystem, the resonant-type scattering between fermions is indeed generated. We decouple the subsystems via (a) the single step and (b) the continuous canonical transformation. With the second one, we investigate the feedback effects effectively leading to the finite amplitude of the scattering strength. We study them in detail in the normal T>T{sub c} and superconducting T{<=}T{sub c} states.

  8. Study of {beta}-Decay in the Proton-Neutron Interacting Boson-Fermion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zuffi, L.; Brant, S.; Yoshida, N.

    2006-04-26

    We study {beta}-decay in odd-A nuclei together with the energy levels and other properties in the proton-neutron interacting-boson-fermion model. We also report on the preliminary results in the odd-odd nuclei in the proton-neutron interacting boson-fermion-fermion model.

  9. Conformal symmetry breaking and degeneracy of high-lying unflavored mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchbach, Mariana; Pallares-Rivera, Adrian; Compean, Cliffor; Raya, Alfredo

    2012-08-01

    We show that though conformal symmetry can be broken by the dilaton, such can happen without breaking the conformal degeneracy patterns in the spectra. Our argumentation goes as follows: We departure from the gauge-gravity duality which predicts on the boundaries of the AdS5 geometry a conformal theory, associated with QCD at high temperatures, and consider S1 × S3 slicing. The inverse radius, R, of S3 relates to the temperature of the deconfinement phase transition and has to satisfy, hslashc/R gg ΛQCD. On S3, whose isometry group is SO(4), we then focus on the eigenvalue problem of the conformal Laplacian there, given by , with standing for the Casimir invariant of the so(4) algebra. This eigenvalue problem describes the spectrum of a scalar particle, to be associated with a qbar q system. Such a spectrum is characterized by a (K + l)2-fold degeneracy of its levels, with K in [0, ∞). We then break the conformal S3 metric, ds2 = dχ2 + sin2 χ(dθ2 + sin2θdvarphi2) -in polar chi,θ, and azimuthal varphi coordinates- according to, ds~2 = e-bχ((1 + b2/4)dχ2 + sin2 chi(dθ2 + sin2θdvarphi2)), and attribute the symmetry breaking scale bhslash2c2/R2 to the dilaton. Next we show that the above metric deformation is equivalent to a breaking of the conformal curvature of S3 by a term proportional to b cot χ, and that the perturbed conformal Laplacian is equivalent to , with cκ a representation constant, and being again an so(4) Casimir invariant, but this time in a representation unitarily nonequivalent to the 4D rotational one. As long as the spectra before and after the symmetry breaking happen to be determined each by eigenvalues of a Casimir invariant of an so(4), no matter whether or not in a representation that generates the orthogonal group SO(4) as a subgroup of the conformal group SO(2,4), the degeneracy patterns remain unaltered though the conformal symmetry breaks at the level of the representation of the algebra. We fit the S3 radius and the hslash2c

  10. Internal parity symmetry and degeneracy of Bethe Ansatz strings in the isotropic heptagonal magnetic ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, J.; Lulek, B.; Lulek, T.; Łabuz, M.; Stagraczyński, R.

    2014-02-01

    The exact Bethe eigenfunctions for the heptagonal ring within the isotropic XXX model exhibit a doubly degenerated energy level in the three-deviation sector at the centre of the Brillouin zone. We demonstrate an explicit construction of these eigenfunctions by use of algebraic Bethe Ansatz, and point out a relation of degeneracy to parity conservation, applied to the configuration of strings for these eigenfunctions. Namely, the internal structure of the eigenfunctions (the 2-string and the 1-string, with opposite quasimomenta) admits generation of two mutually orthogonal eigenfunctions due to the fact that the strings which differ by their length are distinguishable objects.

  11. A Categorification of the Boson-Fermion Correspondence via Representation Theory of sl(∞)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, Igor; Penkov, Ivan; Serganova, Vera

    2016-02-01

    In recent years different aspects of categorification of the boson-fermion correspondence have been studied. In this paper we propose a categorification of the boson-fermion correspondence based on the category of tensor modules of the Lie algebra sl(∞) of finitary infinite matrices. By T+} we denote the category of "polynomial" tensor sl(∞)-modules. There is a natural "creation" functor TN} : T+} to {T+}}, {M mapsto N ⊗ M, quad M,N in T+}. The key idea of the paper is to employ the entire category {T} of tensor sl(∞)-modules in order to define the "annihilation" functor {{DN} : {T+} to {T+}} corresponding to {{TN}}. We show that the relations allowing one to express fermions via bosons arise from relations in the cohomology of complexes of linear endofunctors on {{T+}}.

  12. Superfluid transition temperature of the boson-fermion model on a lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Micnas, R.

    2007-11-01

    The properties of a mixture of mutually interacting bound electron pairs and itinerant fermions (the boson-fermion model) on a lattice are further studied. We determine the superconducting critical temperature from a pseudogap phase by applying a self-consistent T-matrix approach, which includes the pairing fluctuations and the boson self-energy effects. The analysis is made for a three dimensional cubic lattice with tight-binding dispersion for electrons and for both standard bosons and the case of hard-core bosons. The results describe the BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover with varying position of the bosonic (local pair) level and give a further insight into the nature of resonance superfluidity in the boson-fermion model.

  13. Topological degeneracy (Majorana zero-mode) and 1 + 1D fermionic topological order in a magnetic chain on superconductor via spontaneous Z₂(f) symmetry breaking.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Joel; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-10-14

    We study a chain of ferromagnetic sites, ie nano-particles, molecules or atoms, on a substrate of fully gapped superconductors. We find that under quite realistic conditions, the fermion-number-parity symmetry Z₂(f) can spontaneously break. In other words, such a chain can realize a 1  +  1D fermionic topologically ordered state and the corresponding two-fold topological degeneracy on an open chain. Such a topological degeneracy becomes the so called Majorana zero mode in the non-interacting limit. PMID:26401725

  14. Functional integrals and 1/h expansion in the boson-fermion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The effective action of boson-fermion model is derived by means of the functional integrals method and Popov-Faddeev canonical transformations. The energy gap equation and excitation spectrum equation are obtained from first order and second order perturbation expansions of functional determinant. In the long wave approximation, some analytical expressions of excitation spectrum are calculated by using the 1/h expansion technique, the results showed that analytical calculation is in good agreement with the numerical calculation. Moreover, the Nambu sum rules of Higgs bosons are analyzed and discussed.

  15. Comparisons of interacting-boson-fermion approximation and triaxial calculations for odd-mass N =80 nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Aryaeinejad, R.; Chou, W.; McHarris, W.C. )

    1989-09-01

    The interacting-boson-fermion-approximation and triaxial models were used to calculate excitation energies and mixing ratios for the {ital N}=80 nuclei, {sup 139}Pr, {sup 141}Pm, and {sup 143}Eu. For low-lying negative- and positive-parity states both models yield roughly the same numbers, in good agreement with experimental results. For high-lying states we find that the interacting-boson-fermion-approximation model describes the level structure considerably better than the triaxial model. On the other hand, the triaxial model gives more satisfactory results in predicting the mixing ratios.

  16. Phase transitions in the interacting boson fermion model: The {gamma}-unstable case

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C.E.; Arias, J.M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2005-12-15

    The phase transition around the critical point in the evolution from spherical to deformed {gamma}-unstable shapes is investigated in odd nuclei within the interacting boson fermion model. We consider the particular case of an odd j=3/2 particle coupled to an even-even boson core that undergoes a transition from spherical U(5) to {gamma}-unstable O(6) situation. The particular choice of the j=3/2 orbital preserves in the odd case the condition of {gamma}-instability of the system. As a consequence, energy spectrum and electromagnetic transitions, in correspondence of the critical point, display behaviors qualitatively similar to those of the even core. The results are also in qualitative agreement with the recently proposed E(5/4) model, although few differences are present, due to the different nature of the two schemes.

  17. Mixing-demixing transition and collapse of a vortex state in a quasi-two-dimensional boson-fermion mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Salasnich, Luca

    2007-05-15

    We investigate the mixing-demixing transition and the collapse in a quasi-two-dimensional degenerate boson-fermion mixture (DBFM) with a bosonic vortex. We solve numerically a quantum-hydrodynamic model based on a new density functional which accurately takes into account the dimensional crossover. It is demonstrated that with the increase of interspecies repulsion, a mixed state of DBFM could turn into a demixed state. The system collapses for interspecies attraction above a critical value which depends on the vortex quantum number. For interspecies attraction just below this critical limit there is almost complete mixing of boson and fermion components. Such mixed and demixed states of a DBFM could be experimentally realized by varying an external magnetic field near a boson-fermion Feshbach resonance, which will result in a continuous variation of interspecies interaction.

  18. Shedding Light on the EOS-Gravity Degeneracy and Constraining the Nuclear Symmetry Energy from the Gravitational Binding Energy of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Tao; Fattoyev, F. J.; Li, Bao-An; Newton, W. G.

    2016-02-01

    A thorough understanding of properties of neutron stars requires both a reliable knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) of super-dense nuclear matter and the strong-field gravity theories simultaneously. To provide information that may help break this EOS-gravity degeneracy, we investigate effects of nuclear symmetry energy on the gravitational binding energy of neutron stars within GR and the scalar-tensor subset of alternative gravity models. We focus on effects of the slope L of nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density and the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy. We find that the variation of either the density slope L or the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy leads to large changes in the binding energy of neutron stars. The difference in predictions using the GR and the scalar-tensor theory appears only for massive neutron stars, and even then is significantly smaller than the difference resulting from variations in the symmetry energy.

  19. β -decay rates of Cs-131121 in the microscopic interacting boson-fermion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardones, E.; Barea, J.; Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    β -decay rates of Cs-131121 have been calculated in the framework of the neutron-proton interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM-2). For odd-A nuclei, the decay operator can be written in a relatively simple form in terms of the one-nucleon transfer operator. Previous studies of β decay in IBFM-2 were based on a transfer operator obtained by using the number operator approximation (NOA). In this work a new form of the one-nucleon transfer operator, derived microscopically without the NOA approximation, is used. The results from both approaches are compared and show that the deviation from experimental data is reduced without using the NOA approximation. Indications about the renormalization of the Fermi and Gamow-Teller matrix elements are discussed. This is a further step toward a more complete description of low-lying states in medium and heavy nuclei which is necessary to compute reliable matrix elements in studies of current active interest such as double-β decay or neutrino absorption experiments.

  20. A quantum spin liquid with a large topological degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Wang, Haoyu; Wan, Yuan

    We present a model of a quantum spin liquid in two dimensions with a large topological degeneracy. The model has spins of length S = 1 / 2 on sites of a triangular lattice interacting via a 6-spin term. As in models of Kitaev and Wen [1-3], elementary building blocks in our model are strings of several distinct types. Ends of these strings are elementary particles: 4 bosons and 3 fermions. Particles of different types are mutual semions. The degeneracy of the ground state on a torus is 2 7 - 1 = 64 . Elementary excitations of the model are boson-fermion pairs, which come in 3 × 4 = 12 distinct types Research funding comes from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-08ER46544.

  1. Specific heat of underdoped cuprate superconductors from a phenomenological layered Boson-Fermion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, P.; Fortes, M.; Solís, M. A.; Sevilla, F. J.

    2016-05-01

    We adapt the Boson-Fermion superconductivity model to include layered systems such as underdoped cuprate superconductors. These systems are represented by an infinite layered structure containing a mixture of paired and unpaired fermions. The former, which stand for the superconducting carriers, are considered as noninteracting zero spin composite-bosons with a linear energy-momentum dispersion relation in the CuO2 planes where superconduction is predominant, coexisting with the unpaired fermions in a pattern of stacked slabs. The inter-slab, penetrable, infinite planes are generated by a Dirac comb potential, while paired and unpaired electrons (or holes) are free to move parallel to the planes. Composite-bosons condense at a critical temperature at which they exhibit a jump in their specific heat. These two values are assumed to be equal to the superconducting critical temperature Tc and the specific heat jump reported for YBa2Cu3O6.80 to fix our model parameters namely, the plane impenetrability and the fraction of superconducting charge carriers. We then calculate the isochoric and isobaric electronic specific heats for temperatures lower than Tc of both, the composite-bosons and the unpaired fermions, which matches the latest experimental curves. From the latter, we extract the linear coefficient (γn) at Tc, as well as the quadratic (αT2) term for low temperatures. We also calculate the lattice specific heat from the ARPES phonon spectrum, and add it to the electronic part, reproducing the experimental total specific heat at and below Tc within a 5% error range, from which the cubic (ßT3) term for low temperatures is obtained. In addition, we show that this model reproduces the cuprates mass anisotropies.

  2. Tunneling-Induced Restoration of the Degeneracy and the Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowiński, Tomasz; Łaçki, Mateusz; Dutta, Omjyoti; Pietraszewicz, Joanna; Sierant, Piotr; Gajda, Mariusz; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2013-11-01

    We study the ground-state properties of bosons loaded into the p band of a one-dimensional optical lattice. We show that the phase diagram of the system is substantially affected by the anharmonicity of the lattice potential. In particular, for a certain range of tunneling strength, the full many-body ground state of the system becomes degenerate. In this region, an additional symmetry of the system, namely, the parity of the occupation number of the chosen orbital, is spontaneously broken. The state with a nonvanishing staggered angular momentum, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry, becomes the true ground state of the system.

  3. Tunneling-induced restoration of the degeneracy and the time-reversal symmetry breaking in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Sowiński, Tomasz; Łącki, Mateusz; Dutta, Omjyoti; Pietraszewicz, Joanna; Sierant, Piotr; Gajda, Mariusz; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2013-11-22

    We study the ground-state properties of bosons loaded into the p band of a one-dimensional optical lattice. We show that the phase diagram of the system is substantially affected by the anharmonicity of the lattice potential. In particular, for a certain range of tunneling strength, the full many-body ground state of the system becomes degenerate. In this region, an additional symmetry of the system, namely, the parity of the occupation number of the chosen orbital, is spontaneously broken. The state with a nonvanishing staggered angular momentum, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry, becomes the true ground state of the system. PMID:24313497

  4. {beta} decay of odd-A As to Ge isotopes in the interacting boson-fermion model

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, S.; Yoshida, N.; Zuffi, L.

    2004-11-01

    The structure of odd-mass isotopes of As and Ge is described in the framework of the proton-neutron interacting boson-fermion model. The energy levels and the electromagnetic properties of {sup 69,71,73}As and {sup 69,71,73}Ge are calculated and compared with the experiment. The {beta}-decay rates from the As isotopes to the Ge isotopes are calculated. The calculated decays tend to be stronger than the observed ones. This may indicate a mixture of components outside the model space in the wave functions of actual nuclei. The effect of the higher-order terms in the decay operators seems small.

  5. Odd-even {sup 147-153}Pm isotopes within the neutron-proton interacting boson-fermion model

    SciTech Connect

    Barea, J.; Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.

    2011-02-15

    Low-lying energy states of the {sup 147-153}Pm isotopic chain are studied within the framework of the neutron-proton interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM-2). The spectra of these isotopes show a transition from a particle coupled to a vibrational core to a particle coupled to a deformed one. The calculation reproduces this behavior. In addition, reduced transition probabilities B(E2) and B(M1) and quadrupole and magnetic moments, as well as spectroscopic factors corresponding to stripping and pickup transfer reactions, are calculated. Obtained results compare well with the available experimental data, which reinforces the reliability of the wave functions obtained within the IBFM-2 model.

  6. On-chip generation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states with arbitrary symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a method for integrated-optical generation of two-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states featuring arbitrary symmetries. In our setting, we employ detuned directional couplers to impose a freely tailorable phase between the two modes of the state. Our results allow to mimic the quantum random walk statistics of bosons, fermions, and anyons, particles with fractional exchange statistics.

  7. On-chip generation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states with arbitrary symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander

    2015-05-04

    We experimentally demonstrate a method for integrated-optical generation of two-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states featuring arbitrary symmetries. In our setting, we employ detuned directional couplers to impose a freely tailorable phase between the two modes of the state. Our results allow to mimic the quantum random walk statistics of bosons, fermions, and anyons, particles with fractional exchange statistics.

  8. {beta} decay of the even-even {sup 124}Ba nucleus: A test for the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, S.; Yoshida, N.; Zuffi, L.

    2006-08-15

    The interacting boson-fermion-fermion model approach to {beta} decay is applied to the decay from the even-even {sup 124}Ba to the odd-odd {sup 124}Cs nucleus. The theoretical results for energy levels, electromagnetic properties and {beta} decay rates are compared with experimental data for {sup 124}Cs. The calculated {beta}-decay rates demonstrate that the interacting boson approximation can be applied in the description of {beta} decays from even-even to odd-odd nuclei.

  9. Interacting boson fermion model description for the levels of sup 71 Ge sub 39 populated in the beta decay of 65. 30-h sup 71 As

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.A. Nuclear Chemistry Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 ) Nagle, R.J. ) Brant, S. ) Frlez, E. ) Paar, V. ) ) Hopke, P.K. )

    1990-02-01

    We have studied the level properties of the {ital N}=39 nucleus {sup 71}Ge by gamma-ray spectroscopy following the beta decay of {sup 71}As, for which we measure a half-life of 65.30{plus minus}0.07 h. When we calculated the level structure of {sup 71}Ge within the framework of the interacting boson fermion model, we found good agreement with the experimentally determined level properties. Some evidence was found for the occurrence of levels built on the coexisting {sup 70}Ge-core intruder state.

  10. BEC-polaron gas in a boson-fermion mixture: A many-body extension of Lee-Low-Pines theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Eiji; Yabu, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the ground state properties of the gaseous mixture of a single species of bosons and fermions at zero temperature, where bosons are major in population over fermions, and form the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The boson-boson and boson-fermion interactions are assumed to be weakly repulsive and attractive, respectively, while the fermion-fermion interaction is absent due to the Pauli exclusion for the low energy s -wave scattering. We treat fermions as a gas of polarons dressed with Bogoliubov phonons, which is an elementary excitation of the BEC, and evaluate the ground state properties with the method developed by Lemmens, Devreese, and Brosens (LDB) originally for the electron polaron gas, and also with a general extension of the Lee-Low-Pines theory for many-body systems (eLLP), which incorporates the phonon drag effects as in the original LLP theory. The formulation of eLLP is developed and discussed in the present paper. The binding (interaction) energy of the polaron gas is calculated in these methods and shown to be finite (negative) for the dilute gas of heavy fermions with attractive boson-fermion interactions, though the suppression by the many-body effects exists.

  11. Levels of {sup 105}Pd populated in the decay of {sup 105}Ag{sup {ital m},{ital g}} and comparison with interacting boson-fermion model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.A.; Jackson, S.V.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.

    1996-12-01

    Deexcitation properties of low-spin levels in {sup 105}Pd populated in the decay of {sup 105}Ag{sup {ital m}} and {sup 105}Ag{sup {ital g}} are investigated. The calculation for {sup 105}Pd is performed in the interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM), using a nearly spherical boson core corresponding to {sup 104}Pd. As a result, we obtain an approximate quasiweak-coupling pattern, which is in contrast to previously assumed symmetric rotor model calculations. Rather good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained. The extension of the IBFM calculations to lighter {ital N}=59 isotones is consistent with the recent discovery of coexisting structures and dual double-subshell closure in respective even-even core nuclei. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. On second quantization on noncommutative spaces with twisted symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Gaetano

    2010-04-01

    By the application of the general twist-induced sstarf-deformation procedure we translate second quantization of a system of bosons/fermions on a symmetric spacetime into a noncommutative language. The procedure deforms, in a coordinated way, the spacetime algebra and its symmetries, the wave-mechanical description of a system of n bosons/fermions, the algebra of creation and annihilation operators and also the commutation relations of the latter with functions of spacetime; our key requirement is the mode-decomposition independence of the quantum field. In a minimalistic view, the use of noncommutative coordinates can be seen just as a way to better express non-local interactions of a special kind. In a non-conservative one, we obtain a closed, covariant framework for quantum field theory (QFT) on the corresponding noncommutative spacetime consistent with quantum mechanical axioms and Bose-Fermi statistics. One distinguishing feature is that the field commutation relations remain of the type 'field (anti)commutator=a distribution'. We illustrate the results by choosing as examples interacting non-relativistic and free relativistic QFT on Moyal space(time)s.

  13. Reducing Degeneracy in Maximum Entropy Models of Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvát, Szabolcs; Czabarka, Éva; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2015-04-01

    Based on Jaynes's maximum entropy principle, exponential random graphs provide a family of principled models that allow the prediction of network properties as constrained by empirical data (observables). However, their use is often hindered by the degeneracy problem characterized by spontaneous symmetry breaking, where predictions fail. Here we show that degeneracy appears when the corresponding density of states function is not log-concave, which is typically the consequence of nonlinear relationships between the constraining observables. Exploiting these nonlinear relationships here we propose a solution to the degeneracy problem for a large class of systems via transformations that render the density of states function log-concave. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on examples.

  14. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  15. Overcoming Degeneracies in Exoplanet Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Björn

    2015-08-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets can provide invaluable insights into the planets’ compositions, their formation and evolution histories, and even their habitability. Obtaining exoplanet spectra is observationally challenging; however, and we are generally limited to relatively low signal-to-noise, low spectral resolution, disk-integrated observations , often with relatively narrow wavelength coverage. This low data situation results in strong correlations and degeneracies between the different planet and atmospheric parameters of interest. In this talk, I will present a conceptual picture of how vital information about the planet is encoded in its observable spectrum. I will then give an overview about the wide range of correlations and degeneracies relevant to today’s exoplanet observations. Finally, I will demonstrate how some degeneracies can be overcome and improved constraints can be obtained by including prior knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and physics in the retrieval. I present a new atmospheric retrieval framework, SCARLET, that combines observational data and our prior (limited) knowledge of atmospheric processes in a statistical robust Bayesian framework. New results for hot Jupiters will be presented.

  16. Coping with degeneracies in Delaunay triangulation

    SciTech Connect

    Beichl, I.; Sullivan, F.

    1995-12-31

    Degeneracy is a serious issue in geometry. In their original form, many geometric algorithms simply assume that there is no degeneracy. As a result, when these methods are used on data that is degenerate or nearly degenerate, they either fail to complete or else give nonsensical results. We will describe a new method that removes only those 3-d degeneracies that cause ambiguity in determining Delaunay tetrahedra and only those 3-d degeneracies that cause ambiguity in determining Delaunay triangles. The mathematical justification is based on classical results of real analysis. The proof identifies degeneracies with the polynomial derived from the determinants that express geometrical primitives. Our result is a probabilistic statement about the real numbers; with probability one, degeneracies are removed in real arithmetic. In floating-point arithmetic, detection of degeneracies is based on relative error criteria that we describe here.

  17. The Simplicity of Perfect Atoms: Degeneracies in Supersymmetric Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    Supersymmetric QED hydrogen-like bound states are remarkably similar to non-supersymmetric hydrogen, including an accidental degeneracy of the fine structure and which is broken by the Lamb shift. This article classifies the states, calculates the leading order spectrum, and illustrates the results in several limits. The relation to other non-relativistic bound states is explored. Supersymmetric bound states provide a laboratory for studying dynamics in supersymmetric theories. Bound states like hydrogen provide a framework for understanding the qualitative dynamics of QCD mesons, a supersymmetric version of QED can provide a qualitative picture for the symmetries and states of superQCD mesons. Furthermore, recent interest in dark matter as a composite state, leads to asking how supersymmetry acts upon these composite states [4-7]. This article calculates the leading order corrections to a hydrogen-like atoms in an exactly supersymmetric version of QED. Much of the degeneracy is broken by the fine structure and a seminal calculation was performed in [1] for positronium, see [2] for an N = 2 version of positronium. Supersymmetric hydrogen is a similar except for the absence of annihilation diagrams, see [3] for an independent calculation. In the heavy proton mass limit, the supersymmetric interactions of the theory become irrelevant operators, suppressed by powers of the proton mass like the magnetic moment operator in QED and the fine structure is identical to the non-supersymmetric theory. This article finds that fine structure spectrum of supersymmetric spectrum of hydrogen has an accidental degeneracy which is exactly analogous to the accidental degeneracy of the l = 0 and l = 1 levels of the n = 2; j = 1/2 state of hydrogen. The supersymmetric version of the Lamb shift lifts the residual degeneracy and this article computes the logarithmically enhanced breaking.

  18. On uniqueness and non-degeneracy of anisotropic polarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaud, Julien

    2016-05-01

    We study the anisotropic Choquard-Pekar equation which describes a polaron in an anisotropic medium. We prove the uniqueness and non-degeneracy of minimizers in a weakly anisotropic medium. In addition, for a wide range of anisotropic media, we derive the symmetry properties of minimizers and prove that the kernel of the associated linearized operator is reduced, apart from three functions coming from the translation invariance, to the kernel on the subspace of functions that are even in each of the three principal directions of the medium.

  19. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Unexpected systematic degeneracy in a system of two coupled Gaudin models with homogeneous couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbe, B.; Schliemann, J.

    2010-12-01

    We report an unexpected systematic degeneracy between different multiplets in an inversion symmetric system of two coupled Gaudin models with homogeneous couplings, as occurring for example in the context of solid state quantum information processing. We construct the full degenerate subspace (being of macroscopic dimension), which turns out to lie in the kernel of the commutator between the two Gaudin models and the coupling term. Finally we investigate to what extent the degeneracy is related to the inversion symmetry of the system and find that indeed there is a large class of systems showing the same type of degeneracy.

  20. Parameter degeneracy in neutrino oscillation — Solution network and structural overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakata, Hisakazu; Uchinami, Shoichi

    2010-04-01

    It is known that there is a phenomenon called “parameter degeneracy” in neutrino oscillation measurement of lepton mixing parameters; A set of the oscillation probabilities, e.g., P( ν μ → ν e ) and its CP-conjugate Pleft( {{{bar ν }_μ } to {{bar ν }_e}} right) at a particular neutrino energy does not determine uniquely the values of θ 13 and δ. With use of the approximate form of the oscillation probability á la Cervera et al., a complete analysis of the eightfold parameter degeneracy is presented. We propose a unified view of the various types of the degeneracy as invariance of the oscillation probabilities under discrete mappings of the mixing parameters. Explicit form of the mapping is obtained either by symmetry argument, or by deriving exact analytic expressions of all the degeneracy solutions for a given true solution. Due to the one-to-one mapping structure the degeneracy solutions are shown to form a network. We extend our analysis into the parameter degeneracy in T- and CPT-conjugate measurement as well as to the setup with the golden and the silver channels, P( ν e → ν μ ) and P( ν e → ν τ ). Some characteristic features of the degeneracy solutions in CP-conjugate measurement, in particular their energy dependences, are illuminated by utilizing the explicit analytic solutions.

  1. Nodal surfaces and interdimensional degeneracies

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, Pierre-François; Bressanini, Dario

    2015-06-07

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on the topology and properties of the nodes (i.e., the zeros of the wave function) in electronic systems. Using the “electrons on a sphere” model, we study the nodes of two-, three-, and four-electron systems in various ferromagnetic configurations (sp, p{sup 2}, sd, pd, p{sup 3}, sp{sup 2}, and sp{sup 3}). In some particular cases (sp, p{sup 2}, sd, pd, and p{sup 3}), we rigorously prove that the non-interacting wave function has the same nodes as the exact (yet unknown) wave function. The number of atomic and molecular systems for which the exact nodes are known analytically is very limited and we show here that this peculiar feature can be attributed to interdimensional degeneracies. Although we have not been able to prove it rigorously, we conjecture that the nodes of the non-interacting wave function for the sp{sup 3} configuration are exact.

  2. Angular-overlap calculation of the Jahn-Teller stabilization energie for f-orbital degeneracies

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, K.D.

    1980-03-01

    The angular-overlap model is applied to the calculation of the linear Jahn-Teller coupling constants for f-orbital degeneracies. The MX/sub 6/, O/sub h/, chromophore is treated as representative of the highest symmetry commonly occurring in the lanthanide and actinide series, and it is shown that, even when spin-orbit effects are taken into account, 5f orbital degeneracies may lead to significant Jahn-Teller stabilization energies. The operation of this effect for F/sup 1/ GAMMA/sub 8/ states is considered. 2 tables.

  3. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0-600 cm(-1)), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  4. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2016-06-01

    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0–600 cm‑1), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  5. Frustration and time-reversal symmetry breaking for Fermi and Bose-Fermi systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Targońska, Katarzyna; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2012-05-01

    The modulation of an optical lattice potential that breaks time-reversal symmetry enables the realization of complex tunneling amplitudes in the corresponding tight-binding model. For a superfluid Fermi gas in a triangular lattice potential with complex tunnelings, the pairing function acquires a complex phase, so the frustrated magnetism of fermions can be realized. Bose-Fermi mixtures of bosonic molecules and unbound fermions in the lattice also show interesting behavior. Due to boson-fermion coupling, the fermions become enslaved by the bosons and the corresponding pairing function takes the complex phase determined by the bosons. In the presence of bosons the Fermi system can reveal both gapped and gapless superfluidity.

  6. Mixed symmetry states and {beta} decays of odd-A Xe to I isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khudair, Falih H.

    2009-07-15

    The energy spectra of the parent and daughter nuclei in the {beta} decays ({sup 121-127}Xe,{beta}{sup +121-127}I) are considered in the interacting boson fermion model (IBFM-2) with the g{sub 7/2},d{sub 5/2},d{sub 3/2},s{sub 1/2}, and h{sub 11/2} single-particle orbitals. Electromagnetic transition probabilities and branching ratios in odd {sup 121-127}I isotopes are investigated. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mixed symmetry states, and the F-spin structures of the wave functions are analyzed. The log{sub 10}ft values of the allowed {beta} decay transitions are calculated. It is found that the IBFM-2 results agree with the experimental data quite well.

  7. Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.

  8. Robust topological degeneracy of classical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, Mohammad-Sadegh; Ortiz, Gerardo; Nussinov, Zohar

    2016-05-01

    We challenge the hypothesis that the ground states of a physical system whose degeneracy depends on topology must necessarily realize topological quantum order and display nonlocal entanglement. To this end, we introduce and study a classical rendition of the Toric Code model embedded on Riemann surfaces of different genus numbers. We find that the minimal ground state degeneracy (and those of all levels) depends on the topology of the embedding surface alone. As the ground states of this classical system may be distinguished by local measurements, a characteristic of Landau orders, this example illustrates that topological degeneracy is not a sufficient condition for topological quantum order. This conclusion is generic and, as shown, it applies to many other models. We also demonstrate that certain lattice realizations of these models, and other theories, display a ground state entropy (and those of all levels) that is "holographic", i.e., extensive in the system boundary. We find that clock and U (1 ) gauge theories display topological (in addition to gauge) degeneracies.

  9. Degeneracy Breaking for K2 Microlens Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew; Yee, Jennifer; Carey, Sean

    2015-10-01

    By adding Spitzer observations to microlensing targets being observed from Kepler and Earth, we will create the first interplanetary network of microlensing observatories. This 3-observatory configuration has the unique potential to break the famous 4-fold degeneracy for space-based microlensing parallaxes. This is crucial both for the interpretation of some individual events and to rigorously validate the statistical methods that are used when (as is usually the case) this special 3-observatory configuration is not possible. The Kepler K2 C9 microlensing campaign will monitor about 4 square degrees of the Bulge from 6 Apr to 29 Jun, with the aim of measuring microlens parallaxes. Spitzer can observe this K2 field from 18 Jun to 26 Jul. The 11-day overlap between the two campaigns will allow us to break the 4-fold degeneracy of about 50 microlensing events. Some of these events will be well-covered over the peak from K2, with Spitzer observations of the falling wing providing the necessary information to break the degeneracy in the K2-Earth parallax. Others will be the reverse, with K2 observations of the rising event breaking the degeneracy in Spitzer-Earth parallaxes (i.e., for events peaking during the Spitzer campaign). Breaking this degeneracy leads to a definitive measurement of the magnitude of the microlens parallax vector, which will enable measurements of the masses and distances of the lens systems, including events with planets that contribute to the ~12 needed to make a first measurement of the Galactic distribution of planets, binaries, and many single-lens events, some of which could be black holes, brown dwarfs, or other interesting objects. The distance distribution of the ensemble of lenses can serve as a probe of Galactic structure. All lightcurves will be reduced using our customized software and then made public (for unrestricted use), within two months of the completion of observations (as we did for our 2015 observations).

  10. Quantification of Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yi-Nan; Dong, Guo-Hui; Zhou, Duan-Lu; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2016-04-01

    Symmetry is conventionally described in a polarized manner that the system is either completely symmetric or completely asymmetric. Using group theoretical approach to overcome this dichotomous problem, we introduce the degree of symmetry (DoS) as a non-negative continuous number ranging from zero to unity. DoS is defined through an average of the fidelity deviations of Hamiltonian or quantum state over its transformation group G, and thus is computable by making use of the completeness relations of the irreducible representations of G. The monotonicity of DoS can effectively probe the extended group for accidental degeneracy while its multi-valued natures characterize some (spontaneous) symmetry breaking. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11421063, 11534002, 11475254 and the National 973 Program under Grant Nos. 2014CB921403, 2012CB922104, and 2014CB921202

  11. Extracting hidden symmetry from the energy spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzbashyan, Emil A.; Happer, William; Altshuler, Boris L.; Shastry, Sriram B.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of finding hidden symmetries in quantum mechanical systems. Our interest in this problem was renewed by nontrivial degeneracies of a simple spin Hamiltonian used to model spin relaxation in alkali-metal vapours. We consider this spin Hamiltonian in detail and use this example to outline a general approach to finding symmetries when eigenvalues and eigenstates of the Hamiltonian are known. We extract all nontrivial symmetries responsible for the degeneracy and show that the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian is SU(2). The symmetry operators have a simple meaning which becomes transparent in the limit of large spin. As an additional example we apply the method to the hydrogen atom.

  12. Electronic orders in multiorbital Hubbard models with lifted orbital degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    We study the symmetry-broken phases in two- and three-orbital Hubbard models with lifted orbital degeneracy using dynamical mean-field theory. On the technical level, we explain how symmetry relations can be exploited to measure the four-point correlation functions needed for the calculation of the lattice susceptibilities. In the half-filled two-orbital model with crystal-field splitting, we find an instability of the metallic phase to spin-orbital order with neither spin nor orbital moment. This ordered phase is shown to be related to the recently discovered fluctuating-moment induced spin-triplet superconducting state in the orbitally degenerate model with shifted chemical potential. In the three-orbital case, we consider the effect of a crystal-field splitting on the spin-triplet superconducting state in the model with positive Hund coupling, and the spin-singlet superconducting state in the case of negative Hund coupling. It is demonstrated that for certain crystal-field splittings the higher energy orbitals instead of the lower ones are relevant for superconductivity, and that Tc can be slightly enhanced by the crystal-field effect. We comment on the implications of our results for the superconductivity in strontium ruthenates, and for the recently reported light-enhanced superconducting state in alkali-metal-doped fullerides.

  13. On dark degeneracy and interacting models

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, S.; Borges, H.A. E-mail: humberto@ufba.br

    2014-06-01

    Cosmological background observations cannot fix the dark energy equation of state, which is related to a degeneracy in the definition of the dark sector components. Here we show that this degeneracy can be broken at perturbation level by imposing two observational properties on dark matter. First, dark matter is defined as the clustering component we observe in large scale structures. This definition is meaningful only if dark energy is unperturbed, which is achieved if we additionally assume, as a second condition, that dark matter is cold, i.e. non-relativistic. As a consequence, dark energy models with equation-of-state parameter −1 ≤ ω < 0 are reduced to two observationally distinguishable classes with ω = −1, equally competitive when tested against observations. The first comprises the ΛCDM model with constant dark energy density. The second consists of interacting models with an energy flux from dark energy to dark matter.

  14. Valley degeneracy in biaxially strained aluminum arsenide quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu-Gaunkar, S.; Birner, S.; Dasgupta, S.; Knaak, C.; Grayson, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a complete analytical formalism for calculating electron subband energy and degeneracy in strained multivalley quantum wells grown along any orientation with explicit results for AlAs quantum wells (QWs). In analogy to the spin index, the valley degree of freedom is justified as a pseudospin index due to the vanishing intervalley exchange integral. A standardized coordinate transformation matrix is defined to transform between the conventional-cubic-cell basis and the QW transport basis whereby effective mass tensors, valley vectors, strain matrices, anisotropic strain ratios, piezoelectric fields, and scattering vectors are all defined in their respective bases. The specific cases of (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented aluminum arsenide (AlAs) QWs are examined, as is the unconventional (411) facet, which is of particular importance in AlAs literature. Calculations of electron confinement and strain for the (001), (110), and (411) facets determine the critical well width for crossover from double- to single-valley degeneracy in each system. The biaxial Poisson ratio is calculated for the high-symmetry lower Miller index (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented QWs. An additional shear-strain component arises in the higher Miller index (411)-oriented QWs and we define and solve for a shear-to-biaxial strain ratio. The notation is generalized to address non-Miller-indexed planes so that miscut substrates can also be treated, and the treatment can be adapted to other multivalley biaxially strained systems. To help classify anisotropic intervalley scattering, a valley scattering primitive unit cell is defined in momentum space, which allows one to distinguish purely in-plane momentum scattering events from those that require an out-of-plane momentum component.

  15. Scalar non-degeneracy and flavor unification

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Kentaro

    2008-05-13

    Grand unified models of the strong and electroweak forces generally predict some types of flavor unification. The flavor structure in unified theory is probed with superparticle mass spectrum observed in future particle experiments. It is shown that the generation dependence of sfermion mass non-degeneracy provides direct imprints of unification of the standard model matter multiplets. The implication from flavor-violating rare process is also discussed.

  16. The degeneracy of the free Dirac equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V. . School of Physics Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay ); McKellar, B.H.J. . School of Physics); Wu, D.D. . School of Physics Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, BJ . Electron LINAC Dept. General Atomics, San Diego, CA )

    1991-08-01

    Parity-mixed solutions of the free Dirac equation with the same 4-momentum are considered. The first-order EM energy has an electric dipole moment term whose value depends on the mixing angle. Further implications of this degeneracy to perturbative calculations are discussed. It is argued that the properties of the Dirac equation with the Coulomb potential can be used to decide the mixing angle, which should be zero.

  17. Dark degeneracy and interacting cosmic components

    SciTech Connect

    Aviles, Alejandro; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.

    2011-10-15

    We study some properties of the dark degeneracy, which is the fact that what we measure in gravitational experiments is the energy-momentum tensor of the total dark sector, and any split into components (as in dark matter and dark energy) is arbitrary. In fact, just one dark fluid is necessary to obtain exactly the same cosmological and astrophysical phenomenology as the {Lambda}CDM model. We work explicitly the first-order perturbation theory and show that beyond the linear order the dark degeneracy is preserved under some general assumptions. Then we construct the dark fluid from a collection of interacting fluids. Finally, we try to break the degeneracy with a general class of couplings to baryonic matter. Nonetheless, we show that these interactions can also be understood in the context of the {Lambda}CDM model as between dark matter and baryons. For this last investigation we choose two independent parametrizations for the interactions, one inspired by electromagnetism and the other by chameleon theories. Then, we constrain them with a joint analysis of CMB and supernovae observational data.

  18. Relativistic symmetries in nuclear single-particle spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jian-You; Liang, Hao Zhao; Meng, Jie; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    Symmetry is a fundamental concept in quantum physics. The quasi-degeneracy between single-particle orbitals (n, l, j = l + 1/2) and (n -1, l + 2, j = l + 3/2) indicates a hidden symmetry in atomic nuclei, the so-called pseudospin symmetry. Since the pseudospin symmetry was recognized as a relativistic symmetry in 1990s, many special features, including the spin symmetry for anti-nucleons, and many new concepts have been introduced. In this Chapter, we will illustrate the schematic picture of spin and pseudospin symmetries, derive the basic formalism, highlight the recent progress from several different aspects, and discuss selected open issues in this topic.

  19. Hidden in plain view: degeneracy in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Mason, P H; Domínguez D, J F; Winter, B; Grignolio, A

    2015-02-01

    Degeneracy is a word with two meanings. The popular usage of the word denotes deviance and decay. In scientific discourse, degeneracy refers to the idea that different pathways can lead to the same output. In the biological sciences, the concept of degeneracy has been ignored for a few key reasons. Firstly, the word "degenerate" in popular culture has negative, emotionally powerful associations that do not inspire scientists to consider its technical meaning. Secondly, the tendency of searching for single causes of natural and social phenomena means that scientists can overlook the multi-stranded relationships between cause and effect. Thirdly, degeneracy and redundancy are often confused with each other. Degeneracy refers to dissimilar structures that are functionally similar while redundancy refers to identical structures. Degeneracy can give rise to novelty in ways that redundancy cannot. From genetic codes to immunology, vaccinology and brain development, degeneracy is a crucial part of how complex systems maintain their functional integrity. This review article discusses how the scientific concept of degeneracy was imported into genetics from physics and was later introduced to immunology and neuroscience. Using examples of degeneracy in immunology, neuroscience and linguistics, we demonstrate that degeneracy is a useful way of understanding how complex systems function. Reviewing the history and theoretical scope of degeneracy allows its usefulness to be better appreciated, its coherency to be further developed, and its application to be more quickly realized. PMID:25543071

  20. On the Degeneracies of the Mass-Squared Differences for Three-Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, D. C.; Ernst, D. J.

    Using an algebraic formulation, we explore two well-known degeneracies involving the mass-squared differences for three-neutrino oscillations assuming CP symmetry is conserved. For vacuum oscillation, we derive the expression for the mixing angles that permit invariance under the interchange of two mass-squared differences. This symmetry is most easily expressed in terms of an ascending mass order. This can be used to reduce the parameter space by one half in the absence of the MSW effect. For oscillations in matter, we derive within our formalism the known approximate degeneracy between the standard and inverted mass hierarchies in the limit of vanishing θ13. This is done with a mass ordering that permits the map Δ31↦-Δ31. Our techniques allow us to translate mixing angles in this mass order convention into their values for the ascending order convention. Using this dictionary, we demonstrate that the vacuum symmetry and the approximate symmetry invoked for oscillations in matter are distinctly different.

  1. Hidden nonsymmorphic symmetry in optical lattices with one-dimensional spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Xie, X. C.

    2016-05-01

    We uncover the nonsymmorphic symmetry and investigate its effects on the noncollinear band structures of a quasi-two-dimensional optical lattice with synthetic one-dimensional spin-orbit coupling and a tunable Zeeman field. The perpendicular Zeeman field breaks time-reversal symmetry and lifts the Kramers degeneracy which is protected by time-reversal and generalized inversion symmetries. Interestingly, we find that the degeneracy of Bloch bands on the border of the Brillouin zone is immune to the Zeeman field. This degeneracy, reminiscent of that in nonsymmorphic crystals, is protected by the hidden glide-plane symmetry that comprises a physical reflection involving both spatial and spin degrees of freedom followed by a nonprimitive lattice translation. Furthermore, we show that the band degeneracy can be lifted by the glide-plane-symmetry-breaking lattice potential. Finally, we propose to detect these effects by measuring a dynamical structure factor with optical Bragg spectroscopy.

  2. Macroscopic degeneracy and order in the 3D plaquette Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Desmond A.; Mueller, Marco; Janke, Wolfhard

    2015-07-01

    The purely plaquette 3D Ising Hamiltonian with the spins living at the vertices of a cubic lattice displays several interesting features. The symmetries of the model lead to a macroscopic degeneracy of the low-temperature phase and prevent the definition of a standard magnetic order parameter. Consideration of the strongly anisotropic limit of the model suggests that a layered, “fuki-nuke” order still exists and we confirm this with multi-canonical simulations. The macroscopic degeneracy of the low-temperature phase also changes the finite-size scaling corrections at the first-order transition in the model and we see this must be taken into account when analyzing our measurements.

  3. Approximate degeneracy of heavy-light mesons with the same L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki; Lü, Qi-Fang; Dong, Yubing; Morii, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    Careful observation of the experimental spectra of heavy-light mesons tells us that heavy-light mesons with the same angular momentum L are almost degenerate. The estimate is given how much this degeneracy is broken in our relativistic potential model, and it is analytically shown that expectation values of a commutator between the lowest order Hamiltonian and L→2 are of the order of 1 /mQ with a heavy quark mass mQ. It turns out that nonrelativistic approximation of heavy quark system has a rotational symmetry and hence degeneracy among states with the same L. This feature can be tested by measuring higher orbitally and radially excited heavy-light meson spectra for D /Ds / B /Bs in LHCb and forthcoming BelleII.

  4. Lifting of the Landau level degeneracy in graphene devices in a tilted magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, F.; Wiedmann, S.; Novoselov, K.; Mishchenko, A.; Geim, A. K.; Maan, J. C.; Zeitler, U.

    2015-11-01

    We report on transport and capacitance measurements of graphene devices in magnetic fields up to 30 T. In both techniques, we observe the full splitting of Landau levels and we employ tilted field experiments to address the origin of the observed broken symmetry states. In the lowest energy level, the spin degeneracy is removed at filling factors ν =±1 and we observe an enhanced energy gap. In the higher levels, the valley degeneracy is removed at odd filling factors while spin polarized states are formed at even ν . Although the observation of odd filling factors in the higher levels points towards the spontaneous origin of the splitting, we find that the main contribution to the gap at ν =-4 ,-8 , and -12 is due to the Zeeman energy.

  5. Ultracold polar molecules near quantum degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Ospelkaus, S; Ni, K K; de Miranda, M H G; Neyenhuis, B; Wang, D; Kotochigova, S; Julienne, P S; Jin, D S; Ye, J

    2009-01-01

    We report the creation and characterization of a near quantum-degenerate gas of polar 40K-87Rb molecules in their absolute rovibrational ground state. Starting from weakly bound heteronuclear KRb Feshbach molecules, we implement precise control of the molecular electronic, vibrational, and rotational degrees of freedom with phase-coherent laser fields. In particular, we coherently transfer these weakly bound molecules across a 125 THz frequency gap in a single step into the absolute rovibrational ground state of the electronic ground potential. Phase coherence between lasers involved in the transfer process is ensured by referencing the lasers to two single components of a phase-stabilized optical frequency comb. Using these methods, we prepare a dense gas of 4 x 10(4) polar molecules at a temperature below 400 nK. This fermionic molecular ensemble is close to quantum degeneracy and can be characterized by a degeneracy parameter of T/T(F) = 3. We have measured the molecular polarizability in an optical dipole trap where the trap lifetime gives clues to interesting decay mechanisms. Given the large measured dipole moment of the KRb molecules of 0.5 Debye, the study of quantum degenerate molecular gases interacting via strong dipolar interactions is now within experimental reach. PACS numbers: 37.10.Mn, 37.10.Pq. PMID:20151553

  6. Degeneracy and discreteness in cosmological model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Huan-Yu; Huang, Yuan; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2016-03-01

    We explore the problems of degeneracy and discreteness in the standard cosmological model (ΛCDM). We use the Observational Hubble Data (OHD) and the type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data to study this issue. In order to describe the discreteness in fitting of data, we define a factor G to test the influence from each single data point and analyze the goodness of G. Our results indicate that a higher absolute value of G shows a better capability of distinguishing models, which means the parameters are restricted into smaller confidence intervals with a larger figure of merit evaluation. Consequently, we claim that the factor G is an effective way of model differentiation when using different models to fit the observational data.

  7. Defects and degeneracies in supersymmetry protected phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokkema, Thessa; Schoutens, Kareljan

    2015-08-01

    We analyse a class of 1D lattice models, known as \\text{M}k models, which are characterised by an order-k clustering of spin-less fermions and by N}=2 lattice supersymmetry. Our main result is the identification of a class of (bulk or edge) defects, that are in one-to-one correspondence with so-called spin fields in a corresponding {Z}k parafermion CFT. In the gapped regime, injecting such defects leads to ground-state degeneracies that are protected by the supersymmetry. The defects, which are closely analogous to quasi-holes over the fermonic Read-Rezayi quantum Hall states, display characteristic fusion rules, which are of Ising type for k = 2 and of Fibonacci type for k = 3.

  8. Neutrino degeneracy and cosmological nucleosynthesis, revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olive, K. A.; Schramm, David N.; Thomas, D.; Walker, T. P.

    1991-01-01

    A reexamination of the effects of non-zero degeneracies on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is made. As previously noted, non-trivial alterations of the standard model conclusions can be induced only if excess lepton numbers L sub i, comparable to photon number densities eta sub tau, are assumed (where eta sub tau is approx. 3 times 10(exp 9) eta sub b). Furthermore, the required lepton number densities (L sub i eta sub tau) must be different for upsilon sub e than for upsilon sub mu and epsilon sub tau. It is shown that this loophole in the standard model of nucleosynthesis is robust and will not vanish as abundance and reaction rate determinations improve. However, it is also argued that theoretically (L sub e) approx. (L sub mu) approx. (L sub tau) approx. eta sub b is much less than eta sub tau which would preclude this loophole in standard unified models.

  9. Parity-time-symmetry breaking in two-dimensional photonic crystals: Square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Adam

    2016-06-01

    We consider theoretically materials whose electromagnetic properties possess parity-time (PT ) symmetry and are periodic in two dimensions. When designed for optical frequencies such structures are commonly known as two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals. With the addition of PT symmetry the optical modes of 2D photonic crystals exhibit thresholdless spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking near the Brillouin zone boundary, which is analogous to what has previously been studied in PT -symmetric structures with one-dimensional periodicity. Consistent with previous work, we find that spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking occurs at band crossings in the photonic dispersion diagram. Due to the extra spatial degree of freedom in 2D periodic systems, their band structures contain more band crossings and higher-order degeneracies than their one-dimensional counterparts. This work provides a comprehensive theoretical analysis of spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking at these points in the band structure. We find that, as in the case of one-dimensional structures, photonic band gaps exist at k =0 . We also find that at points of degeneracy with order higher than 2, bands merge pairwise to form broken-PT -symmetry supermodes. If the degeneracy order is even, this means multiple pairs of bands can form distinct (nondegenerate) broken-symmetry supermodes. If the order of degeneracy is odd, at least one of the bands will have protected PT symmetry. At other points of degeneracy, we find that the PT symmetry of the modes may be protected and we provide a spatial mode symmetry argument to explain this behavior. Finally, we identify a point at which two broken-PT -symmetry supermodes become degenerate, creating a point of fourfold degeneracy in the broken-PT -symmetry regime.

  10. Coexistence of orbital degeneracy lifting and superconductivity in iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hu; Richard, Pierre; Wu, Shangfei; Ma, Jun; Qian, Tian; Xing, Lingyi; Wang, Xiancheng; Jin, Changqing; Ding, Hong; Chou, Chungpin; Wang, Limin; Ku, Wei; Wang, Ziqiang

    2014-03-01

    In iron-based superconductors, local orbital fluctuations have been proposed to be directly responsible for the structural phase transition and closely related to the observed giant magnetic anisotropy and electronic nematicity. However, whether superconductivity can emerge from, or even coexist with orbital fluctuations, remains unclear. Here we report the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy observation of the lifting of symmetry-protected band degeneracy, and consequently the breakdown of local tetragonal symmetry in the SC state of Li(Fe1-xCox)As. Supported by theoretical simulations, we analyse the doping and temperature dependences of this band-splitting and demonstrate an intimate connection between ferro-orbital correlations and superconductivity. This work was supported by grants from CAS, MOST and NSFC. Theoretical study is supported by US DOE. This work is based in part on research conducted at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, which is primarily funded by the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  11. Breaking a dark degeneracy with gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy

    2016-03-01

    We identify a scalar-tensor model embedded in the Horndeski action whose cosmological background and linear scalar fluctuations are degenerate with the concordance cosmology. The model admits a self-accelerated background expansion at late times that is stable against perturbations with a sound speed attributed to the new field that is equal to the speed of light. While degenerate in scalar fluctuations, self-acceleration of the model implies a present cosmological tensor mode propagation at lesssim95 % of the speed of light with a damping of the wave amplitude that is gtrsim5 % less efficient than in general relativity. We show that these discrepancies are endemic to self-accelerated Horndeski theories with degenerate large-scale structure and are tested with measurements of gravitational waves emitted by events at cosmological distances. Hence, gravitational-wave cosmology breaks the dark degeneracy in observations of the large-scale structure between two fundamentally different explanations of cosmic acceleration—a cosmological constant and a scalar-tensor modification of gravity. The gravitational wave event GW150914 recently detected with the aLIGO instruments and its potential association with a weak short gamma-ray burst observed with the Fermi GBM experiment may have provided this crucial measurement.

  12. Statistical description of the black hole degeneracy spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero G, J. Fernando; Villasenor, Eduardo J. S.

    2011-05-15

    We use mathematical methods based on generating functions to study the statistical properties of the black hole degeneracy spectrum in loop quantum gravity. In particular we will study the persistence of the observed effective quantization of the entropy as a function of the horizon area. We will show that this quantization disappears as the area increases despite the existence of black hole configurations with a large degeneracy. The methods that we describe here can be adapted to the study of the statistical properties of the black hole degeneracy spectrum for all the existing proposals to define black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity.

  13. Tuning Spin- and Valley-Degeneracies in Multicomponent Quantum Well Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu-Gaunkar, Sunanda

    degeneracies can be tuned with structural parameters such as growth orientation, QW width and additional confinement such as gating along specific directions. We detail a theory to calculate the ground energy of each valley in a multi-valley system, considering the influence of growth orientation, quantum confinement and miscut angles on valley degeneracies. We first study AlAs QWs grown along the high mobility (001) facet, which has two degenerate valleys. Since valley mass is anisotropic along different directions we can perform transport experiments with orientation sensitivity on specific sample geometries which permit us to distinguish between the valleys. The mass anisotropy also gives rise to anisotropy in valley resistance, and we measure the valley anisotropy ratio at various half-filling factors. The measurement of this resistance anisotropy ratio at half-filled Landau levels is the first evidence of valley ordering of Landau levels. We also study AlAs QW grown along the lower mobility and lesser studied (111) facet with three degenerate valleys. Though they have not yet been experimentally demonstrated, on-axis AlAs (111) valleys would exhibit an SU(3)-like symmetry which is of interest due to the novelty of valley texture excitations which might arise. A small miscut angle to the principle growth axis allows us to grow defect-free (111) AlAs QWs but also breaks the degeneracy. We optimize the growth with AFM, TEM and XRD morphology characterization of the GaAs, AlGaAs and AlAs layers individually and in combination on (111) GaAs substrate. We show with numerical simulations that careful selection of miscut angle with respect to the valley orientation can exactly determine the valley degeneracy breaking in this SU(3)-like system. Furthermore, the valley degeneracies that we observe with transport characterization match with the numerical simulations. By choosing current to flow along the three valley orientations, and measuring the longitudinal resistance we can

  14. The degeneracy problem in non-canonical inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Easson, Damien A.; Powell, Brian A. E-mail: brian.powell007@gmail.com

    2013-03-01

    While attempting to connect inflationary theories to observational physics, a potential difficulty is the degeneracy problem: a single set of observables maps to a range of different inflaton potentials. Two important classes of models affected by the degeneracy problem are canonical and non-canonical models, the latter marked by the presence of a non-standard kinetic term that generates observables beyond the scalar and tensor two-point functions on CMB scales. The degeneracy problem is manifest when these distinguishing observables go undetected. We quantify the size of the resulting degeneracy in this case by studying the most well-motivated non-canonical theory having Dirac-Born-Infeld Lagrangian. Beyond the scalar and tensor two-point functions on CMB scales, we then consider the possible detection of equilateral non-Gaussianity at Planck-precision and a measurement of primordial gravitational waves from prospective space-based laser interferometers. The former detection breaks the degeneracy with canonical inflation but results in poor reconstruction prospects, while the latter measurement enables a determination of n{sub T} which, while not breaking the degeneracy, can be shown to greatly improve the non-canonical reconstruction.

  15. Symmetry algebra of a generalized anisotropic harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that the symmetry Lie algebra of a quantum system with accidental degeneracy can be obtained by means of the Noether's theorem. The procedure is illustrated by considering a generalized anisotropic two dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can have an infinite set of states with the same energy characterized by an u(1,1) Lie algebra.

  16. Degeneracies in long-baseline neutrino experiments from nonstandard interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, Danny; Whisnant, Kerry

    2016-05-01

    We study parameter degeneracies that can occur in long-baseline neutrino appearance experiments due to nonstandard interactions (NSI) in neutrino propagation. For a single off-diagonal NSI parameter, and neutrino and antineutrino measurements at a single L /E , there exists a continuous four-fold degeneracy (related to the mass hierarchy and θ23 octant) that renders the mass hierarchy, octant, and C P phase unknowable. Even with a combination of NO ν A and T2K data, which in principle can resolve the degeneracy, both NSI and the C P phase remain unconstrained because of experimental uncertainties. A wide-band beam experiment like DUNE will resolve this degeneracy if the nonzero off-diagonal NSI parameter is ɛe μ. If ɛe τ is nonzero, or the diagonal NSI parameter ɛe e is O (1 ), a wrong determination of the mass hierarchy and of C P violation can occur at DUNE. The octant degeneracy can be further complicated by ɛe τ, but is not affected by ɛe e.

  17. Large degeneracy of excited hadrons and quark models

    SciTech Connect

    Bicudo, P.

    2007-11-01

    The pattern of a large approximate degeneracy of the excited hadron spectra (larger than the chiral restoration degeneracy) is present in the recent experimental report of Bugg. Here we try to model this degeneracy with state of the art quark models. We review how the Coulomb Gauge chiral invariant and confining Bethe-Salpeter equation simplifies in the case of very excited quark-antiquark mesons, including angular or radial excitations, to a Salpeter equation with an ultrarelativistic kinetic energy with the spin-independent part of the potential. The resulting meson spectrum is solved, and the excited chiral restoration is recovered, for all mesons with J>0. Applying the ultrarelativistic simplification to a linear equal-time potential, linear Regge trajectories are obtained, for both angular and radial excitations. The spectrum is also compared with the semiclassical Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization relation. However, the excited angular and radial spectra do not coincide exactly. We then search, with the classical Bertrand theorem, for central potentials producing always classical closed orbits with the ultrarelativistic kinetic energy. We find that no such potential exists, and this implies that no exact larger degeneracy can be obtained in our equal-time framework, with a single principal quantum number comparable to the nonrelativistic Coulomb or harmonic oscillator potentials. Nevertheless we find it plausible that the large experimental approximate degeneracy will be modeled in the future by quark models beyond the present state of the art.

  18. Degeneracy of Majorana bound states and fractional Josephson effect in a dirty SNS junction.

    PubMed

    Ikegaya, S; Asano, Y

    2016-09-21

    We theoretically study the stability of more than one Majorana fermion appearing in a p-wave superconductor/dirty normal metal/p-wave superconductor junction in two-dimensions by using the chiral symmetry of a Hamiltonian. At the phase difference across the junction φ being π, we will show that all of the Majorana bound states in the normal metal belong to the same chirality. Due to this pure chiral feature, the Majorana bound states retain their high degree of degeneracy at zero energy even in the presence of a random potential. As a consequence, the resonant transmission of a Cooper pair via the degenerate Majorana bound states carries the Josephson current at [Formula: see text], which explains the fractional current-phase relationship discussed in a number of previous papers. PMID:27420174

  19. Degeneracies and exotic phases in an isotropic frustrated spin-1/2 chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvej, Aslam; Kumar, Manoranjan

    2016-03-01

    In the presence of an axial magnetic field, a frustrated isotropic J1 - J2 model system shows many exotic phases, such as vector chiral and multipolar phases. In this paper, the phase boundaries of these exotic phases are calculated based on the order parameters, energy level crossings and magnetization jumps in the system. The order parameter of the vector chiral phase is calculated using the broken symmetry states at a finite magnetic field. The exact diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization group results are used to show that the vector chiral phase exists only in a narrow range of J2/J1 parameter space. In the quadrupolar phase, the magnetization jumps can be associated with the binding energy of two magnons localized at two different legs of the zigzag chain. The energy level crossings and degeneracies in the presence of the axial magnetic field are studied in detail using the exact diagonalization method.

  20. Degeneracy of Majorana bound states and fractional Josephson effect in a dirty SNS junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegaya, S.; Asano, Y.

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically study the stability of more than one Majorana fermion appearing in a p-wave superconductor/dirty normal metal/p-wave superconductor junction in two-dimensions by using the chiral symmetry of a Hamiltonian. At the phase difference across the junction φ being π, we will show that all of the Majorana bound states in the normal metal belong to the same chirality. Due to this pure chiral feature, the Majorana bound states retain their high degree of degeneracy at zero energy even in the presence of a random potential. As a consequence, the resonant transmission of a Cooper pair via the degenerate Majorana bound states carries the Josephson current at \\varphi =π -{{0}+} , which explains the fractional current-phase relationship discussed in a number of previous papers.

  1. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

  2. Pervasive flexibility in living technologies through degeneracy-based design.

    PubMed

    Whitacre, James; Bender, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to adapt can greatly influence the success of systems that need to compensate for damaged parts, learn how to achieve robust performance in new environments, or exploit novel opportunities that originate from new technological interfaces or emerging markets. Many of the conditions in which technology is required to adapt cannot be anticipated during its design stage, thus creating a challenge for the designer. Inspired by the study of a range of biological systems, we propose that degeneracy-the realization of multiple, functionally versatile components with contextually overlapping functional redundancy-will support adaptation in technologies, because it effects pervasive flexibility, evolutionary innovation, and homeostatic robustness. We provide examples of degeneracy in a number of rudimentary living technologies, from military sociotechnical systems to swarm robotics, and we present design principles-including shared protocols, loose regulatory coupling, and functional versatility-that allow degeneracy to arise in both biological and man-made systems. PMID:23834594

  3. Robust Topological and Holographic Degeneracies of Classical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh; Nussinov, Zohar; Ortiz, Gerardo

    We challenge the hypothesis that the ground states of a physical system whose degeneracy depends on topology must necessarily realize topological quantum order and display non-local entanglement. To this end, we introduce and study a classical rendition of the Toric Code model embedded on Riemann surfaces of different genus numbers. We find that the minimal ground state degeneracy (and those of all levels) depends on the topology of the embedding surface alone. As the ground states of this classical system may be distinguished by local measurements, a characteristic of Landau orders, this example illustrates that topological degeneracy is not a sufficient condition for topological quantum order. This conclusion is generic and, as shown, it applies to many other models. We also demonstrate that in certain lattice realizations of these models, and other theories, one can find a ground state entropy that is ''holographic'', i.e., extensive in the system's boundary.

  4. Symmetry matters.

    PubMed

    Moubayidin, Laila; Østergaard, Lars

    2015-09-01

    985 I. 985 II. 986 III. 987 IV. 988 V. 989 989 References 989 SUMMARY: The development of multicellular organisms depends on correct establishment of symmetry both at the whole-body scale and within individual tissues and organs. Setting up planes of symmetry must rely on communication between cells that are located at a distance from each other within the organism, presumably via mobile morphogenic signals. Although symmetry in nature has fascinated scientists for centuries, it is only now that molecular data to unravel mechanisms of symmetry establishment are beginning to emerge. As an example we describe the genetic and hormonal interactions leading to an unusual bilateral-to-radial symmetry transition of an organ in order to promote reproduction. PMID:26086581

  5. The simplicity of perfect atoms: Degeneracies in supersymmetric hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.

    2011-06-15

    Supersymmetric QED hydrogen-like bound states are remarkably similar to nonsupersymmetric hydrogen, including an accidental degeneracy of the fine structure and is broken by the Lamb shift. This article classifies the states, calculates the leading order spectrum, and illustrates the results in several limits. The relation to other nonrelativistic bound states is explored.

  6. The simplicity of perfect atoms: Degeneracies in supersymmetric hydrogen

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.

    2011-06-07

    In this study, supersymmetric QED hydrogen-like bound states are remarkably similar to nonsupersymmetric hydrogen, including an accidental degeneracy of the fine structure and is broken by the Lamb shift. This article classifies the states, calculates the leading order spectrum, and illustrates the results in several limits. The relation to other nonrelativistic bound states is explored.

  7. Degeneracy of energy levels of pseudo-Gaussian oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Iacob, Theodor-Felix; Iacob, Felix; Lute, Marina

    2015-12-07

    We study the main features of the isotropic radial pseudo-Gaussian oscillators spectral properties. This study is made upon the energy levels degeneracy with respect to orbital angular momentum quantum number. In a previous work [6] we have shown that the pseudo-Gaussian oscillators belong to the class of quasi-exactly solvable models and an exact solution has been found.

  8. Quantification of degeneracy in Hodgkin-Huxley neurons on Newman-Watts small world network.

    PubMed

    Man, Menghua; Zhang, Ya; Ma, Guilei; Friston, Karl; Liu, Shanghe

    2016-08-01

    Degeneracy is a fundamental source of biological robustness, complexity and evolvability in many biological systems. However, degeneracy is often confused with redundancy. Furthermore, the quantification of degeneracy has not been addressed for realistic neuronal networks. The objective of this paper is to characterize degeneracy in neuronal network models via quantitative mathematic measures. Firstly, we establish Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks with Newman-Watts small world network architectures. Secondly, in order to calculate the degeneracy, redundancy and complexity in the ensuing networks, we use information entropy to quantify the information a neuronal response carries about the stimulus - and mutual information to measure the contribution of each subset of the neuronal network. Finally, we analyze the interdependency of degeneracy, redundancy and complexity - and how these three measures depend upon network architectures. Our results suggest that degeneracy can be applied to any neuronal network as a formal measure, and degeneracy is distinct from redundancy. Qualitatively degeneracy and complexity are more highly correlated over different network architectures, in comparison to redundancy. Quantitatively, the relationship between both degeneracy and redundancy depends on network coupling strength: both degeneracy and redundancy increase with complexity for small coupling strengths; however, as coupling strength increases, redundancy decreases with complexity (in contrast to degeneracy, which is relatively invariant). These results suggest that the degeneracy is a general topologic characteristic of neuronal networks, which could be applied quantitatively in neuroscience and connectomics. PMID:27155043

  9. Degeneracy Lifting Effect in the FTIR Spectrum of Fluoroform Trapped in a Nitrogen Matrix. An Experimental and Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Asfin, Ruslan E; Melikova, Sona M; Domanskaya, Alexandra V; Rodziewicz, Paweł; Rutkowski, Konstantin S

    2016-05-26

    The FTIR spectra of fluoroform trapped in argon and nitrogen matrixes are studied at T ∼ 10-30 K. The bands of E symmetry show the splitting effect in a nitrogen matrix, which is absent in an argon matrix. The effect is the most prominent in the case of the ν4 CH bending vibration. It decreases slightly with increasing temperature. Both static and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamic simulations suggest that the degeneracy lifting is due to C3v symmetry lowering caused by interactions between fluoroform and all neighbor N2 matrix molecules. PMID:27149085

  10. Gap solitons in superfluid boson-fermion mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Malomed, Boris A.

    2007-10-15

    Using coupled equations for the bosonic and fermionic order parameters, we construct families of gap solitons (GSs) in a nearly one-dimensional Bose-Fermi mixture trapped in a periodic optical-lattice (OL) potential, the boson and fermion components being in the states of the Bose-Einstein condensation and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superfluid, respectively. Fundamental GSs are compact states trapped, essentially, in a single cell of the lattice. Full families of such solutions are constructed in the first two band gaps of the OL-induced spectrum, by means of variational and numerical methods, which are found to be in good agreement. The families include both intragap and intergap solitons, with the chemical potentials of the boson and fermion components falling in the same or different band gaps, respectively. Nonfundamental states, extended over several lattice cells, are constructed too. The GSs are stable against strong perturbations.

  11. Accidental degeneracy in photonic bands and topological phase transitions in two-dimensional core-shell dielectric photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang; Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A simple core-shell two-dimensional photonic crystal is studied where the triangle lattice symmetry and $C_{6v}$ rotation symmetry leads to rich physics in the study of accidental degeneracy's in photonic bands. We systematically evaluate different types of accidental nodal points, depending on the dispersions around them and their topological properties, when the geometry and permittivity are continuously changed. These accidental nodal points can be the critical states lying between a topological phase and a normal phase and are thus important for the study of topological photonic states. In time-reversal systems, this leads to the photonic quantum spin Hall insulator where the spin is defined upon the orbital angular momentum for transverse-magnetic polarization. We study the topological phase transition as well as the properties of the edge and bulk states and their application potentials in optics.

  12. Semiclassical degeneracies and ordering for highly frustrated magnets in a field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, S. R.; Moessner, R.

    2006-03-01

    We discuss ground-state selection by quantum fluctuations in frustrated magnets in a strong magnetic field. We show that there exist dynamical symmetries—one a generalization of Henley’s gauge like symmetry for collinear spins, the other the quantum relict of non collinear weathervane modes—which ensure a partial survival of the classical degeneracies. We illustrate these for the case of the kagome magnet, where we find zero-point energy differences to be rather small everywhere except near the collinear “up-up-down” configurations, where there is rotational but not translational symmetry breaking. In the effective Hamiltonian, we demonstrate the presence of a term sensitive to a topological “flux.” We discuss the connection of such problems to gauge theories by casting the frustrated lattices as medial lattices of appropriately chosen simplex lattices, and in particular we show how the magnetic field can be used to tune the physical sector of the resulting gauge theories.

  13. Breaking the Symmetry in Molecular Nanorings.

    PubMed

    Gong, Juliane Q; Favereau, Ludovic; Anderson, Harry L; Herz, Laura M

    2016-01-21

    Because of their unique electronic properties, cyclic molecular structures ranging from benzene to natural light-harvesting complexes have received much attention. Rigid π-conjugated templated porphyrin nanorings serve as excellent model systems here because they possess well-defined structures that can readily be controlled and because they support highly delocalized excitations. In this study, we have deliberately modified a series of six-porphyrin nanorings to examine the impact of lowering the rotational symmetry on their photophysical properties. We reveal that as symmetry distortions increase in severity along the series of structures, spectral changes and an enhancement of radiative emission strength occur, which derive from a transfer of oscillator strength into the lowest (k = 0) state. We find that concomitantly, the degeneracy of the dipole-allowed first excited (k = ±1) state is lifted, leading to an ultrafast polarization switching effect in the emission from strongly symmetry-broken nanorings. PMID:26735906

  14. Breaking the Symmetry in Molecular Nanorings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Because of their unique electronic properties, cyclic molecular structures ranging from benzene to natural light-harvesting complexes have received much attention. Rigid π-conjugated templated porphyrin nanorings serve as excellent model systems here because they possess well-defined structures that can readily be controlled and because they support highly delocalized excitations. In this study, we have deliberately modified a series of six-porphyrin nanorings to examine the impact of lowering the rotational symmetry on their photophysical properties. We reveal that as symmetry distortions increase in severity along the series of structures, spectral changes and an enhancement of radiative emission strength occur, which derive from a transfer of oscillator strength into the lowest (k = 0) state. We find that concomitantly, the degeneracy of the dipole-allowed first excited (k = ±1) state is lifted, leading to an ultrafast polarization switching effect in the emission from strongly symmetry-broken nanorings. PMID:26735906

  15. A torus bifurcation theorem with symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangils, S. A.; Golubitsky, M.

    1989-01-01

    Hopf bifurcation in the presence of symmetry, in situations where the normal form equations decouple into phase/amplitude equations is described. A theorem showing that in general such degeneracies are expected to lead to secondary torus bifurcations is proved. By applying this theorem to the case of degenerate Hopf bifurcation with triangular symmetry it is proved that in codimension two there exist regions of parameter space where two branches of asymptotically stable two-tori coexist but where no stable periodic solutions are present. Although a theory was not derived for degenerate Hopf bifurcations in the presence of symmetry, examples are presented that would have to be accounted for by any such general theory.

  16. Oscillation degeneracy in non-standard neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Warren

    2016-06-01

    The standard theory describing neutrino oscillations only uses the interactions predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. However, there is plenty of room for non-standard interactions (NSI) to exist. This is because extra interactions are allowed by experimental error bars and even expected at some level from effective theory arguments. This research is focused on examining the phenomenological consequences of the new physics of NSI at large atmospheric neutrino detectors like IceCube DeepCore. Of particular focus are the degeneracies between and within the standard neutrino oscillation parameters and the NSI parameters. These degeneracies will be explored both analytically and numerically, and strategies to lift them will also be discussed. This research is largely based on [1].

  17. Topological entanglement entropy, ground state degeneracy and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnachev, Andrei; Poovuttikul, Napat

    2015-10-01

    Topological entanglement entropy, a measure of the long-ranged entanglement, is related to the degeneracy of the ground state on a higher genus surface. The exact relation depends on the details of the topological theory. We consider a class of holographic models where such relation might be similar to the one exhibited by Chern-Simons theory in a certain large N limit. Both the non-vanishing topological entanglement entropy and the ground state degeneracy in these holographic models are consequences of the topological Gauss-Bonnet term in the dual gravitational description. A soft wall holographic model of confinement is used to generate finite correlation length but keep the disk topology of the entangling surface in the bulk, necessary for nonvanishing topological entanglement entropy.

  18. A backtracking algorithm that deals with particle filter degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baarsma, Rein; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Particle filters are an excellent way to deal with stochastic models incorporating Bayesian data assimilation. While they are computationally demanding, the particle filter has no problem with nonlinearity and it accepts non-Gaussian observational data. In the geoscientific field it is this computational demand that creates a problem, since dynamic grid-based models are often already quite computationally demanding. As such it is of the utmost importance to keep the amount of samples in the filter as small as possible. Small sample populations often lead to filter degeneracy however, especially in models with high stochastic forcing. Filter degeneracy renders the sample population useless, as the population is no longer statistically informative. We have created an algorithm in an existing data assimilation framework that reacts to and deals with filter degeneracy based on Spiller et al. [2008]. During the Bayesian updating step of the standard particle filter, the algorithm tests the sample population for filter degeneracy. If filter degeneracy has occurred, the algorithm resets to the last time the filter did work correctly and recalculates the failed timespan of the filter with an increased sample population. The sample population is then reduced to its original size and the particle filter continues as normal. This algorithm was created in the PCRaster Python framework, an open source tool that enables spatio-temporal forward modelling in Python [Karssenberg et al., 2010] . The framework already contains several data assimilation algorithms, including a standard particle filter and a Kalman filter. The backtracking particle filter algorithm has been added to the framework, which will make it easy to implement in other research. The performance of the backtracking particle filter is tested against a standard particle filter using two models. The first is a simple nonlinear point model, and the second is a more complex geophysical model. The main testing

  19. Inherited Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attanucci, Frank J.; Losse, John

    2008-01-01

    In a first calculus course, it is not unusual for students to encounter the theorems which state: If f is an even (odd) differentiable function, then its derivative is odd (even). In our paper, we prove some theorems which show how the symmetry of a continuous function f with respect to (i) the vertical line: x = a or (ii) with respect to the…

  20. Chiral symmetry in rotating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2015-08-01

    The triaxial rotating system at critical angular momentum I ≥Iband exhibits two enatiomeric (the left- and right-handed) forms. These enatiomers are related to each other through dynamical chiral symmetry. The chiral symmetry in rotating system is defined by an operator χ ˆ =Rˆy (π) T ˆ, which involves the product of two distinct symmetries, namely, continuous and discrete. Therefore, new guidelines are required for testing its commutation with the system Hamiltonian. One of the primary objectives of this study is to lay down these guidelines. Further, the possible impact of chiral symmetry on the geometrical arrangement of angular momentum vectors and investigation of observables unique to nuclear chiral-twins is carried out. In our model, the angular momentum components (J1, J2, J3) occupy three mutually perpendicular axes of triaxial shape and represent a non-planar configuration. At certain threshold energy, the equation of motion in angular momentum develops a second order phase transition and as a result two distinct frames (i.e., the left- and right-handed) are formed. These left- and right-handed states correspond to a double well system and are related to each other through chiral operator. At this critical angular momentum, the centrifugal and Coriolis interactions lower the barrier in the double well system. The tunneling through the double well starts, which subsequently lifts the degeneracy among the rotational states. A detailed analysis of the behavior of rotational energies, spin-staggering, and the electromagnetic transition probabilities of the resulting twin-rotational bands is presented. The ensuing model results exhibit similarities with many observed features of the chiral-twins. An advantage of our formalism is that it is quite simple and it allows us to pinpoint the understanding of physical phenomenon which lead to chiral-twins in rotating systems.

  1. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification. PMID:19498762

  2. Large and exact quantum degeneracy in a skyrmion magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douçot, B.; Kovrizhin, D. L.; Moessner, R.

    2016-03-01

    We identify a large family of ground states of a topological C PN -1 skyrmion magnet whose classical degeneracy persists to all orders in a semiclassical expansion. This goes along with an exceptional robustness of the concomitant ground-state configurations, which are not at all dressed by quantum fluctuations. We trace these twin observations back to a common root: this class of topological ground states saturates a Bogomolny inequality. A similar phenomenology occurs in high-energy physics for some field theories exhibiting supersymmetry. We propose quantum Hall ferromagnets, where these skyrmions configurations arise naturally as ground states away from integer filling, as the best available laboratory realisations.

  3. Absence of Hole Confinement in Transition Metal Oxides with Orbital Degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghofer, Maria; Wohlfeld, Krzysztof; Oles, Andrzej M.; Arrigoni, Enrico; Horsch, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The compounds with orbital degrees of freedom exhibit many possible scenarios for hole propagation which in most cases lead to hole localization [1]. Here we investigate the spectral properties of a hole moving in a two-dimensional Hubbard model for strongly correlated t2g electrons. Although superexchange interactions are Ising-like, a quasi-one-dimensional coherent hole motion arises due to effective three-site terms. This mechanism is fundamentally different either from the hole motion via quantum fluctuations in the conventional spin model with SU(2) symmetry or from the eg orbital model [2]. The present orbital model describes also propagation of a hole in some eg compounds [3], and we argue that orbital degeneracy alone does not lead to hole self-localization. [1] J. Zaanen and A.M. Ole's, Phys. Rev. B 48, 7197 (1993). [2] J. van den Brink, P. Horsch, and A.M. Ole's, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5174 (2000). [3] M. Daghofer, A.M. Ole's, and W. von der Linden, Phys. Rev. B 70, 184430 (2004).

  4. Degeneracy, frequency response and filtering in IMRT optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llacer, Jorge; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D.; Promberger, Claus

    2004-07-01

    This paper attempts to provide an answer to some questions that remain either poorly understood, or not well documented in the literature, on basic issues related to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The questions examined are: the relationship between degeneracy and frequency response of optimizations, effects of initial beamlet fluence assignment and stopping point, what does filtering of an optimized beamlet map actually do and how could image analysis help to obtain better optimizations? Two target functions are studied, a quadratic cost function and the log likelihood function of the dynamically penalized likelihood (DPL) algorithm. The algorithms used are the conjugate gradient, the stochastic adaptive simulated annealing and the DPL. One simple phantom is used to show the development of the analysis tools used and two clinical cases of medium and large dose matrix size (a meningioma and a prostate) are studied in detail. The conclusions reached are that the high number of iterations that is needed to avoid degeneracy is not warranted in clinical practice, as the quality of the optimizations, as judged by the DVHs and dose distributions obtained, does not improve significantly after a certain point. It is also shown that the optimum initial beamlet fluence assignment for analytical iterative algorithms is a uniform distribution, but such an assignment does not help a stochastic method of optimization. Stopping points for the studied algorithms are discussed and the deterioration of DVH characteristics with filtering is shown to be partially recoverable by the use of space-variant filtering techniques.

  5. Degeneracy allows for both apparent homogeneity and diversification in populations

    PubMed Central

    Whitacre, James M.; Atamas, Sergei P.

    2013-01-01

    Trait diversity – the substrate for natural selection – is necessary for adaptation through selection, particularly in populations faced with environmental changes that diminish population fitness. In habitats that remain unchanged for many generations, stabilizing selection maximizes exploitation of resources by reducing trait diversity to a narrow optimal range. One might expect that such ostensibly homogeneous populations would have a reduced potential for heritable adaptive responses when faced with fitness-reducing environmental changes. However, field studies have documented populations that, even after long periods of evolutionary stasis, can still rapidly evolve in response to changed environmental conditions. We argue that degeneracy, the ability of diverse population elements to function similarly, can satisfy both the current need to maximize fitness and the future need for diversity. Degenerate ensembles appear functionally redundant in certain environmental contexts and functionally diverse in others. We propose that genetic variation not contributing to the observed range of phenotypes in a current population, also known as cryptic genetic variation (CGV), is a specific case of degeneracy. We argue that CGV, which gradually accumulates in static populations in stable environments, reveals hidden trait differences when environments change. By allowing CGV accumulation, static populations prepare themselves for future rapid adaptations to environmental novelty. A greater appreciation of degeneracy’s role in resolving the inherent tension between current stabilizing selection and future directional selection has implications in conservation biology and may be applied in social and technological systems to maximize current performance while strengthening the potential for future changes. PMID:22910487

  6. Fate of accidental symmetries of the relativistic hydrogen atom in a spherical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2015-11-01

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental SO(4) symmetry, that enlarges the rotational SO(3) symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius R with perfectly reflecting Robin boundary conditions, characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter γ, in general the accidental SO(4) symmetry is lifted. However, for R =(l + 1) (l + 2) a (where a is the Bohr radius and l is the orbital angular momentum) some degeneracy remains when γ = ∞ or γ =2/R. In the relativistic case, we consider the most general spherically and parity invariant boundary condition, which is characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter. In this case, the remnant accidental symmetry is always lifted in a finite volume. We also investigate the accidental symmetry in the context of the Pauli equation, which sheds light on the proper non-relativistic treatment including spin. In that case, again some degeneracy remains for specific values of R and γ.

  7. Broken Symmetry

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    - Physics, as we know it, attempts to interpret the diverse natural phenomena as particular manifestations of general laws. This vision of a world ruled by general testable laws is relatively recent in the history of mankind. Basically it was initiated by the Galilean inertial principle. The subsequent rapid development of large-scale physics is certainly tributary to the fact that gravitational and electromagnetic forces are long-range and hence can be perceived directly without the mediation of highly sophisticated technical devices. - The discovery of subatomic structures and of the concomitant weak and strong short-range forces raised the question of how to cope with short-range forces in relativistic quantum field theory. The Fermi theory of weak interactions, formulated in terms of point-like current-current interaction, was well-defined in lowest order perturbation theory and accounted for existing experimental data.However, it was inconsistent in higher orders because of uncontrollable divergent quantum fluctuations. In technical terms, in contradistinction to quantum electrodynamics, the Fermi theorywas not ?renormalizable?. This difficulty could not be solved by smoothing the point-like interaction by a massive, and therefore short-range, charged ?vector? particle exchange: theories with massive charged vector bosons were not renormalizable either. In the early nineteen sixties, there seemed to be insuperable obstacles to formulating a consistent theory with short-range forces mediated by massive vectors. - The breakthrough came from the notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking which arose in the study of phase transitions and was introduced in field theory by Nambu in 1960. - Ferromagnets illustrate the notion in phase transitions. Although no direction is dynamically preferred, the magnetization selects a global orientation. This is a spontaneous broken symmetry(SBS)of rotational invariance. Such continuous SBS imply the existence of ?massless? modes

  8. Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with unitary and antiunitary symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández, Francisco M. Garcia, Javier

    2014-03-15

    We analyse several non-Hermitian Hamiltonians with antiunitary symmetry from the point of view of their point-group symmetry. It enables us to predict the degeneracy of the energy levels and to reduce the dimension of the matrices necessary for the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in a given basis set. We can also classify the solutions according to the irreducible representations of the point group and thus analyse their properties separately. One of the main results of this paper is that some PT-symmetric Hamiltonians with point-group symmetry C{sub 2v} exhibit complex eigenvalues for all values of a potential parameter. In such cases the PT phase transition takes place at the trivial Hermitian limit which suggests that the phenomenon is not robust. Point-group symmetry enables us to explain such anomalous behaviour and to choose a suitable antiunitary operator for the PT symmetry. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •PT-symmetric multidimensional oscillators appear to show PT phase transitions. •This transition was conjectured to be a high-energy phenomenon. •We show that point group symmetry is useful for predicting broken PT symmetry in multidimensional oscillators. •PT-symmetric oscillators with C{sub 2v} symmetry exhibit phase transitions at the trivial Hermitian limit.

  9. Epigenomics and the concept of degeneracy in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Paul H.; Barron, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of epigenomics are developing more nuanced understandings of biological complexity, and exploring the multiple pathways that lead to phenotypic expression. The concept of degeneracy—referring to the multiple pathways that a system recruits to achieve functional plasticity—is an important conceptual accompaniment to the growing body of knowledge in epigenomics. Distinct from degradation, redundancy and dilapidation; degeneracy refers to the plasticity of traits whose function overlaps in some environments, but diverges in others. While a redundant system is composed of repeated identical elements performing the same function, a degenerate system is composed of different elements performing similar or overlapping functions. Here, we describe the degenerate structure of gene regulatory systems from the basic genetic code to flexible epigenomic modifications, and discuss how these structural features have contributed to organism complexity, robustness, plasticity and evolvability. PMID:24335757

  10. One-Dimensional Traps, Two-Body Interactions, Few-Body Symmetries. II. N Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshman, N. L.

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a pair of articles that classify the configuration space and kinematic symmetry groups for N identical particles in one-dimensional traps experiencing Galilean-invariant two-body interactions. These symmetries explain degeneracies in the few-body spectrum and demonstrate how tuning the trap shape and the particle interactions can manipulate these degeneracies. The additional symmetries that emerge in the non-interacting limit and in the unitary limit of an infinitely strong contact interaction are sufficient to algebraically solve for the spectrum and degeneracy in terms of the one-particle observables. Symmetry also determines the degree to which the algebraic expressions for energy level shifts by weak interactions or nearly-unitary interactions are universal, i.e. independent of trap shape and details of the interaction. Identical fermions and bosons with and without spin are considered. This article analyzes the symmetries of N particles in asymmetric, symmetric, and harmonic traps; the prequel article treats the one, two and three particle cases.

  11. Symmetry analysis of translational symmetry broken density waves: Application to hexagonal lattices in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venderbos, J. W. F.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we introduce a symmetry classification for electronic density waves which break translational symmetry due to commensurate wave-vector modulations. The symmetry classification builds on the concept of extended point groups: symmetry groups which contain, in addition to the lattice point group, translations that do not map the enlarged unit cell of the density wave to itself, and become "nonsymmorphic"-like elements. Multidimensional representations of the extended point group are associated with degenerate wave vectors. Electronic properties such as (nodal) band degeneracies and topological character can be straightforwardly addressed, and often follow directly. To further flesh out the idea of symmetry, the classification is constructed so as to manifestly distinguish time-reversal invariant charge (i.e., site and bond) order, and time-reversal breaking flux order. For the purpose of this work, we particularize to spin-rotation invariant density waves. As a first example of the application of the classification we consider the density waves of a simple single- and two-orbital square lattice model. The main objective, however, is to apply the classification to two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattices, specifically the triangular and the honeycomb lattices. The multicomponent density waves corresponding to the commensurate M -point ordering vectors are worked out in detail. To show that our results generally apply to 2 D hexagonal lattices, we develop a general low-energy SU(3 ) theory of (spinless) saddle-point electrons.

  12. Some symmetries in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Internal and space-time symmetries are discussed in this group of lectures. The first of the lectures deals with an internal symmetry, or rather two related symmetries called charge independence and charge symmetry. The next two discuss space-time symmetries which also hold approximately, but are broken only by the weak forces; that is, these symmetries hold for both the hadronic and electromagnetic forces. (GHT)

  13. Symmetry for the nonadiabatic transition in Floquet states

    SciTech Connect

    Hijii, Keigo; Miyashita, Seiji

    2010-01-15

    The frequency of the Rabi oscillation driven by a periodic external field varies with the parameters of the external field, e.g., frequency and amplitude, and it becomes zero at some points of the parameters, which is called coherent destruction of tunneling. This phenomenon is understood as a degeneracy of the Floquet quasienergies as a function of the parameters. We prove that the time-reversal symmetry of the external field is a necessary condition of the degeneracy. We demonstrate the gap opening in the quasienergy spectrum in asymmetrically periodically driven systems. Moreover, an adiabatic transition of the Floquet states is demonstrated and analyzed in the analogy to the Landau-Zener transition.

  14. CMB power spectrum parameter degeneracies in the era of precision cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Howlett, Cullan; Lewis, Antony; Hall, Alex; Challinor, Anthony E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info E-mail: adc1000@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2012-04-01

    Cosmological parameter constraints from the CMB power spectra alone suffer several well-known degeneracies. These degeneracies can be broken by numerical artefacts and also a variety of physical effects that become quantitatively important with high-accuracy data e.g. from the Planck satellite. We study degeneracies in models with flat and non-flat spatial sections, non-trivial dark energy and massive neutrinos, and investigate the importance of various physical degeneracy-breaking effects. We test the CAMB power spectrum code for numerical accuracy, and demonstrate that the numerical calculations are accurate enough for degeneracies to be broken mainly by true physical effects (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, CMB lensing and geometrical and other effects through recombination) rather than numerical artefacts. We quantify the impact of CMB lensing on the power spectra, which inevitably provides degeneracy-breaking information even without using information in the non-Gaussianity. Finally we check the numerical accuracy of sample-based parameter constraints using CAMB and COSMOMC. In an appendix we document recent changes to CAMB's numerical treatment of massive neutrino perturbations, which are tested along with other recent improvements by our degeneracy exploration results.

  15. Degeneracy, degree, and heavy tails in quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Andrew D.; Hoskinson, Emile; Lanting, Trevor; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammad H.

    2016-05-01

    Both simulated quantum annealing and physical quantum annealing have shown the emergence of "heavy tails" in their performance as optimizers: The total time needed to solve a set of random input instances is dominated by a small number of very hard instances. Classical simulated annealing, in contrast, does not show such heavy tails. Here we explore the origin of these heavy tails, which appear for inputs with high local degeneracy—large isoenergetic clusters of states in Hamming space. This category includes the low-precision Chimera-structured problems studied in recent benchmarking work comparing the D-Wave Two quantum annealing processor with simulated annealing. On similar inputs designed to suppress local degeneracy, performance of a quantum annealing processor on hard instances improves by orders of magnitude at the 512-qubit scale, while classical performance remains relatively unchanged. Simulations indicate that perturbative crossings are the primary factor contributing to these heavy tails, while sensitivity to Hamiltonian misspecification error plays a less significant role in this particular setting.

  16. Dynamics versus structure: breaking the density degeneracy in star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Richard J.

    2014-12-01

    The initial density of individual star-forming regions (and by extension the birth environment of planetary systems) is difficult to constrain due to the `density degeneracy problem': an initially dense region expands faster than a more quiescent region due to two-body relaxation and so two regions with the same observed present-day density may have had very different initial densities. We constrain the initial densities of seven nearby star-forming regions by folding in information on their spatial structure from the {Q}-parameter and comparing the structure and present-day density to the results of N-body simulations. This in turn places strong constraints on the possible effects of dynamical interactions and radiation fields from massive stars on multiple systems and protoplanetary discs. We apply our method to constrain the initial binary population in each of these seven regions and show that the populations in only three - the Orion Nebula Cluster, ρ Oph, and Corona Australis - are consistent with having evolved from the Kroupa universal initial period distribution and a binary fraction of unity.

  17. Pseudospin symmetry in nuclear structure and its supersymmetric representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, H. Z.

    2016-08-01

    The quasi-degeneracy between the single-particle states (n,l,j=l+1/2) and (n-1,l+2,j=l+3/2) indicates a special and hidden symmetry in atomic nuclei—the so-called pseudospin symmetry (PSS)—which is an important concept in both spherical and deformed nuclei. A number of phenomena in nuclear structure have been successfully interpreted directly or implicitly by this symmetry, including nuclear superdeformed configurations, identical bands, quantized alignment, pseudospin partner bands, and so on. Since the PSS was recognized as a relativistic symmetry in 1990s, there have been comprehensive efforts to understand its properties in various systems and potentials. In this review, we mainly focus on the latest progress on the supersymmetric (SUSY) representation of PSS, and one of the key targets is to understand its symmetry-breaking mechanism in realistic nuclei in a quantitative and perturbative way. The SUSY quantum mechanics and its applications to the SU(2) and U(3) symmetries of the Dirac Hamiltonian are discussed in detail. It is shown that the origin of PSS and its symmetry-breaking mechanism, which are deeply hidden in the origin Hamiltonian, can be traced by its SUSY partner Hamiltonian. Essential open questions, such as the SUSY representation of PSS in the deformed system, are pointed out.

  18. Free electron degeneracy effects on collisional excitation, ionization, de-excitation and three-body recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallents, G. J.

    2016-09-01

    Collisional-radiative models enable average ionization and ionization populations, plus the rates of absorption and emission of radiation to be calculated for plasmas not in thermal equilbrium. At high densities and low temperatures, electrons may have a high occupancy of the free electron quantum states and evaluations of rate coefficients need to take into account the free electron degeneracy. We demonstrate that electron degeneracy can reduce collisional rate coefficients by orders-of-magnitude from values calculated neglecting degeneracy. We show that assumptions regarding the collisional differential cross-section can alter collisional ionization and recombination rate coefficients by a further factor two under conditions relevant to inertial fusion.

  19. Linear electronic transport in dense plasmas. II. Finite degeneracy contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, D.; Deutsch, C.

    1991-06-01

    The formalism described in the first paper in this series is hereafter specialized to a thorough investigation of finite degeneracy contributions to thermoelectronic and mechanical transport coefficients, conveniently expressed as reduced quantities. Temperature corrections are systematically discussed through the analytical properties of the jellium dielectric function. The Thomas-Fermi one appears as a paradigm of regular behavior at q=2k_F while the Lindhard and its T-dependent extension head a singular class characterized by diverging derivatives. Specific methods are developed for these important cases. Results are presented in terms of analytic expansions in the degeneracy parameter α, and exact expressions for the above-mentioned corrections are derived up to order α2. Finally we display a number of numerical results pertaining to fully ionized proton-helium binary mixtures of Astrophysical interest. The connection of the present formalism and its numerical outputs with other previous treatments is also carefully examined. Le formalisme exposé et détaillé dans le premier article de cette série est ici appliqué à la détermination des contributions de dégénérescence partielle aux coefficients de transport thermoélectroniques et mécanique (viscosité), coefficients préalablement exprimés sous forme d'expressions réduites. Les corrections de température finie sont systématiquement analysées en relation avec les propriétés analytiques de la fonction diélectrique du jellium. Alors que celle de Thomas-Fermi fournit l'exemple type de fonction parfaitement régulière en q=2k_F, celle de Lindhard et sa généralisation à T finie sont au contraire caractérisées par des dérivées divergentes en ce point. Des méthodes spécifiques sont développées pour traiter correctement ces cas importants. Nos résultats sont présentés sous forme de développements analytiques en puissance du paramètre de dégénérescence α, et des expressions

  20. Dynamic symmetries and quantum nonadiabatic transitions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Fuxiang; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2016-05-30

    Kramers degeneracy theorem is one of the basic results in quantum mechanics. According to it, the time-reversal symmetry makes each energy level of a half-integer spin system at least doubly degenerate, meaning the absence of transitions or scatterings between degenerate states if the Hamiltonian does not depend on time explicitly. Here we generalize this result to the case of explicitly time-dependent spin Hamiltonians. We prove that for a spin system with the total spin being a half integer, if its Hamiltonian and the evolution time interval are symmetric under a specifically defined time reversal operation, the scattering amplitude between anmore » arbitrary initial state and its time reversed counterpart is exactly zero. Lastly, we also discuss applications of this result to the multistate Landau–Zener (LZ) theory.« less

  1. Quantum degeneracy corrections to plasma line emission and to Saha equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, V. G.; Mostacci, D.; Rocchi, F.; Sumini, M.

    2003-09-01

    The effect of quantum degeneracy on the electron collisional excitation is investigated, and its effects on line emission evaluated for applications to spectroscopy of dense, cold plasmas. A correction to Saha equation for weakly-degenerate plasmas is also presented.

  2. The effect of degeneracy parameter on Weibel instability in dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdavi, M.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, the role of degeneracy parameter, in both directions parallel and perpendicular with propagation direction of the laser beam in plasma, on the growth rate of Weibel instability, is studied. Calculations show that with the temperature anisotropy, β = T{sub ∥}/T{sub ⊥} = 0.2 and a 0.75 times reduction of the degeneracy parameter, the increased rate of the the Weibel instability growth rate is 72%. The degeneracy required for minimal growth rate in interaction laser plasma with a density of 1.2 × 10{sup 32}m{sup −3}, is larger than 3. The reduction of temperature and the degeneracy parameter of plasma in parallel direction will also increase growth rate about 30% more than incrossing degeneracy parameter in transverse direction. With the minimum pressure costs of cold compression, subsequent degeneracy parameters, and the minimum value of electron quiver energy, we can expect growth rate of Weibel instability order 0.01.

  3. Degeneracy between mass and spin in black-hole-binary waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Emily; Fairhurst, Stephen; Hannam, Mark; Murphy, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We explore the degeneracy between mass and spin in gravitational waveforms emitted by black-hole-binary coalescences. We focus on spin-aligned waveforms and obtain our results using phenomenological models that were tuned to numerical-relativity simulations. A degeneracy is known for low-mass binaries (particularly neutron-star binaries), where gravitational-wave detectors are sensitive to only the inspiral phase, and the waveform can be modeled by post-Newtonian theory. Here, we consider black-hole binaries, where detectors will also be sensitive to the merger and ringdown, and demonstrate that the degeneracy persists across a broad mass range. At low masses, the degeneracy is between mass ratio and the black-hole spins, with chirp mass accurately determined. At higher masses, the degeneracy persists but is not so clearly characterized by constant chirp mass as the merger and ringdown become more significant. We consider the importance of this degeneracy both for performing searches (including searches where only nonspinning templates are used) and in parameter extraction from observed systems. We compare observational capabilities between the early (˜2015) and final (2018 onwards) versions of the Advanced LIGO detector.

  4. Hypersensitive Transport in Photonic Crystals with Accidental Spatial Degeneracies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makri, Eleana; Smith, Kyle; Chabanov, Andrey; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2016-02-01

    A localized mode in a photonic layered structure can develop nodal points (nodal planes), where the oscillating electric field is negligible. Placing a thin metallic layer at such a nodal point results in the phenomenon of induced transmission. Here we demonstrate that if the nodal point is not a point of symmetry, then even a tiny alteration of the permittivity in the vicinity of the metallic layer drastically suppresses the localized mode along with the resonant transmission. This renders the layered structure highly reflective within a broad frequency range. Applications of this hypersensitive transport for optical and microwave limiting and switching are discussed.

  5. Hypersensitive Transport in Photonic Crystals with Accidental Spatial Degeneracies

    PubMed Central

    Makri, Eleana; Smith, Kyle; Chabanov, Andrey; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2016-01-01

    A localized mode in a photonic layered structure can develop nodal points (nodal planes), where the oscillating electric field is negligible. Placing a thin metallic layer at such a nodal point results in the phenomenon of induced transmission. Here we demonstrate that if the nodal point is not a point of symmetry, then even a tiny alteration of the permittivity in the vicinity of the metallic layer drastically suppresses the localized mode along with the resonant transmission. This renders the layered structure highly reflective within a broad frequency range. Applications of this hypersensitive transport for optical and microwave limiting and switching are discussed. PMID:26903232

  6. Hypersensitive Transport in Photonic Crystals with Accidental Spatial Degeneracies.

    PubMed

    Makri, Eleana; Smith, Kyle; Chabanov, Andrey; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2016-01-01

    A localized mode in a photonic layered structure can develop nodal points (nodal planes), where the oscillating electric field is negligible. Placing a thin metallic layer at such a nodal point results in the phenomenon of induced transmission. Here we demonstrate that if the nodal point is not a point of symmetry, then even a tiny alteration of the permittivity in the vicinity of the metallic layer drastically suppresses the localized mode along with the resonant transmission. This renders the layered structure highly reflective within a broad frequency range. Applications of this hypersensitive transport for optical and microwave limiting and switching are discussed. PMID:26903232

  7. Chemical potential and reaction electronic flux in symmetry controlled reactions.

    PubMed

    Vogt-Geisse, Stefan; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2016-07-15

    In symmetry controlled reactions, orbital degeneracies among orbitals of different symmetries can occur along a reaction coordinate. In such case Koopmans' theorem and the finite difference approximation provide a chemical potential profile with nondifferentiable points. This results in an ill-defined reaction electronic flux (REF) profile, since it is defined as the derivative of the chemical potential with respect to the reaction coordinate. To overcome this deficiency, we propose a new way for the calculation of the chemical potential based on a many orbital approach, suitable for reactions in which symmetry is preserved. This new approach gives rise to a new descriptor: symmetry adapted chemical potential (SA-CP), which is the chemical potential corresponding to a given irreducible representation of a symmetry group. A corresponding symmetry adapted reaction electronic flux (SA-REF) is also obtained. Using this approach smooth chemical potential profiles and well defined REFs are achieved. An application of SA-CP and SA-REF is presented by studying the Cs enol-keto tautomerization of thioformic acid. Two SA-REFs are obtained, JA'(ξ) and JA'' (ξ). It is found that the tautomerization proceeds via an in-plane delocalized 3-center 4-electron O-H-S hypervalent bond which is predicted to exist only in the transition state (TS) region. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27237470

  8. Symmetry considerations for the targeted assembly of entropically stabilized colloidal crystals via Voronoi particles.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Benjamin A; Damasceno, Pablo F; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2015-03-24

    The relationship between colloidal building blocks and their assemblies is an active field of research. As a strategy for targeting novel crystal structures, we examine the use of Voronoi particles, which are hard, space-filling particles in the shape of Voronoi cells of a target structure. Although Voronoi particles stabilize their target structure in the limit of high pressure by construction, the thermodynamic assembly of the same structure at moderate pressure, close to the onset of crystallization, is not guaranteed. Indeed, we find that a more symmetric crystal is often preferred due to additional entropic contributions arising from configurational or occupational degeneracy. We characterize the assembly behavior of the Voronoi particles in terms of the symmetries of the building blocks as well as the symmetries of crystal structures and demonstrate how controlling the degeneracies through a modification of particle shape and field-directed assembly can significantly improve the assembly propensity. PMID:25692863

  9. Symmetries in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brading, Katherine; Castellani, Elena

    2003-12-01

    Preface; Copyright acknowledgements; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Continuous Symmetries: 2. Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner; 3. Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics C. Martin; 4. The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism T. Ryckman; 5. Symmetries and Noether's theorems K. A. Brading and H. R. Brown; 6. General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection J. Norton; 7. The interpretation of gauge symmetry M. Redhead; 8. Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism J. Earman; 9. Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism D. Wallace; 10. A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect A. Nounou; Part II. Discrete Symmetries: 11. Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz, Kant and Black; 12. Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry S. French and D. Rickles; 13. Quarticles and the identity of discernibles N. Hugget; 14. Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space O. Pooley; 15. Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? N. Huggett; 16. Physics and Leibniz's principles S. Saunders; Part III. Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl; 18. Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics G. Jona-Lasinio; 19. Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking E. Castellani; 20. Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking J. Earman; 21. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems M. Morrison; Part IV. General Interpretative Issues: 22. Classic texts: extracts from Wigner; 23. Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure J. Ismael and B. van Fraassen; 24. Notes on symmetries G. Belot; 25. Symmetry, objectivity, and design P. Kosso; 26. Symmetry and equivalence E. Castellani.

  10. Symmetries in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brading, Katherine; Castellani, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Preface; Copyright acknowledgements; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Continuous Symmetries: 2. Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner; 3. Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics C. Martin; 4. The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism T. Ryckman; 5. Symmetries and Noether's theorems K. A. Brading and H. R. Brown; 6. General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection J. Norton; 7. The interpretation of gauge symmetry M. Redhead; 8. Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism J. Earman; 9. Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism D. Wallace; 10. A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect A. Nounou; Part II. Discrete Symmetries: 11. Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz, Kant and Black; 12. Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry S. French and D. Rickles; 13. Quarticles and the identity of discernibles N. Hugget; 14. Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space O. Pooley; 15. Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? N. Huggett; 16. Physics and Leibniz's principles S. Saunders; Part III. Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl; 18. Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics G. Jona-Lasinio; 19. Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking E. Castellani; 20. Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking J. Earman; 21. Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems M. Morrison; Part IV. General Interpretative Issues: 22. Classic texts: extracts from Wigner; 23. Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure J. Ismael and B. van Fraassen; 24. Notes on symmetries G. Belot; 25. Symmetry, objectivity, and design P. Kosso; 26. Symmetry and equivalence E. Castellani.

  11. One-Dimensional Traps, Two-Body Interactions, Few-Body Symmetries: I. One, Two, and Three Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshman, N. L.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first in a pair of articles that classify the configuration space and kinematic symmetry groups for N identical particles in one-dimensional traps experiencing Galilean-invariant two-body interactions. These symmetries explain degeneracies in the few-body spectrum and demonstrate how tuning the trap shape and the particle interactions can manipulate these degeneracies. The additional symmetries that emerge in the non-interacting limit and in the unitary limit of an infinitely strong contact interaction are sufficient to algebraically solve for the spectrum and degeneracy in terms of the one-particle observables. Symmetry also determines the degree to which the algebraic expressions for energy level shifts by weak interactions or nearly-unitary interactions are universal, i.e. independent of trap shape and details of the interaction. Identical fermions and bosons with and without spin are considered. This article sequentially analyzes the symmetries of one, two and three particles in asymmetric, symmetric, and harmonic traps; the sequel article treats the N particle case.

  12. A new method to break the mass-sheet degeneracy using aperture moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexroth, Markus; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Mass determinations from gravitational lensing shear and the higher order estimator flexion are both subject to the mass-sheet degeneracy. Mass sheet degeneracy refers to a transformation that leaves the reduced shear and flexion invariant. In general, this transformation can be approximated by the addition of a constant surface mass density sheet. We propose a new technique to break the mass-sheet degeneracy. The method uses mass moments of the shear or flexion fields in combination with convergence information derived from number counts which exploit the magnification bias. The difference between the measured mass moments provides an estimator for the magnitude of the additive constant that is the mass sheet. For demonstrating this, we derive relations that hold true in general for nth order moments and show how they can be employed effectively to break the degeneracy. We investigate the detectability of this degeneracy parameter from our method and find that the degeneracy parameter can be feasibly determined from stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing data and cluster lensing data. Furthermore, we compare the signal-to-noise ratios of convergence information from number counts with shear and flexion for singular isothermal sphere and Navarro-Frenk-White models. We find that the combination of shear and flexion performs best on galaxy and cluster scales and the convergence information can therefore be used to break the mass-sheet degeneracy without quality loss in the mass reconstruction. In summary, there is power in the combination of shear, flexion, convergence and their higher order moments. With the anticipated wealth of lensing data from upcoming and future satellite missions - EUCLID and WFIRST - this technique will be feasible.

  13. A new method to break the mass sheet degeneracy using aperture moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexroth, Markus; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Mass determinations from gravitational lensing shear and the higher order estimator flexion are both subject to the mass sheet degeneracy. Mass sheet degeneracy refers to the ambiguity that arises due to the fact that the addition of a constant surface mass density sheet does not alter the lensing observables. We propose a new technique to break the mass sheet degeneracy. The method uses mass moments of the shear or flexion fields in combination with convergence information derived from number counts which exploit the magnification bias. The difference between the measured mass moments provides an estimator for the magnitude of the additive constant that is the mass-sheet. For demonstrating this, we derive relations that hold true in general for n-th order moments and show how they can be employed effectively to break the degeneracy. We investigate the detectability of this degeneracy parameter from our method and find that the degeneracy parameter can be feasibly determined from stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing data and cluster lensing data. Furthermore, we compare the signal-to-noise ratios of convergence information from number counts with shear and flexion for SIS and NFW models. We find that the combination of shear and flexion performs best on galaxy and cluster scales and the convergence information can therefore be used to break the mass sheet degeneracy without quality loss in the mass reconstruction. In summary, there is power in the combination of shear, flexion, convergence and their higher order moments. With the anticipated wealth of lensing data from upcoming and future satellite missions - EUCLID and WFIRST - this technique will be feasible.

  14. Geometric intrinsic symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Gozdz, A. Szulerecka, A.; Pedrak, A.

    2013-08-15

    The problem of geometric symmetries in the intrinsic frame of a many-body system (nucleus) is considered. An importance of symmetrization group notion is discussed. Ageneral structure of the intrinsic symmetry group structure is determined.

  15. Approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  16. Theory of a fermionic superfluid with SU(2) x SU(6) symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, S.-K.

    2011-06-15

    We study theoretically interspecies Cooper pairing in a fermionic system with SU(2) x SU(6) symmetry. We show that, with suitable unitary transformations, the order parameter for the ground state can be reduced to only two nonvanishing complex components. The ground state has a large degeneracy. We find that while some Goldstone modes have linear dispersion, others are quadratic at low frequencies. We compare our results with the case of SU(N).

  17. Lifting mean field degeneracies in anisotropic spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizyuk, Yuriy; Perkins, Natalia; Wolfle, Peter

    We propose a method for calculating the fluctuation contribution to the free energy of anisotropic spin systems with generic bilinear superexchange magnetic Hamiltonian based on the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. We show that this contribution splits the set of mean field degenerate states with rotational symmetry, and chooses states with the order parameter directed along lattice symmetric directions as the true ground states. We consider the simple example of Heisenberg-compass model on cubic lattice to show that depending on the relative strength of the compass and Heisenberg interactions the spontaneous magnetization is pinned to either one of the cubic directions or one of the cubic body diagonals with a intermediate phase in between where the minima and maxima of the free energy interchange. DMR-1005932, DMR-1511768, and NSF PHY11-25915.

  18. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  19. (L{sub e}-L{sub {mu}-}L{sub {tau}}) discrete symmetry for heavy right-handed neutrinos and degenerate leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Riazuddin

    2010-05-01

    The degenerate leptogenesis is studied when the degeneracy in two of the heavy right-handed neutrinos [the third one is irrelevant if {mu}-{tau} symmetry is assumed] is due to L{identical_to}(L{sub e}-L{sub {mu}-}L{sub {tau}}) discrete symmetry. It is shown that a sizable leptogenesis asymmetry ({epsilon}{>=}10{sup -6}) is possible. The level of degeneracy required also predicts the Majorana phase needed for the asymmetry and this prediction is testable since it is the same phase, which appears in the double {beta} decay. Implications of nonzero reactor angle {theta}{sub 13} are discussed. It is shown that the contribution from sin{sup 2{theta}}{sub 13} to the leptogenesis asymmetry parameter may even dominate. An accurate measurement of sin{sup 2{theta}}{sub 13} would have important implications for the mass degeneracy of heavy right-handed neutrinos.

  20. Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…

  1. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  2. Island of Rare Earth Nuclei with Tetrahedral and Octahedral Symmetries: Possible Experimental Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, J.; Dubray, N.; Pangon, V.; Dobaczewski, J.; Olbratowski, P.; Schunck, N.

    2006-08-18

    Calculations using realistic mean-field methods suggest the existence of nuclear shapes with tetrahedral T{sub d} and/or octahedral O{sub h} symmetries sometimes at only a few hundreds of keV above the ground states in some rare earth nuclei around {sup 156}Gd and {sup 160}Yb. The underlying single-particle spectra manifest exotic fourfold rather than Kramers's twofold degeneracies. The associated shell gaps are very strong, leading to a new form of shape coexistence in many rare earth nuclei. We present possible experimental evidence of the new symmetries based on the published experimental results--although an unambiguous confirmation will require dedicated experiments.

  3. Degeneracy in NLP and the development of results motivated by its presence

    SciTech Connect

    Fiacco, A.; Liu, J.

    1994-12-31

    We study notions of nondegeneracy and several levels of increasing degeneracy from the perspective of the local behavior of a local solution of a nonlinear program when problem parameters are slightly perturbed. This overview may be viewed as a structured survey of sensitivity and stability results: the focus is on progressive levels of degeneracy. We note connections of nondegeneracy with the convergence of algorithms and observe the striking parallel between the effects of nondegeneracy and degeneracy on optimality conditions, stability analysis and algorithmic convergence behavior. Although our orientation here is primarily interpretive and noncritical, we conclude that more effort is needed to unify optimality, stability and convergence theory and more results are needed in all three areas for radically degenerate problems.

  4. Split of chiral degeneracy in mechanical and structural properties of oligopeptide-polysaccharide biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Taraban, Marc B; Hyland, Laura L; Yu, Y Bruce

    2013-09-01

    Enantiomeric biomaterials which are mirror images of each other are characterized by chiral degeneracy--identical structural characteristics and bulk material properties. The addition of another chiral component, D-polysaccharide, has been shown to split such degeneracy and result in two distinct biomaterials. Dynamic oscillatory rheometry and small-angle X-ray scattering demonstrate that the natural biochirality combination of L-peptides and D-polysaccharides assembles faster, has higher elastic moduli (G'), and is structurally more beneficial as opposed to the alternative D-peptide and D-polysaccharide combination. Chemical modifications of the OH-groups in α-D-glucose units in D-polysaccharides weaken such splitting of chiral degeneracy. These findings form a basis to design novel biomaterials and provide additional insight on why proteins and polysaccharides have oppoiste chirality in the biological world. PMID:23879188

  5. CP violation effects on the neutrino degeneracy parameters in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gava, Jérôme; Volpe, Cristina

    2010-09-01

    We explore possible CP violating effects, coming from the Dirac phase of the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata-Pontecorvo matrix, on the neutrino degeneracy parameters, at the epoch of Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. We first demonstrate the conditions under which such effects can arise. In particular it requires that the initial muon and tau neutrino degeneracy parameters ξ differ. Then we solve numerically the kinetic equations for the three flavor neutrino density matrix with the goal of quantifying the impact of the Dirac phase on the electron neutrino degeneracy parameter ξν_e. The calculations include the vacuum term, the coupling to matter, the νν interaction and the collisions. Effects on ξν_e up to almost 1% and on Y of about 0.1% are found, depending on the initial conditions.

  6. Spitzer Observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 Reveal a New Path toward Breaking Strong Microlens Degeneracies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Bond, I. A.; Han, C.; Hundertmark, M.; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Group; and; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R. K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Inayama, K.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Nishioka, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Group; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.; Albrow, M. D.; Park, B.-G.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; KMTNet Group; Dominik, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Andersen, M. I.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Gu, S.-H.; Hinse, T. C.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Rasmussen, R. T.; Scarpetta, G.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Surdej, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.-B.; Wertz, O.; MiNDSTEp; Maoz, D.; Friedmann, M.; Kaspi, S.; Wise Group

    2016-03-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations.

  7. The Symmetries of QCD

    ScienceCinema

    Sekhar Chivukula

    2010-01-08

    The symmetries of a quantum field theory can be realized in a variety of ways. Symmetries can be realized explicitly, approximately, through spontaneous symmetry breaking or, via an anomaly, quantum effects can dynamically eliminate a symmetry of the theory that was present at the classical level.  Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the modern theory of the strong interactions, exemplify each of these possibilities. The interplay of these effects determine the spectrum of particles that we observe and, ultimately, account for 99% of the mass of ordinary matter. 

  8. Is symmetry informative?

    PubMed

    Gray, J E; Vogt, A

    1997-01-01

    Is symmetry informative? The answer is both yes and no. We examine what information and symmetry are and how they are related. Our approach is primarily mathematical, not because mathematics provides the final word, but because it provides an insightful and relatively precise starting point. Information theory treats transformations that messages undergo from source to destination. Symmetries are information that leave some property of interest unchanged. In this respect the studies of information and symmetry can both be regarded as a Quest for the identity transformation. PMID:9224554

  9. On the dynamical and geometrical symmetries of Keplerian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfman, Carl E.

    2009-05-01

    The dynamical symmetries of classical, relativistic and quantum-mechanical Kepler systems are considered to arise from geometric symmetries in PQET phase space. To establish their interconnection, the symmetries are related with the aid of a Lie-algebraic extension of Dirac's correspondence principle, a canonical transformation containing a Cunningham-Bateman inversion, and a classical limit involving a preliminary canonical transformation in ET space. The Lie-algebraic extension establishes the conditions under which the uncertainty principle allows the local dynamical symmetry of a quantum-mechanical system to be the same as the geometrical phase-space symmetry of its classical counterpart. The canonical transformation converts Poincaré-invariant free-particle systems into ISO(3,1) invariant relativistic systems whose classical limit produces Keplerian systems. Locally Cartesian relativistic PQET coordinates are converted into a set of eight conjugate position and momentum coordinates whose classical limit contains Fock projective momentum coordinates and the components of Runge-Lenz vectors. The coordinate systems developed via the transformations are those in which the evolution and degeneracy groups of the classical system are generated by Poisson-bracket operators that produce ordinary rotation, translation and hyperbolic motions in phase space. The way in which these define classical Keplerian symmetries and symmetry coordinates is detailed. It is shown that for each value of the energy of a Keplerian system, the Poisson-bracket operators determine two invariant functions of positions and momenta, which together with its regularized Hamiltonian, define the manifold in six-dimensional phase space upon which motions evolve.

  10. Tunable Splitting of the Ground-State Degeneracy in Quasi-One-Dimensional Parafermion Systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Burnell, F J

    2016-03-11

    Systems with topologically protected ground-state degeneracies are currently of great interest due to their potential applications in quantum computing. In practice, this degeneracy is never exact, and the magnitude of the ground-state degeneracy splitting imposes constraints on the time scales over which information is topologically protected. In this Letter, we use an instanton approach to evaluate the splitting of topological ground-state degeneracy in quasi-1D systems with parafermion zero modes, in the specific case where parafermions are realized by inducing a superconducting gap in pairs of fractional quantum Hall edges. We show that, like 1D topological superconducting wires, this splitting has an oscillatory dependence on the chemical potential, which arises from an intrinsic Berry phase that produces interference between distinct instanton tunneling events. These Berry phases can be mapped to chiral phases in a (dual) quantum clock model using a Fradkin-Kadanoff transformation. Comparing our low-energy spectrum to that of phenomenological parafermion models allows us to evaluate the real and imaginary parts of the hopping integral between adjacent parafermionic zero modes as functions of the chemical potential. PMID:27015499

  11. Tunable Splitting of the Ground-State Degeneracy in Quasi-One-Dimensional Parafermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun; Burnell, F. J.

    2016-03-01

    Systems with topologically protected ground-state degeneracies are currently of great interest due to their potential applications in quantum computing. In practice, this degeneracy is never exact, and the magnitude of the ground-state degeneracy splitting imposes constraints on the time scales over which information is topologically protected. In this Letter, we use an instanton approach to evaluate the splitting of topological ground-state degeneracy in quasi-1D systems with parafermion zero modes, in the specific case where parafermions are realized by inducing a superconducting gap in pairs of fractional quantum Hall edges. We show that, like 1D topological superconducting wires, this splitting has an oscillatory dependence on the chemical potential, which arises from an intrinsic Berry phase that produces interference between distinct instanton tunneling events. These Berry phases can be mapped to chiral phases in a (dual) quantum clock model using a Fradkin-Kadanoff transformation. Comparing our low-energy spectrum to that of phenomenological parafermion models allows us to evaluate the real and imaginary parts of the hopping integral between adjacent parafermionic zero modes as functions of the chemical potential.

  12. Symmetry and Interculturality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.

  13. Symmetries in Lagrangian Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrario, Carlo; Passerini, Arianna

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of Noether's theorem, a distinction between Lagrangian and dynamical symmetries is made, in order to clarify some aspects neglected by textbooks. An intuitive setting of the concept of invariance of differential equations is presented. The analysis is completed by deriving the symmetry properties in the motion of a charged…

  14. Symmetries of Spectral Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabat, A.

    Deriving abelian KdV and NLS hierarchies, we describe non-abelian symmetries and "pre-Lax" elementary approach to Lax pairs. Discrete symmetries of spectral problems are considered in Sect. 4.2. Here we prove Darboux classical theorem and discuss a modern theory of dressing chains.

  15. Symmetry-protected topological photonic crystal in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ling; Fang, Chen; Fu, Liang; Johnson, Steven G.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-04-01

    Topology of electron wavefunctions was first introduced to characterize the quantum Hall states in two dimensions discovered in 1980 (ref. ). Over the past decade, it has been recognized that symmetry plays a crucial role in the classification of topological phases, leading to the broad notion of symmetry-protected topological phases. As a primary example, topological insulators are distinguished from normal insulators in the presence of time-reversal symmetry (). A three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator exhibits an odd number of protected surface Dirac cones, a unique property that cannot be realized in any 2D systems. Importantly, the existence of topological insulators requires Kramers’ degeneracy in spin-orbit coupled electronic materials; this forbids any direct analogue in boson systems. In this report, we discover a 3D topological photonic crystal phase hosting a single surface Dirac cone, which is protected by a crystal symmetry--the nonsymmorphic glide reflection rather than . Such a gapless surface state is fully robust against random disorder of any type. This bosonic topological band structure is achieved by applying alternating magnetization to gap out the 3D `generalized Dirac points’ discovered in the bulk of our crystal. The Z2 bulk invariant is characterized through the evolution of Wannier centres. Our proposal--readily realizable using ferrimagnetic materials at microwave frequencies--expands the scope of 3D topological materials from fermions to bosons.

  16. Hidden conformal symmetry of the Kerr black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Alejandra; Maloney, Alexander; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-07-15

    Extreme and very-near-extreme spin J Kerr black holes have been conjectured to be holographically dual to two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theories (CFTs) with left and right central charges c{sub L}=c{sub R}=12J. In this paper it is observed that the 2D conformal symmetry of the scalar wave equation at low frequencies persists for generic nonextreme values of the mass M{ne}{radical}(J). Interestingly, this conformal symmetry is not derived from a conformal symmetry of the spacetime geometry except in the extreme limit. The 2{pi} periodic identification of the azimuthal angle {phi} is shown to correspond to a spontaneous breaking of the conformal symmetry by left and right temperatures T{sub L}=M{sup 2}/2{pi}J and T{sub R}={radical}(M{sup 4}-J{sup 2})/2{pi}J. The well-known low-frequency scalar-Kerr scattering amplitudes coincide with correlators of a 2D CFT at these temperatures. Moreover, the CFT microstate degeneracy inferred from the Cardy formula agrees exactly with the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for all M and J. These observations provide evidence for the conjecture that the Kerr black hole is dual to a c{sub L}=c{sub R}=12J 2D CFT at temperatures (T{sub L},T{sub R}) for every value of M and J.

  17. Tensor network decompositions in the presence of a global symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Pfeifer, Robert N. C.; Vidal, Guifre

    2010-11-15

    Tensor network decompositions offer an efficient description of certain many-body states of a lattice system and are the basis of a wealth of numerical simulation algorithms. We discuss how to incorporate a global symmetry, given by a compact, completely reducible group G, in tensor network decompositions and algorithms. This is achieved by considering tensors that are invariant under the action of the group G. Each symmetric tensor decomposes into two types of tensors: degeneracy tensors, containing all the degrees of freedom, and structural tensors, which only depend on the symmetry group. In numerical calculations, the use of symmetric tensors ensures the preservation of the symmetry, allows selection of a specific symmetry sector, and significantly reduces computational costs. On the other hand, the resulting tensor network can be interpreted as a superposition of exponentially many spin networks. Spin networks are used extensively in loop quantum gravity, where they represent states of quantum geometry. Our work highlights their importance in the context of tensor network algorithms as well, thus setting the stage for cross-fertilization between these two areas of research.

  18. Symmetry Effects in Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Andrew Chi-Chih

    2008-12-01

    The concept of symmetry has played a key role in the development of modern physics. For example, using symmetry, C.N. Yang and other physicists have greatly advanced our understanding of the fundamental laws of physics. Meanwhile, computer scientists have been pondering why some computational problems seem intractable, while others are easy. Just as in physics, the laws of computation sometimes can only be inferred indirectly by considerations of general principles such as symmetry. The symmetry properties of a function can indeed have a profound effect on how fast the function can be computed. In this talk, we present several elegant and surprising discoveries along this line, made by computer scientists using symmetry as their primary tool. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  19. Aspects of emergent symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Pedro R. S.

    2016-03-01

    These are intended to be review notes on emergent symmetries, i.e. symmetries which manifest themselves in specific sectors of energy in many systems. The emphasis is on the physical aspects rather than computation methods. We include some background material and go through more recent problems in field theory, statistical mechanics and condensed matter. These problems illustrate how some important symmetries, such as Lorentz invariance and supersymmetry, usually believed to be fundamental, can arise naturally in low-energy regimes of systems involving a large number of degrees of freedom. The aim is to discuss how these examples could help us to face other complex and fundamental problems.

  20. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  1. Exceptional point and degeneracy of the neutral Higgs boson system H-A

    SciTech Connect

    Felix-Beltran, O.; Gomez-Bock, M.; Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A.; Mondragon, M.

    2009-04-20

    We analyze the masses and mixings of the isolated neutral and heavy Higgs fields H and A of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with CP violation, which have opposite CP parities and nearly degenerate masses. At the degeneracy point, the hypersurfaces that represent the physical masses as functions of the system parameters have a rank one algebraic branch point, and the real and imaginary parts have branch cuts, both starting at the same exceptional point but extending in opposite directions in parameter space. Associated with this singularity, the propagator for the mixed neutral Higgs system H-A has a double pole in the non-physical sheet of the squared energy complex plane s. The continuity of the transition amplitude matrix at the exact degeneracy of the masses is examined.

  2. Afferent hyperexcitability in neuropathic pain and the inconvenient truth about its degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Ratté, Stéphanie; Prescott, Steven A

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain, which arises from damage to the nervous system, is a major unmet clinical challenge. Reversing the neuronal hyperexcitability induced by nerve damage is a logical treatment strategy but has proven frustratingly difficult. Here, we propose a novel explanation for that difficulty. Changes in several different ion channels are individually sufficient to cause hyperexcitability in primary somatosensory neurons. Despite offering multiple drug targets, this scenario is problematic: if multiple sufficient changes are triggered by nerve injury, then no single change is necessary for hyperexcitability. This so-called degeneracy compromises therapeutic interventions because drug effects on any one ion channel can be circumvented by changes occurring in other ion channels. Overcoming degeneracy demands a more integrative approach to drug discovery. PMID:26363576

  3. Split of Chiral Degeneracy in Mechanical and Structural Properties of Oligopeptide-Polysaccharide Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Taraban, Marc B.; Hyland, Laura L.; Yu, Y. Bruce

    2013-09-23

    Enantiomeric biomaterials which are mirror images of each other are characterized by chiral degeneracy—identical structural characteristics and bulk material properties. The addition of another chiral component, d-polysaccharide, has been shown to split such degeneracy and result in two distinct biomaterials. Dynamic oscillatory rheometry and small-angle X-ray scattering demonstrate that the natural biochirality combination of l-peptides and d-polysaccharides assembles faster, has higher elastic moduli (G'), and is structurally more beneficial as opposed to the alternative d-peptide and d-polysaccharide combination. Chemical modifications of the OH-groups in α-d-glucose units in d-polysaccharides weaken such splitting of chiral degeneracy. These findings form a basis to design novel biomaterials and provide additional insight on why proteins and polysaccharides have oppoiste chirality in the biological world.

  4. More about the doubling degeneracy operators associated with Majorana fermions and Yang-Baxter equation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Wei; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2015-01-01

    A new realization of doubling degeneracy based on emergent Majorana operator Γ presented by Lee-Wilczek has been made. The Hamiltonian can be obtained through the new type of solution of Yang-Baxter equation, i.e. -matrix. For 2-body interaction, gives the “superconducting” chain that is the same as 1D Kitaev chain model. The 3-body Hamiltonian commuting with Γ is derived by 3-body -matrix, we thus show that the essence of the doubling degeneracy is due to . We also show that the extended Γ′-operator is an invariant of braid group BN for odd N. Moreover, with the extended Γ′-operator, we construct the high dimensional matrix representation of solution to Yang-Baxter equation and find its application in constructing 2N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state for odd N. PMID:25631987

  5. SPIN-PRECESSION: BREAKING THE BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR DEGENERACY

    SciTech Connect

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Cornish, Neil; Klein, Antoine; Yunes, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Mergers of compact stellar remnants are prime targets for the LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave detectors. The gravitational wave signals from these merger events can be used to study the mass and spin distribution of stellar remnants, and provide information about black hole horizons and the material properties of neutron stars. However, it has been suggested that degeneracies in the way that the star's mass and spin are imprinted in the waveforms may make it impossible to distinguish between black holes and neutron stars. Here we show that the precession of the orbital plane due to spin-orbit coupling breaks the mass-spin degeneracy, and allows us to distinguish between standard neutron stars and alternative possibilities, such as black holes or exotic neutron stars with large masses and spins.

  6. Line Degeneracy and Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling of Light with Bulk Bianisotropic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinghua; Gao, Wenlong; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    Propagation of light in a medium is dictated by equifrequency surfaces (EFSs), which play a similar role as Fermi surfaces for electrons in crystals. Engineering the equifrequency surface of light through structuring a photonic medium enables superior control over light propagation that goes beyond natural materials. In this Letter, we show that a bulk metamaterial with a suitably designed bianisotropy can exhibit line degeneracy in its EFSs that consist of two ellipsoids of opposite helicity states intersecting with each other. Very interestingly, light propagating along the direction of the line degeneracy experiences strong spin-dependent photon deflection, or optical spin Hall effect, which may lead to applications in optical signal processing and spin-optical manipulations. We provide a realistic metamaterial design to show that the required bianisotropy can be readily obtained. PMID:26296131

  7. Effect of valley degeneracy on spin susceptibility of a two-dimensional quantum electron liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Krishan Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.

    2014-04-24

    We investigate theoretically the effect of valley degeneracy on the spin susceptibility of a two-dimensional quantum electron liquid by determining the spin-polarization dependence of the ground-state energy within the selfconsistent mean-field approximation of Singwi et al. Specifically, we have studied a two valley system as realized in the Si (100) inversion layer. In qualitative agreement with the recent quantum Monte Carlo study by Marchi et al., we find that the valley degeneracy results in suppression of spin susceptibility over the single valley case. However, the quality of agreement diminishes with increasing value of the coupling parameter r{sub s}. This indicates the limitation of mean-field theory to deal with the exchange-correlation effects in the strong coupling region. But, our results show considerable improvement over the random-phase approximation which ignores these correlations completely.

  8. Dodging the dark matter degeneracy while determining the dynamics of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busti, Vinicius C.; Clarkson, Chris

    2016-05-01

    One of the key issues in cosmology is to establish the nature of dark energy, and to determine whether the equation of state evolves with time. When estimating this from distance measurements there is a degeneracy with the matter density. We show that there exists a simple function of the dark energy equation of state and its first derivative which is independent of this degeneracy at all redshifts, and so is a much more robust determinant of the evolution of dark energy than just its derivative. We show that this function can be well determined at low redshift from supernovae using Gaussian Processes, and that this method is far superior to a variety of parameterisations which are also subject to priors on the matter density. This shows that parametrised models give very biased constraints on the evolution of dark energy.

  9. Numerical characterization of DNA sequences in a 2-D graphical representation scheme of low degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Nandy, Ashesh

    2003-02-01

    Some 2-D and 3-D graphical representations of DNA sequences have been given by Gate, Nandy, Leong, Randic, and Guo et al. Based on 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequences, Raychaudhury and Nandy introduced the first-order moments of the x and y coordinates and the radius of the plot of a DNA sequence for indexing scheme and similarity measures of DNA sequences. In this Letter, based on Guo's novel 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequences of low degeneracy, we introduce the improved first-order moments of the x and y coordinates and the radius of DNA sequences, and the distance of two DNA sequences. The new descriptors of DNA sequences give a good numerical characterization of DNA sequences, which have lower degeneracy.

  10. Split of Chiral Degeneracy in Mechanical and Structural Properties of Oligopeptide-Polysaccharide Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Taraban, Marc B.; Hyland, Laura L.; Yu, Y. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Enantiomeric biomaterials which are mirror images of each other are characterized by chiral degeneracy—identical structural characteristics and bulk material properties. The addition of another chiral component, D-polysaccharide, has been shown to split such degeneracy and result in two distinct biomaterials. Dynamic oscillatory rheometry and small-angle X-ray scattering demonstrate that the natural biochirality combination of L-peptides and D-polysaccharides assembles faster, has higher elastic moduli (G′), and is structurally more beneficial as opposed to D-peptide and D-polysaccharide combination. Chemical modifications of the OH-groups in α-D-glucose units in D-polysaccharides weaken such splitting of chiral degeneracy. All these findings form a basis to design the approaches to novel biomaterials and provide additional insight on the opposite chirality of proteins and polysaccharides in biological world. PMID:23879188

  11. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  12. Dynamical spacetime symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelady, Benjamin C.; Wheeler, James T.

    2016-04-01

    According to the Coleman-Mandula theorem, any gauge theory of gravity combined with an internal symmetry based on a Lie group must take the form of a direct product in order to be consistent with basic assumptions of quantum field theory. However, we show that an alternative gauging of a simple group can lead dynamically to a spacetime with compact internal symmetry. The biconformal gauging of the conformal symmetry of n-dimensional Euclidean space doubles the dimension to give a symplectic manifold. Examining one of the Lagrangian submanifolds in the flat case, we find that in addition to the expected S O (n ) connection and curvature, the solder form necessarily becomes Lorentzian. General coordinate invariance gives rise to an S O (n -1 ,1 ) connection on the spacetime. The principal fiber bundle character of the original S O (n ) guarantees that the two symmetries enter as a direct product, in agreement with the Coleman-Mandula theorem.

  13. Molecular symmetry with quaternions.

    PubMed

    Fritzer, H P

    2001-09-01

    A new and relatively simple version of the quaternion calculus is offered which is especially suitable for applications in molecular symmetry and structure. After introducing the real quaternion algebra and its classical matrix representation in the group SO(4) the relations with vectors in 3-space and the connection with the rotation group SO(3) through automorphism properties of the algebra are discussed. The correlation of the unit quaternions with both the Cayley-Klein and the Euler parameters through the group SU(2) is presented. Besides rotations the extension of quaternions to other important symmetry operations, reflections and the spatial inversion, is given. Finally, the power of the quaternion calculus for molecular symmetry problems is revealed by treating some examples applied to icosahedral symmetry. PMID:11666072

  14. Another Broken Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    Resistance destroys symmetry. In this note, a graphical exploration serves as a guide to a rigorous elementary proof of a specific asymmetry in the trajectory of a point projectile in a medium offering linear resistance.

  15. Symmetries in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaños, Octavio

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this course is to study the evolution of the symmetry concept and establish its influence in the knowledge of the fundamental laws of nature. Physicist have been using the symmetry concept in two ways: to solve problems and to search for new understanding of the world around us. In quantum physics symmetry plays a key role in gaining an understanding of the physical laws governing the behavior of matter and field systems. It provides, generally, a shortcut based on geometry for discovering the secrets of the Universe. Because it is believed that the laws of physics are invariant under discrete and continuous transformation operations of the space and time, there are continuous symmetries, for example, energy and momentum together with discrete ones corresponding to charge, parity and time reversal operations.

  16. Dynamical symmetries for fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Guidry, M.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E{sub 2}) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Interaction of characteristic waves in a plasma in the case of triple degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viatkin, V. M.; Novikov, V. V.

    1989-06-01

    The paper investigates waves transformation in an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma in regions where the three roots of the Booker quartic are equal. It is shown that an extraordinary wave incident on the interaction region splits into an ordinary wave and an extraordinary wave traveling in the same direction and a reflected ordinary wave. An ordinary wave incident on the triple-degeneracy point is completely transformed into an extraordinary wave.

  18. Red queen dynamics and the evolution of translational redundancy and degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakauer, David C.; Jansen, Vincent A. A.; Nowak, Martin

    We explore adaptive theories for the diversity of protein translation based on the genetic code viewed as a primitive immune system. Immunity is acquired through a genetic mechanism of non-recognition of parasite genomes. Modifying the set of codons bound by tRNA anticodon molecules or changing the specificity of binding, reduces the replication rate of translational parasites such as viruses. Changing the binding specifity can be thought of in terms of varying degrees of redundancy an d degeneracy. Redundancy in the genetic code is commonly attributed to using a four base triplet mechanism to encode the 20 amino acids. This has been referred to as synonym redundancy. There are however at least a further two forms of redundancy associated with the code and one source of degeneracy. A first form of redundancy arises from decoding all 61 possible sense codons using fewer than 61 anticodons. Such a strategy involves reduced binding specificity. A second source of redundancy is present in the multiplicity of copies of each unique tRNA (tRNA copy redundancy). Degeneracy arises when different anticodons become associated with a single amino acid to increase specificity. Variation in these strategies across taxa ensures that the translational machinery is diverse whereas the code remains approximately constant. We construct a red queen theory for translational diversity: a theory in which host translational strategies - as defined by the degree of redundancy or degeneracy of anticodons - are const antly shifting through time to evade parasitism but where neither parasite nor host gains a systematic advantage.

  19. Halogenated benzene radical cations and ground state degeneracy splitting by asymmetric substitution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bondybey, V.E.; Vaughn, C.R.; Miller, T.A.; English, J.H.; Shiley, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption and laser induced fluorescence of several halogenated benzene radical cations were studied in solid Ne matrices. The spectra of 1,2,4-trifluorobenzene, l,3-dichloro-5-fluorobenzene, and l-chloro-3,5- difluorobenzene radical cations are observed and analyzed. Studies of fluorescence polarization and a photoselection technique were used to examine the splitting of the degeneracy of the benzene cation ground state by asymmetric subsitution. ?? 1981 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Degeneracy between primordial tensor modes and cosmic strings in future CMB data from the Planck satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Urrestilla, Jon; Mukherjee, Pia; Liddle, Andrew R.; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Bevis, Neil

    2008-06-15

    While observations indicate that the predominant source of cosmic inhomogeneities are adiabatic perturbations, there are a variety of candidates to provide auxiliary trace effects, including inflation-generated primordial tensors and cosmic defects which both produce B-mode cosmic microwave background polarization. We investigate whether future experiments may suffer confusion as to the true origin of such effects, focusing on the ability of Planck to distinguish tensors from cosmic strings, and show that there is no significant degeneracy.

  1. Single-centered black hole microstate degeneracies from instantons in supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Sameer; Reys, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    We obtain holographic constraints on the microscopic degeneracies of black holes by computing the exact macroscopic quantum entropy using localization, including the effects of string worldsheet instantons in the supergravity effective action. For 1/4 -BPS black holes in type II string theory on K3 × T 2, the constraints can be explicitly checked against expressions for the microscopic BPS counting functions that are known in terms of certain mock modular forms. We find that the effect of including the infinite sum over instantons in the holomorphic prepotential of the supergravity leads to a sum over Bessel functions with successively sub-leading arguments as in the Rademacher expansion of Jacobi forms — but begins to disagree with such a structure near an order where the mock modular nature becomes relevant. This leads to a systematic method to recover the polar terms of the microscopic degeneracies from the degeneracy of instantons (the Gromov-Witten invariants). We check explicitly that our formula agrees with the known microscopic answer for the first seven values of the magnetic charge invariant.

  2. Irreversible dynamics, Onsager-Casimir symmetry, and an application to turbulence.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, Hans Christian

    2014-10-01

    Irreversible contributions to the dynamics of nonequilibrium systems can be formulated in terms of dissipative, or irreversible, brackets. We discuss the structure of such irreversible brackets in view of a degeneracy implied by energy conservation, where we consider different types of symmetries of the bracket corresponding to the Onsager and Casimir symmetries of linear irreversible thermodynamics. Slip and turbulence provide important examples of antisymmetric irreversible brackets and offer guidance for the more general modeling of irreversible dynamics without entropy production. Conversely, turbulence modeling could benefit from elucidating thermodynamic structure. The examples suggest constructing antisymmetric irreversible brackets in terms of completely antisymmetric functions of three indices. Irreversible brackets without well-defined symmetry properties can arise for rare events, causing big configurational changes. PMID:25375452

  3. Lectures on Yangian symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebbert, Florian

    2016-08-01

    In these introductory lectures we discuss the topic of Yangian symmetry from various perspectives. Forming the classical counterpart of the Yangian and an extension of ordinary Noether symmetries, first the concept of nonlocal charges in classical, two-dimensional field theory is reviewed. We then define the Yangian algebra following Drinfel’d's original motivation to construct solutions to the quantum Yang–Baxter equation. Different realizations of the Yangian and its mathematical role as a Hopf algebra and quantum group are discussed. We demonstrate how the Yangian algebra is implemented in quantum, two-dimensional field theories and how its generators are renormalized. Implications of Yangian symmetry on the two-dimensional scattering matrix are investigated. We furthermore consider the important case of discrete Yangian symmetry realized on integrable spin chains. Finally we give a brief introduction to Yangian symmetry in planar, four-dimensional super Yang–Mills theory and indicate its impact on the dilatation operator and tree-level scattering amplitudes. These lectures are illustrated by several examples, in particular the two-dimensional chiral Gross–Neveu model, the Heisenberg spin chain and { N }=4 superconformal Yang–Mills theory in four dimensions.

  4. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Co-symmetry breakdown in problems of thermal convection in porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratsun, Dmitry A.; Lyubimov, Dmitry V.; Roux, Bernard

    We investigate two-dimensional thermal convection of saturating incompressible fluid in a horizontal cylinder filled with porous medium. The temperature distribution on the boundaries is time-independent and corresponds to the heating from below. At supercritical parameter values the problem has infinite number of stationary solutions for arbitrary shape of the region. This degeneracy is connected with the so-called co-symmetry property: the existence of the vector field which is orthogonal to the considered one. Non-coincidence of zeroes of these two fields leads generally speaking, to the degeneracy of the solutions. To destroy the degeneracy we add weak fluid seeping of the fluid through the boundaries either in vertical or in the horizontal direction. The breakdown of the family of the stationary solutions at high supercritical values of the Rayleigh number is studied in detail with the help of the corresponding normal form. Several limit cycles with the twisted leading manifolds appear as a result of the family destruction. To investigate the dynamical behavior the finite-dimensional models of the convection which maintain the breakdown of co-symmetry, are constructed on the base of the Galerkin approximation. The same scenario of the transition to chaos which seems to be connected with the co-symmetry breakdown, is recovered for both kinds of seeping. The quasi-periodic solution branches from the limit cycle. The further increase of the Peclet number leads to mode-locking, which is followed by the appearance of the homoclinic surface formed by the unstable manifold of the saddle periodic orbit; destruction of the latter surface leaves in the phase space the object with torus-like shape and non-integer fractal dimension.

  6. Essays on symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismael, Jenann Tareq

    1997-04-01

    Structures of many different sorts arise in physics, e.g., the concrete structures of material bodies, the structure exemplified by the spatiotemporal configuration of a set of bodies, the structures of more abstract objects like states, state-spaces, laws, and so on. To each structure of any of these types there corresponds a set of transformations which map it onto itself. These are its symmetries. Increasingly ubiquitous in theoretical discussions in physics, the notion of symmetry is also at the root of some time-worn philosophical debates. This dissertation consists of a set of essays on topics drawn from places where the two fields overlap. The first essay is an informal introduction to the mathematical study of symmetry. The second essay defends a famous principle of Pierre Curie which states that the symmetries of a cause are always symmetries of its effect. The third essay takes up the case of reflection in space in the context of a controversy stemming from one of Kant's early arguments for the substantivality of space. The fourth essay is a discussion of the general conditions under which an asymmetry in a phenomenon suggests an asymmetry in the laws which govern it. The case of reflection in time-specifically, the theoretical strategy used in statistical mechanics to subsume the time-asymmetric phenomena of Thermodynamics under the time-symmetric classical dynamical laws-is used to illustrate the general points. The philosophical heart of the thesis lies in its fifth essay. Here a somewhat novel way of conceiving scientific theorizing is articulated, one suggested by the abstract mathematical perspective of symmetry.

  7. Boson-fermion representations of Lie superalgebras: The example of osp(1,2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Jiří; Havlíček, Miloslav; Exner, Pavel; Lassner, Wolfgang

    1982-03-01

    A method for constructing infinite-dimensional representations of Lie superalgebras employing boson representations of their Lie subalgebras is outlined. As an example the osp(1,2) superalgebra is considered; explicit formulae for its generators in terms of one pair of boson operators, at most one pair of fermion ones, and at most one parameter are obtained, the Casimir operator being represented by a multiple of unity. The restriction of these representations to the real form of osp(1,2) is skew-symmetric in the even part and can be regarded as a natural generalization of skew-symmetric representations of real Lie algebras. Some other aspects of the presented construction are discussed.

  8. Boson-fermion and fermion-boson transmutations induced by supergravity backgrounds in superstring theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.; Medrano, M. Ramon; Sanchez, N.

    1992-07-01

    We investigate the physical implications and particle content of superstring scattering in the supergravity shock-wave background recently found by us. The amplitudes for the different particle transmutation processes taking place in this geometry are explicitly computed for Gree-Schwarz superstring, including the new phenomena of fermion to boson and boson to fermion transmutations. Transition amplitudes among the ground states, first and second excited states are obtained. Particularly interesting are the amplitudes within the massless particle sector, which lead to physical massive particles upon supersymmetry breaking at low energies.

  9. Beyond-mean-field boson-fermion model for odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-05-01

    A novel method for calculating spectroscopic properties of medium-mass and heavy atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons is introduced, based on the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The deformation energy surface of the even-even core, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the odd particle(s), are obtained in a self-consistent mean-field calculation determined by the choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. This method uniquely determines the parameters of the Hamiltonian of the boson core, and only the strength of the particle-core coupling is specifically adjusted to selected data for a particular nucleus. The approach is illustrated in a systematic study of low-energy excitation spectra and transition rates of axially deformed odd-mass Eu isotopes.

  10. Deformed discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  11. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pirtskhalava, David; Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  12. Atkin-Lehner symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory

    The vanishing of the one-loop string cosmological constant in nontrivial non supersymmetric backgrounds can be understood by viewing the path integral as an inner product of orthogonal wave functions. For special backgrounds the string theory has an extra symmetry, expressed as a transformation on moduli space. When left- and right-moving wave functions transform in different representations of this symmetry the cosmological constant must vanish. Specific examples of the mechanism are given at one loop for theories in two and four dimensions. Various suggestions are made for the higher loop extension of this idea.

  13. PT -symmetry Wave Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Carl T.; Kottos, Tsampikos; Prosen, Tomaz

    2010-03-01

    We study a new class of chaotic systems with dynamical localization, where gain/loss processes break the hermiticity, while allowing for parity-time PT symmetry. For a value γPT of the gain/loss parameter the spectrum undergoes a spontaneous phase transition from real (exact phase) to complex values (broken phase). We develop a one parameter scaling theory for γPT, and show that chaos assists the exact PT-phase. Our results will have applications to the design of optical elements with PT-symmetry.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, L. H.

    2005-11-01

    One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would

  15. Dilatation symmetry in higher dimensions and the vanishing of the cosmological constant.

    PubMed

    Wetterich, C

    2009-04-10

    A wide class of dilatation symmetric effective actions in higher dimensions leads to a vanishing four-dimensional cosmological constant. This requires no tuning of parameters and results from the absence of an allowed potential for the scalar dilaton field. The field equations admit many solutions with flat four-dimensional space and nonvanishing gauge couplings. In a more general setting, these are candidates for asymptotic states of cosmological runaway solutions, where dilatation symmetry is realized dynamically if a fixed point is approached as time goes to infinity. Dilatation anomalies during the runaway can lift the degeneracy of solutions and lead to an observable dynamical dark energy. PMID:19392424

  16. Emergent spinless Weyl semimetals between the topological crystalline insulator and normal insulator phases with glide symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heejae; Murakami, Shuichi

    2016-05-01

    We construct a theory describing phase transitions between the spinless topological crystalline insulator phase with glide symmetry and a normal insulator phase. We show that a spinless Weyl semimetal phase should intervene between these two phases. Here, because all the bands are free from degeneracy in general, a gap closing between a single conduction band and a single valence band at phase transition generally gives rise to a pair creation of Weyl nodes; hence the Weyl semimetal phase naturally appears. We show the relationship between the change of the Z2 topological number when the system goes through the Weyl semimetal phase, and the trajectory of the Weyl nodes.

  17. Eccentricity Inferences in Multi-planet systems with Transit Timing: Degeneracies and Apsidal Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Van Laerhoven, Christa L.; Ford, Eric B.

    2016-05-01

    Hundreds of multi-transiting systems discovered by the Kepler mission show Transit Timing Variations (TTV). In cases where the TTVs are uniquely attributable to transiting planets, the TTVs enable precise measurements of planetary masses and orbital parameters. Of particular interest are the constraints on eccentricity vectors that can be inferred in systems of low-mass exoplanets.The TTVs in these systems are dominated by a signal caused by near-resonant mean motions. This causes the well-known near-degeneracy between planetary masses and orbital eccentricities. In addition, it causes a degeneracy between the eccentricities of interacting planet pairs.For many systems, the magnitude of individual eccentricities are weakly constrained, yet the data typically provide a tight constraint on the posterior joint distribution for the eccentricity vector components. This permits tight constraints on the relative eccentricity and degree of alignment of interacting planets.For a sample of two and three-planet systems with TTVs, we highlight the effects of these correlations. While the most eccentric orbital solutions for these systems show apsidal alignment, this is often due to the degeneracy that causes correlated constraints on the eccentricity vector components. We compare the likelihood of apsidal alignment for two choices of eccentricity prior: a wide prior using a Rayleigh distribution of scale length 0.1 and a narrower prior with scale length 0.02. In all cases the narrower prior decreased the fraction of samples that exhibited apsidal alignment. However, apsidal alignment persisted in the majority of cases with a narrower eccentricity prior. For a sample of our TTV solutions, we ran simulations of these systems over secular timescales, and decomposed their eccentricity eigenmodes over time, confirming that in most cases, the eccentricities were dominated by parallel eigenmodes which favor apsidal alignment.

  18. Elimination of depth degeneracy in optical frequency-domain imaging through polarization-based optical demodulation.

    PubMed

    Vakoc, B J; Yun, S H; Tearney, G J; Bouma, B E

    2006-02-01

    A novel optical frequency-domain imaging system is demonstrated that employs a passive optical demodulation circuit and a chirped digital acquisition clock derived from a voltage-controlled oscillator. The demodulation circuit allows the separation of signals from positive and negative depths to better than 50 dB, thereby eliminating depth degeneracy and doubling the imaging depth range. Our system design is compatible with dual-balanced and polarization-diverse detection, important techniques in the practical biomedical application of optical frequency-domain imaging. PMID:16480209

  19. Cluster-Void Degeneracy Breaking: Dark Energy, Planck, and the Largest Cluster and Void

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlén, Martin; Zubeldía, Íñigo; Silk, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Combining galaxy cluster and void abundances breaks the degeneracy between mean matter density {{{Ω }}}{{m}} and power-spectrum normalization {σ }8. For the first time for voids, we constrain {{{Ω }}}{{m}}=0.21+/- 0.10 and {σ }8=0.95+/- 0.21 for a flat Λ CDM universe, using extreme-value statistics on the claimed largest cluster and void. The Planck-consistent results detect dark energy with two objects, independently of other dark energy probes. Cluster-void studies are also complementary in scale, density, and nonlinearity, and are of particular interest for testing modified-gravity models.

  20. A novel 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequences of low degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Randic, Milan; Basak, Subhash C.

    2001-12-01

    Some 2-D and 3-D graphical representations of DNA sequences have been given by Nandy, Leong and Mogenthaler, and Randic et al., which give visual characterizations of DNA sequences. In this Letter, we introduce a novel graphical representation of DNA sequences by taking four special vectors in 2-D space to represent the four nucleic acid bases in DNA sequences, so that a DNA sequence is denoted on a plane by a successive vector sequence, which is also a directed walk on the plane. It is showed that the novel graphical representation of DNA sequences has lower degeneracy and less overlapping.

  1. Horror Vacui Symmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson used with children in the third grade to help them learn about symmetry, as well as encouraging them to draw larger than usual. Explains that students learn about the belief called "Horror Vacui" of the Northwest American Indian tribes and create their interpretation of this belief. (CMK)

  2. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-08

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented.

  3. Exploring Metric Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zwart, P.H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R.W.; Adams, P.D.

    2006-07-31

    Relatively minor perturbations to a crystal structure can in some cases result in apparently large changes in symmetry. Changes in space group or even lattice can be induced by heavy metal or halide soaking (Dauter et al, 2001), flash freezing (Skrzypczak-Jankun et al, 1996), and Se-Met substitution (Poulsen et al, 2001). Relations between various space groups and lattices can provide insight in the underlying structural causes for the symmetry or lattice transformations. Furthermore, these relations can be useful in understanding twinning and how to efficiently solve two different but related crystal structures. Although (pseudo) symmetric properties of a certain combination of unit cell parameters and a space group are immediately obvious (such as a pseudo four-fold axis if a is approximately equal to b in an orthorhombic space group), other relations (e.g. Lehtio, et al, 2005) that are less obvious might be crucial to the understanding and detection of certain idiosyncrasies of experimental data. We have developed a set of tools that allows straightforward exploration of possible metric symmetry relations given unit cell parameters and a space group. The new iotbx.explore{_}metric{_}symmetry command produces an overview of the various relations between several possible point groups for a given lattice. Methods for finding relations between a pair of unit cells are also available. The tools described in this newsletter are part of the CCTBX libraries, which are included in the latest (versions July 2006 and up) PHENIX and CCI Apps distributions.

  4. Falling for Symmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGehe, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Presents math activities, problems, and games for teaching elementary students to recognize the world's natural symmetry and understand the mathematical qualities it represents; suggests activities with construction paper, blocks, and calculators. Instructions for using the calculator to create palindromes are included. (SM)

  5. Active fluctuation symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christian; Salazar, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In contrast with the understanding of fluctuation symmetries for entropy production, similar ideas applied to the time-symmetric fluctuation sector have been less explored. Here we give detailed derivations of time-symmetric fluctuation symmetries in boundary-driven particle systems such as the open Kawasaki lattice gas and the zero-range model. As a measure of time-symmetric dynamical activity over time T we count the difference (Nℓ - Nr)/T between the number of particle jumps in or out at the left edge and those at the right edge of the system. We show that this quantity satisfies a fluctuation symmetry from which we derive a new Green-Kubo-type relation. It will follow then that the system is more active at the edge connected to the particle reservoir with the largest chemical potential. We also apply these exact relations derived for stochastic particle models to a deterministic case, the spinning Lorentz gas, where the symmetry relation for the activity is checked numerically.

  6. Gauging without initial symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Alexei; Strobl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The gauge principle is at the heart of a good part of fundamental physics: Starting with a group G of so-called rigid symmetries of a functional defined over space-time Σ, the original functional is extended appropriately by additional Lie(G) -valued 1-form gauge fields so as to lift the symmetry to Maps(Σ , G) . Physically relevant quantities are then to be obtained as the quotient of the solutions to the Euler-Lagrange equations by these gauge symmetries. In this article we show that one can construct a gauge theory for a standard sigma model in arbitrary space-time dimensions where the target metric is not invariant with respect to any rigid symmetry group, but satisfies a much weaker condition: It is sufficient to find a collection of vector fields va on the target M satisfying the extended Killing equationv a(i ; j) = 0 for some connection acting on the index a. For regular foliations this is equivalent to requiring the conormal bundle to the leaves with its induced metric to be invariant under leaf-preserving diffeomorphisms of M, which in turn generalizes Riemannian submersions to which the notion reduces for smooth leaf spaces M / ∼. The resulting gauge theory has the usual quotient effect with respect to the original ungauged theory: in this way, much more general orbits can be factored out than usually considered. In some cases these are orbits that do not correspond to an initial symmetry, but still can be generated by a finite-dimensional Lie group G. Then the presented gauging procedure leads to an ordinary gauge theory with Lie algebra valued 1-form gauge fields, but showing an unconventional transformation law. In general, however, one finds that the notion of an ordinary structural Lie group is too restrictive and should be replaced by the much more general notion of a structural Lie groupoid.

  7. Gravity from Lorentz Symmetry Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Potting, Robertus

    2006-06-19

    In general relativity, the masslessness of gravitons can be traced to symmetry under diffeomorphisms. In this talk, we consider another possibility, whereby the masslessness arises from spontaneous violation of Lorentz symmetry.

  8. Quantum degeneracy effect on the work output from a Stirling cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Hasan; Şişman, Altuǧ

    2001-09-01

    The effect of quantum degeneracy on the work output from a Stirling cycle working at quantum degeneracy conditions (QDCs) is analyzed. Expressions for net work outputs of Stirling power cycles working with monatomic ideal Bose and Fermi gases are derived by using the quantum ideal gas equation of state. Ratios of net work outputs of Stirling cycles working with Bose and Fermi gases to the net work output of a classical Stirling cycle (RWB and RWF, respectively) are obtained. Variations of RWB and RWF with TH are examined for a given temperature ratio (τ=TL/TH) and a specific volume ratio (rν=νH/νL). At QDC, it is seen that RWB has a maximum value, which is greater than unity. On the other hand, there is no maximum or minimum point for RWF and RWF⩽1 for any values of TH. Consequently, the use of Bose gas as a working fluid in a Stirling cycle provides an advantage since it causes the net work output per cycle to increase by consuming more heat energy. This fact is seen to be in the opposite direction for a Stirling cycle working with Fermi gas.

  9. Proton stopping using a full conserving dielectric function in plasmas at any degeneracy

    SciTech Connect

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2010-10-15

    In this work, we present a dielectric function including the three conservation laws (density, momentum and energy) when we take into account electron-electron collisions in a plasma at any degeneracy. This full conserving dielectric function (FCDF) reproduces the random phase approximation (RPA) and Mermin ones, which confirms this outcome. The FCDF is applied to the determination of the proton stopping power. Differences among diverse dielectric functions in the proton stopping calculation are minimal if the plasma electron collision frequency is not high enough. These discrepancies can rise up to 2% between RPA values and the FCDF ones, and to 8% between the Mermin ones and FCDF ones. The similarity between RPA and FCDF results is not surprising, as all conservation laws are also considered in RPA dielectric function. Even for plasmas with low collision frequencies, those discrepancies follow the same behavior as for plasmas with higher frequencies. Then, discrepancies do not depend on the plasma degeneracy but essentially do on the value of the plasma collision frequency.

  10. Degeneracy between warm and coupled cold dark matter: A clarifying note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velten, Hermano; Borges, Humberto A.; Caramês, Thiago R. P.

    2016-03-01

    Wei et al. [Phys. Rev. D 88, 043510 (2013)] have proposed the existence of a cosmological degeneracy between warm dark matter (WDM), modified gravity and coupled cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies at both the background expansion and the growth of density perturbation levels; i.e., corresponding cosmological data would not be able to differentiate such scenarios. Here, we will focus on the specific indistinguishability between warm dark matter plus cosmological constant (Λ ) and coupled scalar field CDM scenarios. Although the statement of Wei et al. is true for very specific conditions we present a more complete discussion on this issue and show in more detail that these models are indeed distinguishable. We show that the degeneracy breaks down since coupled models leave a specific signature in the redshift space distortion data which is absent in the uncoupled warm dark matter cosmologies. Furthermore, we complement our claim by providing the reasons which suggest that even at nonlinear level a breaking of such apparent equivalence is also expected.

  11. Resolving the degeneracy in single Higgs production with Higgs pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs boson production can be affected by several anomalous couplings, e.g. ct and cg anomalous couplings. Precise measurement of gg → h production yields two degenerate parameter spaces of ct and cg; one parameter space exhibits the SM limit while the other does not. Such a degeneracy could be resolved by Higgs boson pair production. In this work we adapt the strategy suggested by the ATLAS collaboration to explore the potential of distinguishing the degeneracy at the 14 TeV LHC. If the ct anomalous coupling is induced only by the operator H† HQbarL H ˜ tR, then the non-SM-like band could be excluded with an integrated luminosity of ˜ 210 fb-1. Making use of the fact that the Higgs boson pair is mainly produced through an s-wave scattering, we propose an analytical function to describe the fraction of signal events surviving a series of experimental cuts for a given invariant mass of Higgs boson pair. The function is model independent and can be applied to estimate the discovery potential of various NP models.

  12. Unhappy vertices in artificial spin ice: new degeneracies from vertex frustration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Muir J.; Nelson, Tammie R.; Nisoli, Cristiano

    2013-04-01

    In 1935, Pauling estimated the residual entropy of water ice with remarkable accuracy by considering the degeneracy of the ice rule solely at the vertex level. Indeed, his estimate works well for both the three-dimensional pyrochlore lattice and the two-dimensional six-vertex model, solved by Lieb in 1967. A similar estimate can be done for the honeycomb artificial spin. Indeed, its pseudo-ice rule, like the ice rule in Pauling and Lieb's systems, simply extends to the global ground state a degeneracy which is already present in the vertices. Unfortunately, the anisotropy of the magnetic interaction limits the design of inherently degenerate vertices in artificial spin ice, and the honeycomb is the only degenerate array produced so far. In this paper we show how to engineer artificial spin ice in a virtually infinite variety of degenerate geometries built out of non-degenerate vertices. In this new class of vertex models, the residual entropy follows not from a freedom of choice at the vertex level, but from the nontrivial relative arrangement of the vertices themselves. In such arrays not all of the vertices can be chosen in their lowest energy configuration. They are therefore vertex-frustrated and contain unhappy vertices. This can lead to residual entropy and to a variety of exotic states, such as sliding phases, smectic phases and emerging chirality. These new geometries will finally allow for the fabrication of many novel, extensively degenerate versions of artificial spin ice.

  13. Gutzwiller approach to the Anderson lattice model with no orbital degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulović, Vladimir Z.; Abrahams, Elihu

    1987-08-01

    A new technique is used to obtain the Gutzwiller ground-state energy functional for the Anderson lattice model with no orbital degeneracy (ALM). For the Hubbard model, known expressions are derived with ease and simplicity. For the ALM, we derive the ground-state energy functional of Varma, Weber, and Randall. As a check on our Gutzwiller functional, we find an independent analytical upper bound for the ground-state energy of ALM with a dispersionless f band. For the case of a dispersionless f band and momentum-independent hybridization, in the Kondo regime, we derive analytical expressions for the ground-state energy, charge, and magnetic susceptibilities. For the special case of infinite Coulomb repulsion, we recover results of Rice and Ueda and of Fazekas and Brandow, notably the negative value of the magnetic susceptibility. The negative magnetic susceptibility persists in the entire Kondo region, i.e., finite-U effects do not stabilize the nonmagnetic Kondo state. This suggests that nonzero orbital degeneracy in the Anderson lattice model must be retained to describe heavy-fermion materials with a normal Fermi liquid ground state.

  14. Limits of custodial symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Di Chiara, Stefano; Foadi, Roshan

    2009-11-01

    We introduce a toy model implementing the proposal of using a custodial symmetry to protect the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling from large corrections. This 'doublet-extended standard model' adds a weak doublet of fermions (including a heavy partner of the top quark) to the particle content of the standard model in order to implement an O(4)xU(1){sub X}{approx}SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xP{sub LR}xU(1){sub X} symmetry in the top-quark mass generating sector. This symmetry is softly broken to the gauged SU(2){sub L}xU(1){sub Y} electroweak symmetry by a Dirac mass M for the new doublet; adjusting the value of M allows us to explore the range of possibilities between the O(4)-symmetric (M{yields}0) and standard-model-like (M{yields}{infinity}) limits. In this simple model, we find that the experimental limits on the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling favor smaller M while the presence of a potentially sizable negative contribution to {alpha}T strongly favors large M. Comparison with precision electroweak data shows that the heavy partner of the top quark must be heavier than about 3.4 TeV, making it difficult to search for at LHC. This result demonstrates that electroweak data strongly limit the amount by which the custodial symmetry of the top-quark mass generating sector can be enhanced relative to the standard model. Using an effective field theory calculation, we illustrate how the leading contributions to {alpha}T, {alpha}S, and the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling in this model arise from an effective operator coupling right-handed top quarks to the Z boson, and how the effects on these observables are correlated. We contrast this toy model with extradimensional models in which the extended custodial symmetry is invoked to control the size of additional contributions to {alpha}T and the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling, while leaving the standard model contributions essentially unchanged.

  15. Reflections on Symmetry and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The concept of symmetry is fundamental to mathematics. Arguments and proofs based on symmetry are often aesthetically pleasing because they are subtle and succinct and non-standard. This article uses notions of symmetry to approach the solutions to a broad range of mathematical problems. It responds to Krutetskii's criteria for mathematical…

  16. Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boozer, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…

  17. A broken symmetry ontology: Quantum mechanics as a broken symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Buschmann, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The author proposes a new broken symmetry ontology to be used to analyze the quantum domain. This ontology is motivated and grounded in a critical epistemological analysis, and an analysis of the basic role of symmetry in physics. Concurrently, he is led to consider nonheterogeneous systems, whose logical state space contains equivalence relations not associated with the causal relation. This allows him to find a generalized principle of symmetry and a generalized symmetry-conservation formalisms. In particular, he clarifies the role of Noether's theorem in field theory. He shows how a broken symmetry ontology already operates in a description of the weak interactions. Finally, by showing how a broken symmetry ontology operates in the quantum domain, he accounts for the interpretational problem and the essential incompleteness of quantum mechanics. He proposes that the broken symmetry underlying this ontological domain is broken dilation invariance.

  18. PSEUDOSPIN SYMMETRY IN NUCLEI, SPIN SYMMETRY IN HADRONS

    SciTech Connect

    P. PAGE; T. GOLDMAN; J. GINOCCHIO

    2000-08-01

    Ginocchio argued that chiral symmetry breaking in QCD is responsible for the relativistic pseudospin symmetry in the Dirac equation, explaining the observed approximate pseudospin symmetry in sizable nuclei. On a much smaller scale, it is known that spin-orbit splittings in hadrons are small. Specifically, new experimental data from CLEO indicate small splittings in D-mesons. For heavy-light mesons we identify a cousin of pseudospin symmetry that suppresses these splittings in the Dirac equation, known as spin symmetry. We suggest an experimental test of the implications of spin symmetry for wave functions in electron-positron annihilation. We investigate how QCD can give rise to two different dynamical symmetries on nuclear and hadronic scales.

  19. Chiral symmetry and pentaquarks

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitri Diakonov

    2004-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, mesons and baryons are illustrated in the language of the Dirac theory. Various forces acting between quarks inside baryons are discussed. I explain why the naive quark models typically overestimate pentaquark masses by some 500 MeV and why in the fully relativistic approach to baryons pentaquarks turn out to be light. I discuss briefly why it can be easier to produce pentaquarks at low than at high energies.

  20. Binary-Symmetry Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Hiram

    1987-01-01

    Transmission errors for zeros and ones tabulated separately. Binary-symmetry detector employs psuedo-random data pattern used as test message coming through channel. Message then modulo-2 added to locally generated and synchronized version of test data pattern in same manner found in manufactured test sets of today. Binary symmetrical channel shows nearly 50-percent ones to 50-percent zeroes correspondence. Degree of asymmetry represents imbalances due to either modulation, transmission, or demodulation processes of system when perturbed by noise.

  1. PT symmetry in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulides, Demetrios

    2015-03-01

    Interest in complex Hamiltonians has been rekindled after the realization that a wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can have entirely real spectra as long as they simultaneously respect parity and time reversal operators. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, governed by the Schrödinger equation, a necessary but not sufficient condition for PT symmetry to hold is that the complex potential should involve real and imaginary parts which are even and odd functions of position respectively. As recently indicated, optics provides a fertile ground to observe and utilize notions of PT symmetry. In optics, the refractive index and gain/loss profiles play the role of the real and imaginary parts of the aforementioned complex potentials. As it has been demonstrated in several studies, PT-symmetric optical structures can exhibit peculiar properties that are otherwise unattainable in traditional Hermitian (conservative) optical settings. Among them, is the possibility for breaking this symmetry through an abrupt phase transition, band merging effects and unidirectional invisibility. Here we review recent developments in the field of -symmetric optics.

  2. Symmetries in laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    The different types of symmetry exhibited by laminated anisotropic fibrous composite plates are identified and contrasted with the symmetries of isotropic and homogeneous orthotropic plates. The effects of variations in the fiber orientation and the stacking sequence of the layers on the symmetries exhibited by composite plates are discussed. Both the linear and geometrically nonlinear responses of the plates are considered. A simple procedure is presented for exploiting the symmetries in the finite element analysis. Examples are given of square, skew and polygonal plates where use of symmetry concepts can significantly reduce the scope and cost of analysis.

  3. Broken vertex symmetry and finite zero-point entropy in the artificial square ice ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliga, Sebastian; Kákay, Attila; Heyderman, Laura J.; Hertel, Riccardo; Heinonen, Olle G.

    2015-08-01

    We study degeneracy and entropy in the ground state of artificial square ice. In theoretical models, individual nanomagnets are typically treated as single spins with only two degrees of freedom, leading to a twofold degenerate ground state with intensive entropy and thus no zero-point entropy. Here, we show that the internal degrees of freedom of the nanostructures can result, through edge bending of the magnetization and breaking of local magnetic symmetry at the vertices, in a transition to a highly degenerate ground state with finite zero-point entropy, similar to that of the pyrochlore spin ices. We find that these additional degrees of freedom have observable consequences in the resonant spectrum of the lattice, and predict the occurrence of edge "melting" above a critical temperature at which the magnetic symmetry is restored.

  4. Empirical signatures of quantum phase transitions and universal properties of critical point descriptions and dynamical symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R. F.; Bonatsos, Dennis; McCutchan, E. A.

    2009-01-28

    Recently, a new signature for quantum phase transitional regions has been discussed. This signature, based on degeneracies of yrast and intrinsic excitations, can distinguish first and second order phase transitions, and is valid not only at or near the analytic critical points described by X(5) and E(5), but along the phase transitional line connecting them as well. In addition, a study of a number of recent analytic solutions to the Bohr Hamiltonian and of the dynamical symmetries of the IBA Hamiltonian has revealed a set of extremely simple and general analytic formulas that describe the energies of 0{sup +} states. For the case of flat-bottomed geometrical potentials, the formula depends solely on the number of relevant dimensions. For the IBA (large boson number limit) a single formula describes all three dynamical symmetries.

  5. Topological superconducting phases from inversion symmetry breaking order in spin-orbit-coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Cho, Gil Young; Hughes, Taylor L.; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the superconducting instabilities in the vicinity of the quantum-critical point of an inversion symmetry breaking order. We first show that the fluctuations of the inversion symmetry breaking order lead to two degenerate superconducting (SC) instabilities, one in the s -wave channel, and the other in a time-reversal invariant odd-parity pairing channel (the simplest case being the same as the of 3He-B phase). Remarkably, we find that unlike many well-known examples, the selection of the pairing symmetry of the condensate is independent of the momentum-space structure of the collective mode that mediates the pairing interaction. We found that this degeneracy is a result of the existence of a conserved fermionic helicity χ , and the two degenerate channels correspond to even and odd combinations of SC order parameters with χ =±1 . As a result, the system has an enlarged symmetry U (1 ) ×U (1 ) , with each U (1 ) corresponding to one value of the helicity χ . Because of the enlarged symmetry, this system admits exotic topological defects such as a fractional quantum vortex, which we show has a Majorana zero mode bound at its core. We discuss how the enlarged symmetry can be lifted by small perturbations, such as the Coulomb interaction or Fermi surface splitting in the presence of broken inversion symmetry, and we show that the resulting superconducting state can be topological or trivial depending on parameters. The U (1 ) ×U (1 ) symmetry is restored at the phase boundary between the topological and trivial SC states, and allows for a transition between topologically distinct SC phases without the vanishing of the order parameter. We present a global phase diagram of the superconducting states and discuss possible experimental implications.

  6. Partially ferromagnetic electromagnet for trapping and cooling neutral atoms to quantum degeneracy

    SciTech Connect

    Fauquembergue, M.; Riou, J-F.; Guerin, W.; Rangwala, S.; Moron, F.; Villing, A.; Le Coq, Y.; Bouyer, P.; Aspect, A.; Lecrivain, M.

    2005-10-15

    We have developed a compact partially ferromagnetic electromagnet to produce an Ioffe-Pritchard trap for neutral atoms. Our structure permits strong magnetic confinement with low power consumption. Compared to the previous iron-core electromagnet [B. Desruelle, V. Boyer, P. Bouyer, G. Birkl, M. Lecrivain, F. Alves, C. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 255 (1998)], it allows for easy compensation of remnant fields and very high stability, along with cost-effective realization and compactness. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate trapping and cooling of {sup 87}Rb atoms to quantum degeneracy. Pure Bose-Einstein condensates containing 10{sup 6} atoms are routinely realized on a half-minute cycle. In addition we test the stability of the magnetic trap by producing atom lasers.

  7. Influence of quantum degeneracy on the performance of a gas Stirling engine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ji-Zhou; Mao, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Hui

    2006-09-01

    Based on the state equation of an ideal quantum gas, the regenerative loss of a Stirling engine cycle working with an ideal quantum gas is calculated. Thermal efficiency of the cycle is derived. Furthermore, under the condition of quantum degeneracy, several special thermal efficiencies are discussed. Ratios of thermal efficiencies versus the temperature ratio and volume ratio of the cycle are made. It is found that the thermal efficiency of the cycle not only depends on high and low temperatures but also on maximum and minimum volumes. In a classical gas state the thermal efficiency of the cycle is equal to that of the Carnot cycle. In an ideal quantum gas state the thermal efficiency of the cycle is smaller than that of the Carnot cycle. This will be significant for deeper understanding of the gas Stirling engine cycle.

  8. Protein evolution. Pervasive degeneracy and epistasis in a protein-protein interface.

    PubMed

    Podgornaia, Anna I; Laub, Michael T

    2015-02-01

    Mapping protein sequence space is a difficult problem that necessitates the analysis of 20(N) combinations for sequences of length N. We systematically mapped the sequence space of four key residues in the Escherichia coli protein kinase PhoQ that drive recognition of its substrate PhoP. We generated a library containing all 160,000 variants of PhoQ at these positions and used a two-step selection coupled to next-generation sequencing to identify 1659 functional variants. Our results reveal extensive degeneracy in the PhoQ-PhoP interface and epistasis, with the effect of individual substitutions often highly dependent on context. Together, epistasis and the genetic code create a pattern of connectivity of functional variants in sequence space that likely constrains PhoQ evolution. Consequently, the diversity of PhoQ orthologs is substantially lower than that of functional PhoQ variants. PMID:25657251

  9. Hyperspherical theory of the quantum Hall effect: The role of exceptional degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, K. M.; Wooten, R. E.; Greene, Chris H.

    2015-09-01

    By separating the Schrödinger equation for N noninteracting spin-polarized fermions in two-dimensional hyperspherical coordinates, we demonstrate that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states emerge naturally from degeneracy patterns of the antisymmetric free-particle eigenfunctions. In the presence of Coulomb interactions, the FQH states split off from a degenerate manifold and become observable as distinct quantized energy eigenstates with an energy gap. This alternative classification scheme is based on an approximate separability of the interacting N -fermion Schrödinger equation in the hyperradial coordinate, which sheds light on the emergence of Laughlin states as well as other FQH states. An approximate good collective quantum number, the grand angular momentum K from K -harmonic few-body theory, is shown to correlate with known FQH states at many filling factors observed experimentally.

  10. Giant and tunable valley degeneracy splitting in MoTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Qi, Jingshan; Niu, Qian; Feng, Ji

    Valleys in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides seamlessly connect two basic carriers of quantum information, namely, the electron spin and photon helicity. Lifting the valley degeneracy is an attractive route to achieve further optoelectronic manipulations. However, the magnetic field only creates a very small valley splitting. We propose a strategy to create giant valley splitting by the proximity-induced Zeeman effect. Our first principles calculations of monolayer MoTe2 on a EuO substrate show that valley splitting over 300 meV can be generated. Interband transition energies become valley dependent, leading to selective spin-photon coupling by optical frequency tuning. The valley splitting is also continuously tunable by rotating the substrate magnetization. The giant and tunable valley splitting adds a different dimension to the exploration of unique optoelectronic devices based on magneto-optical coupling and magnetoelectric coupling.

  11. Observation of non-Hermitian degeneracies in a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard.

    PubMed

    Gao, T; Estrecho, E; Bliokh, K Y; Liew, T C H; Fraser, M D; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Yamamoto, Y; Nori, F; Kivshar, Y S; Truscott, A G; Dall, R G; Ostrovskaya, E A

    2015-10-22

    Exciton-polaritons are hybrid light-matter quasiparticles formed by strongly interacting photons and excitons (electron-hole pairs) in semiconductor microcavities. They have emerged as a robust solid-state platform for next-generation optoelectronic applications as well as for fundamental studies of quantum many-body physics. Importantly, exciton-polaritons are a profoundly open (that is, non-Hermitian) quantum system, which requires constant pumping of energy and continuously decays, releasing coherent radiation. Thus, the exciton-polaritons always exist in a balanced potential landscape of gain and loss. However, the inherent non-Hermitian nature of this potential has so far been largely ignored in exciton-polariton physics. Here we demonstrate that non-Hermiticity dramatically modifies the structure of modes and spectral degeneracies in exciton-polariton systems, and, therefore, will affect their quantum transport, localization and dynamical properties. Using a spatially structured optical pump, we create a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard--a two-dimensional area enclosed by a curved potential barrier. Eigenmodes of this billiard exhibit multiple non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies, known as exceptional points. Such points can cause remarkable wave phenomena, such as unidirectional transport, anomalous lasing/absorption and chiral modes. By varying parameters of the billiard, we observe crossing and anti-crossing of energy levels and reveal the non-trivial topological modal structure exclusive to non-Hermitian systems. We also observe mode switching and a topological Berry phase for a parameter loop encircling the exceptional point. Our findings pave the way to studies of non-Hermitian quantum dynamics of exciton-polaritons, which may uncover novel operating principles for polariton-based devices. PMID:26458102

  12. Observation of non-Hermitian degeneracies in a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, T.; Estrecho, E.; Bliokh, K. Y.; Liew, T. C. H.; Fraser, M. D.; Brodbeck, S.; Kamp, M.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nori, F.; Kivshar, Y. S.; Truscott, A. G.; Dall, R. G.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    Exciton-polaritons are hybrid light-matter quasiparticles formed by strongly interacting photons and excitons (electron-hole pairs) in semiconductor microcavities. They have emerged as a robust solid-state platform for next-generation optoelectronic applications as well as for fundamental studies of quantum many-body physics. Importantly, exciton-polaritons are a profoundly open (that is, non-Hermitian) quantum system, which requires constant pumping of energy and continuously decays, releasing coherent radiation. Thus, the exciton-polaritons always exist in a balanced potential landscape of gain and loss. However, the inherent non-Hermitian nature of this potential has so far been largely ignored in exciton-polariton physics. Here we demonstrate that non-Hermiticity dramatically modifies the structure of modes and spectral degeneracies in exciton-polariton systems, and, therefore, will affect their quantum transport, localization and dynamical properties. Using a spatially structured optical pump, we create a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard--a two-dimensional area enclosed by a curved potential barrier. Eigenmodes of this billiard exhibit multiple non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies, known as exceptional points. Such points can cause remarkable wave phenomena, such as unidirectional transport, anomalous lasing/absorption and chiral modes. By varying parameters of the billiard, we observe crossing and anti-crossing of energy levels and reveal the non-trivial topological modal structure exclusive to non-Hermitian systems. We also observe mode switching and a topological Berry phase for a parameter loop encircling the exceptional point. Our findings pave the way to studies of non-Hermitian quantum dynamics of exciton-polaritons, which may uncover novel operating principles for polariton-based devices.

  13. Thermal symmetry in isoscaling

    SciTech Connect

    Escudero, C. R.; Lopez, J. A.; Dorso, C. O.

    2007-02-12

    It is determined that isoscaling data, if produced by two isotopic reactions under similar thermodynamic conditions, should satisfy a simple numerical relationship. This, which helps to explore the symmetry of thermodynamic conditions of isotopic reactions, is studied using molecular dynamics simulations of 40Ca+40Ca, 48Ca+48Ca, and 52Ca+52Ca, at beam energies from 35 MeV / A to 85 MeV / A, and as a function of time. Strong deviations from the rule are detected in the beginning of the collision, with an excellent convergence at long times for some energies. A comparison with experimental data and other calculations is also included.

  14. Galactic oscillator symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosensteel, George

    1995-01-01

    Riemann ellipsoids model rotating galaxies when the galactic velocity field is a linear function of the Cartesian coordinates of the galactic masses. In nuclear physics, the kinetic energy in the linear velocity field approximation is known as the collective kinetic energy. But, the linear approximation neglects intrinsic degrees of freedom associated with nonlinear velocity fields. To remove this limitation, the theory of symplectic dynamical symmetry is developed for classical systems. A classical phase space for a self-gravitating symplectic system is a co-adjoint orbit of the noncompact group SP(3,R). The degenerate co-adjoint orbit is the 12 dimensional homogeneous space Sp(3,R)/U(3), where the maximal compact subgroup U(3) is the symmetry group of the harmonic oscillator. The Hamiltonian equations of motion on each orbit form a Lax system X = (X,F), where X and F are elements of the symplectic Lie algebra. The elements of the matrix X are the generators of the symplectic Lie algebra, viz., the one-body collective quadratic functions of the positions and momenta of the galactic masses. The matrix F is composed from the self-gravitating potential energy, the angular velocity, and the hydostatic pressure. Solutions to the hamiltonian dynamical system on Sp(3,R)/U(3) are given by symplectic isospectral deformations. The Casimirs of Sp(3,R), equal to the traces of powers of X, are conserved quantities.

  15. Applications of chiral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  16. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-01

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag2 and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag2 modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy.

  17. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-14

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag (2) and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag (2) modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy. PMID:27421389

  18. Symmetry of Magnetically Ordered Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifshitz, Ron

    1998-03-01

    The notion of magnetic symmetry is reexamined in light of the recent observation of long-range magnetic order in icosahedral quasicrystals [Charrier et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4637 (1997)]. The relation between the symmetry of a magnetically ordered (periodic or quasiperiodic) crystal, given in terms of a ``spin space group,'' and its neutron diffraction diagram is established. In doing so, an outline of a symmetry classification scheme for magnetically ordered quasiperiodic crystals, is provided. Predictions are given for the expected diffraction patterns of magnetically ordered icosahedral crystals, provided their symmetry is well described by icosahedral spin space groups.

  19. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  20. Symmetry fractionalization and twist defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarantino, Nicolas; Lindner, Netanel H.; Fidkowski, Lukasz

    2016-03-01

    Topological order in two-dimensions can be described in terms of deconfined quasiparticle excitations—anyons—and their braiding statistics. However, it has recently been realized that this data does not completely describe the situation in the presence of an unbroken global symmetry. In this case, there can be multiple distinct quantum phases with the same anyons and statistics, but with different patterns of symmetry fractionalization—termed symmetry enriched topological order. When the global symmetry group G, which we take to be discrete, does not change topological superselection sectors—i.e. does not change one type of anyon into a different type of anyon—one can imagine a local version of the action of G around each anyon. This leads to projective representations and a group cohomology description of symmetry fractionalization, with the second cohomology group {H}2(G,{{ A }}{{abelian}}) being the relevant group. In this paper, we treat the general case of a symmetry group G possibly permuting anyon types. We show that despite the lack of a local action of G, one can still make sense of a so-called twisted group cohomology description of symmetry fractionalization, and show how this data is encoded in the associativity of fusion rules of the extrinsic ‘twist’ defects of the symmetry. Furthermore, building on work of Hermele (2014 Phys. Rev. B 90 184418), we construct a wide class of exactly-solvable models which exhibit this twisted symmetry fractionalization, and connect them to our formal framework.

  1. NIF symmetry capsule modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Pino, J. E.; Rowley, D. P.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Spears, B. K.; Tipton, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    NIF CH ablator symmetry capsules are filled with hydrogen or helium gas. SymCaps have more moderate convergence ratios ~ 15 as opposed to ~ 35 for ignition capsules with DT ice layers, and better agreement has been achieved between simulations and experimental data. We will present modeling of capsules with CD layers and tritium fill, for which we are able to match the dependence of DT yield on recession distance of the CD layer from the gas. We can also match the performance of CH capsules with D3 He fill. The simulations include surface roughness, drive asymmetry, a mock-up of modulation introduced by the tent holding the capsule, and an empirical prescription for ablator-gas atomic mix. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Symmetry Notations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Compares Schoenflies and Hermann-Mauguin notations of symmetry. Although the former (used by spectroscopists) and latter (used by crystallographers) both describe the same symmetry, there are distinct differences in the manner of description which may lead to confusion in correlating the two notations. (Author/JN)

  3. Generalized Atkin-Lehner symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.

    1990-09-01

    Atkin-Lehner symmetry was proposed several years ago as a mechanism for obtaining a vanishing one-loop cosmological constant in nonsupersymmetric superstring models, but for models formulated in four-dimensional spacetime this symmetry cannot be realized. We therefore investigate various means of retaining the general Atkin-Lehner idea without having strict Atkin-Lehner symmetry. We first explicitly construct non-Atkin-Lehner-symmetric partition functions which not only lead to vanishing cosmological constants but which also avoid a recent proof that Atkin-Lehner-symmetric partition functions cannot arise from physically viable string models in greater than two dimensions. We then develop a systematic generalization of Atkin-Lehner symmetry, basing our considerations on the use of non-Hermitian operators as well as on a general class of possible congruence subgroups of the full modular group. We find that whereas in many instances our resulting symmetries reduce to either strict Atkin-Lehner symmetry or symmetries closely related to it, in other cases we obtain symmetries of a fundamentally new character. Our results therefore suggest possible new avenues for retaining the general Atkin-Lehner ``selection rule'' approach for obtaining a vanishing one-loop cosmological constant.

  4. Generalized Atkin-Lehner symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Dienes, K.R. )

    1990-09-15

    Atkin-Lehner symmetry was proposed several years ago as a mechanism for obtaining a vanishing one-loop cosmological constant in nonsupersymmetric superstring models, but for models formulated in four-dimensional spacetime this symmetry cannot be realized. We therefore investigate various means of retaining the general Atkin-Lehner idea without having strict Atkin-Lehner symmetry. We first explicitly construct non-Atkin-Lehner-symmetric partition functions which not only lead to vanishing cosmological constants but which also avoid a recent proof that Atkin-Lehner-symmetric partition functions cannot arise from physically viable string models in greater than two dimensions. We then develop a systematic generalization of Atkin-Lehner symmetry, basing our considerations on the use of non-Hermitian operators as well as on a general class of possible congruence subgroups of the full modular group. We find that whereas in many instances our resulting symmetries reduce to either strict Atkin-Lehner symmetry or symmetries closely related to it, in other cases we obtain symmetries of a fundamentally new character. Our results therefore suggest possible new avenues for retaining the general Atkin-Lehner selection rule'' approach for obtaining a vanishing one-loop cosmological constant.

  5. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  6. Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

  7. Theory of nodal s ± -wave pairing symmetry in the Pu-based 115 superconductor family.

    PubMed

    Das, Tanmoy; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Graf, Matthias J

    2015-01-01

    The spin-fluctuation mechanism of superconductivity usually results in the presence of gapless or nodal quasiparticle states in the excitation spectrum. Nodal quasiparticle states are well established in copper-oxide, and heavy-fermion superconductors, but not in iron-based superconductors. Here, we study the pairing symmetry and mechanism of a new class of plutonium-based high-Tc superconductors and predict the presence of a nodal s(±) wave pairing symmetry in this family. Starting from a density-functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculation we predict several three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surfaces in this 115 superconductor family. We identify the dominant Fermi surface "hot-spots" in the inter-band scattering channel, which are aligned along the wavevector Q = (π, π, π), where degeneracy could induce sign-reversal of the pairing symmetry. Our calculation demonstrates that the s(±) wave pairing strength is stronger than the previously thought d-wave pairing; and more importantly, this pairing state allows for the existence of nodal quasiparticles. Finally, we predict the shape of the momentum- and energy-dependent magnetic resonance spectrum for the identification of this pairing symmetry. PMID:25721375

  8. Consequences of the complex character of the internal symmetry in supersymmetric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatto, R.; Sartori, G.

    1987-06-01

    The consequences of the invariance of the superpotential under the complexification G c of the internal symmetry group on the determination of the possible patterns of symmetry and supersymmetry breaking are established in a globally supersymmetric theory. In particular, in the case of global internal symmetry we show that a vacuum associaated to a point z, where G {z/c}≠ G {z/c} is always degenerate with a vacuum associated to a point z', where G {z'/c}= G {z'/c}; all the other degeneracies of the minimum of the potential on an orbit of G c are also determined and shown to be completely removed when the internal symmetry is gauged. The zeroes of the D-term of a supersymmetric gauge theory are characterized as the points of the closed orbits of G c which are at minimum distance from the origin; at these points G {z/c}= G {z/c}. It is rigorously proved that the minimum of the potential is zero if the gradient of the superpotential vanishes somewhere. It is also shown that the D-term necessarily vanishes at the minimum of the potential if the direction of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking is invariant by G.

  9. SU(2) symmetry in a realistic spin-fermion model for cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, T.; Montiel, X.; Pépin, C.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the pseudogap (PG) state of high-Tc superconductors in the form of a composite order parameter fluctuating between 2 pF -charge ordering and superconducting (SC) pairing. In the limit of linear dispersion and at the hot spots, both order parameters are related by a SU(2) symmetry, and the eight-hot-spot model of Efetov et al. [Nat. Phys. 9, 442 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2641] is recovered. In the general case, however, curvature terms of the dispersion will break this symmetry, and the degeneracy between both states is lifted. Taking the full momentum dependence of the order parameter into account, we measure the strength of this SU(2) symmetry breaking over the full Brillouin zone. For realistic dispersion relations including curvature we find generically that the SU(2) symmetry breaking is small and robust to the fermiology and that the symmetric situation is restored in the large paramagnon mass and coupling limit. Comparing the level splitting for different materials, we propose a scenario that could account for the competition between the PG and SC states in the phase diagram of high-Tc superconductors.

  10. Ultraviolet completion without symmetry restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2014-03-01

    We show that it is not possible to UV complete certain low-energy effective theories with spontaneously broken spacetime symmetries by embedding them into linear sigma models, that is, by adding "radial" modes and restoring the broken symmetries. When such a UV completion is not possible, one can still raise the cutoff up to arbitrarily higher energies by adding fields that transform nonlinearly under the broken symmetries, that is, new Goldstone bosons. However, this (partial) UV completion does not necessarily restore any of the broken symmetries. We illustrate this point by considering a concrete example in which a combination of spacetime and internal symmetries is broken down to a diagonal subgroup. Along the way, we clarify a recently proposed interpretation of inverse Higgs constraints as gauge-fixing conditions.