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Sample records for boundary character distributions

  1. Grain Boundary Character Distributions In Isostructural Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanaphan, Sutatch

    Anisotropic grain boundary character distributions (GBCDs), which influence macroscopic materials properties, are thought to be controlled by the grain boundary energy anisotropy. Structurally, grain boundary could be viewed as two free surfaces joined together. Grain boundary energy could be simply defined by the total excess energy for creating two free surfaces minus the energy gained when new bonds are formed between these surfaces. This implies that different crystal structure should have different GBEDs and GBCDs. It was recently discovered that grain boundary energy distributions (GBED) in isostructural materials, a class of materials that share the same crystal structure, are directly related to one another. This suggests that GBCDs in isostructural materials might also be related in a similar way. To test this hypothesis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to map grain orientations in Ag, Au, Cu, Fe, and Mo. The GBCDs were determined from the stereological interpretation of EBSD maps containing on the order of 100,000 grains. It was found that the GBCDs of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals are statistically correlated, while the GBCDs of body-centered cubic (BCC) Fe and Mo are not correlated to the GBCD of FCC metals. The degree of the correlations among the FCC metals is weaker if there are significant differences in grain shape or texture. For example, Ag has the weakest correlation to the other FCC materials and also has quantitatively different grain shapes and texture. The relationship between the populations and energies of grain boundaries was also studied. By comparing the GBCDs of Al, Au, Cu, and Ni to the energies of 388 grain boundaries previously calculated by the Embedded Atom Method (EAM), we observed a moderately inverse correlation between the relative areas of grain boundaries and their energies. Interestingly, there are strong inverse correlations between the energies and populations of the most common grain boundaries (Sigma

  2. Grain Boundary Character Distribution of TLM Titanium Alloy During Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, X. F.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Jia, Z. Q.; Zhang, Y. S.; Li, B.

    2016-06-01

    The grain boundary character distribution of TLM titanium alloy (with a nominal chemical composition of Ti-3Zr-2Sn-3Mo-25Nb) was studied under the deformation condition with different strain rates and compression reductions. The experimental results showed that the evolution and character distribution of grain boundaries structure during deformation were both related to grain boundary coupling, sliding, migration, and the grain rotating in nature. In TLM titanium alloy, the type of grain boundaries under different deformation condition included high-angle boundaries, low-angle boundaries, and the CSL boundaries of Σ3, Σ13, Σ29, and Σ39. Under the strain rate of 1 s-1, the numbers of grain boundaries with misorientation angle of 3°, 30°, and 60° all decreased obviously with the increasing compression reduction to 4.5%, comparing to those obtained under the strain rate of 0.001 s-1. Under the strain rate of 1 s-1, the numbers of Σ29 boundaries greatly increased with the compression reductions of 3 to 4.5% comparing to those obtained under the strain rate of 0.001 s-1, and the numbers of Σ3 boundaries increased firstly and then stabilized with the compression reduction increasing from 0 to 4%, while the numbers of Σ39 boundaries decreased with the compression reduction increasing to 4.5%.

  3. Grain boundary character distribution in nanocrystalline metals produced by different processing routes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bober, David B.; Kumar, Mukal; Rupert, Timothy J.; Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein

    2015-12-28

    Nanocrystalline materials are defined by their fine grain size, but details of the grain boundary character distribution should also be important. Grain boundary character distributions are reported for ball-milled, sputter-deposited, and electrodeposited Ni and Ni-based alloys, all with average grain sizes of ~20 nm, to study the influence of processing route. The two deposited materials had nearly identical grain boundary character distributions, both marked by a Σ3 length percentage of 23 to 25 pct. In contrast, the ball-milled material had only 3 pct Σ3-type grain boundaries and a large fraction of low-angle boundaries (16 pct), with the remainder being predominantlymore » random high angle (73 pct). Furthermore, these grain boundary character measurements are connected to the physical events that control their respective processing routes. Consequences for material properties are also discussed with a focus on nanocrystalline corrosion. As a whole, the results presented here show that grain boundary character distribution, which has often been overlooked in nanocrystalline metals, can vary significantly and influence material properties in profound ways.« less

  4. Grain boundary character distribution in nanocrystalline metals produced by different processing routes

    SciTech Connect

    Bober, David B.; Kumar, Mukal; Rupert, Timothy J.; Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein

    2015-12-28

    Nanocrystalline materials are defined by their fine grain size, but details of the grain boundary character distribution should also be important. Grain boundary character distributions are reported for ball-milled, sputter-deposited, and electrodeposited Ni and Ni-based alloys, all with average grain sizes of ~20 nm, to study the influence of processing route. The two deposited materials had nearly identical grain boundary character distributions, both marked by a Σ3 length percentage of 23 to 25 pct. In contrast, the ball-milled material had only 3 pct Σ3-type grain boundaries and a large fraction of low-angle boundaries (16 pct), with the remainder being predominantly random high angle (73 pct). Furthermore, these grain boundary character measurements are connected to the physical events that control their respective processing routes. Consequences for material properties are also discussed with a focus on nanocrystalline corrosion. As a whole, the results presented here show that grain boundary character distribution, which has often been overlooked in nanocrystalline metals, can vary significantly and influence material properties in profound ways.

  5. Grain Boundary Character Distributions in Nanocrystalline Metals Produced by Different Processing Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bober, David B.; Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein; Kumar, Mukul; Rupert, Timothy J.

    2016-03-01

    Nanocrystalline materials are defined by their fine grain size, but details of the grain boundary character distribution should also be important. Grain boundary character distributions are reported for ball-milled, sputter-deposited, and electrodeposited Ni and Ni-based alloys, all with average grain sizes of ~20 nm, to study the influence of processing route. The two deposited materials had nearly identical grain boundary character distributions, both marked by a Σ3 length percentage of 23 to 25 pct. In contrast, the ball-milled material had only 3 pct Σ3-type grain boundaries and a large fraction of low-angle boundaries (16 pct), with the remainder being predominantly random high angle (73 pct). These grain boundary character measurements are connected to the physical events that control their respective processing routes. Consequences for material properties are also discussed with a focus on nanocrystalline corrosion. As a whole, the results presented here show that grain boundary character distribution, which has often been overlooked in nanocrystalline metals, can vary significantly and influence material properties in profound ways.

  6. Grain boundary character distribution of CuNiSi and FeNi alloys processed by severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeddine, H.; Baudin, T.; Helbert, A. L.; Brisset, F.; Larbi, F. Hadj; Tirsatine, K.; Kawasaki, M.; Bradai, D.; Langdon, T. G.

    2015-04-01

    In this work the Grain Boundary Character Distribution (GBCD) in general and the relative proportion of low-Σ CSL (Coincidence Site Lattice) grain boundaries are determined through EBSD in Cu-2.5Ni-0.6Si (wt.%) and Fe-36Ni (wt.%) alloys after processing by high-pressure torsion, equal- channel angular pressing and accumulative roll bonding.

  7. Grain Boundary Character Distribution in the Heat-Affected Zone of Friction Stir-Processed AL 7075 T7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basinger, J. A.; Adams, B. L.

    2007-06-01

    Current transmission electron microscopy (TEM) research (Cai et al., 2006) in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of friction stir-welded Al 7075 T7 finds a correlation between precipitate-free zone (PFZ) width and grain boundary (GB) geometry. Based on these correlations, this article makes a comparison of grain boundary character distributions (GBCDs) in the HAZ and the parent metal via multisection plane five-parameter stereology. The stereology is conducted in a convenient macroscopic coordinate frame, associated with the HAZ. Further comparisons between the two microstructures are conducted relative to two-dimensional (2-D) GB network connectivity, recovered from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data in each section plane. It is shown that the relative fraction of GBs of misorientation character associated with smaller PFZ size is larger in the HAZ as compared to the parent material. A commensurate decrease in the connectivity (radius of gyration) of GBs of character conducive to larger PFZ size is also found in the HAZ, relative to the parent material. Distribution of inclinations changes as a function of GB geometry. Surface area per unit volume of low-angle random (LAR) misorientations increases in the HAZ, while high-angle random (HAR) and coincident site lattice (CSL) boundaries decrease. In the case of LAR and some CSL boundaries, a reorientation occurs in which macroscopic normals of these interfaces rotate.

  8. Influence of anisotropic grain boundary properties on the evolution of grain boundary character distribution during grain growth—a 2D level set study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallberg, Håkan

    2014-12-01

    The present study elaborates on a 2D level set model of polycrystal microstructures that was recently established by adding the influence of anisotropic grain boundary energy and mobility on microstructure evolution. The new model is used to trace the evolution of grain boundary character distribution during grain growth. The employed level set formulation conveniently allows the grain boundary characteristics to be quantified in terms of coincidence site lattice (CSL) type per unit of grain boundary length, providing a measure of the distribution of such boundaries. In the model, both the mobility and energy of the grain boundaries are allowed to vary with misorientation. In addition, the influence of initial polycrystal texture is studied by comparing results obtained from a polycrystal with random initial texture against results from a polycrystal that initially has a cube texture. It is shown that the proposed level set formulation can readily incorporate anisotropic grain boundary properties and the simulation results further show that anisotropic grain boundary properties only have a minor influence on the evolution of CSL boundary distribution during grain growth. As anisotropic boundary properties are considered, the most prominent changes in the CSL distributions are an increase of general low-angle Σ1 boundaries as well as a more stable presence of Σ3 boundaries. The observations also hold for the case of an initially cube-textured polycrystal. The presence of this kind of texture has little influence over the evolution of the CSL distribution. Taking into consideration the anisotropy of grain boundary properties, grain growth alone does not seem to be sufficient to promote any significantly increased overall presence of CSL boundaries.

  9. Study on grain boundary character and strain distribution of intergranular cracking in the CGHAZ of T23 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Y.J.; Lu, H. Yu, C.; Xu, J.J.

    2013-10-15

    Intergranular reheat cracking in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone of T23 steel was produced by strain to fracture tests on a Gleeble 3500 thermal–mechanical simulator. Then the grain boundary character, as well as the strain distribution after reheat crack propagation, was studied by electron backscatter diffraction technique. The results showed that incoherent Σ3 boundaries were seldom found on the prior austenite grain boundaries. Therefore, only the type of random high-angle boundaries played a crucial role in the intergranular cracking. Microstructurally cavities and small cracks were preferentially initiated from high-angle grain boundaries. Low-angle grain boundaries and high-angle ones with misorientation angles less than 15° were more resistant to the cracking. More importantly, the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries increased with the plastic strain induced by both temperature gradient and stress in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone, which contributed to the crack initiation and propagation. Furthermore, the strain distributions in the vicinity of cavities and cracks revealed the accommodation processes of plastic deformation during stress relaxation. It also reflected the strength differences between grain interior and grain boundary at different heat-treated temperatures, which had a large influence on the cracking mechanism. - Highlights: • The coincidence site lattice boundaries play little role in the reheat cracking. • Cavity and crack occur at high-angle grain boundaries rather than low-angle ones. • The strain leads low-angle grain boundaries to transform to high-angle ones. • Strain distribution differs for cavity and crack zones at different temperatures.

  10. Grain boundary character distribution and texture evolution during surface energy-driven grain growth in nanocrystalline gold thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shigeaki; Takagi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tadao

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of grain boundary microstructure during annealing in sputtered gold thin films was investigated on the basis of FEG-SEM/EBSD/OIM analyses of nanocrystalline microstructure, in order to find a clue to the precise control of grain boundary microstructure for development of high performance polycrystalline thin films. Remarkably high fractions of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries with specific Σ values such as Σ1, Σ3, Σ7, Σ13, Σ19 and Σ21 occurred in the gold thin film specimens on Pyrex glass substrate by annealing in air. The occurrence of higher fraction of these specific low-Σ boundaries is probably attributed to the evolution of a very sharp {111}-textures of different degrees which results from the preferential growth of {111}-oriented grains due to surface energy-driven grain growth. The fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries increased with increasing area fraction of {111}-texture. The grain boundary character distribution in the gold thin film specimens was strongly affected by the annealing atmosphere and substrate materials. The sharpness of {111}-texture in the specimen annealed in low-vacuum was weaker than that in the specimen annealed in air, and an extraordinarily high fraction of Σ3 CSL boundaries occurred. The grain growth of gold thin film specimens on SiO2 glass substrate was much slower than that of specimens on Pyrex glass substrate. The fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries observed for the gold thin film specimens on SiO2 glass substrate was lower than that in the specimens on Pyrex glass substrate. The inverse cubic root Σ dependence of low-Σ CSL boundaries in the gold thin film specimens was discussed in connection with the process of the evolution of grain boundary microstructure.

  11. Effect of Grain Boundary Character Distribution on the Impact Toughness of 410NiMo Weld Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divya, M.; Das, C. R.; Chowdhury, Sandip Ghosh; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Grain boundary character distributions in 410NiMo weld metal were studied in the as-welded, first-stage, and second-stage postweld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions, and these were correlated with the Charpy-V impact toughness values of the material. The high impact toughness values in the weld metal in the as-welded and first-stage PWHT conditions compared to that in the second-stage condition are attributed to the higher fraction of low-energy Σ boundaries. A higher volume fraction of retained austenite and coarser martensite after second-stage PWHT accompanied by the formation of the ideal cube component in the 2-hour heat-treated specimen led to a reduction in the toughness value. A subsequent increase in the PWHT duration at 873 K (600 °C) enhanced the formation of {111}<112>, which impedes the adverse effect of the cubic component, resulting in an increase in the impact toughness. In addition to this, grain refinement during 4-hour PWHT in the second stage also increased the toughness of the weld metal.

  12. Computerized simulation of grain boundary character in a superplastic aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    McNelley, T.R.; Perez-Prado, M.T.

    2000-07-01

    High-angle grain boundaries are generally deemed necessary for superplasticity in metals. In polycrystalline materials the grain boundary character must be described in terms of a probability distribution rather than by a single parameter, and little has been reported on the relationship between this distribution and fine-grain superplasticity. For aluminum alloys that exhibit continuous recrystallization the results of computer-aided electron backscatter diffraction analysis have shown that bimodal grain boundary disorientation distributions are present in as-processed material and persist during subsequent annealing. Such distributions may be simulated by computer methods based on a model of the microstructure which assumes that deformation banding occurs during deformation processing. High-angle boundaries ({ge} 30{degree}) develop in association with deformation banding while boundaries of lower disorientation (< 30{degree}) develop by dislocation reaction within the bands. Improved understanding of the grain boundary types associated with various microstructural transformation mechanisms will aid the design of processes to produce superplastic microstructures.

  13. STUDY OF GRAIN BOUNDARY CHARACTER ALONG INTERGRANULAR STRESS CORROSION CRACK PATHS IN AUSTENITIC ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Guertsman, Valery Y.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2001-05-25

    Samples of austenitic stainless alloys were examined by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Misorientations were measured by electron backscattered diffraction. Grain boundary distributions were analyzed with special emphasis on the grain boundary character along intergranular stress-corrosion cracks and at crack arrest points. It was established that only coherent twin S3 boundaries could be considered as "special" ones with regard to crack resistance. However, it is possible that twin interactions with random grain boundaries may inhibit crack propagation. The results suggest that other factors besides geometrical ones play an important role in the intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of commercial alloys.

  14. Analysis of Grain Boundary Character in a Fine-Grained Nickel-Based Superalloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, L. S.; dos Santos, D. S.; Godet, S.; Dille, J.; Pinto, A. L.; de Almeida, L. H.

    2014-11-01

    In the current work, sheets of superalloy 718 were processed via thermomechanical route by hot and cold rolling, followed by annealing below the δ phase solvus temperature and precipitation hardening to optimum strength. Grain boundary character distribution throughout the processing was mapped via EBSD and its evolution discussed. The results show that it is possible to process the alloy to a fine grain size obtaining concomitantly a considerably high proportion of special boundaries Σ3, Σ9, and Σ27. The precipitation of δ phase presented a strong grain refining role, without significantly impairing the twinning mechanism and, consequently, the Σ3, Σ9, and Σ27 boundary formations.

  15. Grain boundary character modification employing thermo-mechanical processing in type 304L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S. K.; Mandal, S.

    2016-02-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE) approach has been employed to modify the boundaries character of a type 304L stainless steel through thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) route, which combined a low level of cold deformation (5, 10 and 15%) followed by annealing at 1173K and 1273K for 1hour. Employing Electron Back Scatter Diffraction based Orientation Imaging Microscopy, the fraction and distribution of low ∑ CSL boundaries (∑≤ 29) and its effect on random high-angle grain boundaries connectivity and triple junction distribution of as-received (AR) and GBE specimens were evaluated. It was possible to increase the fraction of low ∑ CSL boundaries up to 75% following GBE treatment (as compared to 50% in AR specimen). The GBE specimens also contained maximum number of percolation resistant triple junctions which could render better resistance against percolation related phenomena.

  16. Metal precipitation at grain boundaries in silicon: Dependence on grain boundary character and dislocation decoration

    SciTech Connect

    Buonassisi, T.; Istratov, A. A.; Pickett, M. D.; Marcus, M. A.; Ciszek, T. F.; Weber, E. R.

    2006-07-24

    Synchrotron-based analytical microprobe techniques, electron backscatter diffraction, and defect etching are combined to determine the dependence of metal silicide precipitate formation on grain boundary character and microstructure in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si). Metal silicide precipitate decoration is observed to increase with decreasing atomic coincidence within the grain boundary plane (increasing {sigma} values). A few low-{sigma} boundaries contain anomalously high metal precipitate concentrations, concomitant with heavy dislocation decoration. These results provide direct experimental evidence that the degree of interaction between metals and structural defects in mc-Si can vary as a function of microstructure, with implications for mc-Si device performance and processing.

  17. Distributions of Grain Boundary Normals in the Laboratory Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowinski, Krzysztof; Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2016-06-01

    Distributions of grain boundary normals with their components expressed in the laboratory reference frame are obtained for yttria and austenitic steel based on three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction data. The distributions exhibit various extrema that are attributed to the inaccuracy of the boundary surface reconstruction and to the discrete nature of the orientation data. We provide interpretation of the distributions with particular emphasis put on indicating the sources of these artifacts. Moreover, we verify the negligible impact of these issues on grain boundary plane and character distributions.

  18. Distributions of Grain Boundary Normals in the Laboratory Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowinski, Krzysztof; Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2016-04-01

    Distributions of grain boundary normals with their components expressed in the laboratory reference frame are obtained for yttria and austenitic steel based on three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction data. The distributions exhibit various extrema that are attributed to the inaccuracy of the boundary surface reconstruction and to the discrete nature of the orientation data. We provide interpretation of the distributions with particular emphasis put on indicating the sources of these artifacts. Moreover, we verify the negligible impact of these issues on grain boundary plane and character distributions.

  19. Effect of grain boundary character on segregation-induced structural transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhiliang; Rupert, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Segregation-induced structural transitions in metallic grain boundaries are studied with hybrid atomistic Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations using Cu-Zr as a model system, with a specific emphasis on understanding the effect of grain boundary character. With increasing global composition, the six grain boundary types chosen for this paper first form ordered complexions, with the local segregation pattern depending on the grain boundary core structure, then transform into disordered complexions when the grain boundary composition reaches a critical value that is temperature dependent. The tendency for this transition to a disordered interfacial structure consistently depends on the relative solute excess, instead of the grain boundary energy or misorientation angle. Grain boundaries with high relative solute excess go through gradual disordering transitions, whereas those with low relative solute excess remain ordered until high global Zr concentrations but then abruptly transform into thick disordered films. The results presented here provide a clear picture of the effect of interface character on both dopant segregation patterns and disordered intergranular film formation, showing that all grain boundaries are not equal when discussing complexion transitions.

  20. Anisotropic Radiation-Induced Segregation in 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel with Grain Boundary Character

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher M. Barr; Gregory A. Vetterick; Kinga A. Unocic; Khalid Hattar; Xian-Ming Bai; Mitra L. Taheri

    2014-04-01

    Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) and subsequent depletion of chromium along grain boundaries has been shown to be an important factor in irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking in austenitic face-centered cubic (fcc)-based alloys used for nuclear energy systems. A full understanding of RIS requires examination of the effect of the grain boundary character on the segregation process. Understanding how specific grain boundary structures respond under irradiation would assist in developing or designing alloys that are more efficient at removing point defects, or reducing the overall rate of deleterious Cr segregation. This study shows that solute segregation is dependent not only on grain boundary misorientation, but also on the grain boundary plane, as highlighted by markedly different segregation behavior for the __3 incoherent and coherent grain boundaries. The link between RIS and atomistic modeling is also explored through molecular dynamic simulations of the interaction of vacancies at different grain boundary structures through defect energetics in a simple model system. A key insight from the coupled experimental RIS measurements and corresponding defect–grain boundary modeling is that grain boundary–vacancy formation energy may have a critical threshold value related to the major alloying elements’ solute segregation.

  1. The Boundary Layer Character of Tidal Currents in the Eastern Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, A. J.

    2002-09-01

    The vertical profile of the tidal currents observed by a ship borne ADCP at a site in the eastern Irish Sea where the water depth is 50 m was logarithmic with height above the bed in the lower 50-60% of the water column except for periods of about 1 h either side of slack water. The maximum height of the boundary layer reached 40 m during the flood tide. The shearing stress, determined by the method of Bowden et al. (1959), showed a tendency to be uniform with height in the lower half of the water column while the eddy viscosity increased linearly away from the bed, scaling on κu*z where u* is the friction velocity. Both of these features are characteristic of the logarithmic profile region of a boundary layer flow. Estimates of zo, the roughness length, and CD, the bottom drag coefficient, were around 10-3 m and 2·4×10-3, consistent with the known character of the bed. The scatter in the derived boundary layer parameters was reduced significantly by averaging the data within 30-min intervals which suggests the presence of tidal eddies having periods comparable to the 5-min sampling period of the ADCP. Short period fluctuations in the flow were coherent over the lower 20 m of the water column and propagated vertically away from the bed.

  2. Interdependence of character of grain boundaries, intergranular segregation of boron and grain boundary liquation in simulated weld heat-affected zone in Inconel 718

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, H.; Chaturvedi, M.C.; Richards, N.L.; McMahon, G.S.

    1999-01-08

    Intergranular microfissuring is frequently observed in the weld heat-affected zones (HAZ) in Inconel 718. Extensive studies of this phenomenon have established that the HAZ microfissuring in Inconel 718 is associated with the constitutional liquation of grain boundary (GB) precipitates of carbides, Laves and {delta} phases. In addition, HAZ microfissuring has been also attributed to the GB segregation of B and S. To differentiate between the influence of B from other factors, studies were initiated on Inconel 718 that was almost free of C, P, and S, and contained different concentrations of B. These studies have shown that B in Inconel 718 can segregate to the grain boundaries by a non-equilibrium mechanism during cooling from the pre-weld solution heat treatment temperature, which would lower the melting temperature of the GB material. If the segregation of B is sufficiently high, the GBs are likely to liquate in the HAZ during the heating component of the welding thermal cycle. The inability of the liquated GBs to support tensile stresses that develop during cooling of the welds would result in microfissuring in the HAZs. It was also observed that the GB liquation in the HAZs was heterogeneously distributed. That is, while a GB liquated others connected to it did not. Therefore, an investigation was initiated to determine the interdependence of segregation of B on GBs, their crystallographic character and liquation. The results are presented in this communication.

  3. Fracture character and distribution in the Nenana basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, A. J.; Hanks, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    The NE-SW trending Tertiary aged Nenana basin is located in the southeastern portion of central Alaska, north of Alaska Range. Forming adjacent to the Alaska Range, the tectonic setting resembles a foreland or strike-slip basin. This seismically active basin is estimated to be ~20,000 ft deep and is filled with non-marine sediments and coal-bearing sequences. Fracture character and distribution studies have been used to determine reservoir properties of the basin. By analyzing characteristics such as aperture, height, length and orientation, the origin of the fractures can be better understood. The seal integrity and extent of fracturing throughout the basin can aid in the understanding of the basin's history and its capability to be used for CO2 sequestration. The tectonic setting of central Alaska consists of two master right-lateral strike-slip faults that are proposed to create a shear zone with subsidiary left-lateral strike-slip faults. The southeastern margin of the basin is characterized by one of the subsidiary left-lateral faults proposed due to the master faults acting as major slip surfaces; the Minto fault, a predominately normal fault with a left-lateral strike-slip component. Available seismic data throughout the basin shows a strong extensional component with some possible flower structures. The orientation of the basin and its location in respect to both the Tintina-Kaltag and Denali right-lateral fault systems suggest that the basin is extending in the NE-SW direction. A fracture model has been proposed suggesting fractures related to the extensional component of the basin, but also tied to the fold and thrust belt located in the northern foothills of the Alaska Range. Data was obtained from a variety of locations in central Alaska in relation to the location of the basin. Fracture data was collected along the southeastern and southern portions of the basin in predominately metamorphic basement rocks and sedimentary sequences along the margin

  4. Effect of boundary conditions on the character of ambipolar diffusion in electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Chikina, I; Shikin, V B; Varlamov, A A

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the details of ambipolar relaxation of the electric field in liquid asymmetric electrolytes to its stationary value. It is demonstrated that the account for finite boundary conditions modifies the existing concepts of this diffusion process. In particular, we succeeded to suggest a qualitatively correct explanation of the observed distribution of the electric fields over the bulk of the cuvette and its nonmonotonic behavior in measurements on the finite-size cuvette. We analyze the conditions of such an anomaly at the intermediate stages of the relaxation process. PMID:26274165

  5. Effect of boundary conditions on the character of ambipolar diffusion in electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V. B.; Varlamov, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the details of ambipolar relaxation of the electric field in liquid asymmetric electrolytes to its stationary value. It is demonstrated that the account for finite boundary conditions modifies the existing concepts of this diffusion process. In particular, we succeeded to suggest a qualitatively correct explanation of the observed distribution of the electric fields over the bulk of the cuvette and its nonmonotonic behavior in measurements on the finite-size cuvette. We analyze the conditions of such an anomaly at the intermediate stages of the relaxation process.

  6. Distribution and character of naleds in northeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah; Barnes, Peter W.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1977-01-01

    An examination of the distribution of river naleds seen in Landsat satellite imagery and high- and low-altitude aerial photography of Alaska's North Slope indicates that these features are widespread east of the Colville River and less abundant to the west. Where naleds occur, stream channels are wide and often form braided channels. Their distribution can be related to changes in stream gradient and to the occurrence of springs. Large naleds, such as on the Kongakut River, often remain through the summer melt season to form the nucleus of icing in the succeeding winter. Major naleds also are likely to significantly influence the nature of permafrost in their immediate vicinity. The map of naleds may serve as a guide to the occurrence of year-round flowing water, a sparse commodity in northern Alaska.

  7. Influence of SiC grain boundary character on fission product transport in irradiated TRISO fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo, T. M.; van Rooyen, I. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the fission product precipitates at silicon carbide grain boundaries from an irradiated TRISO particle were identified and correlated with the associated grain boundary characteristics. Precession electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope provided the crystallographic information needed to identify grain boundary misorientation and boundary type (i.e., low angle, random high angle or coincident site lattice (CSL)-related). The silicon carbide layer was found to be composed mainly of twin boundaries and small fractions of random high angle and low angle grain boundaries. Most fission products were found at random, high-angle grain boundaries, with small fractions at low-angle and CSL-related grain boundaries. Palladium (Pd) was found at all types of grain boundaries while Pd-uranium and Pd-silver precipitates were only associated with CSL-related and random, high-angle grain boundaries. Precipitates containing only Ag were found only at random, high-angle grain boundaries, but not at low angle or CSL-related grain boundaries.

  8. The Role of Thermomechanical Routes on the Distribution of Grain Boundary and Interface Plane Orientations in Transformed Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beladi, Hossein; Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, a series of thermomechanical routes were used to produce different microstructures (i.e., ferrite and martensite) in low-carbon low alloy steels. The five-parameter grain boundary character distribution was measured for all microstructures. The thermomechanical processing route altered the texture of the fully ferritic microstructure and significantly influenced the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution. Generally, the population of (111) planes increased with an increase in the γ-fiber texture for the ferritic microstructure, but it did not change the shape of the grain boundary plane distribution at specific misorientations. The most commonly observed boundaries in the fully ferritic structures produced through different routes were {112} symmetric tilt boundaries with the Σ3 = 60 deg/[111] misorientation; this boundary also had a low energy. However, the grain boundary plane distribution was significantly changed by the phase transformation path (i.e., ferrite vs martensite) for a given misorientation. In the martensitic steel, the most populous Σ3 boundary was the {110} symmetric tilt boundary. This results from the crystallographic constraints associated with the shear transformation (i.e., martensite) rather than the low-energy interface that dominates in the diffusional phase transformation (i.e., ferrite).

  9. The character for the boundary layer and mechanism of acid rain formation in the Tsingdao area

    SciTech Connect

    Baozhang Liu; Jinlong Li

    1996-12-31

    The vertical distribution of the wind field and temperature field of the boundary layer was very peculiar in Tsingdao area, China. Under the height of 1500m, the wind field appeared as one-front-two-valleys type: the wind speed was relatively low near surface, got bigger between 300m to 400m, decreased over 500m, and increased again gradually over 1000m. The temperature stratification was stable in the morning and evening, and it became unstable below 200m after noon. As far as mixed layer was concerned, it was not very high, generally about 400m, sometimes it reached 700m high. Multiple-layer inversion often appeared in low altitude. Northern wind was prevailing in winter, so southern in summer. The wind field were often influenced by Jianghuai cyclone and Huanghuai cyclone. Convergence air current between lower level and higher level emerged when the cyclones passed Tsingdao area. Introducing straight and shear air current, pollutants emitted from point sources were modeled by advection-diffusion equation. The result indicated that pollutants were transported far away under one straight air current. In rainy days, pollutants were accumulated in local area and the concentrations were high. When wind direction appeared shear between higher level and lower level, the transportation of pollutants was more limited. In rain days, acid rain was form by chemical process at a near distance.

  10. Turbulent boundary layer of an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fediaevsky, K

    1937-01-01

    A need has arisen for a new determination of the velocity profiles in the boundary layer. Assuming that the character of the velocity distribution depends to a large extent on the character of the shear distribution across the boundary layer, we shall consider the nature of the shear distribution for a boundary layer with a pressure gradient.

  11. An Equation for the Mean Velocity Distribution of Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandborn, V. A.

    1959-01-01

    A general relation, empirical in origin, for the mean velocity distribution of both laminar and turbulent boundary layers is proposed. The equation, in general, accurately describes the profiles in both laminar and turbulent flows. The calculation of profiles is based on a prior knowledge of momentum, displacement, and boundary-layer thickness together with free-stream conditions. The form for turbulent layers agrees with the present concepts of similarity of the outer layer. For the inner region or turbulent boundary layers the present relation agrees very closely with experimental measurements even in cases where the logarithmic law of the wall is inadequate. A unique relation between profile form factors and the ratio of displacement thickness to boundary-layer thickness is obtained for turbulent separation. A similar criterion is also obtained for laminar separation. These relations are demonstrated to serve as an accurate criterion for identifying separation in known profiles.

  12. Combining Different Tools for EEG Analysis to Study the Distributed Character of Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Armando Freitas da; Foz, Flávia Benevides; Pereira, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (s i ) of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(e i ) provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified s i . H(e i ) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources s i . This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(e i ) covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies. PMID:26713089

  13. Combining Different Tools for EEG Analysis to Study the Distributed Character of Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Armando Freitas; Foz, Flávia Benevides; Pereira, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on language processing indicate that language cognition is better understood if assumed to be supported by a distributed intelligent processing system enrolling neurons located all over the cortex, in contrast to reductionism that proposes to localize cognitive functions to specific cortical structures. Here, brain activity was recorded using electroencephalogram while volunteers were listening or reading small texts and had to select pictures that translate meaning of these texts. Several techniques for EEG analysis were used to show this distributed character of neuronal enrollment associated with the comprehension of oral and written descriptive texts. Low Resolution Tomography identified the many different sets (si) of neurons activated in several distinct cortical areas by text understanding. Linear correlation was used to calculate the information H(ei) provided by each electrode of the 10/20 system about the identified si. H(ei) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to study the temporal and spatial activation of these sources si. This analysis evidenced 4 different patterns of H(ei) covariation that are generated by neurons located at different cortical locations. These results clearly show that the distributed character of language processing is clearly evidenced by combining available EEG technologies. PMID:26713089

  14. Experimental study on pore distribution characters and convert rate of CaO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Li; Zeng, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao

    2005-03-01

    During the reaction between calcium sorbents and SO2, calcium sorbents are first calcined and converted into CaO. CaO can be obtained by calcining Ca(OH)2 or CaCO3. The porosity of the sorbent is increased because of calcination and is decreased because of sulfurization. In the calcination process H2O or CO2 is escaped from the particles and pores are formed in particles. The reaction or convert rate of CaO is influenced strongly by the pore structure characters. From Ca(OH)2 to CaO the escape velocity of H2O or its mass transfer is one of the key factors influencing the pore forming. During calcination process different heating velocity, different heating time and temperature were suggested. The temperature rising rate and calcining temperature play important role to the pore structure. The convert rates of CaO obtained through different calcining conditions were investigated experimentally. Some interesting results were showed that the calcium utilization of CaO particles is determined not only by the special surface area and total pore volume, but also by pore-size distribution. The main factor influencing the sulfation is the pore diameter distribution at lower sulfation temperature. For higher reaction temperature specific volume is the important reason. But pore-size distribution is strongly influenced by heat flux and temperature in the calcining process.

  15. World Map Showing Surface and Subsurface Distribution, and Lithologic Character of Middle and Late Neoproterozoic Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John H.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The map was prepared to outline the basic information on where Neoproterozoic rocks are present in the World, and of the lithologic character of these rocks. The information provides a better understanding of major Neoproterozoic tectonic subdivisions useful in paleogeographic and plate tectonic reconstructions. The time frame of the map is within the middle and late Neoproterozoic from approximately 870 to 540 Ma and is after widespread Mesoproterozoic Grenville-age collisional events that are considered to have formed the hypothetical supercontinent of Rodinia. Much of the time represented by the map is interpreted to be during the fragmentation of Rodinia. The recognition of Neoproterozoic rocks is commonly difficult because of limited isotopic or paloeontological dating. Thus, some rocks shown on the map could be older or younger than the age indicated. However, at the scale of the map the the problem may be minor. Enough information seems to be available to indicate the general age of the rocks. Many of the successions contain diamictite deposits considered to be glaciogenic and dated as middle or late Neoproterozoic. These deposits thus show a rough correlation of middle and late Neoproterozoic rocks of the world. The map is a Richardson map projection, except for Antarctica which is a polar projection. The map was prepared from about 650 references, shown in the text linked below under 'Sources of Information', used to outline distribution patterns, determine rock types, and provide information on the regional and local geologic framework of the rocks. The focus of the references is on the geologic information needed to prepare the map. Other information, such as plate tectonic reconstructions or paleomagnetic studies is generally not included. The 'Sources of Information' lists references alphabetically for each of 14 regions. In brackets is a code for each area. These codes provide help in locating the specific regions in the references.

  16. Grain and grain boundary characters in surface layer of untreated and plasma nitrocarburized 18Ni maraging steel with nanocrystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, M. F.; Wu, Y. Q.; Liu, R. L.

    2013-05-01

    The nanocrystallized 18Ni maraging steel was plasma nitrocarburized at 460 °C for 4 h in a mixture gas of N2, H2 and C2H5OH. The surface phase compositions of the specimens were analyzed using X-ray diffractometer. The grain shape and size, and grain boundaries in the subsurface layers of the samples were characterized by electron backscattering diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the nitrocarburized layers are composed of α-Fe, γ‧-Fe4N and FeN0.049 phases. Most α-Fe and γ‧-Fe4N grains show in columnar shape. The major and minor axes of some α-Fe grains are elongated and shortened after nitrocarburizing, respectively. In the subsurface layers of the untreated and nitrocarburized specimens, the average areas of γ‧-Fe4N and α-Fe grains both with a dimension of nanometer are 0.395 μm2 and 0.397 μm2, respectively. The γ‧-Fe4N grain boundaries are mainly high angle boundaries with a very small fraction of low angle boundaries. Coincidence site lattice boundaries in the subsurface layer of the untreated specimen are composed mainly of Σ3, Σ11 and Σ13b, and their fraction decreases after nitrocarburizing.

  17. Analysis of spatial distribution and transmission characters for highly pathogenic avian influenza in Chinese mainland in 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. L.; Wei, C. J.; Yan, L.; Chi, T. H.; Wu, X. B.; Xiao, C. S.

    2006-03-01

    After the outbreak of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in South Korea in the end of year 2003, estimates of the impact of HPAI in affected countries vary greatly, the total direct losses are about 3 billion US dollars, and it caused 15 million birds and poultry flocks death. It is significant to understand the spatial distribution and transmission characters of HPAI for its prevention and control. According to 50 outbreak cases for HPAI in Chinese mainland during 2004, this paper introduces the approach of spatial distribution and transmission characters for HPAI and its results. Its approach is based on remote sensing and GIS techniques. Its supporting data set involves normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (Ts) derived from a time-series of remote sensing data of 1 kilometer-resolution NOAA/AVHRR, birds' migration routes, topology geographic map, lake and wetland maps, and meteorological observation data. In order to analyze synthetically using these data, a supporting platform for analysis Avian Influenza epidemic situation (SPAS/AI) was developed. Supporting by SPAS/AI, the integrated information from multi-sources can be easily used to the analysis of the spatial distribution and transmission character of HPAI. The results show that the range of spatial distribution and transmission of HPAI in China during 2004 connected to environment factors NDVI, Ts and the distributions of lake and wetland, and especially to bird migration routes. To some extent, the results provide some suggestions for the macro-decision making for the prevention and control of HPAI in the areas of potential risk and reoccurrence.

  18. Tri(1-adamantyl)phosphine: Expanding the Boundary of Electron-Releasing Character Available to Organophosphorus Compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liye; Ren, Peng; Carrow, Brad P

    2016-05-25

    We report here the remarkable properties of PAd3, a crystalline air-stable solid accessible through a scalable SN1 reaction. Spectroscopic data reveal that PAd3, benefiting from the polarizability inherent to large hydrocarbyl groups, exhibits unexpected electron releasing character that exceeds other alkylphosphines and falls within a range dominated by N-heterocyclic carbenes. Dramatic effects in catalysis are also enabled by PAd3 during Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of chloro(hetero)arenes (40 examples) at low Pd loading, including the late-stage functionalization of commercial drugs. Exceptional space-time yields are demonstrated for the syntheses of industrial precursors to valsartan and boscalid from chloroarenes with ∼2 × 10(4) turnovers in 10 min. PMID:27164163

  19. Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer Height Derived from CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL heights. The derived PBL heights are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL heights over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL heights occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL heights appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL heights from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL height estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL heights from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.

  20. Vertical distribution of HOx concentrations driven by boundary layer dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomm, Sebastian; Broch, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Bohn, Birger; Häseler, Rolf; Jäger, Julia; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Li, Xin; Lu, Keding; Lohse, Insa; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Wolfe, Glenn; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key compounds for the degradation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Therefore, accurate and precise measurements of HOx radicals (= OH + HO2) at different altitudes and in different regions are necessary to test our understanding of atmospheric chemical processes. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is of special interest as it is chemically the most active part of the atmosphere. Until today, there is a general lack of measurements investigating the distribution of radicals, trace gases, and aerosols in the PBL with high spatial resolution. Here, we present results of measurements performed in June/July 2012 in the Po valley region in Italy as part of the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS). A Zeppelin NT was used as an airborne platform for measurements of HOx radical concentrations and total OH reactivity (kOH) applying a remotely controlled Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument. In addition a comprehensive set of other trace gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2, HCHO, HONO, VOCs), photolysis frequencies, particle number concentration, and meteorological parameters were measured. During the morning hours, a layered atmospheric structure with vertical gradients in trace gas concentrations was observed. In altitudes larger than 600 m above ground, air masses with low trace gas concentrations (NOx < 500 ppt, kOH < 3 s-1) were probed, whereas air masses in altitudes below 100 m above ground were influenced by ground emissions resulting in higher trace gas concentrations (NOx > 6 ppb, kOH > 6 s-1). The airship Zeppelin NT was used to perform localized height profiles between 75 and 900 m above ground in order to investigate the influence of these trace gas gradients on HOx radical concentrations. Due to changing chemical conditions, the measured OH concentration shows a variability with height up to a factor of 2.5 and for the measured HO2 concentration up to a factor of 5. Additionally, we present

  1. Consideration of Grain Size Distribution in the Diffusion of Fission Gas to Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Paul C. Millett; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks; S. B. Biner

    2013-09-01

    We analyze the accumulation of fission gas on grain boundaries in a polycrystalline microstructure with a distribution of grain sizes. The diffusion equation is solved throughout the microstructure to evolve the gas concentration in space and time. Grain boundaries are treated as infinite sinks for the gas concentration, and we monitor the cumulative gas inventory on each grain boundary throughout time. We consider two important cases: first, a uniform initial distribution of gas concentration without gas production (correlating with post-irradiation annealing), and second, a constant gas production rate with no initial gas concentration (correlating with in-reactor conditions). The results show that a single-grain-size model, such as the Booth model, over predicts the gas accumulation on grain boundaries compared with a polycrystal with a grain size distribution. Also, a considerable degree of scatter, or variability, exists in the grain boundary gas accumulation when comparing all of the grain boundaries in the microstructure.

  2. Weibull-distributed dyke thickness reflects probabilistic character of host-rock strength.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Michael; Hieronymus, Christoph F; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R; Tanner, David C; Friese, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sheet intrusions (dykes) constitute the main form of magma transport in the Earth's crust. The size distribution of dykes is a crucial parameter that controls volcanic surface deformation and eruption rates and is required to realistically model volcano deformation for eruption forecasting. Here we present statistical analyses of 3,676 dyke thickness measurements from different tectonic settings and show that dyke thickness consistently follows the Weibull distribution. Known from materials science, power law-distributed flaws in brittle materials lead to Weibull-distributed failure stress. We therefore propose a dynamic model in which dyke thickness is determined by variable magma pressure that exploits differently sized host-rock weaknesses. The observed dyke thickness distributions are thus site-specific because rock strength, rather than magma viscosity and composition, exerts the dominant control on dyke emplacement. Fundamentally, the strength of geomaterials is scale-dependent and should be approximated by a probability distribution. PMID:24513695

  3. Weibull-distributed dyke thickness reflects probabilistic character of host-rock strength

    PubMed Central

    Krumbholz, Michael; Hieronymus, Christoph F.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Tanner, David C.; Friese, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sheet intrusions (dykes) constitute the main form of magma transport in the Earth’s crust. The size distribution of dykes is a crucial parameter that controls volcanic surface deformation and eruption rates and is required to realistically model volcano deformation for eruption forecasting. Here we present statistical analyses of 3,676 dyke thickness measurements from different tectonic settings and show that dyke thickness consistently follows the Weibull distribution. Known from materials science, power law-distributed flaws in brittle materials lead to Weibull-distributed failure stress. We therefore propose a dynamic model in which dyke thickness is determined by variable magma pressure that exploits differently sized host-rock weaknesses. The observed dyke thickness distributions are thus site-specific because rock strength, rather than magma viscosity and composition, exerts the dominant control on dyke emplacement. Fundamentally, the strength of geomaterials is scale-dependent and should be approximated by a probability distribution. PMID:24513695

  4. Microstructure of TRISO Coated Particles from the AGR-1 Experiment I: SiC Grain Size and Grain Boundary Character

    SciTech Connect

    Rita Kirchhofer; John D, Hunn; Paul A. Demkowicz; James I. Cole; Brian P. Gorman

    2013-01-01

    Pre-irradiation SiC microstructures in TRISO coated fuel particles from the AGR-1 experiment were quantitatively characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From EBSD it was determined that only the cubic polymorph of as-deposited SiC was present and the SiC had a high fraction of CSL S3 grain boundaries. Additionally, the local area misorientation (LAM), which is a qualitative measurement of strain in the SiC lattice, was mapped for each fuel variant. The morphology of the SiC / IPyC interfaces were characterized by TEM following site-specific focused ion beam (FIB) specimen preparation. It was determined that the SiC layer had a heavily faulted microstructure typical of CVD deposited SiC and that the average grain diameter increased from the SiC/IPyC interface for all the fuel variants, except V3 that showed a constant grain size across the layer.

  5. Infinite-horizon boundary control of distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, V. I.; Osipov, Yu. S.

    2016-01-01

    For a boundary controlled dynamic system, algorithms for solving the problem of tracking reference motion and the problem of tracking reference control are described. The algorithms are robust to information noise and computational errors. The solution method is based on the extremal shift method from the theory of positional differential games.

  6. Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, John L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    dominantly by sand- to coarse sand-sized sediment. Sandy areas also include Raccoon Strait, off Point Tiburon, and on the subtidal Alcatraz, Point Knox, and Presidio Shoals. Drab-colored silty clays are the dominant sediment observed in gravity cores from central bay. Their dominance along the length of the core suggests that silty clays have been deposited consistently over much of this subembayment for the time period covered by the recovered sediments (Woodrow and others, this report). Stratification types include weakly-defined laminae, 1-3 mm thick. Few examples of horizontal lamination in very fine sand or silt were observed. Cross lamination, including ripples, was observed in seven cores. Erosional surfaces were evident in almost every core where x-radiographs were available (they are very difficult to observe visually). Minor cut-and-fill structures also were noted in three cores and inclined strata were observed in three cores. Textural patterns in central bay indicate that silts and clays dominate the shallow water areas and margins of the bay. Sand dominates the tidal channel just east of Angel and Alcatraz Islands and to the west of the islands to the Golden Gate. The pattern of sand-sized sediment, as determined by particle-size analysis, suggests that sand movement is easterly from the west-central part of the bay. A second pattern of sand movement is to the south from the southwestern extremity of San Pablo Bay (boundary approximated by the location of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge). Age dates for central bay sediment samples were obtained by carbon-14 radiometric age dating. Age dates were determined from shell material that was interpreted to be largely in-place (not transported). Age dates subsequently were reservoir corrected and then converted to calendar years. Sediments sampled from central bay cores range in age from 330 to 4,155 years before present. Foraminiferal distribution in the San Francisco Bay estuary is fairly well

  7. A pseudo-3D approach based on electron backscatter diffraction and backscatter electron imaging to study the character of phase boundaries between Mg and long period stacking ordered phase in a Mg–2Y–Zn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, Mehran Zaefferer, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    In Mg–2 at.% Y–1 at.% Zn alloys, the LPSO (Long Period Stacking Ordered) phase is important to improve mechanical properties of the material. The aim of this paper is to present a study on the phase boundary character in these two-phase alloys. Using EBSD pattern analysis it was found that the 24R structure is the dominant LPSO phase structure in the current alloy. The phase boundary character between the Mg matrix and the LPSO phase was investigated using an improved pseudo-3D EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) technique in combination with BSE or SE (backscatter or secondary electron) imaging. A large amount of very low-angle phase boundaries was detected. The (0 0 0 2) plane in the Mg matrix which is parallel to the (0 0 0 24) plane in the LPSO phase was found to be the most frequent plane for these phase boundaries. This plane is supposed to be the habit plane of the eutectic co-solidification of the Mg matrix and the LPSO phase. - Highlights: • It is shown that for the investigated alloy the LPSO phase has mainly 24R crystal structure. • A new method is presented which allows accurate determination of the 5-parameter grain or phase boundary character. • It is found that the low-angle phase boundaries appearing in the alloy all have basal phase boundary planes.

  8. Character feature integration of Chinese calligraphy and font

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cao; Xiao, Jianguo; Jia, Wenhua; Xu, Canhui

    2013-01-01

    A framework is proposed in this paper to effectively generate a new hybrid character type by means of integrating local contour feature of Chinese calligraphy with structural feature of font in computer system. To explore traditional art manifestation of calligraphy, multi-directional spatial filter is applied for local contour feature extraction. Then the contour of character image is divided into sub-images. The sub-images in the identical position from various characters are estimated by Gaussian distribution. According to its probability distribution, the dilation operator and erosion operator are designed to adjust the boundary of font image. And then new Chinese character images are generated which possess both contour feature of artistical calligraphy and elaborate structural feature of font. Experimental results demonstrate the new characters are visually acceptable, and the proposed framework is an effective and efficient strategy to automatically generate the new hybrid character of calligraphy and font.

  9. Reassessment of Morphological Diagnostic Characters and Species Boundaries Requires Taxonomical Changes for the Genus Orthopyxis L. Agassiz, 1862 (Campanulariidae, Hydrozoa) and Some Related Campanulariids

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Amanda F.; Genzano, Gabriel N.; Marques, Antonio C.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Orthopyxis is widely known for its morphological variability, making species identification particularly difficult. A number of nominal species have been recorded in the southwestern Atlantic, although most of these records are doubtful. The goal of this study was to infer species boundaries in the genus Orthopyxis from the southwestern Atlantic using an integrative approach. Intergeneric limits were also tested using comparisons with specimens of the genus Campanularia. We performed DNA analyses using the mitochondrial genes 16S and COI and the nuclear ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Orthopyxis was monophyletic in maximum likelihood analyses using the combined dataset and in analyses with 16S alone. Four lineages of Orthopyxis were retrieved for all analyses, corresponding morphologically to the species Orthopyxis sargassicola (previously known in the area), Orthopyxis crenata (first recorded for the southwestern Atlantic), Orthopyxis caliculata (= Orthopyxis minuta Vannucci, 1949 and considered a synonym of O. integra by some authors), and Orthopyxis mianzani sp. nov. A re-evaluation of the traditional morphological diagnostic characters, guided by our molecular analyses, revealed that O. integra does not occur in the study area, and O. caliculata is the correct identification of one of the lineages occurring in this region, corroborating the validity of that species. Orthopyxis mianzani sp. nov. resembles O. caliculata with respect to gonothecae morphology and a smooth hydrothecae rim, although it shows significant differences for other characters, such as perisarc thickness, which has traditionally been thought to have wide intraspecific variation. The species O. sargassicola is morphologically similar to O. crenata, although they differ in gonothecae morphology, and these species can only be reliably identified when this structure is present. PMID:25723572

  10. [137Cs profile distribution character and its implication for soil erosion on Karst slopes of northwest Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Feng, Teng; Chen, Hong-song; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Yun-peng; Wang, Ke-lin

    2011-03-01

    This paper studied the profile distribution characters of 137Cs and soil organic carbon (SOC) on the Karst slopes and in the fissures in typical peak-cluster depression in Northwest Guangxi, aimed to approach the applicability of 137Cs method on Karst slopes and the implication of 37Cs for the characteristics of slope soil erosion. In all test profiles, there was a significant correlation between 137Cs and SOC, indicating that both of them might have the same loss pathway. On the slopes under secondary forests, 137Cs mainly existed within the depth 0-24 cm. On the upper middle and middle slope sites, 137Cs had an exponential decrease with depth, indicating no or slight surface erosion; while on the foot slope site, the distribution pattern of 137Cs indicated severer erosion. On the slopes with cultivated lands, 137Cs distributed uniformly within the plough layer. In the upper middle and middle slopes profiles, 137Cs mainly existed in the depth around 15 cm and far less than the background value, indicating severe soil erosion; while in foot slope profiles, 137Cs was aggraded to the depth 45 cm. A discontinuous distribution of 137Cs in the profiles was detected on the foot slopes under secondary forests, on the upper middle and foot slopes of cultivated lands, and in the fissures, indicating that the soil particles on Karst slopes had a trend of losing with rainwater to the underground, but the loss quantity was negligible, compared with surface erosion. PMID:21657012

  11. Understanding the distinctively skewed and heavy tailed character of atmospheric and oceanic probability distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Sardeshmukh, Prashant D.

    2015-03-15

    The probability distributions of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic variables are generally skewed and heavy-tailed. We argue that their distinctive departures from Gaussianity arise fundamentally from the fact that in a quadratically nonlinear system with a quadratic invariant, the coupling coefficients between system components are not constant but depend linearly on the system state in a distinctive way. In particular, the skewness arises from a tendency of the system trajectory to linger near states of weak coupling. We show that the salient features of the observed non-Gaussianity can be captured in the simplest such nonlinear 2-component system. If the system is stochastically forced and linearly damped, with one component damped much more strongly than the other, then the strongly damped fast component becomes effectively decoupled from the weakly damped slow component, and its impact on the slow component can be approximated as a stochastic noise forcing plus an augmented nonlinear damping. In the limit of large time-scale separation, the nonlinear augmentation of the damping becomes small, and the noise forcing can be approximated as an additive noise plus a correlated additive and multiplicative noise (CAM noise) forcing. Much of the diversity of observed large-scale atmospheric and oceanic probability distributions can be interpreted in this minimal framework.

  12. Understanding the distinctively skewed and heavy tailed character of atmospheric and oceanic probability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardeshmukh, Prashant D.; Penland, Cécile

    2015-03-01

    The probability distributions of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic variables are generally skewed and heavy-tailed. We argue that their distinctive departures from Gaussianity arise fundamentally from the fact that in a quadratically nonlinear system with a quadratic invariant, the coupling coefficients between system components are not constant but depend linearly on the system state in a distinctive way. In particular, the skewness arises from a tendency of the system trajectory to linger near states of weak coupling. We show that the salient features of the observed non-Gaussianity can be captured in the simplest such nonlinear 2-component system. If the system is stochastically forced and linearly damped, with one component damped much more strongly than the other, then the strongly damped fast component becomes effectively decoupled from the weakly damped slow component, and its impact on the slow component can be approximated as a stochastic noise forcing plus an augmented nonlinear damping. In the limit of large time-scale separation, the nonlinear augmentation of the damping becomes small, and the noise forcing can be approximated as an additive noise plus a correlated additive and multiplicative noise (CAM noise) forcing. Much of the diversity of observed large-scale atmospheric and oceanic probability distributions can be interpreted in this minimal framework.

  13. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils in Riverside Park, Milwaukee, WI: Character, Bioavailability, and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dansand, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2007-12-01

    Prior to being breached in 1990, the North Avenue Dam on the Milwaukee River had created a 2.5-mile impoundment for over 150 years. Upstream urban runoff and industrial pollution resulted in the deposition of heavy metal rich sediments in the slow moving waters of the impoundment. After the dam removal, the river returned to a more natural flowpath and as the river narrowed, newly exposed riverbed was annexed as part of Riverside Park, enabling ecological recovery efforts on the river and riparian zones. However, these newly exposed soils are enriched with heavy metal contaminants, most notably, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni, concentrated by the impoundment. The current study has analyzed the location and concentrations of these trace metals, as well as their mobility and availability. This study is being conducted in conjunction with the Urban Ecology Center, a nonprofit environmental organization located in Riverside Park that is dedicated to serving the local community and urban youth while restoring and protecting the natural areas along the Milwaukee River. Analyses have included determination of general soil parameters such as particle size, organic content, and point of zero charge analyses. Beyond bulk chemical analysis, we have conducted selective sequential extractions to estimate the chemical speciation of these elements, which showed that approximately 30 percent of contaminants are highly available. Additionally, the soils have been analyzed with an Electron Microprobe to directly observe phase relationships of metals in the soils. Microprobe and other analyses have shown that heavy metals are associated with a variety of phases, including Mn and Fe oxy-hydroxides, and vary in concentration and phase relationships with depth and distance from the river. Finally, a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF), coupled with GPS data, is being used to create a geochemical map of heavy metal distributions throughout the park.

  14. Distribution, Character, and Importance of Sedimentary Furrows in South-Central Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, L.; Doran, E.; Moser, M.; Forfinski, N.; Stewart, H.; Gardner, U.; Keene, J.; Christman, E.; Ackerman, S.

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is producing detailed geologic interpretations of the sea floor in Long Island Sound to improve our understanding of the processes that control the complex distributions of sedimentary environments and benthic habitats. Although the deeper waters of the south-central Sound are generally characterized by relatively weak bottom currents and by depositional conditions, multibeam data reveal the presence of sedimentary furrows. These erosional bedforms occur in fine-grained cohesive sediments and cover an elongate east-west trending area (~80 km2) that lies approximately 5 km off Herod Point, NY, in water depths of 31-41 m. The furrows are irregularly spaced, trend east-northeast, average 9 m wide and 0.4 m deep, and can exceed 1.9 km long. Although most of the furrows appear to taper out gradually, some furrows show a "tuning fork" joining pattern. Most of these junctions open toward the east, indicating net westward sediment transport, but a few junctions open westward suggesting that the tidal regime is important to furrow formation and that the furrows can form when water flows in either direction. The sedimentary furrows in south-central Long Island Sound, which are similar to those we have previously described along the Connecticut side of the estuary, form under recurring directionally stable tidal currents, constrained by the elongate geometry and regional bathymetry of the Sound. These conditions, in turn, produce the secondary helical and turbulent flow patterns conducive to the formation of erosional furrows. Concurrently, bioturbation by crabs not only suspends sediment, but also nutclam shells and other coarse biogenic debris, which are aligned by the secondary flow and abrade the furrows as they saltate in the oscillating tides. Through resuspension due to biological activity and the subsequent

  15. New stereology for the recovery of grain-boundary plane distributions in the crystal frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Ryan J.; Adams, Brent L.

    2004-07-01

    A new experimental method is given for recovering the probability-distribution function S v (hat n_A |Δ g). The function S v (hat n_A |Δ g) is the grain-boundary area per unit volume as a function of grain-boundary plane orientation (hat n_A ), given a lattice misorientation (Δ g) between the adjoining grains. The grain-boundary normal (hat n_A ) is expressed in the crystal frame in which the misorientation Δ g originates. The proposed method recovers the three-dimensional S v (hat n_A |Δ g) function using data taken from two-dimensional section planes. The method requires the measurement of many grain-boundary trace (in-plane) angles and lengths associated with grain boundaries of lattice misorientation. All such boundary traces may be observed from a single section plane if the crystallographic texture is sufficiently random. In heavily textured microstructures, the method requires the researcher to observe traces from multiple oblique section planes cut through the material. A method of quantitatively estimating whether the texture is sufficiently random is given. Simulations on both textured and nontextured microstructures demonstrate the validity of the method. Experimentally, the new method is used to analyze boundaries of misorientation (Σ3) observed in 304 stainless steel. Calculated grain-boundary plane-probability functions are shown to be consistent with what is already known.

  16. Some methods of encoding simple visual images for use with a sparse distributed memory, with applications to character recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    To study the problems of encoding visual images for use with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), I consider a specific class of images- those that consist of several pieces, each of which is a line segment or an arc of a circle. This class includes line drawings of characters such as letters of the alphabet. I give a method of representing a segment of an arc by five numbers in a continuous way; that is, similar arcs have similar representations. I also give methods for encoding these numbers as bit strings in an approximately continuous way. The set of possible segments and arcs may be viewed as a five-dimensional manifold M, whose structure is like a Mobious strip. An image, considered to be an unordered set of segments and arcs, is therefore represented by a set of points in M - one for each piece. I then discuss the problem of constructing a preprocessor to find the segments and arcs in these images, although a preprocessor has not been developed. I also describe a possible extension of the representation.

  17. Density and energy distribution of interface states in the grain boundaries of polysilicon nanowire.

    PubMed

    Amit, Iddo; Englander, Danny; Horvitz, Dror; Sasson, Yaniv; Rosenwaks, Yossi

    2014-11-12

    Wafer-scale fabrication of semiconductor nanowire devices is readily facilitated by lithography-based top-down fabrication of polysilicon nanowire (P-SiNW) arrays. However, free carrier trapping at the grain boundaries of polycrystalline materials drastically changes their properties. We present here transport measurements of P-SiNW array devices coupled with Kelvin probe force microscopy at different applied biases. By fitting the measured P-SiNW surface potential using electrostatic simulations, we extract the longitudinal dopant distribution along the nanowires as well as the density of grain boundaries interface states and their energy distribution within the band gap. PMID:25299928

  18. Detection of bump-on-tail reduced electron velocity distributions at the electron foreshock boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Klimas, A. J.; Scudder, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Reduced velocity distributions are derived from three-dimensional measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons in the 7 to 500 eV range in the electron foreshock. Bump-on-tail reduced distributions are presented for the first time at the foreshock boundary consistent with Filbert and Kellogg's proposed time-of-flight mechanism for generating the electron beams. In a significant number of boundary crossings, bump-on-tail reduced distributions were found in consecutive 3 sec measurements made 9 sec apart. It is concluded that, although the beams are linearly unstable to plasma waves according to the Penrose criterion, they persist on a time scale of 3 to 15 sec.

  19. The Richness of Distributional Cues to Word Boundaries in Speech to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Gaja; Johnson, J. Alex

    2013-01-01

    This study is a systematic analysis of the information content of a wide range of distributional cues to word boundaries, individually and in combination, in naturally occurring child-directed speech across three languages (English, Polish, and Turkish). The paper presents a series of statistical analyses examining the relative predictive strength…

  20. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers to Distributed Roughness and Acoustic Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, Ponnampalam

    2012-01-01

    Boundary-layer receptivity and stability of Mach 6 flow over smooth and rough 7 half-angle sharp-tipped cones are numerically investigated. The receptivity of the boundary layer to slow acoustic disturbances, fast acoustic disturbances, and vortical disturbances are considered. The effects of two-dimensional isolated and distributed roughness on the receptivity and stability are also simulated. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves than to the fast waves. Vortical disturbances also generate unstable second modes, however the receptivity coefficients are smaller than that of the slow acoustic wave. An isolated two-dimensional roughness element of height h/delta =1/4 did not produce any difference in the receptivity or in the stability of the boundary layer. Distributed roughness elements produced a small decrease in the receptivity coefficient and also stabilized the boundary layer by small amounts.

  1. Grain boundaries and grain size distributions in nanocrystalline diamond films derived from fullerene precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Csencsits, R.; Zuiker, C.D.; Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    Film growth from C{sub 60}/Ar mixtures results in very pure diamond. Diamond films grown using C{sub 60} as a carbon source have been shown to be nanocrystalline with average grain sizes of 15 nm and standard deviations of 13 nm. The measured grain size distribution for two separate films, each based on measurements of over 400 grains, were found to be very similar and well approximated by a gamma distribution. Unlike typical CVD grown diamond films, these nanocrystalline films do not exhibit columnar growth. From the measured grain size distributions, it is estimated that 2% of the carbon atoms are located in the grain boundaries. The structure of the carbon in the grain boundaries is not known, but the films survive extended wear tests and hold together when the substrate is removed, indicating that the grains are strongly bound. The grain boundary carbon may give rise to additional features in the Raman spectrum and result in absorption and scattering of light in the films. We also expect that the grain boundary carbon may affect film properties, such as electrical and thermal conductivity.

  2. The Role of Grain Boundary Energy on Grain Boundary Complexion Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bojarski, Stephanie A.; Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary complexions are distinct equilibrium structures and compositions of a grain boundary and complexion transformations are transition from a metastable to an equilibrium complexion at a specific thermodynamic and geometric conditions. Previous work indicates that, in the case of doped alumina, a complexion transition that increased the mobility of transformed boundaries and resulted in abnormal grain growth also caused a decrease in the mean relative grain boundary energy as well as an increase in the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). The current work will investigate the hypothesis that the rates of complexion transitions that result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) depend on grain boundary character and energy. Furthermore, the current work expands upon this understanding and tests the hypothesis that it is possible to control when and where a complexion transition occurs by controlling the local grain boundary energy distribution.

  3. Stability of grain boundary texture during isothermal grain growth in UO2 considering anisotropic grain boundary properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallberg, Håkan; Zhu, Yaochan

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, mesoscale simulations of grain growth in UO2 are performed using a 2D level set representation of the polycrystal grain boundary network, employed in a finite element setting. Anisotropic grain boundary properties are considered by evaluating how grain boundary energy and mobility varies with local grain boundary character. This is achieved by considering different formulations of the anisotropy of grain boundary properties, for example in terms of coincidence site lattice (CSL) correspondence. Such modeling approaches allow tracing of the stability of a number of characteristic low-Σ boundaries in the material during grain growth. The present simulations indicate that anisotropic grain boundary properties have negligible influence on the grain growth rate. However, considering the evolution of grain boundary character distribution and the grain size distribution, it is found that neglecting anisotropic boundary properties will strongly bias predictions obtained from numerical simulations.

  4. Character and distribution of borehole breakouts and their relationship to in situ stresses in deep Columbia River Basalts ( Washington State, USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Kim, K.

    1987-01-01

    The character and distribution of borehole breakouts in deeply buried basalts at the Hanford Site in S central Washington State are examined in light of stress indicator data and hydraulic- fracturing stress data by means of acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform logging systems. A series of boreholes penetrating the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group were logged to examine the extent of breakouts at depths near 1000 m. -from Authors

  5. On boundary misorientation distribution functions and how to incorporate them into three-dimensional models of microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Miodownik, M.; Holm, E.A. ); Godfrey, A.W.; Hughes, D.A. )

    1999-07-09

    The fundamental difficulties of incorporating experimentally obtained boundary misorientation distributions (BMDs) into three-dimensional microstructural models are discussed. An algorithm is described which overcomes these difficulties. The boundary misorientations are treated as a statistical ensemble which is evolved toward the desired BMD using a Monte Carlo method. The application of this algorithm to a number of complex arbitrary BMDs shows that the approach is effective for both conserved and non-conserved textures. The algorithm is successfully used to create the BMDs observed in deformation microstructures containing both incidental dislocation boundaries (IDBs) and geometrically necessary boundaries (GNBs). The application of an algorithm to grain boundary engineering is discussed.

  6. Correspondence between the ULF wave power spatial distribution and auroral oval boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyreva, Olga; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Engebretson, Mark; Klimushkin, Dmitriy; Mager, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The world-wide spatial distribution of the wave power in the Pc5 band during magnetic storms has been compared with auroral oval boundaries. The poleward and equatorward auroral oval boundaries are estimated using either the British Antarctic Survey database containing IMAGE satellite UV observations of the aurora or the OVATION model based on the DMSP particle data. The "epicenter" of the spectral power of broadband Pc5 fluctuations during the storm growth phase is mapped inside the auroral oval. During the storm recovery phase, the spectral power of narrowband Pc5 waves, both in the dawn and dusk sectors, is mapped inside the auroral oval or around its equatorward boundary. This observational result confirms previously reported effects: the spatial/temporal variations of the Pc5 wave power in the morning/pre-noon sector are closely related to the dynamics of the auroral electrojet and magnetospheric field-aligned currents. At the same time, narrowband Pc5 waves demonstrate typical resonant features in the amplitude-phase latitudinal structure. Thus, the location of the auroral oval or its equatorward boundary is the preferred latitude for magnetospheric field-line Alfven resonator excitation. This effect is not taken into account by modern theories of ULF Pc5 waves, but it could be significant for the development of more adequate models.

  7. Character & Cane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  8. Believable Characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  9. Boundary-layer receptivity due to distributed surface imperfections of a deterministic or random nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1992-01-01

    Acoustic receptivity of a Blasius boundary layer in the presence of distributed surface irregularities is investigated analytically. It is shown that, out of the entire spatial spectrum of the surface irregularities, only a small band of Fourier components can lead to an efficient conversion of the acoustic input at any given frequency to an unstable eigenmode of the boundary layer flow. The location, and width, of this most receptive band of wavenumbers corresponds to a relative detuning of O(R sub l.b.(exp -3/8)) with respect to the lower-neutral instability wavenumber at the frequency under consideration, R sub l.b. being the Reynolds number based on a typical boundary-layer thickness at the lower branch of the neutral stability curve. Surface imperfections in the form of discrete mode waviness in this range of wavenumbers lead to initial instability amplitudes which are O(R sub l.b.(exp 3/8)) larger than those caused by a single, isolated roughness element. In contrast, irregularities with a continuous spatial spectrum produce much smaller instability amplitudes, even compared to the isolated case, since the increase due to the resonant nature of the response is more than that compensated for by the asymptotically small band-width of the receptivity process. Analytical expressions for the maximum possible instability amplitudes, as well as their expectation for an ensemble of statistically irregular surfaces with random phase distributions, are also presented.

  10. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be

  11. Character of the Caribbean-Gônave-North America plate boundaries in the upper mantle based on shear-wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, B.; Tikoff, B.; DeMets, C.

    2012-12-01

    We present new shear-wave splitting measurements of SKS, SKKS, PKS, and sSKS phases from eight stations in the northern Caribbean. Prior to this work, shear-wave splitting analysis of the northern Caribbean boundary was only evaluated at a station in Puerto Rico. Stations that lie within several tens of kilometers of microplate boundaries have mean fast polarization directions parallel to the boundary and have delay times greater than 1 s. Stations more than several tens of kilometers away from microplate boundaries show no evidence for an anisotropic upper mantle. Stations in Cuba and Jamaica have fast axes oriented ˜100° with delay times of ˜1.5 s, indicating that the east-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults that define the north and south boundaries of the Gônave microplate continue into the upper mantle. A station located in Antigua, where the North America plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate, has a high degree of splitting with the fast axis parallel to the trench. Based on our results, the deformation related to the presence of microplates in the northern Caribbean extends into the upper mantle.

  12. SEPARATION OF THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON FROM GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Schwadron, N. A.; Kucharek, H.; Moebius, E. E-mail: harald.kucharek@unh.edu

    2011-04-10

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes a remarkable feature, the IBEX ribbon, which has energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux over a narrow region {approx}20{sup 0} wide, a factor of 2-3 higher than the more globally distributed ENA flux. Here, we separate ENA emissions in the ribbon from the distributed flux by applying a transparency mask over the ribbon and regions of high emissions, and then solve for the distributed flux using an interpolation scheme. Our analysis shows that the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the ribbon are distinct from the surrounding globally distributed flux. The ribbon energy spectrum shows a knee between {approx}1 and 4 keV, and the angular distribution is approximately independent of energy. In contrast, the distributed flux does not show a clear knee and more closely conforms to a power law over much of the sky. Consistent with previous analyses, the slope of the power law steepens from the nose to tail, suggesting a weaker termination shock toward the tail as compared to the nose. The knee in the energy spectrum of the ribbon suggests that its source plasma population is generated via a distinct physical process. Both the slope in the energy distribution of the distributed flux and the knee in the energy distribution of the ribbon are ordered by latitude. The heliotail may be identified in maps of globally distributed flux as a broad region of low flux centered {approx}44{sup 0}W of the interstellar downwind direction, suggesting heliotail deflection by the interstellar magnetic field.

  13. Numerical modelling of dense material distribution on the core-mantle boundaries in terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płonka, A.; Czechowski, L.

    2013-09-01

    Our main interest lies within the properties of the lower thermal boundary layer of the mantle convection. We assume whole-mantle convection for smaller planetary bodies like Westa, for the Earth our model corresponds to two-layered convection with only the strongest currents reaching the lowermost mantle. For certain densities of the accumulates on the core we calculate their distribution, stream function and temperature. The Rayleigh number is kept relatively low. We search over accumulate densities reaching from 1 to 2.5 of the mantle density - in this way we want to determine for which densities the accumulates start to form distinct domes on the core-mantle boundary. For the Earth, formation of high and sharp domes is visible for high densities after 700 million years. Another question, addressing also the problem of the accumulate genesis, is the ratio of radiogenic heat production in the dense material.

  14. Shocked quartz in the cretaceous-tertiary boundary clays: Evidence for a global distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.; Modreski, P.J.; Foord, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Shocked quartz grains displaying planar features were isolated from Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary days at five sites in Europe, a core from the north-central Pacific Ocean, and a site in New Zealand. At all of these sites, the planar features in the shocked quartz can be indexed to rational crystallographic planes of the quartz lattice. The grains display streaking indicative of shock in x-ray diffraction photographs and also show reduced refractive indices. These characteristic features of shocked quartz at several sites worldwide confirm that an impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary distributed ejecta products in an earth-girdling dust cloud, as postulated by the Alvarez impact hypothesis.

  15. Approximation of discrete-time LQG compensators for distributed systems with boundary input and unbounded measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.

    1988-01-01

    The approximation of optimal discrete-time linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) compensators for distributed parameter control systems with boundary input and unbounded measurement is considered. The approach applies to a wide range of problems that can be formulated in a state space on which both the discrete-time input and output operators are continuous. Approximating compensators are obtained via application of the LQG theory and associated approximation results for infinite dimensional discrete-time control systems with bounded input and output. Numerical results for spline and modal based approximation schemes used to compute optimal compensators for a one-dimensional heat equation with either Neumann or Dirichlet boundary control and pointwise measurement of temperature are presented and discussed.

  16. Approximation of discrete-time LQG compensators for distributed systems with boundary input and unbounded measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.

    1987-01-01

    The approximation of optimal discrete-time linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) compensators for distributed parameter control systems with boundary input and unbounded measurement is considered. The approach applies to a wide range of problems that can be formulated in a state space on which both the discrete-time input and output operators are continuous. Approximating compensators are obtained via application of the LQG theory and associated approximation results for infinite dimensional discrete-time control systems with bounded input and output. Numerical results for spline and modal based approximation schemes used to compute optimal compensators for a one dimensional heat equation with either Neumann or Dirichlet boundary control and pointwise measurement of temperature are presented and discussed.

  17. The Distribution of Word Matches Between Markovian Sequences with Periodic Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leopardi, Paul; Forêt, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Word match counts have traditionally been proposed as an alignment-free measure of similarity for biological sequences. The D2 statistic, which simply counts the number of exact word matches between two sequences, is a useful test bed for developing rigorous mathematical results, which can then be extended to more biologically useful measures. The distributional properties of the D2 statistic under the null hypothesis of identically and independently distributed letters have been studied extensively, but no comprehensive study of the D2 distribution for biologically more realistic higher-order Markovian sequences exists. Here we derive exact formulas for the mean and variance of the D2 statistic for Markovian sequences of any order, and demonstrate through Monte Carlo simulations that the entire distribution is accurately characterized by a Pólya-Aeppli distribution for sequence lengths of biological interest. The approach is novel in that Markovian dependency is defined for sequences with periodic boundary conditions, and this enables exact analytic formulas for the mean and variance to be derived. We also carry out a preliminary comparison between the approximate D2 distribution computed with the theoretical mean and variance under a Markovian hypothesis and an empirical D2 distribution from the human genome. PMID:24160839

  18. Oxygen precipitates distributed around random grain boundaries in a cast-grown multicrystalline silicon crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Takumi; Sato, Kuniyuki; Ogura, Atsushi; Ono, Haruhiko

    2016-04-01

    We investigated oxygen precipitates and grain boundaries (GBs) in multicrystalline silicon for solar cells. We observed the distribution of GBs on both sides of the specimen by using an electron backscattering pattern to be able to compare it with the distribution of oxygen precipitates revealed by infrared absorption spectroscopy. We precisely examined the relationship between oxygen precipitates and various GBs, which are coincidence site lattice GBs (Σ 3,9,27) and random GBs, and found that the distribution of oxygen precipitates coincided with that of random GBs. Furthermore, we annealed the specimen in which the oxygen precipitates already existed around the random GBs, and found that the dispersion and coalescence of the precipitates took place.

  19. Anti-HCV reactive volunteer blood donors distribution character and genotypes switch in Xi'an, China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    HCV is prevailed in the world as well as in China. Blood transfusion is one of the most common transmission pathways of this pathogen. Although data of HCV infection character were reported during the past years, anti-HCV reactive profile of China donors was not fully clear yet. Furthermore, infection progress was found related to the HCV genotype. Different genotype led to different efficacy when interferon was introduced into HCV therapy. Here we provided character data of HCV infection in China blood donors from the year of 2000 to 2009. The infection rate in local donors was lower than general population and descended from 0.80% to 0.40% or so in recent years. About 83% HCV strains were categorized into genotypes 1b and 2a. But 1b subtype cases climbed and 2a subtype cases decreased. The current study threw more light on HCV infection of blood donors in China, at least in the Northern region. PMID:20698949

  20. Arabic character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, May

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a complete system for learning and recognizing Arabic characters. Arabic OCR faces technical problems not encountered in other languages such as cursiveness, overriding and overlapping of characters, multiple shapes per character and the presence of vowels above and below the characters. The proposed approach relies on the fact that the process of connecting Arabic characters to produce cursive writing tends to form a fictitious baseline. During preprocessing, contour analysis provides both component isolation and baseline location. In the feature extraction phase, the words are processed from right to left to generate a sequence of labels. Each label is one of a predetermined codebook that represents all possible bit distribution with respect to the baseline. At a certain position, which depends on the label context, a segmentation decision is taken. During training, a model is generated for each character. This model describes the probability of the occurrence of the labels at each vertical position. During recognition, the probability of the label observation sequence is computed and accumulated. The system has been tested on different typewritten, typeset fonts and diacriticized versions of both and the evaluation results are presented.

  1. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers to Distributed Roughness and Acoustic Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Boundary-layer receptivity and stability of Mach 6 flows over smooth and rough seven-degree half-angle sharp-tipped cones are numerically investigated. The receptivity of the boundary layer to slow acoustic disturbances, fast acoustic disturbances, and vortical disturbances is considered. The effects of three-dimensional isolated roughness on the receptivity and stability are also simulated. The results for the smooth cone show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves than to the fast acoustic waves. Vortical disturbances also generate unstable second modes, however the receptivity coefficients are smaller than that of the slow acoustic wave. Distributed roughness elements located near the nose region decreased the receptivity of the second mode generated by the slow acoustic wave by a small amount. Roughness elements distributed across the continuous spectrum increased the receptivity of the second mode generated by the slow and fast acoustic waves and the vorticity wave. The largest increase occurred for the vorticity wave. Roughness elements distributed across the synchronization point did not change the receptivity of the second modes generated by the acoustic waves. The receptivity of the second mode generated by the vorticity wave increased in this case, but the increase is lower than that occurred with the roughness elements located across the continuous spectrum. The simulations with an isolated roughness element showed that the second mode waves generated by the acoustic disturbances are not influenced by the small roughness element. Due to the interaction, a three-dimensional wave is generated. However, the amplitude is orders of magnitude smaller than the two-dimensional wave.

  2. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  3. Non-linear boundary-layer receptivity due to distributed surface roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani Reffet; Selby, Gregory V.

    1995-01-01

    The process by which a laminar boundary layer internalizes the external disturbances in the form of instability waves is known as boundary-layer receptivity. The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of acoustic excitation on boundary-layer receptivity for a flat plate with distributed variable-amplitude surface roughness through measurements with a hot-wire probe. Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) mode shapes due to surface-roughness receptivity have also been determined, analyzed, and shown to be in agreement with theory and other experimental work. It has been shown that there is a linear relationship between the surface roughness and receptivity for certain roughness configurations with constant roughness wavelength. In addition, strong nonlinear receptivity effects exist for certain surface roughness configurations over a band where the surface roughness and T-S wavelength are matched. The results from the present experiment follow the trends predicted by theory and other experimental work for linear receptivity. In addition, the results show the existence of nonlinear receptivity effects for certain combinations of surface roughness elements.

  4. Non-linear boundary-layer receptivity due to distributed surface roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani Reffet

    1995-01-01

    The process by which a laminar boundary layer internalizes the external disturbances in the form of instability waves is known as boundary-layer receptivity. The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of acoustic excitation on boundary-layer receptivity for a flat plate with distributed variable-amplitude surface roughness through measurements with a hot-wire probe. Tollmien-Schlichting mode shapes due to surface roughness receptivity have also been determined, analyzed, and shown to be in agreement with theory and other experimental work. It has been shown that there is a linear relationship between the surface roughness and receptivity for certain roughness configurations with constant roughness wavelength. In addition, strong non-linear receptivity effects exist for certain surface roughness configurations over a band where the surface roughness and T-S wavelength are matched. The results from the present experiment follow the trends predicted by theory and other experimental work for linear receptivity. In addition, the results show the existence of non-linear receptivity effects for certain combinations of surface roughness elements.

  5. On Boundary Misorientation Distribution Functions and How to Incorporate them into 3D Models of Microstructural Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, A.W.; Holm, E.A.; Hughes, D.A.; Miodownik, M.

    1998-12-23

    The fundamental difficulties incorporating experimentally obtained-boundary disorientation distributions (BMD) into 3D microstructural models are discussed. An algorithm is described which overcomes these difficulties. The boundary misorientations are treated as a statistical ensemble which is evolved toward the desired BMD using a Monte Carlo method. The application of this algorithm to a number complex arbitrary BMDs shows that the approach is effective for both conserved and non-conserved textures. The algorithm is successfully used to create the BMDs observed in deformation microstructure containing both incidental dislocation boundaries (IDBs) and geometrically necessary boundaries (GNBs).

  6. Characterization of Creep-Damaged Grain Boundaries of Alloy 617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Field, David P.

    2013-11-01

    Intergranular cracking and void nucleation occur over extended periods of time in alloy 617 when subjected to stress at high temperatures. Damage occurs inhomogeneously with some boundaries suffering failure, while others are seemingly immune to creep. Crack propagation associated with grain size, and grain boundary character was investigated to determine which types of grain boundaries are susceptible to damage and which are more resistant. Electron backscatter diffraction and a stereological approach to obtain the five-parameter grain boundary distribution were used to measure the proportions of each type of boundary in the initial and damaged structures. The samples were crept at 1273.15 K (1000 °C) at 25 MPa until fracture. It was found that in addition to low-angle and coherent twin boundaries, other low index boundary plane grain boundaries with twist character are relatively resistant to creep.

  7. Australian Sphingidae – DNA Barcodes Challenge Current Species Boundaries and Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Rougerie, Rodolphe; Kitching, Ian J.; Haxaire, Jean; Miller, Scott E.; Hausmann, Axel; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objective We examine the extent of taxonomic and biogeographical uncertainty in a well-studied group of Australian Lepidoptera, the hawkmoths (Sphingidae). Methods We analysed the diversity of Australian sphingids through the comparative analysis of their DNA barcodes, supplemented by morphological re-examinations and sequence information from a nuclear marker in selected cases. The results from the analysis of Australian sphingids were placed in a broader context by including conspecifics and closely related taxa from outside Australia to test taxonomic boundaries. Results Our results led to the discovery of six new species in Australia, one case of erroneously synonymized species, and three cases of synonymy. As a result, we establish the occurrence of 75 species of hawkmoths on the continent. The analysis of records from outside Australia also challenges the validity of current taxonomic boundaries in as many as 18 species, including Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus, 1758), a common species that has gained adoption as a model system. Our work has revealed a higher level of endemism than previously recognized. Most (90%) Australian sphingids are endemic to the continent (45%) or to Australia, the Pacific Islands and the Papuan and Wallacean regions (45%). Only seven species (10%) have ranges that extend beyond this major biogeographical boundary toward SE Asia and other regions of the Old World. Main Conclusions This study has established that overlooked cryptic diversity and inaccurate species delineation produced significant misconceptions concerning diversity and distribution patterns in a group of insects that is considered well known taxonomically. Because DNA barcoding represents a straightforward way to test taxonomic boundaries, its implementation can improve the accuracy of primary diversity data in biogeography and conservation studies. PMID:24987846

  8. Influence of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Character on the Distribution of Chlorinated and Chloraminated Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) at Rand Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, Savia S.; Ncube, Esper J.; Haarhoff, Johannes; Msagati, Titus AM; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Nkambule, Thabo I.

    2016-04-01

    Certain disinfection by-products (DBPs) are likely human carcinogens or present mutagenic effects while many DBPs are unidentified. Considering the possibility of DBPs being harmful to human health and the fact that trihalomethanes (THMs) are the only regulated DBP in the South African National Standard (SANS:241) for drinking water, special interest in the precursors to these DBPs' formation is created. It is essential to understand the reactivity and character of the precursors responsible for the formation of DBPs in order to enhance precursor removal strategies during the treatment of drinking water. In this study the character of NOM within surface water and the subsequent distribution of THMs formed in the drinking water from Rand Waters' full scale treatment plant were investigated. Molecular size distribution (MSD) of NOM within the surface water was determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and UV254 measurements formed part of the NOM character study as they provide an indication of the aromaticity of organic matter. The four THMs; bromoform, chloroform, dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromodichloromethane (BDCM)were measured by gas chromatography. The sum of these four THMs was expressed as total trihalomethane (TTHM). On average the chloroform constituted 76.2% of the total TTHM, BDCM 22.5% while DBCM and bromoform measured below the detection limit. THM speciation after chlorination and chloramination concentrations increased in the sequence bromoform < DBCM < BDCM < chloroform. Results of the MSD showed a significant correlation between NOM of high molecular size (peak I) and TTHM formation specifically during the summer months (R2= 0.971, p < 0.05). High molecular weight (HMW) NOM also related well to chloroform formation (R2 = 0.963, p < 0.05) however, the formation of BDCM was not due to HWM fraction as indicated by weak regression coefficient. A positive correlation existed between

  9. Localized and distributed boundary-layer receptivity to convected unsteady wake in free stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1994-01-01

    Receptivity to a model convected disturbance in the presence of localized and distributed variations in wall geometry and wall-suction velocity is examined. The model free-stream disturbance corresponds to the time-harmonic wake of a vibrating ribbon that is placed at a suitable distance above the surface of a thin airfoil. The advantages of using this disturbance for experiments on receptivity to convected disturbances are outlined. A brief parametric study is presented for a flat-plate boundary layer. The study quantifies the effect of wake position as well as wake width; in addition, it should be helpful in the choice of an optimal setting for a controlled experiment of the above type, which the above parametric study shows as feasible.

  10. Sea turtle distribution along the boundary of the Gulf Stream current off eastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, W.; Fritts, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Aerial surveys, out to 222 km off the east coast of central Florida during August 1980, revealed that marine turtles were distributed in a narrow zone west of the Gulf Stream. Of 255 loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, only three were observed east of the western boundary of the Gulf Stream. Radiometric thermometry revealed that the waters occupied by most Caretta were markedly cooler than the nearby waters of the Gulf Stream. Of 18 leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, all were seen west of the Gulf Stream in waters less than 70 m in depth. Marine turtles off eastern Florida are confined seasonally to nearshore waters west of the Gulf Stream. The records of Dermochelys in nearshore waters are in contrast with a deep water oceanic ecology often hypothesized for this species.

  11. An Examination of the Effect of Boundary Layer Ingestion on Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Huyn Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Chu, Julio

    2011-01-01

    A Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system differs from other propulsion systems by the use of electrical power to transmit power from the turbine to the fan. Electrical power can be efficiently transmitted over longer distances and with complex topologies. Also the use of power inverters allows the generator and motors speeds to be independent of one another. This decoupling allows the aircraft designer to place the core engines and the fans in locations most advantageous for each. The result can be very different installation environments for the different devices. Thus the installation effects on this system can be quite different than conventional turbofans where the fan and core both see the same installed environments. This paper examines a propulsion system consisting of two superconducting generators, each driven by a turboshaft engine located so that their inlets ingest freestream air, superconducting electrical transmission lines, and an array of superconducting motor driven fan positioned across the upper/rear fuselage area of a hybrid wing body aircraft in a continuous nacelle that ingests all of the upper fuselage boundary layer. The effect of ingesting the boundary layer on the design of the system with a range of design pressure ratios is examined. Also the impact of ingesting the boundary layer on off-design performance is examined. The results show that when examining different design fan pressure ratios it is important to recalculate of the boundary layer mass-average Pt and MN up the height for each inlet height during convergence of the design point for each fan design pressure ratio examined. Correct estimation of off-design performance is dependent on the height of the column of air measured from the aircraft surface immediately prior to any external diffusion that will flow through the fan propulsors. The mass-averaged Pt and MN calculated for this column of air determine the Pt and MN seen by the propulsor inlet. Since the height

  12. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. I - Pressure distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions are derived for the pressure distribution in the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. The undisturbed boundary layer is characterized by the law of the wall and the law of the wake for compressible flow. In the limiting case considered, for 'high' transonic speeds, the sonic line is very close to the wall. Comparisons with experiment are shown, with corrections included for the effect of longitudinal wall curvature and for the boundary-layer displacement effect in a circular pipe.

  13. The role of grain boundary character in the environmentally-assisted integranular cracking mechanism of nickel-base alloys: Progress report, August 1, 1988--July 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G.S.

    1989-07-01

    Over the past year additional experimental results and more accurate modeling were obtained for the grain boundary chemistry and structure of controlled purity alloys 690 and X-750 material as a function of thermal treatment. High purity heats of Ni-30Cr-9Fe (alloy 690) and Ni-16Cr-9Fe-2.5Ti-0.7Al (alloy X-750) were prepared by the Materials Preparation Center, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University. Each were doped with 0.03 wt % C. The material was delivered in the form of 3.05 mm rods for the convenience of transmission electron microscopy sample preparation. Due to casting defects in the alloys, the base stock materials were purified by electron beam melting before alloying to reduce the levels of any tramp elements that would form these casting defects. Chromium depletion profiling and analysis of precipitate composition were conducted in a JEOL 100CX STEM using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Precipitate structure was determined by convergent beam electron diffraction in a JEOL 2000 FX STEM in addition to selected area diffraction in the JEOL 100 CX STEM. Computer modeling was done on a Macintosh II computer with the codes operating in the FORTRAN language. 8 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. On angularly perturbed Laplace equations in the unit ball of IR{sup n+2} and their distributional boundary values

    SciTech Connect

    Massopust, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    All solutions of an in its angular coordinates continuously perturbed Laplace-Beltrami equation in the open unit ball IB{sup n+2} {contained_in} IR{sup n+2}, n {ge} 1, are characterized. Moreover, it is shown that such pertubations yield distributional boundary values which are different from, but algebraically and topologically equivalent to, the hyperfunctions of Lions & Magenes. This is different from the case of radially perturbed Laplace-Beltrami operators (cf. [7]) where one has stability of distributional boundary values under such perturbations.

  15. Σ3 CSL boundary distributions in an austenitic stainless steel subjected to multidirectional forging followed by annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonova, Marina; Kuzminova, Yuliya; Fang, Xiaoying; Wang, Weiguo; Kaibyshev, Rustam; Belyakov, Andrey

    2014-12-01

    The effect of processing and annealing temperatures on the grain boundary characters in the ultrafine-grained structure of a 304-type austenitic stainless steel was studied. An S304H steel was subjected to multidirectional forging (MDF) at 500-800°C to total strains of ~4, followed by annealing at 800-1,000°C for 30 min. The MDF resulted in the formation of ultrafine-grained microstructures with mean grain sizes of 0.28-0.85 μm depending on the processing temperature. The annealing behaviour of the ultrafine-grained steel was characterized by the development of continuous post-dynamic recrystallization including a rapid recovery followed by a gradual grain growth. The post-dynamically recrystallized grain size depended on both the deformation temperature and the annealing temperature. The recrystallization kinetics was reduced with an increase in the temperature of the preceding deformation. The grain growth during post-dynamic recrystallization was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of Σ3n CSL boundaries, which was defined by a relative change in the grain size, i.e. a ratio of the annealed grain size to that evolved by preceding warm working (D/D0). The fraction of Σ3n CSL boundaries sharply rose to approximately 0.5 in the range of D/D0 from 1 to 5, which can be considered as early stage of continuous post-dynamic recrystallization. Then, the rate of increase in the fraction of Σ3n CSL boundaries slowed down significantly in the range of D/D0 > 5. A fivefold increase in the grain size by annealing is a necessary condition to obtain approximately 50% Σ3n CSL boundaries in the recrystallized microstructure.

  16. Turbulent boundary layer flow over distributions of cubes and evaluation of transient dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, William; Li, Qi; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2014-11-01

    We have used large-eddy simulation with an immersed boundary method to study turbulent flows over a distribution of uniform height, staggered cubes. The computational domain was designed such that both the roughness sublayer and a region of the aloft inertial layer was resolved. With this, we record vertical profiles of time series of fluctuations of streamwise velocity and vertical velocity (where fluctuation is computed as a quantity's deviation from its time-averaged value during a time period over which the simulation exhibits statistical stationarity). Contour images of fluctuating velocity component shown relative to vertical position and time reveals an advective-lag between the passage of a high- or low-momentum region in the aloft inertial layer and excitation or relaxation of cube-scale coherent vortices in the sublayer. We quantify this advective lag and demonstrate how these events precede elevated Reynolds stresses associated with turbulent sweeps at the cube height. We propose that coherent, low and high momentum regions in the inertial layer are responsible for the reported advective lag. Vortex identification techniques are used to illustrate the presence of hairpin packets encapsulating low momentum regions, thereby supporting our hypothesis. Based on this, a simple, semi-empirical model for prediction of advective lag with height is developed. In spite of its simplicity, the model manages to capture the advective lag profiles reasonably well.

  17. Distributed-Roughness Effects on Stability and Transition In Swept-Wing Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, Ruben B., Jr.; Reibert, Mark S.; Saric, William S.

    1997-01-01

    Boundary-layer stability experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel on a 45 deg swept airfoil. The pressure distribution and test conditions are designed to suppress Tollmien-Schlichting disturbances and provide crossflow-dominated transition. The surface of the airfoil is finely polished to a near mirror finish. Under these conditions, submicron surface irregularities cause the naturally occurring stationary crossflow waves to grow to nonuniform amplitudes. Spanwise-uniform stationary crossflow disturbances are generated through careful control of the initial conditions with full-span arrays of micron-high roughness elements near the attachment line. Detailed hot-wire measurements are taken to document the stationary crossflow structure and determine growth rates for the total and individual-mode disturbances. Naphthalene flow visualization provides transition location information. Roughness spacing and roughness height are varied to examine the effects on transition location and all amplified wavelengths. The measurements show that roughness spacings that do not contain harmonics equal to the most unstable wavelength as computed by linear stability theory effectively suppress the most unstable mode. Under certain conditions, subcritical roughness spacing delays transition past that of the corresponding smooth surface.

  18. Timing, Distribution, and Character of Tephra Fall from the 2005-2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K. L.; Neal, C.; McGimsey, G.

    2006-12-01

    The 2005-2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano produced tephra-fall deposits during four eruptive phases. The island setting, deposition of thin, fine-grained fall deposits onto the snowpack, and subsequent reworking by high winds and surface-water flow has removed much of the original proximal fall record. During the late precursory phase (December 2005), small phreatic explosions produced very light, localized tephra fall. Tephra from one such event is composed of altered and fresh, possibly juvenile, glass shards. The greatest volume of tephra fall was produced during the explosive phase (January 11 - 28) when 13 discrete explosive events generated plumes between 3 -14 km ASL during a period of dome building and collapse. Associated strong seismicity lasted 1-11 min (avg 4 min), closely matching the duration of plume generation followed by detachment from the vent and distribution by local winds. On January 11, explosions generated two plumes to ~9 km ASL and deposited trace amounts of ash on communities surrounding Lake Iliamna W and NW of Augustine. Tephra from this event are not well preserved and were likely small in volume, but proximal and distal samples collected during the eruption are composed mainly of older dense dome fragments and crystals with little to no juvenile material. On January 13 and 14, six discrete explosions produced plumes to 9 - 11 km ASL that dispersed to the N-NE and deposited < 1mm of ash on Homer, Seldovia, Nanwelek and Port Graham. Coarse proximal fall deposits are composed mainly of olive- green, scoriaceous, low-silica andesite; subordinate black, dense, porphyritic low-silica andesite; white, variably vesicular high-silica andesite; and accidental lithic fragments. During this time, low-silica andesite dome extrusion was occurring. An explosion on January 17 produced a plume to ~14 km ASL that dispersed to the W-NW and deposited 1 mm of ash on communities surrounding Lake Iliamna. Coarse proximal fall deposits contain the same

  19. Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE)-Parametric Pressure Distribution Boundary Layer Stability Study and Wing Glove Design Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Rodger A.

    1986-01-01

    The Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) was initiated to establish a boundary-layer transition data base for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper-surface gloves will be fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The results of two initial tasks are documented: a parametric pressure distribution/boundary-layer stability study and the design of an upper-surface glove for Mach 0.8. The first task was conducted to provide a data base from which wing-glove pressure distributions could be selected for glove designs. Boundary-layer stability analyses were conducted on a set of pressure distributions for various wing sweep angles, Mach numbers, and Reynolds number in the range of those anticipated for the flight-test program. The design procedure for the Mach 0.8 glove is described, and boundary-layer stability calculations and pressure distributions are presented both at design and off-design conditions. Also included is the analysis of the clean-up glove (smoothed basic wing) that will be flight-tested initially and the analysis of a Mach 0.7 glove designed at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  20. Character in fiction and fiction in character.

    PubMed

    Baudry, F

    1990-07-01

    This paper examines the concept of fictional character from a psychoanalytic point of view, including its synthesis and the role of reader response. A second section takes up the role of fiction in the development of character. PMID:2399287

  1. Influence of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer on the vertical distribution of air pollutant in China's Yangtze River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenggang; Cao, Le

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer is a kind of weather phenomenon which decreases the visibility of the atmosphere and results in poor air quality. Recently, the occurrence of the heavy air pollution events has become more frequent all over Asia, especially in Mid-Eastern China. In December 2015, the most severe air pollution in recorded history of China occurred in the regions of Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. More than 10 days of severe air pollution (Air Quality Index, AQI>200) appeared in many large cities of China such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding. Thus, the research and the management of the air pollution has attracted most attentions in China. In order to investigate the formation, development and dissipation of the air pollutions in China, a field campaign has been conducted between January 1, 2015 and January 28, 2015 in Yangtze River Delta of China, aiming at a intensive observation of the vertical structure of the air pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer during the time period with heavy pollution. In this study, the observation data obtained in the field campaign mentioned above is analyzed. The characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the city Dongshan located in the center of Lake Taihu are shown and discussed in great detail. It is indicated that the stability of the boundary layer is the strongest during the nighttime and the early morning of Dongshan. Meanwhile, the major air pollutants, PM2.5 and PM10 in the boundary layer, reach their maximum values, 177.1μg m-3 and 285μg m-3 respectively. The convective boundary layer height in the observations ranges from approximately 700m to 1100m. It is found that the major air pollutants tend to be confined in a relatively shallow boundary layer, which represents that the boundary layer height is the dominant factor for controlling the vertical distribution of the air pollutants. In

  2. Prediction of acoustic radiation from axisymmetric surfaces with arbitrary boundary conditions using the boundary element method on a distributed computing system.

    PubMed

    Wright, Louise; Robinson, Stephen P; Humphrey, Victor F

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a computational technique using the boundary element method for prediction of radiated acoustic waves from axisymmetric surfaces with nonaxisymmetric boundary conditions. The aim is to predict the far-field behavior of underwater acoustic transducers based on their measured behavior in the near-field. The technique is valid for all wavenumbers and uses a volume integral method to calculate the singular integrals required by the boundary element formulation. The technique has been implemented on a distributed computing system to take advantage of its parallel nature, which has led to significant reductions in the time required to generate results. Measurement data generated by a pair of free-flooding underwater acoustic transducers encapsulated in a polyurethane polymer have been used to validate the technique against experiment. The dimensions of the outer surface of the transducers (including the polymer coating) were an outer diameter of 98 mm with an 18 mm wall thickness and a length of 92 mm. The transducers were mounted coaxially, giving an overall length of 185 mm. The cylinders had resonance frequencies at 13.9 and 27.5 kHz, and the data were gathered at these frequencies. PMID:19275294

  3. Displaced logarithmic profile of the velocity distribution in the boundary layer of a turbulent flow over an unbounded flat surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talpos, Simona; Apostol, Marian

    2015-12-01

    It is shown that the Reynolds equations for a turbulent flow over an unbounded flat surface in the presence of a constant pressure-gradient lead to a displaced logarithmic profile of the velocity distribution; the displaced logarithmic profile is obtained by assuming a constant production rate of turbulence energy. The displacement height measured on the (vertical) axis perpendicular to the surface is either positive or negative. For a positive displacement height the boundary layer exhibits an inversion, while for a negative displacement height the boundary layer is a direct one. In an inversion boundary layer the logarithmic velocity profile is disrupted into two distinct branches separated by a logarithmic singularity. The viscosity transforms this logarithmic singularity into a sharp edge, governed by a generalized Reynolds number. The associated temperature distribution is calculated, and the results are discussed in relation to meteorological boundary-layer jets and stratified layers. The effects of gravitation and atmospheric thermal or fluid-mixture concentration gradients ("external forcings") are also considered; it is shown that such circumstances may lead to various modifications of the boundary layers. A brief presentation of a similar situation is described for a circular pipe.

  4. EBSD characterization of carbide-carbide boundaries in WC-Co composites.

    PubMed

    Farooq, M U; Klement, U

    2004-03-01

    A sample of WC-6wt%Co was investigated for grain boundary character distribution and occurrence of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries on a statistical basis. For this purpose orientation measurements of the grains were carried out using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The dominant misorientation relationships were determined by complementary EBSD data representation tools such as orientation maps, misorientation angle distribution histograms and the sectioned three-dimensional misorientation space. It was found that the grain boundary character distribution of the material is nearly random and the CSL boundaries are not present in statistically significant amounts. It was also found that the amount of binder phase does not play a role in the formation of special boundaries. The paper focuses on the methodology of characterizing grain boundaries in a hexagonal material using EBSD. PMID:15009698

  5. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Distributed Data Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, G.; Eakins, J.; Hodgkinson, K.; Matykiewicz, J.; Beldyk, M.; Blackman, B.; Boler, F.; Henderson, B.; Hoyt, B.; Lee, E.; Persson, E.; Smith, J.; Torrez, D.; Wright, J.; Jackson, M.; Meertens, C.

    2007-05-01

    EarthScope is an ambitious multi-year project funded by the United States National Science Foundation to explore the structure and dynamics of the North American continent using a wide range of geophysical methods. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), being built by UNAVCO, is the geodetic component of EarthScope, and will comprise 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters; in addition, PBO will manage data for 209 existing GPS stations and 11 GPS stations installed by the USArray segment of EarthScope. As of February 2007, 561 of these stations have been installed. PBO data flow is managed from the PBO Boulder Network Operations Center (NOC), located at UNAVCO Headquarters. Automated systems at the NOC retrieve data from our stations at least daily, monitor the status of the network and alert operators to problems, and pass data on for analysis, archiving, and distribution. Real-time network status can be found at http:pboweb.unavco.org/soh_map. PBO's analysis centers generate high-quality derived data products from PBO raw data. Two centers, at Central Washington University and the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, process raw GPS data to produce initial PBO GPS products including network solutions and station position time series, andthese products are combined by the Analysis Center Coordinator at MIT to produce the official PBO GPS products. Two analysis centers, at UNAVCO's Socorro office and the University of California, San Diego, process data from the PBO borehole and laser strainmeter networks and produce cleaned time series of shear, areal, and linear strain, Earth tides, pore fluid pressure, and other parameters. The UNAVCO Facility archives and distributes all PBO GPS data products and runs a secondary archive offsite; to date, these centers hold more than 2.5 TB of PBO products. The IRIS Data Management Center and Northern California Earthquake Data Center archive and

  6. A rapid method for predicting suction distributions to maintain attached, laminar boundary layers on bodies of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, G. H.

    1983-12-01

    An approximate method is presented for the determination of the minimum amount of suction necessary to maintain a laminar, attached boundary layer in incompressible, axisymmetric flow. The method is an extension of A.M.O Smith's procedure which calculates a general laminar boundary layer by piecewise similarity solutions. An extension has been programmed on a VAX 11/782 computer and found to the extremely fast, taking from 3 to 4 secs. in CPU time. Boundary-layer solutions for four axisymmetric bodies at a variety of Reynolds numbers have been obtained and the results are compared with finite difference solutions which use the suction distribution from the approximate theory. Agreement between the two is generally good.

  7. Spectroscopic Character and Spatial Distribution of Hydroxyl and Water Absorption Features Measured on the Lunar Surface by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Imaging Spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. O.; Pieters, C. M.; Goswami, J.; Clark, R. N.; Annadurai, M.; Boardman, J. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Combe, J.; Dyar, M. D.; Head, J. W.; Hibbitts, C.; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R. L.; Kramer, G. Y.; Kumar, S.; Livo, K. E.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J. F.; Nettles, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Runyon, C. J.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1 has a broad spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm. By design, the range was specified to extend to 3000 nm to allow for possible detection of trace volatile compounds that possess absorption bands near 3000 nm. Soon after acquisition and calibration of a large fraction of the lunar surface in early February 2009, absorption features in the 2700 to 3000 nm region were detected over unexpectedly large regional areas. This extraordinary discovery has withstood extensive re-analysis and falsification efforts. We have concluded these absorption features are fundamentally present in the M3 measurements and are indicators of extensive hydroxyl and water-bearing materials occurring on the surface of the Moon. Based on current analyses, these absorption features appear strongest at high latitudes, but also occur in association with several fresh feldspathic craters. Interestingly, the distribution of these absorption features are not directly correlated with existing neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data for the sunlight surface. This may indicate that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water is an active process largely restricted to the upper most surface. We present the detailed spectroscopic character of these absorption features in the 2700 to 3000 nm spectral region, including selected examples through all levels of measurement processing from raw data to calibrated apparent surface reflectance. In summary we show the measured strength and latitudinal distribution of the absorptions as well as selected localized occurrences in association with fresh feldspathic craters. The presence of hydroxyl and water bearing material over extensive regions of the lunar surface provides a new and unexpected source of volatiles. Options for harvesting these elements directly from the regolith may provide an alternate supply of volatiles for long term human exploration objectives.

  8. Text vectorization based on character recognition and character stroke modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhigang; Zhou, Bingfeng; Tse, Francis; Mu, Yadong; He, Tao

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a text vectorization method is proposed using OCR (Optical Character Recognition) and character stroke modeling. This is based on the observation that for a particular character, its font glyphs may have different shapes, but often share same stroke structures. Like many other methods, the proposed algorithm contains two procedures, dominant point determination and data fitting. The first one partitions the outlines into segments and second one fits a curve to each segment. In the proposed method, the dominant points are classified as "major" (specifying stroke structures) and "minor" (specifying serif shapes). A set of rules (parameters) are determined offline specifying for each character the number of major and minor dominant points and for each dominant point the detection and fitting parameters (projection directions, boundary conditions and smoothness). For minor points, multiple sets of parameters could be used for different fonts. During operation, OCR is performed and the parameters associated with the recognized character are selected. Both major and minor dominant points are detected as a maximization process as specified by the parameter set. For minor points, an additional step could be performed to test the competing hypothesis and detect degenerated cases.

  9. Bi-directional electron distributions as tracers for the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, N.; Radioti, A.; Roussos, E.; Grodent, D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2011-10-01

    In this presentation we use bi-directional energetic electron distributions from the MIMI-LEMMS instrument onboard Cassini, auroral observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and data from the UVIS instrument onboard Cassini to characterize the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's magnetosphere. The high-latitude open-closed field line boundary at Saturn is thought to be related to the main auroral ring of emission of the planet varying in location, intensity and latitudinal extent as well as in its homogeneity. This study extends the work on the plasmapause/open-closed field line boundary published by [1] by covering a larger data set at different local times and comparing the electron distributions with auroral observations. Based on energetic electron data we characterize the open-closed field line boundary in terms of temporal, local time variations and other parameters and we correlate the Cassini in-situ measurements to the observations of the main auroral ring at Saturn.

  10. "Invitations" to Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliren, Al; Messer, Mitchell H.

    2009-01-01

    If we are to help children develop character, we have to go beyond offering a character education class once or twice each month. We actually have to validate character when we see it or hear about it happening. Through the use of a new strategy called "focused invitations," counselors and teachers can focus on the 36 core components of character.…

  11. On the latitudinal and seasonal distribution of reactive halogens in the Eastern Pacific marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Martin, J. C.; Hay, T. D.; Mahajan, A. S.; Prados-Roman, C.; Ordoñez, C.; Royer, S.-J.; Yvon-Lewis, S.; Agama Reyes, M. V.; Paredes Mora, J. F.; Sorribas Panero, M.; Gil, M.; MacDonald, S.; Plane, J. M. C.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2012-04-01

    Spatially and time-resolved observations of reactive iodine and bromine species were made during two field campaigns in the Eastern Pacific marine boundary layer (MBL) in order to improve our understanding of their sources and their impacts on ozone and aerosols. The first campaign, HaloCarbon Air Sea Transect-Pacific (HaloCAST-P), was a one-month ship-based study on a scientific cruise from Chile to Seattle during March-April 2010. The second campaign, Climate and HAlogen Reactivity tropicaL EXperiment (CHARLEX) in the Galapagos Islands, running from September 2010, is the first long-term ground-based study of atmospheric trace gases in this region (1). Both ship-based MAX-DOAS measurements and ground-based MAX-DOAS, LP-DOAS and ROFLEX observations indicate a constant and ubiquitous presence of reactive iodine (IOx = I + IO), with enhanced mixing ratios over the oligotrophic parts of the ocean and slightly increased IOx mixing ratios in the warm season (although IO itself does not show a seasonal trend). On the other hand, BrO was not observed above the LP-DOAS 0.5 pptv (2σ) detection limit, indicating BrOx levels on the low side of the range predicted by models (2,3). The mixing ratios observed in the eastern Pacific show similar variability and magnitude, although they are generally lower than in other remote tropical locations (1). A recently reported time series of satellite observations of IO around Galapagos (4,5) is inconsistent with the spatial distribution and low surface mixing ratios measured in our study. In situ measurements of meteorological and physical ocean variables, Chlorophyll-a and halocarbons, along with satellite ocean colour imagery were used to gain insights into the possible sources and the impacts of iodine in this environment. Regarding the current halogen impacts on the regional MBL chemistry, the low mixing ratios observed indicate that they will neither affect significantly surface ozone nor trigger significant new particle

  12. Distribution of magnetofossils in deep-sea surface sediments with Fe-redox boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Seike, K.; Sakuramoto, Y.; Okutsu, N.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are considered to be microaerophilic and most commonly live near or below the Fe-redox boundary. However, common occurrence of magnetofossils in Pacific red clay (Yamazaki and Shimono, 2013), which contains abundant dissolved oxygen and does not have a Fe-redox boundary, suggest that some species of magnetotactic bacteria live in an environment without a strong chemical gradient. To contribute to better understanding of the ecology of magnetotactic bacteria in deep-sea sediments, we have studied magnetofossils within surface sediments of the Japan Sea, where the Fe-redox boundary is known to occur several to tens of centimeters below the seafloor, with rock-magnetic techniques and TEM observations. Undisturbed surface sediments were taken with a multiple corer. From dissolved oxygen and Fe (II) contents of interstitial water and color reflectance of the sediments, the Fe-redox boundary was clearly detected at 7 to 25 cm below the seafloor at three sites. In the component analyses of IRM acquisition curves, a magnetic component that has a mean coercivity of ~65 mT and a small dispersion parameter occurs, which corresponds to the biogenic hard (BH) component of Egli (2004). At all three sites, the proportion of this component increases just below the Fe-redox boundary, which is associated with an increase in the ratio of ARM to SIRM. These results suggest increased abundance of magnetofossils with elongated morphologies like hexagonal prism and tear drop. On the other hand, FORC diagrams show sharp central ridges indicative of magnetofossils throughout the sediment columns regardless of the distance from the Fe-redox boundary, even at the sediment-water interface. The occurrence of magnetofossils was confirmed by TEM observations. These results suggest that although some species of magnetotactic bacteria living in marine sediments prefer a chemical condition near the Fe-redox boundary, others may be aerotolerant and live in oxic environments.

  13. System and method for character recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A character recognition system is disclosed in which each character in a retina, defining a scanning raster, is scanned with random lines uniformly distributed over the retina. For each type of character to be recognized the system stores a probability density function (PDF) of the random line intersection lengths and/or a PDF of the random line number of intersections. As an unknown character is scanned, the random line intersection lengths and/or the random line number of intersections are accumulated and based on a comparison with the prestored PDFs a classification of the unknown character is performed.

  14. The transpressive tectonics and large earthquake distribution along the plate boundary in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha; Pondrelli, Silvia

    2010-05-01

    The Tell Atlas and Rif Mountains of northern Africa have been the site of several large and moderate seismic events in the last decades. However, the thrust and fold system of NW Algeria experienced the largest earthquakes in the last centuries along the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary. This shallow seismic activity was very often associated with surface faulting and deformation as for the Mw 7.3 El Asnam (10/10/1980) and the Mw 6.8 Zemmouri-Boumerdes (21/05/2003) earthquakes. We study the active tectonics along the plate boundary in North Africa from the seismicity database, individual large and moderate earthquakes, the seismic moment tensor summation, the geodetic measurements (GPS and InSAR) and the structural and kinematic of active faults. Neotectonic structures and significant seismicity (Mw>5) indicate that coeval east-west trending right-lateral faulting and NE-SW thrust-related folding result from the oblique convergence at the plate boundary. A simple modeling of block tectonics suggests that transpression and block rotation govern the mechanics of the Africa - Eurasia plate boundary in the Tell Atlas and Rif Mountains. The tectonic restraining bend of NW Algeria combined with the ~ 5 mm/yr convergence between Africa and Eurasia justify the large seismic activity on the thrust and fold system of the Tell Atlas and the relatively passive active deformation along the adjacent sections of the plate boundary.

  15. The Use of Size Distributions in Determining Growth Mechanisms: The Growth of Grain Boundary Precipitates in Cobalt-20 Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northover (Née Payne), Shirley M.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate prediction of microstructural stability in an alloy depends not only on a sound knowledge of the thermodynamics of the system but also of the kinetics of the phase changes involved. Conventionally, precipitate growth mechanisms have been inferred from the variation with aging time of various single parameters such as the mean, mode or maximum of the precipitate size distribution, which has then been compared to theoretical models of growth of an individual precipitate. In the present study, the development, with aging time at 1003 K (730 °C), of the size and shape distributions of grain boundary precipitates in Co-20Fe has been examined to determine the rate-controlling processes, and the conclusions compared to those from conventional analysis. The growth of the precipitates was well described by the grain boundary-dependent collector plate mechanism of Brailsford and Aaron. As the precipitates grew, low-energy facets were formed, which could move only by the propagation of ledges, and thickening was inhibited. The precipitates' diffusion fields in the grain boundary overlapped and the size distributions of the longest aged specimens showed that local coarsening occurred under partial interface control.

  16. Mean and fluctuating flow measurements in axisymmetric supersonic boundary layer flow subjected to distributed adverse pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gootzait, E.; Childs, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the mean flow properties and turbulent fluctuations in adiabatic turbulent boundary layer flows subjected to distributed adverse pressure gradients. In the freestream region upstream of the adverse pressure gradient the Mach number was 3.86, the unit Reynolds number 5.3 million per foot. The boundary layer developed on the wall of an axisymmetric nozzle and straight test section. In order to avoid the effects of streamwise surface curvature the adverse pressure gradients at the test section wall were induced by contoured centerbodies mounted on the wind tunnel centerline. The flow under study simulated that which might be found in an axially symmetric engine inlet of a supersonic aircraft.

  17. Development of a Grain Boundary Pinning Model that Considers Particle Size Distribution Using the Phase Field Method

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R Tonks; Yongfeng Zhang; Xian-Ming Bai

    2015-04-01

    Grain boundary (GB) migration significantly impacts material behavior. However, GB migration is slowed or even halted by resistive pressure applied by pores or particles. Zener’s original investigation of particle pinning, and subsequent modifications by other researchers, describe the resistive pressure for various spatial distributions of particles with respect to GBs. In this work, we develop a pinning model that considers the impact of the particle size distribution and we verify it by comparing to mesoscale phase field and Monte Carlo simulations. Resistive pressure expressions are developed that are functions of the percentage of GB area covered by particles and of the particle volume fraction for any spatial distribution of particles. In both expressions, the mean value of the resistive pressure decreases with increasing standard deviation of the particle radius.

  18. Making Character Education Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgan, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Describes charter education program at the Moraine Elementary School in Northville, Michigan, named a National School of Character in 2002 by the Washington, D.C.-based Character Education Partnership. (PKP)

  19. Handprinted Forms and Characters

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Handprinted Forms and Characters (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 19 contains NIST's entire corpus of training materials for handprinted document and character recognition. It supersedes NIST Special Databases 3 and 7.

  20. Periodic seepage face formation and water pressure distribution along a vertical boundary of an aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazayeri Shoushtari, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Nielsen, Peter; Cartwright, Nick; Perrochet, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Detailed measurements of the piezometric head from sand flume experiments of an idealised coastal aquifer forced by a simple harmonic boundary condition across a vertical boundary are presented. The measurements focus on the pore pressures very close to the interface (x = 0.01m) and throw light on the details of the boundary condition, particularly with respect to meniscus suction and seepage face formation during the falling tide. Between the low and the mean water level, the response is consistent with meniscus suction free models in terms of both the vertical mean head and oscillation amplitude profiles and is consistent with the observation that this area of the interface was generally within the seepage face. Above the mean water level, the influence of meniscus formation is significant with the mean pressure head being less than that predicted by capillary free theory and oscillation amplitudes decaying faster than predicted by suction free models. The reduced hydraulic conductivity in this area due to partial drainage of pores on the falling tide also causes a delay in the response to the rising tide. The combined influence of seepage face formation, meniscus suction and reduced hydraulic conductivity generate higher harmonics with amplitudes of up to 26% of the local main harmonic. To model the influence of seepage face formation and meniscus suction a numerical solution of the Richards' equation was developed and evaluated against the data. The model-data comparison shows a good agreement with the behaviour high above the water table sensitive to the choice of moisture retention parameters.

  1. Structure of two-dimensional and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers with sparsely distributed roughness elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Jacob

    The present study deals with the effects of sparsely distributed three-dimensional elements on two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) such as those that occur on submarines, ship hulls, etc. This study was achieved in three parts: Part 1 dealt with the cylinders when placed individually in the turbulent boundary layers, thereby considering the effect of a single perturbation on the TBL; Part 2 considered the effects when the same individual elements were placed in a sparse and regular distribution, thus studying the response of the flow to a sequence of perturbations; and in Part 3, the distributions were subjected to 3-D turbulent boundary layers, thus examining the effects of streamwise and spanwise pressure gradients on the same perturbed flows as considered in Part 2. The 3-D turbulent boundary layers were generated by an idealized wing-body junction flow. Detailed 3-velocity-component Laser-Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and other measurements were carried out to understand and describe the rough-wall flow structure. The measurements include mean velocities, turbulence quantities (Reynolds stresses and triple products), skin friction, surface pressure and oil flow visualizations in 2-D and 3-D rough-wall flows for Reynolds numbers, based on momentum thickness, greater than 7000. Very uniform circular cylindrical roughness elements of 0.38mm, 0.76mm and 1.52mm height (k) were used in square and diagonal patterns, yielding six different roughness geometries of rough-wall surface. For the 2-D rough-wall flows, the roughness Reynolds numbers, k +, based on the element height (k) and the friction velocity (Utau), range from 26 to 131. Results for the 2-D rough-wall flows reveal that the velocity-defect law is similar for both smooth and rough surfaces, and the semi-logarithmic velocity-distribution curve is shifted by an amount DeltaU/U, depending on the height of the roughness element, showing that Delta U/Utau is a function

  2. Exponential Stability of the Energy of the Wave Equation with Variable Coefficients and a Boundary Distributed Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we consider a wave equation with space variable coefficients. Due to physical considerations, a distributed delay damping is acted on the part of the boundary. Under suitable assumptions, we prove the exponential stability of the energy based on the use of Riemannian geometry method, the perturbed energy argument, and some observability inequalities. From the applications point of view, our results may provide some qualitative analysis and intuition for the researchers in fields such as engineering, biophysics, and mechanics. And the method is rather general and can be adapted to other evolution systems with variable coefficients (e. g. elasticity plates) as well.

  3. The distribution and impacts of harmful algal bloom species in eastern boundary upwelling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainer, V. L.; Pitcher, G. C.; Reguera, B.; Smayda, T. J.

    2010-04-01

    Comparison of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in eastern boundary upwelling systems, specifically species composition, bloom densities, toxin concentrations and impacts are likely to contribute to understanding these phenomena. We identify and describe HABs in the California, Canary, Benguela and Humboldt Current systems, including those that can cause the poisoning syndromes in humans called paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), as well as yessotoxins, ichthyotoxins, and high-biomass blooms resulting in hypoxia and anoxia. Such comparisons will allow identification of parameters, some unique to upwelling systems and others not, that contribute to the development of these harmful blooms.

  4. Massive-scale aircraft observations of giant sea-salt aerosol particle size distributions in atmospheric marine boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    iant sea-salt aerosol particles (dry radius, rd > 0.5 μm) occur nearly everywhere in the marine boundary layer and frequently above. This study presents observations of atmospheric sea-salt size distributions in the range 0.7 < rd < 14 μm based on external impaction of sea-spray aerosol particles onto microscope polycarbonate microscope slides. The slides have very large sample volumes, typically about 250 L over a 10-second sampling period. This provides unprecedented sampling of giant sea-salt particles for flights in marine boundary layer air. The slides were subsequently analyzed in a humidified chamber using dual optical digital microscopy. At a relative humidity of 90% the sea-salt aerosol particles form spherical cap drops. Based on measurement the volume of the spherical cap drop and assuming NaCl composition, the Kohler equation is used to derive the dry salt mass of tens of thousands of individual aerosol particles on each slide. Size distributions are given with a 0.2 μm resolution. The slides were exposed from the NSF/NCAR C-130 research aircraft during the 2008 VOCALS project off the coast of northern Chile and the 2011 ICE-T in the Caribbean. In each deployment, size distributions using hundreds of slides are used to relate fitted log-normal size distributions parameters to wind speed, altitude and other atmospheric conditions. The size distributions provide a unique observational set for initializing cloud models with coarse-mode aerosol particle observations for marine atmospheres.

  5. Airship measurements of aerosol size distributions, cloud droplet spectra, and trace gas concentrations in the marine boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, G.M.; Hoppel, W.A. )

    1993-11-01

    The use of an airship as a platform to conduct atmospheric chemistry, aerosol, and cloud microphysical research is described, and results from demonstration flights made off the Oregon coast are presented. The slow speed of the airship makes it an ideal platform to do high-spatial resolution profiling both vertically and horizontally, and to measure large aerosol and cloud droplet distributions without the difficulties caused by high-speed aircraft sampling. A unique set of data obtained during the demonstration flights show the effect that processing marine boundary layer aerosol through stratus clouds has on the aerosol size distribution. Evidence of new particle formation (nucleation of particles) was also observed on about half the days on which flights were made. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Electron distributions observed with Langmuir waves in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Junga; Rha, Kicheol; Seough, Jungjoon; Yoon, Peter H.

    2014-09-15

    The present paper investigates the Langmuir turbulence driven by counter-streaming electron beams and its plausible association with observed features in the Earth's plasma sheet boundary layer region. A one-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulation code is employed in order to simulate broadband electrostatic waves with characteristic frequency in the vicinity of the electron plasma frequency ω/ω{sub pe}≃1.0. The present simulation confirms that the broadband electrostatic waves may indeed be generated by the counter-streaming electron beams. It is also found that the observed feature associated with low energy electrons, namely quasi-symmetric velocity space plateaus, are replicated according to the present simulation. However, the present investigation only partially succeeds in generating the suprathermal tails such that the origin of observed quasi power-law energetic population formation remains outstanding.

  7. Direct Measurement of Surface Defect Level Distribution Associated with GaAs Antiphase Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q.; Hsu, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Using an electrostatic force microscope, we measure surface contact potential (SCP) variations across antiphase boundaries (APBs) on GaAs films grown on Ge substrates. The SCP at the APBs is consistently and reproducibly measured to be 30 mV higher than that at GaAs domains. This is due to Fermi levels being pinned at different surface states. The identical electrical behavior observed for all APBs indicates that they are the lowest energy {l_brace}110{r_brace} orientation. The sign of observed Fermi level shift is consistent with a prevalence of Ga-Ga bonds at real {l_brace}110{r_brace} APBs. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Experimental flutter boundaries with unsteady pressure distributions for the NACA 0012 Benchmark Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Farmer, Moses G.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Seidel, David A.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Div. at NASA-Langley has started a wind tunnel activity referred to as the Benchmark Models Program. The objective is to acquire test data that will be useful for developing and evaluating aeroelastic type Computational Fluid Dynamics codes currently in use or under development. The progress is described which was achieved in testing the first model in the Benchmark Models Program. Experimental flutter boundaries are presented for a rigid semispan model (NACA 0012 airfoil section) mounted on a flexible mount system. Also, steady and unsteady pressure measurements taken at the flutter condition are presented. The pressure data were acquired over the entire model chord located at the 60 pct. span station.

  9. Distribution of natural halocarbons in marine boundary air over the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokouchi, Yoko; Inoue, Jun; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree

    2013-08-01

    Ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic will affect the exchange of natural volatile organic compounds between the atmosphere and the Arctic Ocean. Among these compounds, natural halocarbons play an important role in atmospheric ozone chemistry. We measured the distribution of five major natural halocarbons (methyl iodide, bromoform, dibromomethane, methyl chloride, and methyl bromide) together with dimethyl sulfide and tetrachloroethylene in the atmosphere over the Arctic Ocean (from the Bering Strait to 79°N) and along the cruise path to and from Japan. Methyl iodide, bromoform, and dibromomethane were most abundant near perennial sea ice in air masses derived from coastal regions and least abundant in the northernmost Arctic, where the air masses had passed over the ice pack, whereas methyl chloride and methyl bromide showed the opposite distribution pattern. Factors controlling those distributions and future prospects for natural halocarbons in the Arctic are discussed.

  10. Relationship between allozymes, heterozygosity and morphological characters in red deer (Cervus elaphus), and the influence of selective hunting on allele frequency distribution.

    PubMed

    Hartl, G B; Lang, G; Klein, F; Willing, R

    1991-06-01

    Morphological characters in red deer (Cervus elaphus), which serve as criteria for selective hunting, were examined in relation to electrophoretic variation in three populations from the Vosges in eastern France. From the polymorphic loci examined, certain alleles at Idh-2, Me-1 and Acp-1 showed significant associations with a special development of body and antler characters selected for by hunters. Idh-2(125) was associated with larger hind foot length in females and a higher number of antler points in males. Me-1(90) and Acp-1(100) were associated with small spikes. The populations studied differed from one another in the duration and intensity of selective hunting and the increase or decrease in the respective allele frequencies could be explained by selection for large body size, a high number of antler points and against small spikes in yearlings, rather than by genetic drift. Among other morphological characters examined, the length of the main beam was significantly associated with the allele Acp-2(100). In contrast, no associations could be detected between overall heterozygosity and the development or the degree of asymmetry (in paired structures) of any of the morphological traits in question. Although no obvious differences in the overall values of polymorphism or heterozygosity were found between the populations, selective hunting leads towards a change in allele frequencies and eventually to the loss of one or the other rare allele. PMID:1880046

  11. Immersed boundary method with non-uniform distribution of Lagrangian markers for a non-uniform Eulerian mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiki, G.; Balachandar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a technique to incorporate spheres in a channel flow that uses a non-uniform Eulerian grid using immersed boundary methods with direct forcing. An efficient algorithm is presented which distributes the Lagrangian markers non-uniformly to match the fluid grid and keep the number of markers optimized. Also a novel method to calculate the area weights of the Lagrangian markers is given. It is observed that even the best available algorithms for uniform distribution of markers on a sphere result in a finite error. Using vector spherical harmonics, this error is quantified and reduced to machine precision. A series of simulations of a stationary and moving sphere in a periodic channel at Reynolds number range of 1-100 are presented. Results for a sphere in an ambient shear flow in close proximity of a wall are also shown, where the present non-uniform distribution offers an order of magnitude reduction over uniform distribution of Lagrangian markers. Simulations of a random cluster of 640 monodisperse spherical particles show a 77% reduction in Lagrangian markers with an error of 0.135% in computing the total drag.

  12. Transient temperature distributions in simple conducting bodies steadily heated through a laminar boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Hermon M

    1953-01-01

    An analysis is made of the transient heat-conduction effects in three simple semi-infinite bodies: the flat insulated plate, the conical shell, and the slender solid cone. The bodies are assumed to have constant initial temperatures and, at zero time, to begin to move at a constant speed and zero angle of attack through a homogeneous atmosphere. The heat input is taken as that through a laminar boundary layer. Radiation heat transfer and transverse temperature gradients are assumed to be zero. The appropriate heat-conduction equations are solved by an iteration method, the zeroeth-order terms describing the situation in the limit of small time. The method is presented and the solutions are calculated to three orders which are sufficient to give reasonably accurate results when the forward edge has attained one-half the total temperature rise (nose half-rise time). Flight Mach number and air properties occur as parameters in the result. Approximate expressions for the extent of the conduction region and nose half-rise times as functions of the parameters of the problem are presented. (author)

  13. Spatial distribution and activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in lipid bilayer membranes with phase boundaries.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Tripta; Cornelius, Flemming; Brewer, Jonathan; Bagatolli, Luis A; Simonsen, Adam C; Ipsen, John H; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2016-06-01

    We have reconstituted functional Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) into giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) of well-defined binary and ternary lipid composition including cholesterol. The activity of the membrane system can be turned on and off by ATP. The hydrolytic activity of NKA is found to depend on membrane phase, and the water relaxation in the membrane on the presence of NKA. By collapsing and fixating the GUVs onto a solid support and using high-resolution atomic-force microscopy (AFM) imaging we determine the protein orientation and spatial distribution at the single-molecule level and find that NKA is preferentially located at lo/ld interfaces in two-phase GUVs and homogeneously distributed in single-phase GUVs. When turned active, the membrane is found to unbind from the support suggesting that the protein function leads to softening of the membrane. PMID:26994932

  14. Ozone and aerosol distributions measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to O3 and aerosol distributions measured from an aircraft using a DIAL system in order to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during summer 1988. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere.

  15. Parameterization of Joint Frequency Distributions of Potential Temperature and Water Vapor Mixing Ratio in the Daytime Convective Boundary Layer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Larry K.; Stull, Roland B.

    2004-04-01

    Joint frequency distributions (JFDs) of potential temperature (θ) versus water vapor mixing ratio (r) within the convective boundary layer were measured during a new field experiment named Boundary Layer Experiment 1996 (BLX96). These JFDs were found to be tilted, with the tilt a function of both height and boundary layer dynamics. These distributions are also skewed and more peaked than a joint Gaussian distribution.Three different methods are used to generate joint probability density functions (JPDFs) that approximate observed JFDs. Two classical methods, one based on a Gaussian fit and another based on surface-layer processes, are reviewed. A new method is devised, which treats the observed JFD as a mixing diagram. In the absence of advection, the only source regions for air in the mixing diagram are the surface and the entrainment zone. Thus, the tilt of the JFD can be explained by various mixtures from these two source regions. Methods that can be used to parameterize the mixing JPDF are presented. The primary advantage of this method is that the tilt is determined explicitly from properties of the surface, mixed layer, and entrainment zone.Similarity methods are used to parameterize all variables needed by the Gaussian model. The Bowen ratio and the total energy input are used to parameterize the tilt of the surface energy budget JPDF, while similarity methods are used to define the spread of the JPDF along the two axes. Relationships between the surface and mixed layer, and the mixed layer and free atmosphere are used to tilt the mixing diagram JPDF, while similarity methods are used to estimate the spread of the JPDF. The parameterizations are developed using a “calibration” subset of data acquired during BLX96. A “verification” subset of data, also acquired during BLX96, is used to show that the parameterized mixing diagram method is superior to the other two methods, because it has either a smaller error or is less sensitive to the value of the

  16. Setting boundaries: environmental and spatial effects on Odonata larvae distribution (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity. PMID:25806986

  17. Kinetic Alfven wave in the presence of kappa distribution function in plasma sheet boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, G. Ahirwar, G.; Shrivastava, J.

    2015-07-31

    The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven wave. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in the presence of kappa distribution function. Kinetic effect of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven wave because both are important in the transition region. It is found that the ratio β of electron thermal energy density to magnetic field energy density and the ratio of ion to electron thermal temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e}), and kappa distribution function affect the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in both cases(warm and cold electron limit).The treatment of kinetic Alfven wave instability is based on assumption that the plasma consist of resonant and non resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in an energy exchange process, whereas the non resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave.

  18. Spatial, seasonal and vertical distributions of currently-used pesticides in the marine boundary layer of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Carolin; Theobald, Norbert; Lammel, Gerhard; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich

    2013-08-01

    Pesticides are transported beyond source regions and reach coastal waters and shelf seas. 23 representatives of six chemical classes of currently-used pesticides (CUPs) were simultaneously quantified in the marine boundary layer and the surface seawater of the German Bight and the central North Sea in 2009 and 2010.Terbuthylazine, metolachlor, metazachlor, pendimethalin and trifluralin exhibited the highest concentrations, seasonally highly variable. Advection of contaminated air from land and subsequent atmospheric deposition was shown to contribute to surface seawater contamination significantly, in particular in regions beyond riverine input and during the main seasons of application in agriculture. Deposition was most significant for the seasonal and spatial distributions of pendimethalin and trifluralin. Atrazine and simazine levels in the air are lower than 1-2 decades ago.

  19. Complex Characters Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Sidney F. A.

    2009-01-01

    The physical significance of complex characters is explored with particular reference to the C[subscript 4] point group. While a diagrammatic representation of these characters in this group is possible, the extension to higher groups C[subscript n], n greater than 4 is left as a problem for discussion. (Contains 3 tables, 8 figures, and 1 note.)

  20. Character-Based Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jasper

    1996-01-01

    In the ethical arena, our society offers the choice of an ethics of emotion versus an ethics of rules, inadequate choices when compared to ethics based in strong moral character. Moral education and character development are basic elements of adventure and experiential education, and practitioners achieve excellence in practice only when they…

  1. Polymeric character of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.

    1982-10-01

    We have measured the internal friction spectrum of a number of coals through the range bituminous to anthracite. Damping peaks are seen which bear great similarity in position and height to those found for many polymers. This manifestation of polymer-like character adds to our understanding of the macromolecular character of the coal structure.

  2. Character in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, David

    2007-01-01

    Qualities of personal character would appear to play a significant role in the professional conduct of teachers. It is often said that we remember teachers as much for the kinds of people they were than for anything they may have taught us, and some kinds of professional expertise may best be understood as qualities of character. After (roughly)…

  3. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  4. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    PubMed

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  5. Width and extremal height distributions of fluctuating interfaces with window boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, I. S. S.; Oliveira, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of squared local roughness (SLRDs) and local extremal height distributions (LEHDs), calculated in windows of lateral size l , for interfaces in several universality classes, in substrate dimensions ds=1 and 2. We show that their cumulants follow a Family-Vicsek-type scaling, and, at early times, when ξ ≪l (ξ is the correlation length), the rescaled SLRDs are given by log-normal distributions, with their n th cumulant scaling as (ξ/l ) (n -1 ) ds. This gives rise to an interesting temporal scaling for such cumulants as [2 n +(n -1 ) ds/α >]wnc˜tγn , with γn=2 n β +(n -1 ) ds /z = β. This scaling is analytically proved for the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and random deposition interfaces and numerically confirmed for other classes. In general, it is featured by small corrections, and, thus, it yields exponents γn (and, consequently, α ,β and z ) in good agreement with their respective universality class. Thus, it is a useful framework for numerical and experimental investigations, where it is usually hard to estimate the dynamic z and mainly the (global) roughness α exponents. The stationary (for ξ ≫l ) SLRDs and LEHDs of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class are also investigated, and, for some models, strong finite-size corrections are found. However, we demonstrate that good evidence of their universality can be obtained through successive extrapolations of their cumulant ratios for long times and large l . We also show that SLRDs and LEHDs are the same for flat and curved KPZ interfaces.

  6. ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Baars, H.; Bange, J.; Lampert, A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturised by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space-saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time to less than 1.3 s. Each system was characterised in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated in this study with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 11 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs (ΔN). Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on 2 days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the

  7. Global distribution of minerals in arid soils as lower boundary condition in dust models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickovic, Slobodan

    2010-05-01

    Mineral dust eroded from arid soils affects the radiation budget of the Earth system, modifies ocean bioproductivity and influences human health. Dust aerosol is a complex mixture of minerals. Dust mineral composition has several potentially important impacts to environment and society. Iron and phosphorus embedded in mineral aerosol are essential for the primary marine productivity when dust deposits over the open ocean. Dust also acts as efficient agent for heterogeneous ice nucleation and this process is dependent on mineralogical structure of dust. Recent findings in medical geology indicate possible role of minerals to human health. In this study, a new 1-km global database was developed for several minerals (Illite, Kaolinite, Smectite, Calcite, Quartz, Feldspar, Hematite and Gypsum) embedded in clay and silt populations of arid soils. For the database generation, high-resolution data sets on soil textures, soil types and land cover was used. Tin addition to the selected minerals, phosphorus was also added whose geographical distribution was specified from compiled literature and data on soil types. The developed global database was used to specify sources of mineral fractions in the DREAM dust model and to simulate atmospheric paths of minerals and their potential impacts on marine biochemistry and tropospheric ice nucleation.

  8. Regional airflow and particle distribution in the lung with a 3D-1D coupled subject-specific boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiwoong; Yin, Youbing; Hoffman, Eric; Tawhai, Merryn; Lin, Ching-Long

    2010-11-01

    Correct prediction of regional distribution of inhaled aerosol particles is vital to improve pulmonary medicine. Physiologically consistent regional ventilations of airflow and aerosol particles are simulated with a 3D-1D coupled subject-specific boundary condition (BC). In 3D CT-resolved 7-generation airways, large eddy simulations are performed to capture detailed airflow characteristics and Lagrangian particle simulations are carried to track the particle transport and deposition. Results are compared with two traditional outlet BCs: uniform velocity and uniform pressure. Proposed BC is eligible for physiologically consistent airflow distribution in the lung, while the others are not. The regional ventilation and deposition of particles reflect the regional ventilation of airflow. In this study, two traditional BCs yield up to 98% (334%) over-prediction in lobar particle ventilation (deposition) fraction. Upper to lower particle ventilation ratios of both left and right lungs read ˜0.4 with the proposed BC, while those for the other two BCs vary with the error up to 73%.

  9. End-boundary sheath potential, electron and ion energy distribution in the low-pressure non-ambipolar electron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lee; Chen, Zhiying; Funk, Merritt

    2013-12-01

    The end-boundary floating-surface sheath potential, electron and ion energy distribution functions (EEDf, IEDf) in the low-pressure non-ambipolar electron plasma (NEP) are investigated. The NEP is heated by an electron beam extracted from an inductively coupled electron-source plasma (ICP) through a dielectric injector by an accelerator located inside the NEP. This plasma's EEDf has a Maxwellian bulk followed by a broad energy continuum connecting to the most energetic group with energies around the beam energy. The NEP pressure is 1-3 mTorr of N2 and the ICP pressure is 5-15 mTorr of Ar. The accelerator is biased positively from 80 to 600 V and the ICP power range is 200-300 W. The NEP EEDf and IEDf are determined using a retarding field energy analyser. The EEDf and IEDf are measured at various NEP pressures, ICP pressures and powers as a function of accelerator voltage. The accelerator current and sheath potential are also measured. The IEDf reveals mono-energetic ions with adjustable energy and it is proportionally controlled by the sheath potential. The NEP end-boundary floating surface is bombarded by a mono-energetic, space-charge-neutral plasma beam. When the injected energetic electron beam is adequately damped by the NEP, the sheath potential is linearly controlled at almost a 1 : 1 ratio by the accelerator voltage. If the NEP parameters cannot damp the electron beam sufficiently, leaving an excess amount of electron-beam power deposited on the floating surface, the sheath potential will collapse and become unresponsive to the accelerator voltage.

  10. ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Lampert, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Bange, J.; Baars, H.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN-situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturized by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time. Each system was characterized in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 6 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs. Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on two days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the boundary layer, derived from

  11. Character, mass, distribution, and origin of tephra-fall deposits of the 1989-1990 eruption of redoubt volcano, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.E.; McGimsey, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano spawned about 20 areally significant tephra-fall deposits between December 14, 1989 and April 26, 1990. Tephra plumes rose to altitudes of 7 to more than 10 km and were carried mainly northward and eastward by prevailing winds, where they substantially impacted air travel, commerce, and other activities. In comparison to notable eruptions of the recent past, the Redoubt events produced a modest amount of tephra-fall deposits - 6 ?? 107 to 5 ?? 1010 kg for individual events and a total volume (dense-rock equivalent) of about 3-5 ?? 107 m3 of andesite and dacite. Two contrasting tephra types were generated by these events. Pumiceous tephra-fall deposits of December 14 and 15 were followed on December 16 and all later events by fine-grained lithic-crystal tephra deposits, much of which fell as particle aggregates. The change in the character of the tephra-fall deposits reflects their fundamentally different modes of origin. The pumiceous deposits were produced by magmatically driven explosions. The finegrained lithic-crystal deposits were generated by two processes. Hydrovolcanic vent explosions generated tephrafall deposits of December 16 and 19. Such explosions continued as a tephra source, but apparently with diminishing importance, during events of January and February. Ash clouds of lithic pyroclastic flows generated by collapse of actively growing lava domes probably contributed to tephra-fall deposits of all events from January 2 to April 26, and were the sole source of tephra fall for at least the last 4 deposits. ?? 1994.

  12. Character Education in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Hanford D.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes how various teachers in public and parochial schools have used CRP (Character Research Project Curriculum) materials to insert positive character training into their particular class situations. (DS)

  13. Near-Surface Motion in the Nocturnal, Stable Boundary Layer Observed with Fibre-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeman, Matthias J.; Selker, John S.; Thomas, Christoph K.

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of cold air layers near the surface was investigated for a night with stable conditions near the surface. Spatial air temperature observations at 276 co-located vertical profiles were made using high-resolution fibre-optic based distributed temperature sensing (DTS) in a quasi three-dimensional geometry oriented along a shallow depression in the landscape and analysed for patterns in near-surface flow. Temperature stratification was observed to be interrupted by transient temperature structures on the scale of metres for which the flow direction and velocity could be quantified. The high spatial resolution and large spatial domain of the DTS revealed temperature structures in a level of detail that exceeded the capability of traditional point observations of air temperature at low wind speeds. Further, composition techniques were applied to describe wave-like motions in the opposite direction of the mean flow, at intervals of approximately 200 s (5 mHz). The DTS technique delivered tomography on a scale of tens of metres. The spatial observations at high spatial (fractions of a metre) and temporal (sec) resolution provided new opportunities for detection and quantification of surface-flow features and description of complicated scale interactions. High-resolution DTS is therefore a valuable addition to experimental research on stable and weak-wind boundary layers near the surface.

  14. Investigation of Character and Spatial Distribution of Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC Epilayers by High-Resolution Topography

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, I.; Nagano, M; Tsuchida, H; Chen, Y; Dudley, M

    2009-01-01

    Topography image variation of threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in 4H-SiC epilayers has been investigated by grazing incidence high-resolution synchrotron topography. Six different images of TEDs resulting from an angle between the diffraction vector and the TED Burgers vector were confirmed by correlation between experimental topography images and simulation results. The TED-type distribution, dependent on the direction of the TED Burger vector, was examined on epitaxial wafers, while the spatial distribution of TEDs on a whole 2 in wafer along [1 1 2 0] and [1 1 0 0] was investigated.

  15. Evaporation, Heat Transfer, and Velocity Distribution in Two-Dimensional and Rotationally Symmetrical Laminar Boundary-Layer Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froessling, Nils

    1958-01-01

    The fundamental boundary layer equations for the flow, temperature and concentration fields are presented. Two dimensional symmetrical and unsymmetrical and rotationally symmetrical steady boundary layer flows are treated as well as the transfer boundary layer. Approximation methods for the calculation of the transfer layer are discussed and a brief survey of an investigation into the validity of the law that the Nusselt number is proportional to the cube root of the Prandtl number is presented.

  16. Macromolecular character of amber

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.; Schlee, D.; Ledbetter, H.

    1989-03-15

    Measurements are reported of anelastic and dielectric loss of various ambers and copals. They show spectra typical of synthetic polymers. This similarity permits description of the macromolecular character of amber which was not possible from previous studies of chemical composition. Measurements on amber of several origins and geological ages show generally similar character, but also differences in detail. These may be caused by differences in chemistry of the original resin and the geological age and history of the amber, reflecting differences in degree of polymerization. Also reported are elastic constants measured at high frequency.

  17. Increasing the number of discrete character states for continuous characters generates well-resolved trees that do not reflect phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Bardin, Jérémie; Rouget, Isabelle; Yacobucci, Margaret Mary; Cecca, Fabrizio

    2014-08-01

    Since the introduction of the cladistic method in systematics, continuous characters have been integrated into analyses but no methods for their treatment have received unanimous support. Some methods require a large number of character states to discretise continuous characters in order to keep the maximum level of information about taxa differences within the coding scheme. Our objective was to assess the impact of increasing the character state number on the outcomes of phylogenetic analyses. Analysis of a variety of simulated datasets shows that these methods for coding continuous characters can lead to the generation of well-resolved trees that do not reflect a phylogenetic signal. We call this phenomenon the flattening of the tree-length distribution; it is influenced by both the relative quantity of continuous characters in relation to discrete characters, and the number of characters in relation to the number of taxa. Bootstrap tests provide a method to avoid this potential bias. PMID:24148350

  18. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  19. Character Education Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duer, Marg; Parisi, Adam; Valintis, Mark

    An action research project developed a program for implementing character education to improve behavior, particularly as related to respect and responsibility and to reduce inappropriate behavioral choices. Targeted population consisted of junior high and high school students at three sites in a community located in a Midwestern suburban…

  20. Promoting Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    In many school districts, teachers of all subjects are asked to incorporate teaching values. In trying to incorporate Character Education into the art classroom, this teacher chose three areas to work with: art history, art production, and classroom procedures. These three areas are described in this article.

  1. Character and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    2004-01-01

    The American way of life rests on a foundation of rational thought and civil behavior. Simply put, the strength of America depends on its culture--the set of beliefs, values, and behavioral norms to which most citizens adhere. Most educators have always viewed schooling for character and citizenship as a fundamental purpose of public education.…

  2. Kids with Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Tamsen J.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this paper, a primary educator at Jack Jackter Elementary School in Colchester, Connecticut, describes several activities teachers can use to enhance character development lessons and help put children on track for becoming problem-solving citizens both in school and in society.

  3. Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  4. Investigations into Character Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartoonian, H. Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents six different investigations of character enhancement that attempts to answer three questions: (1) who are you; (2) what is your destination; and (3) who is your captain? Intends to build relationships among ideas such as perspective taking, seeing and making connections with the other, and understanding more about ethical development.…

  5. Analytical model for temperature distribution of an end diode-pumped laser slab with Robin boundary conditions by Green’s function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghtader Dindarlu, M. H.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.; Saghafifar, H.; Maleki, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an analytical model is introduced for temperature distribution of an end diode-pumped laser slab by Green’s function method. To solve the heat equation, Robin boundary conditions are considered because four lateral faces of the slab are cooled by water. An analytical model is extracted for single and dual end-pumping configuration. For an example, the 2D and 3D temperature distributions are plotted and our analytical model is validated by numerical solution based on the finite element method (FEM). The results show that our model has very good agreement with numerical solution. Furthermore, dependence of the temperature distribution on absorbed pump power is shown.

  6. Characteristics of turbulence in boundary layer with zero pressure gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebanoff, P S

    1955-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.

  7. Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the Moon seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1.

    PubMed

    Pieters, C M; Goswami, J N; Clark, R N; Annadurai, M; Boardman, J; Buratti, B; Combe, J-P; Dyar, M D; Green, R; Head, J W; Hibbitts, C; Hicks, M; Isaacson, P; Klima, R; Kramer, G; Kumar, S; Livo, E; Lundeen, S; Malaret, E; McCord, T; Mustard, J; Nettles, J; Petro, N; Runyon, C; Staid, M; Sunshine, J; Taylor, L A; Tompkins, S; Varanasi, P

    2009-10-23

    The search for water on the surface of the anhydrous Moon had remained an unfulfilled quest for 40 years. However, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1 has recently detected absorption features near 2.8 to 3.0 micrometers on the surface of the Moon. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. On the Moon, the feature is seen as a widely distributed absorption that appears strongest at cooler high latitudes and at several fresh feldspathic craters. The general lack of correlation of this feature in sunlit M3 data with neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data suggests that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water are ongoing surficial processes. Hydroxyl/water production processes may feed polar cold traps and make the lunar regolith a candidate source of volatiles for human exploration. PMID:19779151

  8. Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the moon seen by M3 on chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Goswami, J.N.; Clark, R.N.; Annadurai, M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Combe, J.-P.; Dyar, M.D.; Green, R.; Head, J.W.; Hibbitts, C.; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, S.; Livo, E.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.A.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-01-01

    The search for water on the surface of the anhydrous Moon had remained an unfulfilled quest for 40 years. However, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) on Chandrayaan-1 has recently detected absorption features near 2.8 to 3.0 micrometers on the surface of the Moon. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. On the Moon, the feature is seen as a widely distributed absorption that appears strongest at cooler high latitudes and at several fresh feldspathic craters. The general lack of correlation of this feature in sunlit M3 data with neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data suggests that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water are ongoing surficial processes. Hydroxyl/water production processes may feed polar cold traps and make the lunar regolith a candidate source of volatiles for human exploration.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of distributed suction on oblique shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benhachmi, Driss; Greber, Isaac; Hingst, Warren R.

    1988-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study of the interaction of an incident oblique shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer on a rough plate and on a porous plate with suction is presented. The experimental phase involved the acquisition of mean data upstream of, within, and downstream of the interaction region at Mach numbers 2.5 and 3.0. Data were taken at unit Reynolds numbers of 1.66 E7 and 1.85 E7 m respectively, and for flow deflection angles of 0, 4, 6 and 8 degs. Measured data include wall static pressure, pitot pressure profiles, and local bleed distributions on the porous plate. On the rough plate, with no suction, the boundary layer profiles were modified near the wall, but not separated for the 4 deg flow deflection angle. For the higher deflection angles of 6 and 8 degs, the boundary layer was separated. Suction increases the strength of the incident shock required to separate the turbulent boundary layer; for all shock strengths tested, separation is completely eliminated. The pitot pressure profiles are affected throughout the whole boundary layer; they are fuller than the ones obtained on the rough plate. It is also found that the combination of suction and roughness introduces spatial perturbations.

  10. Plume Capture by Divergent Plate Motions: Implications for the Distribution of Hotspots, Geochemistry of Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts, and Heat Flux from the Core-Mantle Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellinek, A. M.; Richards, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    The coexistence of mantle plumes with plate-scale flow is problematic in geodynamics. Significant problems include the fixity of hotspots with respect to plate motions, the spatial distribution and duration of hotspots, the geophysical and geochemical signatures of plume-ridge interactions, and the relation between mantle plumes and heat flux across the core-mantle boundary. We present results from laboratory experiments aimed at understanding the effects of an imposed large-scale circulation on thermal convection at high Rayleigh number (up to 109) in a fluid with a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. In a large tank, a layer of corn syrup is heated from below while being stirred by large-scale flow due to the opposing motions of a pair of conveyor belts immersed in the syrup at the top of the tank. Three regimes are observed, depending on the velocity ratio V of the imposed horizontal flow velocity to the rise velocity of plumes ascending from the hot boundary. When V<<1, large scale circulation has a negligible effect and convective upwelling occurs as randomly-spaced axisymmetric plumes that interact with one another. When V>10, plume instabilities are suppressed entirely and the heat flux from the hot lower boundary is carried by a central sheet-like upwelling. At intermediate V, ascending plumes are advected along the bottom boundary layer, and the heat flux from the boundary is found to scale (according to a simple boundary layer theory) with V and the ratio of the viscosity of cold fluid above the thermal boundary layer to the viscosity of the hottest fluid in contact with the bottom boundary. For large viscosity ratios (10-100), only about 1/5th or less of the total heat flux from the hot boundary layer is carried by plume instabilities, even for modest imposed horizontal flow velocities (V of order 1). When applied to Earth, our results suggest that plate-scale flow focuses ascending mantle plumes toward mid-ocean ridges, and that plumes may be

  11. Field-induced phase transition and relaxor character in submicrometer-structured lead-free (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 piezoceramics at the morphotropic phase boundary.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Lorena; Mercadelli, Elisa; García, Alvaro; Brebøl, Klaus; Galassi, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    Submicrometer-structured (Bi(0.5)Na(0.5))(0.94)Ba(0.06)TiO(3) ceramics ((G) < 720 nm) from nanopowders were studied. The real part of the optimum room temperature set of piezoelectric coefficients obtained from resonances of the BNBT6 dense ceramic disks and shear plates [d(31) = (-37 + 1.33i) pC·N(-1), d(15) = (158.3 - 8.31i) pC·N(-1), k(t) = 40.4%, k(p) = 26.8%, and k(15) = 40.2%] and d(33) (148 pC·N(-1)) can be compared with the reported properties for coarse-grained ceramics. Shear resonance of thickness-poled plates is observed at T = 140°C. Permittivity versus temperature curves of poled samples show relaxor character up to T(i) = 230°C on heating and T(i) = 210°C on cooling of the depoled samples. The phase transition from the room-temperature ferroelectric (FE) to a low-temperature non-polar at zero field (LTNPZF) phase can be observed as a sharp jump in ε(δ)(33)'(T) curves or, as the degree of poling decreases, as a soft change of slope of the curves at T(FE-LTNPZF) = T(d) = 100°C. This dielectric anomaly is not observed on cooling of depoled samples, because the FE phase is field-induced. The observed macroscopic piezoelectric activity above T(d) is a consequence of the coexistence of nanoregions of the FE phase in the interval between T(FE-LTNPZF) and T(i). PMID:21937323

  12. The influence of low-strain thermo-mechanical processing on grain boundary network characteristics in type 304 austenitic stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Engelberg, D L; Humphreys, F J; Marrow, T J

    2008-06-01

    Grain boundary engineering of austenitic stainless steel, through the introduction of plastic strain and thermal annealing, can be used to develop microstructures with improved resistance to inter-granular degradation. The influence of low-strain thermo-mechanical processing on grain boundary network development, with systematic variations of annealing treatments, has been investigated. Three stages of the microstructure development during grain boundary engineering in low-strain processing conditions are identified, and correlated with changes in grain boundary character and deviation distributions. Low-energy connected length segments at triple junctions, which have been proposed to be responsible for crack bridging during inter-granular stress corrosion cracking, can be influenced by the choice of the annealing treatment parameters. The development of individual grain boundary length segments of different character showed consistent trends with increasing grain size. Crack length predictions are consistent with the beneficial effect of designing microstructures with high fractions of twin grain boundaries and smaller grain size. PMID:18503670

  13. Public domain optical character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garris, Michael D.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Dimmick, Darrin L.; Geist, Jon C.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1995-03-01

    A public domain document processing system has been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The system is a standard reference form-based handprint recognition system for evaluating optical character recognition (OCR), and it is intended to provide a baseline of performance on an open application. The system's source code, training data, performance assessment tools, and type of forms processed are all publicly available. The system recognizes the handprint entered on handwriting sample forms like the ones distributed with NIST Special Database 1. From these forms, the system reads hand-printed numeric fields, upper and lowercase alphabetic fields, and unconstrained text paragraphs comprised of words from a limited-size dictionary. The modular design of the system makes it useful for component evaluation and comparison, training and testing set validation, and multiple system voting schemes. The system contains a number of significant contributions to OCR technology, including an optimized probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifier that operates a factor of 20 times faster than traditional software implementations of the algorithm. The source code for the recognition system is written in C and is organized into 11 libraries. In all, there are approximately 19,000 lines of code supporting more than 550 subroutines. Source code is provided for form registration, form removal, field isolation, field segmentation, character normalization, feature extraction, character classification, and dictionary-based postprocessing. The recognition system has been successfully compiled and tested on a host of UNIX workstations. This paper gives an overview of the recognition system's software architecture, including descriptions of the various system components along with timing and accuracy statistics.

  14. Character, mass, distribution, and origin of tephra-fall deposits from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska—Highlighting the significance of particle aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kristi L.; Schaefer, Janet R.; Coombs, Michelle L.

    2013-06-01

    The 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano included 20 tephra-producing explosions between March 15, 2009 and April 4, 2009 (UTC). Next-Generation radar (NEXRAD) data show that plumes reached heights between 4.6 km and 19 km asl and were distributed downwind along nearly all azimuths of the volcano. Explosions lasted between < 1 and 31 min based on the signal duration at a distal seismic station (86 km). From Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and field data, we estimate that over 80,000 km2 received at least minor ash fall (> 0.8 mm thick), including communities along the Kenai Peninsula (80-100 km) and the city of Anchorage (170 km). Trace ash (< 0.8 mm) was reported as far as Fairbanks, 550 km NNE of the volcano. We estimate the total mass of tephra-fall deposits at 54.6 × 109 kg with a total DRE volume of 20.6 × 106 m3. On March 15, a small (4.6 km asl) phreatic explosion containing minor, non-juvenile ash, erupted through the summit ice cap. The first five magmatic explosions (events 1-5) occurred within a 6-hour period on March 23. Plumes rose to heights between 5.5 km and 14.9 km asl during 2- to 20-minute-duration explosions, and were dispersed mainly along a NNE trajectory. Trace ash fall was reported as far as Fairbanks. Owing to a shift in wind direction and heavy snowfall during these events, field discrimination among many of these layers was possible. All deposits comprise a volumetrically significant amount of particle aggregates, yet only event 5 deposits contain coarse clasts including glacier ice. The most voluminous tephra fall was deposited on March 24 (event 6) from a 15 minute explosion that sent a plume to 18.3 km asl, and dispersed tephra to the WNW. Within 10 km of the vent, this deposit contains 1-11 cm pumice clasts in a matrix of 1-2 mm aggregate lapilli. A small dome was presumably emplaced between March 23 and March 26 and was subsequently destroyed during 1-14 minute magmatic explosions of events 7-8 (March 26

  15. The Use of Source-Sink and Doublet Distributions Extended to the Solution of Boundary-Value Problems in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard

    1948-01-01

    A direct analogy is established between the use of source-sink and doublet distributions in the solution of specific boundary-value problems in subsonic wing theory and the corresponding problems in supersonic theory. The correct concept of the "finite part" of an integral is introduced and used in the calculation of the improper integrals associated with supersonic doublet distributions. The general equations developed are shown to include several previously published results and particular examples are given for the loading on rolling and pitching triangular wings with supersonic leading edges.

  16. Research on Russian National Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Zhuo

    2008-01-01

    The special geographical location Russia lies in creates the unique character of the Russian nation. Based on the dual nature of the Russian national character, the Russian geographical environment and the analysis of its social structure, this text tries to explore the reasons of the dual nature of Russian national character.

  17. Characters as Guides to Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roser, Nancy; Martinez, Miriam; Fuhrken, Charles; McDonnold, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Characters in children's books can help to guide readers through stories, contributing to deepened understandings of plot and themes. The authors discuss why characters become vivid and lasting in readers' minds, the ways in which students are often asked to think about characters in classroom literature study, and how students' understanding of…

  18. Bring Character Education into Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboola, Alex; Tsai, Kaun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Character education is a growing discipline with the deliberate attempt to optimize students' ethical behavior. The outcome of character education has always been encouraging, solidly, and continually preparing the leaders of tomorrow. The promotion of character education should not just a leap service but has an action plan for practice. In order…

  19. Character Education in China Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yali

    2005-01-01

    Character education has been a hot topic in the past decade in American public schools. Although many states and schools have initiated character education programs, politicians, educators, social workers, and the public are still arguing whether character education should be conducted in schools and how it should be conducted. China, as a country…

  20. Unipolar distributions of junctional Myosin II identify cell stripe boundaries that drive cell intercalation throughout Drosophila axis extension

    PubMed Central

    Tetley, Robert J; Blanchard, Guy B; Fletcher, Alexander G; Adams, Richard J; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Convergence and extension movements elongate tissues during development. Drosophila germ-band extension (GBE) is one example, which requires active cell rearrangements driven by Myosin II planar polarisation. Here, we develop novel computational methods to analyse the spatiotemporal dynamics of Myosin II during GBE, at the scale of the tissue. We show that initial Myosin II bipolar cell polarization gives way to unipolar enrichment at parasegmental boundaries and two further boundaries within each parasegment, concomitant with a doubling of cell number as the tissue elongates. These boundaries are the primary sites of cell intercalation, behaving as mechanical barriers and providing a mechanism for how cells remain ordered during GBE. Enrichment at parasegment boundaries during GBE is independent of Wingless signaling, suggesting pair-rule gene control. Our results are consistent with recent work showing that a combinatorial code of Toll-like receptors downstream of pair-rule genes contributes to Myosin II polarization via local cell-cell interactions. We propose an updated cell-cell interaction model for Myosin II polarization that we tested in a vertex-based simulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12094.001 PMID:27183005

  1. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ISOPRENE IN THE LOWER BOUNDARY LAYER OF THE RURAL AND URBAN SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis is presented of vertical profiles of isoprene concentration and meteorological parameters measured in the boundary layer (BL) during the daylight hours at a rural site in Alabama and an urban site in Atlanta, Georgia, during the summer of 1990, as part of the Southern...

  2. The Choice of Traditional vs. Simplified Characters in US Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Shi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Which form of Chinese characters should be taught in Chinese language classes: traditional or simplified? The results of a questionnaire distributed to sections at the University of Florida show the reasons for students' preferences for one or the other form. In view of the students' awareness that traditional characters are more beneficial to…

  3. Characterisation of Cr, Si and P distribution at dislocations and grain-boundaries in neutron irradiated Fe-Cr model alloys of low purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksenko, V.; Pareige, C.; Genevois, C.; Pareige, P.

    2013-03-01

    Segregations at some dislocations and grain boundaries in Fe-5%Cr, Fe-9%Cr and Fe-12%Cr model alloys of low purity after neutron irradiation at 300 °C up to 0.6 dpa have been analyzed with atom probe tomography. All dislocation lines and low- and high-angle grain boundaries (GBs) which have been observed were enriched with Cr, Si and P. The segregations reveal the different dislocation structures associated to different type of analysed GBs. Cr and Si atoms were found to be nonhomogenously distributed around the dislocation cores because of the non isotropic stress field induced by edge dislocation lines. Concerning GBs, precipitate free zones (PFZs) are exhibited around the planar defects which were analysed in Fe-9%Cr and Fe-12%Cr model alloys. These PFZ are size dependant with the nominal level of Cr.

  4. Shaping species with ephemeral boundaries: The distribution and genetic structure of desert tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) in the Sonoran Desert region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Taylor; Vaughn, Mercy; Rosen, Philip C.; Torres, Ma. Cristina Melendez; Karl, Alice E.; Culver, Melanie; Murphy, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The historically shifting ecotone between tropical deciduous forest and Sonoran desertscrub appears to be a boundary that fostered divergence between parapatric lineages of tortoises. The sharp genetic cline between the two lineages suggests that periods of isolation in temporary refugia due to Pleistocene climatic cycling influenced divergence. Despite incomplete reproductive isolation, the Sonoran and Sinaloan lineages of G. morafkai are on separate evolutionary trajectories.

  5. Biases of tree-independent-character-subsampling methods.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Mark P; Gatesy, John

    2016-07-01

    Observed Variability (OV) and Tree Independent Generation of Evolutionary Rates (TIGER) are quick and easy-to-apply tree-independent methods that have been proposed to provide unbiased estimates of each character's rate of evolution and serve as the basis for excluding rapidly evolving characters. Both methods have been applied to multiple phylogenomic datasets, and in many cases the authors considered their trees inferred from the OV- and TIGER-delimited sub-matrices to be better estimates of the phylogeny than their trees based on all characters. In this study we use four sets of simulations and an empirical phylogenomic example to demonstrate that both methods share a systematic bias against characters with more symmetric distributions of character states, against characters with greater observed character-state space, and against large clades in the context of character conflict. As a result these methods can favor convergences and reversals over synapomorphy, exacerbate long-branch attraction, and produce mutually exclusive phylogenetic inferences that are dependent upon differential taxon sampling. We assert that neither OV nor TIGER should be relied upon to increase the ratio of phylogenetic to non-phylogenetic signal in a data matrix. We also assert that skepticism is warranted for empirical phylogenetic results that are based on OV- and/or TIGER-based character deletion wherein a small clade is supported after deletion of characters, yet is contradicted by a larger clade when the entire data matrix was analyzed. PMID:27103257

  6. Fluid distribution in grain boundaries of natural fine-grained rock salt deformed at low shear stress: implications for rheology and transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.; De Bresser, J. H. P.

    2012-04-01

    We used a combination of broad ion beam (BIB) cross-sectioning and high resolution (cryogenic) SEM to image polished surfaces and corresponding pairs of fractured grain boundaries in an investigation of grain boundary (GB) microstructures and fluid distribution in naturally deformed halite from a salt glacier (Kum Quh, central Iran). At the scale of observations, four types of fluid or gas filled grain boundaries can be distinguished: (1) straight boundaries with thick (up to 10 µm) GB tubes (2) straight boundaries with narrow (about 50 nm) GB tubes (3) wavy (tens of µm wavelength) GB with isolated inclusions of a few µm, and (4) wavy (µm wavelength) GB with small (µm) isolated inclusions. Grain boundary fluid inclusions can have three types of morphologies: the inclusion of Type 1 is intruded completely in one grain, inclusion of Type 2 has its major part included in one grain with a minor part in the second grain and the inclusion of Type 3 is located in both grains. Solid second phases in GB are mainly euhedral anhydrite crystals. The mobility of the brine is shown after cutting the inclusions by BIB in vacuum and fine-grained halite forms efflorescence and precipitates on internal walls of inclusions. At cryogenic temperature, in-situ brine is seen as continuous film in GB of type (1) and (2), and in isolated inclusions in GB of type (3) and (4). The structure of halite-halite contact between isolated fluid inclusions in GB of type (3) and (4) is below the resolution of SEM. GB of type (3) and (4) are interpreted to have formed by healing of mobile fluid films. First results of deformation experiments on the same samples under shear stress corresponding to conditions of natural salt glacier, show very low strain rates (7.43x10-10 s-1 and 1x10-9 s-1), up to one order of magnitude below of expected strain rates by solution precipitation creep. Both microstructures and deformation experiments suggest interfacial energy-driven GB healing, in agreement with the

  7. Arctic low-level boundary layer clouds: in-situ measurements and simulations of mono- and bimodal supercooled droplet size distributions at the cloud top layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingebiel, M.; de Lozar, A.; Molleker, S.; Weigel, R.; Roth, A.; Schmidt, L.; Meyer, J.; Ehrlich, A.; Neuber, R.; Wendisch, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-06-01

    Aircraft borne optical in-situ size distribution measurements were performed within Arctic boundary layer clouds, with a special emphasis on the cloud top layer, during the VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Clouds (VERDI) campaign. The observations were carried out within a joint research activity of seven German institutes to investigate Arctic boundary layer-, mixed-phase clouds in April and May 2012. An instrumented Basler BT-67 research aircraft operated out of Inuvik over the Mackenzie River delta and the Beaufort Sea in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Besides the cloud particle and hydrometeor size spectrometers the aircraft was equipped with instrumentation for aerosol, radiation and other parameters. Inside the cloud, droplet size distributions with monomodal shapes were observed for predominantly liquid-phase Arctic stratocumulus. With increasing altitude inside the cloud the droplet mean diameters grew from 10 μm to 20 μm. In the upper transition zone (i.e. adjacent to the cloud-free air aloft) changes from monomodal to bimodal droplet size distributions were observed. It is shown that droplets of both modes co-exist in the same (small) air volume and the bimodal shape of the measured size distributions cannot be explained as an observational artifact caused by accumulating two droplet populations from different air volumes. The formation of a second size mode can be explained by (a) entrainment and activation/condensation of fresh aerosol particles, or (b) by differential evaporation processes occurring with cloud droplets engulfed in different eddies. Activation of entrained particles seemed a viable possibility as a layer of dry Arctic enhanced background aerosol was detected directly above the stratus cloud might form a second mode of small cloud droplets. However, theoretical considerations and a model simulation revealed that, instead, turbulent mixing and evaporation of larger droplets most likely are the main reasons for the formation

  8. Internalization of Character Traits by Those Who Teach Character Counts!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Kristyn; Fritz, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Cooperative extension personnel (n=53) completed a Web-based survey analyzing the impact of the Character Counts! program on extension, their personal lives, and society. Results demonstrated that extension educators and assistants were more likely to make ethical decisions as a result of teaching Character Counts! The need for increased…

  9. Cartographic Character Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafal, Howard B.; Ward, Matthew O.

    1989-11-01

    This work details a methodology for recognizing text elements on cartographic documents. Cartographic Character Recognition differs from traditional OCR in that many fonts may occur on the same page, text may have any orientation, text may follow a curved path, and text may be interfered with by graphics. The technique presented reduces the process to three steps: blobbing, stringing, and recognition. Blobbing uses image processing techniques to turn the gray level image into a binary image and then separates the image into probable graphic elements and probable text elements. Stringing relates the text elements into words. This is done by using proximity information of the letters to create string contours. These contours also help to retrieve orientation information of the text element. Recognition takes the strings and associates a letter with each blob. The letters are first approximated using feature descriptions, resulting in a set of possible letters. Orientation information is then used to refine the guesses. Final recognition is performed using elastic matching Feedback is employed at all phases of execution to refine the processing. Stringing and recognition give information that is useful in finding hidden blobs. Recognition helps make decisions about string paths. Results of this work are shown.

  10. Mosquito-Producing Containers, Spatial Distribution, and Relationship between Aedes aegypti Population Indices on the Southern Boundary of its Distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay)

    PubMed Central

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M.; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated. PMID:23128295

  11. An advanced process-based distributed model for the investigation of rainfall-induced landslides: The effect of process representation and boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, Grigorios G.; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Extreme rainfall events are the major driver of shallow landslide occurrences in mountainous and steep terrain regions around the world. Subsurface hydrology has a dominant role on the initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides, since changes in the soil water content affect significantly the soil shear strength. Rainfall infiltration produces an increase of soil water potential, which is followed by a rapid drop in apparent cohesion. Especially on steep slopes of shallow soils, this loss of shear strength can lead to failure even in unsaturated conditions before positive water pressures are developed. We present HYDROlisthisis, a process-based model, fully distributed in space with fine time resolution, in order to investigate the interactions between surface and subsurface hydrology and shallow landslides initiation. Fundamental elements of the approach are the dependence of shear strength on the three-dimensional (3-D) field of soil water potential, as well as the temporal evolution of soil water potential during the wetting and drying phases. Specifically, 3-D variably saturated flow conditions, including soil hydraulic hysteresis and preferential flow phenomena, are simulated for the subsurface flow, coupled with a surface runoff routine based on the kinematic wave approximation. The geotechnical component of the model is based on a multidimensional limit equilibrium analysis, which takes into account the basic principles of unsaturated soil mechanics. A series of numerical simulations were carried out with various boundary conditions and using different hydrological and geotechnical components. Boundary conditions in terms of distributed soil depth were generated using both empirical and process-based models. The effect of including preferential flow and soil hydraulic hysteresis was tested together with the replacement of the infinite slope assumption with the multidimensional limit equilibrium analysis. The results show that boundary conditions play

  12. Impact of Ship Emissions on Marine Boundary Layer NO(x) and SO2 Distributions over the Pacific Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. D.; Grodzinsky, G.; Kasibhatla, P.; Crawford, J.; Chen, G.; Liu, S.; Bandy, A.; Thornton, D.; Guan, H.; Sandholm, S.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of ship emissions on marine boundary layer (MBL) NO(x) and SO2 levels over the Pacific Ocean has been explored by comparing predictions (with and without ships) from a global chemical transport model (GCTM) against compiled airborne observations of MBL NO(x) and SO2. For latitudes above 15 N, which define that part of the Pacific having the heaviest shipping, this analysis revealed significant model over prediction for NOx and a modest under prediction for SO2 when ship emissions were considered. Possible reasons for the difference in NO(x) and SO2 were explored using a full-chemistry box model. These results revealed that for an actual plume setting the NO(x) lifetime could be greatly shortened by chemical processes promoted by ship plume emissions themselves. Similar chemical behavior was not found for SO2.

  13. Character Education: Frill or Foundation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Merle J.; Beatty, Alexandra; Dachnowicz, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Proof of academic performance often serves as the litmus test for maintaining instructional practices and programs. Just as the national focus on academic improvement has gained momentum, so too has another movement calling for character education. Educators find themselves caught in the middle, questioning whether character education is just…

  14. Character Education: Christian Education Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Gretchen M.; Firmin, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Character is defined broadly by leading authorities, including concepts such as practicing apt behavior and teaching right from wrong. Virtue and moral undertones tend to pervade most experts' use of character, although in secular settings, the notion of ethics is more prominent. Overall, developing in students a desire for the good is how most…

  15. Evidence of sealing and brine distribution at grain boundaries in natural fine-grained Halite (Qum Kuh salt fountain, Central Iran): implications for rheology of salt extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos L.; de Bresser, J. H. P.

    2010-05-01

    When grain boundary movement is stopped, surface energy related forces reassert themselves driving the system to its equilibrium conditions ([2], [6], [7], [8]). This could result in growth of islands and shrinking of channels and hence in healing the boundary by internal redistribution of fluid and solid in the contact region. Such islands are proposed to grow preferentially close to the contact rim and promote the healing of the grain-grain contact, which in turn prevents transport in or out the boundary region and thus traps the fluids in isolated inclusions. This contribution is focused on observation of grain boundary microstructures in natural mylonitic rocksalt collected from the distal part of Kum-Quh salt fountain (central Iran) in order to give unprecedented insight of grain boundary microstructures using argon-beam cross-sectioning to prepare high quality polished surfaces suitable for high-resolution SEM imaging. The possibility to use our SEM under cryogenic conditions allows also imaging the in-situ distribution of fluids. Results show that brine at grain boundaries occurs as thick layers (> µm in scale) corresponding to cross-sectioned wetted triple junction tubes, as filling at triple junction and as array of isolated fluids inclusions at grain-grain contacts. Close observations at islands contacts suggest the presence of a very thin fluid film (<100 nm). The most remarkable is evidence for sealing of pore space appearing as subhedral crystals filling the void space and decoupled from surrounding crystals by a thin brine layer. In parallel to this microstructural study, we deformed the same samples in order to simulate the simple shear flow at very low mean stress as in the salt fountain. First results suggest a complicated rheology. Samples loaded at σ < 0.7 MPa show no measurable deformation in a month, indicating strain rates less than 10-12 s-1 though, in fully activated pressure-solution (PS) creep, strain rates of several orders of magnitude

  16. Recovering Grain-Boundary Inclination Parameters through Oblique Double Sectioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homer, E. R.; Adams, B. L.; Wagoner, R. H.

    2007-07-01

    A method for the retrieval of grain-boundary inclination parameters of the grain-boundary character distribution (GBCD) by oblique double sectioning (ODS) is proposed. In this hybrid approach, grain-boundary inclination parameters are directly measured by double sectioning, while a statistically reliable sampling of the microstructure is achieved by oblique sectioning. The solution to the fundamental equations is posed in a manner similar to the recovery of the orientation distributions from sets of incomplete pole figures, using classical Fourier representations of the distribution functions. The ODS is validated by and compared to the L A /S V stereology through simulations and experimental implementation in a sample of 439 stainless steel. Simulations show that the grain-boundary normal distributions recovered by ODS and stereology are comparable, giving errors on the order of 10-2. Experimental implementation of ODS and the L A /S V stereology in alloy 439 stainless steel demonstrate additional practical limitations of the ODS methodology when applied to materials of large or uneven grain size.

  17. [The Durkheim Test. Remarks on Susan Leigh Star's Boundary Objects].

    PubMed

    Gießmann, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The article reconstructs Susan Leigh Star's conceptual work on the notion of 'boundary objects'. It traces the emergence of the concept, beginning with her PhD thesis and its publication as Regions of the Mind in 1989. 'Boundary objects' attempt to represent the distributed, multifold nature of scientific work and its mediations between different 'social worlds'. Being addressed to several 'communities of practice', the term responded to questions from Distributed Artificial Intelligence in Computer Science, Workplace Studies and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), and microhistorical approaches inside the growing Science and Technology Studies. Yet the interdisciplinary character and interpretive flexibility of Star’s invention has rarely been noticed as a conceptual tool for media theory. I therefore propose to reconsider Star's 'Durkheim test' for sociotechnical media practices. PMID:26333789

  18. Distribution and mechanism of Neogene to present-day vertical axis rotations, Pacific-Australian Plate Boundary Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    1997-01-01

    Remarkably little knowledge exists about mechanisms of vertical axis rotation in continental crust. Steeply dipping basement rocks in South Island, New Zealand, provide an opportunity to map the distribution of rotations across the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone, and to delineate boundaries of rotated blocks in unusual detail. We synthesize new structural data with new and existing paleomagnetic data, with geodetic data, and with patterns of Neogene-Quaternary faulting in the strike-slip Marlborough fault system. For the past 20 m.y., vertical axis rotations have been hinged about two crustal-scale boundaries near the east coast. The NE hinge accommodated ˜50° of early-middle Miocene clockwise rotation, which caused deformation of the eastern ends of the Alpine-Wairau and Clarence strike-slip faults. The SW hinge has accommodated a further 30°-50° of finite clockwise rotation since ˜4 Ma and deflects active fault traces. The locus of rotation has shifted southwestward astride a subduction margin that is lengthening in that direction. Rotating rocks are pinned to the south against a locked collision zone where the continental Chatham Rise impinges against the margin. Slip on inland strike-slip faults is transformed seaward across a zone of fault termination into rigid body rotation of a large continental block that has been thrust eastward over the downgoing subducted slab of the Pacific plate. The rotation mechanism is a "migrating hinge," which resembles a flexed telephone book. Strike-slip faults are translated through a brecciated hinge region that does not coincide with a fixed material line in the rock.

  19. Boundary Crossing and Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sanne F.; Bakker, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and mobility in education and work present a paramount challenge that needs better conceptualization in educational theory. This challenge has been addressed by educational scholars with the notion of "boundaries", particularly by the concepts of "boundary crossing" and "boundary objects". Although studies on boundary crossing and…

  20. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messiter, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived which incorporate additional physical effects as higher order terms for the case when the sonic line is very close to the wall. The functional form used for the undisturbed velocity profile is described to indicate how various parameters will be calculated for later comparison with experiment. The basic solutions for the pressure distribution are derived. Corrections are added for flow along a wall having longitudinal curvature and for flow in a circular pipe, and comparisons with available experimental data are shown.

  1. Modeled Temperatures and Fluid Source Distributions for the Mexico Subduction Zone: Effects of Hydrothermal Cooling and Implications for Plate Boundary Seismic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M. R.; Spinelli, G. A.; Wada, I.

    2014-12-01

    In subduction zones, spatial variations in pore fluid pressure are hypothesized to control the distribution and nature of slip behavior (e.g., "normal" earthquakes, slow slip events, non-volcanic tremor, very low frequency earthquakes) on the plate boundary fault. A primary control on the pore fluid pressure distribution in subduction zones is the distribution of fluid release from hydrous minerals in the subducting sediment and rock. The distributions of these diagenetic and metamorphic fluid sources are controlled by the pressure-temperature paths that the subducting material follows. Thus, constraining subduction zone thermal structure is required to inform conceptual models of seismic behavior. Here, we present results of thermal models for the Mexico subduction zone, a system that has received recent attention due to observations of slow-slip events and non-volcanic tremor. We model temperatures in five margin-perpendicular transects from 96 ˚W to 104 ˚W. In each transect, we examine the potential thermal effects of vigorous fluid circulation in a high permeability aquifer within the basaltic basement of the oceanic crust. In the transect at 100˚W, hydrothermal circulation cools the subducting material by up to 140 ˚C, shifting peak slab dehydration landward by ~100 km relative to previous estimates from models that do not include the effects of fluid circulation. The age of the subducting plate in the trench increases from ~3 Ma at 104 ˚W to ~18 Ma at 96 ˚W; hydrothermal circulation redistributes the most heat (and cools the system the most) where the subducting plate is youngest. For systems with <20 Ma subducting lithosphere, hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust should be considered in estimating subduction zone temperatures and fluid source distributions.

  2. Arctic low-level boundary layer clouds: in situ measurements and simulations of mono- and bimodal supercooled droplet size distributions at the top layer of liquid phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingebiel, M.; de Lozar, A.; Molleker, S.; Weigel, R.; Roth, A.; Schmidt, L.; Meyer, J.; Ehrlich, A.; Neuber, R.; Wendisch, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft borne optical in situ size distribution measurements were performed within Arctic boundary layer clouds with a special emphasis on the cloud top layer during the VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI) campaign in April and May 2012. An instrumented Basler BT-67 research aircraft operated out of Inuvik over the Mackenzie River delta and the Beaufort Sea in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Besides the cloud particle and hydrometeor size spectrometers the aircraft was equipped with instrumentation for aerosol, radiation and other parameters. Inside the cloud, droplet size distributions with monomodal shapes were observed for predominantly liquid-phase Arctic stratocumulus. With increasing altitude inside the cloud the droplet mean diameters grew from 10 to 20 μm. In the upper transition zone (i.e., adjacent to the cloud-free air aloft) changes from monomodal to bimodal droplet size distributions (Mode 1 with 20 μm and Mode 2 with 10 μm diameter) were observed. It is shown that droplets of both modes co-exist in the same (small) air volume and the bimodal shape of the measured size distributions cannot be explained as an observational artifact caused by accumulating data point populations from different air volumes. The formation of the second size mode can be explained by (a) entrainment and activation/condensation of fresh aerosol particles, or (b) by differential evaporation processes occurring with cloud droplets engulfed in different eddies. Activation of entrained particles seemed a viable possibility as a layer of dry Arctic enhanced background aerosol (which was detected directly above the stratus cloud) might form a second mode of small cloud droplets. However, theoretical considerations and model calculations (adopting direct numerical simulation, DNS) revealed that, instead, turbulent mixing and evaporation of larger droplets are the most likely reasons for the formation of the second droplet size mode in the uppermost region

  3. Utilization of hierarchical, stochastic relationship modeling for Hangul character recognition.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Won; Kim, Jin H

    2004-09-01

    In structural character recognition, a character is usually viewed as a set of strokes and the spatial relationships between them. Therefore, strokes and their relationships should be properly modeled for effective character representation. For this purpose, we propose a modeling scheme by which strokes as well as relationships are stochastically represented by utilizing the hierarchical characteristics of target characters. A character is defined by a multivariate random variable over the components and its probability distribution is learned from a training data set. To overcome difficulties of the learning due to the high order of the probability distribution (a problem of curse of dimensionality), the probability distribution is factorized and approximated by a set of lower-order probability distributions by applying the idea of relationship decomposition recursively to components and subcomponents. Based on the proposed method, a handwritten Hangul (Korean) character recognition system is developed. Recognition experiments conducted on a public database show the effectiveness of the proposed relationship modeling. The recognition accuracy increased by 5.5 percent in comparison to the most successful system ever reported. PMID:15742893

  4. Using Picture Storybooks To Teach Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan

    To help aid teachers and librarians in the search for appropriate resources to emphasize good character traits, this book provides an annotated guide to picture storybooks and the character traits each describes. It begins with an introduction that defines character, offers a history of character education, discusses what character education is,…

  5. Flash Cards: Common Chinese-Cantonese Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This set of flash cards is designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's instructional programs in Cantonese Chinese. Each card displays six Chinese characters, for a total of 1500 characters. Each character is printed two inches tall. Above each character are transcriptions of the Chinese words represented by the character (marked for…

  6. Printed Arabic optical character segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Ayyesh, Muna; Qaroush, Aziz; Tumar, Iyad

    2015-03-01

    A considerable progress in recognition techniques for many non-Arabic characters has been achieved. In contrary, few efforts have been put on the research of Arabic characters. In any Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system the segmentation step is usually the essential stage in which an extensive portion of processing is devoted and a considerable share of recognition errors is attributed. In this research, a novel segmentation approach for machine Arabic printed text with diacritics is proposed. The proposed method reduces computation, errors, gives a clear description for the sub-word and has advantages over using the skeleton approach in which the data and information of the character can be lost. Both of initial evaluation and testing of the proposed method have been developed using MATLAB and shows 98.7% promising results.

  7. Influence of trans-boundary biomass burning impacted air masses on submicron particle number concentrations and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Zhang, Zhe; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-08-01

    Submicron particle number concentration (PNC) and particle size distribution (PSD) in the size range of 5.6-560 nm were investigated in Singapore from 27 June 2009 through 6 September 2009. Slightly hazy conditions lasted in Singapore from 6 to 10 August. Backward air trajectories indicated that the haze was due to the transport of biomass burning impacted air masses originating from wild forest and peat fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Three distinct peaks in the morning (08:00-10:00), afternoon (13:00-15:00) and evening (16:00-20:00) were observed on a typical normal day. However, during the haze period no distinct morning and afternoon peaks were observed and the PNC (39,775 ± 3741 cm-3) increased by 1.5 times when compared to that during non-haze periods (26,462 ± 6017). The morning and afternoon peaks on the normal day were associated with the local rush hour traffic while the afternoon peak was induced by new particle formation (NPF). Diurnal profiles of PNCs and PSDs showed that primary particle peak diameters were large during the haze (60 nm) period when compared to that during the non-haze period (45.3 nm). NPF events observed in the afternoon period on normal days were suppressed during the haze periods due to heavy particle loading in atmosphere caused by biomass burning impacted air masses.

  8. Modeled temperatures and fluid source distributions for the Mexican subduction zone: Effects of hydrothermal circulation and implications for plate boundary seismic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Matthew; Spinelli, Glenn A.; Wada, Ikuko; He, Jiangheng

    2016-02-01

    In subduction zones, spatial variations in pore fluid pressure are hypothesized to control the sliding behavior of the plate boundary fault. The pressure-temperature paths for subducting material control the distributions of dehydration reactions, a primary control on the pore fluid pressure distribution. Thus, constraining subduction zone temperatures are required to understand the seismic processes along the plate interface. We present thermal models for three margin-perpendicular transects in the Mexican subduction zone. We examine the potential thermal effects of vigorous fluid circulation in a high-permeability aquifer within the basaltic basement of the oceanic crust and compare the results with models that invoke extremely high pore fluid pressures to reduce frictional heating along the megathrust. We combine thermal model results with petrological models to determine the spatial distribution of fluid release from the subducting slab and compare dewatering locations with the locations of seismicity, nonvolcanic tremor, slow-slip events, and low-frequency earthquakes. Simulations including hydrothermal circulation are most consistent with surface heat flux measurements. Hydrothermal circulation has a maximum cooling effect of 180°C. Hydrothermally cooled crust carries water deeper into the subduction zone; fluid release distributions in these models are most consistent with existing geophysical data. Our models predict focused fluid release, which could generate overpressures, coincident with an observed ultraslow layer (USL) and a region of nonvolcanic tremor. Landward of USLs, a downdip decrease in fluid source magnitude could result in the dissipation in overpressure in the oceanic crust without requiring a downdip increase in fault zone permeability, as posited in previous studies.

  9. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  10. Unrestricted quality of seeds in European broad-leaved tree species growing at the cold boundary of their distribution

    PubMed Central

    Kollas, C.; Vitasse, Y.; Randin, C. F.; Hoch, G.; Körner, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The low-temperature range limit of tree species may be determined by their ability to produce and disperse viable seeds. Biological processes such as flowering, pollen transfer, pollen tube growth, fertilization, embryogenesis and seed maturation are expected to be affected by cold temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of seeds of nine broad-leaved tree species close to their elevational limit. Methods We studied nine, mostly widely distributed, European broad-leaved tree species in the genera Acer, Fagus, Fraxinus, Ilex, Laburnum, Quercus, Sorbus and Tilia. For each species, seeds were collected from stands close to optimal growth conditions (low elevation) and from marginal stands (highest elevation), replicated in two regions in the Swiss Alps. Measurements included seed weight, seed size, storage tissue quality, seed viability and germination success. Key Results All species examined produced a lot of viable seeds at their current high-elevation range limit during a summer ranked ‘normal’ by long-term temperature records. Low- and high-elevation seed sources showed hardly any trait differences. The concentration of non-structural carbohydrates tended to be higher at high elevation. Additionally, in one species, Sorbus aucuparia, all measured traits showed significantly higher seed quality in high-elevation seed sources. Conclusions For the broad-leaved tree taxa studied, the results are not in agreement with the hypothesis of reduced quality of seeds in trees at their high-elevation range limits. Under the current climatic conditions, seed quality does not constitute a serious constraint in the reproduction of these broad-leaved tree species at their high-elevation limit. PMID:22156401

  11. Influence of grain boundaries misorientation angle on intergranular corrosion in 2024-T3 aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bałkowiec, A.; Michalski, J.; Matysiak, H.; Kurzydlowski, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The special attention has been paid to the influence of misorientation angle of a random grain boundary (GB) on susceptibility to intergranular attack. The detailed observations of the microstructure of the intergranular corrosion (IGC) in 2024-T3 aluminium alloy (AA2024-T3) subjected to galvanic corrosion tests in two different solutions containing chloride ions (0.1 M and 0.5 M NaCl) were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique was used to determine the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) in the initial sample and a GBCD of corroded grain boundaries on a sample subjected to the corrosion test. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of the misorientation angle on the susceptibility of the grain boundaries to corrosion.

  12. Moral character in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment. PMID:25133716

  13. Boundary issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    the one for oceans. Encouragingly, while they argue that we've already crossed one key boundary in the P cycle, they also suggest it's not a Rubicon moment. The inefficiencies in P use that motivate these boundary debates are also clear targets for improvement, and some world regions may be on a trajectory towards greater P use efficiency (Vitousek et al 2009). This is a critical step for society, because even absent concerns over freshwater eutrophication or marine anoxic events, accelerating rates of P mining and inefficiencies in agricultural P use would still pose very real threats. There is legitimate debate over when readily accessible P reserves may run out (Cordell et al 2009, Van Kauenbergh 2010), but nobody argues with their finite nature. Sooner or later, we will be forced to keep P out of our waterways, if only because we will have to keep it on our farms. Without such a shift, we may face severe P constraints to food security within just a few human generations. As current P reserves decline, rising economic values of low concentration P stores may catalyze their harvest, but without considerable policy interventions, that price hike would exacerbate already strong global inequities in the distribution and use of chemical fertilizers (Sanchez and Swaminathan 2005). The harvest of low concentration P reserves would also create substantial collateral damage to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, even without exhaustion of high-concentration P reserves, their location in only a few countries creates geopolitical risks from the demand for an increasingly valuable resource (Cordell et al 2009). Policies aimed at lowering P inputs to aquatic environments will not only reduce the eutrophication risks explored by Carpenter and Bennett, they will increase P retention in agricultural landscapes and slow the decline of finite P reserves. Shifts in human diets can also make a profound difference in the amount of P (and N) required to meet caloric needs. Society

  14. Temperature Distribution in a Gaussian End-Pumped Nonlinear KTP Crystal: the Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity and Radiation Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaeian, Mohammad; Jalil-Abadi, Fatemeh Sedaghat; Rezaee, Mostafa Mohammad; Motazedian, Alireza; Shahzadeh, Mohammadreza

    2015-02-01

    The presence of a temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and the heat radiation boundary condition in the diffusion-type heat equation driven by a Gaussian source make it impossible to find an analytical solution for temperature distribution in the solid-state laser media. In this work, a temperature distribution for a solid-state end-pumped KTP (KTiOPO4) crystal under a Gaussian continuous wave as a heat source is reported. More precisely, the effects of considering the temperature-dependent nature of the thermal conductivity of the KTP crystal and the heat radiation from the end faces of the crystal, in addition to heat convection, which are usually ignored, were studied. It was shown that considering the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity leads to significantly different results compared to constant thermal conductivity case. In addition, it was shown that the radiation can be influential for crystals with large surfaces from which the radiation can occur. Making the crystal thinner, the radiation impact becomes negligible and can be ignored.

  15. The distribution of atmospheric black carbon in the marine boundary layer over the North Atlantic and the Russian Arctic Seas in July - October 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Kopeikin, Vladimir M.; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Novigatsky, Alexander N.; Pankratova, Natalia V.; Starodymova, Dina P.; Stohl, Andreas; Thompson, Rona

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles are highly efficient at absorbing visible light, which has a large potential impact on Arctic climate. However, measurement data on the distribution of BC in the atmosphere over the North Atlantic and the Russian Arctic Seas are scarce. We present measurement data on the distribution of atmospheric BC in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic and Baltic, North, Norwegian, Barents, White, Kara and Laptev Seas from research cruises during July 23 to October 6, 2015. During the 62nd and 63rd cruises of the RV "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" air was filtered through Hahnemuhle fineart quarz-microfibre filters. The mass of BC on the filter was determined by measurement of the attenuation of a beam of light transmitted through the filter. Source areas were estimated by backwards trajectories of air masses calculated using NOAA's HYSPLIT model (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready.html) and FLEXPART model (http://www.flexpart.eu). During some parts of the cruises, air masses arrived from background areas of high latitudes, and the measured BC concentrations were low. During other parts of the cruise, air masses arrived from industrially developed areas with strong BC sources, and this led to substantially enhanced measured BC concentrations. Model-supported analyses are currently performed to use the measurement data for constraining the emission strength in these areas.

  16. The Energy of Olivine Grain Boundaries Deduced from Grain Boundary Frequency Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, K.; Rohrer, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    The properties of grain boundaries strongly differ from those of the crystal lattice, and there is growing evidence that the presence of grain boundaries influence detected geophysical signals such as electrical conductivity and seismic velocities especially in aggregates with a LPO that favours the alignment of specific grain boundaries. However, neither the anisotropic frequency or energy distribution of grain boundary networks are understood in olivine dominated aggregates, neither with nor without LPO. We used electron backscatter diffraction, EBSD to detect the orientations of over 1.4x104 grains corresponding to roughly 5000mm length of grain boundary separating them. Subsequently we used a stereological approach to determine the grain boundary character distribution, GBCD, defined as the relative areas of grain boundaries of different types, distinguished by their five degrees of freedom (Rohrer, 2007). The grain boundary planes showed a preference for low index planes, which is in agreement with recent findings on other materials (e.g. MgO, TiO2, SrTiO3, MgAl2O4). However, our inferred surface energies are controversial with respect to previously simulated surface energies (Watson et al., 1997; de Leeuw et al., 2000; Gurmani et al., 2011). We find that the principal crystallographic planes have the lowest energies and that at 60° misorientation specific grain boundaries with common [100] axis of misorientation are favored compared to 60° misorientations about random axis of rotation. This seems to support the results of (Faul and Fitz Gerald, 1999), even though our data imply that 90°/[001] (100)(010) should be even less favorable for the propagation of melt films. These differences and similarities will be discussed with respect to the different methods and their limitations. References: Faul U. H. and Fitz Gerald J. D. (1999) Phys. Chem. Miner. 26, 187-197. Gurmani S. F. et al. (2011). J. Geophys. Res. 116, B12209. De Leeuw N. H. et al. (2000) Phys

  17. Pressure distribution on the roof of a model low-rise building tested in a boundary layer wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goliber, Matthew Robert

    validate the tube length, tube diameter, port diameter, and pressure transducer used in the field. Also, Model 2 was used to study the effects of surface roughness on pressure readings. A partial roof and wall of the low-rise building in the field was used as the third model. Similar to the second model, Model 3 was tested in the AABL Wind Tunnel. Initially, the objectives of the third model were to validate the pressure port protection device (PPPD) being used in the field and test the possibility of interpolating between pressure ports. But in the end, Model 3 was best used to validate the inconsistencies of the full-scale PPPD, validate the transducers used in the field, and prove the importance of scaling either all or none of the model. Fourthly, Model 4 was a 1:16 model of the low-rise building itself. Based on the three previous model tests, Model 4 was instrumented with 202 pressure transducers to better understand: (1) the pressure distribution on the roof of the structure, (2) the affects of the fundamental test variables such as tube length, tube diameter, port diameter, transducer type, and surface roughness, (3) the affects of a scaled PPPD, (4) the importance of wind angle of attack, and (5) the possibility of measuring pressure data and load data simultaneously. In the end, the combination of all four model tests proved to be helpful in understanding the pressure data gathered on the roof of the low-rise building in the field. The two main recommendations for the field structure are for reevaluation of the PPPD design and slight redistribution of the pressure ports. The wind tunnel model tests show a need for these two modifications in order to gather more accurate field pressure data. Other than these two adjustments, the model tests show that the remaining data gathering system is currently accurate.

  18. Making Characters Come Alive: Using Characters for Identification and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Jocelyn A.

    2012-01-01

    How do English teachers, with their amazing gift, empower students to see and experience literature not as a burden that must be endured and memorized for the test and then mercifully forgotten, but as a vehicle for self-discovery and reflection? One effective way to help students experience and discover literature is through the characters. For…

  19. Constraints on the Nature and Distribution of Iridium Host Phases at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary: Implications for Projectile Identity and dispersal on impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuraytz, B. C.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1997-01-01

    Among Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sites worldwide, variations in the concentrations and ratios of elements commonly enriched in meteorites complicate traditional geochemical attempts at impactor identification. Yet they may provide constraints on the physical and chemical processes associated with large-body disruption and dispersal, as well as with diagenesis of projectile components. To this end, we continue our efforts to identify the mineral host-phases of projectile-derived elements, particularly for Ir, and to document their partitioning between crater deposits and ejecta resulting from the Chicxulub basin-forming impact. Building on earlier work, we used INAA to measure Ir concentrations in successively smaller splits of finely powdered impact melt breccia from the Chicxulub Crater in Mexico (sample Y6Nl9-R(b)), and K/T boundary fish clay from Stevns Klint, Denmark (sample FC-1, split from 40 kg of homogenized material intended as an analytical standard). Results for the Chicxulub sample show a heterogeneous Ir distribution and document that at least five discrete Ir-bearing host phases were isolated in subsequent splits, having Ir masses equivalent to pure Ir spheres from about 0.8 to about 3.5 mm in diameter. Three of these are within a sufficiently reduced mass of powder to warrant searching for them using backscattered electron microscopy. In contrast, successively smaller splits of the Stevns Klint fish clay show no statistically significant deviation from the reported value of 32 +/- 2 ng/g Ir, suggesting a uniform Ir host-phase distribution. For the smallest split obtained thus far (100 +/- 40 ng/g Ir), a pure Ir sphere of equivalent Ir mass would be <0.05 min in diameter. (n.b. Although homogenizing and sieving of FC-1 to <75 min obviously obscured variations in stratigraphic distribution, it is unlikely to have affected the size-frequency distribution of Ir host phases.) We previously identified micrometer-scale Ir host phases by electron

  20. Eleven Principles of Effective Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickona, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Outlines 11 principles to guide schools as they plan their character education programs. These include a definition of character, developing the school as a caring community, a comprehensive and intentional approach to developing good character, and the relationship between character education and the academic curriculum. (MJP)

  1. Character Education Makes a Big Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Esther F.

    2003-01-01

    Describes character education, selected research related thereto, and a character-education program at Columbine Elementary School in Woodland Park, Colorado. Describes assessment results of this and other character-education programs and curricula. Includes 11 principles of effective character education such as promotes core ethical values and…

  2. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews and…

  3. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  4. Ground boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished on the study of grain boundaries in Ag, Au, Ni, Si, and Ge. Research was focused on the following four major efforts: study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; grain boundary migration; short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of Thin-Film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  6. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  7. Understanding Agency and Educating Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    How can we understand human agency, and what does it mean to educate character? In this essay Klas Roth develops a Kantian notion, one that suggests we render ourselves efficacious and autonomous in education and elsewhere. This requires, among other things, that we are successful in bringing about the intended result through our actions and the…

  8. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  9. Lessons in Leadership and Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilding, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how an organization can demonstrate leadership and character through its operating principles and practices based on experiences at the Metro West Airports Authority (MWAA). Explains how the MWAA made the transition from a department within the federal government to an independent, not-for-profit organization. (Author/LRW)

  10. The Fundamentals of Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Frederick

    1997-01-01

    Defines character education as the intentional teaching of ethical reasoning and analysis, the nurturing of moral emotions, and the encouragement of, and insistence upon, moral behavior. Maintains that schools, parents, and communities are all responsible for the moral development of children. Briefly discusses the work of the Ethics Resource…

  11. Character and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Thomas M.

    As communication is a moral action involving personal choice, composition instructors must help promote their students' character development. Whether during audience analysis, invention, or disposition, composition always involves the development and testing of four virtues: honesty, courage, love, and a combination of hope and humility. Teachers…

  12. Advertising and Defamation of Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Defamation of character, as applied to libel and slander legal decisions, is the subject of this paper. After briefly describing the basis of liability, the author discusses "libels per quod." He then cites numerous court decisions in commenting on mitigating circumstances in action for libel or slander, including absolute privilege, fair comment,…

  13. Teaching Character through Sports Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minchew, Sue S.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how sports literature can be used in character education. Focuses on 10 ingredients for being a successful or "highly effective" person, and includes examples drawn from sports or sports literature. Discusses setting goals; proactive responses/positive thinking; a strong work ethic; a never-surrender attitude; physical and…

  14. The distribution of atmospheric black carbon in marine boundary layer over the seas of the western part of the Russian Arctic in September - October 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Kopeikin, V. M.; Starodymova, D. P.

    2012-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the most efficient atmospheric particulate species at absorbing visible light, it could have the large potential impact on Arctic climate. The data on the distribution of the BC in atmosphere over the seas of the Russian Arctic are scarce. New data are presented in this work. The distribution of black carbon in the atmosphere in marine boundary layer in the White, Barents and Kara seas has been measured from September 12 to October 7, 2011 during the 59-th cruise of the RV "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh". The method of aethalometry was used. Backwards trajectories of air masses were calculated using NOAA HYSPLIT model (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready.html). The highest values of BC concentrations were recorded near port of Arkhangelsk (600-830 ng/cub.m). In the background areas the BC concentrations varied from 10 to 470 ng/cub.m (120 ng/cub.m in average, standard deviation is 110 ng/cub.m, n=45 measurements). These values are at the level of background values for the Russian Arctic seas. The lowest values were recorded after rains and when air masses came from the Central Arctic. Relatively high BC concentrations in the Kara Sea were in air massed arrived from the NW Siberia and in the Barents Sea in air masses arrived from the Arkhangelsk industrial area. Our studies were supported by the Department of the Earth Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (project "Nanoparticles"), Russian-German Otto Schmidt Laboratory and grant NSh-3714.2010.5. The authors are indebted to crew of the RV "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" for help in the expedition and to Academician A.P. Lisitzin for valuable recommendations.

  15. A distributed air index based on maximum boundary rectangle over grid-cells for wireless non-flat spatial data broadcast.

    PubMed

    Im, Seokjin; Choi, JinTak

    2014-01-01

    In the pervasive computing environment using smart devices equipped with various sensors, a wireless data broadcasting system for spatial data items is a natural way to efficiently provide a location dependent information service, regardless of the number of clients. A non-flat wireless broadcast system can support the clients in accessing quickly their preferred data items by disseminating the preferred data items more frequently than regular data on the wireless channel. To efficiently support the processing of spatial window queries in a non-flat wireless data broadcasting system, we propose a distributed air index based on a maximum boundary rectangle (MaxBR) over grid-cells (abbreviated DAIM), which uses MaxBRs for filtering out hot data items on the wireless channel. Unlike the existing index that repeats regular data items in close proximity to hot items at same frequency as hot data items in a broadcast cycle, DAIM makes it possible to repeat only hot data items in a cycle and reduces the length of the broadcast cycle. Consequently, DAIM helps the clients access the desired items quickly, improves the access time, and reduces energy consumption. In addition, a MaxBR helps the clients decide whether they have to access regular data items or not. Simulation studies show the proposed DAIM outperforms existing schemes with respect to the access time and energy consumption. PMID:24940864

  16. A Distributed Air Index Based on Maximum Boundary Rectangle over Grid-Cells for Wireless Non-Flat Spatial Data Broadcast

    PubMed Central

    Im, Seokjin; Choi, JinTak

    2014-01-01

    In the pervasive computing environment using smart devices equipped with various sensors, a wireless data broadcasting system for spatial data items is a natural way to efficiently provide a location dependent information service, regardless of the number of clients. A non-flat wireless broadcast system can support the clients in accessing quickly their preferred data items by disseminating the preferred data items more frequently than regular data on the wireless channel. To efficiently support the processing of spatial window queries in a non-flat wireless data broadcasting system, we propose a distributed air index based on a maximum boundary rectangle (MaxBR) over grid-cells (abbreviated DAIM), which uses MaxBRs for filtering out hot data items on the wireless channel. Unlike the existing index that repeats regular data items in close proximity to hot items at same frequency as hot data items in a broadcast cycle, DAIM makes it possible to repeat only hot data items in a cycle and reduces the length of the broadcast cycle. Consequently, DAIM helps the clients access the desired items quickly, improves the access time, and reduces energy consumption. In addition, a MaxBR helps the clients decide whether they have to access regular data items or not. Simulation studies show the proposed DAIM outperforms existing schemes with respect to the access time and energy consumption. PMID:24940864

  17. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems. PMID:25750460

  18. Atomistic simulations of dislocation nucleation in single crystals and grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschopp, Mark A., Jr.

    The objective of this research is to use atomistic simulations to investigate dislocation nucleation from grain boundaries in face-centered cubic aluminum and copper. This research primarily focuses on asymmetric tilt grain boundaries and has three main components. First, this research uses molecular statics simulations of the structure and energy of these faceted, dissociated grain boundary structures to show that Sigma3 asymmetric boundaries can be decomposed into the structural units of the Sigma3 symmetric tilt grain boundaries, i.e., the coherent and incoherent twin boundaries. Moreover, the energy for all Sigma3 asymmetric boundaries is predicted with only the energies of the Sigma3 symmetric boundaries and the inclination angle. Understanding the structure of these boundaries provides insight into dislocation nucleation from these boundaries. Further work into the structure and energy of other low order Sigma asymmetric boundaries and the spatial distribution of free volume within the grain boundaries also provides insight into dislocation nucleation mechanisms. Second, this research uses molecular dynamics deformation simulations with uniaxial tension applied perpendicular to these boundaries to show that the dislocation nucleation mechanisms in asymmetric boundaries are highly dependent on the faceted, dissociated structure. Grain boundary dislocation sources can act as perfect sources/sinks for dislocations or may violate this premise by increasing the dislocation content of the boundary during nucleation. Furthermore, simulations under uniaxial tension and uniaxial compression show that nucleation of the second partial dislocation in copper exhibits tension-compression asymmetry. Third, this research explores the development of models that incorporate the resolved stress components on the slip system of dislocation nucleation to predict the atomic stress required for dislocation nucleation from single crystals and grain boundaries. Single crystal

  19. Size distribution, composition and origin of the submicron aerosol in the marine boundary layer during the eastern Mediterranean "SUB-AERO" experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriadis, K.; Colbeck, I.; Housiadas, C.; Lazaridis, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Mitsakou, C.; Smolík, J.; Ždímal, V.

    A period of intensive physical and chemical aerosol characterisation measurements was held over 5 days during July 2000 as part of the European SUB-AERO experiment.. Concurrent measurements were performed at the Finokalia remote coastal site on the island of Crete (Greece) and onboard the R/V " Aegaeon" which cruised in south part of the Aegean Sea northwards of Crete. The objective of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of microphysical parameters of the submicron aerosol and their dependence on airmass origin and chemical composition. The results reflect the submicron aerosol properties during airmass transport from the north including Europe and the Balkans and are in line with other studies on the aerosol properties of polluted continental air entering the marine boundary layer (MBL). Concentrations of submicron particulate matter (PM) mass were relatively higher at sea (20 μg m -3) compared to the coastal site (16 μg m -3). Concentrations of both organic carbon and sulphate, being the major water soluble component, were also higher at sea than at land. The high concentrations of ammonium and those of the water soluble organics, such as oxalate, can be attributed to emissions from mainland forest fires. The submicron aerosol number size distribution was unimodal with mobility mean diameters ( dg) ranging from 98 to 144 μm and standard deviations ( σg) from 1.56 to 1.9. Aerosol number concentrations at Finokalia were at least 50% lower especially when R/V Aegaeon sampled polluted air, but the modal parameters of the size distribution were very similar ( dg: 111-120, σg: 1.55-1.91). The surface MBL, under these conditions, was an aerosol rich environment where aerosol particles were transported both by the surface wind, advected from higher layers, chemically processed by interactions with gaseous precursors and physically altered by water vapour. The number to volume ratio for the submicrometer aerosol fraction reflected the

  20. Role of Grain Boundaries and Microstructure on the Environment Assisted Cracking of Pipeline Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafin, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    In this research, two common types of environment assisted cracking (EAC) of pipeline steels, namely the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), have been studied, and computer models have been developed to simulate the intergranular stress corrosion crack propagation behaviour in pipeline steel as well as to predict the intergranular fracture susceptibility, due to mechanical loading in non-corrosive environment, of polycrystalline materials. First, a new understanding of the IGSCC resistance of pipeline steel has been obtained by studying the grain boundary character and crystallographic orientation in both cracked and non-cracked pipeline steel samples using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray texture measurements. It has been found that the low-angle and certain types of special boundaries, known as the coincident site lattice (CSL) boundaries (S5, S11, and S13b types), are crack-resistant while the random high angle boundaries are prone to cracking. However, it has been also observed that the grain boundaries associated with {110} and {111} neighbour grain orientations having <110> and <111> rotation axis, respectively, are crack-resistant, while the cracked boundaries are mainly linked to the {100} orientation with <100> rotation axis. Subsequently, a novel integrated modeling approach, combining Voronoi Algorithm, Markov Chain theory, and Monte Carlo simulations, has been developed in order to predict the IGSCC behaviour of pipeline steels. The model takes both the physical microstructural features, such as the grain shape and grain size distribution, as well as the grain boundary characters and their orientations with respect to the external stress axis into account. The predicted crack propagation behaviour has been found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental crack-propagation and arrest data in API X65 pipeline steel. In addition, a texture based grain boundary character

  1. Efficient Learning Strategy of Chinese Characters Based on Network Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved. PMID:23990887

  2. Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loitsianskii. L. G.

    1956-01-01

    The fundamental, practically the most important branch of the modern mechanics of a viscous fluid or a gas, is that branch which concerns itself with the study of the boundary layer. The presence of a boundary layer accounts for the origin of the resistance and lift force, the breakdown of the smooth flow about bodies, and other phenomena that are associated with the motion of a body in a real fluid. The concept of boundary layer was clearly formulated by the founder of aerodynamics, N. E. Joukowsky, in his well-known work "On the Form of Ships" published as early as 1890. In his book "Theoretical Foundations of Air Navigation," Joukowsky gave an account of the most important properties of the boundary layer and pointed out the part played by it in the production of the resistance of bodies to motion. The fundamental differential equations of the motion of a fluid in a laminar boundary layer were given by Prandtl in 1904; the first solutions of these equations date from 1907 to 1910. As regards the turbulent boundary layer, there does not exist even to this day any rigorous formulation of this problem because there is no closed system of equations for the turbulent motion of a fluid. Soviet scientists have done much toward developing a general theory of the boundary layer, and in that branch of the theory which is of greatest practical importance at the present time, namely the study of the boundary layer at large velocities of the body in a compressed gas, the efforts of the scientists of our country have borne fruit in the creation of a new theory which leaves far behind all that has been done previously in this direction. We shall herein enumerate the most important results by Soviet scientists in the development of the theory of the boundary layer.

  3. Sporadically Fractal Basin Boundaries of Chaotic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, B.R.; Ott, E.; Rosa, E. Jr.

    1999-05-01

    We demonstrate a new type of basin boundary for typical chaotic dynamical systems. For the case of a two dimensional map, this boundary has the character of the graph of a function that is smooth and differentiable except on a set of fractal dimensions less than one. In spite of the basin boundary being smooth {open_quotes}almost everywhere,{close_quotes} its fractal dimension exceeds one (implying degradation of one{close_quote}s ability to predict the attractor an orbit approaches in the presence of small initial condition uncertainty). We call such a boundary {ital sporadically fractal}. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  5. Maximum Entropy, Word-Frequency, Chinese Characters, and Multiple Meanings

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Minnhagen, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The word-frequency distribution of a text written by an author is well accounted for by a maximum entropy distribution, the RGF (random group formation)-prediction. The RGF-distribution is completely determined by the a priori values of the total number of words in the text (M), the number of distinct words (N) and the number of repetitions of the most common word (kmax). It is here shown that this maximum entropy prediction also describes a text written in Chinese characters. In particular it is shown that although the same Chinese text written in words and Chinese characters have quite differently shaped distributions, they are nevertheless both well predicted by their respective three a priori characteristic values. It is pointed out that this is analogous to the change in the shape of the distribution when translating a given text to another language. Another consequence of the RGF-prediction is that taking a part of a long text will change the input parameters (M, N, kmax) and consequently also the shape of the frequency distribution. This is explicitly confirmed for texts written in Chinese characters. Since the RGF-prediction has no system-specific information beyond the three a priori values (M, N, kmax), any specific language characteristic has to be sought in systematic deviations from the RGF-prediction and the measured frequencies. One such systematic deviation is identified and, through a statistical information theoretical argument and an extended RGF-model, it is proposed that this deviation is caused by multiple meanings of Chinese characters. The effect is stronger for Chinese characters than for Chinese words. The relation between Zipf’s law, the Simon-model for texts and the present results are discussed. PMID:25955175

  6. Non-Markovian character in human mobility: Online and offline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Lu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of human mobility characterizes the trajectories that humans follow during their daily activities and is the foundation of processes from epidemic spreading to traffic prediction and information recommendation. In this paper, we investigate a massive data set of human activity, including both online behavior of browsing websites and offline one of visiting towers based mobile terminations. The non-Markovian character observed from both online and offline cases is suggested by the scaling law in the distribution of dwelling time at individual and collective levels, respectively. Furthermore, we argue that the lower entropy and higher predictability in human mobility for both online and offline cases may originate from this non-Markovian character. However, the distributions of individual entropy and predictability show the different degrees of non-Markovian character between online and offline cases. To account for non-Markovian character in human mobility, we apply a protype model with three basic ingredients, namely, preferential return, inertial effect, and exploration to reproduce the dynamic process of online and offline human mobilities. The simulations show that the model has an ability to obtain characters much closer to empirical observations.

  7. Non-Markovian character in human mobility: Online and offline.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Lu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of human mobility characterizes the trajectories that humans follow during their daily activities and is the foundation of processes from epidemic spreading to traffic prediction and information recommendation. In this paper, we investigate a massive data set of human activity, including both online behavior of browsing websites and offline one of visiting towers based mobile terminations. The non-Markovian character observed from both online and offline cases is suggested by the scaling law in the distribution of dwelling time at individual and collective levels, respectively. Furthermore, we argue that the lower entropy and higher predictability in human mobility for both online and offline cases may originate from this non-Markovian character. However, the distributions of individual entropy and predictability show the different degrees of non-Markovian character between online and offline cases. To account for non-Markovian character in human mobility, we apply a protype model with three basic ingredients, namely, preferential return, inertial effect, and exploration to reproduce the dynamic process of online and offline human mobilities. The simulations show that the model has an ability to obtain characters much closer to empirical observations. PMID:26117100

  8. Geographical Variation in a Quantitative Character

    PubMed Central

    Nagylaki, T.

    1994-01-01

    A model for the evolution of the local averages of a quantitative character under migration, selection, and random genetic drift in a subdivided population is formulated and investigated. Generations are discrete and nonoverlapping; the monoecious, diploid population mates at random in each deme. All three evolutionary forces are weak, but the migration pattern and the local population numbers are otherwise arbitrary. The character is determined by purely additive gene action and a stochastically independent environment; its distribution is Gaussian with a constant variance; and it is under Gaussian stabilizing selection with the same parameters in every deme. Linkage disequilibrium is neglected. Most of the results concern the covariances of the local averages. For a finite number of demes, explicit formulas are derived for (i) the asymptotic rate and pattern of convergence to equilibrium, (ii) the variance of a suitably weighted average of the local averages, and (iii) the equilibrium covariances when selection and random drift are much weaker than migration. Essentially complete analyses of equilibrium and convergence are presented for random outbreeding and site homing, the Levene and island models, the circular habitat and the unbounded linear stepping-stone model in the diffusion approximation, and the exact unbounded stepping-stone model in one and two dimensions. PMID:8138171

  9. Grain boundary engineering in a thermo-mechanically processed Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunquera, A.; Jorge-Badiola, D.; Gutiérrez, I.; Iza-Mendia, A.

    2015-04-01

    Three different thermo-mechanical strategies—annealing, strain recrystallization and strain annealing—were applied to a Nb-stabilized 304H austenitic stainless steel in order to study their effects on grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). An Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis revealed specific combinations of cold reduction-temperature-time that favor annealing twinning. A uniform increase in microstructural size and special boundaries (particularly for Σ3, Σ9 and Σ27 boundaries) was achieved under strain annealing conditions (low cold reductions) and long times at high temperatures (≥ 990°C). These conditions provide a high fraction of special boundaries (about 80%), which replace the random grain boundary network and thus optimize the GBCD. The profuse presence of Σ3n boundaries is attributed to the geometric interaction of twin-related variants during grain boundary migration. In addition to all this, precipitation takes place at the temperature range where optimum GBCD is achieved. The significance of precipitation in the different strategies was also tackled.

  10. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracy of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.

  11. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracymore » of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.« less

  12. New identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    1994-10-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels m=3, 4, 5 are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and the tricritical Ising models since the m=3 Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of m=4 Virasoro characters. The second identity given the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m=5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of N=4 superconformal characters intoSwidehat{U(2)} × Swidehat{U(2)} characters is discussed.

  13. 26 CFR 1.669(f)-1A - Character of capital gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Character of capital gain. 1.669(f)-1A Section 1... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(f)-1A Character of capital gain. Amounts distributed as a capital... character that the gain had with respect to the trust. Thus, a capital gain that was taxed to the trust as...

  14. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  15. Exploring Good Character and Citizenship in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James; Harrison, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Citizenship, character and the virtues that constitute both are increasingly concerns of public policy in the UK. This article understands character to encompass the morally valuable, reason-response and education part of personality, and understands virtues as states of character concerned with praiseworthy feelings and conduct in specific…

  16. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  17. CEP's Eleven Principles of Effective Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickona, Tom; Schaps, Eric; Lewis, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    There is no single script for effective character education, but there are some important basic principles. This document presents eleven principles that schools and other groups can use to plan a character education effort and to evaluate available character education programs: (1) Promotes core ethical values and supportive performance values as…

  18. Rapid Naming Speed and Chinese Character Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between rapid naming speed (RAN) and Chinese character recognition accuracy and fluency. Sixty-three grade 2 and 54 grade 4 Taiwanese children were administered four RAN tasks (colors, digits, Zhu-Yin-Fu-Hao, characters), and two character recognition tasks. RAN tasks accounted for more reading variance in grade 4 than…

  19. The case for character displacement in plants

    PubMed Central

    Beans, Carolyn M

    2014-01-01

    The evidence for character displacement as a widespread response to competition is now building. This progress is largely the result of the establishment of rigorous criteria for demonstrating character displacement in the animal literature. There are, however, relatively few well-supported examples of character displacement in plants. This review explores the potential for character displacement in plants by addressing the following questions: (1) Why aren't examples of character displacement in plants more common? (2) What are the requirements for character displacement to occur and how do plant populations meet those requirements? (3) What are the criteria for testing the pattern and process of character displacement and what methods can and have been used to address these criteria in the plant literature? (4) What are some additional approaches for studying character displacement in plants? While more research is needed, the few plant systems in which character displacement hypotheses have been rigorously tested suggest that character displacement may play a role in shaping plant communities. Plants are especially amenable to character displacement studies because of the experimental ease with which they can be used in common gardens, selection analyses, and breeding designs. A deeper investigation of character displacement in plants is critical for a more complete understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes that permit the coexistence of plant species. PMID:24683467

  20. Document Form and Character Recognition using SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Sung; Shin, Young-Geun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Ahn, Dong-Kyu; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Because of development of computer and information communication, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) has been developing. There is OCR (Optical Character Recognition) of Pattern recognition technology for EDI. OCR contributed to changing many manual in the past into automation. But for the more perfect database of document, much manual is needed for excluding unnecessary recognition. To resolve this problem, we propose document form based character recognition method in this study. Proposed method is divided into document form recognition part and character recognition part. Especially, in character recognition, change character into binarization by using SVM algorithm and extract more correct feature value.

  1. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    PubMed

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character. PMID:26217753

  2. Group discriminatory power of handwritten characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomai, Catalin I.; Kshirsagar, Devika M.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2003-12-01

    Using handwritten characters we address two questions (i) what is the group identification performance of different alphabets (upper and lower case) and (ii) what are the best characters for the verification task (same writer/different writer discrimination) knowing demographic information about the writer such as ethnicity, age or sex. The Bhattacharya distance is used to rank different characters by their group discriminatory power and the k-nn classifier to measure the individual performance of characters for group identification. Given the tasks of identifying the correct gender/age/ethnicity or handedness, the accumulated performance of characters varies between 65% and 85%.

  3. Actual use scene of Han-Character for proper name and coded character set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    This article discusses the following two issues. One is overview of standardization of Han-Character in coded character set including Universal coded character set (ISO/IEC 10646), with the relation to Japanese language policy of the government. The other is the difference and particularity of Han-Character usage for proper name and difficulty to implement in ICT systems.

  4. Kannada character recognition system using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Suresh D. S.; Kamalapuram, Srinivasa K.; Kumar, Ajay B. R.

    2013-03-01

    Handwriting recognition has been one of the active and challenging research areas in the field of pattern recognition. It has numerous applications which include, reading aid for blind, bank cheques and conversion of any hand written document into structural text form. As there is no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 15 major scripts in India. In this paper an attempt is made to recognize handwritten Kannada characters using Feed Forward neural networks. A handwritten Kannada character is resized into 20x30 Pixel. The resized character is used for training the neural network. Once the training process is completed the same character is given as input to the neural network with different set of neurons in hidden layer and their recognition accuracy rate for different Kannada characters has been calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system yields good recognition accuracy rates comparable to that of other handwritten character recognition systems.

  5. An Automatic Chinese Character Maltifont Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Bor-Shenn; Chang, Kuang-Yao; Liu, Tsann-Shyong; Lin, Jang-Keng; Wu, Tieh-Min; Wu, Yung-Lai; Chang, Gan-How; Yang, Chih-Yen; Tzou, Kou-Hu

    1986-12-01

    In computerized Chinese character printing, it is infeasible to use the fully-formed character approach since there are about 8,000 Chinese characters in common use. Therefore, dot-matrix printing with a large dictionary of binary images of Chinese characters stored in memory is commonly used. To generate these Chinese character patterns in the dot-matrix form by manual operation is tedious. A better approach is to apply image processing techniques to automatically convert the image of a character into its corresponding dot-matrix pattern. We developed a system that can automatically generate a Chinese character multifont. This system includes image processing and CAD subsystems. Each input picture, consisting of about 100 Chinese characters, is scanned by a scanner. The digitized line-scanned image is processed by the image processing subsystem to form the Chinese characters by a dot matrix. The modules of the image processing subsystem include noise reducer, text detector, adaptive threshold, slicer, and size corrector. Due to the effect of quantization error, there are some defects in these digitized Chinese characters. The CAD subsystem is used to trim these characters. The modules of the CAD subsystem include radical extractor, radical classifier , radical generator, radical copier, stroke extractor, and stroke trimmer. This system can automatically generate Chinese characters in a wide range of resolutions ( 24x24 to 240x240 ) and in any specified font, such as Sung style, Ming style, Formal style, Running style, and Script style of Chinese characters. Using the proposed system, we have generated about 160,000 Chinese characters, which consist of five styles in four dif-ferent resolutions. The advantages of this system are time saving, cost saving and high quality.

  6. Mediated Character of Economic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanic, Josip; Bertovic, Igor; Kasac, Josip

    2003-06-01

    Economic interactions are conducted between economic agents - individuals and collectives, through exchange of natural or artificial entities - goods, services and money, in a myriad of combinations. In this article we adopt a microscopic point of view, concentrate on the exchanged entities, and extract their relevant attributes as seen from structurally simple economic processes. Following that, we approach the interpretation of the economic interactions with their mediated character emphasized. Mediators of the interaction are locally available environment units. They are locally recognized and appropriately interpreted in a given value set as goods and money. The overall intensity of economic interactions considered is related to mediators' spatial and temporal characteristics. Extracted characteristics of mediators and economic processes are compacted in the set of formal rules. The approach is connected with similar approaches in economy and physics.

  7. Documentation for the machine-readable character coded version of the SKYMAP catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The SKYMAP catalogue is a compilation of astronomical data prepared primarily for purposes of attitude guidance for satellites. In addition to the SKYMAP Master Catalogue data base, a software package of data base management and utility programs is available. The tape version of the SKYMAP Catalogue, as received by the Astronomical Data Center (ADC), contains logical records consisting of a combination of binary and EBCDIC data. Certain character coded data in each record are redundant in that the same data are present in binary form. In order to facilitate wider use of all SKYMAP data by the astronomical community, a formatted (character) version was prepared by eliminating all redundant character data and converting all binary data to character form. The character version of the catalogue is described. The document is intended to fully describe the formatted tape so that users can process the data problems and guess work; it should be distributed with any character version of the catalogue.

  8. Nonuniform character of the population of spin projections K for a fissile nucleus at the scission point and anisotropies in the angular distributions of fragments originating from the induced fission of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. S.

    2012-11-15

    It is shown that the emergence of anisotropies in the angular distributions of fragments originating from the spontaneous and induced fission of oriented actinide nuclei is possible only if nonuniformities in the population of the projectionsM (K) of the fissile-nucleus spin onto the z axis of the laboratory frame (fissile-nucleus symmetry axis) appear simultaneously in the vicinity of the scission point but not in the vicinity of the outer saddle point of the deformation potential. The possibilities for creating the orientation of fissile nuclei for spontaneous and induced fission and the effect of these orientations on the anisotropies under analysis are considered. The role of Coriolis interaction as a unique source of the mixing of different-K fissile-nucleus states at all stages of the fission process is studied with allowance for the dynamical enhancement of this interaction for excited thermalized states of the nucleus involved that is characterized by a high energy density. It is shown that the absence of thermalization of excited states of the fissile nucleus that appear because of the effect of nonadiabaticity of its collective deformation motion in the vicinity of the scission point is a condition of conservation of the influence that transition fission states formed at the inner and outer fission barriers exerts on the distribution of the spin projections K for lowenergy spontaneous nuclear fission. It is confirmed that anisotropies observed in the angular distributions of fragments originating from the fission of nuclei that is induced by fast light particles (multiply charged ions) are due to the appearance of strongly excited equilibrium(nonequilibrium) states of the fissile nucleus in the vicinity of its scission point that have a Gibbs (non-Gibbs) distribution of projections K.

  9. Spectrum of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-04-01

    Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric. PMID:27140772

  10. Detecting Character Dependencies in Stochastic Models of Evolution.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Deeparnab; Kannan, Sampath; Tian, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Stochastic models of biological evolution generally assume that different characters (runs of the stochastic process) are independent and identically distributed. In this article we determine the asymptotic complexity of detecting dependence for some fairly general models of evolution, but simple models of dependence. A key difference from much of the previous work is that our algorithms work without knowledge of the tree topology. Specifically, we consider various stochastic models of evolution ranging from the common ones used by biologists (such as Cavender-Farris-Neyman and Jukes-Cantor models) to very general ones where evolution of different characters can be governed by different transition matrices on each edge of the evolutionary tree (phylogeny). We also consider several models of dependence between two characters. In the most specific model, on each edge of the phylogeny the joint distribution of the dependent characters undergoes a perturbation of a fixed magnitude, in a fixed direction from what it would be if the characters were evolving independently. More general dependence models don't require such a strong "signal." Instead they only require that on each edge, the perturbation of the joint distribution has a significant component in a specific direction. Our main results are nearly tight bounds on the induced or operator norm of the transition matrices that would allow us to detect dependence efficiently for most models of evolution and dependence that we consider. We make essential use of a new concentration result for multistate random variables of a Markov random field on arbitrary trivalent trees: We show that the random variable counting the number of leaves in any particular state has variance that is subquadratic in the number of leaves. PMID:26744770

  11. Evaluation of Interface Boundaries in 9Cr-1Mo Steel After Thermal and Thermomechanical Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, T.; Dash, Manmath Kumar; Saroja, S.; Vijayalakshmi, M.

    2013-04-01

    The grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) and microstructure in 9Cr-1Mo ferritic/martensitic steel subjected to different heat treatments and thermomechanical treatments (TMTs) have been evaluated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Microstructures obtained through displacive transformation of high-temperature austenite yielded higher amounts of Σ1-29 coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries (from 29 to 38 pct) compared with the ferrite grains obtained by diffusional transformation (~16 pct) or by recrystallization process (~14 pct). Specifically, the low-angle (Σ1), Σ3, Σ11, and Σ25b boundaries were enhanced in the tempered martensite substructure, whereas the prior austenite grain boundaries were largely of random type. Misorientation between the product ferrite variants for ideal orientation relationships during austenite transformation was calculated and compared with CSL misorientation to find its proximity based on Brandon's criteria. The observed enhancements in Σ1, Σ3, and Σ11 could be interpreted based on Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) relation, but Nishiyama-Wassermann (N-W) relation was needed to understand Σ25b formation. The amounts of CSL boundaries in the tempered martensite structure were not significantly influenced by austenite grain size or the kinetics of martensitic transformation. In mixed microstructures of "polygonal ferrite + tempered martensite", the frequencies of CSL boundaries were found to systematically decrease with increasing amounts of diffusional/recrystallized ferrite.

  12. MOLA Topographic Variations Along the Crustal Dichotomy Boundary Zone in Eastern and Western Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H; Sakimoto, S.; Roark, J.

    1999-01-01

    The topographic character of the martian crustal dichotomy boundary zone changes along the boundary, as does the morphological character of the boundary itself. Overall the elevation change from lowland plains to cratered uplands has the character of a step function, but the magnitude of the step and the slope of the ramp in the transition zone between the two relatively flat surfaces is different in different areas. Especially prominent is the difference between the boundaries in Deuteronilus-Ismenius Lacus and in Tempe Terra: Total relief in the transition zone in central Tempe is significantly greater than that in most of the eastern boundary zone. The correlation of topography with changing morphological character and mapped geologic units suggests that different parts of the boundary had different modification histories, and, perhaps, different origins as well.

  13. Boundary issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  14. Albedo Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-510, 11 October 2003

    The sharp, nearly straight line that runs diagonally across the center of this April 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an albedo boundary. Albedois a term that refers to reflectance of sunlight. A surface with a low albedo is one that appears dark because it reflects less light than a high albedo (bright) surface. On Mars, albedo boundaries occur between two materials of differing texture, particle size, or composition, or some combination of these three factors. The boundary shown here is remarkable because it is so sharp and straight. This is caused by wind. Most likely, the entire surface was once covered with the lower-albedo (darker) material that is now seen in the upper half of the image. At some later time, wind stripped away this darker material from the surfaces in the lower half of the image. The difference in albedo here might be related to composition, and possibly particle size. This picture is located near the southwest rim of Schiaparelli Basin at 5.5oS, 345.9oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  15. A comparison of ancestral state reconstruction methods for quantitative characters.

    PubMed

    Royer-Carenzi, Manuela; Didier, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Choosing an ancestral state reconstruction method among the alternatives available for quantitative characters may be puzzling. We present here a comparison of seven of them, namely the maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, generalized least squares under Brownian, Brownian-with-trend and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models, phylogenetic independent contrasts and squared parsimony methods. A review of the relations between these methods shows that the maximum likelihood, the restricted maximum likelihood and the generalized least squares under Brownian model infer the same ancestral states and can only be distinguished by the distributions accounting for the reconstruction uncertainty which they provide. The respective accuracy of the methods is assessed over character evolution simulated under a Brownian motion with (and without) directional or stabilizing selection. We give the general form of ancestral state distributions conditioned on leaf states under the simulation models. Ancestral distributions are used first, to give a theoretical lower bound of the expected reconstruction error, and second, to develop an original evaluation scheme which is more efficient than comparing the reconstructed and the simulated states. Our simulations show that: (i) the distributions of the reconstruction uncertainty provided by the methods generally make sense (some more than others); (ii) it is essential to detect the presence of an evolutionary trend and to choose a reconstruction method accordingly; (iii) all the methods show good performances on characters under stabilizing selection; (iv) without trend or stabilizing selection, the maximum likelihood method is generally the most accurate. PMID:27234644

  16. Quantifying Magnitude, Timing, And Distribution of Mass Flux at a River-Aquifer Boundary using Head and Temperature Response to Step and Seasonal Changes in River Stage and a Variable River Edge Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, M. J.; Barrash, W.; Bradford, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    -year simulations were run to quantify mass and energy flux at the river-aquifer boundary. Physical changes in boundary conditions, particularly river bank position and river wetted perimeter, produce significant alterations to the flow regime and must be incorporated into the model to correctly estimate riverbed and aquifer parameters and to accurately evaluate river-aquifer fluxes.

  17. Complex root networks of Chinese characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Po-Han; Chen, Jia-Ling; Wang, Po-Cheng; Chi, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Zhi-Ren; Jhang, Zih-Jian; Yeh, Yeong-Nan; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Hu, Chin-Kun

    There are several sets of Chinese characters still available today, including Oracle Bone Inscriptions (OBI) in Shang Dynasty, Chu characters (CC) used in Chu of Warring State Period, Small Seal Script in dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (SJ) in Eastern Han Dynasty, and Kangxi Dictionary (KD) in Qing Dynasty. Such as Chinese characters were all constructed via combinations of meaningful patterns, called roots. Our studies for the complex networks of all roots indicate that the roots of the characters in OBI, CC, SJ and KD have characteristics of small world networks and scale-free networks.

  18. Rank-frequency relation for Chinese characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Weibing; Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Li, Bo; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2014-02-01

    We show that the Zipf's law for Chinese characters perfectly holds for sufficiently short texts (few thousand different characters). The scenario of its validity is similar to the Zipf's law for words in short English texts. For long Chinese texts (or for mixtures of short Chinese texts), rank-frequency relations for Chinese characters display a two-layer, hierarchic structure that combines a Zipfian power-law regime for frequent characters (first layer) with an exponential-like regime for less frequent characters (second layer). For these two layers we provide different (though related) theoretical descriptions that include the range of low-frequency characters (hapax legomena). We suggest that this hierarchic structure of the rank-frequency relation connects to semantic features of Chinese characters (number of different meanings and homographies). The comparative analysis of rank-frequency relations for Chinese characters versus English words illustrates the extent to which the characters play for Chinese writers the same role as the words for those writing within alphabetical systems.

  19. On the Character of Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Annila, Arto

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together, or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature's hierarchy. PMID:27065819

  20. On the Character of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Annila, Arto

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together, or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature's hierarchy. PMID:27065819

  1. Improving Student Achievement through Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finck, Chip; Hansen, Cynthia; Jensen, Jane

    This report describes a program for improving moral character to increase academic achievement. Targeted population consisted of middle school students in a growing middle class community in a northern suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem, an absence of proper moral character, was documented through data collected from discipline referrals to…

  2. Character Education, K-12, in Uniondale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Seinik, Cynthia; McCarthy, Margaret; Nadal, Kathleen; Pfeiffer, Deborah; Tella, Adeola; Wagner, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    The Uniondale, New York School District and community believe that their character education program creates a safe and positive environment for their students. Through character education, they are increasing students' social competence and reducing students' aggressive behaviors. Their school district's goal is to build a district and school…

  3. Moral and Character Development in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmon, Terri; And Others

    This paper addresses the pros and cons educators may encounter if they are involved in a character education program. Those supporting a character education program offer the following reasons: (1) decline of a traditional family structure; (2) erosion of the values system of key institutions; (3) the position of schools as the second most…

  4. Character Development Practices in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Vernon L.

    2010-01-01

    Character Development continues to be the all too unintentional elephant in the room of Higher Education. This project looked at what character development practices are being accomplished and who in higher education is making it happen. No longer satisfied with leaving the task to elementary and secondary education, higher education has begun to…

  5. Character Education. What Works Clearinghouse Topic Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Character education is a fairly new and rapidly evolving topic for curriculum interventions. Character can encompass such moral and ethical values as respect, fairness, and caring -- as well as responsibility, trustworthiness, and citizenship. It can refer to the demonstration of these values in behavior, reasoning, and emotions. The What Works…

  6. Character Education, New Media, and Political Spectacle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's new Character Development Initiative is analyzed to determine whether it can be characterized as political spectacle. Examination of official policy texts, media reports, speeches, web pages, webcasts, and events at the Character Development Symposium suggests that the Initiative contains many elements of political spectacle; however,…

  7. Character Education Provides Focus for Advisory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitte, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of a middle school advisory program based in character education. Includes descriptions of class activities to introduce character education emphasizing respect, perseverance, integrity, citizenship, trustworthiness, responsibility, compassion, honesty, self-discipline, and fairness. Notes that the advisory program resulted…

  8. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  9. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must not...

  10. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must not...

  11. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  12. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  13. Factors Influencing the Learning of Chinese Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Ko-Yin; Wu, Hsiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 108 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the United States, intended to address the research questions, "What types of Chinese-character learning strategies do US learners use?" and "Do US learners' Chinese-character learning strategy use differ based on the…

  14. Portrayal of Older Characters in Children's Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almerico, Gina M.; Fillmer, Thompson

    1988-01-01

    Examined portrayal of older characters in 1985 issues (N=101) of 11 children's magazines. Results indicated older characters were not victims of blatant discrimination, but subtle hints of prejudice were present in the stories. Concluded that the messages to young readers regarding the elderly were mixed and inaccurate. (Author/ABL)

  15. Character, Civility, and the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    As the educational community works together to improve academic achievement, the importance of character traits such as honesty, trustworthiness, self discipline, kindness, empathy, respect, responsibility, and courage must not be neglected. This guide has been designed to help educators and families in Massachusetts link character development and…

  16. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  17. Boundary treatments for 2D elliptic mesh generation in complex geometries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a boundary treatment method for 2D elliptic mesh generation in complex geometries. Corresponding to Neumann- Dirichlet boundary conditions (sliding boundary conditions), the proposed method aims at achieving orthogonal and smooth nodal distribution along irregular boundaries. In ...

  18. End-boundary sheath potential, Langmuir waves, electron and ion energy distribution in the low pressure DC powered Non-ambipolar Electron Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lee; Chen, Zhiying; Funk, Merritt

    2013-09-01

    The non-ambipolar electron plasma (NEP) is heated by electron beam extracted from the electron-source Ar plasma through a dielectric injector by an accelerator located inside NEP. NEP pressure is in the 1-3mTorr range of N2 and its accelerator voltage varied from VA = + 80 to VA = + 600V. The non-ambipolar beam-current injected into NEP is in the range of 10s Acm-2 and it heats NEP through beam-plasma instabilities. Its EED f has a Maxwellian bulk followed by a broad energy-continuum connecting to the most energetic group with energies above the beam-energy. The remnant of the injected electron-beam power terminates at the NEP end-boundary floating-surface setting up sheath potentials from VS = 80 to VS = 580V in response to the applied values of VA. The floating-surface is bombarded by a space-charge neutral plasma-beam whose IED f is near mono-energetic. When the injected electron-beam power is adequately damped by NEP, its end-boundary floating-surface VS can be linearly controlled at almost 1:1 ratio by VA. NEP does not have an electron-free sheath; its ``sheath'' is a widen presheath that consists of a thermal presheath followed by an ``anisotropic'' presheath, leading up to the end-boundary floating-surface. Its ion-current of the plasma-beam is much higher than what a conventional thermal presheath can supply. If the NEP parameters cannot damp the electron beam power sufficiently, VS will collapse and becomes irresponsive to VA.

  19. Keys to Chinese Character Writing. Step-by-Step Directions to Writing Characters Quickly and Easily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jing Heng Sheng

    The most interesting and challenging aspect of studying Chinese is writing Chinese characters. Unfortunately, the learning of Chinese characters receives only marginal attention in a typical classroom. Given that vocabularies in textbooks are based on spoken language rather than the principles of character formation, and also given the pressures…

  20. A Missing Piece of the Contemporary Character Education Puzzle: The Individualisation of Moral Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The different sorts of virtuous people who display various virtues to a remarkable degree have brought the issue of individualisation of moral character to the forefront. It signals a more personal dimension of character development which is notoriously ignored in the current discourse on character education. The case is made that since in…

  1. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the amount of

  2. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

  3. WARACS: Wrappers to Automate the Reconstruction of Ancestral Character States1

    PubMed Central

    Gruenstaeudl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Reconstructions of ancestral character states are among the most widely used analyses for evaluating the morphological, cytological, or ecological evolution of an organismic lineage. The software application Mesquite remains the most popular application for such reconstructions among plant scientists, even though its support for automating complex analyses is limited. A software tool is needed that automates the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states with Mesquite and similar applications. Methods and Results: A set of command line–based Python scripts was developed that (a) communicates standardized input to and output from the software applications Mesquite, BayesTraits, and TreeGraph2; (b) automates the process of ancestral character state reconstruction; and (c) facilitates the visualization of reconstruction results. Conclusions: WARACS provides a simple tool that streamlines the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states over a wide array of parameters, including tree distribution, character state, and optimality criterion. PMID:26949580

  4. The distribution of superficial zone protein (SZP)/lubricin/PRG4 and boundary mode frictional properties of the bovine diarthrodial joint.

    PubMed

    Peng, Gordon; McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2015-09-18

    The diarthrodial, knee joint is a remarkably efficient bearing system; articulating cartilage surfaces provide nearly frictionless performance with minimal wear. The low friction properties of the cartilage surfaces are due in part to the boundary lubricant, superficial zone protein (SZP); also known as lubricin or proteoglycan 4 (PRG4). In previous work, SZP localization and cartilage friction were examined across the femoral condyles. Studies in the literature have also individually investigated the other tissues that comprise the human knee and four-legged animal stifle joint, such as the meniscus or patella. However, comparisons between individual studies are limited due to the variable testing conditions employed. Friction is a system property that is dependent on the opposing articulating surface, entraining speed, and loading. A cross-comparison of the frictional properties and SZP localization across the knee/stifle joint tissues utilizing a common testing configuration is therefore needed. The objective of this investigation was to determine the friction coefficient and SZP localization of the tissues comprising the three compartments of the bovine stifle joint: patella, patellofemoral groove, femoral condyles, meniscus, tibial plateau, and anterior cruciate ligament. The boundary mode coefficient of friction was greater in tissues of the patellofemoral compartment than the lateral and medial tibiofemoral compartments. SZP immunolocalization followed this trend with reduced depth of staining and intensity in the patella and patellofemoral groove compared to the femoral condyles and tibial plateau. These results illustrate the important role of SZP in reducing friction in the tissues and compartments of the knee/stifle joint. PMID:26117076

  5. Postural Instability Detection: Aging and the Complexity of Spatial-Temporal Distributional Patterns for Virtually Contacting the Stability Boundary in Human Stance

    PubMed Central

    Kilby, Melissa C.; Slobounov, Semyon M.; Newell, Karl M.

    2014-01-01

    Falls among the older population can severely restrict their functional mobility and even cause death. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms and conditions that cause falls, for which it is important to develop a predictive model of falls. One critical quantity for postural instability detection and prediction is the instantaneous stability of quiet upright stance based on motion data. However, well-established measures in the field of motor control that quantify overall postural stability using center-of-pressure (COP) or center-of-mass (COM) fluctuations are inadequate predictors of instantaneous stability. For this reason, 2D COP/COM virtual-time-to-contact (VTC) is investigated to detect the postural stability deficits of healthy older people compared to young adults. VTC predicts the temporal safety margin to the functional stability boundary ( =  limits of the region of feasible COP or COM displacement) and, therefore, provides an index of the risk of losing postural stability. The spatial directions with increased instability were also determined using quantities of VTC that have not previously been considered. Further, Lempel-Ziv-Complexity (LZC), a measure suitable for on-line monitoring of stability/instability, was applied to explore the temporal structure or complexity of VTC and the predictability of future postural instability based on previous behavior. These features were examined as a function of age, vision and different load weighting on the legs. The primary findings showed that for old adults the stability boundary was contracted and VTC reduced. Furthermore, the complexity decreased with aging and the direction with highest postural instability also changed in aging compared to the young adults. The findings reveal the sensitivity of the time dependent properties of 2D VTC to the detection of postural instability in aging, availability of visual information and postural stance and potential applicability as a predictive

  6. Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.

  7. Character Development: Renewing an Old Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Growing public concern with student discipline, increases in student suicide rates, homicides, and high pregnancy rates of teenage girls are causing educators to give renewed attention to the concept of "character development" in public education. (MD)

  8. Building character: a model for reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charles S; Babelay, Allison M

    2009-09-01

    In 1950, Harrison and colleagues proposed that the physician's ultimate and sufficient destiny should be to "build an enduring edifice of character." Recent work in philosophy underscores the importance of character ethics (virtue ethics) as a complement to ethical systems based on duty (deontology) or results (consequentialism). Recent work in psychology suggests that virtues and character strengths can, to at least some extent, be analyzed and taught. Building character might be enhanced by promoting among students, residents, and faculty a four-step method of reflective practice that includes (1) the details of a situation, (2) the relevant virtues, (3) the relevant principles, values, and ethical frameworks, and (4) the range of acceptable courses of action. Exercises using such a model bring together the major goals of ethics education in U.S. medical schools--teaching the set of skills needed for resolving ethical dilemmas and promoting virtue and professionalism among physicians. PMID:19707072

  9. How jurors use and misuse character evidence.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jennifer S; Budesheim, Thomas Lee

    2004-04-01

    The Federal Rules of Evidence allow defendants to offer testimony about their good character, but that testimony can be impeached with cross-examination or a rebuttal witness. It is assumed that jurors use the defense's character evidence (CE) to form guilt and conviction judgments but use impeachment evidence only to assess the character witness's credibility. Two experiments tested these assumptions by presenting mock jurors with various forms of CE and impeachment. Participants made trait ratings for the character witness and defendant and guilt and conviction judgments. Positive CE did not affect guilt or conviction judgments, but cross-examination caused a backlash in which judgments were harsher than when no CE was given. Using path analysis, the authors tested a model of the process by which CE and impeachment affect defendant and witness impressions and guilt and conviction judgments. Implications for juror decision making are discussed. PMID:15065980

  10. Changing the Structure Boundary Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Karasev, Viktor; Dzlieva, Elena; Ivanov, Artyom

    2008-09-07

    Analysis of previously obtained results shows that hexagonal crystal lattice is the dominant type of ordering, in particular, in striated glow discharges. We explore the possibility for changing the dust distribution in horizontal cross sections of relatively highly ordered structures in a glow-discharge. Presuming that boundary geometry can affect dust distribution, we used cylindrical coolers held at 0 deg. C and placed against a striation containing a structure, to change the geometry of its outer boundary. By varying the number of coolers, their positions, and their separations from the tube wall, azimuthally asymmetric thermophoretic forces can be used to form polygonal boundaries and vary the angles between their segments (in a horizontal cross section). The corner in the structure's boundary of 60 deg. stimulates formation of hexagonal cells. The structure between the supported parallel boundaries is also characterized by stable hexagonal ordering. We found that a single linear boundary segment does not give rise to any sizable domain, but generates a lattice extending from the boundary (without edge defects). A square lattice can be formed by setting the angle equal to 90 deg. . However, angles of 45 deg. and 135 deg. turned out easier to form. Square lattice was created by forming a near-135 deg. corner with four coolers. It was noted that no grain ordering is observed in the region adjacent to corners of angles smaller than 30 deg. , which do not promote ordering into cells of any shape. Thus, manipulation of a structure boundary can be used to change dust distribution, create structures free of the ubiquitous edge defects that destroy orientation order, and probably change the crystal lattice type.

  11. Analysis of transfer processes through plasma boundaries of the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Liudmyla; Savin, Sergey; Lui, Anthony Tat Yin; Prokhorenkov, Andrew

    Studying the fundamental properties of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere found superdiffusion processes in the boundary layers space plasma and 'distant' transfer mechanism (the influence of local microprocesses to global, and vice versa). Since the developed turbulence is characterized by a great number of degrees of freedom, nonlinearly interacting modes, multi-scale structure and random fluctuations of velocities so that the methods of statistical physics and theory of probability are most suitable for its description. In this study based on the mission Cluster measurements the characteristic turbulent regions in the boundary layers of Earth’s magnetosphere are being separated and the statistical characteristics are being obtained, which determine the transfer processes through plasma boundaries. Meanwhile, the set of different techniques was used which are based on the analysis of fluctuation distribution function and its moments. For the analysis of the turbulent processes we have carried out an investigation of structure functions for different orders and studied diffusion processes in different regions determined by a character of the dependence of the generalized diffusion coefficient on time. Basing on the results of studying structural functions of various orders, the conclusion is drawn that small scale turbulence in the foreshock, magnetosheath, turbulent boundary layer is described by different phenomenological models. Besides, we have obtained an increase of diffusion coefficient with time for the regions of magnetosheath. The work is done in the frame of complex program of NAS of Ukraine on space researches for 2012-1016, within the framework of the educational program No.2201250 “Education, Training of students, PhD students, scientific and pedagogical staff abroad” launched by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine and under a partial support of the grant No. F 53.2/039.

  12. Importance of soil moisture and N availability to larch growth and distribution in the Arctic taiga-tundra boundary ecosystem, northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Maochang; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Tei, Shunsuke; Bragin, Ivan V.; Takano, Shinya; Morozumi, Tomoki; Shingubara, Ryo; Maximov, Trofim C.; Kiyashko, Serguei I.; Velivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Ignatiev, Alexander V.

    2014-12-01

    To better understand the factors controlling the growth of larch trees in Arctic taiga-tundra boundary ecosystem, we conducted field measurements of photosynthesis, tree size, nitrogen (N) content, and isotopic ratios in larch needles and soil. In addition, we observed various environmental parameters, including topography and soil moisture at four sites in the Indigirka River Basin, near Chokurdakh, northeastern Siberia. Most living larch trees grow on mounds with relatively high elevations and dry soils, indicating intolerance of high soil moisture. We found that needle δ13C was positively correlated with needle N content and needle mass, and these parameters showed spatial patterns similar to that of tree size. These results indicate that trees with high needle N content achieved higher rates of photosynthesis, which resulted in larger amounts of C assimilation and larger C allocation to needles and led to larger tree size than trees with lower needle N content. A positive correlation was also found between needle N content and soil NH 4 + pool. Thus, soil inorganic N pool may indicate N availability, which is reflected in the needle N content of the larch trees. Microtopography plays a principal role in N availability, through a change in soil moisture. Relatively dryer soil of mounds with higher elevation and larger extent causes higher rates of soil N production, leading to increased N availability for plants, in addition to larger rooting space for trees to uptake more N.

  13. Free-Stream Boundaries of Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrsin, Stanley; Kistler, Alan L

    1955-01-01

    Report presents the results of an experimental and theoretical study made of the instantaneously sharp and irregular front which is always found to separate turbulent fluid from contiguous "nonturbulent" fluid at a free-stream boundary. This distinct demarcation is known to give an intermittent character to hot-wire signals in the boundary zone. The overall behavior of the front is described statistically in terms of its wrinkle-amplitude growth and its lateral propagation relative to the fluid as functions of downstream coordinate.

  14. Across-shelf distribution of blue mussel larvae in the northern Gulf of Maine: consequences for population connectivity and a species range boundary.

    PubMed

    Yund, Philip O; Tilburg, Charles E; McCartney, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Studies of population connectivity have largely focused on along-shelf, as opposed to across-shelf, processes. We hypothesized that a discontinuity in across-shelf mixing caused by the divergence of the Eastern Maine Coastal Current (EMCC) from shore acts as an ecological barrier to the supply of mussel larvae to the coast. Existing data on the relative abundance of two congeneric blue mussels, Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus, were analysed to quantify the association of M. trossulus with the colder temperature signal of the EMCC and generate larval distribution predictions. We then sampled the across-shelf distribution of larvae along two transects during 2011. Larvae were identified using restriction digests of PCR amplicons from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA. Mytilus edulis larvae were consistently abundant on either the inshore and offshore transect ends, but not homogeneously distributed across the shelf, while M. trossulus larvae were less common throughout the study area. The divergence of the EMCC from shore appears to create a break in the connectivity of M. edulis populations by isolating those inshore of the EMCC from upstream larval sources. Across-shelf transport processes can thus produce connectivity patterns that would not be predicted solely on the basis of along-shelf processes. PMID:27018654

  15. Across-shelf distribution of blue mussel larvae in the northern Gulf of Maine: consequences for population connectivity and a species range boundary

    PubMed Central

    Yund, Philip O.; Tilburg, Charles E.; McCartney, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of population connectivity have largely focused on along-shelf, as opposed to across-shelf, processes. We hypothesized that a discontinuity in across-shelf mixing caused by the divergence of the Eastern Maine Coastal Current (EMCC) from shore acts as an ecological barrier to the supply of mussel larvae to the coast. Existing data on the relative abundance of two congeneric blue mussels, Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus, were analysed to quantify the association of M. trossulus with the colder temperature signal of the EMCC and generate larval distribution predictions. We then sampled the across-shelf distribution of larvae along two transects during 2011. Larvae were identified using restriction digests of PCR amplicons from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA. Mytilus edulis larvae were consistently abundant on either the inshore and offshore transect ends, but not homogeneously distributed across the shelf, while M. trossulus larvae were less common throughout the study area. The divergence of the EMCC from shore appears to create a break in the connectivity of M. edulis populations by isolating those inshore of the EMCC from upstream larval sources. Across-shelf transport processes can thus produce connectivity patterns that would not be predicted solely on the basis of along-shelf processes. PMID:27018654

  16. Boundary layer aerosol size distribution, mass concentration and mineralogical composition in Morocco and at Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM I-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) is dedicated to the understanding of the radiative effects of mineral dust. Two major field experiments were performed: A first joint field campaign took place at Ouarzazate and near Zagora, southern Morocco, from May 13 to June 7, 2006. Aircraft and ground based measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out to collect a data set of surface and atmospheric columnar information within a major dust source. This data set combined with satellite data provides the base of the first thorough columnar radiative closure tests in Saharan dust. A second field experiment was conducted during January-February 2008, in the Cape Verde Islands region, where about 300 Tg of mineral dust are transported annually from Western Africa across the Atlantic towards the Caribbean Sea and the Amazon basin. Along its transport path, the mineral dust is expected to influence significantly the radiation budget - by direct and indirect effects - of the subtropical North Atlantic. We are lacking a radiative closure in the Saharan air plume. One focus of the investigation within the trade wind region is the spatial distribution of mixed dust/biomass/sea salt aerosol and their physical and chemical properties, especially with regard to radiative effects. We report on measurements of size distributions, mass concentrations and mineralogical composition conducted at the Zagora (Morocco) and Praia (Cape Verde islands) ground stations. The aerosol size distribution was measured from 20 nm to 500

  17. 26 CFR 1.669(f)-1A - Character of capital gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Character of capital gain. 1.669(f)-1A Section 1... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(f)-1A Character of capital gain. Amounts distributed as a capital gain... the gain had with respect to the trust. Thus, a capital gain that was taxed to the trust as a...

  18. Coal and coalbed-methane resources in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins: maps showing the distribution of coal fields, coal beds, and coalbed-methane fields: Chapter D.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Milici, Robert C.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    The study area for most reports in this volume is the Appalachian basin. The term “Appalachian basin study area” (shortened from “Appalachian basin geologic framework study area”) includes all of the Appalachian Basin Province (Province 67) and part of the neighboring Black Warrior Basin Province (Province 65) of Dolton and others (1995). The boundaries for these two provinces and the study area are shown on figure 1.

  19. Age differences in tracking characters during narrative comprehension.

    PubMed

    Noh, Soo Rim; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2009-09-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. We investigated age differences in this process during narrative comprehension. In Experiment 1, we used a probe recognition paradigm to examine the effect of age on the accessibility of a previous character when another character was subsequently introduced. In Experiment 2, reading time was measured to examine age differences in the encoding of a new character after another had already been introduced. Our findings show that older readers have particular difficulty both in accessing the initial character after a new character is introduced and in thoroughly encoding a new character while other characters inhabit the discourse world. We attribute these differences to age differences in working memory that make it difficult to access a backgrounded character when a new character is in focus and to distinctively encode a new character when maintenance of another character is already consuming attentional resources. PMID:19679857

  20. Airborne determination of the temporo-spatial distribution of benzene, toluene, nitrogen oxides and ozone in the boundary layer across Greater London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, M. D.; Lee, J. D.; Davison, B.; Vaughan, A.; Purvis, R. M.; Harvey, A.; Lewis, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2015-05-01

    Highly spatially resolved mixing ratios of benzene and toluene, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) were measured in the atmospheric boundary layer above Greater London during the period 24 June to 9 July 2013 using a Dornier 228 aircraft. Toluene and benzene were determined in situ using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), NOx by dual-channel NOx chemiluminescence and O3 mixing ratios by UV absorption. Average mixing ratios observed over inner London at 360 ± 10 m a.g.l. were 0.20 ± 0.05, 0.28 ± 0.07, 13.2 ± 8.6, 21.0 ± 7.3 and 34.3 ± 15.2 ppbv for benzene, toluene, NO, NO2 and NOx respectively. Linear regression analysis between NO2, benzene and toluene mixing ratios yields a strong covariance, indicating that these compounds predominantly share the same or co-located sources within the city. Average mixing ratios measured at 360 ± 10 m a.g.l. over outer London were always lower than over inner London. Where traffic densities were highest, the toluene / benzene (T / B) concentration ratios were highest (average of 1.8 ± 0.5 ppbv ppbv-1), indicative of strong local sources. Daytime maxima in NOx, benzene and toluene mixing ratios were observed in the morning (~ 40 ppbv NOx, ~ 350 pptv toluene and ~ 200 pptv benzene) and in the mid-afternoon for ozone (~ 40 ppbv O3), all at 360 ± 10 m a.g.l.

  1. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:26379562

  2. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:26379562

  3. Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at low levels (m = 3, 4, 5) are presented as well as a sketch of some proofs. The first identity gives the Ising model characters (m = 3) as bilinears in tricritical Ising model characters (m = 4), while the second one gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model.

  4. Structural Features and Gas Hydrate Distribution Across the Boundary of the Submarine Taiwan Accretionary Wedge and Passive China Continental Margin Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, W.; Liu, C.; Lin, C.; Hsu, H.; Ko, C.; Chen, S.; Chung, S.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzes a 3D seismic data volume in the upper reach of the Penghu Submarine Canyon for gas hydrate investigation. This 3D seismic data set runs across the deformation front which separates the passive China continental slope from the Taiwan accretionary wedge. Bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) are widely distributed in the study area which suggests that gas hydrates are present in both the extensional and compressive structure domains. We use 3D seismic images to map the spatial distribution of BSRs, and to identify structural and sedimentary features across the deformation front. Seismic attribute analysis of the 3D seismic volume has been performed which helps to reveal structure details and physical properties of the substrata. Our study identifies detailed structural variations across the deformation front: In the passive continental slope domain, besides normal faults, buried submarine canyons and paleo-topography of the continental slope before the arc-continent collision are recognized, while in the accretionay wedge domain, the fold and thrust structures dominate. BSR distribution in the 3D box correlates well with the seafloor topography, buried channels and fluid migration paths, we suggest that there may be different gas hydrate systems for the passive continental slope and for the accretionary wedge domains. As the Penghu Submarine Canyon is an important conduit offshore southwestern Taiwan for transporting terrestrial and shallow marine sediments, we suggest that the buried channels that filled with coarse-grain sediments could be good reservoirs for gas hydrates and free gases. Accurate substrata velocity models derived from a large-offset 2D seismic profile data in the study area will help us to better estimate the gas hydrate concentration in those reservoirs.

  5. Orbital characters and electronic correlations in KCo2Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Zhao, Y. G.; Li, Y.; Jia, L. L.; Cai, Y. P.; Zhou, S.; Xia, T. L.; Büchner, B.; Borisenko, S. V.; Wang, S. C.

    2015-07-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the tridimensional nature and orbital characters of the low-energy electronic structure in KCo2Se2, using polarization- and photon energy-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observed one electron-like Fermi surface (FS) at the Brillouin zone (BZ) center, four electron-like FSs centered at the BZ corner, and one hole-like FS at the BZ boundary. The FSs show weak dispersion along the kz direction, indicating the near-two-dimensional nature of FSs in KCo2Se2. In combination with the local-density approximation calculations, we determined the orbital characters of the low-energy electronic bands, which are mainly derived from the Co 3d orbital, mixed with part of the Se 4p states. The {{d}{{x2}-{{y}2}}} orbital gives a significant contribution to the band crossing the Fermi level. A band renormalization of about 1.6 is needed to capture the essential dispersive features, which suggests that electronic correlations are much weaker than that in KyFe2-xSe2.

  6. Orbital characters and electronic correlations in KCo2Se2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z H; Zhao, Y G; Li, Y; Jia, L L; Cai, Y P; Zhou, S; Xia, T L; Büchner, B; Borisenko, S V; Wang, S C

    2015-07-29

    We report a comprehensive study of the tridimensional nature and orbital characters of the low-energy electronic structure in KCo2Se2, using polarization- and photon energy-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observed one electron-like Fermi surface (FS) at the Brillouin zone (BZ) center, four electron-like FSs centered at the BZ corner, and one hole-like FS at the BZ boundary. The FSs show weak dispersion along the kz direction, indicating the near-two-dimensional nature of FSs in KCo2Se2. In combination with the local-density approximation calculations, we determined the orbital characters of the low-energy electronic bands, which are mainly derived from the Co 3d orbital, mixed with part of the Se 4p states. The [Formula: see text] orbital gives a significant contribution to the band crossing the Fermi level. A band renormalization of about 1.6 is needed to capture the essential dispersive features, which suggests that electronic correlations are much weaker than that in KyFe2-xSe2. PMID:26153922

  7. MatrixConverter: Facilitating construction of phenomic character matrices1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Endara, Lorena; Burleigh, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: While numerous software packages enable scientists to evaluate molecular data and transform them for phylogenetic analyses, few such tools exist for phenomic data. We introduce MatrixConverter, a program that helps expedite and facilitate the transformation of raw phenomic character data into discrete character matrices that can be used in most evolutionary inference programs. • Methods and Results: MatrixConverter is an open source program written in Java; a platform-independent binary executable, as well as sample data sets and a user’s manual, are available at https://github.com/gburleigh/MatrixConverter/tree/master/distribution. MatrixConverter has a simple, intuitive user interface that enables the user to immediately begin scoring phenomic characters. We demonstrate the performance of MatrixConverter on a phenomic data set from cycads. • Conclusions: New technologies and software make it possible to obtain phenomic data from species across the tree of life, and MatrixConverter helps to transform these new data for evolutionary or ecological inference. PMID:25699217

  8. Boundary Layer Aerosol Composition over Sierra Nevada Mountains using 9.11- and 10.59-micron CW Lidars and Modeled Backscatter from Size Distribution Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutten, D. R.; Jarzembski, M. A.; Srivastava, V.; Pueschel, R. F.; Howard, S. D.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    An inversion technique has been developed to determine volume fractions of an atmospheric aerosol composed primarily of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate and water combined with fixed concentration of elemental and organic carbon. It is based on measured aerosol backscatter obtained with 9.11 - and 10.59-micron wavelength continuous wave CO2 lidars and modeled backscatter from aerosol size distribution data. The technique is demonstrated during a flight of the NASA DC-8 aircraft over the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, California on 19 September, 1995. Volume fraction of each component and effective complex refractive index of the composite particle were determined assuming an internally mixed composite aerosol model. The volume fractions were also used to re-compute aerosol backscatter, providing good agreement with the lidar-measured data. The robustness of the technique for determining volume fractions was extended with a comparison of calculated 2.1,-micron backscatter from size distribution data with the measured lidar data converted to 2.1,-micron backscatter using an earlier derived algorithm, verifying the algorithm as well as the backscatter calculations.

  9. Post processing for offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong

    2012-01-01

    Offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition is one of the most important research fields in pattern recognition. Due to the free writing style, large variability in character shapes and different geometric characteristics, Chinese handwritten character string recognition is a challenging problem to deal with. However, among the current methods over-segmentation and merging method which integrates geometric information, character recognition information and contextual information, shows a promising result. It is found experimentally that a large part of errors are segmentation error and mainly occur around non-Chinese characters. In a Chinese character string, there are not only wide characters namely Chinese characters, but also narrow characters like digits and letters of the alphabet. The segmentation error is mainly caused by uniform geometric model imposed on all segmented candidate characters. To solve this problem, post processing is employed to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters. On one hand, multi-geometric models are established for wide characters and narrow characters respectively. Under multi-geometric models narrow characters are not prone to be merged. On the other hand, top rank recognition results of candidate paths are integrated to boost final recognition of narrow characters. The post processing method is investigated on two datasets, in total 1405 handwritten address strings. The wide character recognition accuracy has been improved lightly and narrow character recognition accuracy has been increased up by 10.41% and 10.03% respectively. It indicates that the post processing method is effective to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters.

  10. Boundary dynamics in landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landscapes consist of a mosaic of distinct vegetation types and their intervening boundaries with distinct characteristics. Boundaries can exist along abrupt environmental gradients or along gradual changes that are reinforced by feedback mechanisms between plants and soil properties. Boundaries can...

  11. Variations in the size distribution of non-sea-salt sulfate aerosol in the marine boundary layer at Barbados: Impact of African dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Jones, X.; Prospero, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Four African mineral dust episodes occurred during a program of daily aerosol measurements at Barbados (13°15'N, 59°30'W) in April 1994. Non-sea-salt sulfate (nss SO4=) and dust were highly correlated (r2 = 0.93) and ranged from 0.5 to 4.2 μg m-3 and 0.9 to 257 μg m-3, respectively. Day-to-day variations in the size distributions of mineral dust and sea salt were relatively small. However, the coarse-particle (aerodynamic diameter > 1 μm) fraction (CPF) of nss SO4= varied substantially, from 21% to 73%. The highest CPF SO4= values were associated with dust events; the lowest CPF was associated with the air mass from the central North Atlantic when the dust concentration was lowest, 0.9 μg m-3. We suggest that large CPF SO4= values are a consequence of SO2 in European pollutants that heterogeneously react with the suspended dust over North Africa. Nonetheless, the association of pollutants and dust does not always result in a large CPF; low CPF values suggest that SO2 may have been oxidized to SO4= prior to mixing with dust-laden air. On those days when dust and pollution concentrations were low, the dominant source of nss SO4= was ascribed to oceanic dimethylsulfide (DMS) and the CPF remained close to 20%. Because such large variations can occur in the particle size distribution of nss SO4= in association with dust events, the role of mineral dust on nss SO4= size must be taken into account when estimating the impact of nss SO4= on radiation transfer in the atmosphere.

  12. Usage of Statistical Cues for Word Boundary in Reading Chinese Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Miao-Hsuan; Radach, Ralph; Tzeng, Ovid J.-L.; Tsai, Jie-Li

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the use of statistical cues for word boundaries during Chinese reading. Participants were instructed to read sentences for comprehension with their eye movements being recorded. A two-character target word was embedded in each sentence. The contrast between the probabilities of the ending character (C2) of the target…

  13. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    McCrae, Robert R; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Hyun-Nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R; Crawford, Jarret T; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Pramila, V S; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  14. Trivalent Graphs, Volume Conjectures and Character Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Pichai, Ramadevi; Zodinmawia

    2014-10-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to colored quantum invariants of the theta and tetrahedron graph. The character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with E edges in S 3 is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus g = E/3 + 1. For the theta and tetrahedron graph, we conjecture that the configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety.

  15. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print. PMID:25711130

  16. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  17. Toda Systems, Cluster Characters, and Spectral Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Harold

    2016-07-01

    We show that the Hamiltonians of the open relativistic Toda system are elements of the generic basis of a cluster algebra, and in particular are cluster characters of nonrigid representations of a quiver with potential. Using cluster coordinates defined via spectral networks, we identify the phase space of this system with the wild character variety related to the periodic nonrelativistic Toda system by the wild nonabelian Hodge correspondence. We show that this identification takes the relativistic Toda Hamiltonians to traces of holonomies around a simple closed curve. In particular, this provides nontrivial examples of cluster coordinates on SL n -character varieties for n > 2 where canonical functions associated to simple closed curves can be computed in terms of quivers with potential, extending known results in the SL 2 case.

  18. Improved Characters and Student Learning Outcomes through Development of Character Education Based General Physics Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlina; Sabani; Mihardi, Satria

    2015-01-01

    Education Research in Indonesia has begun to lead to the development of character education and is no longer fixated on the outcomes of cognitive learning. This study purposed to produce character education based general physics learning model (CEBGP Learning Model) and with valid, effective and practical peripheral devices to improve character…

  19. Character Education in Print: Content Analysis of Character Education in Introduction to Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protz, Babette Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Albert Einstein is credited with saying that the most important component of education is the development of students' character. While debate exists as to the delivery of character education in the public schools, it must be recognized that not all students have a support system outside of the schoolhouse. Consequently, when character…

  20. Shaping the Future through Character Education. Colorado State Conference on Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    With the decline in morality and values, character education is gaining considerable momentum. Public opinion polls show growing support for teaching it in schools. Evidence indicates that character education programs change the school culture for the better, allowing students to feel safe to concentrate on learning. In Colorado, character…

  1. Character Education with Resident Assistants: A Model for Developing Character on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healea, Christopher Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Character education in higher education is a challenging enterprise. There are concerns regarding academic freedom, debates about the role of the university, and criticisms of purported indoctrination. Character education initiatives in the past have often erred by neglecting what is known about individual human development, at one extreme, or by…

  2. Unexplored Character Diversity in Onychophora (Velvet Worms): A Comparative Study of Three Peripatid Species

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ivo de Sena; Franke, Franziska Anni; Hering, Lars; Schaffer, Stefan; Rowell, David M.; Weck-Heimann, Andreas; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Mayer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Low character variation among onychophoran species has been an obstacle for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in the past, however we have identified a number of new and informative characters using morphological, molecular, and chromosomal techniques. Our analyses involved a detailed examination of Epiperipatus biolleyi from Costa Rica, Eoperipatus sp. from Thailand, and a new onychophoran species and genus from Costa Rica, Principapillatus hitoyensis gen. et sp. nov.. Scanning electron microscopy on embryos and specimens of varying age revealed novel morphological characters and character states, including the distribution of different receptor types along the antennae, the arrangement and form of papillae on the head, body and legs, the presence and shape of interpedal structures and fields of modified scales on the ventral body surface, the arrangement of lips around the mouth, the number, position and structure of crural tubercles and anal gland openings, and the presence and shape of embryonic foot projections. Karyotypic analyses revealed differences in the number and size of chromosomes among the species studied. The results of our phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial COI and 12S rRNA gene sequences are in line with morphological and karyotype data. However, our data show a large number of unexplored, albeit informative, characters in the Peripatidae. We suggest that analysing these characters in additional species would help unravel species diversity and phylogeny in the Onychophora, and that inconsistencies among most diagnostic features used for the peripatid genera in the literature could be addressed by identifying a suite of characters common to all peripatids. PMID:23284667

  3. Unexplored character diversity in onychophora (velvet worms): A comparative study of three peripatid species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo de Sena; Franke, Franziska Anni; Hering, Lars; Schaffer, Stefan; Rowell, David M; Weck-Heimann, Andreas; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Mayer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Low character variation among onychophoran species has been an obstacle for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in the past, however we have identified a number of new and informative characters using morphological, molecular, and chromosomal techniques. Our analyses involved a detailed examination of Epiperipatus biolleyi from Costa Rica, Eoperipatus sp. from Thailand, and a new onychophoran species and genus from Costa Rica, Principapillatus hitoyensisgen. et sp. nov.. Scanning electron microscopy on embryos and specimens of varying age revealed novel morphological characters and character states, including the distribution of different receptor types along the antennae, the arrangement and form of papillae on the head, body and legs, the presence and shape of interpedal structures and fields of modified scales on the ventral body surface, the arrangement of lips around the mouth, the number, position and structure of crural tubercles and anal gland openings, and the presence and shape of embryonic foot projections. Karyotypic analyses revealed differences in the number and size of chromosomes among the species studied. The results of our phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial COI and 12S rRNA gene sequences are in line with morphological and karyotype data. However, our data show a large number of unexplored, albeit informative, characters in the Peripatidae. We suggest that analysing these characters in additional species would help unravel species diversity and phylogeny in the Onychophora, and that inconsistencies among most diagnostic features used for the peripatid genera in the literature could be addressed by identifying a suite of characters common to all peripatids. PMID:23284667

  4. Scoring the VIA Survey of Character.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Mark R; O'Brien-Malone, Angela; Woodworth, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    The VIA Survey of Character (VIA) is a self-report inventory designed to measure and assess 24 character strengths that are linked conceptually to six fundamental "virtues"--Wisdom and Knowledge, Courage, Humanity, Justice, Temperance, and Transcendence, as developed by Peterson and Seligman in 2004. Despite its popularity, the current presentation of the VIA is not easy to score; researchers must either use a limited online scoring facility or must use outdated scoring keys. This paper presents a full description of the scoring key. PMID:21323141

  5. Character Counts: Don't Leave Home without It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Orrs Elementary School in Griffin-Spalding County, Georgia, was selected as a 2010 National School of Character by the Character Education Partnership (CEP) and was honored at the National Forum of Character Education awards ceremony in San Francisco, California. According to Principal Dexter Martin, character education is more than a phrase or a…

  6. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes...

  7. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes...

  8. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes...

  9. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes...

  10. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes...

  11. The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

    1999-01-01

    MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

  12. Age distribution of Ocean Drill sites across the Central Walvis Ridge indicates plate boundary control of plume volcanism in the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, John M.; Jokat, Wilfried

    2015-08-01

    The Tristan-Gough hotspot trail on the African plate consists of the Walvis Ridge and a younger province of seamounts and islands. In order to determine the relative motion between the African plate and the Tristan-Gough hotspot it is essential to resolve changes in the age and morphology of the Walvis Ridge. A significant problem is, however, to establish how the vigor and flow of hotspot material to the mid-ocean ridge constructed the Walvis Ridge. We have addressed this issue by measuring an 40Ar/39Ar stratigraphy at three sites across the central Walvis Ridge sampled by Ocean Drilling (DSDP Leg 74). The age-distance relation of volcanism, together with geophysical, geochemical and paleodepth information, suggests collectively that hotspot volcanism was occurring locally c. 72 Ma on an elevated segment of the mid-ocean ridge located close to the Tristan-Gough hotspot. As the mid-ocean ridge migrated away from the hotspot (c. 36 km/Ma) between c. 72 Ma and 68 Ma, hotspot material continued flowing to the mid-ocean ridge and the Walvis Ridge shoaled rapidly (c. 500 m/Ma) to the west, on seafloor that might have been subsiding at a rate consistent with normal crustal cooling. This apparent correlation points to the possibility of an inverse relation between the volume flux of hotspot volcanism and the distance between the mid-ocean ridge and the Tristan-Gough hotspot. We infer that since c. 93 Ma the geometry and motion of the mid-ocean ridge determined where the hotspot material that built the Walvis Ridge was channeled to the plate surface. Furthermore, interplay between hotspot flow, and the changing geometry of the mid-ocean ridge as it migrated relative to the Tristan-Gough hotspot, might explain the age and morphology of the Walvis Ridge. Our finding provides further evidence that the distribution of hotspot volcanism in the southeast Atlantic expresses interaction between deep mantle (plume) and shallow plate tectonic and asthenosphere processes.

  13. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  14. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  15. Character displacement and the origins of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pfennig, David W.; Pfennig, Karin S.

    2012-01-01

    In The Origin of Species, Darwin proposed his ‘principle of divergence of character’ (a process now termed ‘character displacement’) to explain how new species arise and why they differ from one other phenotypically. Darwin maintained that the origin of species, and the evolution of differences between them, is ultimately caused by divergent selection acting to minimize competitive interactions between initially similar individuals, populations, and species. Here, we examine the empirical support for the various claims that constitute Darwin’s principle, specifically that: (1) competition promotes divergent trait evolution; (2) the strength of competitively mediated divergent selection increases with increasing phenotypic similarity between competitors; (3) divergence can occur within species; and (4) competitively mediated divergence can trigger speciation. We also explore aspects that Darwin failed to consider. In particular, we describe how: (1) divergence can arise from selection acting to lessen reproductive interactions; (2) divergence is fueled by the intersection of character displacement and sexual selection; and (3) phenotypic plasticity may play a key role in promoting character displacement. Generally, character displacement is well supported empirically, and it remains a vital explanation for how new species arise and diversify. PMID:21043778

  16. Character Education: A Relationship with Building Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the use of character education programming and school health. Measuring and improving school health is a process that supports social, emotional, ethical and civic education. Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp define this concept as a healthy school is one in which the institutional,…

  17. Improving Student Behavior through Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, Mary Jo; And Others

    This report describes a program for building and reinforcing character development in order to increase appropriate student-to-student and student-to-teacher behaviors. The targeted population consists of primary and intermediate elementary students in a growing middle class community in Elk Grove, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. The problems of…

  18. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  19. Partners in Character: Building a Moral Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudeck, Maria; Dinovi, Raymond; Gehringer, Christine; Tonia, Rachael; Wuillermin, Monica

    This paper describes the professional partnership between Rowan University, New Jersey, and Radix Elementary School, emphasizing the building of a moral culture in the learning community. The partnership is a driving force behind the movement to promote character education within the school community. This is being accomplished by facilitating…

  20. 7 CFR 52.809 - Character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.809... cherries. (b) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  1. 7 CFR 52.809 - Character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.809... cherries. (b) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  2. 7 CFR 52.809 - Character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.809... cherries. (b) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  3. Guideline for Optical Character Recognition Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides materials relating to the design, preparation, acquisition, inspection, and application of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) forms in data entry systems. Since the materials are advisory and tutorial in nature, this publication has been issued as a guideline rather than as a standard in the Federal Information…

  4. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  5. A New Experiment on Bengali Character Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Sumana; Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Jeon, Seung-Whan; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Kim, Haeng-Kon

    This paper presents a method to use View based approach in Bangla Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system providing reduced data set to the ANN classification engine rather than the traditional OCR methods. It describes how Bangla characters are processed, trained and then recognized with the use of a Backpropagation Artificial neural network. This is the first published account of using a segmentation-free optical character recognition system for Bangla using a view based approach. The methodology presented here assumes that the OCR pre-processor has presented the input images to the classification engine described here. The size and the font face used to render the characters are also significant in both training and classification. The images are first converted into greyscale and then to binary images; these images are then scaled to a fit a pre-determined area with a fixed but significant number of pixels. The feature vectors are then formed extracting the characteristics points, which in this case is simply a series of 0s and 1s of fixed length. Finally, an artificial neural network is chosen for the training and classification process.

  6. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  7. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity. PMID:26057159

  8. Delineating the Character of the Entrepreneurial University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    2004-01-01

    We gain insight into the emerging character of the entrepreneurial university by pursuing empirical answers to two questions: How are such universities initially formed? And how do they sustain themselves? My 1998 book, "Creating Entrepreneurial Universities," used European cases to conceptualize five "pathways of transformation." My 2004 book,…

  9. Character and Moral Education: A Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVitis, Joseph L., Ed.; Yu, Tianlong, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Against a formidable national discourse that emphasizes academic standardization, accountability, and high-stakes testing in educational policy, "Character and Moral Education: A Reader" seeks to re-introduce and revive the moral mission of education in public conversation and practices in America's schools. With contributions from a prominent…

  10. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team

    2014-03-01

    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  11. Character, Leadership, and the Healthcare Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The presentation by Elizabeth Holmes, PhD, summarized the integration of character and leadership development in the education of healthcare professionals. Citing the mission, vision, values, graduate attributes, and various examples of current programs and initiatives from both the United States Naval Academy and the University of Botswana, the…

  12. The Missing Ingredient in Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Thomas J., II

    1997-01-01

    Educators are embracing character education as the latest panacea for schools'"crisis of values." Americans want schools to accomplish what is not occurring at home. Values are learned through observation and practice. The challenge is changing behaviors of those influencing children--work-centered parents, inconsistent teachers, and nihilistic…

  13. Cyberethics: Envisioning Character Education in Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittier, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theory and research forming the framework of a graduate course in cyberethics education. The course content includes theory and research on the psychology of the Internet, moral development, and character education. Discussion includes application of these constructs to issues such as empathy, privacy, and other issues as…

  14. The Reassuring Role of TV's Continuing Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piltch, Charles N.

    1979-01-01

    The author analyzes the series form of television program, particularly the qualities and functions of the continuing characters and their relationship to the plot. He discusses the reassuring psychological effects of a TV series on the audience and the implications of a decline in this type of programing. (SJL)

  15. On Bowling Alone and Building Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Briefly discusses Alexis de Tocqueville's observation that the United States is a nation largely defined by its civic and social organizations. Contrasts this with the recent assertion that the nation is suffering a decline in social capital. Proposes a combination of character and citizenship education as a possible remedy for this. (MJP)

  16. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  17. Honesty, Cheating, and Character in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Most college faculty care about the characters of their students, especially when it comes to questions of honesty. But can students today be trusted not to cheat when completing papers and exams, and not to do so for the right reasons? In section one of this article, the author reviews some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in…

  18. Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Fethi; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views and implementations of preschool teachers in "giving character education through picture storybooks." Descriptive review method was used in the research and supported with focus group interviews. For this reason data were took from two study groups (for the descriptive study group n = 245, for the…

  19. Strong Female Characters in Recent Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Pat; Inkster, Christine; Kazemek, Frank; Williams, Sandra; Raschke, Sylvia; Stevens, Della

    1999-01-01

    Shares the authors' criteria for evaluating female characters as positive role models in children's literature. Explores the criteria by examining "The Ballad of Lucy Wipple" (Karen Cushman). Discusses other recently published picture books and novels which feature strong females in history, in contemporary times, and in fantasy. (SR)

  20. Character Education: Better Students, Better People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The application of social-emotional and character development (SECD) in classrooms is about teaching, practicing, and modeling essential personal and civic life habits and skills that are almost universally understood as making people good human beings. Among these habits are respect, responsibility, integrity, caring, fairness, and constructive…

  1. Chinese-Mandarin; Chinese Character Exercise Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This writing exercise book, designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course, consists of step-by-step illustrations for copying 825 characters in the Chinese writing system. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.] (AMM)

  2. Global Values in Education and Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafo, Zuhal; Somuncuo, Demet

    This document discusses a survey conducted to determine what students and teachers considered as moral values. The belief that character education should be used to promote and form a common language among people prompted the research. In addition, the question of what moral values education should be was considered. A model of moral and values…

  3. Multistate characters and diet shifts: evolution of Erotylidae (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Leschen, Richard A B; Buckley, Thomas R

    2007-02-01

    macrofungi. Cycad feeding is scattered in more deeply diverged taxa and may have preceded the evolution of angiosperm feeding in some groups. Preliminary analysis of diet mapped onto higher beetle phylogenies suggests that about half of the major Coleoptera lineages may have had fungus-feeding ancestors. We discuss the roles of stochastic models and prior distributions of the reconstruction of ancestral character states in the context of the current data. PMID:17366140

  4. Sampling diverse characters improves phylogenies: Craniodental and postcranial characters of vertebrates often imply different trees.

    PubMed

    Mounce, Ross C P; Sansom, Robert; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-03-01

    Morphological cladograms of vertebrates are often inferred from greater numbers of characters describing the skull and teeth than from postcranial characters. This is either because the skull is believed to yield characters with a stronger phylogenetic signal (i.e., contain less homoplasy), because morphological variation therein is more readily atomized, or because craniodental material is more widely available (particularly in the palaeontological case). An analysis of 85 vertebrate datasets published between 2000 and 2013 confirms that craniodental characters are significantly more numerous than postcranial characters, but finds no evidence that levels of homoplasy differ in the two partitions. However, a new partition test, based on tree-to-tree distances (as measured by the Robinson Foulds metric) rather than tree length, reveals that relationships inferred from the partitions are significantly different about one time in three, much more often than expected. Such differences may reflect divergent selective pressures in different body regions, resulting in different localized patterns of homoplasy. Most systematists attempt to sample characters broadly across body regions, but this is not always possible. We conclude that trees inferred largely from either craniodental or postcranial characters in isolation may differ significantly from those that would result from a more holistic approach. We urge the latter. PMID:26899622

  5. High-resolution distributed temperature sensing: a new tool to study the space-time dynamics of transient cold-air pools in the weak-wind stable boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C. K.; Selker, J. S.; Zeeman, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    We present a novel approach to observing the two-dimensional thermal structure of atmospheric near-surface turbulent and non-turbulent flows by measuring air temperatures in a vertical plane at a high resolution (0.25 m, every approximately 2 s) using distributed temperature sensing (DTS). Air temperature observations obtained from a fiber optics array of approximate dimensions 8 by 8 m and sonic anemometer data from two levels were collected for a period of 23 days over a short grass field located in the flat bottom of a wide valley with moderate surface heterogeneity. In addition to evaluating the DTS technique to resolve the rapidly changing gradients and small-scale perturbations associated with turbulence in the atmosphere for convective and stable boundary layers, the objective was to analyze the space-time dynamics of transient cold-air pools in the stable boundary layer. The time response and precision of the fiber temperatures were adequate to resolve individual sub-meter sized turbulent and non-turbulent structures of time scales >= 3 s and enabled calculation of meaningful sensible heat fluxes when combined with vertical wind observations. The small turbulence scales associated with strong vertical shear and low measurement heights pose limitations to the technique. The top of the transient cold-air pool was highly non-stationary. The thermal structure of the near-surface air is generally a superposition of various perturbations of different time and length scales, whereas no preferred scales were identified. Vertical length scales for turbulence in the strongly stratified transient cold-air pool directly derived from the DTS data agreed well with buoyancy length scales parameterized using the vertical velocity variance and the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, while scales for weak stratification disagreed. The high-resolution DTS technique opens a new window into spatially sampling geophysical fluid flows including turbulent energy exchange with a broad

  6. Development of perturbations in the boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dovgal, A. V.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Kozlov, V. V.; Levchenko, V. Y.; Maksimov, V. P.

    1986-01-01

    The transition of laminar flows into turbulent flows in a boundary layer is discussed. The individual aspects of the transition process, observed under controllable model conditions are examined. The aspect of this problem, namely the development or excitation of the natural oscillations in the boundary layer, the so-called Tollmin-Schlichting waves is covered. Three types of excitation of these waves are considered: (1) distributed generation throughout the boundary layer; (2) generation in the vicinity of the forward edge of a model, having either a sharp edge or an edge with a large radius or curvature, and (3) generation in a developed boundary layer by means of a focused effect.

  7. Character displacement of Cercopithecini primate visual signals

    PubMed Central

    Allen, William L.; Stevens, Martin; Higham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal visual signals have the potential to act as an isolating barrier to prevent interbreeding of populations through a role in species recognition. Within communities of competing species, species recognition signals are predicted to undergo character displacement, becoming more visually distinctive from each other, however this pattern has rarely been identified. Using computational face recognition algorithms to model primate face processing, we demonstrate that the face patterns of guenons (tribe: Cercopithecini) have evolved under selection to become more visually distinctive from those of other guenon species with whom they are sympatric. The relationship between the appearances of sympatric species suggests that distinguishing conspecifics from other guenon species has been a major driver of diversification in guenon face appearance. Visual signals that have undergone character displacement may have had an important role in the tribe’s radiation, keeping populations that became geographically separated reproductively isolated on secondary contact. PMID:24967517

  8. Evolution of character displacement in Darwin's finches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary

    2006-07-14

    Competitor species can have evolutionary effects on each other that result in ecological character displacement; that is, divergence in resource-exploiting traits such as jaws and beaks. Nevertheless, the process of character displacement occurring in nature, from the initial encounter of competitors to the evolutionary change in one or more of them, has not previously been investigated. Here we report that a Darwin's finch species (Geospiza fortis) on an undisturbed Galápagos island diverged in beak size from a competitor species (G. magnirostris) 22 years after the competitor's arrival, when they jointly and severely depleted the food supply. The observed evolutionary response to natural selection was the strongest recorded in 33 years of study, and close to the value predicted from the high heritability of beak size. These findings support the role of competition in models of community assembly, speciation, and adaptive radiations. PMID:16840700

  9. Root Character Evolution and Systematics in Cranichidinae, Prescottiinae and Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae)

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Coyolxauhqui; Salazar, Gerardo A.; Zavaleta, H. Araceli; Engleman, E. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies have suggested that velamen characteristics are useful as taxonomic markers in Orchidaceae. Members of tribe Cranichideae have been assigned to two velamen types constructed based on combinations of characters such as the presence of secondary cell-wall thickenings and pores. However, such characters have not been analysed on an individual basis in explicit cladistic analyses. Methods The micromorphology of roots of 26 species of Cranichideae was examined through scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, scoring the variation and distribution of four characters: number of velamen cell layers, velamen cell-wall thickenings, presence and type of tilosomes, and supraendodermal spaces. The last three characters were analysed cladistically in combination with DNA sequence data of plastid trnK/matK and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and optimized on the resulting phylogenetic tree. Key Results Thickenings of velamen cell walls group Prescottiinae with Spiranthinae, whereas tilosomes, documented here for the first time in Cranichideae, provide an unambiguous synapomorphy for subtribe Spiranthinae. Supraendodermal spaces occur mostly in species dwelling in seasonally dry habitats and appear to have evolved three times. Conclusions Three of the four structural characters assessed are phylogenetically informative, marking monophyletic groups recovered in the combined molecular–morphological analysis. This study highlights the need for conducting character-based structural studies to overcome analytical shortcomings of the typological approach. PMID:18263628

  10. The effect of real-time auditory feedback on learning new characters.

    PubMed

    Danna, Jérémy; Fontaine, Maureen; Paz-Villagrán, Vietminh; Gondre, Charles; Thoret, Etienne; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of handwriting sonification on graphomotor learning. Thirty-two adults, distributed in two groups, learned four new characters with their non-dominant hand. The experimental design included a pre-test, a training session, and two post-tests, one just after the training sessions and another 24h later. Two characters were learned with and two without real-time auditory feedback (FB). The first group first learned the two non-sonified characters and then the two sonified characters whereas the reverse order was adopted for the second group. Results revealed that auditory FB improved the speed and fluency of handwriting movements but reduced, in the short-term only, the spatial accuracy of the trace. Transforming kinematic variables into sounds allows the writer to perceive his/her movement in addition to the written trace and this might facilitate handwriting learning. However, there were no differential effects of auditory FB, neither long-term nor short-term for the subjects who first learned the characters with auditory FB. We hypothesize that the positive effect on the handwriting kinematics was transferred to characters learned without FB. This transfer effect of the auditory FB is discussed in light of the Theory of Event Coding. PMID:25533208

  11. Wavelet-based approach to character skeleton.

    PubMed

    You, Xinge; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2007-05-01

    Character skeleton plays a significant role in character recognition. The strokes of a character may consist of two regions, i.e., singular and regular regions. The intersections and junctions of the strokes belong to singular region, while the straight and smooth parts of the strokes are categorized to regular region. Therefore, a skeletonization method requires two different processes to treat the skeletons in theses two different regions. All traditional skeletonization algorithms are based on the symmetry analysis technique. The major problems of these methods are as follows. 1) The computation of the primary skeleton in the regular region is indirect, so that its implementation is sophisticated and costly. 2) The extracted skeleton cannot be exactly located on the central line of the stroke. 3) The captured skeleton in the singular region may be distorted by artifacts and branches. To overcome these problems, a novel scheme of extracting the skeleton of character based on wavelet transform is presented in this paper. This scheme consists of two main steps, namely: a) extraction of primary skeleton in the regular region and b) amendment processing of the primary skeletons and connection of them in the singular region. A direct technique is used in the first step, where a new wavelet-based symmetry analysis is developed for finding the central line of the stroke directly. A novel method called smooth interpolation is designed in the second step, where a smooth operation is applied to the primary skeleton, and, thereafter, the interpolation compensation technique is proposed to link the primary skeleton, so that the skeleton in the singular region can be produced. Experiments are conducted and positive results are achieved, which show that the proposed skeletonization scheme is applicable to not only binary image but also gray-level image, and the skeleton is robust against noise and affine transform. PMID:17491454

  12. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Joseph W.; Sussman, Bethany L.; Townsend, James T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable non-word, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient—words and pseudowords were processed at super-capacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across string-type. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four string-types and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia. PMID:25954234

  13. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Joseph W; Sussman, Bethany L; Townsend, James T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable non-word, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient-words and pseudowords were processed at super-capacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across string-type. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four string-types and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia. PMID:25954234

  14. Oxidation behavior of grain boundary engineered alloy 690 in supercritical water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Zhao, L. Y.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.

    2012-03-01

    engineering that involves changes in grain orientation and grain boundary character distribution.

  15. Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.

    2014-01-01

    Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.

  16. Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H.

    1996-04-01

    Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.

  17. Detection of solute segregation at grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno-Valero, J.; Gronsky, R.

    1980-03-01

    Studies of grain boundary segregation in metallurgical systems are traditionally based upon the premise that grain boundaries are more likely sites for solute atoms than their surrounding grains. This idea is manifested in experimental studies which distinguish the solute concentration at boundaries from that of grain interiors using various spectroscopic techniques, including more recently, energy dispersive x-ray analysis in TEM/STEM instruments. A typical study consists of spot or line scans across a grain boundary plane in order to detect concentration gradients at the boundary region. It has also been pointed out that there are rather severe problems in quantitatively determining the absolute solute concentration within the grain boundary, and data correction schemes for this situation have been proposed. The present paper is concerned with an alternative study of grain boundary segregation where the distribution of solute atoms along the boundary plane (as opposed to that across the boundary plane) is sought. The interest here is to establish whether or not a relationship exists between the structural defect configuration of the boundary plane and site preference for solute segregation.

  18. Algorithms for Discovery of Multiple Markov Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Statnikov, Alexander; Lytkin, Nikita I.; Lemeire, Jan; Aliferis, Constantin F.

    2013-01-01

    Algorithms for Markov boundary discovery from data constitute an important recent development in machine learning, primarily because they offer a principled solution to the variable/feature selection problem and give insight on local causal structure. Over the last decade many sound algorithms have been proposed to identify a single Markov boundary of the response variable. Even though faithful distributions and, more broadly, distributions that satisfy the intersection property always have a single Markov boundary, other distributions/data sets may have multiple Markov boundaries of the response variable. The latter distributions/data sets are common in practical data-analytic applications, and there are several reasons why it is important to induce multiple Markov boundaries from such data. However, there are currently no sound and efficient algorithms that can accomplish this task. This paper describes a family of algorithms TIE* that can discover all Markov boundaries in a distribution. The broad applicability as well as efficiency of the new algorithmic family is demonstrated in an extensive benchmarking study that involved comparison with 26 state-of-the-art algorithms/variants in 15 data sets from a diversity of application domains. PMID:25285052

  19. Assessment of available anatomical characters for linking living mammals to fossil taxa in phylogenetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of living and fossil taxa are crucial for understanding biodiversity through time. The total evidence method allows living and fossil taxa to be combined in phylogenies, using molecular data for living taxa and morphological data for living and fossil taxa. With this method, substantial overlap of coded anatomical characters among living and fossil taxa is vital for accurately inferring topology. However, although molecular data for living species are widely available, scientists generating morphological data mainly focus on fossils. Therefore, there are fewer coded anatomical characters in living taxa, even in well-studied groups such as mammals. We investigated the number of coded anatomical characters available in phylogenetic matrices for living mammals and how these were phylogenetically distributed across orders. Eleven of 28 mammalian orders have less than 25% species with available characters; this has implications for the accurate placement of fossils, although the issue is less pronounced at higher taxonomic levels. In most orders, species with available characters are randomly distributed across the phylogeny, which may reduce the impact of the problem. We suggest that increased morphological data collection efforts for living taxa are needed to produce accurate total evidence phylogenies. PMID:27146442

  20. Assessment of available anatomical characters for linking living mammals to fossil taxa in phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Guillerme, Thomas; Cooper, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Analyses of living and fossil taxa are crucial for understanding biodiversity through time. The total evidence method allows living and fossil taxa to be combined in phylogenies, using molecular data for living taxa and morphological data for living and fossil taxa. With this method, substantial overlap of coded anatomical characters among living and fossil taxa is vital for accurately inferring topology. However, although molecular data for living species are widely available, scientists generating morphological data mainly focus on fossils. Therefore, there are fewer coded anatomical characters in living taxa, even in well-studied groups such as mammals. We investigated the number of coded anatomical characters available in phylogenetic matrices for living mammals and how these were phylogenetically distributed across orders. Eleven of 28 mammalian orders have less than 25% species with available characters; this has implications for the accurate placement of fossils, although the issue is less pronounced at higher taxonomic levels. In most orders, species with available characters are randomly distributed across the phylogeny, which may reduce the impact of the problem. We suggest that increased morphological data collection efforts for living taxa are needed to produce accurate total evidence phylogenies. PMID:27146442

  1. Boundary layer loss sensitivity study using a modified ICRPG turbulent boundary layer computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omori, S.; Krebsbach, A.; Gross, K. W.

    1972-01-01

    Modifications of the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) computer program refer to a more accurate representation of boundary layer edge conditions, internal calculation of the Prandtl number, a changed friction coefficient relationship, and computation of the performance degradation. Important input parameters of the modified TBL program such as wall temperature distribution, Prandtl number, Stanton number, and velocity profile exponent were changed and the individual effects on significant boundary layer parameters, heat transfer, and performance degradation are described.

  2. NATIONAL FOREST BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This dataset contains National Forest boundaries for the lower 48 states, including Puerto Rico. Alaska is maintained separately. This dataset includes administrative unit boundaries, derived primarily from the GSTC SOC data system, comprised of Cartographic Feature Files (CFFs...

  3. Seismic character of gas hydrates on the Southeastern U.S. continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Agena, W.F.; Dillon, William P.; Miller, J.J.; Swift, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    Gas hydrates are stable at relatively low temperature and high pressure conditions; thus large amounts of hydrates can exist in sediments within the upper several hundred meters below the sea floor. The existence of gas hydrates has been recognized and mapped mostly on the basis of high amplitude Bottom Simulating Reflections (BSRs) which indicate only that an acoustic contrast exists at the lower boundary of the region of gas hydrate stability. Other factors such as amplitude blanking and change in reflection characteristics in sediments where a BSR would be expected, which have not been investigated in detail, are also associated with hydrated sediments and potentially disclose more information about the nature of hydratecemented sediments and the amount of hydrate present. Our research effort has focused on a detailed analysis of multichannel seismic profiles in terms of reflection character, inferred distribution of free gas underneath the BSR, estimation of elastic parameters, and spatial variation of blanking. This study indicates that continuous-looking BSRs in seismic profiles are highly segmented in detail and that the free gas underneath the hydrated sediment probably occurs as patches of gas-filled sediment having variable thickness. We also present an elastic model for various types of sediments based on seismic inversion results. The BSR from sediments of high ratio of shear to compressional velocity, estimated as about 0.52, encased in sediments whose ratios are less than 0.35 is consistent with the interpretation of gasfilled sediments underneath hydrated sediments. This model contrasts with recent results in which the BSR is explained by increased concentrations of hydrate near the base of the hydrate stability field and no underlying free gas is required. ?? 1994 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  4. Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

  5. On boundary superalgebras

    SciTech Connect

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2010-04-15

    We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable boundary conditions. We investigate the boundary breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting boundary symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.

  6. The character strengths of class clowns

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of “identified as a class clown,” “comic talent,” “disruptive rule-breaker,” and “subversive joker.” Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors “identified as the class clown” and “comic talent” were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (“disruptive rule-breaker,” “subversive joker”) were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by

  7. The character strengths of class clowns.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers. PMID:25324796

  8. Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning…

  9. Picture This: Visual Literacy as a Pathway to Character Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Lori Ann; Willson, Angeli; Martinez, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    The literary element of character is critical to literary meaning-making, and in picturebooks images provide information important to understanding characters. This manuscript shares results of an investigation that explored the kinds of pictorial information young children use to gain insights into the characters and provide practical ways…

  10. Educating Moral People: A Caring Alternative to Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    An alternative to character education is care ethics. The ethics of care can be seen as fundamentally relational, not individual-agent-based in the way of virtue ethics, and the ethics of care is more indirect than character education. After an introductory chapter that outlines the similarities and differences between character education and care…

  11. Character Education: Controversy and Consensus. Controversial Issues in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

    This book draws on conversations with six individuals, each of whom offers a distinct approach to character education and speaks to the problems and the practical side of designing, implementing, and evaluating character education. The text opens with an overview of character education, exploring what it is, moral dilemmas, goals, and criticisms.…

  12. Character and Coaching: Building Virtue in Athletic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, John M.; Buxton, John N.; Baltzell, Amy L.; Bzdell, Wallace B.

    Organized sports have a powerful impact on the character of both spectators and participants. Coaches and athletic directors have a tremendous responsibility to make that impact a positive character-building experience. This book is a primer that allows coaches to put questions about character into a usable context, which, in turn, serves as a…

  13. How Character Complexity Modulates Eye Movement Control in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study examined whether the visual complexities of the first and second characters in two-character words play similar roles in modulating the fixation time and saccade target selection during un-spaced Chinese reading. Consistent with prior research, words with low-complexity characters were fixated for shorter times than words with…

  14. Sexism in Basal Readers: An Analysis of Male Main Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn-Roberson, Courtney; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated whether positive female traits were attributed to male main characters in six basal readers. Although positive female traits appeared in the male characters, the overall composite and depiction of individual characters indicate that male personalities are dominated by male-linked virtues such as independence and a willingness to take…

  15. Character Education in Three Schools: Catholic, Quaker and Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meidl, Christopher; Meidl, Tynisha

    2013-01-01

    Character education has always played a role in the purpose of schools. Most US states have a statement about character education as a part of the mission of the schools. This research studied how character education was perceived by participants in regards to school mission statements/philosophies, school atmosphere and curriculum in a Catholic…

  16. Culture or Disability? Examining Deaf Characters in Children's Book Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive those from backgrounds and cultures different from their own. Studies have been conducted examining how the text of children's literature portrays multicultural characters or characters with disabilities. However, few have looked specifically at the portrayal of characters through illustrations,…

  17. 12 CFR 1263.12 - Character of management requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Character of management requirement. 1263.12... BANKS Eligibility Requirements § 1263.12 Character of management requirement. (a) General. A building... compliance with the character of management requirements of section 4(a)(2)(C) of the Bank Act (12...

  18. 12 CFR 1263.12 - Character of management requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Character of management requirement. 1263.12... BANKS Eligibility Requirements § 1263.12 Character of management requirement. (a) General. A building... compliance with the character of management requirements of section 4(a)(2)(C) of the Bank Act (12...

  19. 12 CFR 925.12 - Character of management requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Character of management requirement. 925.12... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Eligibility Requirements § 925.12 Character of management requirement. An applicant shall be deemed to be in compliance with the character of management requirement of section...

  20. 12 CFR 1263.12 - Character of management requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Character of management requirement. 1263.12... BANKS Eligibility Requirements § 1263.12 Character of management requirement. (a) General. A building... compliance with the character of management requirements of section 4(a)(2)(C) of the Bank Act (12...

  1. 12 CFR 1263.12 - Character of management requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Character of management requirement. 1263.12... BANKS Eligibility Requirements § 1263.12 Character of management requirement. (a) General. A building... compliance with the character of management requirements of section 4(a)(2)(C) of the Bank Act (12...

  2. WWC Evidence Review Protocol for Character Education Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Character education is an inclusive concept regarding all aspects of how families, schools, and related social institutions support the positive character development of children and adults. "Character" in this context refers to the moral and ethical qualities of persons as well as the demonstration of those qualities in their emotional…

  3. Research study of space plasma boundary processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1984-01-01

    Representation of the Earth's bow shock and magnetopause and their geometrically determined macrostructure was investigated. Computer graphic depictions of the global distributions of bow shock structures and elementary animation of the dynamics of those distributions in the changing solar wind were developed. The shock-foreshock boundary and subcritical bow shocks as observed by ISEE 1 and 2 are discussed.

  4. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths. PMID:26029144

  5. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths. PMID:26029144

  6. Grain boundary structure effects on creep cavitation susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Adams, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Grain boundary structure plays an important role in creep cavitation. A function called the misorientation distribution function (MDF) defined in Euler space has been used to statistically characterize the boundary structure of polycrystalline materials. The theoretical developmet of the MDF is presented here. Experimental results showed that ..sigma..3 and ..sigma..9 special boundaries occur with high frequency in 304 stainless steel and the data also suggested a possible directional dependence of the grain boundary structure.

  7. Handwriting recognition using a reduced character method and neural nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbakis, Nikolaos G.; Koutsougeras, Cris; Jameel, A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper deals with the recognition of handwriting text character by using a reduced character methodology and neural nets (BNN, RNN). The reduced characters methodology is based on the representation (mapping) of the text characters on a small size 2-D array of 12 X 9. For the recognition process each character is considered as a composition of `main' and `secondary' features. The main features are the necessary and important parts of a character for its recognition. The secondary (or artistic) features are the parts of a character which contribute to its various representations. The reduced character methodology presented in this paper attempts to prove that the recognition of a reduced size character provides a robust approach for recognition of handwritten text. The RNN approach for handwritten character recognition is based upon recurrent neural networks. The recurrent networks have a feedback mechanism. The feedback mechanism acts to integrate new values of feature vector with their predecessors. The output is supervised according to a target function. These networks can deal with inputs and outputs that are explicit functions of time. A new way of associating shape information was used, which gives very consistent results for handwritten character recognition. In this scheme the `shadow' each character was considered to find was the distances between the margins of the character. The distances are normalized with respect to the maximum distance in the entire shape to minimize the effect of disproportionately formed characters. For this effort two neural networks and an attributed graph approach are used and their results are compared on a set of 5000 handwritten characters.

  8. Building corporate character. Interview by Nan Stone.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, A

    1992-01-01

    Stride Rite is a good company by any definition: Keds, Sperry Top-Siders, and Stride Rite children's shoes are consumer favorites for their fit, quality, and comfort. Wall Street analysts praise the company's outstanding financial performance. Innovative programs such as the first corporate child-care center and public service scholarships support Stride Rite's reputation as one of the most responsible employers and corporate citizens in the United States. Behind Stride Rite's good performance are the building blocks of corporate character: a legacy of quality and service and a leader committed to keeping that legacy lively. When Stride Rite shipped its first children's shoes in 1919, they came with the company's commitment "to produce an honest quality product in an honest way and deliver it as promised." For Arnold Hiatt, that commitment has been the driving force behind the company's evolution from manufacturing into marketing and product development as well as the guiding principle in its relations with consumers, dealers, suppliers, and employees. But Stride Rite's corporate character is also a reflection of Hiatt himself. In his early 20s, Hiatt fled a management training program "designed to make carnivores" out of its new employees and bought Blue Star Shoes, a small manufacturing company that had gone into Chapter 11. Through experience and "stumbling around," he built Blue Star's sales to $5 million-and got a practical education in management, markets, and human nature that has proved equally useful in running Stride Rite. PMID:10117372

  9. Polytope expansion of Lie characters and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mark A.

    2013-12-15

    The weight systems of finite-dimensional representations of complex, simple Lie algebras exhibit patterns beyond Weyl-group symmetry. These patterns occur because weight systems can be decomposed into lattice polytopes in a natural way. Since lattice polytopes are relatively simple, this decomposition is useful, in addition to being more economical than the decomposition into single weights. An expansion of characters into polytope sums follows from the polytope decomposition of weight systems. We study this polytope expansion here. A new, general formula is given for the polytope sums involved. The combinatorics of the polytope expansion are analyzed; we point out that they are reduced from those of the Weyl character formula (described by the Kostant partition function) in an optimal way. We also show that the weight multiplicities can be found easily from the polytope multiplicities, indicating explicitly the equivalence of the two descriptions. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the polytope expansion by showing how polytope multiplicities can be used in the calculation of tensor product decompositions, and subalgebra branching rules.

  10. The character of fracture of iron based thermal coating during fretting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevskaya, Zh G.; Kovalevskiy, E. A.; Khimich, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The character of destruction of thermal coatings during fretting has been investigated. An iron based plasma coating has been tested with oscillation amplitude from 30 to 200 microns. The tests were conducted in air. It has been determined that the main factor influencing the rate of the wear of the coating during fretting corrosion is the size of the coating area involved into the wear process. The coating exhibits high wear resistance when the amplitude of the oscillation is commensurate with the size of the sprayed particles. During destruction of the coating the leading role belongs to fatigue-oxidation processes. The wear of the coating acquires a catastrophic character when coating macro defects - pores and interlayer boundaries - are involved into the wear process.

  11. Computing texture boundaries from images.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, H; Poggio, T

    1988-05-26

    Recent computational and psychological theories of human texture vision assert that texture discrimination is based on first-order differences in geometric and luminance attributes of texture elements, called 'textons'. Significant differences in the density, orientation, size, or contrast of line segments or other small features in an image have been shown to cause immediate perception of texture boundaries. However, the psychological theories, which are based on the perception of synthetic images composed of lines and symbols, neglect two important issues. First, how can textons be computed from grey-level images of natural scenes? And second, how, exactly, can texture boundaries be found? Our analysis of these two issues has led to an algorithm that is fully implemented and which successfully detects boundaries in natural images. We propose that blobs computed by a centre-surround operator are useful as texture elements, and that a simple non-parametric statistic can be used to compare local distributions of blob attributes to locate texture boundaries. Although designed for natural images, our computation agrees with some psychophysical findings, in particular, those of Adelson and Bergen (described in the preceding article), which cast doubt on the hypothesis that line segment crossings or termination points are textons. PMID:3374570

  12. Plausibility Effects when Reading One- and Two-Character Words in Chinese: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jinmian; Staub, Adrian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were monitored as they read sentences containing a critical character that was either a 1-character word or the initial character of a 2-character word. Due to manipulation of the verb prior to the target word, the 1-character target word (or the first character of the 2-character target word) was either plausible…

  13. How familiar characters influence children's judgments about information and products.

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Judith H; Mills, Candice M

    2014-12-01

    Children are exposed to advertisements and products that incorporate familiar characters, such as Dora the Explorer and Bob the Builder, virtually from birth. How does the presence of these characters influence children's judgments about information and products? Three experiments (N=125) explored how 4-year-olds evaluate messages from familiar characters and how their trust in a familiar character's testimony relates to their product preferences. Children endorsed objective and subjective claims made by a familiar character more often than those made by a perceptually similar but unfamiliar character even in situations where they had evidence that the familiar character was unreliable. Children also preferred low-quality products bearing a familiar character's image over high-quality products without a character image up to 74% of the time (whereas control groups preferred the low-quality products less than 6% of the time when they did not include a character image). These findings suggest that young children are powerfully influenced by familiar characters encountered in the media, leaving them vulnerable to advertising messages and clouding their judgments about products. PMID:25038449

  14. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments. PMID:2717365

  15. New statistical method for machine-printed Arabic character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Ding, Xiaoqing; Jin, Jianming; Halmurat, M.

    2004-12-01

    Although about 300 million people worldwide, in several different languages, take Arabic characters for writing, Arabic OCR has not been researched as thoroughly as other widely used characters (Latin or Chinese). In this paper, a new statistical method is developed to recognize machine-printed Arabic characters. Firstly, the entire Arabic character set is pre-classified into 32 sub-sets in terms of character forms, special zones that characters occupy and component information. Then directional features are extracted based on which modified quadratic discriminant function (MQDF) is utilized as classifier to deal with classification task. Finally, similar characters are discriminated before outputting recognition results. Encouraging experimental results on test sets show the validity of proposed method.

  16. New statistical method for machine-printed Arabic character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Ding, Xiaoqing; Jin, Jianming; Halmurat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Although about 300 million people worldwide, in several different languages, take Arabic characters for writing, Arabic OCR has not been researched as thoroughly as other widely used characters (Latin or Chinese). In this paper, a new statistical method is developed to recognize machine-printed Arabic characters. Firstly, the entire Arabic character set is pre-classified into 32 sub-sets in terms of character forms, special zones that characters occupy and component information. Then directional features are extracted based on which modified quadratic discriminant function (MQDF) is utilized as classifier to deal with classification task. Finally, similar characters are discriminated before outputting recognition results. Encouraging experimental results on test sets show the validity of proposed method.

  17. A method for estimating the effective number of loci affecting a quantitative character.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-11-01

    A likelihood method is introduced that jointly estimates the number of loci and the additive effect of alleles that account for the genetic variance of a normally distributed quantitative character in a randomly mating population. The method assumes that measurements of the character are available from one or both parents and an arbitrary number of full siblings. The method uses the fact, first recognized by Karl Pearson in 1904, that the variance of a character among offspring depends on both the parental phenotypes and on the number of loci. Simulations show that the method performs well provided that data from a sufficient number of families (on the order of thousands) are available. This method assumes that the loci are in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium but does not assume anything about the linkage relationships. It performs equally well if all loci are on the same non-recombining chromosome provided they are in linkage equilibrium. The method can be adapted to take account of loci already identified as being associated with the character of interest. In that case, the method estimates the number of loci not already known to affect the character. The method applied to measurements of crown-rump length in 281 family trios in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiopus sabaeus) estimates the number of loci to be 112 and the additive effect to be 0.26 cm. A parametric bootstrap analysis shows that a rough confidence interval has a lower bound of 14 loci. PMID:23973416

  18. What a Character! Character Study as a Guide to Literary Meaning Making in Grades K?8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roser, Nancy L., Ed.; Martinez, Miriam G., Ed.; Yokota, Junko; O'Neal, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Bring text and its meaning alive for students! This collection offers the perspectives of classroom teachers, researchers, and children's book authors, including award-winners Kate DiCamillo and Katherine Paterson. Together, they share their thoughts on the power of character study and how to use it to guide elementary-and middle-grade students…

  19. Character Counts! Promoting Character Education through Readers Theatre, Grades 2-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffinger, Charla R.

    This collection provides teachers and librarians with Readers Theatre scripts to promote and reinforce character education. Each original script presents a wide variety of dilemmas and situations, often drawn from true events, and includes suggestions for presentation and props. Student interpretation enables the audience to fully understand the…

  20. Character Education through Story: K-6 Lessons To Build Character through Multi-Cultural Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Joseph P., Ed.

    This resource manual integrates literature and social studies with an emphasis on character development. Using children's literature as a catalyst for investigating representative cultures, the manual's curriculum writers crafted multicultural, integrated, thematic lessons for the K-6 classroom that can be used throughout the year. Included are…

  1. Sample data processing in an additive and reproducible taxonomic workflow by using character data persistently linked to preserved individual specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Norbert; Henning, Tilo; Plitzner, Patrick; Müller, Andreas; Güntsch, Anton; Stöver, Ben C.; Müller, Kai F.; Berendsohn, Walter G.; Borsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We present the model and implementation of a workflow that blazes a trail in systematic biology for the re-usability of character data (data on any kind of characters of pheno- and genotypes of organisms) and their additivity from specimen to taxon level. We take into account that any taxon characterization is based on a limited set of sampled individuals and characters, and that consequently any new individual and any new character may affect the recognition of biological entities and/or the subsequent delimitation and characterization of a taxon. Taxon concepts thus frequently change during the knowledge generation process in systematic biology. Structured character data are therefore not only needed for the knowledge generation process but also for easily adapting characterizations of taxa. We aim to facilitate the construction and reproducibility of taxon characterizations from structured character data of changing sample sets by establishing a stable and unambiguous association between each sampled individual and the data processed from it. Our workflow implementation uses the European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy Platform, a comprehensive taxonomic data management and publication environment to: (i) establish a reproducible connection between sampled individuals and all samples derived from them; (ii) stably link sample-based character data with the metadata of the respective samples; (iii) record and store structured specimen-based character data in formats allowing data exchange; (iv) reversibly assign sample metadata and character datasets to taxa in an editable classification and display them and (v) organize data exchange via standard exchange formats and enable the link between the character datasets and samples in research collections, ensuring high visibility and instant re-usability of the data. The workflow implemented will contribute to organizing the interface between phylogenetic analysis and revisionary taxonomic or monographic work

  2. Five-parameter grain boundary analysis of a grain boundary-engineered austenitic stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Jones, R; Randle, V; Engelberg, D; Marrow, T J

    2009-03-01

    Two different grain boundary engineering processing routes for type 304 austenitic stainless steel have been compared. The processing routes involve the application of a small level of strain (5%) through either cold rolling or uni-axial tensile straining followed by high-temperature annealing. Electron backscatter diffraction and orientation mapping have been used to measure the proportions of Sigma3(n) boundary types (in coincidence site lattice notation) and degree of random boundary break-up, in order to gain a measure of the success of the two types of grain boundary engineering treatments. The distribution of grain boundary plane crystallography has also been measured and analyzed in detail using the five-parameter stereological method. There were significant differences between the grain boundary population profiles depending on the type of deformation applied. PMID:19250462

  3. Numerical simulation of oil pool boundary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudobina, Yulia; Bubenchikov, Aleksey; Bubenchikov, Mikhail; Matvienko, Oleg; Libin, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    The study of spatial distribution of hydrocarbon resources and forecasting their geographical location is of great importance for the most complete recovery of hydrocarbons from deposits. The present study gives new mathematical results in the theory of stratified fluid flow in a porous medium. This paper analyzes the evolution of oil pool boundary basing on vortex numerical model for movement of the boundary separating fluids of different densities. It presents the investigation of how the location of light fluid regarding the heavier fluid influences on the changes in the boundary between two media in case of various shifting of the well.

  4. Grain boundary diffusion in olivine (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, K.; Dohmen, R.

    2013-12-01

    Olivine is the main constituent of Earth's upper mantle. The individual mineral grains are separated by grain boundaries that have very distinct properties compared to those of single crystals and strongly affect large-scale physical and chemical properties of rocks, e.g. viscosity, electrical conductivity and diffusivity. Knowledge on the grain boundary physical and chemical properties, their population and distribution in polycrystalline materials [1] is a prerequisite to understand and model bulk (rock) properties, including their role as pathways for element transport [2] and the potential of grain boundaries as storage sites for incompatible elements [3]. Studies on selected and well characterized single grain boundaries are needed for a detailed understanding of the influence of varying grain boundaries. For instance, the dependence of diffusion on the grain boundary structure (defined by the lattice misfit) and width in silicates is unknown [2, 4], but limited experimental studies in material sciences indicate major effects of grain boundary orientation on diffusion rates. We characterized the effect of grain boundary orientation and temperature on element diffusion in forsterite grain boundaries by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The site specific TEM-foils were cut using the focused ion beam technique (FIB). To study diffusion we prepared amorphous thin-films of Ni2SiO4 composition perpendicular to the grain boundary using pulsed laser deposition. Annealing (800-1450°C) leads to crystallization of the thin-film and Ni-Mg inter-diffuse into the crystal volume and along the grain boundary. The inter-diffusion profiles were measured using energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry in the TEM, standardized using the Cliff-Lorimer equation and EMPA measurements. We obtain volume diffusion coefficients that are comparable to Ni-Mg inter-diffusion rates in forsterite determined in previous studies at comparable temperatures, with similar activation energies

  5. Boundary lubrication: Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the various lubrication regimes, with particular, emphasis on boundary lubrication, is presented. The types of wear debris and extent of surface damage is illustrated for each regime. The role of boundary surface films along with their modes of formation and important physical properties are discussed. In addition, the effects of various operating parameters on friction and wear in the boundary lubrication regime are considered.

  6. Grain Boundary Plane Orientation Fundamental Zones and Structure-Property Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries. PMID:26498715

  7. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to themore » strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.« less

  8. Atomic structure of the Σ = 2 twist carbide grain boundary in WC-Co alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Sabine; Missiaen, Jean-Michel

    2013-04-01

    The Σ = 2 twist carbide grain boundary with a (10 ? 0) habit plane was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy in a WC-Co alloy. The atomic structure at the boundary was determined by comparing experimental images and simulations. It corresponds to the boundary model with the lowest energy according to atomistic calculations. Periodic monolayer interfacial steps, compensating for the parametric misfit at the boundary were studied. The displacement field around the defects was simulated and corresponds to a dislocation with a mixed character and a Burgers vectors equal to 1/6⟨ ? 2 ? 3⟩ lying in the boundary plane. Another step with a larger height and connected to a stacking fault was analyzed. It likely arises from the interaction of a matrix dislocation with the boundary. The observations suggest that the migration of Σ = 2 grain boundaries can be induced by the glide of the monolayer steps along the grain boundary.

  9. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.

  10. Some evidence about character and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Hanko, Karlene; Master, Sarah; Sabini, John

    2004-06-01

    The authors conducted four studies (total N = 292) about character and mate desirability. In Study 1, undergraduates judged stimuli for attractiveness-physically and as a casual or longterm date. The target was described as faithful, having cheated but stayed with mates, or having cheated and left. Contrary to the hypothesis, men and women were equally affected by both kinds of cheaters. Study 2 replicated Study 1 with nonstudent adults. In Study 3, undergraduates rated a stimulus on the same attractiveness variables. This target had $14 million from winning a lottery or selling a dot-com company. Women, but not men, found the dot-com creator to be more physically attractive than the lottery winner. In Study 4, undergraduates rated someone who sold a cookie-making company or profited from a lucky real estate transaction. Both men and women preferred the cookie-company seller on all three measures of attractiveness. PMID:15155037

  11. A new model for discrete character evolution.

    PubMed

    Grafen, A; Ridley, M

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides an explicit justification for the principle that a uniform taxon should contribute only one datapoint in comparative analyses with discrete variables. The justification is that phylogenetic patterns in variables unincluded in the proposed test vitiate the assumption of independence, both at the level of species and at the level of branch segments. The consequence is that a uniform taxon cannot safely be counted as more than one datapoint. The arguments use a branching discrete Markov process in continuous time, with the new feature that the tested variables are only a subset of the evolving characters. This model is proposed as a useful criterion for measuring the merit of proposed tests, and illustrates the necessity for models in evaluating comparative methods. PMID:9039396

  12. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    PubMed

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image. PMID:25832319

  13. The influence of media characters on children's food choices.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Jennifer A; Schiffman, Jennifer M; Hanson, Katherine G

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of media characters in influencing children's food choices; the first focused on children's self-reported preference, whereas the second focused on actual choice. The results of the experiments suggest that popular characters can make a difference in encouraging children to select one food over another. In the first experiment, children were more likely to indicate a preference for one food over another when one was associated with characters that they liked and with whom they were familiar. This effect was particularly strong when a sugary or salty snack branded by a favored character was competing with a healthier option branded by an unknown character or no character. Alternatively, when children were asked to choose between a healthy food and a sugary or salty snack, branding of the healthy food with a favored character did not significantly change appeal of that healthy snack. However, when foods within the same category (i.e., 2 vegetables, 2 fruits, or 2 grains) were asked to compete against each other, character branding strongly influenced children's food choice. Findings from the second experiment suggest that children are more willing to try more pieces of a healthy food if a favored character, in comparison with an unknown character, is promoting that food. PMID:22475307

  14. On the interaction of solutes with grain boundaries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Berbenni, Stephane

    2015-11-01

    Solute segregation to grain boundaries is considered by modeling solute atoms as misfitting inclusions within a disclination structural unit model describing the grain boundary structure and its intrinsic stress field. The solute distribution around grain boundaries is described through Fermi–Dirac statistics of site occupancy. The susceptibility of hydrogen segregation to symmetric tilt grain boundaries is discussed in terms of the misorientation angle, the defect type characteristics at the grain boundary, temperature, and the prescribed bulk hydrogen fraction of occupied sites. Through this formalism, it is found that hydrogen trapping on grain boundaries clearly correlates with the grain boundary structure (i.e.more » type of structural unit composing the grain boundary), and the associated grain boundary misorientation. Specifically, for symmetric tilt grain boundaries about the [001] axis, grain boundaries composed of both B and C structural units show a lower segregation susceptibility than other grain boundaries. A direct correlation between the segregation susceptibility and the intrinsic net defect density is provided through the Frank–Bilby formalism. Moreover, the present formulation could prove to be a simple and useful model to identify classes of grain boundaries relevant to grain boundary engineering.« less

  15. On the interaction of solutes with grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Berbenni, Stephane

    2015-11-01

    Solute segregation to grain boundaries is considered by modeling solute atoms as misfitting inclusions within a disclination structural unit model describing the grain boundary structure and its intrinsic stress field. The solute distribution around grain boundaries is described through Fermi–Dirac statistics of site occupancy. The susceptibility of hydrogen segregation to symmetric tilt grain boundaries is discussed in terms of the misorientation angle, the defect type characteristics at the grain boundary, temperature, and the prescribed bulk hydrogen fraction of occupied sites. Through this formalism, it is found that hydrogen trapping on grain boundaries clearly correlates with the grain boundary structure (i.e. type of structural unit composing the grain boundary), and the associated grain boundary misorientation. Specifically, for symmetric tilt grain boundaries about the [001] axis, grain boundaries composed of both B and C structural units show a lower segregation susceptibility than other grain boundaries. A direct correlation between the segregation susceptibility and the intrinsic net defect density is provided through the Frank–Bilby formalism. Moreover, the present formulation could prove to be a simple and useful model to identify classes of grain boundaries relevant to grain boundary engineering.

  16. NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service has produced a data base of boundaries for its National Parks. A copy of this data was downloaded from the National Parks Service ftp site by Region 10. These digital boundaries represent the best guess and data that could be collected in a short time....

  17. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennekes, Hendrik

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)

  18. Integrity and virtue: The forming of good character.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Louise A

    2015-05-01

    Moral character is formed by one's actions. The habits, actions, and emotional responses of the person of good character all are united and directed toward the moral and the good. Because human beings are body/soul unities, actions of the body are actions of the self, that is, human beings are self-possessing, self-governing, and self-determining. In order to be of good character, one must know the good, act in morally good ways, and be disposed and inclined toward the good through the development of virtues. Character and action are intertwined so intimately that one's professional duties, or even what is perceived by others as one's duties, cannot override one's conscience without negatively affecting (and changing) one's character. For the physician to be of good character, it is vital that he or she follow his or her conscience in all things: in private life and also in his or her profession, i.e., in the treatment of patients. Lay summary: Character cannot be separated from the person. To be of good character means that one's habits, actions, and emotional responses all are united and directed toward the moral and the good. In this, public actions cannot be separated from private actions. Both sets of actions affect one's character. For example, a physician believes use of contraceptives to be immoral yet prescribes them in the office because he or she feels a duty to provide what the patient asks for, or a pharmacist who believes abortion to be immoral fills prescriptions for the abortifacient RU-486. These public acts affect one's character even if one's private belief is the opposite of the action. They leave traces on one's character. Not only do actions reflect the goodness or badness of one's character, one's actions also change one's character. The more one does an immoral action or recommends an immoral action for others, the more it becomes part of one's character to be the type of person who condones that immoral action. In order to be of good

  19. Integrity and virtue: The forming of good character

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Louise A.

    2015-01-01

    Moral character is formed by one's actions. The habits, actions, and emotional responses of the person of good character all are united and directed toward the moral and the good. Because human beings are body/soul unities, actions of the body are actions of the self, that is, human beings are self-possessing, self-governing, and self-determining. In order to be of good character, one must know the good, act in morally good ways, and be disposed and inclined toward the good through the development of virtues. Character and action are intertwined so intimately that one's professional duties, or even what is perceived by others as one's duties, cannot override one's conscience without negatively affecting (and changing) one's character. For the physician to be of good character, it is vital that he or she follow his or her conscience in all things: in private life and also in his or her profession, i.e., in the treatment of patients. Lay summary: Character cannot be separated from the person. To be of good character means that one’s habits, actions, and emotional responses all are united and directed toward the moral and the good. In this, public actions cannot be separated from private actions. Both sets of actions affect one’s character. For example, a physician believes use of contraceptives to be immoral yet prescribes them in the office because he or she feels a duty to provide what the patient asks for, or a pharmacist who believes abortion to be immoral fills prescriptions for the abortifacient RU-486. These public acts affect one’s character even if one’s private belief is the opposite of the action. They leave traces on one’s character. Not only do actions reflect the goodness or badness of one’s character, one’s actions also change one’s character. The more one does an immoral action or recommends an immoral action for others, the more it becomes part of one’s character to be the type of person who condones that immoral action. In order to

  20. Crystallographic Characteristics of Grain Boundaries in Dense Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Lam Helmick; Shen J. Dillon; Kirk Gerdes; Randall Gemmen; Gregory S. Rohrer; Sridhar Seetharaman; Paul A. Salvador

    2010-04-01

    Grain-boundary plane, misorientation angle, grain size, and grain-boundary energy distributions were quantified using electron backscatter diffraction data for dense polycrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia, to understand interfacial crystallography in solid oxide fuel cells. Tape-cast samples were sintered at 14501C for 4 h and annealed for at least 100 h between 8001C and 16501C. Distributions obtained from both three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and stereological analyses of 2D sections demonstrated that the (100) boundary planes {(111)} have relative areas larger {smaller} than expected in a random distribution, and that the boundary plane distribution is inversely correlated to the boundary energy distribution.

  1. D-branes and extended characters in SL(2,R)/U(1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulos, Angelos; Niarchos, Vasilis; Prezas, Nikolaos

    2005-03-01

    We present a detailed study of D-branes in the axially gauged SL(2/U(1) coset conformal field theory for integer level k. Our analysis is based on the modular bootstrap approach and utilizes the extended SL(2,R)/U(1) characters and the embedding of the parafermionic coset algebra in the N=2 superconformal algebra. We propose three basic classes of boundary states corresponding to D0-, D1- and D2-branes. We verify that these boundary states satisfy the Cardy consistency conditions and discuss their physical properties. The D0- and D1-branes agree with those found in earlier work by Ribault and Schomerus using different methods (descent from the Euclidean AdS model). The D2-branes are new. They are not, in general, space-filling but extend from the asymptotic circle at infinity up to a minimum distance ρ⩾0 from the tip of the cigar.

  2. The proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O'Seaghdha et al., 2010). The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target). Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous) or did not share (heterogeneous) the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Experiment 1: 687 vs. 684 ms, Experiment 2: 717 vs. 716). In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Experiment 3: 685 vs. 704, Experiment 4: 594 vs. 650). In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., ± in , , , ; called a logographeme). Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Experiment 5: 576 vs. 625, Experiment 6: 586 vs. 620). These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit. PMID:23950752

  3. Using Lexical tools to convert Unicode characters to ASCII.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chris J; Browne, Allen C; Divita, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. It is widely used in multilingual NLP (natural language processing) projects. On the other hand, there are some NLP projects still only dealing with ASCII characters. This paper describes methods of utilizing lexical tools to convert Unicode characters (UTF-8) to ASCII (7-bit) characters. PMID:18998787

  4. 34 CFR 222.8 - What action must an applicant take upon a change in its boundary, classification, control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? 222.8 Section 222.8 Education... in its boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? (a) Any applicant that is... information to the Secretary as soon as practicable: (1) A description of the character and extent of...

  5. 34 CFR 222.8 - What action must an applicant take upon a change in its boundary, classification, control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? 222.8 Section 222.8 Education... in its boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? (a) Any applicant that is... information to the Secretary as soon as practicable: (1) A description of the character and extent of...

  6. 34 CFR 222.8 - What action must an applicant take upon a change in its boundary, classification, control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? 222.8 Section 222.8 Education... in its boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? (a) Any applicant that is... information to the Secretary as soon as practicable: (1) A description of the character and extent of...

  7. 34 CFR 222.8 - What action must an applicant take upon a change in its boundary, classification, control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? 222.8 Section 222.8 Education... in its boundary, classification, control, governing authority, or identity? (a) Any applicant that is... information to the Secretary as soon as practicable: (1) A description of the character and extent of...

  8. Revised phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia); assessing the effects of incongruent morphological character sets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aetosauria is an early-diverging clade of pseudosuchians (crocodile-line archosaurs) that had a global distribution and high species diversity as a key component of various Late Triassic terrestrial faunas. It is one of only two Late Triassic clades of large herbivorous archosaurs, and thus served a critical ecological role. Nonetheless, aetosaur phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood, owing to an overreliance on osteoderm characters, which are often poorly constructed and suspected to be highly homoplastic. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria, comprising 27 taxa and 83 characters, includes more than 40 new characters that focus on better sampling the cranial and endoskeletal regions, and represents the most comprenhensive phylogeny of the clade to date. Parsimony analysis recovered three most parsimonious trees; the strict consensus of these trees finds an Aetosauria that is divided into two main clades: Desmatosuchia, which includes the Desmatosuchinae and the Stagonolepidinae, and Aetosaurinae, which includes the Typothoracinae. As defined Desmatosuchinae now contains Neoaetosauroides engaeus and several taxa that were previously referred to the genus Stagonolepis, and a new clade, Desmatosuchini, is erected for taxa more closely related to Desmatosuchus. Overall support for some clades is still weak, and Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS) is applied for the first time to a strictly morphological dataset demonstrating that this weak support is in part because of conflict in the phylogenetic signals of cranial versus postcranial characters. PBS helps identify homoplasy among characters from various body regions, presumably the result of convergent evolution within discrete anatomical modules. It is likely that at least some of this character conflict results from different body regions evolving at different rates, which may have been under different selective pressures. PMID:26819845

  9. Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - The German-speaking friends of the Scottish soil characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Anett

    2014-05-01

    Cartoon figures of soil profiles with faces, legs, arms and funny names: the Scottish soil characters Rusty (Cambisol), Heather (Podzol), Pete (Histosol) and five others were developed at the James Hutton Institute in Aberdeen for outreach activities. They represent eight soil types that are common in Scotland. Recently they have become movie stars in an animated film, where they speak with a Scottish accent. The Scottish soil characters are a true soil science communication success story and it would be great if they had friends in many places to tell some stories from the underground in the respective native languages. This contribution will introduce the draft for 13 German-speaking soil characters that represent the most common soil types in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Each name is a play on words with respect to German soil classification terms and serves as a mnemonic for typical characteristics of these soils. The 'hair' shows detailed vegetation and the context with common land use. For non-soil scientists the soil characters can be used as story-tellers, e.g. about their life (soil evolution), home (spatial distribution), job (function), fears (threats) and joys (best-practice land use, restoration). Because the International Year of Soil (2015) is an excellent opportunity for new outreach activities, the aim is to publish the German-speaking soil characters as a collaboration of the Austrian, German and Swiss Soil Science Societies. The soil characters could be used in print or online formats, and even - as can be seen in Aberdeen - as human-sized walking soil profiles.

  10. Revised phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia); assessing the effects of incongruent morphological character sets.

    PubMed

    Parker, William G

    2016-01-01

    Aetosauria is an early-diverging clade of pseudosuchians (crocodile-line archosaurs) that had a global distribution and high species diversity as a key component of various Late Triassic terrestrial faunas. It is one of only two Late Triassic clades of large herbivorous archosaurs, and thus served a critical ecological role. Nonetheless, aetosaur phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood, owing to an overreliance on osteoderm characters, which are often poorly constructed and suspected to be highly homoplastic. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria, comprising 27 taxa and 83 characters, includes more than 40 new characters that focus on better sampling the cranial and endoskeletal regions, and represents the most comprenhensive phylogeny of the clade to date. Parsimony analysis recovered three most parsimonious trees; the strict consensus of these trees finds an Aetosauria that is divided into two main clades: Desmatosuchia, which includes the Desmatosuchinae and the Stagonolepidinae, and Aetosaurinae, which includes the Typothoracinae. As defined Desmatosuchinae now contains Neoaetosauroides engaeus and several taxa that were previously referred to the genus Stagonolepis, and a new clade, Desmatosuchini, is erected for taxa more closely related to Desmatosuchus. Overall support for some clades is still weak, and Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS) is applied for the first time to a strictly morphological dataset demonstrating that this weak support is in part because of conflict in the phylogenetic signals of cranial versus postcranial characters. PBS helps identify homoplasy among characters from various body regions, presumably the result of convergent evolution within discrete anatomical modules. It is likely that at least some of this character conflict results from different body regions evolving at different rates, which may have been under different selective pressures. PMID:26819845

  11. Compound character recognition by run-number-based metric distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garain, Uptal; Chaudhuri, B. B.

    1998-04-01

    This paper concerns automatic OCR of Bangla, a major Indian Language Script which is the fourth most popular script in the world. A Bangla OCR system has to recognize about 300 graphemic shapes among which 250 compound characters have quite complex stroke patterns. For recognition of such compound characters, feature based approaches are less reliable and template based approaches are less flexible to size and style variation of character font. We combine the positive aspects of feature based and template based approaches. Here we propose a run number based normalized template matching technique for compound character recognition. Run number vectors for both horizontal and vertical scanning are computed. As the number of scans may very from pattern to pattern, we normalize and abbreviate the vector. We prove that this normalized and abbreviated vector induces metric distance metric distance. Moreover, this vector is invariant to scaling, insensitive to character style variation and more effective for more complex-shaped characters than simple-shaped ones. We use this vector representation for matching within a group of compound characters. We notice that the matching is more efficient if the vector is reorganized with respect to the centroid of the pattern. We have tested our approach on a large set of segmented compounds characters at different point sizes as well as different styles. Italic characters are subject to preprocessing. The overall correct recognition rate is 99.69 percent.

  12. Character complexity and redundancy in writing systems over human history

    PubMed Central

    Changizi, Mark A.; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    A writing system is a visual notation system wherein a repertoire of marks, or strokes, is used to build a repertoire of characters. Are there any commonalities across writing systems concerning the rules governing how strokes combine into characters; commonalities that might help us identify selection pressures on the development of written language? In an effort to answer this question we examined how strokes combine to make characters in more than 100 writing systems over human history, ranging from about 10 to 200 characters, and including numerals, abjads, abugidas, alphabets and syllabaries from five major taxa: Ancient Near-Eastern, European, Middle Eastern, South Asian, Southeast Asian. We discovered underlying similarities in two fundamental respects.The number of strokes per characters is approximately three, independent of the number of characters in the writing system; numeral systems are the exception, having on average only two strokes per character.Characters are ca. 50% redundant, independent of writing system size; intuitively, this means that a character’s identity can be determined even when half of its strokes are removed.Because writing systems are under selective pressure to have characters that are easy for the visual system to recognize and for the motor system to write, these fundamental commonalities may be a fingerprint of mechanisms underlying the visuo–motor system. PMID:15705551

  13. Periodic Boundary Conditions in the ALEGRA Finite Element Code

    SciTech Connect

    AIDUN,JOHN B.; ROBINSON,ALLEN C.; WEATHERBY,JOE R.

    1999-11-01

    This document describes the implementation of periodic boundary conditions in the ALEGRA finite element code. ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian multi-physics code with both explicit and implicit numerical algorithms. The periodic boundary implementation requires a consistent set of boundary input sets which are used to describe virtual periodic regions. The implementation is noninvasive to the majority of the ALEGRA coding and is based on the distributed memory parallel framework in ALEGRA. The technique involves extending the ghost element concept for interprocessor boundary communications in ALEGRA to additionally support on- and off-processor periodic boundary communications. The user interface, algorithmic details and sample computations are given.

  14. The Application of Grain Boundary Engineering to a Nickel Base Superalloy for 973 K (700 °C) USC Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Yan; Liu, Zhengdong; Godfrey, Andy; Liu, Wei; Weng, Yuqing

    2014-02-01

    The microstructure of a Ni-base superalloy Inconel740H designed for the ultra-supercritical coal-fired power plants has been enhanced via grain boundary engineering. Single-step thermomechanical processing treatments were carried out to optimize the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) and assessed based on the fraction of low-Σ (Σ ≤ 29) coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries, f csl, as well as on the interrupted high-angle grain boundary (HAGB) network. Solution-annealed samples were compressed by 3, 6, 10, and 15 pct at room temperature followed by annealing at 1373 K (1100 °C) for between 5 and 40 minutes. For samples deformed to strains of values of less than 10 pct, deformation-induced grain boundary migration occurs and high values of f csl, with large cluster sizes, are obtained. For samples deformed to strains larger than 10 pct, static recrystallization dominates, resulting in decreased value of f csl. The highest f csl value (≈80 pct) was obtained in the sample annealed at 1373 K (1100 °C) for 20 minutes after 6 pct cold deformation, in which the HAGB network was substantially interrupted. The triple junction distributions of samples before and after GBE were also studied. The introduction of large amounts of CSLBs after thermomechanical-processing treatment increased both fractions of J2 and J3 type junctions (triple junctions containing 2 or 3 CSL boundaries), therefore leading to a significant increase in the resistant triple junction fraction, defined as f J2 /(1 - f J3 ). In addition, the thermal stability of the GBCD-optimized microstructure was confirmed to be stable at 1023 K (750 °C) for 500 hours without significant decrease in f csl.

  15. Temperament and character of suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Calati, Raffaella; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan; Hartmann, Annette M; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    Temperamental features are strongly associated with suicidal behaviors both in general population and clinical samples. In the present study we considered the association between personality traits, measured by Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and suicidal behavior. We analyzed five samples: a German control sample of 1148 healthy individuals; 144 German suicide attempters affected by Mood (n=101), Schizophrenia spectrum (n=20) and Borderline Personality (n=23) Disorders; 46 Italian suicide attempters affected by Mood Disorders (UP=15; BP=31); 76 German non-suicide Mood Disorder patients; 147 Italian non-suicide Mood Disorder patients. Suicide attempters showed higher scores in Harm Avoidance (HA) and lower scores in Self-Directedness (SD) and Cooperativeness (C), when compared to controls. Nevertheless, comparing the German and the Italian suicide attempter groups with the non-suicide Mood Disorder patient groups, no differences were detected. This could be due to the effect of Mood Disorder on personality. In conclusion, the present study reveals the difficulty to disentangle the personality profile of suicide attempters from their psychopathology. Those findings may be useful for cautions in further dissecting this complex phenotype. PMID:18054960

  16. Two-character motion analysis and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taesoo; Cho, Young-Sang; Park, Sang Il; Shin, Sung Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of synthesizing novel motions of standing-up martial arts such as Kickboxing, Karate, and Taekwondo performed by a pair of human-like characters while reflecting their interactions. Adopting an example-based paradigm, we address three non-trivial issues embedded in this problem: motion modeling, interaction modeling, and motion synthesis. For the first issue, we present a semi-automatic motion labeling scheme based on force-based motion segmentation and learning-based action classification. We also construct a pair of motion transition graphs each of which represents an individual motion stream. For the second issue, we propose a scheme for capturing the interactions between two players. A dynamic Bayesian network is adopted to build a motion transition model on top of the coupled motion transition graph that is constructed from an example motion stream. For the last issue, we provide a scheme for synthesizing a novel sequence of coupled motions, guided by the motion transition model. Although the focus of the present work is on martial arts, we believe that the framework of the proposed approach can be conveyed to other two-player motions as well. PMID:18369275

  17. SOCIO-EMOTIONAL AND CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    More and more researchers are studying socio-emotional and character development (SECD). The rise and progress in SECD research is encouraging, but there is a critical issue with such a multidisciplinary and fast-developing field: SECD research and evaluation can be more consistent to prevent heterogeneity in definitions and disparate theoretical, measurement, and program models. After summarizing SECD-related literature, I recommend the theory of triadic influence (TTI) as a force to generate consistency and a resource to assist in guiding the design and evaluation of SECD-related programs. The theory fills a gulf in the literature that seeks an ecological theory aligned with SECD-related programs and etiology. The recommendation of the TTI stems from 3 main advantages: (1) The TTI integrates a full range of risk and protective factors in a detailed mediation and moderation framework; (2) it takes a comprehensive view of all the stakeholders in the educational system (i.e., youth, schools, families, and communities); (3) and its utility has been substantiated by empirical evidence from a variety of fields. I discuss applications of the TTI in SECD-related work and suggest improvements for etiology research and the design and evaluation of SECD programs. PMID:26478721

  18. Sensitivity to volcanic field boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, Melody; Bebbington, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Lindsay, Jan; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic hazard analyses are desirable where there is potential for future volcanic activity to affect a proximal population. This is frequently the case for volcanic fields (regions of distributed volcanism) where low eruption rates, fertile soil, and attractive landscapes draw populations to live close by. Forecasting future activity in volcanic fields almost invariably uses spatial or spatio-temporal point processes with model selection and development based on exploratory analyses of previous eruption data. For identifiability reasons, spatio-temporal processes, and practically also spatial processes, the definition of a spatial region is required to which volcanism is confined. However, due to the complex and predominantly unknown sub-surface processes driving volcanic eruptions, definition of a region based solely on geological information is currently impossible. Thus, the current approach is to fit a shape to the known previous eruption sites. The class of boundary shape is an unavoidable subjective decision taken by the forecaster that is often overlooked during subsequent analysis of results. This study shows the substantial effect that this choice may have on even the simplest exploratory methods for hazard forecasting, illustrated using four commonly used exploratory statistical methods and two very different regions: the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, and Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For Harrat Rahat, sensitivity of results to boundary definition is substantial. For the Auckland Volcanic Field, the range of options resulted in similar shapes, nevertheless, some of the statistical tests still showed substantial variation in results. This work highlights the fact that when carrying out any hazard analysis on volcanic fields, it is vital to specify how the volcanic field boundary has been defined, assess the sensitivity of boundary choice, and to carry these assumptions and related uncertainties through to estimates of future activity and

  19. Phylogenetic disassembly of species boundaries in a widespread group of Australian skinks (Scincidae: Ctenotus).

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Hutchinson, Mark N; Donnellan, Stephen C; Talaba, Amanda L; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-08-01

    Scincid lizards in the genus Ctenotus represent one of Australia's most species-rich vertebrate clades, with more than 100 recognized species. Formal diagnoses of many species have relied on qualitative assessments of adult color pattern, but the validity of many such species has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to perform the first phylogenetic analysis of species in the Ctenotus inornatus group, a complex of at least 11 nominal forms that are distributed widely across the Australian continent. Mitochondrial and nuclear gene phylogenies support the presence of multiple species in the group, but these clades largely fail to match species boundaries as currently defined. Multivariate analyses of color pattern indicate that extreme intraspecific morphological variation in this character has created a significant impediment to understanding taxonomic diversity in the group. Our results suggest that nearly all species in the C. inornatus group require substantial taxonomic revision, and several geographically widespread forms ("C. saxatilis" and "C. robustus") appear to be polyphyletic taxa drawn from phenotypically similar but genetically distinct lineages. We describe one new species and provide redescriptions for three additional species. We synonymize names applied to a number of genetically incoherent or otherwise poorly-defined forms. The results of our study highlight an acute need for population genetic studies of species boundaries in Australian skinks, many of which are recognized by morphological traits that vary greatly within and between populations. PMID:24732682

  20. The Multifluid Character of the `Baranov' Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, H. J.

    2000-10-01

    Since about three decades now it is clearly recognized that the interaction of the solar system with the ambient interstellar medium flow mainly is characterized by its hydrodynamic nature invoking structures like the inner shock, the heliopause and the outer shock with plasma sheath regions in between. After the pioneering works by Eugene Parker and Vladimir Baranov the main outlines of this interaction scenario were established, while some discussion on location and geometry of these structures is still going on till now. Fundamentally new aspects of this interaction problem have meanwhile appeared calling for new and more consistent calculations. The revisions of the earlier interaction concept starts with the neutral LISM gas component passing through the solar system. At the occasion of ionizations of this component a medium-energetic plasma component in form of keV-energetic pick-up ions is created. This component changes the distant solar wind properties by mass-, momentum-, and energy-loading, by wave generation and lowering the solar wind Mach numbers. Furthermore pick-up ions serve as a seed population for a high-energetic plasma population with energies between 10 and 100 MeV/nuc called anomalous cosmic rays. This latter component by means of its pressure gradient not only modifies the solar wind flow but also modulates its termination shock. In this paper it is shown how the main features of the enlarged interaction scenario change if the above mentioned multifluid character of the scenario is taken into account. While now we present a `multicolour vision' of the interacting heliosphere, it should never be forgotten that these modern views only were possible due to the fundamental `black-and-white vision' already presented by Baranov in the seventieths.

  1. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Soo Rim

    2009-01-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  2. Learning from Fantasy and Real Characters in Preschool and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richert, Rebekah A.; Shawber, Alison B.; Hoffman, Ruth E.; Taylor, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, 3 1/2- to 6-year-old children were presented with analogical problems in which the protagonists were either real people or fantasy characters. Children were more likely to transfer solutions from the stories about real people rather than the stories about fantasy characters. These results suggest that the use of a fantasy…

  3. Character Development: Putting It into Practice in Admissions and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The most important knowledge and skills a college education should develop in young people are those underlying good character, such as integrity, responsibility, work ethic, intellectual curiosity, mental flexibility, and wisdom. When leaders fail, most frequently it is because of issues of character, not lack of knowledge or intellectual…

  4. Characters and Episodes that Provide Models for Middle School Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelttari, Carole

    2012-01-01

    While conducting a content analysis of award-winning, middle school fiction, I indentified a number of episodes and characters that might be used as models for students' writing. Research suggests that teachers can motivate students (Bruning & Horn, 2000; Codling, Gambrell, Kennedy, Palmer, & Graham, 1996) to respond to character-writers (Van…

  5. College Access, Student Success, and the "New" Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soutter, Madora; Seider, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a resurgence of interest in--and reconceptualizing of-- character education in primary and secondary schools across the United States. An important question, then, is how this new emphasis on character development at the K-12 level impacts the work of university faculty and student affairs professionals.…

  6. Ensuring Good Character and Civic Education: Connecting through Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumer, Robert; Lam, Carolina; Laabs, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Character and citizenship education are part of the vision of many countries, including Singapore. Ensuring they are implemented in academic environments, service learning has been shown to be a natural bridge between the two. Research has shown that service learning, when done well, produces outcomes related to character development and…

  7. The Content of America's Character: Recovering Civic Virtue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberly, Don E., Ed.

    Addressing the problems of increasing antisocial behavior, declining civility, and decaying morals, this book contains a collection of essays that consider the origins and the development of America's character, the factors that influence it, and the consequences for society of inadequate character development. Essays include the following: "The…

  8. The Meaning of Role Modelling in Moral and Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderse, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Character education considers teachers to be role models, but it is unclear what this means in practice. Do teachers model admirable character traits? And do they do so effectively? In this article the relevant pedagogical and psychological literature is reviewed in order to shed light on these questions. First, the use of role modelling as a…

  9. Rachel's Challenge: A Moral Compass for Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingshead, Barbara; Crump, Christi; Eddy, Rochelle; Rowe, Dina

    2009-01-01

    Though American life in 1923 was significantly different than the present day, authors John Dewey and Diana Brannon share similar concerns about character. Historically, educators as far back as the 1800s have felt an obligation to the community to transcend the primary purpose for schooling by including character education in their curricula.…

  10. Teachers and Coaches as Leaders Demonstrating Character and Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In a time of scandalous actions and me-first behaviors, teachers and coaches as leaders of character and competence are needed. Leaders have integrity and demonstrate their character by adhering to moral principles and displaying moral values. The competence of leaders is based on knowledge, skills, and abilities and enhanced by exploring varying…

  11. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  12. Scanners, optical character readers, Cyrillic alphabet and Russian translations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1995-01-01

    The writing of code for capture, in a uniform format, of bit maps of words and characters from scanner PICT files is presented. The coding of Dynamic Pattern Matched for the identification of the characters, words and sentences in preparation for translation is discussed.

  13. The Forgotten American: A Story for Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Tony

    2007-01-01

    As character education continues to be an objective of the social studies, the more effective educators have taken up the challenge by first understanding the principles of their discipline and the opportunities for examining the values of character to be encountered. Social studies is rediscovering the focus on the actual men and women of history…

  14. Developing a Character in Depth. TAP (Theatre Arts Package) 220.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelsman, Alan

    Once an actor or actress has gained experience with basic stage movement and speech, convincing character portrayal may be the next skill to be developed. This package is designed to provide a deeper understanding of character development through careful reading, research, thought, and experimentation. The two related lessons--from research to…

  15. Developing Character through Literature: A Teacher's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication, Bloomington, IN.

    Based on the idea that the most important foundation of education is character development, this book guides teachers and parents in building strong character traits while reading and discussing popular books. Children's books and young adult books draw students into discussions that can lead to action and to personal development. Thoughtful…

  16. Christianity and Character Education: Faith in Core Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Character education is important within the Christian tradition but tends to be viewed with suspicion by educators who privilege autonomy as the aim of a liberal education. Equally, Christians may have concerns that character education places too great an emphasis upon good works rather than God's grace. This article reasons that character…

  17. 46 CFR 172.104 - Character of damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Character of damage. 172.104 Section 172.104 Shipping... Under Subchapter O of This Chapter § 172.104 Character of damage. (a) Type I barge hull not in an... integrated tow, design calculations must show that the barge can survive damage at any location including...

  18. Forgiveness as Character Education for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Wei Neng; Enright, Robert; Klatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Forgiveness education has demonstrated psychological, social and academic benefits; however, it has not been discussed as a means of promoting character development for children and adolescents. In this paper, we discuss forgiveness as a moral concept and explain how forgiveness can contribute to current discussions of character education. After…

  19. "Reel" Character Education: Using Film to Promote Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, William Benedict, III; Waters, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This article explores using films to spark moral dilemma discussions and thereby promote critical thinking and character education for global citizenship in elementary classrooms. After clarifying some of the basic concepts associated with the fields of character education and global citizenship, and the interrelationship between the two, the…

  20. Character Education Re-Conceptualized for Practical Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajovic, Mira; Rizzo, Kelly; Engemann, Joe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explored conceptual ambiguities of character education within the present Ontario Ministry of Education initiative. Through the critical lens of moral development theories and theories of mind, social and cognitive domains and their affect on character development were examined. Based on these findings three shortcomings in…